Science.gov

Sample records for advanced human support

  1. Human life support for advanced space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  2. Human life support for advanced space exploration.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf, S H

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  3. Human life support for advanced space exploration.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf, S H

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  4. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, D. L.; Tri, T. O.; Packham, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  5. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility.

    PubMed

    Henninger, D L; Tri, T O; Packham, N J

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  6. Developing Advanced Human Support Technologies for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdich, Debra P.; Campbell, Paul D.; Jernigan, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The United States Vision for Space Exploration calls for sending robots and humans to explore the Earth's moon, the planet Mars, and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a set of design reference missions that will provide further detail to these plans. Lunar missions are expected to provide a stepping stone, through operational research and evaluation, in developing the knowledge base necessary to send crews on long duration missions to Mars and other distant destinations. The NASA Exploration Systems Directorate (ExSD), in its program of bioastronautics research, manages the development of technologies that maintain human life, health, and performance in space. Using a system engineering process and risk management methods, ExSD's Human Support Systems (HSS) Program selects and performs research and technology development in several critical areas and transfers the results of its efforts to NASA exploration mission/systems development programs in the form of developed technologies and new knowledge about the capabilities and constraints of systems required to support human existence beyond Low Earth Orbit. HSS efforts include the areas of advanced environmental monitoring and control, extravehicular activity, food technologies, life support systems, space human factors engineering, and systems integration of all these elements. The HSS Program provides a structured set of deliverable products to meet the needs of exploration programs. These products reduce the gaps that exist in our knowledge of and capabilities for human support for long duration, remote space missions. They also reduce the performance gap between the efficiency of current space systems and the greater efficiency that must be achieved to make human planetary exploration missions economically and logistically feasible. In conducting this research and technology development program, it is necessary for HSS technologists and program managers to develop a

  7. Workshop on Critical Issues in Microgravity Fluids, Transport, and Reaction Processes in Advanced Human Support Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Joshi, Jitendra A.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was designed to bring the experts from the Advanced Human Support Technologies communities together to identify the most pressing and fruitful areas of research where success hinges on collaborative research between the two communities. Thus an effort was made to bring together experts in both advanced human support technologies and microgravity fluids, transport and reaction processes. Expertise was drawn from academia, national laboratories, and the federal government. The intent was to bring about a thorough exchange of ideas and develop recommendations to address the significant open design and operation issues for human support systems that are affected by fluid physics, transport and reaction processes. This report provides a summary of key discussions, findings, and recommendations.

  8. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  9. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  10. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  11. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  12. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  13. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  14. Human Exploration System Test-Bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Support of Future NASA Deep-Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate at the NASA - Johnson Space Center is outfitting a 20-Foot diameter hypobaric chamber in Building 7 to support future deep-space Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) research as part of the Human Exploration System Test-bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Project. This human-rated chamber is the only NASA facility that has the unique experience, chamber geometry, infrastructure, and support systems capable of conducting this research. The chamber was used to support Gemini, Apollo, and SkyLab Missions. More recently, it was used to conduct 30-, 60-, and 90-day human ECLSS closed-loop testing in the 1990s to support the International Space Station and life support technology development. NASA studies show that both planetary surface and deep-space transit crew habitats will be 3-4 story cylindrical structures driven by human occupancy volumetric needs and launch vehicle constraints. The HESTIA facility offers a 3-story, 20-foot diameter habitat consistent with the studies' recommendations. HESTIA operations follow stringent processes by a certified test team that including human testing. Project management, analysis, design, acquisition, fabrication, assembly and certification of facility build-ups are available to support this research. HESTIA offers close proximity to key stakeholders including astronauts, Human Research Program (who direct space human research for the agency), Mission Operations, Safety & Mission Assurance, and Engineering Directorate. The HESTIA chamber can operate at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen environments including those proposed for deep-space exploration. Data acquisition, power, fluids and other facility resources are available to support a wide range of research. Recently completed HESTIA research consisted of unmanned testing of ECLSS technologies. Eventually, the HESTIA research will include humans for extended durations at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen to demonstrate

  15. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  16. Advanced Spacecraft Designs in Support of Human Missions to Earth's Neighborhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by The NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the LTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the LTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP.

  17. Advanced spacecraft designs in support of human missions to earth's neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by the NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a crew transfer vehicle (CTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the CTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the CTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP. .

  18. DNA technological progress toward advanced diagnostic tools to support human hookworm control.

    PubMed

    Gasser, R B; Cantacessi, C; Loukas, A

    2008-01-01

    Blood-feeding hookworms are parasitic nematodes of major human health importance. Currently, it is estimated that 740 million people are infected worldwide, and more than 80 million of them are severely affected clinically by hookworm disease. In spite of the health problems caused and the advances toward the development of vaccines against some hookworms, limited attention has been paid to the need for improved, practical methods of diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and genetic characterization of hookworms is central to their effective control. While traditional diagnostic methods have considerable limitations, there has been some progress toward the development of molecular-diagnostic tools. The present article provides a brief background on hookworm disease of humans, reviews the main methods that have been used for diagnosis and describes progress in establishing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the specific diagnosis of hookworm infection and the genetic characterisation of the causative agents. This progress provides a foundation for the rapid development of practical, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic and analytical tools to be used in improved hookworm prevention and control programmes.

  19. [Pediatric advanced life support].

    PubMed

    Muguruma, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Important changes or points of emphasis in the recommendations for pediatric advanced life support are as follows. In infants and children with no signs of life, healthcare providers should begin CPR unless they can definitely palpate a pulse within 10 seconds. New evidence documents the important role of ventilations in CPR for infants and children. Rescuers should provide conventional CPR for in-hospital and out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests. The initial defibrillation energy dose of 2 to 4J/kg of either monophasic or biphasic waveform. Both cuffed and uncuffed tracheal tubes are acceptable for infants and children undergoing emergency intubation. Monitoring capnography/capnometry is recommended to confirm proper endotracheal tube position.

  20. Advanced Life Support Project Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Life support systems are an enabling technology and have become integral to the success of living and working in space. As NASA embarks on human exploration and development of space to open the space frontier by exploring, using and enabling the development of space and to expand the human experience into the far reaches of space, it becomes imperative, for considerations of safety, cost, and crew health, to minimize consumables and increase the autonomy of the life support system. Utilizing advanced life support technologies increases this autonomy by reducing mass, power, and volume necessary for human support, thus permitting larger payload allocations for science and exploration. Two basic classes of life support systems must be developed, those directed toward applications on transportation/habitation vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), next generation launch vehicles, crew-tended stations/observatories, planetary transit spacecraft, etc.) and those directed toward applications on the planetary surfaces (e.g., lunar or Martian landing spacecraft, planetary habitats and facilities, etc.). In general, it can be viewed as those systems compatible with microgravity and those compatible with hypogravity environments. Part B of the Appendix defines the technology development 'Roadmap' to be followed in providing the necessary systems for these missions. The purpose of this Project Plan is to define the Project objectives, Project-level requirements, the management organizations responsible for the Project throughout its life cycle, and Project-level resources, schedules and controls.

  1. Human Engineering Operations and Habitability Assessment: A Process for Advanced Life Support Ground Facility Testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Janis H.; Arch, M.; Elfezouaty, Eileen Schultz; Novak, Jennifer Blume; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Design and Human Engineering (HE) processes strive to ensure that the human-machine interface is designed for optimal performance throughout the system life cycle. Each component can be tested and assessed independently to assure optimal performance, but it is not until full integration that the system and the inherent interactions between the system components can be assessed as a whole. HE processes (which are defining/app lying requirements for human interaction with missions/systems) are included in space flight activities, but also need to be included in ground activities and specifically, ground facility testbeds such as Bio-Plex. A unique aspect of the Bio-Plex Facility is the integral issue of Habitability which includes qualities of the environment that allow humans to work and live. HE is a process by which Habitability and system performance can be assessed.

  2. Self advancing mine roof supports

    SciTech Connect

    Seddon, J.; Jones, F.

    1985-03-19

    A self-advancing mine-roof-support for use in or aligned with a main roadway or gate has a floor-engaging part and a roof engaging part spaced apart by extensible load-bearing prop or jack means, and engagement means for a face-conveyor and a transversely acting transfer conveyor whereby their relative positions are constrained to facilitate discharge of mineral from one conveyor to the other. The engagement means for the face conveyor comprises sliding anchor beams that assure maintenance of the relative attitudes of the support and the face conveyor and the transfer conveyor is held fore and aft of the support.

  3. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  4. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  5. Human Support Technology Research, Development and Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Jitendra; Trinh, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    The Human Support Technology research, development, and demonstration program address es the following areas at TRL: Advanced Power and Propulsion. Cryogenic fluid management. Closed-loop life support and Habitability. Extravehicular activity systems. Scientific data collection and analysis. and Planetary in-situ resource utilization.

  6. Advanced integrated life support system update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Integrated Life Support System Program (AILSS) is an advanced development effort to integrate the life support and protection requirements using the U.S. Navy's fighter/attack mission as a starting point. The goal of AILSS is to optimally mate protection from altitude, acceleration, chemical/biological agent, thermal environment (hot, cold, and cold water immersion) stress as well as mission enhancement through improved restraint, night vision, and head-mounted reticules and displays to ensure mission capability. The primary emphasis to date has been to establish garment design requirements and tradeoffs for protection. Here the garment and the human interface are treated as a system. Twelve state-off-the-art concepts from government and industry were evaluated for design versus performance. On the basis of a combination of centrifuge, thermal manikin data, thermal modeling, and mobility studies, some key design parameters have been determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the integration of protection through garment design and the use of a single layer, multiple function concept to streamline the garment system.

  7. Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, July 19-20, 1999. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced group support systems and to identify the potential of these systems for use in future collaborative distributed design and synthesis environments. The presentations covered the current status and effectiveness of different group support systems.

  8. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  9. Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Jean; Gerbi, Olivier; André, Philippe; Davin, Elisabeth; Avezuela Rodriguez, Raul; Carbonero, Fernando; Soumalainen, Emilia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. The architecture of an Environmental Controlled Life Support System widely depends on the mission scenario. Even for a given mission scenario, different architectures could be envisaged which need to be evaluated and compared with appropriate tools. As these evaluation and comparison, based on the single criterion of Equivalent System Mass, was not considered com-prehensive enough, ESA is developing a multi-criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced Life Support System Evaluator). The main objective of ALISSE, and of the work presented here, is the definition and implemen-tation of a metrics system, addressing the complexity of any ECLSS along its Life Cycle phases. A multi-dimensional and multi-criteria (i.e. mass, energy, efficiency, risk to human, reliability, crew time, sustainability, life cycle cost) approach is proposed through the development of a computing support platform. Each criterion being interrelated with the others, a model based system approach is used. ALISSE is expected to provide significant inputs to the ESA Concurrent Design Facility and, as a consequence, to be a highly valuable tool for decision process linked to any manned space mission. Full contact detail for the contact author : Jean Brunet Sherpa Engineering General Manager Phone : 0033(0)608097480 j.brunet@sherpa-eng.com

  10. Recent advances in emergency life support.

    PubMed

    Dries, David J; Sample, Mary Anne

    2002-03-01

    With additional international input, recent changes in emergency life support are reflected in updated guidelines for Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) from the American Heart Association and new technology in the arena of vascular access and emergency airway management. These changes will expand nurses' ability to provide advanced levels of care, even in the prehospital situation, and represent a more rigorous evidence-based approach than ever before. As early morbidity and mortality in emergency situations are frequently associated with complications associated with airway management and vascular access, recent development in these areas are reviewed along with evolution in ACLS guidelines. PMID:11818257

  11. Power Management for Space Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2001-01-01

    Space power systems include the power source, storage, and management subsystems. In current crewed spacecraft, solar cells are the power source, batteries provide storage, and the crew performs any required load scheduling. For future crewed planetary surface systems using Advanced Life Support, we assume that plants will be grown to produce much of the crew's food and that nuclear power will be employed. Battery storage is much more costly than nuclear power capacity and so is not likely to be used. We investigate the scheduling of power demands by the crew or automatic control, to reduce the peak power load and the required generating capacity. The peak to average power ratio is a good measure of power use efficiency. We can easily schedule power demands to reduce the peak power from its maximum, but simple scheduling approaches may not find the lowest possible peak to average power ratio. An initial power scheduling example was simple enough for a human to solve, but a more complex example with many intermittent load demands required automatic scheduling. Excess power is a free resource and can be used even for minor benefits.

  12. Advances in human genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, H.; Hirschhorn, K.

    1993-01-01

    This book has five chapters covering peroxisomal diseases, X-linked immunodeficiencies, genetic mutations affecting human lipoproteins and their receptors and enzymes, genetic aspects of cancer, and Gaucher disease. The chapter on peroxisomes covers their discovery, structure, functions, disorders, etc. The chapter on X-linked immunodeficiencies discusses such diseases as agammaglobulinemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, animal models, linkage analysis, etc. Apolipoprotein formation, synthesis, gene regulation, proteins, etc. are the main focus of chapter 3. The chapter on cancer covers such topics as oncogene mapping and the molecular characterization of some recessive oncogenes. Gaucher disease is covered from its diagnosis, classification, and prevention, to its organ system involvement and molecular biology.

  13. NASA Advanced Life Support Technology Testing and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to 2010, NASA's advanced life support research and development was carried out primarily under the Exploration Life Support Project of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. In 2011, the Exploration Life Support Project was merged with other projects covering Fire Prevention/Suppression, Radiation Protection, Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control, and Thermal Control Systems. This consolidated project was called Life Support and Habitation Systems, which was managed under the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. In 2012, NASA re-organized major directorates within the agency, which eliminated the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate and created the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Life support research and development is currently conducted within the Office of the Chief Technologist, under the Next Generation Life Support Project, and within the Human Exploration Operation Missions Directorate under several Advanced Exploration System projects. These Advanced Exploration Systems projects include various themes of life support technology testing, including atmospheric management, water management, logistics and waste management, and habitation systems. Food crop testing is currently conducted as part of the Deep Space Habitation (DSH) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This testing is focused on growing salad crops that could supplement the crew's diet during near term missions.

  14. Advanced Trauma Life Support aboard RFA Argus.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, G L; Taylor, R H

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system was adopted for casualty reception and resuscitation. ATLS permitted well-informed triage decisions to be made, coupled with appropriate initial, possibly life-saving, treatment. The training given on board has continued to benefit patients treated by ex-Argus staff in their peacetime roles.

  15. Advanced Trauma Life Support aboard RFA Argus.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, G L; Taylor, R H

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system was adopted for casualty reception and resuscitation. ATLS permitted well-informed triage decisions to be made, coupled with appropriate initial, possibly life-saving, treatment. The training given on board has continued to benefit patients treated by ex-Argus staff in their peacetime roles. PMID:1453364

  16. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliss, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A videograph outlining life support research. The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise's goals are to provide life support self-sufficiency for human beings to carry out research and exploration productively in space, to open the door for planetary exploration, and for benefits on Earth. Topics presented include the role of NASA Ames, funding, and technical monitoring. The focused research areas discussed include air regeneration, carbon dioxide removal, Mars Life Support, water recovery, Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR), solid waste treatment, and Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWC). Focus is placed on the utilization of Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) and Dynamic Systems Modeling in this research.

  17. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 5: Human Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings from the Space Systems and Technology Advisory Committee (SSTAC)/ARTS review of the draft integrated technology plan (ITP) on human support are included. Topics covered include: human support program; human factors; life support technology; fire safety; medical support technology; advanced refrigeration technology; EVA suit system; advanced PLSS technology; and ARC-EVA systems research program.

  18. Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

  19. Composting in advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  20. Composting in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C F; Sager, J C; Alazraki, M; Loader, C

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  1. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  2. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  3. Advanced Life Support Technologies and Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Improving the efficiency of the recovery of water from spacecraft solid and liquid wastes is possible through use of emerging technologies such as the heat melt compactor and brine dewatering systems. Another significant consumable is that of food. Food production systems based on higher plants may not only contribute significantly to the diet, but also contribute to atmosphere revitalization, water purification and waste utilization. Bioreactors may be potentially utilized for wastewater and solid waste management. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  4. Nonlinear Dynamic Models in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    To facilitate analysis, ALS systems are often assumed to be linear and time invariant, but they usually have important nonlinear and dynamic aspects. Nonlinear dynamic behavior can be caused by time varying inputs, changes in system parameters, nonlinear system functions, closed loop feedback delays, and limits on buffer storage or processing rates. Dynamic models are usually cataloged according to the number of state variables. The simplest dynamic models are linear, using only integration, multiplication, addition, and subtraction of the state variables. A general linear model with only two state variables can produce all the possible dynamic behavior of linear systems with many state variables, including stability, oscillation, or exponential growth and decay. Linear systems can be described using mathematical analysis. Nonlinear dynamics can be fully explored only by computer simulations of models. Unexpected behavior is produced by simple models having only two or three state variables with simple mathematical relations between them. Closed loop feedback delays are a major source of system instability. Exceeding limits on buffer storage or processing rates forces systems to change operating mode. Different equilibrium points may be reached from different initial conditions. Instead of one stable equilibrium point, the system may have several equilibrium points, oscillate at different frequencies, or even behave chaotically, depending on the system inputs and initial conditions. The frequency spectrum of an output oscillation may contain harmonics and the sums and differences of input frequencies, but it may also contain a stable limit cycle oscillation not related to input frequencies. We must investigate the nonlinear dynamic aspects of advanced life support systems to understand and counter undesirable behavior.

  5. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. New Directions for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Life Support (ALS), an element of Human Systems Research and Technology s (HSRT) Life Support and Habitation Program (LSH), has been NASA s primary sponsor of life support research and technology development for the agency. Over its history, ALS sponsored tasks across a diverse set of institutions, including field centers, colleges and universities, industry, and governmental laboratories, resulting in numerous publications and scientific articles, patents and new technologies, as well as education and training for primary, secondary and graduate students, including minority serving institutions. Prior to the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) announced on January 14th, 2004 by the President, ALS had been focused on research and technology development for long duration exploration missions, emphasizing closed-loop regenerative systems, including both biological and physicochemical. Taking a robust and flexible approach, ALS focused on capabilities to enable visits to multiple potential destinations beyond low Earth orbit. ALS developed requirements, reference missions, and assumptions upon which to structure and focus its development program. The VSE gave NASA a plan for steady human and robotic space exploration based on specific, achievable goals. Recently, the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) was chartered by NASA s Administrator to determine the best exploration architecture and strategy to implement the Vision. The study identified key technologies required to enable and significantly enhance the reference exploration missions and to prioritize near-term and far-term technology investments. This technology assessment resulted in a revised Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) technology investment plan. A set of new technology development projects were initiated as part of the plan s implementation, replacing tasks previously initiated under HSRT and its sister program, Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESRT). The

  8. Developing Advanced Support Technologies for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdich, Debra P.; Campbel, Paul D.; Jernigan, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The United States Vision for Space Exploration calls for sending robots and humans to explore the Earth s moon, the planet Mars, and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a set of design reference missions that will provide further detail to these plans. Lunar missions are expected to provide a stepping stone, through operational research and evaluation, in developing the knowledge base necessary to send crews on long duration missions to Mars and other distant destinations. The NASA Exploration Systems Directorate (ExSD), in its program of bioastronautics research, manages the development of technologies that maintain human life, health, and performance in space. Using a systems engineering process and risk management methods, ExSD s Human Support Systems (HSS) Program selects and performs research and technology development in several critical areas and transfers the results of its efforts to NASA exploration mission/systems development programs in the form of developed technologies and new knowledge about the capabilities and constraints of systems required to support human existence beyond Low Earth Orbit. HSS efforts include the areas of advanced environmental monitoring and control, extravehicular activity, food technologies, life support systems, space human factors engineering, and systems integration of all these elements. The HSS Program provides a structured set of deliverable products to meet the needs of exploration programs. these products reduce the gaps that exist in our knowledge of and capabilities for human support for long duration, remote space missions. They also reduce the performance gap between the efficiency of current space systems and the greater efficiency that must be achieved to make human planetary exploration missions economically and logistically feasible. In conducting this research and technology development program, it is necessary for HSS technologists and program managers to develop a

  9. Operating Systems Support for Advanced Programming Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiatowicz, John

    2012-10-29

    As machines grow in scale and complexity, techniques to make the most effective use of network, memory, and processor resources will also become increasingly important. Programming models that rely on one-sided communication or global address space support have demonstrated advantages for productivity and performance, but they are most effective when used with proper OS support. We propose to develop OS and runtime support for programming models like UPC, GA, Charm++, and HPCS languages, which rely on one-sided communication. Rather than a full OS model, we envision applications bundled with only the necessary OS functions linked in to the application in user space -- relying on the hypervisor for protaction, resource sharing, and mangagement of Quality of Service guarantees. Our services will include support for remote reads and writes to memory, along with remote active message handlers, which are essential for support of fast noncontiguous memory operations, atomic operations, and event-driven applications.

  10. Minimum Control Requirements for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulange, Richard; Jones, Harry; Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Advanced control technologies are not necessary for the safe, reliable and continuous operation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. ALS systems can and are adequately controlled by simple, reliable, low-level methodologies and algorithms. The automation provided by advanced control technologies is claimed to decrease system mass and necessary crew time by reducing buffer size and minimizing crew involvement. In truth, these approaches increase control system complexity without clearly demonstrating an increase in reliability across the ALS system. Unless these systems are as reliable as the hardware they control, there is no savings to be had. A baseline ALS system is presented with the minimal control system required for its continuous safe reliable operation. This baseline control system uses simple algorithms and scheduling methodologies and relies on human intervention only in the event of failure of the redundant backup equipment. This ALS system architecture is designed for reliable operation, with minimal components and minimal control system complexity. The fundamental design precept followed is "If it isn't there, it can't fail".

  11. Advanced Life Support Systems: Opportunities for Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, B.; Henninger, D.; Ming, D.; Verostko, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's future missions to explore the solar system will be of long-duration possibly lasting years at a time. Human life support systems will have to operate with very high reliability for these long periods with essentially no resupply from Earth. Such life support systems will make extensive use of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes for recycling air and water, processing wastes, and producing food. Development of regenerative life support systems will be a pivotal capability for NASA's future human missions. A fully functional closed loop human life support system currently does not exist and thus represents a major technical challenge for space exploration. Technologies where all life support consumables are recycled have many potential terrestrial applications as well. Potential applications include providing human habitation in hostile environments such as the polar regions or the desert in such a way as to minimize energy expenditures and to minimize negative impacts on those often ecologically-sensitive areas. Other potential applications include production of food and ornamental crops without damaging the environment from fertilizers that contaminate water supplies; removal of trace gas contaminants from tightly sealed, energy-efficient buildings (the so-called sick building syndrome); and even the potential of gaining insight into the dynamics of the Earth's biosphere such that we can better manage our global environment. Two specific advanced life support technologies being developed by NASA, with potential terrestrial application, are the zeoponic plant growth system and the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System (HRWRS). The potential applications for these candidate dual use technologies are quite different as are the mechanisms for transfer. In the case of zeoponics, a variety of commercial applications has been suggested which represent potentially lucrative markets. Also, the patented nature of this product offers

  12. Human Support Technology Research to Enable Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Jitendra

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: Advanced life support. System integration, modeling, and analysis. Progressive capabilities. Water processing. Air revitalization systems. Why advanced CO2 removal technology? Solid waste resource recovery systems: lyophilization. ISRU technologies for Mars life support. Atmospheric resources of Mars. N2 consumable/make-up for Mars life. Integrated test beds. Monitoring and controlling the environment. Ground-based commercial technology. Optimizing size vs capability. Water recovery systems. Flight verification topics.

  13. Advancing Administrative Supports for Research Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Korr, Wynne; White, Barbara; Vroom, Phyllis; Zabora, James; Middleton, Jane; Shank, Barbara; Schatz, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Research administrative supports must parallel and reinforce faculty initiatives in research grant procurement. This article features several types of developments that draw on presentations at the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work meetings. Key changes in social work programs are addressed, including the…

  14. Advances in Computer-Supported Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Francisco; Brasileiro, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The Internet and growth of computer networks have eliminated geographic barriers, creating an environment where education can be brought to a student no matter where that student may be. The success of distance learning programs and the availability of many Web-supported applications and multimedia resources have increased the effectiveness of…

  15. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies in Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of obtaining adequate pure drinking water and disposing of liquid and solid waste in the U.S Arctic, a region where virtually all water is frozen solid for much of the year, has led to unsanitary solutions. Sanitation and a safe water supply are particularly problems in rural villages. These villages are without running water and use plastic buckets for toilets. The outbreak of diseases is believed to be partially attributable to exposure to human waste and lack of sanitation. Villages with the most frequent outbreaks of disease are those in which running water is difficult to obtain. Waste is emptied into open lagoons, rivers, or onto the sea coast. It does not degrade rapidly and in addition to affecting human health, can be harmful to the fragile ecology of the Arctic and the indigenous wildlife and fish populations. Current practices for waste management and sanitation pose serious human hazards as well as threaten the environment. NASA's unique knowledge of water/wastewater treatment systems for extreme environments, identified in the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment report entitled An Alaskan Challenge: Native Villagt Sanitation, may offer practical solutions addressing the issues of safe drinking water and effective sanitation practices in rural villages. NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving the NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, Ilisagvik College in Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the State of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the

  16. Advanced systems engineering and network planning support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, David H.; Barrett, Larry K.; Boyd, Ronald; Bazaj, Suresh; Mitchell, Lionel; Brosi, Fred

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this task was to take a fresh look at the NASA Space Network Control (SNC) element for the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) such that it can be made more efficient and responsive to the user by introducing new concepts and technologies appropriate for the 1997 timeframe. In particular, it was desired to investigate the technologies and concepts employed in similar systems that may be applicable to the SNC. The recommendations resulting from this study include resource partitioning, on-line access to subsets of the SN schedule, fluid scheduling, increased use of demand access on the MA service, automating Inter-System Control functions using monitor by exception, increase automation for distributed data management and distributed work management, viewing SN operational control in terms of the OSI Management framework, and the introduction of automated interface management.

  17. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  18. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M S; Garland, J L; Mills, A L

    2004-02-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  19. Sensor Needs for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    2000-01-01

    Sensors and feedback systems are critical to life support flight systems and life support systems research. New sensor capabilities can allow for new system architectures to be considered, and can facilitate dramatic improvements in system performance. This paper will describe three opportunities for biosensor researchers to develop sensors that will enable life support system improvements. The first opportunity relates to measuring physical, chemical, and biological parameters in the Space Station Water Processing System. Measuring pH, iodine, total organic carbon, microbiological activity, total dissolved solids, or conductivity with a safe, effective, stable, reliable microsensor could benefit the water processing system considerably. Of special interest is a sensor which can monitor biological contamination rapidly. The second opportunity relates to sensing microbiological contamination and water condensation on the surface of large inflatable structures. It is the goal of large inflatable structures used for habitation to take advantage of the large surface area of the structure and reject waste heat passively through the walls of the structure. Too much heat rejection leads to a cold spot with water condensation, and eventually microbiological contamination. A distributed sensor system that can measure temperature, humidity, and microbiological contamination across a large surface would benefit designers of large inflatable habitable structures. The third opportunity relates to sensing microbial bioreactors used for waste water processing and reuse. Microbiological bioreactors offer considerable advantages in weight and power compared to adsorption bed based systems when used for long periods of time. Managing and controlling bioreactors is greatly helped if distributed microsensors measured the biological populations continuously in many locations within the bioreactor. Nitrifying bacteria are of special interest to bioreactor designers, and any sensors that

  20. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation project includes reduction of the risk associated with the integration of new, beneficial software techniques. Demonstrations of this software to baseline engineering and test personnel will show the benefits of these techniques. The advanced software will be integrated into ground testing and ground support facilities, familiarizing its usage by key personnel.

  1. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms. Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Deep Space Habitat(DSH) concept demonstrator. The latest generation of assemblies using the latest commercially available LED lights were designed for use in the Bigelow Aerospace Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) simulator and the University of Hawaii's Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (Hi-SEAS) habitat. Agreements with both these organizations will allow the government to receive feedback on the lights and lighting algorithms from long term human interaction.

  2. An Advanced Decision Support Tool for Electricity Infrastructure Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Ma, Jian; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-01-31

    Electricity infrastructure, as one of the most critical infrastructures in the U.S., plays an important role in modern societies. Its failure would lead to significant disruption of people’s lives, industry and commercial activities, and result in massive economic losses. Reliable operation of electricity infrastructure is an extremely challenging task because human operators need to consider thousands of possible configurations in near real-time to choose the best option and operate the network effectively. In today’s practice, electricity infrastructure operation is largely based on operators’ experience with very limited real-time decision support, resulting in inadequate management of complex predictions and the inability to anticipate, recognize, and respond to situations caused by human errors, natural disasters, or cyber attacks. Therefore, a systematic approach is needed to manage the complex operational paradigms and choose the best option in a near-real-time manner. This paper proposes an advanced decision support tool for electricity infrastructure operations. The tool has the functions of turning large amount of data into actionable information to help operators monitor power grid status in real time; performing trend analysis to indentify system trend at the regional level or system level to help the operator to foresee and discern emergencies, studying clustering analysis to assist operators to identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets, and interactively evaluating the alternative remedial actions to aid operators to make effective and timely decisions. This tool can provide significant decision support on electricity infrastructure operations and lead to better reliability in power grids. This paper presents examples with actual electricity infrastructure data to demonstrate the capability of this tool.

  3. Advances in SPICE Support of Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    SPICE is the de facto international standard for determining the geometric conditions-parameters such as altitude, lighting angles, and LAT/LON coverage of an instrument footprint-pertaining to scientific observations acquired by instruments on board robotic spacecraft. This system, comprised of data and allied software, is used for planning science observations and for analyzing the data returned from those observations. Use of SPICE is not a NASA requirement but is recommended by NASA's Planetary Data System and by the International Planetary Data Alliance. Owing in part to its reliability, stability, portability and user support, the use of SPICE has spread to many national space agencies, including those of the U.S., Europe (ESA), Japan, Russia and India. SPICE has been in use since the Magellan mission to Venus and so has many well-known capabilities. But the NAIF Team responsible for implementing SPICE continues to add new features; this presentation describes a number of these.

  4. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  5. Technological advances for studying human behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roske-Hofstrand, Renate J.

    1990-01-01

    Technological advances for studying human behavior are noted in viewgraph form. It is asserted that performance-aiding systems are proliferating without a fundamental understanding of how they would interact with the humans who must control them. Two views of automation research, the hardware view and the human-centered view, are listed. Other viewgraphs give information on vital elements for human-centered research, a continuum of the research process, available technologies, new technologies for persistent problems, a sample research infrastructure, the need for metrics, and examples of data-link technology.

  6. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Liby, Alan L; Rogers, Hiram

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  7. Population in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Martha B.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the population section of the Advanced Placement course outline for human geography, focusing on four themes: (1) geographical analysis of population; (2) population distribution and composition; (3) population growth and decline over time and space; and (4) population movement. Identifies strategies for instructional activities.…

  8. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Metric is one of several measures employed by the NASA to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2004. The values are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. For Fiscal Year 2004, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 2.03 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.62 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  9. Personalizing Drug Selection Using Advanced Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Pestian, John; Spencer, Malik; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Zhang, Kejian; Vinks, Alexander A.; Glauser, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing an advanced pharmacogenetics clinical decision support at one of the United States’ leading pediatric academic medical centers. This system, called CHRISTINE, combines clinical and genetic data to identify the optimal drug therapy when treating patients with epilepsy or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In the discussion a description of clinical decision support systems is provided, along with an overview of neurocognitive computing and how it is applied in this setting. PMID:19898682

  10. Hollow fiber membrane systems for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications is described. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing; breadboard hardware was manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the hollow fiber membrane assemblies are characterized.

  11. FY04 Advanced Life Support Architecture and Technology Studies: Mid-Year Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Duffield, Bruce; Hanford, Tony; Jeng, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Long-Term Objective: Identify optimal advanced life support system designs that meet existing and projected requirements for future human spaceflight missions. a) Include failure-tolerance, reliability, and safe-haven requirements. b) Compare designs based on multiple criteria including equivalent system mass (ESM), technology readiness level (TRL), simplicity, commonality, etc. c) Develop and evaluate new, more optimal, architecture concepts and technology applications.

  12. Advances in Computationally Modeling Human Oral Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junmei; Hou, Tingjun

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in experimental high throughput screening (HTS) of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) and pharmacokinetic properties, the ADME and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) in silico modeling is still indispensable in drug discovery as it can guide us to wisely select drug candidates prior to expensive ADME screenings and clinical trials. Compared to other ADME-Tox properties, human oral bioavailability (HOBA) is particularly important but extremely difficult to predict. In this paper, the advances in human oral bioavailability modeling will be reviewed. Moreover, our deep insight on how to construct more accurate and reliable HOBA QSAR and classification models will also discussed. PMID:25582307

  13. Advanced Platform Systems Technology study. Volume 3: Supporting data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The overall study effort proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of 5 for detail trade studies. The technical issues and options were evaluated through the trade process. Finally, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement. Eight priority technology items were identified for advancement. Supporting data generated during the trade selection and trade study process were presented. Space platform requirements, trade study and cost benefits analysis, and technology advancement planning are advanced. The structured approach used took advantage of a number of forms developed to ensure that a consistent approach was employed by each of the diverse specialists that participated. These forms were an intrinsic part of the study protocol.

  14. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  15. Career Advancement and Work Support Services on the Job: Implementing the Fort Worth Work Advancement and Support Center Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Caroline; Seith, David

    2011-01-01

    The Work Advancement and Support Center (WASC) program in Fort Worth was part of a demonstration that is testing innovative strategies to help increase the income of low-wage workers, who make up a large segment of the U.S. workforce. The program offered services to help workers stabilize their employment, improve their skills, and increase their…

  16. Advances in Human B Cell Phenotypic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Denise A.; Wei, Chungwen; Qian, Yu; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Sanz, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    To advance our understanding and treatment of disease, research immunologists have been called-upon to place more centralized emphasis on impactful human studies. Such endeavors will inevitably require large-scale study execution and data management regulation (“Big Biology”), necessitating standardized and reliable metrics of immune status and function. A well-known example setting this large-scale effort in-motion is identifying correlations between eventual disease outcome and T lymphocyte phenotype in large HIV-patient cohorts using multiparameter flow cytometry. However, infection, immunodeficiency, and autoimmunity are also characterized by correlative and functional contributions of B lymphocytes, which to-date have received much less attention in the human Big Biology enterprise. Here, we review progress in human B cell phenotyping, analysis, and bioinformatics tools that constitute valuable resources for the B cell research community to effectively join in this effort. PMID:23087687

  17. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 4: Supporting analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    Volume 4 (Supporting Analyses) is part of a five-volume report, Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Thirty-nine individuals, knowledgeable in advanced technology, were interviewed to obtain their preferences. Rankings were calculated for the eight groups they represented, using multiplicative and additive utility models. The four topics for consideration were: (1) preferred range for various battery technologies; (2) preferred battery technology for each of a variety of travel ranges; (3) most promising battery technology, vehicle range combination; and (4) comparison of the most preferred electric vehicle with the methanol-fuled, spark-ignition engine vehicle and with the most preferred of the hybrid vehicles.

  18. Morpheus: Advancing Technologies for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olansen, Jon B.; Munday, Stephen R.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Baine, Michael

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing. Designed to serve as a vertical testbed (VTB) for advanced spacecraft technologies, the vehicle provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. This allows individual technologies to mature into capabilities that can be incorporated into human exploration missions. The Morpheus vehicle is propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a payload of 1100 lb to the lunar surface. In addition to VTB vehicles, the Project s major elements include ground support systems and an operations facility. Initial testing will demonstrate technologies used to perform autonomous hazard avoidance and precision landing on a lunar or other planetary surface. The Morpheus vehicle successfully performed a set of integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire and tethered hover tests, leading up to un-tethered free-flights. The initial phase of this development and testing campaign is being conducted on-site at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), with the first fully integrated vehicle firing its engine less than one year after project initiation. Designed, developed, manufactured and operated in-house by engineers at JSC, the Morpheus Project represents an unprecedented departure from recent NASA programs that traditionally require longer, more expensive development lifecycles and testing at remote, dedicated testing facilities. Morpheus testing includes three major types of integrated tests. A hot-fire (HF) is a static vehicle test of the LOX/Methane propulsion system. Tether tests (TT) have the vehicle suspended above the ground using a crane, which allows testing of the propulsion and integrated Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) in hovering flight without the risk of a vehicle departure or crash. Morpheus free-flights (FF) test the complete Morpheus system without the additional

  19. The Systems Engineering Process for Human Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering is designing and optimizing systems. This paper reviews the systems engineering process and indicates how it can be applied in the development of advanced human support systems. Systems engineering develops the performance requirements, subsystem specifications, and detailed designs needed to construct a desired system. Systems design is difficult, requiring both art and science and balancing human and technical considerations. The essential systems engineering activity is trading off and compromising between competing objectives such as performance and cost, schedule and risk. Systems engineering is not a complete independent process. It usually supports a system development project. This review emphasizes the NASA project management process as described in NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7120.5B. The process is a top down phased approach that includes the most fundamental activities of systems engineering - requirements definition, systems analysis, and design. NPR 7120.5B also requires projects to perform the engineering analyses needed to ensure that the system will operate correctly with regard to reliability, safety, risk, cost, and human factors. We review the system development project process, the standard systems engineering design methodology, and some of the specialized systems analysis techniques. We will discuss how they could apply to advanced human support systems development. The purpose of advanced systems development is not directly to supply human space flight hardware, but rather to provide superior candidate systems that will be selected for implementation by future missions. The most direct application of systems engineering is in guiding the development of prototype and flight experiment hardware. However, anticipatory systems engineering of possible future flight systems would be useful in identifying the most promising development projects.

  20. Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a current project under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for long duration missions, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes the following Elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems, Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing, which includes the Sub-Elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize overall mission architectures by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements. Systems analysis will be validated through the data gathered from integrated testing, which will demonstrate the interfaces of a closed loop life support system. By applying a systematic process for defining, sorting and answering critical life support questions, the ELS project is preparing for a variety of future human space missions

  1. Teleoperation support for early human planetary missions.

    PubMed

    Genta, Giancarlo; Perino, Maria Antonietta

    2005-12-01

    A renewed interest in human exploration is flourishing among all the major spacefaring nations. In fact, in the complex scene of planned future space activities, the development of a Moon base and the human exploration of Mars might have the potential to renew the enthusiasm in expanding the human presence beyond the boundaries of Earth. Various initiatives have been undertaken to define scenarios and identify the required infrastructures and related technology innovations. The typical proposed approach follows a multistep strategy, starting with a series of precursor robotic missions to acquire further knowledge of the planet and to select the best potential landing sites, and evolving toward more demanding missions for the development of a surface infrastructure necessary to sustain human presence. The technologies involved in such a demanding enterprise range from typical space technologies, like transportation and propulsion, automation and robotics, rendezvous and docking, entry/reentry, aero-braking, navigation, and deep space communications, to human-specific issues like physiology, psychology, behavioral aspects, and nutritional science for long-duration exposure, that go beyond the traditional boundaries of space activities. Among the required elements to support planetary exploration, both for the precursor robotic missions and to sustain human exploration, rovers and trucks play a key role. A robust level of autonomy will need to be secured to perform preplanned operations, particularly for the surface infrastructure development, and a teleoperated support, either from Earth or from a local base, will enhance the in situ field exploration capability.

  2. GRC Supporting Technology for NASA's Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2008-01-01

    From 1999 to 2006, the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) supported a NASA project to develop a high-efficiency, nominal 110-We Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for potential use on NASA missions. Lockheed Martin was selected as the System Integration Contractor for the SRG110, under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE). The potential applications included deep space missions, and Mars rovers. The project was redirected in 2006 to make use of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) that was being developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to GRC, which would reduce the mass of the generator and increase the power output. This change would approximately double the specific power and result in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The SRG110 supporting technology effort at GRC was replanned to support the integration of the Sunpower convertor and the ASRG. This paper describes the ASRG supporting technology effort at GRC and provides details of the contributions in some of the key areas. The GRC tasks include convertor extended-operation testing in air and in thermal vacuum environments, heater head life assessment, materials studies, permanent magnet characterization and aging tests, structural dynamics testing, electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization, evaluation of organic materials, reliability studies, and analysis to support controller development.

  3. GRC Supporting Technology for NASA's Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2008-01-01

    From 1999-2006, the Glenn Research Center (GRC) supported a NASA project to develop a high-efficiency, nominal 110-We Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for potential use on NASA missions. Lockheed Martin was selected as the System Integration Contractor for the SRG110, under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE). The potential applications included deep space missions, and Mars rovers. The project was redirected in 2006 to make use of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) that was being developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to GRC, which would reduce the mass of the generator and increase the power output. This change would approximately double the specific power and result in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The SRG110 supporting technology effort at GRC was replanned to support the integration of the Sunpower convertor and the ASRG. This paper describes the ASRG supporting technology effort at GRC and provides details of the contributions in some of the key areas. The GRC tasks include convertor extended-operation testing in air and in thermal vacuum environments, heater head life assessment, materials studies, permanent magnet characterization and aging tests, structural dynamics testing, electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization, evaluation of organic materials, reliability studies, and analysis to support controller development.

  4. Advanced support systems development and supporting technologies for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Li, Ku-Yen; Yaws, Carl L.; Mei, Harry T.; Nguyen, Vinh D.; Chu, Hsing-Wei

    1994-01-01

    A methyl acetate reactor was developed to perform a subscale kinetic investigation in the design and optimization of a full-scale metabolic simulator for long term testing of life support systems. Other tasks in support of the closed ecological life support system test program included: (1) heating, ventilation and air conditioning analysis of a variable pressure growth chamber, (2) experimental design for statistical analysis of plant crops, (3) resource recovery for closed life support systems, and (4) development of data acquisition software for automating an environmental growth chamber.

  5. Application of NASA's advanced life support technologies in polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge in the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. This project addresses treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water, and production of food in remote communities of Alaska. The project focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, care for the environment, and economic opportunity through technology transfer. The challenge is to implement the technologies in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. NASA goals are technology selection, system design and methods development of regenerative life support systems for planetary and Lunar bases and other space exploration missions. The ALSEE project will provide similar advanced technologies to address the multiple problems facing the remote communities of Alaska and provide an extreme environment testbed for future space applications. These technologies have never been assembled for this purpose. They offer an integrated approach to solving pressing problems in remote communities.

  6. Application of NASA's advanced life support technologies in polar regions.

    PubMed

    Bubenheim, D L; Lewis, C

    1997-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge in the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. This project addresses treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water, and production of food in remote communities of Alaska. The project focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, care for the environment, and economic opportunity through technology transfer. The challenge is to implement the technologies in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. NASA goals are technology selection, system design and methods development of regenerative life support systems for planetary and Lunar bases and other space exploration missions. The ALSEE project will provide similar advanced technologies to address the multiple problems facing the remote communities of Alaska and provide an extreme environment testbed for future space applications. These technologies have never been assembled for this purpose. They offer an integrated approach to solving pressing problems in remote communities.

  7. Health Monitoring to Support Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) are based on advanced reactor concepts, some of which were promoted by the Generation IV International Forum, and are being considered for diverse missions including desalination of water, production of hydrogen, etc. While the existing fleet of commercial nuclear reactors provides baseload electricity, it is conceivable that aSMRs could be implemented for both baseload and load following applications. The effect of diverse operating missions and unit modularity on plant operations and maintenance (O&M) is not fully understood and limiting these costs will be essential to successful deployment of aSMRs. Integrated health monitoring concepts are proposed to support the safe and affordable operation of aSMRs over their lifetime by enabling management of significant in-vessel and in-containment active and passive components.

  8. Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Rabies: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Rabies, an acute progressive, fatal encephalomyelitis, transmitted most commonly through the bite of a rabid animal, is responsible for an estimated 61,000 human deaths worldwide. The true disease burden and public health impact due to rabies remain underestimated due to lack of sensitive laboratory diagnostic methods. Rapid diagnosis of rabies can help initiate prompt infection control and public health measures, obviate the need for unnecessary treatment/medical tests, and assist in timely administration of pre- or postexposure prophylactic vaccination to family members and medical staff. Antemortem diagnosis of human rabies provides an impetus for clinicians to attempt experimental therapeutic approaches in some patients, especially after the reported survival of a few cases of human rabies. Traditional methods for antemortem and postmortem rabies diagnosis have several limitations. Recent advances in technology have led to the improvement or development of several diagnostic assays which include methods for rabies viral antigen and antibody detection and assays for viral nucleic acid detection and identification of specific biomarkers. These assays which complement traditional methods have the potential to revolutionize rabies diagnosis in future. PMID:24348170

  9. Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hue-Hsie Jannivine; Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) is a computer model for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life support systems (ECLSS) for spacecraft and surface habitats involved in the exploration of Mars and Moon. It performs conceptual designs of advanced life support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water, and process wastes in order to reduce the need of resource resupply. By assuming steady-state operations, ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies and thereby assisting in determining the most cost-effective technology combination available. In fact, ALSSAT can perform sizing analysis of the ALS subsystems that are operated dynamically or steady in nature. Using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software with Visual Basic programming language, ALSSAT has been developed to perform multiple-case trade studies based on the calculated ECLSS mass, volume, power, and Equivalent System Mass, as well as parametric studies by varying the input parameters. ALSSAT s modular format is specifically designed for the ease of future maintenance and upgrades.

  10. Technology transfer in the NASA Ames Advanced Life Support Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Kathleen; Schlater, Nelson; Bilardo, Vincent; Masson, Paul

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes a representative set of technology transfer activities which are currently underway in the Advanced Life Support Division of the Ames Research Center. Five specific NASA-funded research or technology development projects are synopsized that are resulting in transfer of technology in one or more of four main 'arenas:' (1) intra-NASA, (2) intra-Federal, (3) NASA - aerospace industry, and (4) aerospace industry - broader economy. Each project is summarized as a case history, specific issues are identified, and recommendations are formulated based on the lessons learned as a result of each project.

  11. Computer modeling for advanced life support system analysis.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, A

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the equivalent mass approach to advanced life support system analysis, describes a computer model developed to use this approach, and presents early results from modeling the NASA JSC BioPlex. The model is built using an object oriented approach and G2, a commercially available modeling package Cost factor equivalencies are given for the Volosin scenarios. Plant data from NASA KSC and Utah State University (USU) are used, together with configuration data from the BioPlex design effort. Initial results focus on the importance of obtaining high plant productivity with a flight-like configuration. PMID:11540448

  12. Oxygen Generation from Carbon Dioxide for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Sean; Duncan, Keith; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena; Neal, Luke; Sanchez, Jose; Paul, Heather L.; Wachsman, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The partial electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and widely studied. However, complete reduction of metabolically produced CO2 (into carbon and oxygen) has the potential of reducing oxygen storage weight for life support if the oxygen can be recovered. Recently, the University of Florida devel- oped novel ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer elec- trolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth ox- ide (ESB) for NASA's future exploration of Mars. The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. The strategy discussed here for advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer com- bined with a COG cell so that CO2 is reduced all the way to solid carbon and oxygen without carbon buildup on the COG cell and subsequent deactivation.

  13. Robotic Joints Support Horses and Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A rehabilitative device first featured in Spinoff 2003 is not only helping human patients regain the ability to walk, but is now helping our four-legged friends as well. The late James Kerley, a prominent Goddard Space Flight Center researcher, developed cable-compliant mechanisms in the 1980s to enable sounding rocket assemblies and robots to grip or join objects. In cable-compliant joints (CCJs), short segments of cable connect structural elements, allowing for six directions of movement, twisting, alignment, and energy damping. Kerley later worked with Goddard s Wayne Eklund and Allen Crane to incorporate the cable-compliant mechanisms into a walker for human patients to support the pelvis and imitate hip joint movement.

  14. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  15. Planner-Based Control of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Kortenkamp, David; Fry, Chuck; Bell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to the integration of qualitative and quantitative modeling techniques for advanced life support (ALS) systems. Developing reliable control strategies that scale up to fully integrated life support systems requires augmenting quantitative models and control algorithms with the abstractions provided by qualitative, symbolic models and their associated high-level control strategies. This will allow for effective management of the combinatorics due to the integration of a large number of ALS subsystems. By focusing control actions at different levels of detail and reactivity we can use faster: simpler responses at the lowest level and predictive but complex responses at the higher levels of abstraction. In particular, methods from model-based planning and scheduling can provide effective resource management over long time periods. We describe reference implementation of an advanced control system using the IDEA control architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. IDEA uses planning/scheduling as the sole reasoning method for predictive and reactive closed loop control. We describe preliminary experiments in planner-based control of ALS carried out on an integrated ALS simulation developed at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  16. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  17. Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

  18. Does human cognition allow Human Factors (HF) certification of advanced aircrew systems?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, Iain S.; Taylor, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper has examined the requirements of HF specification and certification within advanced or complex aircrew systems. It suggests reasons for current inadequacies in the use of HF in the design process, giving some examples in support, and suggesting an avenue towards the improvement of the HF certification process. The importance of human cognition to the operation and performance of advanced aircrew systems has been stressed. Many of the shortfalls of advanced aircrew systems must be attributed to over automated designs that show little consideration on either the mental limits or the cognitive capabilities of the human system component. Traditional approaches to system design and HF certification are set within an over physicalistic foundation. Also, traditionally it was assumed that physicalistic system functions could be attributed to either the human or the machine on a one to one basis. Moreover, any problems associated with the parallel needs, or promoting human understanding alongside system operation and direction, were generally equated in reality by the natural flexibility and adaptability of human skills. The consideration of the human component of a complex system is seen as being primarily based on manifestations of human behavior to the almost total exclusion of any appreciation of unobservable human mental and cognitive processes. The argument of this paper is that the considered functionality of any complex human-machine system must contain functions that are purely human and purely cognitive. Human-machine system reliability ultimately depends on human reliability and dependability and, therefore, on the form and frequency of cognitive processes that have to be conducted to support system performance. The greater the demand placed by an advanced aircraft system on the human component's basic knowledge processes or cognition, rather than on skill, the more insiduous the effects the human may have on that system. This paper discusses one

  19. Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a project under NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for a lunar outpost, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and discusses how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes Atmosphere Revitalization Systems (ARS), Water Recovery Systems (WRS), Waste Management Systems (WMS), Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA), and Validation and Testing, which includes the sub-elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize the overall mission architecture by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements.

  20. Front end support systems for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Barraza, J.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-10-01

    The support system designs for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) front ends are complete and will be installed in 1994. These designs satisfy the positioning and alignment requirements of the front end components installed inside the storage ring tunnel, including the photon beam position monitors, fixed masks, photon and safety shutters, filters, windows, and differential pumps. Other components include beam transport pipes and ion pumps. The designs comprise 3-point kinematic mounts and single axis supports to satisfy various multi-direction positioning requirements from course to ultra-precise. The confined space inside the storage ring tunnel has posed engineering challenges in the design of these devices, considering some components weigh as much as 500 kg. These challenges include designing for mobility during commissioning and initial alignment, mechanical and thermal stability, and precise low profile vertical and horizontal positioning. As a result, novel stages and kinematic mounts have emerged with modular and standard designs. This paper will discuss the diverse group of support systems, including specifications and performance data of the prototypes.

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on advanced life support medications

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.J.; Hubbard, L.B.; Broadbent, M.V.; Stewart, P.; Jaeger, M.

    1987-06-01

    Advanced life support medications stored in emergency department stretcher areas, diagnostic radiology rooms, and radiotherapy suites are exposed to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that radiation may decrease the potency and thus the shelf life of medications stored in these areas. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were exposed to a wide range of ionizing radiation. The potency of the four drugs was unaffected by levels of radiation found in ED stretcher areas and high-volume diagnostic radiograph rooms (eg, chest radiograph, computed tomography, fluoroscopy). The potency of atropine may be reduced by gamma radiation in high-use radiotherapy suites. However, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were unaffected by high doses of gamma radiation. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol may be safely kept in ED stretcher areas and diagnostic radiology rooms without loss of potency over the shelf life of the drugs.

  2. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system.

    PubMed

    Greenwalt, C J; Hunter, J

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  3. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system.

    PubMed

    Greenwalt, C J; Hunter, J

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation. PMID:11676438

  4. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J.

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  5. [Prospect of the Advanced Life Support Program Breadboard Project at Kennedy Space Center in USA].

    PubMed

    Guo, S S; Ai, W D

    2001-04-01

    The Breadboard Project at Kennedy Space Center in NASA of USA was focused on the development of the bioregenerative life support components, crop plants for water, air, and food production and bioreactors for recycling of wastes. The keystone of the Breadboard Project was the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), which was supported by 15 environmentally controlled chambers and several laboratory facilities holding a total area of 2150 m2. In supporting the Advanced Life Support Program (ALS Program), the Project utilizes these facilities for large-scale testing of components and development of required technologies for human-rated test-beds at Johnson Space Center in NASA, in order to enable a Lunar and a Mars mission finally.

  6. [Prospect of the Advanced Life Support Program Breadboard Project at Kennedy Space Center in USA].

    PubMed

    Guo, S S; Ai, W D

    2001-04-01

    The Breadboard Project at Kennedy Space Center in NASA of USA was focused on the development of the bioregenerative life support components, crop plants for water, air, and food production and bioreactors for recycling of wastes. The keystone of the Breadboard Project was the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), which was supported by 15 environmentally controlled chambers and several laboratory facilities holding a total area of 2150 m2. In supporting the Advanced Life Support Program (ALS Program), the Project utilizes these facilities for large-scale testing of components and development of required technologies for human-rated test-beds at Johnson Space Center in NASA, in order to enable a Lunar and a Mars mission finally. PMID:11808572

  7. Risk Management for Human Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    NASA requires continuous risk management for all programs and projects. The risk management process identifies risks, analyzes their impact, prioritizes them, develops and carries out plans to mitigate or accept them, tracks risks and mitigation plans, and communicates and documents risk information. Project risk management is driven by the project goal and is performed by the entire team. Risk management begins early in the formulation phase with initial risk identification and development of a risk management plan and continues throughout the project life cycle. This paper describes the risk management approach that is suggested for use in NASA's Human Support Technology Development. The first step in risk management is to identify the detailed technical and programmatic risks specific to a project. Each individual risk should be described in detail. The identified risks are summarized in a complete risk list. Risk analysis provides estimates of the likelihood and the qualitative impact of a risk. The likelihood and impact of the risk are used to define its priority location in the risk matrix. The approaches for responding to risk are either to mitigate it by eliminating or reducing the effect or likelihood of a risk, to accept it with a documented rationale and contingency plan, or to research or monitor the risk, The Human Support Technology Development program includes many projects with independently achievable goals. Each project must do independent risk management, considering all its risks together and trading them against performance, budget, and schedule. Since the program can succeed even if some projects fail, the program risk has a complex dependence on the individual project risks.

  8. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  9. Measuring the Resilience of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Ann Maria; Dearden, Richard; Levri, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the central importance of crew safety in designing and operating a life support system, the metric commonly used to evaluate alternative Advanced Life Support (ALS) technologies does not currently provide explicit techniques for measuring safety. The resilience of a system, or the system s ability to meet performance requirements and recover from component-level faults, is fundamentally a dynamic property. This paper motivates the use of computer models as a tool to understand and improve system resilience throughout the design process. Extensive simulation of a hybrid computational model of a water revitalization subsystem (WRS) with probabilistic, component-level faults provides data about off-nominal behavior of the system. The data can then be used to test alternative measures of resilience as predictors of the system s ability to recover from component-level faults. A novel approach to measuring system resilience using a Markov chain model of performance data is also developed. Results emphasize that resilience depends on the complex interaction of faults, controls, and system dynamics, rather than on simple fault probabilities.

  10. Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step

  11. NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

  12. Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banker, Brian F.; Robinson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing effort named HESTIA (Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement), led at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to promote a cross-subsystem approach to developing Mars-enabling technologies with the ultimate goal of integrated system optimization. HESTIA also aims to develop the infrastructure required to rapidly test these highly integrated systems at a low cost. The initial focus is on the common fluids architecture required to enable human exploration of mars, specifically between life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) subsystems. An overview of the advancements in both integrated technologies, in infrastructure, in simulation, and in modeling capabilities will be presented, as well as the results and findings of integrated testing,. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth), minimization of surface hardware and commodities is paramount. Hardware requirements can be minimized by reduction of equipment performing similar functions though for different subsystems. If hardware could be developed which meets the requirements of both life support and ISRU it could result in the reduction of primary hardware and/or reduction in spares. Minimization of commodities to the surface of mars can be achieved through the creation of higher efficiency systems producing little to no undesired waste, such as a closed-loop life support subsystem. Where complete efficiency is impossible or impractical, makeup commodities could be manufactured via ISRU. Although, utilization of ISRU products (oxygen and water) for crew consumption holds great promise of reducing demands on life support hardware, there exist concerns as to the purity and transportation of commodities. To date, ISRU has been focused on production rates and purities for

  13. Development of an advanced support system for site investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, T.; Hama, K.; Iwatsuki, T.; Semba, T.

    2009-12-01

    JAEA has the responsibility for R&D to enhance reliability of High Level Waste (HLW) disposal technology and to develop safety assessment methodology with associated databases; these should support both the implementer (NUMO) and the relevant regulatory organizations. With this responsibility, JAEA has initiated development of advanced technology in the field of Knowledge Engineering. Known as the Information Synthesis and Interpretation System (ISIS), it incorporates knowledge currently being obtained in the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) projects in Expert System (ES) modules for the Japanese HLW disposal program. This knowledge includes fundamental understanding of relevant geological environments, technical know-how for the application of complex investigation techniques, experience gained in earlier site work, etc. However, much knowledge is not undocumented because the knowledge is treated as tacit knowledge and, without focused action soon, may be permanently lost. Therefore, a new approach is necessary to transfer the knowledge obtained in these URL projects to support the site characterization and subsequent safety assessment of potential repository sites by NUMO and the formulation of guidelines by regulatory organizations. In this paper, we introduce the ES for selecting tracers for borehole drilling. ES is the system built by applying electronic information technology to support the planning, conducting investigations and assessing of investigation results. Tracers are generally used for borehole drilling to monitor and quantitatively assess the degree of contamination of groundwater by drilling fluid. JAEA uses fluorescent dye as tracer in drilling fluid. When a fluorescent dye is used for drilling, suitable type and concentration must be selected. The technical points to be considered are; 1) linearity of fluorescent spectrum intensity with variations in concentration, 2) pH dependence of fluorescent spectrum intensity, 3) stability of

  14. Advancing Cyberinfrastructure to support high resolution water resources modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Ogden, F. L.; Jones, N.; Horsburgh, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Addressing the problem of how the availability and quality of water resources at large scales are sensitive to climate variability, watershed alterations and management activities requires computational resources that combine data from multiple sources and support integrated modeling. Related cyberinfrastructure challenges include: 1) how can we best structure data and computer models to address this scientific problem through the use of high-performance and data-intensive computing, and 2) how can we do this in a way that discipline scientists without extensive computational and algorithmic knowledge and experience can take advantage of advances in cyberinfrastructure? This presentation will describe a new system called CI-WATER that is being developed to address these challenges and advance high resolution water resources modeling in the Western U.S. We are building on existing tools that enable collaboration to develop model and data interfaces that link integrated system models running within an HPC environment to multiple data sources. Our goal is to enhance the use of computational simulation and data-intensive modeling to better understand water resources. Addressing water resource problems in the Western U.S. requires simulation of natural and engineered systems, as well as representation of legal (water rights) and institutional constraints alongside the representation of physical processes. We are establishing data services to represent the engineered infrastructure and legal and institutional systems in a way that they can be used with high resolution multi-physics watershed modeling at high spatial resolution. These services will enable incorporation of location-specific information on water management infrastructure and systems into the assessment of regional water availability in the face of growing demands, uncertain future meteorological forcings, and existing prior-appropriations water rights. This presentation will discuss the informatics

  15. Considerations in miniaturizing simplified agro-ecosystems for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, T.

    1996-01-01

    Miniaturizing the Earth's biogeochemical cycles to support human life during future space missions is the goal of the NASA research and engineering program in advanced life support. Mission requirements to reduce mass, volume, and power have focused efforts on (1) a maximally simplified agro-ecosystem of humans, food crops, and microbes; and, (2) a design for optimized productivity of food crops with high light levels over long days, with hydroponics, with elevated carbon dioxide and other controlled environmental factors, as well as with genetic selection for desirable crop properties. Mathematical modeling contributes to the goals by establishing trade-offs, by analyzing the growth and development of experimental crops, and by pointing to the possibilities of directed phasic control using modified field crop models to increase the harvest index.

  16. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or collecting technologies, low mass plant growth chambers, and capability to operate in the high energy background radiation and reduced atmospheric pressures of space. These systems will be integrated with air, water, and thermal subsystems in an operational system. Extensive crop testing has been done for both staple and salad crops, but limited data is available on specific cultivar selection and breadboard testing to meet nominal Mars mission profiles of a 500-600 day surface mission. The recent research emphasis at Kennedy Space Center has shifted from staple crops, such as wheat, soybean and rice, toward short cycle salad crops such as lettuce, onion, radish, tomato, pepper, and strawberry. This paper will review the results of crop experiments to support the Exploration Initiative and the ongoing development of supporting technologies, and give an overview of capabilities of the newly opened Space Life Science (SLS) Lab at Kennedy Space Center. The 9662 square m (104,000 square ft) SLS Lab was built by the State of Florida and supports all NASA research that had been performed in Hanger-L. In addition to NASA research, the SLS Lab houses the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI), responsible for co-managing the facility, and the University of Florida (UF) has established the Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and

  17. Human System Simulation in Support of Human Performance Technical Basis at NPPs

    SciTech Connect

    David Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; alan mecham; william phoenix; Magdy Tawfik; Jeffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on strategies and progress toward establishing the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Human Systems Simulator Laboratory at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a consortium of Idaho State Universities. The INL is one of the National Laboratories of the US Department of Energy. One of the first planned applications for the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is implementation of a dynamic nuclear power plant simulation (NPP) where studies of operator workload, situation awareness, performance and preference will be carried out in simulated control rooms including nuclear power plant control rooms. Simulation offers a means by which to review operational concepts, improve design practices and provide a technical basis for licensing decisions. In preparation for the next generation power plant and current government and industry efforts in support of light water reactor sustainability, human operators will be attached to a suite of physiological measurement instruments and, in combination with traditional Human Factors Measurement techniques, carry out control room tasks in simulated advanced digital and hybrid analog/digital control rooms. The current focus of the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is building core competence in quantitative and qualitative measurements of situation awareness and workload. Of particular interest is whether introduction of digital systems including automated procedures has the potential to reduce workload and enhance safety while improving situation awareness or whether workload is merely shifted and situation awareness is modified in yet to be determined ways. Data analysis is carried out by engineers and scientists and includes measures of the physical and neurological correlates of human performance. The current approach supports a user-centered design philosophy (see ISO 13407 “Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems, 1999) wherein the context for task performance along with the

  18. What do trainees think about advanced trauma life support (ATLS)?

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, B.; Heal, J.; Evans, S.; Marriott, S.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced trauma life support (ATLS) has become a desirable or even essential part of training for many surgeons and anaesthetists, but aspects of the ATLS course have attracted criticism. In the absence of published data on the views of trainees, this study sought their opinions in a structured questionnaire, which was completed by trainees in accident and emergency (A & E) (26), anaesthetic (82), general surgical (26), orthopaedic (42) and other (5) posts in different hospitals (response rate 66%). Of the trainees, 78% had done an ATLS course and, of these, 83% considered ATLS a 'major advantage' or 'essential' for practising their proposed specialty--100% for A & E, 94% for orthopaedics, 92% for general surgery, and 75% for anaesthetics. ATLS was considered a major curriculum vitae (CV) advantage by 94%, 85%, 50%, and 45%, respectively. Over 90% had positive attitudes towards ATLS, and 74% selected 'genuine improvement of management of trauma patients' as the most important reason for doing the course: 93% thought ATLS saved lives. Of the respondents, 83% thought that all existing consultants dealing with trauma patients should have done the course, and 41% thought it offered major advantages to doctors not involved in trauma. Funding problems for ATLS courses had been experienced by 14% trainees. This survey has shown that most trainees view ATLS positively. They believe that it provides genuine practical benefit for patients, and very few regard ATLS primarily as a career advantage or mandate. PMID:10932661

  19. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  20. Critical research and advanced technology (CRT) support project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, E. R.; Anderson, D. N.; Hodge, P. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Nainiger, J. J.; Schultz, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    A critical technology base for utility and industrial gas turbines by planning the use of coal-derived fuels was studied. Development tasks were included in the following areas: (1) Combustion - investigate the combustion of coal-derived fuels and methods to minimize the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NOx; (2) materials - understand and minimize hot corrosion; (3) system studies - integrate and focus the technological efforts. A literature survey of coal-derived fuels was completed and a NOx emissions model was developed. Flametube tests of a two-stage (rich-lean) combustor defined optimum equivalence ratios for minimizing NOx emissions. Sector combustor tests demonstrated variable air control to optimize equivalence ratios over a wide load range and steam cooling of the primary zone liner. The catalytic combustion of coal-derived fuels was demonstrated. The combustion of coal-derived gases is very promising. A hot-corrosion life prediction model was formulated and verified with laboratory testing of doped fuels. Fuel additives to control sulfur corrosion were studied. The intermittent application of barium proved effective. Advanced thermal barrier coatings were developed and tested. Coating failure modes were identified and new material formulations and fabrication parameters were specified. System studies in support of the thermal barrier coating development were accomplished.

  1. Educational Changes to Support Advanced Practice Nursing Education

    PubMed Central

    LeFlore, Judy L.; Thomas, Patricia E.

    2016-01-01

    Educational factors limit the number of advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) graduates to meet the growing workforce demands. Healthcare dynamics are necessitating a shift in how nursing education envisions, creates, and implements clinical learning opportunities. The current clinical education model in APRN programs continues to be the same as it was 45 years ago when the student numbers were much smaller. New approaches in graduate nursing education are needed to address the shortage of APRNs in primary and acute care areas. Determining competency based on the number of clinical hours can be inefficient, ineffective, and costly and limits the ability to increase capacity. Little research exists in graduate nursing education to support the effectiveness and efficiency of current hours of clinical required for nurse practitioner students. Simulation and academic-practice partnership models can offer innovative approaches to nurse practitioner education for clinical training, with the goal of producing graduates who can provide safe, quality care within the complex practice-based environment of the nation's evolving healthcare system. PMID:27465446

  2. PROBABILISTIC MODELING FOR ADVANCED HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to environmental pollutants widely vary depending on the emission patterns that result in microenvironmental pollutant concentrations, as well as behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with these pollutants. Probabilistic human exp...

  3. Advancing Humanities Studies at Community, Technical, and Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Diane U.; And Others

    The American Association of Community and Junior Colleges' (AACJC's) two-year Advancing the Humanities Project (AHP) has assisted selected community colleges in promoting the humanities on their campuses. Parts I and II of this report on the AHP present statements by Dale Parnell and Judith Jeffrey Howard about the AACJC's humanities initiatives…

  4. Progress in the Development of Direct Osmotic Concentration Wastewater Recovery Process for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cath, Tzahi Y.; Adams, Dean V.; Childress, Amy; Gormly, Sherwin; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Direct osmotic concentration (DOC) has been identified as a high potential technology for recycling of wastewater to drinking water in advanced life support (ALS) systems. As a result the DOC process has been selected for a NASA Rapid Technology Development Team (RTDT) effort. The existing prototype system has been developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 3. The current project focuses on advancing the development of this technology from TRL 3 to TRL 6 (appropriate for human rated testing). A new prototype of a DOC system is been designed and fabricated that addresses the deficiencies encountered during the testing of the original system and allowing the new prototype to achieve TRL 6. Background information is provided about the technologies investigated and their capabilities, results from preliminary tests, and the milestones plan and activities for the RTDT program intended to develop a second generation prototype of the DOC system.

  5. Human-Computer Interaction with Medical Decisions Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adolf, Jurine A.; Holden, Kritina L.

    1994-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been available to medical diagnosticians for some time, yet their acceptance and use have not increased with advances in technology and availability of DSS tools. Medical DSSs will be necessary on future long duration space missions, because access to medical resources and personnel will be limited. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) experts at NASA's Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory (HFEL) have been working toward understanding how humans use DSSs, with the goal of being able to identify and solve the problems associated with these systems. Work to date consists of identification of HCI research areas, development of a decision making model, and completion of two experiments dealing with 'anchoring'. Anchoring is a phenomenon in which the decision maker latches on to a starting point and does not make sufficient adjustments when new data are presented. HFEL personnel have replicated a well-known anchoring experiment and have investigated the effects of user level of knowledge. Future work includes further experimentation on level of knowledge, confidence in the source of information and sequential decision making.

  6. Employing a gain-of-function factor IX variant R338L to advance the efficacy and safety of hemophilia B human gene therapy: preclinical evaluation supporting an ongoing adeno-associated virus clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Paul E; Sun, Junjiang; Gui, Tong; Hu, Genlin; Hannah, William B; Wichlan, David G; Wu, Zhijian; Grieger, Joshua C; Li, Chengwen; Suwanmanee, Thipparat; Stafford, Darrel W; Booth, Carmen J; Samulski, Jade J; Kafri, Tal; McPhee, Scott W J; Samulski, R Jude

    2015-02-01

    , 100-500%). These preclinical studies demonstrate a safety:efficacy profile supporting an ongoing phase 1/2 human clinical trial of the scAAV8.FIXR338L vector (designated BAX335).

  7. Performance of advanced trauma life support procedures in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Johnston, Smith L 3rd; Muller, Matthew S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical operations on the International Space Station will emphasize the stabilization and transport of critically injured personnel and so will need to be capable of advanced trauma life support (ATLS). METHODS: We evaluated the ATLS invasive procedures in the microgravity environment of parabolic flight using a porcine animal model. Included in the procedures evaluated were artificial ventilation, intravenous infusion, laceration closure, tracheostomy, Foley catheter drainage, chest tube insertion, peritoneal lavage, and the use of telemedicine methods for procedural direction. RESULTS: Artificial ventilation was performed and appeared to be unaltered from the 1-G environment. Intravenous infusion, laceration closure, percutaneous dilational tracheostomy, and Foley catheter drainage were achieved without difficulty. Chest tube insertion and drainage were performed with no more difficulty than in the 1-G environment due to the ability to restrain patient, operator and supplies. A Heimlich valve and Sorenson drainage system were both used to provide for chest tube drainage collection with minimal equipment, without the risk of atmospheric contamination, and with the capability to auto-transfuse blood drained from a hemothorax. The use of telemedicine in chest tube insertion was demonstrated to be useful and feasible. Peritoneal lavage using a percutaneous technique, although requiring less training to perform, was found to be dangerous in weightlessness due to the additional pressure of the bowel on the anterior abdominal wall creating a high risk of bowel perforation. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of ATLS procedures in microgravity appears to be feasible with the exception of diagnostic peritoneal lavage. Minor modifications to equipment and techniques are required in microgravity to effect surgical drainage in the presence of altered fluid dynamics, to prevent atmospheric contamination, and to provide for the restraint requirements. A parabolic

  8. Applying Technology Ranking and Systems Engineering in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    According to the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program Plan, the Systems Modeling and Analysis Project (SMAP) has two important tasks: 1) prioritizing investments in ALS Research and Technology Development (R&TD), and 2) guiding the evolution of ALS systems. Investments could be prioritized simply by independently ranking different technologies, but we should also consider a technology's impact on system design. Guiding future ALS systems will require SMAP to consider many aspects of systems engineering. R&TD investments can be prioritized using familiar methods for ranking technology. The first step is gathering data on technology performance, safety, readiness level, and cost. Then the technologies are ranked using metrics or by decision analysis using net present economic value. The R&TD portfolio can be optimized to provide the maximum expected payoff in the face of uncertain future events. But more is needed. The optimum ALS system can not be designed simply by selecting the best technology for each predefined subsystem. Incorporating a new technology, such as food plants, can change the specifications of other subsystems, such as air regeneration. Systems must be designed top-down starting from system objectives, not bottom-up from selected technologies. The familiar top-down systems engineering process includes defining mission objectives, mission design, system specification, technology analysis, preliminary design, and detail design. Technology selection is only one part of systems analysis and engineering, and it is strongly related to the subsystem definitions. ALS systems should be designed using top-down systems engineering. R&TD technology selection should consider how the technology affects ALS system design. Technology ranking is useful but it is only a small part of systems engineering.

  9. Online model-based diagnosis to support autonomous operation of an advanced life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Manders, Eric-Jan; Ramirez, John; Mahadevan, Nagabhusan; Abdelwahed, Sherif

    2004-01-01

    This article describes methods for online model-based diagnosis of subsystems of the advanced life support system (ALS). The diagnosis methodology is tailored to detect, isolate, and identify faults in components of the system quickly so that fault-adaptive control techniques can be applied to maintain system operation without interruption. We describe the components of our hybrid modeling scheme and the diagnosis methodology, and then demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology by building a detailed model of the reverse osmosis (RO) system of the water recovery system (WRS) of the ALS. This model is validated with real data collected from an experimental testbed at NASA JSC. A number of diagnosis experiments run on simulated faulty data are presented and the results are discussed.

  10. Online model-based diagnosis to support autonomous operation of an advanced life support system.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Gautam; Manders, Eric-Jan; Ramirez, John; Mahadevan, Nagabhusan; Abdelwahed, Sherif

    2004-01-01

    This article describes methods for online model-based diagnosis of subsystems of the advanced life support system (ALS). The diagnosis methodology is tailored to detect, isolate, and identify faults in components of the system quickly so that fault-adaptive control techniques can be applied to maintain system operation without interruption. We describe the components of our hybrid modeling scheme and the diagnosis methodology, and then demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology by building a detailed model of the reverse osmosis (RO) system of the water recovery system (WRS) of the ALS. This model is validated with real data collected from an experimental testbed at NASA JSC. A number of diagnosis experiments run on simulated faulty data are presented and the results are discussed. PMID:15880907

  11. Oxygen Generation from Carbon Dioxide for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, s. R.; Duncan, K. L.; Hagelin-Weaver, H. E.; Neal, L.; Paul, H. L.; Wachsman, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    The partial electrochemical reduction of CO2 using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and has been studied. Conventional COGs use yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes and operate at temperatures greater than 700 C (1, 2). Operating at a lower temperature has the advantage of reducing the mass of the ancillary components such as insulation. Moreover, complete reduction of metabolically produced CO2 (into carbon and oxygen) has the potential of reducing oxygen storage weight if the oxygen can be recovered. Recently, the University of Florida developed ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer electrolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) for NASA s future exploration of Mars (3). The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. These results indicate that this technology could be adapted to CO2 removal from a spacesuit and other applications in which CO2 removal is an issue. This strategy for CO2 removal in advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer combined with a COG so that the CO2 is reduced completely to solid carbon and oxygen. First, to reduce the COG operating temperature, a thin, bilayer electrolyte was employed. Second, to promote full CO2 reduction while avoiding the problem of carbon deposition on the COG cathode, a catalytic carbon deposition layer was designed and the cathode utilized materials shown to be coke resistant. Third, a composite anode was used consisting of bismuth ruthenate (BRO) and ESB that has been shown to have high performance (4). The inset of figure 1 shows the conceptual design of the tubular COG and the rest of the figure shows schematically the test apparatus. Figure 2 shows the microstructure of a COG tube prior to testing. During testing, current is applied across the cell and initially CuO is reduced to copper metal by electrochemical pumping. Then the oxygen source becomes the CO/CO2. This presentation

  12. Neonatal Resuscitation Program and Pediatric Advanced Life Support.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, C

    1995-05-01

    The need for delivery resuscitation of the newborn cannot be predicted in most cases; therefore it is judicious to train all providers who may be involved in the delivery of newborns to follow guidelines developed to improve outcome, especially in the presence of transitional asphyxia. The Neonatal Resuscitation Program emphasizes basic steps of warming, drying, suctioning, and adequately ventilating the newborn. It also addresses current theories regarding resuscitation of the low birthweight newborns, infants with meconium aspiration, and medication use. The NRP applies to all acute-care hospitals that provide delivery services and those at which a respiratory therapist is likely to be present in the high-risk delivery or unanticipated delivery-room resuscitation. Outcomes have not been well documented and more clinical research is needed to identify which therapeutic strategies promote the best survival in this population. A topic that should be included in the NRP of the future is exogenous surfactant delivery. Respiratory distress syndrome has been a significant cause of death and morbidity in prematurely born neonates. Exogenous surfactant therapy has had a dramatic effect on the death rate of premature infants and on the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome. Current methods of surfactant administration demand that personnel proficient in management of the low birthweight newborn be present. As hospitals with all levels of nurseries continue to receive the prematurely delivered newborn and better methods to administer surfactant are discovered, the NRP could add information and a skills laboratory on surfactant administration. A trained cadre of health professionals who are proficient in the specific resuscitation skills required in pediatric patients can make a difference. The infant and child have different anatomy, physiology, and disease etiology that need to be emphasized and understood by the pediatric caregiver. The Pediatric Advanced Life

  13. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  14. Advancing Usability Evaluation through Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2005-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues.

  15. Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grounds, Dennis; Boehm, Al

    2005-01-01

    The Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap focuses on research and technology development and demonstration required to ensure the health, habitation, safety, and effectiveness of crews in and beyond low Earth orbit. It contains three distinct sub-capabilities: Human Health and Performance. Life Support and Habitats. Extra-Vehicular Activity.

  16. Recent Advances in Clinical Natural Language Processing in Support of Semantic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, D.; South, B. R.; Kvist, M.; Dalianis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives We present a review of recent advances in clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP), with a focus on semantic analysis and key subtasks that support such analysis. Methods We conducted a literature review of clinical NLP research from 2008 to 2014, emphasizing recent publications (2012-2014), based on PubMed and ACL proceedings as well as relevant referenced publications from the included papers. Results Significant articles published within this time-span were included and are discussed from the perspective of semantic analysis. Three key clinical NLP subtasks that enable such analysis were identified: 1) developing more efficient methods for corpus creation (annotation and de-identification), 2) generating building blocks for extracting meaning (morphological, syntactic, and semantic subtasks), and 3) leveraging NLP for clinical utility (NLP applications and infrastructure for clinical use cases). Finally, we provide a reflection upon most recent developments and potential areas of future NLP development and applications. Conclusions There has been an increase of advances within key NLP subtasks that support semantic analysis. Performance of NLP semantic analysis is, in many cases, close to that of agreement between humans. The creation and release of corpora annotated with complex semantic information models has greatly supported the development of new tools and approaches. Research on non-English languages is continuously growing. NLP methods have sometimes been successfully employed in real-world clinical tasks. However, there is still a gap between the development of advanced resources and their utilization in clinical settings. A plethora of new clinical use cases are emerging due to established health care initiatives and additional patient-generated sources through the extensive use of social media and other devices. PMID:26293867

  17. Advances in Human B19 Erythrovirus Biology▿

    PubMed Central

    Servant-Delmas, Annabelle; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Morinet, Frédéric; Pillet, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery, human parvovirus B19 (B19V), now termed erythrovirus, has been associated with many clinical situations (neurological and myocardium infections, persistent B19V DNAemia) in addition to the prototype clinical manifestations, i.e., erythema infectiosum and erythroblastopenia crisis. In 2002, the use of new molecular tools led to the characterization of three different genotypes of human B19 erythrovirus. Although the genomic organization is conserved, the geographic distribution of the different genotypes varies worldwide, and the nucleotidic divergences can impact the molecular diagnosis of B19 virus infection. The cell cycle of the virus remains partially unresolved; however, recent studies have shed light on the mechanism of cell entry and the interactions of B19V proteins with apoptosis pathways. PMID:20631151

  18. Advancing Home-School Relations through Parent Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergnehr, Disa

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores a local initiative to develop parent support services through the school system. In focus are the discourse on home-school relations and parent support and the interplay between discourse and practical occurrences. Official documents, interviews and notes from municipal meetings and informal conversations were obtained…

  19. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  20. Advances in the Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Weerakoon, Kosala G. A. D.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Cai, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease that afflicts more than 240 million people, including many children and young adults, in the tropics and subtropics. The disease is characterized by chronic infections with significant residual morbidity and is of considerable public health importance, with substantial socioeconomic impacts on impoverished communities. Morbidity reduction and eventual elimination through integrated intervention measures are the focuses of current schistosomiasis control programs. Precise diagnosis of schistosome infections, in both mammalian and snail intermediate hosts, will play a pivotal role in achieving these goals. Nevertheless, despite extensive efforts over several decades, the search for sensitive and specific diagnostics for schistosomiasis is ongoing. Here we review the area, paying attention to earlier approaches but emphasizing recent developments in the search for new diagnostics for schistosomiasis with practical applications in the research laboratory, the clinic, and the field. Careful and rigorous validation of these assays and their cost-effectiveness will be needed, however, prior to their adoption in support of policy decisions for national public health programs aimed at the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. PMID:26224883

  1. Advances in the Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, Kosala G A D; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Cai, Pengfei; McManus, Donald P

    2015-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease that afflicts more than 240 million people, including many children and young adults, in the tropics and subtropics. The disease is characterized by chronic infections with significant residual morbidity and is of considerable public health importance, with substantial socioeconomic impacts on impoverished communities. Morbidity reduction and eventual elimination through integrated intervention measures are the focuses of current schistosomiasis control programs. Precise diagnosis of schistosome infections, in both mammalian and snail intermediate hosts, will play a pivotal role in achieving these goals. Nevertheless, despite extensive efforts over several decades, the search for sensitive and specific diagnostics for schistosomiasis is ongoing. Here we review the area, paying attention to earlier approaches but emphasizing recent developments in the search for new diagnostics for schistosomiasis with practical applications in the research laboratory, the clinic, and the field. Careful and rigorous validation of these assays and their cost-effectiveness will be needed, however, prior to their adoption in support of policy decisions for national public health programs aimed at the control and elimination of schistosomiasis.

  2. Analysis of Advanced Respiratory Support Onboard ISS and CCV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ronak V.; Kertsman, Eric L.; Alexander, David J.; Duchesne, Ted; Law, Jennifer; Roden, Sean K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is collaborating with private entities for the development of commercial space vehicles. The Space and Clinical Operations Division was tasked to review the oxygen and respiratory support system and recommend what capabilities, if any, the vehicle should have to support the return of an ill or injured crewmember. The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) was utilized as a data source for the development of these recommendations. The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) was used to simulate a six month, six crew, International Space Station (ISS) mission. Three medical system scenarios were considered based on the availability of (1) oxygen only, (2) oxygen and a ventilator, or (3) neither oxygen nor ventilator. The IMM analysis provided probability estimates of medical events that would require either oxygen or ventilator support. It also provided estimates of crew health, the probability of evacuation, and the probability of loss of crew life secondary to medical events for each of the three medical system scenarios. These IMM outputs were used as objective data to enable evidence-based decisions regarding oxygen and respiratory support system requirements for commercial crew vehicles. The IMM provides data that may be utilized to support informed decisions regarding the development of medical systems for commercial crew vehicles.

  3. Advanced physical-chemical life support systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed NASA space research and technology development program will provide adequate data for designing closed loop life support systems for long-duration manned space missions. This program, referred to as the Pathfinder Physical-Chemical Closed Loop Life Support Program, is to identify and develop critical chemical engineering technologies for the closure of air and water loops within the spacecraft, surface habitats or mobility devices. Computerized simulation can be used both as a research and management tool. Validated models will guide the selection of the best known applicable processes and in the development of new processes. For the integration of the habitat system, a biological subsystem would be introduced to provide food production and to enhance the physical-chemical life support functions on an ever-increasing basis.

  4. Human Decision Processes: Implications for SSA Support Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picciano, P.

    2013-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computing power and artificial intelligence (AI), few critical decisions are made without a human decision maker in the loop. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) missions are both critical and complex, typically adhering to the human-in-the-loop (HITL) model. The collection of human operators injects a needed diversity of expert knowledge, experience, and authority required to successfully fulfill SSA tasking. A wealth of literature on human decision making exists citing myriad empirical studies and offering a varied set of prescriptive and descriptive models of judgment and decision making (Hastie & Dawes, 2001; Baron, 2000). Many findings have been proven sufficiently robust to allow information architects or system/interface designers to take action to improve decision processes. For the purpose of discussion, these concepts are bifurcated in two groups: 1) vulnerabilities to mitigate, and 2) capabilities to augment. These vulnerabilities and capabilities refer specifically to the decision process and should not be confused with a shortcoming or skill of a specific human operator. Thus the framing of questions and orders, the automated tools with which to collaborate, priming and contextual data, and the delivery of information all play a critical role in human judgment and choice. Evaluating the merits of any decision can be elusive; in order to constrain this discussion, ‘rational choice' will tend toward the economic model characteristics such as maximizing utility and selection consistency (e.g., if A preferred to B, and B preferred to C, than A should be preferred to C). Simple decision models often encourage one to list the pros and cons of a decision, perhaps use a weighting schema, but one way or another weigh the future benefit (or harm) of making a selection. The result (sought by the rationalist models) should drive toward higher utility. Despite notable differences in researchers' theses (to be discussed in the full

  5. Benefits of advanced space suits for supporting routine extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, L. R.; Bauer, E. H.; Patrick, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Technology is available to produce space suits providing a quick-reaction, safe, much more mobile extravehicular activity (EVA) capability than before. Such a capability may be needed during the shuttle era because the great variety of missions and payloads complicates the development of totally automated methods of conducting operations and maintenance and resolving contingencies. Routine EVA now promises to become a cost-effective tool as less complex, serviceable, lower-cost payload designs utilizing this capability become feasible. Adoption of certain advanced space suit technologies is encouraged for reasons of economics as well as performance.

  6. Temporary Percutaneous Mechanical Circulatory Support in Advanced Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jessica L; Estep, Jerry D

    2016-07-01

    Cardiogenic shock is severe, refractory heart failure caused by significant myocardial dysfunction in the setting of adequate preload that is accompanied by systemic hypoperfusion. Progressive end-organ dysfunction is a hallmark of persistent cardiogenic shock and necessitates intervention to overcome altered hemodynamics and restore end-organ perfusion. Temporary percutaneous mechanical circulatory support is an established modality in the treatment of cardiogenic shock and is increasingly used in patients with cardiogenic shock as a bridge to recovery or further definitive therapy. This article reviews the current devices, their effects on left ventricular hemodynamics, and the evidence supporting their continued use. PMID:27371515

  7. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  8. The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support (OPALS) Study: rationale and methodology for cardiac arrest patients.

    PubMed

    Stiell, I G; Wells, G A; Spaite, D W; Lyver, M B; Munkley, D P; Field, B J; Dagnone, E; Maloney, J P; Jones, G R; Luinstra, L G; Jermyn, B D; Ward, R; DeMaio, V J

    1998-08-01

    The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support Study represents the largest prehospital study yet conducted, worldwide. This study will involve more than 25,000 cardiac arrest, trauma, and critically ill patients over an 8-year period. The study will evaluate the incremental benefit of rapid defibrillation and prehospital Advanced Cardiac Life Support measures for cardiac arrest survival and the benefit of Advanced Life Support for patients with traumatic injuries and other critically ill prehospital patients. This article describes the OPALS study with regard to the rationale and methodology for cardiac arrest patients.

  9. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the ways in which operators interact with systems. At present, however, the only guidance available to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces, NUREG-0700, was written prior to these technological changes and is thus not designed to address them. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will be implemented, in part, as a portable, computer-based, interactive document for field use. The paper describes the overall guideline development methodology, the present status of the document, and the plans for further guideline testing and development. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Imagining STEM Higher Education Futures: Advancing Human Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores a conceptual approach to the question of what it means to provide a university education that addresses equity, and encourages the formation of STEM graduates oriented to public-good values and with commitments to making professional contributions to society which will advance human well-being. It considers and rejects…

  11. Cities and Urban Land Use in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the cities and urban land use section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, focusing on the: (1) definitions of urbanism; (2) origin and evolution of cities; (3) functional character of contemporary cities; (4) built environment and social space; and (5) responses to urban growth. (CMK)

  12. Human Ecology and Health Advancement: The Newcastle Experience and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jenny; Honari, Morteza

    1992-01-01

    Argues for the necessity of adopting a human ecological framework for the advancement of health. Focusing on the Australian experience, highlights the difficulties in moving beyond the narrow mold of Western Medical Science to a more holistic, quality of life orientation, and suggests that the role of education at all levels of the community is…

  13. Industrialization and Economic Development in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Adrian J.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the industrialization and economic development section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, addressing four specific aspects: (1) the character of industrialization; (2) spatial aspects of the rise of industrial economies; (3) contemporary global patterns of industrialization and resource extraction; and (4) impacts of…

  14. Gas-turbine critical research and advanced technology support project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. S.; Hodge, P. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Anderson, D. N.; Schultz, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    A technology data base for utility gas turbine systems capable of burning coal derived fuels was developed. The following areas are investigated: combustion; materials; and system studies. A two stage test rig is designed to study the conversion of fuel bound nitrogen to NOx. The feasibility of using heavy fuels in catalytic combustors is evaluated. A statistically designed series of hot corrosion burner rig tests was conducted to measure the corrosion rates of typical gas turbine alloys with several fuel contaminants. Fuel additives and several advanced thermal barrier coatings are tested. Thermal barrier coatings used in conjunction with low critical alloys and those used in a combined cycle system in which the stack temperature was maintained above the acid corrosion temperature are also studied.

  15. Technology Advancements Enhance Aircraft Support of Experiment Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Jacques J.

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years, the NASA Airborne Science Program has provided airborne platforms for space bound instrument development, for calibrating new and existing satellite systems, and for making in situ and remote sensing measurements that can only be made from aircraft. New technologies have expanded the capabilities of aircraft that are operated for these missions. Over the last several years a new technology investment portfolio has yielded improvements that produce better measurements for the airborne science communities. These new technologies include unmanned vehicles, precision trajectory control and advanced telecommunications capabilities. We will discuss some of the benefits of these new technologies and systems which aim to provide users with more precision, lower operational costs, quicker access to data, and better management of multi aircraft and multi sensor campaigns.

  16. Deepwater advanced diving systems that support the offshore oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    This paper reviews deepwater diving technology which provides offshore oilfield support during all phases of exploration, construction and production. Mobile Observation Bells (MOB), Atmospheric Diving Suits (ADS), Remotely-Operated Vehicles (ROV), and saturation diving techniques are discussed. The term ''deep water'' is defined in relation to the water depths off the U.S. west coast. All diving system parameters are analyzed for each alternative; cost-effectiveness and safety are the two main objectives. Specific jobs are described which have used this high technology equipment for offshore operations on the U.S. west coast. These include drilling rig support, platform inspection and maintenance, and pipeline construction. Finally, future developments in diving systems are discussed.

  17. Summer Support of the Advanced Structures and Measurements Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuber, Alexander Lee

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is my exit presentation summarizing the work that I did this summer during my 10 week summer internship. It is primarily focused on tensile testing of composite coupons including the use of the ARAMIS optical strain measurement system, but it also includes some discussion of other support that I provided for the Dryden composites working group effort. My main efforts in that area were focused on T-joint design for an upcoming hands-on-workshop as well as design of a fixture to test joint coupons. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the other small projects that I worked on, including support of structurally integrated thermal protection system (STIPS) research and the Global Observer wing loads test.

  18. Porous Carbon Supports: Recent Advances with Various Morphologies and Compositions

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhu, Huiyuan; Dai, Sheng

    2015-08-31

    The importance of porous carbon as the support material is well recognized in the catalysis community, and it would be even more attractive if several characteristics are considered, such as the stability in acidic and basic media or the ease of noble metal recovery through complete burn off. Because it is still difficult to obtain constant properties even from batch to batch, activated carbons are not popular in industrial catalysis now.

  19. ADVANCED RADIATION THEORY SUPPORT ANNUAL REPORT 2002, FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    J. DAVIS; J. APRUZESE; , Y. CHONG; R. CLARK; A. DASGUPTA; J. GIULIANI; P. KEPPLE; R. TERRY; J. THORNHILL; A. VELIKOVICH

    2003-05-01

    Z-PINCH PHYSICS RADIATION FROM WIRE ARRAYS. This report describes the theory support of DTRA's Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) program carried out by NRL's Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch (Code 6720) in FY 2002. Included is work called for in DTRA MIPR 02-2045M - ''Plasma Radiation Theory Support'' and in DOE's Interagency Agreement DE-AI03-02SF22562 - ''Spectroscopic and Plasma Theory Support for Sandia National Laboratories High Energy Density Physics Campaign''. Some of this year's work was presented at the Dense Z-Pinches 5th International Conference held June 23-28 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A common theme of many of these presentations was a demonstration of the importance of correctly treating the radiation physics for simulating Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) load behavior and diagnosing load properties, e.g, stagnation temperatures and densities. These presentations are published in the AIP Conference Proceedings and, for reference, they are included in Section 1 of this report. Rather than describe each of these papers in the Executive Summary, they refer to the abstracts that accompany each paper. As a testament to the level of involvement and expertise that the Branch brings to DTRA as well as the general Z-Pinch community, eight first-authored presentations were contributed at this conference as well as a Plenary and an Invited Talk. The remaining four sections of this report discuss subjects either not presented at the conference or requiring more space than allotted in the Proceedings.

  20. Career Advancement and Work Support Services on the Job: Implementing the Fort Worth Work Advancement and Support Center Program. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Caroline; Seith, David

    2011-01-01

    The Work Advancement and Support Center (WASC) program in Fort Worth was part of a demonstration that is testing innovative strategies to help increase the income of low-wage workers, who make up a large segment of the U.S. workforce. The program offered services to help workers stabilize their employment, improve their skills, and increase their…

  1. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Repair and Damage Assessment Supporting Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, B. W.; Bodine, J. B.; Dopker, B.; Finn, S. R.; Griess, K. H.; Hanson, C. T.; Harris, C. G.; Nelson, K. M.; Walker, T. H.; Kennedy, T. C.; Nahan, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored contracts for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) and Materials Development Omnibus Contract (MDOC), Boeing is studying the technologies associated with the application of composite materials to commercial transport fuselage structure. Included in the study is the incorporation of maintainability and repairability requirements of composite primary structure into the design. This contractor report describes activities performed to address maintenance issues in composite fuselage applications. A key aspect of the study was the development of a maintenance philosophy which included consideration of maintenance issues early in the design cycle, multiple repair options, and airline participation in design trades. Fuselage design evaluations considered trade-offs between structural weight, damage resistance/tolerance (repair frequency), and inspection burdens. Analysis methods were developed to assess structural residual strength in the presence of damage, and to evaluate repair design concepts. Repair designs were created with a focus on mechanically fastened concepts for skin/stringer structure and bonded concepts for sandwich structure. Both a large crown (skintstringer) and keel (sandwich) panel were repaired. A compression test of the keel panel indicated the demonstrated repairs recovered ultimate load capability. In conjunction with the design and manufacturing developments, inspection methods were investigated for their potential to evaluate damaged structure and verify the integrity of completed repairs.

  2. Gas turbine critical research and advanced technology (CRT) support project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, E. R.; Anderson, D. N.; Gedwill, M. A.; Lowell, C. E.; Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    The technical progress to provide a critical technology base for utility gas turbine systems capable of burning coal-derived fuels is summarized. Project tasks include the following: (1) combustion - to investigate the combustion of coal-derived fuels and the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NOx; (2) materials - to understand and prevent the hot corrosion of turbine hot section materials; and (3) system studies - to integrate and guide the technological efforts. Technical accomplishments include: an extension of flame tube combustion testing of propane - Toluene Fuel Mixtures to vary H2 content from 9 to 18 percent by weight and the comparison of results with that predicted from a NASA Lewis General Chemical Kinetics Computer Code; the design and fabrication of combustor sector test section to test current and advanced combustor concepts; Testing of Catalytic combustors with residual and coal-derived liquid fuels; testing of high strength super alloys to evaluate their resistance to potential fuel impurities using doped clean fuels and coal-derived liquids; and the testing and evaluation of thermal barrier coatings and bond coatings on conventional turbine materials.

  3. Gas turbine critical research and advanced technology (CRT) support project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, E. R.; Anderson, D. N.; Gedwill, M. A.; Lowell, C. E.; Schultz, D. F.

    1982-07-01

    The technical progress to provide a critical technology base for utility gas turbine systems capable of burning coal-derived fuels is summarized. Project tasks include the following: (1) combustion - to investigate the combustion of coal-derived fuels and the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NOx; (2) materials - to understand and prevent the hot corrosion of turbine hot section materials; and (3) system studies - to integrate and guide the technological efforts. Technical accomplishments include: an extension of flame tube combustion testing of propane - Toluene Fuel Mixtures to vary H2 content from 9 to 18 percent by weight and the comparison of results with that predicted from a NASA Lewis General Chemical Kinetics Computer Code; the design and fabrication of combustor sector test section to test current and advanced combustor concepts; Testing of Catalytic combustors with residual and coal-derived liquid fuels; testing of high strength super alloys to evaluate their resistance to potential fuel impurities using doped clean fuels and coal-derived liquids; and the testing and evaluation of thermal barrier coatings and bond coatings on conventional turbine materials.

  4. 45 CFR 307.15 - Approval of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... computerized support enforcement systems. 307.15 Section 307.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT...

  5. Advances in infrastructure support for flat panel display manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, James N.; Ciesinski, Michael F.; Pinnel, M. Robert

    1997-07-01

    The success of the US display industry, both in providing high-performance displays for the US Department of Defense at reasonable cost and in capturing a significant share of the global civilian market, depends on maintaining technological leadership and on building efficient manufacturing capabilities. The US Display Consortium (USDC) was set up in 1993 by the US Government and private industry to guide the development of the infrastructure needed to support the manufacturing of flat panel displays. This mainly involves the supply of equipment and materials, but also includes the formation of partnerships and the training of a skilled labor force. Examples are given of successful development projects, some involving USDC participation, others through independent efforts of its member companies. These examples show that US-based companies can achieve leadership positions in this young and rapidly growing global market.

  6. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments conducted at room and elevated temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-place calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  7. Advanced development of atmospheric models. [SEASAT Program support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesel, P. G.; Langland, R. A.; Stephens, P. L.; Welleck, R. E.; Wolff, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    A set of atmospheric analysis and prediction models was developed in support of the SEASAT Program existing objective analysis models which utilize a 125x125 polar stereographic grid of the Northern Hemisphere, which were modified in order to incorporate and assess the impact of (real or simulated) satellite data in the analysis of a two-day meteorological scenario in January 1979. Program/procedural changes included: (1) a provision to utilize winds in the sea level pressure and multi-level height analyses (1000-100 MBS); (2) The capability to perform a pre-analysis at two control levels (1000 MBS and 250 MBS); (3) a greater degree of wind- and mass-field coupling, especially at these controls levels; (4) an improved facility to bogus the analyses based on results of the preanalysis; and (5) a provision to utilize (SIRS) satellite thickness values and cloud motion vectors in the multi-level height analysis.

  8. Reproducible analyses of microbial food for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Gene R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of yeasts in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) for microbial food regeneration in space required the accurate and reproducible analysis of intracellular carbohydrate and protein levels. The reproducible analysis of glycogen was a key element in estimating overall content of edibles in candidate yeast strains. Typical analytical methods for estimating glycogen in Saccharomyces were not found to be entirely aplicable to other candidate strains. Rigorous cell lysis coupled with acid/base fractionation followed by specific enzymatic glycogen analyses were required to obtain accurate results in two strains of Candida. A profile of edible fractions of these strains was then determined. The suitability of yeasts as food sources in CELSS food production processes is discussed.

  9. Recent Advances In Science Support For Isolated Droplet Combustion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, F. L.; Kazakov, A.; Urban, B. D.; Kroenlein, K.

    2003-01-01

    In a joint program involving Prof. F.A. Williams of the University of California, San Diego and Dr. V. Nayagam of the National Center for Microgravity Research, the combustion characteristics of isolated liquid fuel droplets of n-heptane, n-decane, methanol, methanol-water, ethanol and ethanol-water having initial diameters between about 1 mm and 6 mm continues to be investigated. The objectives of the work are to improve fundamental knowledge of droplet combustion dynamics for pure fuels and fuel-water mixtures through microgravity experiments and theoretical analyses. The Princeton contributions support the engineering design, data analysis, and data interpretation requirements for the study of initially single component, spherically symmetric, isolated droplet combustion studies through experiments and numerical modeling. UCSD contributions are described in a companion communication in this conference. The Princeton effort also addresses the analyses of Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) experiments conducted with the above fuels and collaborative work with others who are investigating droplet combustion in the presence of steady convection. A thorough interpretation of droplet burning behavior for n-heptane and n-decane over a relatively wide range of conditions also involves the influences of sooting on the combustion behavior, and this particular aspect on isolated burning of droplets is under consideration in a collaborative program underway with Drexel University. This collaboration is addressed in another communication at this conference. The one-dimensional, time-dependent, numerical modeling approach that we have continued to evolve for analyzing isolated, quiescent droplet combustion data has been further applied to investigate several facets of isolated droplet burning of simple alcohols, n-heptane, and n-decane. Some of the new results are described below.

  10. Supportive Accountability: A Model for Providing Human Support to Enhance Adherence to eHealth Interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of and adherence to eHealth interventions is enhanced by human support. However, human support has largely not been manualized and has usually not been guided by clear models. The objective of this paper is to develop a clear theoretical model, based on relevant empirical literature, that can guide research into human support components of eHealth interventions. A review of the literature revealed little relevant information from clinical sciences. Applicable literature was drawn primarily from organizational psychology, motivation theory, and computer-mediated communication (CMC) research. We have developed a model, referred to as “Supportive Accountability.” We argue that human support increases adherence through accountability to a coach who is seen as trustworthy, benevolent, and having expertise. Accountability should involve clear, process-oriented expectations that the patient is involved in determining. Reciprocity in the relationship, through which the patient derives clear benefits, should be explicit. The effect of accountability may be moderated by patient motivation. The more intrinsically motivated patients are, the less support they likely require. The process of support is also mediated by the communications medium (eg, telephone, instant messaging, email). Different communications media each have their own potential benefits and disadvantages. We discuss the specific components of accountability, motivation, and CMC medium in detail. The proposed model is a first step toward understanding how human support enhances adherence to eHealth interventions. Each component of the proposed model is a testable hypothesis. As we develop viable human support models, these should be manualized to facilitate dissemination. PMID:21393123

  11. Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1999-05-24

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems.

  12. Advanced automated glass cockpit certification: Being wary of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amalberti, Rene; Wilbaux, Florence

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some facets of the French experience with human factors in the process of certification of advanced automated cockpits. Three types of difficulties are described: first, the difficulties concerning the hotly debated concept of human error and its non-linear relationship to risk of accident; a typology of errors to be taken into account in the certification process is put forward to respond to this issue. Next, the difficulties connected to the basically gradual and evolving nature of pilot expertise on a given type of aircraft, which contrasts with the immediate and definitive style of certifying systems. The last difficulties to be considered are those related to the goals of certification itself on these new aircraft and the status of findings from human factor analyses (in particular, what should be done with disappointing results, how much can the changes induced by human factors investigation economically affect aircraft design, how many errors do we need to accumulate before we revise the system, what should be remedied when human factor problems are discovered at the certification stage: the machine? pilot training? the rules? or everything?). The growth of advanced-automated glass cockpits has forced the international aeronautical community to pay more attention to human factors during the design phase, the certification phase and pilot training. The recent creation of a human factor desk at the DGAC-SFACT (Official French services) is a direct consequence of this. The paper is divided into three parts. Part one debates human error and its relationship with system design and accident risk. Part two describes difficulties connected to the basically gradual and evolving nature of pilot expertise on a given type of aircraft, which contrasts with the immediate and definitive style of certifying systems. Part three focuses on concrete outcomes of human factors for certification purposes.

  13. Technical advances and pitfalls on the way to human cloning.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Richard; Denham, Mark; Trounson, Alan

    2002-03-01

    There exists a widespread consensus that the cloning of human beings to term would be detrimental to both the mother and child and of little value to society. However, the ambition of a few organisations and the recent advances in cellular and molecular technologies that led to the cloning of Dolly the sheep, for example, have meant that such a procedure will be possible if not illegal in the near future. The science associated with the cloning technologies practiced in other mammalian species reported to date provide important advances in our understanding of how cells function during early developmental processes and commit themselves to specific developmental pathways. However, many technological insufficiencies remain. Both technological advances and several of the associated insufficiencies are outlined in this review.

  14. Technical advances and pitfalls on the way to human cloning.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Richard; Denham, Mark; Trounson, Alan

    2002-03-01

    There exists a widespread consensus that the cloning of human beings to term would be detrimental to both the mother and child and of little value to society. However, the ambition of a few organisations and the recent advances in cellular and molecular technologies that led to the cloning of Dolly the sheep, for example, have meant that such a procedure will be possible if not illegal in the near future. The science associated with the cloning technologies practiced in other mammalian species reported to date provide important advances in our understanding of how cells function during early developmental processes and commit themselves to specific developmental pathways. However, many technological insufficiencies remain. Both technological advances and several of the associated insufficiencies are outlined in this review. PMID:11963651

  15. Mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Barta, D. J.; Dragg, J.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation and robotics for Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS). The focus is on requirements and applications for command and control, control and monitoring, situation assessment and response, diagnosis and recovery, adaptive planning and scheduling, and other automation applications in addition to mechanized equipment and robotics applications to reduce the excessive human labor requirements to operate and maintain an ALSS. Based on principles of systems engineering, an approach is proposed to assess requirements for automation and robotics using mission simulation tools. First, the story of a simulated mission is defined in terms of processes with attendant types of resources needed, including options for use of automation and robotic systems. Next, systems dynamics models are used in simulation to reveal the implications for selected resource allocation schemes in terms of resources required to complete operational tasks. The simulations not only help establish ALSS design criteria, but also may offer guidance to ALSS research efforts by identifying gaps in knowledge about procedures and/or biophysical processes. Simulations of a planned one-year mission with 4 crewmembers in a Human Rated Test Facility are presented as an approach to evaluation of mission feasibility and definition of automation and robotics requirements.

  16. Systems Engineering and Integration for Advanced Life Support System and HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamarani, Ali K.

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering (SE) discipline has revolutionized the way engineers and managers think about solving issues related to design of complex systems: With continued development of state-of-the-art technologies, systems are becoming more complex and therefore, a systematic approach is essential to control and manage their integrated design and development. This complexity is driven from integration issues. In this case, subsystems must interact with one another in order to achieve integration objectives, and also achieve the overall system's required performance. Systems engineering process addresses these issues at multiple levels. It is a technology and management process dedicated to controlling all aspects of system life cycle to assure integration at all levels. The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project serves as the systems engineering and integration function for the Human Support Technology (HST) program. AIM provides means for integrated test facilities and personnel for performance trade studies, analyses, integrated models, test results, and validated requirements of the integration of HST. The goal of AIM is to address systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. It will use an incremental systems integration approach to yield technologies, baselines for further development, and possible breakthrough concepts in the areas of technological and organizational interfaces, total information flow, system wide controls, technical synergism, mission operations protocols and procedures, and human-machine interfaces.

  17. Enzyme-based CO2 capture for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ge, Jijun; Cowan, Robert M.; Tu, Chingkuang; McGregor, Martin L.; Trachtenberg, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated CO2 levels in air can lead to impaired functioning and even death to humans. Control of CO2 is critical in confined spaces that have little physical or biological buffering capacity (e.g., spacecraft, submarines, or aircraft). A novel enzyme-based contained liquid membrane bioreactor was designed for CO2 capture and certain application cases are reported in this article. The results show that the liquid layer accounts for the major transport resistance. With addition of carbonic anhydrase, the transport resistance decreased by 71%. Volatile organic compounds of the type and concentration expected to be present in either the crew cabin or a plant growth chamber did not influence carbonic anhydrase activity or reactor operation during 1-day operation. Alternative sweep method studies, examined as a means of eliminating consumables, showed that the feed gas could be used successfully in a bypass mode when combined with medium vacuum pressure (-85 kPa) to achieve CO2 separation comparable to that with an inert sweep gas. The reactor exhibited a selectivity for CO2 versus N2 of 1400:1 and CO2 versus O2 is 866:1. The CO2 permeance was 1.44 x 10(-7) mol m-2 Pa-1 s-1 (4.3 x 10(-4) cm3 cm-2 s-1 cmHg-1) at a feed concentration of 0.1% CO2. These data show that the enzyme-based contained liquid membrane is a promising candidate technology that may be suitable for NASA applications to control CO2 in the crew or plant chambers.

  18. Advancing Polymer-Supported Ionogel Electrolytes Formed via Radical Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visentin, Adam F.

    Applications ranging from consumer electronics to the electric grid have placed demands on current energy storage technologies. There is a drive for devices that store more energy for rapid consumption in the case of electric cars and the power grid, and safer, versatile design options for consumer electronics. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are an option that has garnered attention as a means to address these varied energy storage demands. EDLCs utilize charge separation in electrolytes to store energy. This energy storage mechanism allows for greater power density (W kg -1) than batteries and higher energy density (Wh kg-1) than conventional capacitors - along with a robust lifetime in the range of thousands to millions of charge-discharge cycles. Safety and working voltage windows of EDLCs currently on the market are limited by the organic solvents utilized in the electrolyte. A potential solution lies in the replacement of the organic solvents with ionic liquids, or room-temperature molten salts. Ionic liquids possess many superior properties in comparison to conventional solvents: wide electrochemical window, low volatility, nonflammability, and favorable ionic conductivity. It has been an endeavor of this work to exploit these advantages while altering the liquid form factor into a gel. An ionic liquid/solid support scaffold composite electrolyte, or ionogel, adds additional benefits: flexible device design, lower encapsulation weight, and elimination of electrolyte leakage. This work has focused on investigations of a UV-polymerizable monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, as a precursor for forming ionogels in situ. The trade-off between gaining mechanical stability at the cost of ionic conductivity has been investigated for numerous ionogel systems. While gaining a greater understanding of the interactions between the gel scaffold and ionic liquid, an ionogel with the highest known ionic conductivity to date (13.1 mS cm-1) was

  19. The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project: An Advanced Life Support Testbed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straight, Christian L.; Bubenheim, David L.; Bates, Maynard E.; Flynn, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) represents a logical solution to the multiple objectives of both the NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). CAAP will result in direct transfer of proven technologies and systems, proven under the most rigorous of conditions, to the NSF and to society at large. This project goes beyond, as it must, the generally accepted scope of CELSS and life support systems including the issues of power generation, human dynamics, community systems, and training. CAAP provides a vivid and starkly realistic testbed of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) and life support systems and methods. CAAP will also be critical in the development and validation of performance parameters for future advanced life support systems.

  20. Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation

  1. Prioritization of engineering support requests and advanced technology projects using decision support and industrial engineering models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavana, Madjid

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation and prioritization of Engineering Support Requests (ESR's) is a particularly difficult task at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) -- Shuttle Project Engineering Office. This difficulty is due to the complexities inherent in the evaluation process and the lack of structured information. The evaluation process must consider a multitude of relevant pieces of information concerning Safety, Supportability, O&M Cost Savings, Process Enhancement, Reliability, and Implementation. Various analytical and normative models developed over the past have helped decision makers at KSC utilize large volumes of information in the evaluation of ESR's. The purpose of this project is to build on the existing methodologies and develop a multiple criteria decision support system that captures the decision maker's beliefs through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes. The model utilizes the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), subjective probabilities, the entropy concept, and Maximize Agreement Heuristic (MAH) to enhance the decision maker's intuition in evaluating a set of ESR's.

  2. Controlled ecological life-support system. Use of plants for human life-support in space.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, D; Knott, W M; Sager, J C; Wheeler, R

    1992-08-01

    Scientists and engineers within NASA are conducting research which will lead to development of advanced life-support systems that utilize higher plants in a unique approach to solving long-term life-support problems in space. This biological solution to life-support, Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), is a complex, extensively controlled, bioengineered system that relies on plants to provide the principal elements from gas exchange and food production to potable water reclamation. Research at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is proceeding with a comprehensive investigation of the individual parts of the CELSS system at a one-person scale in an approach called the Breadboard Project. Concurrently a relatively new NASA sponsored research effort is investigating plant growth and metabolism in microgravity, innovative hydroponic nutrient delivery systems, and use of highly efficient light emitting diodes for artificial plant illumination.

  3. Controlled ecological life-support system - Use of plants for human life-support in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, D.; Knott, W. M.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R.

    1992-01-01

    Scientists and engineers within NASA are conducting research which will lead to development of advanced life-support systems that utilize higher plants in a unique approach to solving long-term life-support problems in space. This biological solution to life-support, Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), is a complex, extensively controlled, bioengineered system that relies on plants to provide the principal elements from gas exchange and food production to potable water reclamation. Research at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is proceeding with a comprehensive investigation of the individual parts of the CELSS system at a one-person scale in an approach called the Breadboard Project. Concurrently a relatively new NASA sponsored research effort is investigating plant growth and metabolism in microgravity, innovative hydroponic nutrient delivery systems, and use of highly efficient light emitting diodes for artificial plant illumination.

  4. Decision Support Systems for Research and Management in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.

    2004-01-01

    Decision support systems have been implemented in many applications including strategic planning for battlefield scenarios, corporate decision making for business planning, production planning and control systems, and recommendation generators like those on Amazon.com(Registered TradeMark). Such tools are reviewed for developing a similar tool for NASA's ALS Program. DSS are considered concurrently with the development of the OPIS system, a database designed for chronicling of research and development in ALS. By utilizing the OPIS database, it is anticipated that decision support can be provided to increase the quality of decisions by ALS managers and researchers.

  5. Predicting Human Error in Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools and Free Flight Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2001-01-01

    The document is a set of briefing slides summarizing the work the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project is doing on predicting air traffic controller and airline pilot human error when using new decision support software tools and when involved in testing new air traffic control concepts. Previous work in this area is reviewed as well as research being done jointly with the FAA. Plans for error prediction work in the AATT Project are discussed. The audience is human factors researchers and aviation psychologists from government and industry.

  6. [Development and Hosting of a Perioperative Advanced Life Support Training Course for Anesthesiologists].

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Haba, Masanori; Ueshima, Hironobu; Okada, Daisuke; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-05-01

    Participation in the American Heart Association advanced cardiac life support provider course is a prerequisite for taking the anesthesiology specialist examination in Japan. The course teaches fundamental resuscitation methods for different types of cardiac arrest. However, crisis in the perioperative period can result from airway trouble, central venous catheter displacement, or massive hemorrhage. We report our experience of holding a problem- and learning-based perioperative advanced life support training course, Advanced Life Support for Operation (ALS-OP). Main contents of the course included circulation management, airway management central venous catheters, and pain clinic-related complications. ALS-OP simulation training may be beneficial for educating anesthesiologist and promoting perioperative patient safety. PMID:26422971

  7. Human Factors Engineering (HFE) insights for advanced reactors based upon operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.; Nasta, K.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (HFE PRM, NUREG-0711) was developed to support a design process review for advanced reactor design certification under 10CFR52. The HFE PRM defines ten fundamental elements of a human factors engineering program. An Operating Experience Review (OER) is one of these elements. The main purpose of an OER is to identify potential safety issues from operating plant experience and ensure that they are addressed in a new design. Broad-based experience reviews have typically been performed in the past by reactor designers. For the HFE PRM the intent is to have a more focussed OER that concentrates on HFE issues or experience that would be relevant to the human-system interface (HSI) design process for new advanced reactors. This document provides a detailed list of HFE-relevant operating experience pertinent to the HSI design process for advanced nuclear power plants. This document is intended to be used by NRC reviewers as part of the HFE PRM review process in determining the completeness of an OER performed by an applicant for advanced reactor design certification. 49 refs.

  8. Nonhuman primate vocalizations support categorization in very young human infants.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Alissa L; Hespos, Susan J; Waxman, Sandra R

    2013-09-17

    Language is a signature of our species and our primary conduit for conveying the contents of our minds. The power of language derives not only from the exquisite detail of the signal itself but also from its intricate link to human cognition. To acquire a language, infants must identify which signals are part of their language and discover how these signals are linked to meaning. At birth, infants prefer listening to vocalizations of human and nonhuman primates; within 3 mo, this initially broad listening preference is tuned specifically to human vocalizations. Moreover, even at this early developmental point, human vocalizations evoke more than listening preferences alone: they engender in infants a heightened focus on the objects in their visual environment and promote the formation of object categories, a fundamental cognitive capacity. Here, we illuminate the developmental origin of this early link between human vocalizations and cognition. We document that this link emerges from a broad biological template that initially encompasses vocalizations of human and nonhuman primates (but not backward speech) and that within 6 mo this link to cognition is tuned specifically to human vocalizations. At 3 and 4 mo, nonhuman primate vocalizations promote object categorization, mirroring precisely the advantages conferred by human vocalizations, but by 6 mo, nonhuman primate vocalizations no longer exert this advantageous effect. This striking developmental shift illuminates a path of specialization that supports infants as they forge the foundational links between human language and the core cognitive processes that will serve as the foundations of meaning. PMID:24003164

  9. A human factors methodology for real-time support applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, E. D.; Vanbalen, P. M.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    A general approach to the human factors (HF) analysis of new or existing projects at NASA/Goddard is delineated. Because the methodology evolved from HF evaluations of the Mission Planning Terminal (MPT) and the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room (ERBS MOR), it is directed specifically to the HF analysis of real-time support applications. Major topics included for discussion are the process of establishing a working relationship between the Human Factors Group (HFG) and the project, orientation of HF analysts to the project, human factors analysis and review, and coordination with major cycles of system development. Sub-topics include specific areas for analysis and appropriate HF tools. Management support functions are outlined. References provide a guide to sources of further information.

  10. A Cryptochrome 2 mutation yields advanced sleep phase in humans.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Arisa; Shi, Guangsen; Jones, Christopher R; Lipzen, Anna; Pennacchio, Len A; Xu, Ying; Hallows, William C; McMahon, Thomas; Yamazaki, Maya; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Familial Advanced Sleep Phase (FASP) is a heritable human sleep phenotype characterized by very early sleep and wake times. We identified a missense mutation in the human Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) gene that co-segregates with FASP in one family. The mutation leads to replacement of an alanine residue at position 260 with a threonine (A260T). In mice, the CRY2 mutation causes a shortened circadian period and reduced phase-shift to early-night light pulse associated with phase-advanced behavioral rhythms in the light-dark cycle. The A260T mutation is located in the phosphate loop of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding domain of CRY2. The mutation alters the conformation of CRY2, increasing its accessibility and affinity for FBXL3 (an E3 ubiquitin ligase), thus promoting its degradation. These results demonstrate that CRY2 stability controlled by FBXL3 plays a key role in the regulation of human sleep wake behavior. PMID:27529127

  11. Advances in culture and manipulation of human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, X; Villa-Diaz, L G; Krebsbach, P H

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of pluripotent stem cell biology and emerging technologies to reprogram somatic cells to a stem cell-like state are helping bring stem cell therapies for a range of human disorders closer to clinical reality. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have become a promising resource for regenerative medicine and research into early development because these cells are able to self-renew indefinitely and are capable of differentiation into specialized cell types of all 3 germ layers and trophoectoderm. Human PSCs include embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) generated via the reprogramming of somatic cells by the overexpression of key transcription factors. The application of hiPSCs and the finding that somatic cells can be directly reprogrammed into different cell types will likely have a significant impact on regenerative medicine. However, a major limitation for successful therapeutic application of hPSCs and their derivatives is the potential xenogeneic contamination and instability of current culture conditions. This review summarizes recent advances in hPSC culture and methods to induce controlled lineage differentiation through regulation of cell-signaling pathways and manipulation of gene expression as well as new trends in direct reprogramming of somatic cells.

  12. Recent advances in research on climate and human conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    A rapidly growing body of empirical, quantitative research examines whether rates of human conflict can be systematically altered by climatic changes. We discuss recent advances in this field, including Bayesian meta-analyses of the effect of temperature and rainfall on current and future large-scale conflicts, the impact of climate variables on gang violence and suicides in Mexico, and probabilistic projections of personal violence and property crime in the United States under RCP scenarios. Criticisms of this research field will also be explained and addressed.

  13. Strategies to support human oocyte development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Telfer, Evelyn E; McLaughlin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Many young cancer patients are now being given the option to store ovarian cortical biopsies before undergoing potentially damaging chemo- or radiotherapy. This tissue mainly contains large numbers of immature primordial follicles. Currently the only option to restore fertility using this tissue is by transplantation which may not be a viable option for all patients. Greater options to realise the potential of this tissue to restore fertility could be achieved by the development of in vitro systems that support oocyte development. The ability to develop human oocytes from the most immature stages of follicles (primordial) through to maturation and fertilisation in vitro would revolutionise fertility preservation practice. This has been achieved in mouse where in vitro grown (IVG) oocytes from primordial follicles have resulted in the production of live offspring. However, developing IVG systems to support complete development of human oocytes has been more difficult because of differences in scale of timing and size. Our lab has been working on a multi-step culture system to support growth and development of bo-vine and human oocytes from primordial through to fully grown, using fresh and cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissue. This review outlines the approaches being taken to obtain complete in vitro development of human oocytes and strategies for assessing the health and viability of IVG oocytes.

  14. Limitation to Advanced Life Support in patients admitted to intensive care unit with integrated palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Mazutti, Sandra Regina Gonzaga; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of limitations to Advanced Life Support in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit with integrated palliative care. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients in the palliative care program of the intensive care unit of Hospital Paulistano over 18 years of age from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014. The limitations to Advanced Life Support that were analyzed included do-not-resuscitate orders, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and vasoactive drugs. Central tendency measures were calculated for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare the characteristics of patients with or without limits to Advanced Life Support, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare length of stay after Advanced Life Support. Confidence intervals reflecting p ≤ 0.05 were considered for statistical significance. Results A total of 3,487 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 342 were included in the palliative care program. It was observed that after entering the palliative care program, it took a median of 2 (1 - 4) days for death to occur in the intensive care unit and 4 (2 - 11) days for hospital death to occur. Many of the limitations to Advanced Life Support (42.7%) took place on the first day of hospitalization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (96.8%) and ventilatory support (73.6%) were the most adopted limitations. Conclusion The contribution of palliative care integrated into the intensive care unit was important for the practice of orthothanasia, i.e., the non-extension of the life of a critically ill patient by artificial means. PMID:27626949

  15. Development of cost effective fenceline monitoring approaches to support advanced leak detection and repair strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost-effective fence line and process monitoring systems to support advanced leak detection and repair (LDAR) strategies can enhance protection of public health, facilitate worker safety, and help companies realize cost savings by reducing lost product. The U.S. EPA Office of Re...

  16. The Role and Timing of Palliative Care in Supporting Persons with Intellectual Disability and Advanced Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Mary; McCallion, Philip; Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth; Connaire, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To better describe the role and timing of palliative care in supporting persons with intellectual disabilities and advanced dementia (AD). Background: Specialist palliative care providers have focused mostly on people with cancers. Working with persons with intellectual disabilities and AD offers opportunities to expand such palliative care…

  17. Strategic Advancement: How a Centralized Services Department Can Do More than Just Support Fund Raisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Advancement services, the group of functions that support fundraising and alumni relations, has evolved to include donor relations and stewardship, data processing analysis and programing, budget development and analysis, and event management. Centralizing these services under a single manager can lead to greater productivity. (MSE)

  18. The support of human genetic evidence for approved drug indications.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew R; Tipney, Hannah; Painter, Jeffery L; Shen, Judong; Nicoletti, Paola; Shen, Yufeng; Floratos, Aris; Sham, Pak Chung; Li, Mulin Jun; Wang, Junwen; Cardon, Lon R; Whittaker, John C; Sanseau, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Over a quarter of drugs that enter clinical development fail because they are ineffective. Growing insight into genes that influence human disease may affect how drug targets and indications are selected. However, there is little guidance about how much weight should be given to genetic evidence in making these key decisions. To answer this question, we investigated how well the current archive of genetic evidence predicts drug mechanisms. We found that, among well-studied indications, the proportion of drug mechanisms with direct genetic support increases significantly across the drug development pipeline, from 2.0% at the preclinical stage to 8.2% among mechanisms for approved drugs, and varies dramatically among disease areas. We estimate that selecting genetically supported targets could double the success rate in clinical development. Therefore, using the growing wealth of human genetic data to select the best targets and indications should have a measurable impact on the successful development of new drugs.

  19. Advancing clinical decision support using lessons from outside of healthcare: an interdisciplinary systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Greater use of computerized decision support (DS) systems could address continuing safety and quality problems in healthcare, but the healthcare field has struggled to implement DS technology. This study surveys DS experience across multiple non-healthcare disciplines for new insights that are generalizable to healthcare provider decisions. In particular, it sought design principles and lessons learned from the other disciplines that could inform efforts to accelerate the adoption of clinical decision support (CDS). Methods Our systematic review drew broadly from non-healthcare databases in the basic sciences, social sciences, humanities, engineering, business, and defense: PsychINFO, BusinessSource Premier, Social Sciences Abstracts, Web of Science, and Defense Technical Information Center. Because our interest was in DS that could apply to clinical decisions, we selected articles that (1) provided a review, overview, discussion of lessons learned, or an evaluation of design or implementation aspects of DS within a non-healthcare discipline and (2) involved an element of human judgment at the individual level, as opposed to decisions that can be fully automated or that are made at the organizational level. Results Clinical decisions share some similarities with decisions made by military commanders, business managers, and other leaders: they involve assessing new situations and choosing courses of action with major consequences, under time pressure, and with incomplete information. We identified seven high-level DS system design features from the non-healthcare literature that could be applied to CDS: providing broad, system-level perspectives; customizing interfaces to specific users and roles; making the DS reasoning transparent; presenting data effectively; generating multiple scenarios covering disparate outcomes (e.g., effective; effective with side effects; ineffective); allowing for contingent adaptations; and facilitating collaboration. The

  20. [Humanized support in emergency: a challenge for nursing].

    PubMed

    Dal Pai, Daiane; Lautert, Liana

    2005-01-01

    This experience report describes the humanized support given by the nurse in the attendance to patients in eminently critical health situation in the Emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre (Brasil). The proposal was based on Jean Watson theory. The experience gave moments for personal and professional self-knowledge, and thoughts concerning the possibilities of construction of interpersonal humanist process in the emergency environment as well. Yet, it was possible to identify some limitations of the theory options referent to its practical applicability.

  1. Human support issues and systems for the space exploration initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aroesty, J.; Zimmerman, R.; Logan, J.

    1991-01-01

    The analyses and evaluations of the Human Support panel are discussed. The Human Support panel is one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program. Submissions to the Human Support panel were in the following areas: radiation protection; microgravity; life support systems; medical care; and human factors (behavior and performance).

  2. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  3. Life Support and Habitation Systems: Crew Support and Protection for Human Exploration Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently expanded its mission set for possible future human exploration missions. With multiple options there is interest in identifying technology needs across these missions to focus technology investments. In addition to the Moon and other destinations in cis-lunar space, other destinations including Near Earth Objects and Mars have been added for consideration. Recently, technology programs and projects have been re-organizing to better meet the Agency s strategic goals and address needs across these potential future missions. Life Support and Habitation Systems (LSHS) is one of 10 Foundational Domains as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Exploration Technology Development Program. The chief goal of LSHS is to develop and mature advanced technologies to sustain human life on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to increase reliability, reduce dependency on resupply and increase vehicle self-sufficiency. For long duration exploration missions, further closure of life support systems is of interest. Focus includes key technologies for atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control and crew accommodations. Other areas of focus include technologies for radiation protection, environmental monitoring and fire protection. The aim is to recover additional consumable mass, reduce requirements for power, volume, heat rejection, crew involvement, and meet exploration vehicle requirements. This paper provides a brief description of the LSHS Foundational Domain as defined for fiscal year 2011.

  4. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric: Fiscal Year 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2003. As such, the values herein are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. The Metric is one of several measures employed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). More specifically, the Metric is the ratio defined by the equivalent system mass (ESM) of a life support system for a specific mission using the ISS ECLSS technologies divided by the ESM for an equivalent life support system using the best ALS technologies. As defined, the Metric should increase in value as the ALS technologies become lighter, less power intensive, and require less volume. For Fiscal Year 2003, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 1.47 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.36 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  5. Human in the Loop Integrated Life Support Systems Ground Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, Donald L.; Marmolejo, Jose A.; Seaman, Calvin H.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will be long duration with abort scenarios of days to months. This necessitates provisioning the crew with all the things they will need to sustain themselves while carrying out mission objectives. Systems engineering and integration is critical to the point where extensive integrated testing of life support systems on the ground is required to identify and mitigate risks. Ground test facilities (human-rated altitude chambers) at the Johnson Space Center are being readied to integrate all the systems for a mission along with a human test crew. The relevant environment will include deep space habitat human accommodations, sealed atmosphere capable of 14.7 to 8 psi total pressure and 21 to 32% oxygen concentration, life support systems (food, air, and water), communications, crew accommodations, medical, EVA, tools, etc. Testing periods will approximate those of the expected missions (such as a near Earth asteroid, Earth-Moon L2 or L1, the moon, Mars). This type of integrated testing is needed for research and technology development as well as later during the mission design, development, test, and evaluation (DDT&E) phases of an approved program. Testing will evolve to be carried out at the mission level fly the mission on the ground . Mission testing will also serve to inform the public and provide the opportunity for active participation by international, industrial and academic partners.

  6. Human skin cells support thymus-independent T cell development.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rachael A; Yamanaka, Kei-ichi; Bai, Mei; Dowgiert, Rebecca; Kupper, Thomas S

    2005-11-01

    Thymic tissue has previously been considered a requirement for the generation of a functional and diverse population of human T cells. We report that fibroblasts and keratinocytes from human skin arrayed on a synthetic 3-dimensional matrix support the development of functional human T cells from hematopoietic precursor cells in the absence of thymic tissue. Newly generated T cells contained T cell receptor excision circles, possessed a diverse T cell repertoire, and were functionally mature and tolerant to self MHC, indicating successful completion of positive and negative selection. Skin cell cultures expressed the AIRE, Foxn1, and Hoxa3 transcription factors and a panel of autoantigens. Skin and bone marrow biopsies can thus be used to generate de novo functional and diverse T cell populations for potential therapeutic use in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:16224538

  7. Human skin cells support thymus-independent T cell development

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rachael A.; Yamanaka, Kei-ichi; Bai, Mei; Dowgiert, Rebecca; Kupper, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    Thymic tissue has previously been considered a requirement for the generation of a functional and diverse population of human T cells. We report that fibroblasts and keratinocytes from human skin arrayed on a synthetic 3-dimensional matrix support the development of functional human T cells from hematopoietic precursor cells in the absence of thymic tissue. Newly generated T cells contained T cell receptor excision circles, possessed a diverse T cell repertoire, and were functionally mature and tolerant to self MHC, indicating successful completion of positive and negative selection. Skin cell cultures expressed the AIRE, Foxn1, and Hoxa3 transcription factors and a panel of autoantigens. Skin and bone marrow biopsies can thus be used to generate de novo functional and diverse T cell populations for potential therapeutic use in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:16224538

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY EVALUATIONS OF ADVANCED REACTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA, J.; PERSENSKY, J.; SZABO, A.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced reactors are expected to be based on a concept of operations that is different from what is currently used in today's reactors. Therefore, regulatory staff may need new tools, developed from the best available technical bases, to support licensing evaluations. The areas in which new review guidance may be needed and the efforts underway to address the needs will be discussed. Our preliminary results focus on some of the technical issues to be addressed in three areas for which new guidance may be developed: automation and control, operations under degraded conditions, and new human factors engineering methods and tools.

  9. Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Boly, Melanie; Seth, Anil K.; Wilke, Melanie; Ingmundson, Paul; Baars, Bernard; Laureys, Steven; Edelman, David B.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2013-01-01

    This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of “top-down” processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation. PMID:24198791

  10. Oncolytic virotherapy for human malignant mesothelioma: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Boisgerault, Nicolas; Achard, Carole; Delaunay, Tiphaine; Cellerin, Laurent; Tangy, Frédéric; Grégoire, Marc; Fonteneau, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Cancer virotherapy is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments because it offers a wide range of antitumor effects due to 1) the diversity of the oncolytic viruses that are now available and 2) their multifaceted activities against both tumor cells and tumor vessels, in addition to their ability to induce antitumor immune responses. In this review, we summarize preclinical and clinical data regarding the targeting of malignant mesothelioma (MM) by oncolytic viruses. We also discuss the potential of other oncolytic viruses that have already shown antitumor effects against several malignancies in advanced clinical trials but are yet to be tested against MM cells. Finally, we review how the activation of the immune system and combinations with other types of anticancer treatments could support the development of oncolytic virotherapy for the treatment of MM. PMID:27512676

  11. Human umbilical cord blood cells and diabetes mellitus: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Reddi, Alluru S; Kothari, Neil; Kuppasani, Kishore; Ende, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for patients with diabetes is an area of great interest to both scientists and clinicians. Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) are being increasingly used as a source of stem cells for cell-based therapy for diabetes because these cells can differentiate into pancreatic islet β-cells. Administration of HUCBCs has been shown to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic animal models. The use of autologous HUCBC transfusion in type 1 diabetic children has not shown any benefit. However, "Stem Cell Educator" therapy has shown promise in long term lowering of blood glucose levels in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. In this review, we will briefly discuss recent advances in HUCBC therapy in the treatment of diabetes and some of its complications.

  12. Advanced Plasma Propulsion for Human Missions to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin B.; Pearson, J. Boise

    1999-01-01

    This paper will briefly identify a promising fusion plasma power source, which when coupled with a promising electric thruster technology would provide for an efficient interplanetary transfer craft suitable to a 4 year round trip mission to the Jovian system. An advanced, nearly radiation free Inertial Electrostatic Confinement scheme for containing fusion plasma was judged as offering potential for delivering the performance and operational benefits needed for such high energy human expedition missions, without requiring heavy superconducting magnets for containment of the fusion plasma. Once the Jovian transfer stage has matched the heliocentric velocity of Jupiter, the energy requirements for excursions to its outer satellites (Callisto, Ganymede and Europa) by smaller excursion craft are not prohibitive. The overall propulsion, power and thruster system is briefly described and a preliminary vehicle mass statement is presented.

  13. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicholas R; Laroche, Fabrice J F; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients.

  14. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicholas R.; Laroche, Fabrice J.F.; Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients. PMID:27165361

  15. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicholas R; Laroche, Fabrice J F; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients. PMID:27165361

  16. Design and Parametric Sizing of Deep Space Habitats Supporting NASA'S Human Space Flight Architecture Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Spexarth, Gary

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight Architecture Team (HAT) is a multi-disciplinary, cross-agency study team that conducts strategic analysis of integrated development approaches for human and robotic space exploration architectures. During each analysis cycle, HAT iterates and refines the definition of design reference missions (DRMs), which inform the definition of a set of integrated capabilities required to explore multiple destinations. An important capability identified in this capability-driven approach is habitation, which is necessary for crewmembers to live and work effectively during long duration transits to and operations at exploration destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This capability is captured by an element referred to as the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), which provides all equipment and resources for the functions required to support crew safety, health, and work including: life support, food preparation, waste management, sleep quarters, and housekeeping.The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the DSH capable of supporting crew during exploration missions. First, the paper describes the functionality required in a DSH to support the HAT defined exploration missions, the parameters affecting its design, and the assumptions used in the sizing of the habitat. Then, the process used for arriving at parametric sizing estimates to support additional HAT analyses is detailed. Finally, results from the HAT Cycle C DSH sizing are presented followed by a brief description of the remaining design trades and technological advancements necessary to enable the exploration habitation capability.

  17. [Organization of anesthesia management and advanced life support at military medical evacuation levels].

    PubMed

    Shchegolev, A V; Petrakov, V A; Savchenko, I F

    2014-07-01

    Anesthesia management and advanced life support for the severely wounded personnel at military medical evacuation levels in armed conflict (local war) is time-consuming and resource-requiring task. One of the mathematical modeling methods was used to evaluate capabilities of anesthesia and intensive care units at tactical level. Obtained result allows us to tell that there is a need to make several system changes of the existing system of anesthesia management and advanced life support for the severely wounded personnel at military medical evacuation levels. In addition to increasing number of staff of anesthesiology-critical care during the given period of time another solution should be the creation of an early evacuation to a specialized medical care level by special means while conducting intensive monitoring and treatment.

  18. Family support and family-centered care in the neonatal intensive care unit: origins, advances, impact.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Judith S; Cooper, Liza G; Blaine, Arianna I; Franck, Linda S; Howse, Jennifer L; Berns, Scott D

    2011-02-01

    Family-centered care (FCC) has been increasingly emphasized as an important and necessary element of neonatal intensive care. FCC is conceptualized as a philosophy with a set of guiding principles, as well as a cohort of programs, services, and practices that many hospitals have embraced. Several factors drive the pressing need for family-centered care and support of families of infants in NICUs, including the increase in the number of infants in NICUs; growth in diversity of the population and their concurrent needs; identification of parental and familial stress and lack of parenting confidence; and gaps in support for families, as identified by parents and NICU staff. We explore the origins of and advances in FCC in the NICU and identify various delivery methods and aspects of FCC and family support in the NICU. We examine the research and available evidence supporting FCC in the NICU and offer recommendations for increased dissemination and for future study.

  19. Advanced life support systems in lunar and Martian environments utilizing a higher plant based engineering paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a higher-plant-based engineering paradigm for advanced life support in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) on the surface of the moon or Mars, called the CELSS Breadboard Project, designed at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Such a higher-plant-based system would use the plants for a direct food source, gas exchange, water reclamation, and plant residuals in a complex biological resource recovery scheme. The CELSS Breadboard Project utilizes a 'breadboard' approach of developing independent systems that are evaluated autonomously and are later interconnected. Such a scheme will enable evaluation of life support system methodologies tested for their efficiency in a life support system for habitats on the moon or Mars.

  20. Role of Durable Mechanical Circulatory Support for the Management of Advanced Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammed; Cowger, Jennifer A

    2016-07-01

    In the past decade, there has been a dramatic evolution in the field of mechanical circulatory support. Device-related complications continue to burden the field and will be a major obstacle for achieving therapeutic noninferiority compared with cardiac transplant. Selected patients with end-stage systolic heart failure enjoy an average survival of 80% at 1 year post-ventricular assist device implant, vastly better than survival rates of 25% to 50% on chronic inotrope support. Early patient referral to an advanced heart failure specialist before the onset of significant end-organ dysfunction and malnutrition is critical for achieving good operative outcomes. PMID:27371516

  1. Hollow fiber membranes for advanced life support systems. [permeable capillaries for medical filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing. Breadboard hardware has been manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the three hollow fiber membrane assemblies applicable to use aboard future spacecraft have been characterized.

  2. Parametric design of ground data processing/support systems for advanced sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denny, C.; Johnson, E. M.; Davis, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    A parametric system design technique has been applied to ground data processing/support systems for advanced sensor applications. The system establishes a direct link between budget analysts and system planners. Three primary phases are identified: the definition of requirements, system design, and system costing. The system is evaluated for three cases: (1) a study of ground data handling systems for earth resource satellites, (2) a ground data mass storage and processing system for agricultural remote-sensing studies, and (3) a parametric study of shuttle era data processing support required for atmospheric and space physics.

  3. Soft matrix supports osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Viale-Bouroncle, Sandra; Voellner, Florian; Moehl, Christoph; Kuepper, Kevin; Brockhoff, Gero; Reichert, Torsten E.; Schmalz, Gottfried; Morsczeck, Christian

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Rigid stiffness supports osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). {yields} Our study examined stiffness and differentiation of dental follicle cells (DFCs). {yields} Soft ECMs have a superior capacity to support the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs. {yields} DFCs and MSCs react contrarily to soft and rigid surface stiffness. -- Abstract: The differentiation of stem cells can be directed by the grade of stiffness of the developed tissue cells. For example a rigid extracellular matrix supports the osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, less is known about the relation of extracellular matrix stiffness and cell differentiation of ectomesenchymal dental precursor cells. Our study examined for the first time the influence of the surface stiffness on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells (DFCs). Cell proliferation of DFCs was only slightly decreased on cell culture surfaces with a bone-like stiffness. The osteogenic differentiation in DFCs could only be initiated with a dexamethasone based differentiation medium after using varying stiffness. Here, the softest surface improved the induction of osteogenic differentiation in comparison to that with the highest stiffness. In conclusion, different to bone marrow derived MSCs, soft ECMs have a superior capacity to support the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs.

  4. Support for the Microgenderome: Associations in a Human Clinical Population

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Amy; Butt, Henry; Ball, Michelle; Lewis, Donald P.; Bruck, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    The ‘microgenderome’ provides a paradigm shift that highlights the role of sex differences in the host-microbiota interaction relevant for autoimmune and neuro-immune conditions. Analysis of cross-sectional self-report and faecal microbial data from 274 patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) suggests that commensal gut microorganisms may play both protective and deleterious roles in symptom expression. Results revealed significant sex-specific interactions between Firmicutes (Clostridium, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus) and ME/CFS symptoms (including neurological, immune and mood symptoms), regardless of compositional similarity in microbial levels across the sexes. Extending animal studies, we provide support for the microgenderome in a human clinical population. Applied and mechanistic research needs to consider sex-interactions when examining the composition and function of human microbiota. PMID:26757840

  5. The use of virtual training to support insertion of advanced technology at remote military locations.

    PubMed

    Walker, Madison I; Walker, Robert B; Morgan, Jeffrey S; Bernhagen, Mary; Markin, Nicholas; Boedeker, Ben H

    2011-01-01

    Effective training in advanced medical technologies is essential for military healthcare providers to support the far forward battlefield. The use of modern video communication technologies and novel medical devices can be utilized for meeting this challenge. This study demonstrates the combined use of video conferencing equipment and videolaryngoscopy in the virtual training of a novice in videolaryngoscopy, nasal intubation and airway foreign body removal. PMID:21335881

  6. Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex): NASA's Next Human-Rated Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.

    1999-01-01

    As a key component in its ground test bed capability, NASA's Advanced Life Support Program has been developing a large-scale advanced life support test facility capable of supporting long-duration evaluations of integrated bioregenerative life support systems with human test crews. This facility-targeted for evaluation of hypogravity compatible life support systems to be developed for use on planetary surfaces such as Mars or the Moon-is called the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex) and is currently under development at the Johnson Space Center. This test bed is comprised of a set of interconnected chambers with a sealed internal environment which are outfitted with systems capable of supporting test crews of four individuals for periods exceeding one year. The advanced technology systems to be tested will consist of both biological and physicochemical components and will perform all required crew life support functions. This presentation provides a description of the proposed test "missions" to be supported by the BIO-Plex and the planned development strategy for the facility.

  7. Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in human dentine.

    PubMed

    Miura, Jiro; Nishikawa, Kantaro; Kubo, Mizuho; Fukushima, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Takeshige, Fumio; Araki, Tsutomu

    2014-02-01

    Cross-linking of collagen by Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) occurs by non-enzymatic glycation (Maillard reaction). The purpose of this study was to examine whether AGEs are formed in human dentinal collagen, and to consider any possible influence of AGEs on dentinal physiology. Mechanical characteristics, fluorescence spectra and immunohistochemical analyses of demineralized dentine sections from young subjects were compared with those of aged ones. The same investigations were performed with young dentine artificially glycated by incubation in 0.1M ribose solution. Indentation measurement indicated that the sections from aged dentine were mechanically harder than those from young dentine. The hardness of young dentine increased after incubation in ribose solution. Fluorescence peak wavelength of the young dentine was shorter than that of the aged one, but shifted towards the peak wavelength of the aged one after incubation in ribose solution. These changes were considered to be due to accumulation of AGEs. Existence of AGEs in dentinal collagen was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. The obtained results suggest that AGEs accumulation occurs in dentinal collagen and is affected by both human age and physiological conditions such as glucose level in blood because dentinal collagen receives nourishment via dental pulp and tubules. PMID:24370182

  8. Assessing human exposure to airborne pollutants: Advances and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J. )

    1991-08-01

    A committee which was convened by the National Research Council, recently completed an analysis of new methods and technologies for assessing exposure to air pollutants. The committee identified three major ways of determining human exposure to airborne pollutants. Monitoring the air around an individual with a portable personal air sampler is, of course, the most comprehensive and most accurate. It is also the costliest and most time consuming. The second method is more indirect and involves techniques such as measuring the amount of a contaminant with a stationary monitor and extrapolating exposure by means of personal activity records or mathematical models. Exposure to carbon monoxide inside a car, for example, might be roughly calculated from the amount of time spent in the car and the quantity of carbon monoxide in the car under typical operating conditions. The third method involves biological markers as a measure of the integrated dose within the body and of past contact with pollutants. For example, a marker for airborne lead exposure can be elevated lead levels in the blood. However, this must be weighed against contributions from other media. A final and major point made in the report is the need to have accurate and realistic assessments to ensure optimal reduction of human exposure. To accomplish this, exposure assessment research should be supported by government programs. Although not stated, such research should also be supported by other sectors, including the regulated community.

  9. Electric Ground Support Equipment Advanced Battery Technology Demonstration Project at the Ontario Airport

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Jeremy Diez; Jeffrey Wishart; James Francfort

    2013-07-01

    The intent of the electric Ground Support Equipment (eGSE) demonstration is to evaluate the day-to-day vehicle performance of electric baggage tractors using two advanced battery technologies to demonstrate possible replacements for the flooded lead-acid (FLA) batteries utilized throughout the industry. These advanced battery technologies have the potential to resolve barriers to the widespread adoption of eGSE deployment. Validation testing had not previously been performed within fleet operations to determine if the performance of current advanced batteries is sufficient to withstand the duty cycle of electric baggage tractors. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. The demonstration project also grew the relationship with Southwest Airlines (SWA), our demonstration partner at Ontario International Airport (ONT), located in Ontario, California. The results of this study have encouraged a proposal for a future demonstration project with SWA.

  10. The Space Exploration Initiative: a challenge to advanced life support technologies: keynote presentation.

    PubMed

    Mendell, W W

    1991-10-01

    President Bush has enunciated an unparalleled, open-ended commitment to human exploration of space called the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). At the heart of the SEI is permanent human presence beyond Earth orbit, which implies a new emphasis on life science research and life support system technology. Proposed bioregenerative systems for planetary surface bases will require carefully designed waste processing elements whose development will lead to streamlined and efficient and efficient systems for applications on Earth.

  11. The Space Exploration Initiative: a challenge to advanced life support technologies: keynote presentation.

    PubMed

    Mendell, W W

    1991-10-01

    President Bush has enunciated an unparalleled, open-ended commitment to human exploration of space called the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). At the heart of the SEI is permanent human presence beyond Earth orbit, which implies a new emphasis on life science research and life support system technology. Proposed bioregenerative systems for planetary surface bases will require carefully designed waste processing elements whose development will lead to streamlined and efficient and efficient systems for applications on Earth. PMID:11537682

  12. Advanced Nuclear Power Concepts for Human Exploration Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Cataldo; Lee S. Mason

    2000-06-04

    The design reference mission for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) human mission to Mars supports a philosophy of living off the land in order to reduce crew risk, launch mass, and life-cycle costs associated with logistics resupply to a Mars base. Life-support materials, oxygen, water, and buffer gases, and the crew's ascent-stage propellant would not be brought from Earth but rather manufactured from the Mars atmosphere. The propellants would be made over {approx}2 yr, the time between Mars mission launch window opportunities. The production of propellants is very power intensive and depends on type, amount, and time to produce the propellants. Closed-loop life support and food production are also power intensive. With the base having several habitats, a greenhouse, and propellant production capability, total power levels reach well over 125 kW(electric). The most mass-efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept, described in this paper, using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters.

  13. Strategic need for a multi-purpose thermal hydraulic loop for support of advanced reactor technologies

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James E.; Sabharwall, Piyush; Yoon, Su -Jong; Housley, Gregory K.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation

  14. NASA Glenn Research Center Support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    A high-efficiency radioisotope power system was being developed for long-duration NASA space science missions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) managed a flight contract with Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company to build Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs), with support from NASA Glenn Research Center. DOE initiated termination of that contract in late 2013, primarily due to budget constraints. Sunpower, Inc., held two parallel contracts to produce Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), one with Lockheed Martin to produce ASC-F flight units, and one with Glenn for the production of ASC-E3 engineering unit "pathfinders" that are built to the flight design. In support of those contracts, Glenn provided testing, materials expertise, Government-furnished equipment, inspection capabilities, and related data products to Lockheed Martin and Sunpower. The technical support included material evaluations, component tests, convertor characterization, and technology transfer. Material evaluations and component tests were performed on various ASC components in order to assess potential life-limiting mechanisms and provide data for reliability models. Convertor level tests were conducted to characterize performance under operating conditions that are representative of various mission conditions. Despite termination of the ASRG flight development contract, NASA continues to recognize the importance of high-efficiency ASC power conversion for Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) and continues investment in the technology, including the continuation of the ASC-E3 contract. This paper describes key Government support for the ASRG project and future tests to be used to provide data for ongoing reliability assessments.

  15. An Integrated Suite of Tools to support Human Factors Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques V Hugo

    2001-08-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) work for the nuclear industry imposes special demands on the practitioner in terms of the scope, complexity and safety requirements for humans in nuclear installations. Unfortunately HFE lags behind other engineering disciplines in the development and use of modern, powerful tools for the full range of analysis and design processes. HFE does not appear to be an attractive market for software and hardware developers and as a result, HFE practitioners usually have to rely on inefficient general-purpose tools like standard office software, or they have to use expensive special-purpose tools that offer only part of the solution they require and which also do not easily integrate with other tools. There have been attempts to develop generic software tools to support the HFE analyst and also to achieve some order and consistency in format and presentation. However, in spite of many years of development, very few tools have emerged that have achieved these goals. This would suggest the need for special tools, but existing commercial products have been found inadequate and to date not a single tool has been developed that adequately supports the special requirements of HFE work for the nuclear industry. This paper describes an integrated suite of generic as well as purpose-built tools that facilitate information solicitation, issues tracking, work domain analysis, functional requirements analysis, function allocation, operational sequence analysis, task analysis and development of HSI design requirements. In combination, this suite of tools supports the analytical as well as the representational aspects of key HFE activities primarily for new NPPs, including capturing information from subject matter experts and various source documents directly into the appropriate tool and then linking, analyzing and extending that information further to represent detailed functional and task information, and ultimately HSI design requirements. The paper

  16. Cardiovascular adaptations supporting human exercise-heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Périard, Julien D; Travers, Gavin J S; Racinais, Sébastien; Sawka, Michael N

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the cardiovascular adaptations along with total body water and plasma volume adjustments that occur in parallel with improved heat loss responses during exercise-heat acclimation. The cardiovascular system is well recognized as an important contributor to exercise-heat acclimation that acts to minimize physiological strain, reduce the risk of serious heat illness and better sustain exercise capacity. The upright posture adopted by humans during most physical activities and the large skin surface area contribute to the circulatory and blood pressure regulation challenge of simultaneously supporting skeletal muscle blood flow and dissipating heat via increased skin blood flow and sweat secretion during exercise-heat stress. Although it was traditionally held that cardiac output increased during exercise-heat stress to primarily support elevated skin blood flow requirements, recent evidence suggests that temperature-sensitive mechanisms may also mediate an elevation in skeletal muscle blood flow. The cardiovascular adaptations supporting this challenge include an increase in total body water, plasma volume expansion, better sustainment and/or elevation of stroke volume, reduction in heart rate, improvement in ventricular filling and myocardial efficiency, and enhanced skin blood flow and sweating responses. The magnitude of these adaptations is variable and dependent on several factors such as exercise intensity, duration of exposure, frequency and total number of exposures, as well as the environmental conditions (i.e. dry or humid heat) in which acclimation occurs. PMID:26905458

  17. Next Generation Respiratory Viral Vaccine System: Advanced and Emerging Bioengineered Human Lung Epithelia Model (HLEM) Organoid Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; Schneider, Sandra L.; MacIntosh, Victor; Gibbons, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia and influenza, are the S t" leading cause of United States and worldwide deaths. Newly emerging pathogens signaled the need for an advanced generation of vaccine technology.. Human bronchial-tracheal epithelial tissue was bioengineered to detect, identify, host and study the pathogenesis of acute respiratory viral disease. The 3-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesechymal tissue-like assemblies (HLEM TLAs) share characteristics with human respiratory epithelium: tight junctions, desmosomes, microvilli, functional markers villin, keratins and production of tissue mucin. Respiratory Syntial Virus (RSV) studies demonstrate viral growth kinetics and membrane bound glycoproteins up to day 20 post infection in the human lung-orgainoid infected cell system. Peak replication of RSV occurred on day 10 at 7 log10 particles forming units per ml/day. HLEM is an advanced virus vaccine model and biosentinel system for emergent viral infectious diseases to support DoD global surveillance and military readiness.

  18. Human mortality at very advanced age might be constant.

    PubMed

    Klemera, P; Doubal, S

    1997-11-01

    An attempt was made to identify the course of the mortality rate at the upper tail of human age. The only known data suitable for this purpose were published by Riggs and Millecchia (J.E. Riggs, R.J. Millecchia, Mech. Ageing Dev. 62 (1992) 191-199) and our analysis follows up their results. By means of mathematical elaboration it was proved that these data imply a constant mortality rate (approx. 25% per year) at ages above 113 years for men and above 116 years for women. Indirect arguments supporting the validity of the source data are discussed. Nevertheless, even if the source data are mistaken, we proved they cannot be the product of purely random errors and our results may contribute to the elucidation of the origin of those systematic errors. PMID:9379712

  19. Decision support system for monitoring environmental-human interactions.

    PubMed

    Delavari-Edalat, Farideh; Abdi, M Reza

    2009-06-01

    The specific aim of this study is to investigate popular attitudes toward trees. The paper is involved the understanding of biophilia tendencies with respect to people's views in an urban area. Biophilia is considered as the idea insisting on the dependency of human identity on his relationship with nature. The biophilia fundamental tendencies were explored to establish a biological framework for valuing and affiliating the natural world. Accordingly, the nine tendencies i.e. utilitarian, naturalistic, ecologistic-scientific, aesthetic, symbolic, humanistic, moralistic, dominionistic, and negativistic were investigate to find out how people relate to the nature especially trees. The investigation was based on a quantitative interview which was applied to the public population in the Liverpool urban parks. Data collected from the designed questionnaire was followed by analysis of the data to identify people's attitudes towards trees. The results indicated how important the physical appeal and beauty of trees was for the people and also showed the people's emotional attachments to trees. Furthermore, a decision support model was proposed to evaluate human instincts and preferences in relation to their surrounding areas using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). The proposed model composed the environmental factors and the biophilia tendencies as the criteria of evaluating environmental-human interactions. A case study was then conducted in Liverpool parks to examine theses interactions. The data gathered was used as the input to the AHP model for the attribute analysis. The AHP model would enable environment managers to compose the relevant information via a link between human feelings about urban trees, and environmental factors for monitoring purposes and performance analysis.

  20. Strategic Institutional Change to Support Advancement of Women Scientists in the Academy: Lessons from a Study of ADVANCE-IT Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, S. L.; Austin, A. E.; Soto, M.; Martinez, D.

    2011-12-01

    While women's representation among undergraduate and graduate degree-earners has grown steadily in most science fields, progress at the faculty level has been slow to realize, especially in upper academic ranks and in higher status institutions. This is only partly explained by the slow turnover of faculty positions. While some efforts to address this issue have aimed to support individual women and foster their career success, the National Science Foundation's ADVANCE program has taken a different approach, calling for institutions to take a systemic and organizational approach to enhance women's representation in the academy. Since 2001, some 50 institutions have received ADVANCE Institutional Transformation (IT) awards to develop such systemic approaches. Most ADVANCE-IT projects have attended to structures (e.g. committee and departmental leadership roles), processes (e.g. hiring), policy (e.g. family leave), attitudes and awareness (e.g. training for chairs), and workplace climate, as well as interventions that focus on faculty members as valuable human resources. Our research team is studying ADVANCE institutions' approaches to organizational change, by identifying and categorizing individual change interventions, examining how they combine to build an overall change portfolio, and considering how change interventions are selected or adapted to fit a specific institutional context. Because universities are complex organizations composed of multiple, loosely coupled, interconnected sub-systems, an overall change strategy cannot depend on a single type of intervention. Yet any particular intervention might be deployed on behalf of multiple goals and in a variety of forms that may depend on the context, or institutional system, in which it is introduced. We will discuss some common types of strategic intervention used in ADVANCE-IT projects, categorized by Bolman and Deal's (1991) four main perspectives or "lenses" for understanding organizational issues. The

  1. Advanced Burn Life Support for Day-to-Day Burn Injury Management and Disaster Preparedness: Stakeholder Experiences and Student Perceptions Following 56 Advanced Burn Life Support Courses.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Ortiz-Pujols, Shiara M; Craig, Christopher K; Gusler, James R; Skarote, Mary Beth; Carter, Jeffery; Rezak-Alger, Amy; Cairns, Charles B; Lofald, Daniel; Hubble, Michael W; Holmes, James H; Lord, Graydon C; Helminiak, Clare; Cairns, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Educational programs for clinicians managing patients with burn injuries represent a critical aspect of burn disaster preparedness. Managing a disaster, which includes a surge of burn-injured patients, remains one of the more challenging aspects of disaster medicine. During a 6-year period that included the development of a burn surge disaster program for one state, a critical gap was recognized as public presentations were conducted across the state. This gap revealed an acute and greater than anticipated need to include burn care education as an integral part of comprehensive burn surge disaster preparedness. Many hospital and prehospital providers expressed concern with managing even a single, burn-injured patient. While multiple programs were considered, Advanced Burn Life Support (ABLS), a national standardized educational program was selected to help address this need. The curriculum includes initial care for the burn-injured patient as well as an overview of the burn centers role in the disaster preparedness community. After 4 years and 56 classes conducted across the state, a survey was developed including a section that measured the perceptions of those who completed the ABLS educational program. The study specifically examines questions including whether clinicians perceived changes in their burn care knowledge, skills and abilities, and burn disaster preparedness following completion of the program? including whether clinicians. PMID:25167372

  2. 45 CFR 307.40 - Suspension of approval of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of approval of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems. 307.40 Section 307.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT...

  3. Advanced satellite workstation: An integrated workstation environment for operational support of satellite system planning and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, Stewart A.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype integrated environment, the Advanced Satellite Workstation (ASW), is described that has been developed and delivered for evaluation and operator feedback in an operational satellite control center. The current ASW hardware consists of a Sun Workstation and Macintosh II Workstation connected via an ethernet Network Hardware and Software, Laser Disk System, Optical Storage System, and Telemetry Data File Interface. The central mission of ASW is to provide an intelligent decision support and training environment for operator/analysts of complex systems such as satellites. There have been many workstation implementations recently which incorporate graphical telemetry displays and expert systems. ASW is a considerably broader look at intelligent, integrated environments for decision support, based upon the premise that the central features of such an environment are intelligent data access and integrated toolsets. A variety of tools have been constructed in support of this prototype environment including: an automated pass planner for scheduling vehicle support activities, architectural modeler for hierarchical simulation and analysis of satellite vehicle subsystems, multimedia-based information systems that provide an intuitive and easily accessible interface to Orbit Operations Handbook and other relevant support documentation, and a data analysis architecture that integrates user modifiable telemetry display systems, expert systems for background data analysis, and interfaces to the multimedia system via inter-process communication.

  4. Crop Production for Advanced Life Support Systems - Observations From the Kennedy Space Center Breadboard Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Goins, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The use of plants for bioregenerative life support for space missions was first studied by the US Air Force in the 1950s and 1960s. Extensive testing was also conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s by Russian researchers located at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. NASA initiated bioregenerative research in the 1960s (e.g., Hydrogenomonas) but this research did not include testing with plants until about 1980, with the start of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program. The NASA CELSS research was carried out at universities, private corporations, and NASA field centers, including Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The project at KSC began in 1985 and was called the CELSS Breadboard Project to indicate the capability for plugging in and testing various life support technologies; this name has since been dropped but bioregenerative testing at KSC has continued to the present under the NASA s Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. A primary objective of the KSC testing was to conduct pre-integration tests with plants (crops) in a large, atmospherically closed test chamber called the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Test protocols for the BPC were based on observations and growing procedures developed by university investigators, as well as procedures developed in plant growth chamber studies at KSC. Growth chamber studies to support BPC testing focused on plant responses to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, different spectral qualities from various electric lamps, and nutrient film hydroponic culture techniques.

  5. Visual contribution to human standing balance during support surface tilts

    PubMed Central

    Assländer, Lorenz; Hettich, Georg; Mergner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Visual position and velocity cues improve human standing balance, reducing sway responses to external disturbances and sway variability. Previous work suggested that human balancing is based on sensory estimates of external disturbances and their compensation using feedback mechanisms (Disturbance Estimation and Compensation, DEC model). This study investigates the visual effects on sway responses to pseudo-random support surface tilts, assuming that improvements result from lowering the velocity threshold in a tilt estimate and the position threshold in an estimate of the gravity disturbance. Center of mass (COM) sway was measured with four different tilt amplitudes, separating the effect of visual cues across the conditions ‘Eyes closed’ (no visual cues), ‘4 Hz stroboscopic illumination’ (visual position cues), and ‘continuous illumination’ (visual position and velocity cues). In a model based approach, parameters of disturbance estimators were identified. The model reproduced experimental results and showed a specific reduction of the position and velocity threshold when adding visual position and velocity cues, respectively. Sway variability was analyzed to explore a hypothesized relation between estimator thresholds and internal noise. Results suggest that adding the visual cues reduces the contribution of vestibular noise, thereby reducing sway variability and allowing for lower thresholds, which improves the disturbance compensation. PMID:25816794

  6. Visual contribution to human standing balance during support surface tilts.

    PubMed

    Assländer, Lorenz; Hettich, Georg; Mergner, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Visual position and velocity cues improve human standing balance, reducing sway responses to external disturbances and sway variability. Previous work suggested that human balancing is based on sensory estimates of external disturbances and their compensation using feedback mechanisms (Disturbance Estimation and Compensation, DEC model). This study investigates the visual effects on sway responses to pseudo-random support surface tilts, assuming that improvements result from lowering the velocity threshold in a tilt estimate and the position threshold in an estimate of the gravity disturbance. Center of mass (COM) sway was measured with four different tilt amplitudes, separating the effect of visual cues across the conditions 'Eyes closed' (no visual cues), '4Hz stroboscopic illumination' (visual position cues), and 'continuous illumination' (visual position and velocity cues). In a model based approach, parameters of disturbance estimators were identified. The model reproduced experimental results and showed a specific reduction of the position and velocity threshold when adding visual position and velocity cues, respectively. Sway variability was analyzed to explore a hypothesized relation between estimator thresholds and internal noise. Results suggest that adding the visual cues reduces the contribution of vestibular noise, thereby reducing sway variability and allowing for lower thresholds, which improves the disturbance compensation.

  7. Professional and educational initiatives, supports, and opportunities for advanced training in public health.

    PubMed

    Truong, Hoai-An; Patterson, Brooke Y

    2010-09-10

    The United States is facing a public health workforce shortage and pharmacists have the opportunity and obligation to address this challenge in health care. There have been initiatives and supports from within and beyond the profession for the pharmacist's role in public health. This article identifies existing professional and educational initiatives for the pharmacist's expanded role in public health, as well as postgraduate and other advanced educational opportunities in public health. Recommendations also are provided on how to further engage pharmacists in public health activities to alleviate the public health workforce challenge. PMID:21088727

  8. Evolution and development of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Radvinsky, David S; Yoon, Richard S; Schmitt, Paul J; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Swan, Kenneth G; Liporace, Frank A

    2012-04-01

    The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol is a successful course offered by the American College of Surgeons. Once based on didactic lectures and seminars taught by experts in the field, trauma training has evolved to become a set of standardized assessment and treatment protocols based on evidence rather than expert opinion. As the ATLS expands, indices to predict outcome, morbidity, and mortality have evolved to guide management and treatment based on retrospective data. This historical, perspective article attempts to tell the story of ATLS from its inception to its evolution as an international standard for the initial assessment and management of trauma patients.

  9. A decision support tool for synchronizing technology advances with strategic mission objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.

    1992-01-01

    Successful accomplishment of the objectives of many long-range future missions in areas such as space systems, land-use planning, and natural resource management requires significant technology developments. This paper describes the development of a decision-support data-derived tool called MisTec for helping strategic planners to determine technology development alternatives and to synchronize the technology development schedules with the performance schedules of future long-term missions. Special attention is given to the operations, concept, design, and functional capabilities of the MisTec. The MisTec was initially designed for manned Mars mission, but can be adapted to support other high-technology long-range strategic planning situations, making it possible for a mission analyst, planner, or manager to describe a mission scenario, determine the technology alternatives for making the mission achievable, and to plan the R&D activity necessary to achieve the required technology advances.

  10. Oxygen Penalty for Waste Oxidation in an Advanced Life Support System: A Systems Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Fisher, John

    2002-01-01

    Oxidation is one of a number of technologies that are being considered for waste management and resource recovery from waste materials generated on board space missions. Oxidation processes are a very effective and efficient means of clean and complete conversion of waste materials to sterile products. However, because oxidation uses oxygen there is an "oxygen penalty" associated either with resupply of oxygen or with recycling oxygen from some other source. This paper is a systems approach to the issue of oxygen penalty in life support systems and presents findings on the oxygen penalty associated with an integrated oxidation-Sabatier-Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for waste management in an Advanced Life Support System. The findings reveal that such an integrated system can be operated to form a variety of useful products without a significant oxygen penalty.

  11. Technical Advancement and Human Progress and The Problems of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixby, Louis W.

    1980-01-01

    Projects and discusses possible future developments resulting from electrochemical technological advancements. Educational implications are explored, and examples of integrated learning in diverse interest areas are given. (CS)

  12. Dengue human infection models to advance dengue vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Christian P; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P

    2015-12-10

    Dengue viruses (DENV) currently infect approximately 400 million people each year causing millions to seek care and overwhelming the health care infrastructure in endemic areas. Vaccines to prevent dengue and therapeutics to treat dengue are not currently available. The efficacy of the most advanced candidate vaccine against symptomatic dengue in general and DENV-2 in particular was much lower than expected, despite the ability of the vaccine to induce neutralizing antibody against all four DENV serotypes. Because seroconversion to the DENV serotypes following vaccination was thought to be indicative of induced protection, these results have made it more difficult to assess which candidate vaccines should or should not be evaluated in large studies in endemic areas. A dengue human infection model (DHIM) could be extremely valuable to down-select candidate vaccines or therapeutics prior to engaging in efficacy trials in endemic areas. Two DHIM have been developed to assess the efficacy of live attenuated tetravalent (LATV) dengue vaccines. The first model, developed by the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the U. S. National Institutes of Health, utilizes a modified DENV-2 strain DEN2Δ30. This virus was derived from the DENV-2 Tonga/74 that caused only very mild clinical infection during the outbreak from which it was recovered. DEN2Δ30 induced viremia in 100%, rash in 80%, and neutropenia in 27% of the 30 subjects to whom it was given. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is developing a DHIM the goal of which is to identify DENV that cause symptomatic dengue fever. WRAIR has evaluated seven viruses and has identified two that meet dengue fever criteria. Both of these models may be very useful in the evaluation and down-selection of candidate dengue vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:26424605

  13. Dengue human infection models to advance dengue vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Christian P; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P

    2015-12-10

    Dengue viruses (DENV) currently infect approximately 400 million people each year causing millions to seek care and overwhelming the health care infrastructure in endemic areas. Vaccines to prevent dengue and therapeutics to treat dengue are not currently available. The efficacy of the most advanced candidate vaccine against symptomatic dengue in general and DENV-2 in particular was much lower than expected, despite the ability of the vaccine to induce neutralizing antibody against all four DENV serotypes. Because seroconversion to the DENV serotypes following vaccination was thought to be indicative of induced protection, these results have made it more difficult to assess which candidate vaccines should or should not be evaluated in large studies in endemic areas. A dengue human infection model (DHIM) could be extremely valuable to down-select candidate vaccines or therapeutics prior to engaging in efficacy trials in endemic areas. Two DHIM have been developed to assess the efficacy of live attenuated tetravalent (LATV) dengue vaccines. The first model, developed by the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the U. S. National Institutes of Health, utilizes a modified DENV-2 strain DEN2Δ30. This virus was derived from the DENV-2 Tonga/74 that caused only very mild clinical infection during the outbreak from which it was recovered. DEN2Δ30 induced viremia in 100%, rash in 80%, and neutropenia in 27% of the 30 subjects to whom it was given. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is developing a DHIM the goal of which is to identify DENV that cause symptomatic dengue fever. WRAIR has evaluated seven viruses and has identified two that meet dengue fever criteria. Both of these models may be very useful in the evaluation and down-selection of candidate dengue vaccines and therapeutics.

  14. Identifying human disease genes: advances in molecular genetics and computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, S M; Ali, A; Baig, S M; Barh, D; Miyoshi, A; Azevedo, V

    2014-07-04

    The human genome project is one of the significant achievements that have provided detailed insight into our genetic legacy. During the last two decades, biomedical investigations have gathered a considerable body of evidence by detecting more than 2000 disease genes. Despite the imperative advances in the genetic understanding of various diseases, the pathogenesis of many others remains obscure. With recent advances, the laborious methodologies used to identify DNA variations are replaced by direct sequencing of genomic DNA to detect genetic changes. The ability to perform such studies depends equally on the development of high-throughput and economical genotyping methods. Currently, basically for every disease whose origen is still unknown, genetic approaches are available which could be pedigree-dependent or -independent with the capacity to elucidate fundamental disease mechanisms. Computer algorithms and programs for linkage analysis have formed the foundation for many disease gene detection projects, similarly databases of clinical findings have been widely used to support diagnostic decisions in dysmorphology and general human disease. For every disease type, genome sequence variations, particularly single nucleotide polymorphisms are mapped by comparing the genetic makeup of case and control groups. Methods that predict the effects of polymorphisms on protein stability are useful for the identification of possible disease associations, whereas structural effects can be assessed using methods to predict stability changes in proteins using sequence and/or structural information.

  15. Applications of Advanced Technology for Monitoring Forest Carbon to Support Climate Change Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsey, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.; Hagen, S. C.; Vargas, R.; Nehrkorn, T.; Domke, G. M.; Houghton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) is a broad concept guiding the application of monitoring technology to the needs of countries or entities for reporting and verifying reductions in greenhouse gas emissions or increases in greenhouse gas sinks. Credibility, cost-effectiveness, and compatibility are important features of global MRV efforts that can support implementation of climate change mitigation programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Sustainable Forest Management (REDD+). Applications of MRV technology may be tailored to individual country circumstances following guidance provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; hence, there is no single approach that is uniquely viable but rather a range of ways to integrate new MRV methods. MRV technology is advancing rapidly with new remote sensing and advanced measurement of atmospheric CO2, and in situ terrestrial and ocean measurements, coupled with improvements in data analysis, modeling, and assessing uncertainty. Here we briefly summarize some of the most application-ready MRV technologies being developed under NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) program, and illustrate how these technologies may be applied for monitoring forests using several case studies that span a range of scales, country circumstances, and stakeholder reporting requirements. We also include remarks about the potential role of advanced monitoring technology in the context of the global climate accord that is expected to result from the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is expected to take place in December 2015, in Paris, France.

  16. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) advanced automation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.; Carnes, Ray

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) Advanced Automation Project is to influence the design of the initial and evolutionary Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) ECLSS toward a man-made closed environment in which minimal flight and ground manpower is needed. Another objective includes capturing ECLSS design and development knowledge future missions. Our approach has been to (1) analyze the SSFP ECLSS, (2) envision as our goal a fully automated evolutionary environmental control system - an augmentation of the baseline, and (3) document the advanced software systems, hooks, and scars which will be necessary to achieve this goal. From this analysis, prototype software is being developed, and will be tested using air and water recovery simulations and hardware subsystems. In addition, the advanced software is being designed, developed, and tested using automation software management plan and lifecycle tools. Automated knowledge acquisition, engineering, verification and testing tools are being used to develop the software. In this way, we can capture ECLSS development knowledge for future use develop more robust and complex software, provide feedback to the knowledge based system tool community, and ensure proper visibility of our efforts.

  17. Clinical decision support systems for brain tumor characterization using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Tsolaki, Evangelia; Kousi, Evanthia; Svolos, Patricia; Kapsalaki, Efthychia; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Kappas, Constastine; Tsougos, Ioannis

    2014-04-28

    In recent years, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and perfusion weighted imaging have been used in order to resolve demanding diagnostic problems such as brain tumor characterization and grading, as these techniques offer a more detailed and non-invasive evaluation of the area under study. In the last decade a great effort has been made to import and utilize intelligent systems in the so-called clinical decision support systems (CDSS) for automatic processing, classification, evaluation and representation of MRI data in order for advanced MRI techniques to become a part of the clinical routine, since the amount of data from the aforementioned techniques has gradually increased. Hence, the purpose of the current review article is two-fold. The first is to review and evaluate the progress that has been made towards the utilization of CDSS based on data from advanced MRI techniques. The second is to analyze and propose the future work that has to be done, based on the existing problems and challenges, especially taking into account the new imaging techniques and parameters that can be introduced into intelligent systems to significantly improve their diagnostic specificity and clinical application.

  18. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Winiarski, David W.; Jiang, Wei; McBride, Merle F.; Crall, C.

    2006-09-30

    The Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Retail Buildings (AEDG-SR) was developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the Department of Energy (DOE). The guide is intended to offer recommendations to achieve 30% energy savings and thus to encourage steady progress towards net-zero energy buildings. The baseline level energy use was set at buildings built at the turn of the millennium, which are assumed to be based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (refer to as the ?Standard? in this report). ASHRAE and its partners are engaged in the development of a series of guides for small commercial buildings, with the AEDG-SR being the second in the series. Previously the partnership developed the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings: Achieving 30% Energy Savings Over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, which was published in late 2004. The technical support document prepared by PNNL details how the energy analysis performed in support of the Guide and documents development of recommendation criteria.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Food Supply for Long Term Space Missions Using Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruthirds, John E.

    2003-01-01

    A habitat for long duration missions which utilizes Advanced Life Support (ALS), the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex), is currently being built at JSC. In this system all consumables will be recycled and reused. In support of this effort, a menu is being planned utilizing ALS crops that will meet nutritional and psychological requirements. The need exists in the food system to identify specific physical quantities that define life support systems from an analysis and modeling perspective. Once these quantities are defined, they need to be fed into a mathematical model that takes into consideration other systems in the BIO-Plex. This model, if successful, will be used to understand the impacts of changes in the food system on the other systems and vice versa. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been used to describe systems and subsystems, including the food system options, in terms of the single parameter, mass. There is concern that this approach might not adequately address the important issues of food quality and psychological impact on crew morale of a supply of fiesh food items. In fact, the mass of food can also depend on the quality of the food. This summer faculty fellow project will involve creating an appropriate mathematical model for the food plan developed by the Food Processing System for BIO-Plex. The desired outcome of this work will be a quantitative model that can be applied to the various options of supplying food on long-term space missions.

  20. Human factors of advanced technology (glass cockpit) transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1989-01-01

    A three-year study of airline crews at two U.S. airlines who were flying an advanced technology aircraft, the Boeing 757 is discussed. The opinions and experiences of these pilots as they view the advanced, automated features of this aircraft, and contrast them with previous models they have flown are discussed. Training for advanced automation; (2) cockpit errors and error reduction; (3) management of cockpit workload; and (4) general attitudes toward cockpit automation are emphasized. The limitations of the air traffic control (ATC) system on the ability to utilize the advanced features of the new aircraft are discussed. In general the pilots are enthusiastic about flying an advanced technology aircraft, but they express mixed feelings about the impact of automation on workload, crew errors, and ability to manage the flight.

  1. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Training and Human Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Queirolo,A.

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) priority of training and human resources is aimed at providing the Department of Safeguards with an appropriate mixture of regular staff and extrabudgetary experts who are qualified to meet the IAEA's technical needs and to provide personnel with appropriate instruction to improve the technical basis and specific skills needed to perform their job functions. The equipment and methods used in inspection activities are unique, complex, and evolving. New and experienced safeguards inspectors need timely and effective training to perform required tasks and to learn new skills prescribed by new safeguards policies or agreements. The role of the inspector has changed from that of strictly an accountant to include that of a detective. New safeguards procedures are being instituted, and therefore, experienced inspectors must be educated on these new procedures. The USSP also recognizes the need for training safeguards support staff, particularly those who maintain and service safeguards equipment (SGTS), and those who perform information collection and analysis (SGIM). The USSP is committed to supporting the IAEA with training to ensure the effectiveness of all staff members and will continue to offer its assistance in the development and delivery of basic, refresher, and advanced training courses. This paper will discuss the USSP ongoing support in the area of training and IAEA staffing.

  2. Developing an Advanced Life Support System for the Flexible Path into Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit, such as a permanent lunar base, an asteroid rendezvous, or exploring Mars, will use recycling life support systems to preclude supplying large amounts of metabolic consumables. The International Space Station (ISS) life support design provides a historic guiding basis for future systems, but both its system architecture and the subsystem technologies should be reconsidered. Different technologies for the functional subsystems have been investigated and some past alternates appear better for flexible path destinations beyond low Earth orbit. There is a need to develop more capable technologies that provide lower mass, increased closure, and higher reliability. A major objective of redesigning the life support system for the flexible path is achieving the maintainability and ultra-reliability necessary for deep space operations.

  3. Formulation of advanced consumables management models: Executive summary. [modeling spacecraft environmental control, life support, and electric power supply systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, J. K.; Torian, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of studies conducted to establish the requirements for advanced subsystem analytical tools is presented. Modifications are defined for updating current computer programs used to analyze environmental control, life support, and electric power supply systems so that consumables for future advanced spacecraft may be managed.

  4. Multibiological life support system experiments with humans partially involved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Hu, Dawei; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu

    To establish bioregenerative life support system in lunar or mars bases in the future, manned stimulation experiments including several kinds of creatures are needed to be conducted first. Gas exchange relation, element transfer and transformation principles, etc. between human beings and the multibiological system composed of plants, animals, Chlorella vulgaris and so on must be investigated in order to place different organisms with appropriate numbers and proportions. This research cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) in the Closed Integrative Cultivating System (CICS) of the Integrative Experimental Sys-tem (IES) with Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the Plate Photo Bioreactor (PPB) of the IES. Gas exchange between testers and the IES were conducted periodically. The automotive control system of the PPB changed the illumination intensity of the photo bioreactor according to the CO2 concentration in the IES to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels by regu-lating the photosynthesis of alga. The conveyor-type cultivation method which was harvesting the biggest batch of lettuce and silkworms through the mass exchange chamber of IES every four days and transferring the smallest batch of lettuce and silkworms into the system; carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with nutrient liquid replenished into the system was implemented in the experiments. In terms of gas circulation, CO2 /O2 concentration changes in the system with trace gas contaminants (CH4 , NH3 and C2 H4 ) were measured. As to the mass transfer and transformation, element (C, H, O, N) contents, height, crown width and biomasses of lettuce in different developing stages, silkworms' bioconversion rates, alga's biomass changes, the amount and community change trends of the microorganism in different positions of the system, the quality of condensates gained under different running conditions and so on were studied. Results showed

  5. Integrated safeguards testing laboratories in support of the advanced fuel cycle initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A; Demuth, Scott F; Klasky, Kristen L; Lee, Haeok; Miller, Michael C; Sprinkle, James K; Tobin, Stephen J; Williams, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    A key enabler for advanced fuel cycle safeguards research and technology development for programs such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is access to facilities and nuclear materials. This access is necessary in many cases in order to ensure that advanced safeguards techniques and technologies meet the measurement needs for which they were designed. One such crucial facility is a hot cell based laboratory which would allow developers from universities, national laboratories, and commercial companies to perform iterative research and development of advanced safeguards instrumentation under realistic operating conditions but not be subject to production schedule limitations. The need for such a facility arises from the requirement to accurately measure minor actinide and/or fission product bearing nuclear materials that cannot be adequately shielded in glove boxes. With the contraction of the DOE nuclear complex following the end of the cold war, many suitable facilities at DOE sites are increasingly costly to operate and are being evaluated for closure. A hot cell based laboratory that allowed developers to install and remove instrumentation from the hot cell would allow for both risk mitigation and performance optimization of the instrumentation prior to fielding equipment in facilities where maintenance and repair of the instrumentation is difficult or impossible. These benefits are accomplished by providing developers the opportunity to iterate between testing the performance of the instrumentation by measuring realistic types and amounts of nuclear material, and adjusting and refining the instrumentation based on the results of these measurements. In this paper, we review the requirements for such a facility using the Wing 9 hot cells in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Chemistry and Metallurgy Research facility as a model for such a facility and describe recent use of these hot cells in support of AFCI.

  6. Subsystem Details for the Fiscal Year 2004 Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides values at the assembly level for the subsystems described in the Fiscal Year 2004 Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric (Hanford, 2004). Hanford (2004) summarizes the subordinate computational values for the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development (ALS R&TD) Metric at the subsystem level, while this manuscript provides a summary at the assembly level. Hanford (2004) lists mass, volume, power, cooling, and crewtime for each mission examined by the ALS R&TD Metric according to the nominal organization for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) elements. The values in the tables below, Table 2.1 through Table 2.8, list the assemblies, using the organization and names within the Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) for each ALS element. These tables specifically detail mass, volume, power, cooling, and crewtime. Additionally, mass and volume are designated in terms of values associated with initial hardware and resupplied hardware just as they are within ALSSAT. The overall subsystem values are listed on the line following each subsystem entry. These values are consistent with those reported in Hanford (2004) for each listed mission. Any deviations between these values and those in Hanford (2004) arise from differences in when individual numerical values are rounded within each report, and therefore the resulting minor differences should not concern even a careful reader. Hanford (2004) u es the uni ts kW(sub e) and kW(sub th) for power and cooling, respectively, while the nomenclature below uses W(sub e) and W(sub th), which is consistent with the native units within ALSSAT. The assemblies, as specified within ALSSAT, are listed in bold below their respective subsystems. When recognizable assembly components are not listed within ALSSAT, a summary of the assembly is provided on the same line as the entry for the assembly. Assemblies with one or more recognizable components are further

  7. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  8. Human Factors Assessment of Respiratory Support Pack (RSP) Cue Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Hudy, Cynthia; Smith, Danielle; Byrne, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    The Respiratory Support Pack (RSP) is a medical pack onboard the International Space Station (ISS) that contains much of the necessary equipment for providing aid to a conscious or unconscious crewmember in respiratory distress. Inside the RSP lid pocket is a 5.5 by 11 inch paper cue card, which is used by a Crew Medical Officer as the procedure to set up the equipment and deliver oxygen to a crewmember. In training, crewmembers expressed concerns about the readability and usability of the cue card; consequently, updating the cue card was prioritized as an activity to be completed prior to Space Shuttle return-to-flight. The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility at the Johnson Space Center evaluated the current layout of the cue card, and proposed several new cue card designs based on human factors principals. A series of three studies were performed in order to experimentally compare performance with each of the cue card designs. Nonmedically trained personnel used either a redesigned RSP cue card, or the original card to simulate resuscitation (using a mannequin along with the hardware). Time to completion, errors and subjective ratings were recorded. The addition of pictures, colors, borders, and simplification of the flow of information (making minimal changes to the actual procedure content) elicited great benefits during testing. Time to complete RSP procedures was reduced by as much as three minutes with the final cue card design. Detailed results from these studies, as well as general guidelines for cue card design will be discussed.

  9. Supporting debottlenecking of global human processes by applying appropriate balances.

    PubMed

    Pfennig, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    Global balances form a fundamental framework for evaluating processes. Human activities can be viewed as global processes aiming at generating drinking water, food, and energy as main products. Obviously, these global processes need debottlenecking, since global process environment is no longer capable of sustainably supporting them. Thus, balances are set up, which on one hand are easily understandable to ensure that everyone can comprehend the resulting consequences. On the other hand, these balances are evaluated to allow conclusions on boundary conditions for the debottlenecking. It turns out that even basic balances allow the formulation of significant conclusions, which are fundamental guidelines for future development. This development refers to research in science and technology that should be (further) strengthened as well as to implementation of existing technology. Moreover, very significant ethical questions become obvious. It is, e.g. not clear, if the challenges we are globally facing can be solved simply be applying and developing technology or if more fundamental changes in global society are essential to overcome problems during transition into a sustainable community. These changes address individual behavior concerning reproductive activities and nutritional habits. The reshaping of our economy would need closing the cycles for all essential material fluxes.

  10. Feasibility of substituting sodium for potassium in crop plants for advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, G V; Wheeler, R M; Stutte, G W

    2000-01-01

    Recycling of nutrients, air, and water is an integral feature of life support systems designed for long-term space missions. Plants can play a major role in supplying the basic life support requirements, which include providing the crew's food, clean water, and air, and recycling their wastes. The nutrient flux through the plant and human systems needs to be matched in order for nutrients to recycle between humans and plants without an excessive buildup in any one section of the system. Sodium, which is essential at the macronutrient level for human metabolism, has only been shown to be a micronutrient for some plants, with only very limited uptake in most plants. Thus, when Na is added from the outside to meet the human demand in these closed life support systems it will accumulate someplace in the overall system. In simple systems such as these, without a complete biogeological cycle, the buildup of Na could occur in the nutrient solution of the plant system. Various concepts related to the substitution of sodium for potassium in crop plants are currently being investigated by NASA. Results to date suggest that Na concentrations up to 100 g kg-1 dry weight may be achievable in the edible portions of Na-tolerant crops (e.g., red beet and chard). A flow path for nutrient solution high in Na wastes has been suggested for optimizing Na and nitrogen incorporation and utilization from such solutions. Options for further improvements include selecting plant genotypes tolerant to high salinity, which are efficient in Na uptake. This should also be combined with environmental manipulations to maximize Na uptake by crop plants. PMID:11676437

  11. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  12. Validating cognitive support for operators of complex human-machine systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Wachtel, J.

    1995-10-01

    Modem nuclear power plants (NPPs) are complex systems whose performance is the result of an intricate interaction of human and system control. A complex system may be defined as one which supports a dynamic process involving a large number of elements that interact in many different ways. Safety is addressed through defense-in-depth design and preplanning; i.e., designers consider the types of failures that are most likely to occur and those of high consequence, and design their solutions in advance. However, complex interactions and their failure modes cannot always be anticipated by the designer and may be unfamiliar to plant personnel. These situations may pose cognitive demands on plant personnel, both individually and as a crew. Other factors may contribute to the cognitive challenges of NPP operation as well, including hierarchal processes, dynamic pace, system redundancy and reliability, and conflicting objectives. These factors are discussed in this paper.

  13. Recent Progress in Self‐Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high‐performance lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder‐free electrodes for LIBs, self‐supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self‐supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder‐free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full‐cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self‐supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed. PMID:27711259

  14. Advanced life support control/monitor instrumentation concepts for flight application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dahlhausen, M. J.; Fell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Development of regenerative Environmental Control/Life Support Systems requires instrumentation characteristics which evolve with successive development phases. As the development phase moves toward flight hardware, the system availability becomes an important design aspect which requires high reliability and maintainability. This program was directed toward instrumentation designs which incorporate features compatible with anticipated flight requirements. The first task consisted of the design, fabrication and test of a Performance Diagnostic Unit. In interfacing with a subsystem's instrumentation, the Performance Diagnostic Unit is capable of determining faulty operation and components within a subsystem, perform on-line diagnostics of what maintenance is needed and accept historical status on subsystem performance as such information is retained in the memory of a subsystem's computerized controller. The second focus was development and demonstration of analog signal conditioning concepts which reduce the weight, power, volume, cost and maintenance and improve the reliability of this key assembly of advanced life support instrumentation. The approach was to develop a generic set of signal conditioning elements or cards which can be configured to fit various subsystems. Four generic sensor signal conditioning cards were identified as being required to handle more than 90 percent of the sensors encountered in life support systems. Under company funding, these were detail designed, built and successfully tested.

  15. The Importance of Supportive Care in Optimizing Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Optimal oncologic care of older men with prostate cancer, including effective prevention and management of the disease and treatment side effects (so-called best supportive care measures) can prolong survival, improve quality of life, and reduce depressive symptoms. In addition, the proportion of treatment discontinuations can be reduced through early reporting and management of side effects. Pharmacologic care may be offered to manage the side effects of androgen-deprivation therapy and chemotherapy, which may include hot flashes, febrile neutropenia, fatigue, and diarrhea. Nonpharmacologic care (e.g., physical exercise, acupuncture, relaxation) has also been shown to benefit patients. At the Georges Pompidou European Hospital, the Program of Optimization of Chemotherapy Administration has demonstrated that improved outpatient follow-up by supportive care measures can reduce the occurrence of chemotherapy-related side effects, reduce cancellations and modifications of treatment, reduce chemotherapy wastage, and reduce the length of stay in the outpatient unit. The importance of supportive care measures to optimize management and outcomes of older men with advanced prostate cancer should not be overlooked. PMID:23015682

  16. Clarifying Objectives and Results of Equivalent System Mass Analyses for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Drysdale, Alan E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the analytical decisions that an investigator must make during the course of a life support system trade study. Equivalent System Mass (ESM) is often applied to evaluate trade study options in the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. ESM can be used to identify which of several options that meet all requirements are most likely to have lowest cost. It can also be used to identify which of the many interacting parts of a life support system have the greatest impact and sensitivity to assumptions. This paper summarizes recommendations made in the newly developed ALS ESM Guidelines Document and expands on some of the issues relating to trade studies that involve ESM. In particular, the following three points are expounded: 1) The importance of objectives: Analysis objectives drive the approach to any trade study, including identification of assumptions, selection of characteristics to compare in the analysis, and the most appropriate techniques for reflecting those characteristics. 2) The importance of results inferprefafion: The accuracy desired in the results depends upon the analysis objectives, whereas the realized accuracy is determined by the data quality and degree of detail in analysis methods. 3) The importance of analysis documentation: Documentation of assumptions and data modifications is critical for effective peer evaluation of any trade study. ESM results are analysis-specific and should always be reported in context, rather than as solitary values. For this reason, results reporting should be done with adequate rigor to allow for verification by other researchers.

  17. Recent Progress in Self‐Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high‐performance lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder‐free electrodes for LIBs, self‐supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self‐supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder‐free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full‐cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self‐supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed.

  18. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as as integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic Modeling of Off-Nominal Operation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    System failures, off-nominal operation, or unexpected interruptions in processing capability can cause unanticipated instabilities in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, even long after they are repaired. Much current modeling assumes ALS systems are static and linear, but ALS systems are actually dynamic and nonlinear, especially when failures and off nominal operation are considered. Modeling and simulation provide a way to study the stability and time behavior of nonlinear dynamic ALS systems under changed system configurations or operational scenarios. The dynamic behavior of a nonlinear system can be fully explored only by computer simulation over the full range of inputs and initial conditions. Previous simulations of BIO-Plex in SIMULINK, a toolbox of Matlab, were extended to model the off-nominal operation and long-term dynamics of partially closed physical/chemical and bioregenerative life support systems. System nonlinearity has many interesting potential consequences. Different equilibrium points may be reached for different initial conditions. The system stability can depend on the exact system inputs and initial conditions. The system may oscillate or even in rare cases behave chaotically. Temporary internal hardware failures or external perturbations in ALS systems can lead to dynamic instability and total ALS system failure. Appropriate control techniques can restore reliable operation and minimize the effects of dynamic instabilities due to anomalies or perturbations in a life support system.

  20. Development Approach of the Advanced Life Support On-line Project Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, John A.; Morrow, Rich; Ho, Michael C.; Kaehms, Bob; Cavazzoni, Jim; Brodbeck, Christina A.; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program has recently accelerated an effort to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for research project and technology development data centralization and sharing. There has been significant advancement in the On-line Project Information System (OPIS) over the past year (Hogan et al, 2004). This paper presents the resultant OPIS development approach. OPIS is being built as an application framework consisting of an uderlying Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP (LAMP) stack, and supporting class libraries that provides database abstraction and automatic code generation, simplifying the ongoing development and maintenance process. Such a development approach allows for quick adaptation to serve multiple Programs, although initial deployment is for an ALS module. OPIS core functionality will involve a Web-based annual solicitation of project and technology data directly from ALS Principal Investigators (PIs) through customized data collection forms. Data provided by PIs will be reviewed by a Technical Task Monitor (TTM) before posting the information to OPIS for ALS Community viewing via the Web. Such Annual Reports will be permanent, citable references within OPIS. OPlS core functionality will also include Project Home Sites, which will allow PIS to provide updated technology information to the Community in between Annual Report updates. All data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database, created in MySQL(Reistered Trademark) and located on a secure server at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Upon launch, OPlS can be utilized by Managers to identify research and technology development (R&TD) gaps and to assess task performance. Analysts can employ OPlS to obtain the current, comprehensive, accurate information about advanced technologies that is required to perform trade studies of various life support system options. ALS researchers and technology developers can use OPlS to achieve an improved understanding of the NASA

  1. Advancing human health risk assessment: integrating recent advisory committee recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael; Becker, Richard A; Haber, Lynne T; Pottenger, Lynn H; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A

    2013-07-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose-response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose-response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  2. Advancing human health risk assessment: Integrating recent advisory committee recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Richard A.; Haber, Lynne T.; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose–response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose–response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  3. Vestibular factors influencing the biomedical support of humans in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, B. K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper will describe the biomedical support aspects of humans in space with respect to the vestibular system. The vestibular system is thought to be the primary sensory system involved in the short-term effects of space motion sickness although there is increasing evidence that many factors play a role in this complex set of symptoms. There is the possibility that an individual's inner sense of orientation may be strongly coupled with the susceptibility to space motion sickness. A variety of suggested countermeasures for space motion sickness will be described. Although there are no known ground-based tests that can predict space motion sickness, the search should go on. The long term effects of the vestibular system in weightlessness are still relatively unknown. Some preliminary data has shown that the otoconia are irregular in size and distribution following extended periods of weightlessness. The ramifications of this data are not yet known and because the data was obtained on lower order animals, definitive studies and results must wait until the space station era when higher primates can be studied for long durations. This leads us to artificial gravity, the last topic of this paper. The vestibular system is intimately tied to this question since it has been shown on Earth that exposure to a slow rotating room causes motion sickness for some period of time before adaptation occurs. If the artificial gravity is intermittent, will this mean that people will get sick every time they experience it? The data from many astronauts returning to Earth indicates that a variety of sensory illusions are present, especially immediately upon return to a 1-g environment. Oscillopsia or apparent motion of the visual surround upon head motion along with inappropriate eye motions for a given head motion, all indicate that there is much to be studied yet about the vestibular and CNS systems reaction to a sudden application of a steady state acceleration field like 1-g. From

  4. Circles of Care: Development and Initial Evaluation of a Peer Support Model for African Americans with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Laura C.; Armstrong, Tonya D.; Green, Melissa A.; Hayes, Michelle; Peacock, Stacie; Elliot-Bynum, Sharon; Goldmon, Moses V.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Earp, Jo Anne

    2013-01-01

    Peer support interventions extend care and health information to underserved populations yet rarely address serious illness. Investigators from a well-defined academic-community partnership developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for African Americans facing advanced cancer. Evaluation methods used the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption,…

  5. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  6. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  7. Development Status of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, John A.; Cavazzoni, Jim; Brodbeck, Christina; Morrow, Rich; Ho, Michael; Kaehms, Bob; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support Program has recently accelerated an effort to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for research project and technology development data centralization and sharing. The core functionality of OPIS will launch in October of 2005. This paper presents the current OPIS development status. OPIS core functionality involves a Web-based annual solicitation of project and technology data directly from ALS Principal Investigators (PIS) through customized data collection forms. Data provided by PIs will be reviewed by a Technical Task Monitor (TTM) before posting the information to OPIS for ALS Community viewing via the Web. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL(R)) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. Upon launch, OPIS can be utilized by Managers to identify research and technology development gaps and to assess task performance. Analysts can employ OPIS to obtain.

  8. NASA's First Year Progress with Fuel Cell Advanced Development in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in collaboration with Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and industry partners, is leading a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) advanced development effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort encompasses the fuel cell portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program, and is directed at multiple power levels for both primary and regenerative fuel cell systems. The major emphasis is the replacement of active mechanical ancillary components with passive components in order to reduce mass and parasitic power requirements, and to improve system reliability. A dual approach directed at both flow-through and non flow-through PEMFC system technologies is underway. A brief overview of the overall PEMFC project and its constituent tasks will be presented, along with in-depth technical accomplishments for the past year. Future potential technology development paths will also be discussed.

  9. Technical support for the hydrogen control requirement for the EPRI advanced light water reactor requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    Plys, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogen could be a significant contributor to severe-accident risk if hydrogen generation and combustion were to lead to containment failure and resulting release of fission products. To eliminate hydrogen as a significant risk contributor for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) ALWR requirements document has imposed a hydrogen control requirement. This requirement specifies an upper limit of 13 dry vol% for the allowable hydrogen concentration in containment. The requirement also considers hydrogen generation during severe accidents and states an upper bound on the hydrogen source equivalent to that generated by oxidizing 75% of the active cladding (commonly stated as 75% metal/water reaction (MWR)). The purpose of this paper is to technically support and substantiate the EPRI ALWR hydrogen requirement. The current understanding of hydrogen generation and combustion is evaluated as it applies to reactor systems, and it is concluded that both experimental results and analytical methods provide a sound technical basis for the requirement.

  10. Online fault adaptive control for efficient resource management in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelwahed, Sherif; Wu, Jian; Biswas, Gautam; Ramirez, John; Manders, Eric-J

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a controller scheme for efficient resource management in Advanced Life Support Systems. In the proposed approach, a switching hybrid system model is used to represent the dynamics of the system components and their interactions. The operational specifications for the controller are represented by utility functions, and the corresponding resource management problem is formulated as a safety control problem. The controller is designed as a limited-horizon online supervisory controller that performs a limited forward search on the state-space of the system at each time step, and uses the utility functions to decide on the best action. The feasibility and accuracy of the online algorithm can be assessed at design time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme by running a set of experiments on the Reverse Osmosis (RO) subsystem of the Water Recovery System (WRS).

  11. Development of expanded extrusion food products for an Advanced Life Support system.

    PubMed

    Zasypkin, D V; Lee, T C

    1999-01-01

    Extrusion processing was proposed to provide texture and to expand the variety of cereal food products in an isolated Advanced Life Support (ALS) system. Rice, wheat, and soy are the baseline crops selected for growing during long-term manned space missions. A Brabender single-screw laboratory extruder (model 2003, L/D 20:1), equipped with round nozzles of various lengths, was used as a prototype of a small-size extruder. Several concepts were tested to extend the variety and improve the quality of the products, to decrease environmental loads, and to promote processing stability. These concepts include: the blending of wheat and soybean flour, the extrusion of a coarser rice flour, separation of wheat bran, and optimization of the extruder nozzle design. An optimal nozzle length has been established for the extrusion of rice flour. Bran separating was necessary to improve the quality of wheat extrudates.

  12. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodging Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Gowri, Krishnan; McBride, M.; Liu, Bing

    2008-09-30

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodgings (AEDG-HL or the Guide), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in highway lodging properties over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-HL is the fifth in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  13. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it. PMID:27162927

  14. A Simulation Study Comparing Incineration and Composting in a Mars-Based Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John; Kang, Sukwon; Cavazzoni, Jim; Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare incineration and composting in a Mars-based advanced life support (ALS) system. The variables explored include waste pre-processing requirements, reactor sizing and buffer capacities. The study incorporates detailed mathematical models of biomass production and waste processing into an existing dynamic ALS system model. The ALS system and incineration models (written in MATLAB/SIMULINK(c)) were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The composting process is modeled using first order kinetics, with different degradation rates for individual waste components (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, cellulose and lignin). The biomass waste streams are generated using modified "Eneray Cascade" crop models, which use light- and dark-cycle temperatures, irradiance, photoperiod, [CO2], planting density, and relative humidity as model inputs. The study also includes an evaluation of equivalent system mass (ESM).

  15. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  16. An optimal control strategy for crop growth in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, D H; Baruh, H

    2001-01-01

    A feedback control method for regulating crop growth in advanced life support systems is presented. Two models for crop growth are considered, one developed by the agricultural industry and used by the Ames Research Center, and a mechanistic model, termed the Energy Cascade model. Proportional and pointwise-optimal control laws are applied to both models using wheat as the crop and light intensity as the control input. The control is particularly sensitive to errors in measurement of crop dry mass. However, it is shown that the proposed approach is a potentially viable way of controlling crop growth as it compensates for model errors and problems associated with applying the desired control input due to environmental disturbances. Grant numbers: NGT5-50229. PMID:11725784

  17. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it.

  18. Status Report on Efforts to Enhance Instrumentation to Support Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rempe; D. Knudson; J. Daw; T. Unruh; B. Chase; R. Schley; J. Palmer; K. Condie

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support the growth of nuclear science and technology in the United States (US). By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR NSUF facilitates basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to design, develop, and deploy new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors was completed. Based on this initial review, recommendations were made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR, and a strategy was developed for obtaining these sensors. In 2009, a report was issued documenting this program’s strategy and initial progress toward accomplishing program objectives. Since 2009, annual reports have been issued to provide updates on the program strategy and the progress made on implementing the strategy. This report provides an update reflecting progress as of January 2014.

  19. Status Report on Efforts to Enhance Instrumentation to Support Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; J. E. Daw

    2011-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR NSUF facilitates basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors was completed. Based on this review, recommendations were made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR; and a strategy was developed for obtaining these sensors. In 2009, a report was issued documenting this program’s strategy and initial progress toward accomplishing program objectives. In 2009, a report was issued documenting this instrumentation development strategy and initial progress toward accomplishing instrumentation development program objectives. This document reports progress toward implementing this strategy in 2010.

  20. Supporting Development for the Stirling Radioisotope Generator and Advanced Stirling Technology Development at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency, 110-W(sub e) (watts electric) Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for possible use on future NASA Space Science missions is being developed by the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Potential mission use includes providing spacecraft onboard electric power for deep space missions and power for unmanned Mars rovers. GRC is conducting an in-house supporting technology project to assist in SRG110 development. One-, three-, and six-month heater head structural benchmark tests have been completed in support of a heater head life assessment. Testing is underway to evaluate the key epoxy bond of the permanent magnets to the linear alternator stator lamination stack. GRC has completed over 10,000 hours of extended duration testing of the Stirling convertors for the SRG110, and a three-year test of two Stirling convertors in a thermal vacuum environment will be starting shortly. GRC is also developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors, aimed at substantially improving the specific power and efficiency of the convertor and the overall generator. Sunpower, Inc. has begun the development of a lightweight Stirling convertor, under a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) award, that has the potential to double the system specific power to about 8 W(sub e) per kilogram. GRC has performed random vibration testing of a lowerpower version of this convertor to evaluate robustness for surviving launch vibrations. STC has also completed the initial design of a lightweight convertor. Status of the development of a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code and high-temperature materials work on advanced superalloys, refractory metal alloys, and ceramics are also discussed.

  1. Advanced practice nursing in Canada: overview of a decision support synthesis.

    PubMed

    DiCenso, Alba; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Bourgeault, Ivy; Kilpatrick, Kelley; Donald, Faith; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Harbman, Patricia; Carter, Nancy; Kioke, Sandra; Abelson, Julia; McKinlay, R James; Pasic, Dianna; Wasyluk, Brandi; Vohra, Julie; Charbonneau-Smith, Renee

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this decision support synthesis was to identify and review published and grey literature and to conduct stakeholder interviews to (1) describe the distinguishing characteristics of clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and nurse practitioner (NP) role definitions and competencies relevant to Canadian contexts, (2) identify the key barriers and facilitators for the effective development and utilization of CNS and NP roles and (3) inform the development of evidence-based recommendations for the individual, organizational and system supports required to better integrate CNS and NP roles into the Canadian healthcare system and advance the delivery of nursing and patient care services in Canada. Four types of advanced practice nurses (APNs) were the focus: CNSs, primary healthcare nurse practitioners (PHCNPs), acute care nurse practitioners (ACNPs) and a blended CNS/NP role. We worked with a multidisciplinary, multijurisdictional advisory board that helped identify documents and key informant interviewees, develop interview questions and formulate implications from our findings. We included 468 published and unpublished English- and French-language papers in a scoping review of the literature. We conducted interviews in English and French with 62 Canadian and international key informants (APNs, healthcare administrators, policy makers, nursing regulators, educators, physicians and other team members). We conducted four focus groups with a total of 19 APNs, educators, administrators and policy makers. A multidisciplinary roundtable convened by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation formulated evidence-informed policy and practice recommendations based on the synthesis findings. This paper forms the foundation for this special issue, which contains 10 papers summarizing different dimensions of our synthesis. Here, we summarize the synthesis methods and the recommendations formulated at the roundtable.

  2. Modeling of a V-type mining support in an advanced engineering environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwiazda, A.; Banas, W.; Foit, K.; Topolska, S.; Monica, Z.; S^kala, A.

    2016-08-01

    Designing technical means using advanced computer systems requires the change in approaches to specific tasks carried out in this process. The solution of this problem is an integrative approach, which allows linking different operating ranges, various tools and complicated sets of requirements into a single operating design system. The elements of this integrative approach is the concept of splitting a technical mean system into three sub-system components. The first is structural sub-system containing solutions and their attributes regarding the structural concept of a designed system. The second is drive sub-system containing solutions of drive systems along with the parameters of their operation. Finally the last sub-system contains information relating to the control system and its settings. Systems attributes include such design features as the geometrical characteristics, material characteristics and assembly characteristics. The subject of the integrated design process is a mechanized mining support. As a part of the project the construction system of a mechanized mining support was divided on the three sub-systems. The structural subsystem includes a canopy, a burst shield and foot parts. Whereas the drive sub-system comprises includes the system of hydraulic props and hydraulic cylinders responsible for the functioning of the support. In the example, presented in the paper, is shown the system of hydraulic props where they are arranged in a V-system. These indicated two sub-systems form the structure of the support. It is complemented by the control sub-system basing on the use of control valves and separator valves and an operator control panel.

  3. Outcomes After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Treated by Basic vs Advanced Life Support

    PubMed Central

    Sanghavi, Prachi; Jena, Anupam B.; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Most out-of-hospital cardiac arrests receiving emergency medical services in the United States are treated by ambulance service providers trained in advanced life support (ALS), but supporting evidence for the use of ALS over basic life support (BLS) is limited. OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of BLS and ALS on outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational cohort study of a nationally representative sample of traditional Medicare beneficiaries from nonrural counties who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between January 1, 2009, and October 2, 2011, and for whom ALS or BLS ambulance services were billed to Medicare (31 292 ALS cases and 1643 BLS cases). Propensity score methods were used to compare the effects of ALS and BLS on patient survival, neurological performance, and medical spending after cardiac arrest. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Survival to hospital discharge, to 30 days, and to 90 days; neurological performance; and incremental medical spending per additional survivor to 1 year. RESULTS Survival to hospital discharge was greater among patients receiving BLS (13.1% vs 9.2% for ALS; 4.0 [95% CI, 2.3–5.7] percentage point difference), as was survival to 90 days (8.0% vs 5.4% for ALS; 2.6 [95% CI, 1.2–4.0] percentage point difference). Basic life support was associated with better neurological functioning among hospitalized patients (21.8% vs 44.8% with poor neurological functioning for ALS; 23.0 [95% CI, 18.6–27.4] percentage point difference). Incremental medical spending per additional survivor to 1 year for BLS relative to ALS was $154 333. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who received BLS had higher survival at hospital discharge and at 90 days compared with those who received ALS and were less likely to experience poor neurological functioning. PMID:25419698

  4. Use of Bioregenerative Technologies for Advanced Life Support: Some Considerations for BIO-Plex and Related Testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Strayer, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    A review of bioregenerative life support concepts is provided as a guide for developing ground-based testbeds for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program. Key among these concepts are the use of controlled environment plant culture for the production of food, oxygen, and clean water, and the use of bacterial bioreactors for degrading wastes and recycling nutrients. Candidate crops and specific bioreactor approaches are discussed based on experiences from the. Kennedy Space Center Advanced Life Support Breadboard Project, and a review of related literature is provided.

  5. Potential Applications for Radioisotope Power Systems in Support of Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.

  6. [Advances on research of human exposure to triclosan].

    PubMed

    Jin, Chenye; Chen, Yiming; Zhang, Peiqi; Xiong, Zhezhen; Wang, Caifeng; Tian, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Triclosan, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, was reported to have been widely detected in various human biological samples such as urine, blood and human milk among foreign populations. In China, limited reports have been found on human exposure to triclosan, and the reported urinary triclosan concentrations were significantly lower than that of American populations. Besides, the potential influencing factors still remain unclear regarding human exposure to triclosan, but evidences suggest that those in middle age and with higher household income and higher social class tend to have higher urinary triclosan concentrations. Furthermore, triclosan exposure tend to differ by sex, geography, heredity, metabolism and life style.

  7. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  8. Recommended guidelines for uniform reporting of pediatric advanced life support: the pediatric Utstein style.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, A; Nadkarni, V; Hazinski, M F; Foltin, G; Quan, L; Wright, J; Fiser, D; Zideman, D; O'Malley, P; Chameides, L

    1995-10-01

    This statement is the product of a task force meeting held June 8, 1994, in Washington DC in conjunction with the First International Conference on Pediatric Resuscitation and a follow-up task force writing group meeting held September 18, 1994, in Chicago. Draft versions of the statement were circulated for comment to all members of the task force, the American Heart Association Subcommittee on Pediatric Resuscitation, and several outside reviewers. This statement and the International Conference on Pediatric Resuscitation were cosponsored by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association. The development of this statement was authorized by the American Academy of Pediatrics; the American Heart Association National Subcommittees on Pediatric Resuscitation, Basic Life Support, and Advanced Cardiac Life Support, the Committee on Emergency Cardiac Care, the Science Advisory Committee; and the European Resuscitation Council. In addition to the writing group, members of the Pediatric Utstein Task Force are Paul Anderson, M Douglas Baker, Jane Ball, Desmond Bohn, Dena Brownstein, J Michael Dean, Niranjan Kissoon, Bruce Klein, Patrick Malone, Karin McCloskey, James McCrory, P Pearl O'Rourke, Mary Patterson, Charles Schleien, James Seidel, Joseph J Tepas III, and Becky Yano.

  9. Hydroponics Database and Handbook for the Advanced Life Support Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Allen J.

    1999-01-01

    During the summer 1998, I did student assistance to Dr. Daniel J. Barta, chief plant growth expert at Johnson Space Center - NASA. We established the preliminary stages of a hydroponic crop growth database for the Advanced Life Support Systems Integration Test Bed, otherwise referred to as BIO-Plex (Biological Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex). The database summarizes information from published technical papers by plant growth experts, and it includes bibliographical, environmental and harvest information based on plant growth under varying environmental conditions. I collected 84 lettuce entries, 14 soybean, 49 sweet potato, 16 wheat, 237 white potato, and 26 mix crop entries. The list will grow with the publication of new research. This database will be integrated with a search and systems analysis computer program that will cross-reference multiple parameters to determine optimum edible yield under varying parameters. Also, we have made preliminary effort to put together a crop handbook for BIO-Plex plant growth management. It will be a collection of information obtained from experts who provided recommendations on a particular crop's growing conditions. It includes bibliographic, environmental, nutrient solution, potential yield, harvest nutritional, and propagation procedure information. This handbook will stand as the baseline growth conditions for the first set of experiments in the BIO-Plex facility.

  10. Technology gap analysis on sodium-cooled reactor fuel handling system supporting advanced burner reactor development.

    SciTech Connect

    Chikazawa, Y.; Farmer, M.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand in an environmentally sustainable manner, to address nuclear waste management issues without making separated plutonium, and to address nonproliferation concerns. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) is a fast reactor concept which supports the GNEP fuel cycle system. Since the integral fast reactor (IFR) and advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) projects were terminated in 1994, there has been no major development on sodium-cooled fast reactors in the United States. Therefore, in support of the GNEP fast reactor program, the history of sodium-cooled reactor development was reviewed to support the initiation of this technology within the United States and to gain an understanding of the technology gaps that may still remain for sodium fast reactor technology. The fuel-handling system is a key element of any fast reactor design. The major functions of this system are to receive, test, store, and then load fresh fuel into the core; unload from the core; then clean, test, store, and ship spent fuel. Major requirements are that the system must be reliable and relatively easy to maintain. In addition, the system should be designed so that it does not adversely impact plant economics from the viewpoints of capital investment or plant operations. In this gap analysis, information on fuel-handling operating experiences in the following reactor plants was carefully reviewed: EBR-I, SRE, HNPF, Fermi, SEFOR, FFTF, CRBR, EBR-II, DFR, PFR, Rapsodie, Phenix, Superphenix, KNK, SNR-300, Joyo, and Monju. The results of this evaluation indicate that a standardized fuel-handling system for a commercial fast reactor is yet to be established. However, in the past sodium-cooled reactor plants, most major fuel-handling components-such as the rotatable plug, in-vessel fuel-handling machine, ex-vessel fuel transportation cask, ex-vessel sodium-cooled storage

  11. Planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars.

    PubMed

    McKay, C P; Davis, W L

    1989-01-01

    Current planetary quarantine considerations focus on robotic missions and attempt a policy of no biological contamination. The presence of humans on Mars, however, will inevitably result in biological contamination and physical alteration of the local environment. The focus of planetary quarantine must therefore shift toward defining and minimizing the inevitable contamination associated with humans. This will involve first determining those areas that will be affected by the presence of a human base, then verifying that these environments do not harbor indigenous life nor provide sites for Earth bacteria to grow. Precursor missions can provide salient information that can make more efficient the planning and design of human exploration missions. In particular, a robotic sample return mission can help to eliminate the concern about returning samples with humans or the return of humans themselves from a planetary quarantine perspective. Without a robotic return the cost of quarantine that would have to be added to a human mission may well exceed the cost of a robotic return mission. Even if the preponderance of scientific evidence argues against the presence of indigenous life, it must be considered as part of any serious planetary quarantine analysis for missions to Mars. If there is life on Mars, the question of human exploration assumes an ethical dimension. PMID:11537372

  12. Planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Davis, Wanda L.

    1989-01-01

    The major planetary quarantine issues associated with human exploration of Mars, which is viewed as being more likely to harbor indigenous life than is the moon, are discussed. Special attention is given to the environmental impact of human missions to Mars due to contamination and mechanical disturbances of the local environment, the contamination issues associated with the return of humans, and the planetary quarantine strategy for a human base. It is emphasized that, in addition to the question of indigenous life, there may be some concern of returning to earth the earth microorganisms that have spent some time in the Martian environment. It is suggested that, due to the fact that a robot system can be subjected to more stringent controls and protective treatments than a mission involving humans, a robotic sample return mission can help to eliminate many planetary-quarantine concerns about returning samples.

  13. Mars Methane: An In-Situ Resource in Support of Human Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, M. D.; Clifford, S. M.

    2012-06-01

    Identification and utilization of natural resources on Mars that can be directly used to support sustainable human habitation and produce materials such as food and fuels are critical to support further planetary exploration.

  14. Pantomime-Grasping: Advance Knowledge of Haptic Feedback Availability Supports an Absolute Visuo-Haptic Calibration.

    PubMed

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    An emerging issue in movement neurosciences is whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting a simulated grasping response (i.e., pantomime-grasping). In particular, recent work by our group contrasted pantomime-grasping responses performed with (i.e., PH+ trials) and without (i.e., PH- trials) terminal haptic feedback in separate blocks of trials. Results showed that PH- trials were mediated via relative visual information. In contrast, PH+ trials showed evidence of an absolute visuo-haptic calibration-a finding attributed to an error signal derived from a comparison between expected and actual haptic feedback (i.e., an internal forward model). The present study examined whether advanced knowledge of haptic feedback availability influences the aforementioned calibration process. To that end, PH- and PH+ trials were completed in separate blocks (i.e., the feedback schedule used in our group's previous study) and a block wherein PH- and PH+ trials were randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., random feedback schedule). In other words, the random feedback schedule precluded participants from predicting whether haptic feedback would be available at the movement goal location. We computed just-noticeable-difference (JND) values to determine whether responses adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber's law. Results for the blocked feedback schedule replicated our group's previous work, whereas in the random feedback schedule PH- and PH+ trials were supported via relative visual information. Accordingly, we propose that a priori knowledge of haptic feedback is necessary to support an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence and expectancy of haptic feedback is an important consideration in contrasting the behavioral and neural properties of natural and simulated grasping. PMID:27199718

  15. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Cabin Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Chullen, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    The development of new, robust, life support systems is critical to NASA's continued progress in space exploration. One vital function is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the cabin at levels that do not impair the health or performance of the crew. The CO2 removal assembly (CDRA) is the current CO2 control technology on-board the International Space Station (ISS). Although the CDRA has met the needs of the ISS to date, the repeated cycling of the molecular sieve sorbent causes it to break down into small particles that clog filters or generate dust in the cabin. This reduces reliability and increases maintenance requirements. Another approach that has potential advantages over the current system is a membrane that separates CO2 from air. In this approach, cabin air contacts one side of the membrane while other side of the membrane is maintained at low pressure to create a driving force for CO2 transport across the membrane. In this application, the primary power requirement is for the pump that creates the low pressure and then pumps the CO2 to the oxygen recovery system. For such a membrane to be practical, it must have high CO2 permeation rate and excellent selectivity for CO2 over air. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate CO2 permeability and selectivity to meet the needs of this application. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a microporous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over air. In a recently completed Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems, Inc. fabricated an SLM that is very close to meeting permeability and selectivity objectives for use in the advanced space suit portable life support system. This paper describes work carried out to evaluate its potential for use in spacecraft cabin application.

  16. Pantomime-Grasping: Advance Knowledge of Haptic Feedback Availability Supports an Absolute Visuo-Haptic Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    An emerging issue in movement neurosciences is whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting a simulated grasping response (i.e., pantomime-grasping). In particular, recent work by our group contrasted pantomime-grasping responses performed with (i.e., PH+ trials) and without (i.e., PH− trials) terminal haptic feedback in separate blocks of trials. Results showed that PH− trials were mediated via relative visual information. In contrast, PH+ trials showed evidence of an absolute visuo-haptic calibration—a finding attributed to an error signal derived from a comparison between expected and actual haptic feedback (i.e., an internal forward model). The present study examined whether advanced knowledge of haptic feedback availability influences the aforementioned calibration process. To that end, PH− and PH+ trials were completed in separate blocks (i.e., the feedback schedule used in our group’s previous study) and a block wherein PH− and PH+ trials were randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., random feedback schedule). In other words, the random feedback schedule precluded participants from predicting whether haptic feedback would be available at the movement goal location. We computed just-noticeable-difference (JND) values to determine whether responses adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber’s law. Results for the blocked feedback schedule replicated our group’s previous work, whereas in the random feedback schedule PH− and PH+ trials were supported via relative visual information. Accordingly, we propose that a priori knowledge of haptic feedback is necessary to support an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence and expectancy of haptic feedback is an important consideration in contrasting the behavioral and neural properties of natural and simulated grasping. PMID:27199718

  17. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  18. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) utilizing Man-Tended Capability (MTC) hardware onboard Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M.; Barratt, M.; Lloyd, C.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the time and distance involved in returning a patient from space to a definitive medical care facility, the capability for Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) exists onboard Space Station Freedom. Methods: In order to evaluate the effectiveness of terrestrial ACLS protocols in microgravity, a medical team conducted simulations during parabolic flights onboard the KC-135 aircraft. The hardware planned for use during the MTC phase of the space station was utilized to increase the fidelity of the scenario and to evaluate the prototype equipment. Based on initial KC-135 testing of CPR and ACLS, changes were made to the ventricular fibrillation algorithm in order to accommodate the space environment. Other constraints to delivery of ACLS onboard the space station include crew size, minimum training, crew deconditioning, and limited supplies and equipment. Results: The delivery of ACLS in microgravity is hindered by the environment, but should be adequate. Factors specific to microgravity were identified for inclusion in the protocol including immediate restraint of the patient and early intubation to insure airway. External cardiac compressions of adequate force and frequency were administered using various methods. The more significant limiting factors appear to be crew training, crew size, and limited supplies. Conclusions: Although ACLS is possible in the microgravity environment, future evaluations are necessary to further refine the protocols. Proper patient and medical officer restraint is crucial prior to advanced procedures. Also emphasis should be placed on early intubation for airway management and drug administration. Preliminary results and further testing will be utilized in the design of medical hardware, determination of crew training, and medical operations for space station and beyond.

  19. NASA Now: Life Science: Human Life Support on the ISS

    NASA Video Gallery

    The environmental and thermal operating systems, or ETHOS, monitors the life support system and the cooling system on the International Space Station. Find out from ETHOS operator Tess Caswell abou...

  20. Supporting Clinical Cognition: A Human-Centered Approach to a Novel ICU Information Visualization Dashboard

    PubMed Central

    Faiola, Anthony; Srinivas, Preethi; Duke, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Advances in intensive care unit bedside displays/interfaces and electronic medical record (EMR) technology have not adequately addressed the topic of visual clarity of patient data/information to further reduce cognitive load during clinical decision-making. We responded to these challenges with a human-centered approach to designing and testing a decision-support tool: MIVA 2.0 (Medical Information Visualization Assistant, v.2). Envisioned as an EMR visualization dashboard to support rapid analysis of real-time clinical data-trends, our primary goal originated from a clinical requirement to reduce cognitive overload. In the study, a convenience sample of 12 participants were recruited, in which quantitative and qualitative measures were used to compare MIVA 2.0 with ICU paper medical-charts, using time-on-task, post-test questionnaires, and interviews. Findings demonstrated a significant difference in speed and accuracy with the use of MIVA 2.0. Qualitative outcomes concurred, with participants acknowledging the potential impact of MIVA 2.0 for reducing cognitive load and enabling more accurate and quicker decision-making. PMID:26958190

  1. Advanced control rooms and crew performance issues: Implications for human reliability

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    Recent trends in advanced control room (ACR) design are considered with respect to their impact on human performance. It is concluded that potentially negative influences exist, however, a variety of factors make it difficult to model, analyze, and quantify these effects for human reliability analyses (HRAs).

  2. User interface issues in supporting human-computer integrated scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Biefeld, Eric W.

    1991-01-01

    Explored here is the user interface problems encountered with the Operations Missions Planner (OMP) project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). OMP uses a unique iterative approach to planning that places additional requirements on the user interface, particularly to support system development and maintenance. These requirements are necessary to support the concepts of heuristically controlled search, in-progress assessment, and iterative refinement of the schedule. The techniques used to address the OMP interface needs are given.

  3. Titania-polymeric powder coatings with nano-topography support enhanced human mesenchymal cell responses.

    PubMed

    Mozumder, Mohammad Sayem; Zhu, Jesse; Perinpanayagam, Hiran

    2012-10-01

    Titanium implant osseointegration is dependent on the cellular response to surface modifications and coatings. Titania-enriched nanocomposite polymeric resin coatings were prepared through the application of advanced ultrafine powder coating technology. Their surfaces were readily modified to create nano-rough (<100 nm) surface nano-topographies that supported human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell responses. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed continuous and homogenous coatings with a similar composition and even distribution of titanium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed complex micro-topographies, and atomic force microscopy revealed intricate nanofeatures and surface roughness. Cell counts, mitochondrial enzyme activity reduction of yellow 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) to dark purple, SEM, and inverted fluorescence microscopy showed a marked increase in cell attachment, spreading, proliferation, and metabolic activity on the nanostructured surfaces. Reverse Transcription- Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that type I collagen and Runx2 expression were induced, and Alizarin red staining showed that mineral deposits were abundant in the cell cultures grown on nanosurfaces. This enhancement in human mesenchymal cell attachment, growth, and osteogenesis were attributed to the nanosized surface topographies, roughness, and moderate wetting characteristics of the coatings. Their dimensional similarity to naturally occurring matrix proteins and crystals, coupled with their increased surface area for protein adsorption, may have facilitated the response. Therefore, this application of ultrafine powder coating technology affords highly biocompatible surfaces that can be readily modified to accentuate the cellular response.

  4. Bioregenerative technologies for waste processing and resource recovery in advanced space life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for producing oxygen, water, and food in space will require an interactive facility to process and return wastes as resources to the system. This paper examines the bioregenerative techologies for waste processing and resource recovery considered for a CELSS Resource Recovery system. The components of this system consist of a series of biological reactors to treat the liquid and solid material fractions, in which the aerobic and anaerobic reactors are combined in a block called the Combined Reactor Equipment (CORE) block. The CORE block accepts the human wastes, kitchen wastes, inedible refractory plant materials, grey waters from the CELLS system, and aquaculture solids and processes these materials in either aerobic or anaerobic reactors depending on the desired product and the rates required by the integrated system.

  5. Human rights advances in women's reproductive health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles G; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Skuster, Patty

    2015-05-01

    The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights recently adopted General Comment No 2 to interpret provisions of Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights Women. The provisions relate to women's rights to fertility control, contraception, family planning, information and education, and abortion. The present article highlights the General Comment's potential to promote women's sexual and reproductive rights in multiple ways. The General Comment's human rights value goes beyond providing states with guidance for framing their domestic laws, practices, and policies to comply with treaty obligations. General Comment No 2 is invaluable in educating all stakeholders-including healthcare providers, lawyers, policymakers, and judicial officers at the domestic level-about pertinent jurisprudence. Civil society and human rights advocates can use the General Comment to render the state accountable for failure to implement its treaty obligations.

  6. Effects of Gravity on Cells, Tissues, and Organisms: Their Implications on Habitat and Human Support in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizito, John

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will demonstrate that gravity plays a major role in advanced human life support in a closed habitat. The examples include, but are not limited to, control of purity in drinking water supplies (application of biocides), control of urine in space rodent habitats and operation of space septic tanks (waste management). Our goal is to understand and determine possible mechanisms that describe the process by which cells anchor to a substrate to form dynamic, vibrant communities of cells which influence human health in absence of gravity. The balance of all forces (mechanotransduction) acting on a cell will determine whether a cell thrives and multiplies or dies in a process called apoptosis and/or necrosis. The balance of forces are tightly coupled to the transport of nutrients and metabolic products (biochemotransduction) to and from the cell interface. We will highlight our effort to improve astronaut health by showing that microgravity life support systems have to be designed differently from those on Earth.

  7. Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This paper explains how advanced inverter functions (sometimes called 'smart inverters') contribute to the integration of high levels of solar PV generation onto the electrical grid and covers the contributions of advanced functions to maintaining grid stability. Policy and regulatory considerations associated with the deployment of advanced inverter functions are also introduced.

  8. Design study of advanced model support systems for the National Transonic Facility (NTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the sting (or support system) is a very critical part of the model system. The designer is frequently faced with the tradeoff of minimizing sting size, thereby compromising facility and model safety, against a larger sting and the subsequent problems of sting interference effects. In the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility (NTF), this problem is accentuated by the severe environment of high pressure/low temperature, designed into the facility to provide the desired high Reynolds number. Compromises in the configuration geometry and/or limiting the test envelope are therefore contrary to the purposes and goals of the NTF and are unacceptable. The results of an investigation aimed at improvements of 25% in both strength and Young's modulus of elasticity as compared to high strength cryogenically acceptable steels currently being used are presented. Various materials or combinations of materials were studied along with different design approaches. Design concepts were developed which included conventional material stings, advanced composites, and hybrid configurations. Candidate configurations are recommended.

  9. Design and development of a virtual reality simulator for advanced cardiac life support training.

    PubMed

    Vankipuram, Akshay; Khanal, Prabal; Ashby, Aaron; Vankipuram, Mithra; Gupta, Ashish; DrummGurnee, Denise; Josey, Karen; Smith, Marshall

    2014-07-01

    The use of virtual reality (VR) training tools for medical education could lead to improvements in the skills of clinicians while providing economic incentives for healthcare institutions. The use of VR tools can also mitigate some of the drawbacks currently associated with providing medical training in a traditional clinical environment such as scheduling conflicts and the need for specialized equipment (e.g., high-fidelity manikins). This paper presents the details of the framework and the development methodology associated with a VR-based training simulator for advanced cardiac life support, a time critical, team-based medical scenario. In addition, we also report the key findings of a usability study conducted to assess the efficacy of various features of this VR simulator through a postuse questionnaire administered to various care providers. The usability questionnaires were completed by two groups that used two different versions of the VR simulator. One version consisted of the VR trainer with it all its features and a minified version with certain immersive features disabled. We found an increase in usability scores from the minified group to the full VR group.

  10. Advanced cardiac life support instruction: do we know tomorrow what we know today?

    PubMed

    Settles, Julie; Jeffries, Pamela R; Smith, Terri M; Meyers, Jennifer S

    2011-06-01

    This study compared two instructional and evaluation methods for teaching advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) to health care professionals who were taking the ACLS course for the first time. Outcomes of the instruction were measured on completion of the course and at 3 months and 6 months postinstruction to identify differences in participants' knowledge retention, skills competency, and self-efficacy in performing ACLS. In addition, satisfaction with the teaching method was evaluated. The two methods of teaching and evaluating competencies for ACLS were (1) traditional classroom instruction plus practice and evaluation with monitors (low-fidelity simulation); and (2) classroom instruction plus practice with high-fidelity patient simulators. Participants in the study were 148 health care professionals or health care students who were novices in ACLS preparation. Participants were recruited from a large Midwest school of nursing and school of medicine, a Midwest physicians' assistant program, and a not-for-profit hospital. The findings showed no significant differences in ACLS knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, or learner satisfaction immediately after instruction or at 3 to 9 months posttraining. Retention of ACLS knowledge and skills competency over time was low in both groups; recommendations and interventions are discussed based on the study results.

  11. Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus as a food source in advanced life support systems: Initial considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Tilapia are currently under evaluation as a source of food and their contribution to reducing waste in advanced life support systems (ALSS). The nutritional composition of tilapia whole bodies, fillet, and carcass residues were quantitatively determined. Carbon and nitrogen free-extract percentages were similar among whole body (53.76% and 6.96%, respectively), fillets (47.06% and 6.75%, respectively), and carcass (56.36% and 7.04%, respectively) whereas percentages of N, S, and protein were highest in fillet (13.34, 1.34, and 83.37%, respectively) than whole body (9.27, 0.62, and 57.97%, respectively) and carcass (7.70, 0.39, and 48.15%, respectively). Whole body and fillet meet and/or exceeded current nutritional recommendations for protein, vitamin D, ascorbic acid, and selenium for international space station missions. Whole body appears to be a better source of lipids and n-3 fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorous than fillet. Consuming whole fish appears to optimize equivalent system mass compared to consumption of fillets. Additional research is needed to determine nutritional composition of tilapia whole body, fillet, and carcass when fed waste residues possibly encountered in an ALSS.

  12. Advances in three-dimensional integration technologies in support of infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temple, D. S.; Vick, E. P.; Malta, D.; Lueck, M. R.; Skokan, M. R.; Masterjohn, C. M.; Muzilla, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Staring infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) require pixel-level, three-dimensional (3D) integration with silicon readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that provide detector bias, integrate detector current, and may further process the signals. There is an increased interest in ROIC technology as a result of two trends in the evolution of infrared FPAs. The first trend involves decreasing the FPA pixel size, which leads to the increased information content within the same FPA die size. The second trend involves the desire to enhance signal processing capability at the FPA level, which opens the door to the detector behaving like a smart peripheral rather than a passive component—with complex signal processing functions being executed on, rather than off, the FPA chip. In this paper, we review recent advances in 3D integration process technologies that support these key trends in the development of infrared FPAs. Specifically, we discuss approaches in which the infrared sensor is integrated with 3D ROIC stacks composed of multiple layers of silicon circuitry interconnected using metal-filled through-silicon vias. We describe the continued development of the 3D integration technology and summarize key demonstrations that show its viability for pixels as small as 5 microns.

  13. Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) Sizing Evaluation for an Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Waguespack, Glenn M.; Paul, Thomas H.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2008-01-01

    As part of NASA s initiative to develop an advanced portable life support system (PLSS), a baseline schematic has been chosen that includes gaseous oxygen in a closed circuit ventilation configuration. Supply oxygen enters the suit at the back of the helmet and return gases pass over the astronaut s body to be extracted at the astronaut s wrists and ankles through the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG). The extracted gases are then treated using a rapid cycling amine (RCA) system for carbon dioxide and water removal and activated carbon for trace gas removal before being mixed with makeup oxygen and reintroduced into the helmet. Thermal control is provided by a suit water membrane evaporator (SWME). As an extension of the original schematic development, NASA evaluated several Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) configurations as alternatives to the baseline. The HECS configurations incorporate the use of full contact masks or non-contact masks to reduce flow requirements within the PLSS ventilation subsystem. The primary scope of this study was to compare the alternatives based on mass and volume considerations; however other design issues were also briefly investigated. This paper summarizes the results of this sizing analysis task.

  14. Towards Routine Backside SIMS Sample Preparation for Efficient Support of Advanced IC Process Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopstaken, M. J. P.; Cabral, C.; Pfeiffer, D.; Molella, C.; Ronsheim, P.

    2009-09-01

    Backside Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) profiling is a seemingly simple option to circumvent commonly observed depth resolution degradation in conventional front-side SIMS. However, large practical barriers in backside sample preparation prohibit a wider and more routine use of backside SIMS. Here, we explore the use of XeF2 dry etching instead of wet etching for removal of the residual Si-substrate. The former process is essentially isotropic with similar etch rates for the different crystallographic orientations and highly selective towards the dense thermal oxide (BOX). This eliminates the need for high-precision polishing of individual samples, reducing the substrate removal to a few coarse and relatively rapid polishing steps only. Moreover, XeF2 etching can be performed in unattended fashion and simultaneously on multiple samples, greatly increasing volume and turn-around time for backside sample preparation. Here we have explained the different practical aspects and demonstrated the feasibility of this novel approach for backside preparation for different front-end (S/D contact silicide metal, high-k metal gate) and back-end (ECD-Copper) of line applications. In conclusion, availability of a robust and reliable procedure for backside SIMS sample preparation with rapid turn-around is highly beneficial for a more efficient analytical support of advanced IC process development.

  15. Advanced trauma and life support principles: an audit of their application in a rural trauma centre.

    PubMed

    Calleary, J G; el-Nazir, A K; el-Sadig, O; Carolan, P E; Joyce, W P

    1999-01-01

    In December of 1995 a system of trauma care based on Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) principles was instituted to assess the impact of such principles on trauma care in a rural general hospital setting. This audit reviews the results over a 2 yr period to December 1997. All patients admitted with major trauma (i.e. with life threatening or potentially life threatening injuries) to Cavan General Hospital (CGH) were eligible for inclusion. This numbered 70 patients admitted (for at least 3 days), or who were transferred after resuscitation and stabilization as well as inpatient deaths. Twenty-seven patients who died prior to admission are also reviewed. The endpoints assessed were death, disability and survival 3 months post-accident. Based on injury severity scores 7 per cent of cases suffered fatal non-survivable injury, 20-30 per cent had very serious injury with an overall mortality rate of 17 per cent. The predicted mortality rate was 30 per cent. One-third had their full treatment at CGH with a 76 per cent survival rate. The other two-thirds were transferred for specialist intervention with an overall survival of 80 per cent, a disability rate of 16 per cent and a mortality rate of 4 per cent. No patient died during transportation. PMID:10422385

  16. Advanced Research Training in Human Geography: The Scottish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwanzura-Ottemoeller, Fungisai; Hopkins, Peter; Lorimer, Hayden; Philip, Lorna J.

    2005-01-01

    Formal research training is integral to research degrees in human geography completed in UK higher education institutions today. The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) has been the driving force behind the formalization of research training. Arguably less well known among the ESRC research training recommendations is the stipulation that…

  17. Human Relationships That Nurture and Advance the Construction of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Gwaltney, Thomas M.

    This paper reviews the historical antecedents and theoretical foundation for a constructivist approach to teaching and learning. One neglected characteristic of constructivism apparent in the professional literature is the need to better understand that human relationships in the classroom are often pivotal in helping students construct knowledge.…

  18. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  19. An On-line Technology Information System (OTIS) for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Boulanger, Richard; Hogan, John A.; Rodriquez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    OTIS is an on-line communication platform designed for smooth flow of technology information between advanced life support (ALS) technology developers, researchers, system analysts, and managers. With pathways for efficient transfer of information, several improvements in the ALS Program will result. With OTIS, it will be possible to provide programmatic information for technology developers and researchers, technical information for analysts, and managerial decision support. OTIS is a platform that enables the effective research, development, and delivery of complex systems for life support. An electronic data collection form has been developed for the solid waste element, drafted by the Solid Waste Working Group. Forms for other elements (air revitalization, water recovery, food processing, biomass production and thermal control) will also be developed, based on lessons learned from the development of the solid waste form. All forms will be developed by consultation with other working groups, comprised of experts in the area of interest. Forms will be converted to an on-line data collection interface that technology developers will use to transfer information into OTIS. Funded technology developers will log in to OTIS annually to complete the element- specific forms for their technology. The type and amount of information requested expands as the technology readiness level (TRL) increases. The completed forms will feed into a regularly updated and maintained database that will store technology information and allow for database searching. To ensure confidentiality of proprietary information, security permissions will be customized for each user. Principal investigators of a project will be able to designate certain data as proprietary and only technical monitors of a task, ALS Management, and the principal investigator will have the ability to view this information. The typical OTIS user will be able to read all non-proprietary information about all projects

  20. Evolution of Flexible Multibody Dynamics for Simulation Applications Supporting Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, An; Brain, Thomas A.; MacLean, John R.; Quiocho, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    During the course of transition from the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs to the Orion and Journey to Mars exploration programs, a generic flexible multibody dynamics formulation and associated software implementation has evolved to meet an ever changing set of requirements at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Challenging problems related to large transitional topologies and robotic free-flyer vehicle capture/ release, contact dynamics, and exploration missions concept evaluation through simulation (e.g., asteroid surface operations) have driven this continued development. Coupled with this need is the requirement to oftentimes support human spaceflight operations in real-time. Moreover, it has been desirable to allow even more rapid prototyping of on-orbit manipulator and spacecraft systems, to support less complex infrastructure software for massively integrated simulations, to yield further computational efficiencies, and to take advantage of recent advances and availability of multi-core computing platforms. Since engineering analysis, procedures development, and crew familiarity/training for human spaceflight is fundamental to JSC's charter, there is also a strong desire to share and reuse models in both the non-realtime and real-time domains, with the goal of retaining as much multibody dynamics fidelity as possible. Three specific enhancements are reviewed here: (1) linked list organization to address large transitional topologies, (2) body level model order reduction, and (3) parallel formulation/implementation. This paper provides a detailed overview of these primary updates to JSC's flexible multibody dynamics algorithms as well as a comparison of numerical results to previous formulations and associated software.

  1. Advanced human-machine interface for collaborative building control

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xianjun S.; Song, Zhen; Chen, Yanzi; Zhang, Shaopeng; Lu, Yan

    2015-08-11

    A system for collaborative energy management and control in a building, including an energy management controller, one or more occupant HMIs that supports two-way communication between building occupants and a facility manager, and between building occupants and the energy management controller, and a facility manager HMI that supports two-way communication between the facility manager and the building occupants, and between the facility manager and the energy management controller, in which the occupant HMI allows building occupants to provide temperature preferences to the facility manager and the energy management controller, and the facility manager HMI allows the facility manager to configure an energy policy for the building as a set of rules and to view occupants' aggregated temperature preferences, and the energy management controller determines an optimum temperature range that resolves conflicting occupant temperature preferences and occupant temperature preferences that conflict with the facility manager's energy policy for the building.

  2. Recent Advances in Computational Mechanics of the Human Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, M.; Dabiri, Y.; Li, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Computational mechanics has been advanced in every area of orthopedic biomechanics. The objective of this paper is to provide a general review of the computational models used in the analysis of the mechanical function of the knee joint in different loading and pathological conditions. Major review articles published in related areas are summarized first. The constitutive models for soft tissues of the knee are briefly discussed to facilitate understanding the joint modeling. A detailed review of the tibiofemoral joint models is presented thereafter. The geometry reconstruction procedures as well as some critical issues in finite element modeling are also discussed. Computational modeling can be a reliable and effective method for the study of mechanical behavior of the knee joint, if the model is constructed correctly. Single-phase material models have been used to predict the instantaneous load response for the healthy knees and repaired joints, such as total and partial meniscectomies, ACL and PCL reconstructions, and joint replacements. Recently, poromechanical models accounting for fluid pressurization in soft tissues have been proposed to study the viscoelastic response of the healthy and impaired knee joints. While the constitutive modeling has been considerably advanced at the tissue level, many challenges still exist in applying a good material model to three-dimensional joint simulations. A complete model validation at the joint level seems impossible presently, because only simple data can be obtained experimentally. Therefore, model validation may be concentrated on the constitutive laws using multiple mechanical tests of the tissues. Extensive model verifications at the joint level are still crucial for the accuracy of the modeling. PMID:23509602

  3. Cognitive Support: Extending Human Knowledge and Processing Capacities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neerincx, Mark A.; de Greef, H. Paul

    1998-01-01

    This study of 40 undergraduates examined whether aiding as cognitive support (i.e., offering computer users knowledge they are missing) can supplement lack of knowledge and capacity under tasks with high mental loading, such as dealing with irregularities in process control. Users of a railway traffic control simulator dealt better and faster with…

  4. Circular pump support of blood circulation in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, A. E.; Fomin, V. M.; Prikhodko, Yu. M.; Cherniavskiy, A. M.; Fomichev, V. P.; Fomichev, A. V.; Chekhov, V. P.; Ruzmatov, T. M.

    2016-10-01

    The need of circulatory support systems in the treatment of chronic heart failure is increasing constantly, as 20% of patients in the waiting list die every year. Despite the great need for mechanical heart support systems, using of available systems is limited by the expensiveness. In addition, there is no one system that is 100% responsible to all medical and technical requirements, and would be completely safe for patient. Therefore, further research in the field of circu-latory support systems, considering health and technical requirements is relevant. One of the new directions in the study are disc pumps of viscous friction for liquid transporting, based on the Tesla pump principle. The operation principle of pumps based on the phenomenon of the boundary layer which is formed on the disk rotating in a fluid. There are experimental studies results of models with different variants of the rotor suspension, the various forms and the number of disks, forms the pump housing. However, none of the above samples was not brought to clinical trials. Furthermore, despite the promise of this model is still used today in some circulatory support systems are no similar type pump. Published data provide a basis for further development and testing of the pump model and allow to hope for leveling a number of significant shortcomings of modern left ventricular bypass systems.

  5. Setaria digitata in advancing our knowledge of human lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Perumal, A N I; Gunawardene, Y I N S; Dassanayake, R S

    2016-03-01

    Setaria digitata is a filarial parasite that causes fatal cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, sheep and horses, resulting in substantial economic losses in animal husbandry in the tropics. Due to its close resemblance to Wuchereria bancrofti, this nematode is also frequently used as a model organism to study human lymphatic filariasis. This review highlights numerous insights into the morphological, histological, biochemical, immunological and genetic aspects of S. digitata that have broadened our understanding towards the control and eradication of filarial diseases. PMID:25924635

  6. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Liu, Bing; Winiarski, David W.; McBride, Merle F.; Suharli, L.; Walden, D.

    2006-11-30

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings (AEDG-SO), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in small office buildings over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-SO is the first in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the New Buildings Institute (NBI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Each of the guides in the AEDG series will provide recommendations and user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers and owners of small commercial buildings that will encourage steady progress towards net-zero energy buildings. The guides will provide prescriptive recommendation packages that are capable of reaching the energy savings target for each climate zone in order to ease the burden of the design and construction of energy-efficient small commercial buildings The AEDG-SO was developed by an ASHRAE Special Project committee (SP-102) made up of representatives of each of the partner organizations in eight months. This TSD describes the charge given to the committee in developing the office guide and outlines the schedule of the development effort. The project committee developed two prototype office buildings (5,000 ft2 frame building and 20,000 ft2 two-story mass building) to represent the class of small office buildings and performed an energy simulation scoping study to determine the preliminary levels of efficiency necessary to meet the energy savings target. The simulation approach used by the project committee is documented in this TSD along with

  7. Personality and support for universal human rights: a review and test of a structural model.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Sam

    2010-12-01

    All individual differences that predict support for international human rights are first reviewed: support for human rights is linked most positively to "globalism" (other international and environmental concerns), "identification with all humanity," principled moral reasoning, benevolence, and dispositional empathy. It is related most negatively to ethnocentrism and its root dispositions, the social dominance orientation, and authoritarianism. Other correlates are also noted. Secondly, a structural model of the effects of authoritarianism, social dominance, ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity upon commitment to human rights is presented and tested. Across 2 studies (Study 1, N=218 nonstudent adults; Study 2, N=102 university students), ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity directly predicted human rights commitment. The effects of authoritarianism upon this commitment were fully mediated through enhanced ethnocentrism and reduced identification with all humanity. The effects of social dominance were similar, but its direct effect upon human rights commitment remained significant and was not, in the second study, mediated by reduced dispositional empathy. PMID:21039530

  8. Aids to Computer-Based Multimedia Learning: A Comparison of Human Tutoring and Computer Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodicio, H. Garcia; Sanchez, E.

    2012-01-01

    Learners are usually provided with support devices because they find it difficult to learn from multimedia presentations. A key question, with no clear answer so far, is how best to present these support devices. One possibility is to insert them into the multimedia presentation (canned support), while another is to have a human agent provide them…

  9. Temporality Matters: Advancing a Method for Analyzing Problem-Solving Processes in a Computer-Supported Collaborative Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues for a need to develop methods for examining temporal patterns in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) groups. It advances one such quantitative method--Lag-sequential Analysis (LsA)--and instantiates it in a study of problem-solving interactions of collaborative groups in an online, synchronous environment. LsA…

  10. Designing to Promote Access, Quality, and Student Support in an Advanced Certificate Programme for Rural Teachers in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresen, Jill W.; Hendrikz, Johan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the re-design of the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) programme, which is offered by the University of Pretoria through distance education (DE) to teachers in rural South Africa. In 2007, a team re-designed the programme with the goal of promoting access, quality, and student support. The team included an independent…

  11. 75 FR 28813 - Capital Advance Program Submission Requirements for the Section 202 Supportive Housing for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... for the Elderly and the Section 811 Supportive Housing for Persons With Disabilities AGENCY: Office of... the Section 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly and the Section 811 Supportive Housing for...

  12. A Toolset for Supporting Iterative Human Automation: Interaction in Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The addition of automation has greatly extended humans' capability to accomplish tasks, including those that are difficult, complex and safety critical. The majority of Human - Automation Interacton (HAl) results in more efficient and safe operations, ho,,:,ever ertain unpected atomatlon behaviors or "automation surprises" can be frustrating and, In certain safety critical operations (e.g. transporttion, manufacturing control, medicine), may result in injuries or. the loss of life.. (Mellor, 1994; Leveson, 1995; FAA, 1995; BASI, 1998; Sheridan, 2002). This papr describes he development of a design tool that enables on the rapid development and evaluation. of automaton prototypes. The ultimate goal of the work is to provide a design platform upon which automation surprise vulnerability analyses can be integrated.

  13. Opportunities for mixed oxide fuel testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification; (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania; (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition; (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight; (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu; (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu; (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure; (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity; (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products; (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies; and (11) Fuel performance code validation. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory possesses many advantages for performing tests to resolve most of the issues identified above. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified. The facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-West can meet all potential needs for pre- and post-irradiation examination that might arise in a MOX fuel qualification program.

  14. Plant Growth Experiments in Zeoponic Substrates: Applications for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J. E.; Henderson, K. E.; Steinberg, S. L.; Barta, D. J.; Galindo, C.; Henninger, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    A zeoponic plant-growth system is defined as the cultivation of plants in artificial soils, which have zeolites as a major component (Allen and Ming, 1995). Zeolites are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that have the ability to exchange constituent cations without major change of the mineral structure. Recently, zeoponic systems developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) slowly release some (Allen et at., 1995) or all of the essential plant-growth nutrients (Ming et at., 1995). These systems have NH4- and K-exchanged clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) and either natural or synthetic apatite (a calcium phosphate mineral). For the natural apatite system, Ca and P were made available to the plant by the dissolution of apatite. Potassium and NH4-N were made available by ion-exchange reactions involving Ca(2+) from apatite dissolution and K(+) and NH4(+) on zeolitic exchange sites. In addition to NH4-N, K, Ca, and P, the synthetic apatite system also supplied Mg, S, and other micronutrients during dissolution (Figure 1). The overall objective of this research task is to develop zeoponic substrates wherein all plant growth nutrients are supplied by the plant growth medium for several growth seasons with only the addition of water. The substrate is being developed for plant growth in Advanced Life Support (ALS) testbeds (i.e., BioPLEX) and microgravity plant growth experiments. Zeoponic substrates have been used for plant growth experiments on two Space Shuttle flight experiments (STS-60; STS-63; Morrow et aI., 1995). These substrates may be ideally suited for plant growth experiments on the International Space Station and applications in ALS testbeds. However, there are several issues that need to be resolved before zeoponics will be the choice substrate for plant growth experiments in space. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview on recent research directed toward the refinement of zeoponic plant growth substrates.

  15. Architecture and Functionality of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System (OPIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John A.; Levri, Julie A.; Morrow, Rich; Cavazzoni, Jim; Rodriquez, Luis F.; Riano, Rebecca; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2004-01-01

    An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Amcs Research Center (ARC) tu develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL(Trademark) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPE will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an R&TD status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism. Using OPIS, ALS managers and element leads will be able to carry out informed research and technology development investment decisions, and allow analysts to perform accurate systems evaluations. Additionally, the range and specificity of information solicited will serve to educate technology developers of programmatic needs. OPIS will collect comprehensive information from all ALS projects as well as highly detailed information specific to technology development in each ALS area (Waste, Water, Air, Biomass, Food, Thermal, and Control). Because the scope of needed information can vary dramatically between areas, element-specific technology information is being compiled with the aid of multiple specialized working groups. This paper presents the current development status in terms of the architecture and functionality of OPIS. Possible implementation approaches for OPIS are also discussed.

  16. Can course format influence the performance of students in an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) program?

    PubMed

    Garrido, F D; Romano, M M D; Schmidt, A; Pazin-Filho, A

    2011-01-01

    Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) is a problem-based course that employs simulation techniques to teach the standard management techniques of cardiovascular emergencies. Its structure is periodically revised according to new versions of the American Heart Association guidelines. Since it was introduced in Brazil in 1996, the ACLS has been through two conceptual and structural changes. Detailed documented reports on the effect of these changes on student performance are limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conceptual and structural changes of the course on student ACLS performance at a Brazilian training center. This was a retrospective study of 3266 students divided into two groups according to the teaching model: Model 1 (N = 1181; 1999-2003) and Model 2 (N = 2085; 2003-2007). Model 2 increased practical skill activities to 75% of the total versus 60% in Model 1. Furthermore, the teaching material provided to the students before the course was more objective than that used for Model 1. Scores greater than 85% in the theoretical evaluation and approval in the evaluation of practice by the instructor were considered to be a positive outcome. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (specialty, residency, study time, opportunity to enhance practical skills during the course and location where the course was given). Compared to Model 1, Model 2 presented odds ratios (OR) indicating better performance in the theoretical (OR = 1.34; 95%CI = 1.10-1.64), practical (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 0.90-1.57), and combined (OR = 1.38; 95%CI = 1.13-1.68) outcomes. Increasing the time devoted to practical skills did not improve the performance of ACLS students.

  17. An On-Line Technology Information System (OTIS) for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Boulanger, Richard; Hoganm John A.; Rodriquez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    An On-line Technology Information System (OTIS) is currently being developed for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. This paper describes the preliminary development of OTIS, which is a system designed to provide centralized collection and organization of technology information. The lack of thorough, reliable and easily understood technology information is a major obstacle in effective assessment of technology development progress, trade studies, metric calculations, and technology selection for integrated testing. OTIS will provide a formalized, well-organized protocol to communicate thorough, accurate, current and relevant technology information between the hands-on technology developer and the ALS Community. The need for this type of information transfer system within the Solid Waste Management (SWM) element was recently identified and addressed. A SWM Technology Information Form (TIF) was developed specifically for collecting detailed technology information in the area of SWM. In the TIF, information is requested from SWM technology developers, based upon the Technology Readiness Level (TRL). Basic information is requested for low-TRL technologies, and more detailed information is requested as the TRL of the technology increases. A comparable form is also being developed for the wastewater processing element. In the future, similar forms will also be developed for the ALS elements of air revitalization, food processing, biomass production and thermal control. These ALS element-specific forms will be implemented in OTIS via a web-accessible interface,with the data stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQLTM) located on a secure server at NASA Ames Research Center. With OTIS, ALS element leads and managers will be able to carry out informed research and development investment, thereby promoting technology through the TRL scale. OTIS will also allow analysts to make accurate evaluations of technology options. Additionally, the range

  18. Architecture and Functionality of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John A.; Levri, Julie A.; Morrow, Rich; Cavazzoni, Jim; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Riano, Rebecca; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2004-01-01

    An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a Web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPE will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an research and technology development (R&TD) status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism for ALS-funded projects. Using OPIS, ALS managers and element leads will be able to carry out informed R&TD investment decisions, and allow analysts to perform accurate systems evaluations. Additionally, the range and specificity of information solicited will serve to educate technology developers of programmatic needs. OPIS will collect comprehensive information from all ALS projects as well as highly detailed information specific to technology development in each ALS area (Waste, Water, Air, Biomass, Food, Thermal, Controls and Systems Analysis). Because the scope of needed information can vary dramatically between areas, element-specific technology information is being compiled with the aid of multiple specialized working groups. This paper presents the current development status in terms of the architecture and functionality of OPIS. Possible implementation approaches for OPIS are also discussed.

  19. Practical Considerations of Waste Heat Reuse for a Mars Mission Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Energy conservation is a key issue in design optimization of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) for long-term space missions. By considering designs for conservation at the system level, energy saving opportunities arise that would otherwise go unnoticed. This paper builds on a steady-state investigation of system-level waste heat reuse in an ALSS with a low degree of crop growth for a Mars mission. In past studies, such a system has been defined in terms of technology types, hot and cold stream identification and stream energy content. The maximum steady-state potential for power and cooling savings within the system was computed via the Pinch Method. In this paper, several practical issues are considered for achieving a pragmatic estimate of total system savings in terms of equivalent system mass (ESM), rather than savings solely in terms of power and cooling. In this paper, more realistic ESM savings are computed by considering heat transfer inefficiencies during material transfer. An estimate of the steady-state mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with heat exchange equipment is made by considering heat exchange equipment material type and configuration, stream flow characteristics and associated energy losses during the heat exchange process. Also, previously estimated power and cooling savings are adjusted to reflect the impact of such energy losses. This paper goes one step further than the traditional Pinch Method of considering waste heat reuse in heat exchangers to include ESM savings that occur with direct reuse of a stream. For example, rather than exchanging heat between crop growth lamp cooling air and air going to a clothes dryer, air used to cool crop lamps might be reused directly for clothes drying purposes. When thermodynamically feasible, such an approach may increase ESM savings by minimizing the mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with stream routing equipment.

  20. Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is currently underway at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features two new evaporative cooling systems, the Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (RVP SWME), and the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware, and like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crewmember and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crewmember and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and more flight like back-pressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. In addition to the RVP SWME, the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL), was developed for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feed-water assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the RVP SWME, but is only 25% of the size of RVP SWME, providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a SOV reduction in size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The development of these evaporative cooling

  1. Application of Energy Integration Techniques to the Design of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory

    2000-01-01

    Exchanging heat between hot and cold streams within an advanced life support system can save energy. This savings will reduce the equivalent system mass (ESM) of the system. Different system configurations are examined under steady-state conditions for various percentages of food growth and waste treatment. The scenarios investigated represent possible design options for a Mars reference mission. Reference mission definitions are drawn from the ALSS Modeling and Analysis Reference Missions Document, which includes definitions for space station evolution, Mars landers, and a Mars base. For each scenario, streams requiring heating or cooling are identified and characterized by mass flow, supply and target temperatures and heat capacities. The Pinch Technique is applied to identify good matches for energy exchange between the hot and cold streams and to calculate the minimum external heating and cooling requirements for the system. For each pair of hot and cold streams that are matched, there will be a reduction in the amount of external heating and cooling required, and the original heating and cooling equipment will be replaced with a heat exchanger. The net cost savings can be either positive or negative for each stream pairing, and the priority for implementing each pairing can be ranked according to its potential cost savings. Using the Pinch technique, a complete system heat exchange network is developed and heat exchangers are sized to allow for calculation of ESM. The energy-integrated design typically has a lower total ESM than the original design with no energy integration. A comparison of ESM savings in each of the scenarios is made to direct future Pinch Analysis efforts.

  2. Beyond the biosphere. [aerospace environments and human life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Parker, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The near-earth-space, planetary and interplanetary environments are described with emphasis on their biomedical significance. The characteristics of the microgravity field, low gravity and radiation conditions in earth orbit are described, noting the necessity of avoiding materials which can outgas toxic substances during long-term mission. Details of the atmospheres, global meteorology, and terrains of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, the Jovian satellites, and Saturn are reviewed. Finally, a brief discussion is provided of the life-support systems which will be required on interstellar voyages.

  3. Advancement Information Resources Management: An Information Understanding Profession in Support of Philanthropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Anne E.

    Professional fundraising has given rise to a new information specialist profession. This career path, which has been known as prospect research or advancement research, should be more accurately characterized as information resources management for advancement. With primary emphasis on value-added information processes that involve analysis and…

  4. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…

  5. Teaching Advanced Skills to Educationally Disadvantaged Students. Data Analysis Support Center (DASC) Task 4. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Barbara, Ed.; Knapp, Michael S., Ed.

    This document comprises six papers that discuss teaching advanced skills to educationally disadvantaged students. An introductory paper, "Models for Teaching Advanced Skills to Educationally Disadvantaged Children" (B. Means and M. S. Knapp), synthesizes the themes that characterize the collection of papers as a whole, and discusses general issues…

  6. A human performance modelling approach to intelligent decision support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, Michael S.; Boys, Randy M.

    1987-01-01

    Manned space operations require that the many automated subsystems of a space platform be controllable by a limited number of personnel. To minimize the interaction required of these operators, artificial intelligence techniques may be applied to embed a human performance model within the automated, or semi-automated, systems, thereby allowing the derivation of operator intent. A similar application has previously been proposed in the domain of fighter piloting, where the demand for pilot intent derivation is primarily a function of limited time and high workload rather than limited operators. The derivation and propagation of pilot intent is presented as it might be applied to some programs.

  7. Metabolic Flux Analysis -application in plant metabolic modelling for advanced life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Hezard, Pauline; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    Plants have an important role in providing food and fresh oxygen for humans in a closed environment during long duration missions to Mars or Moon. Also, plants play an important role for recycling water. Thus, plant modelling (crop composition, yield prediction and the responses to its environment within the closed loop) gets much attention in the development of closed ecological life support systems. In order to achieve this, metabolic flux computation methods accounting for reactions stoichiometry and chemical energy conservation obtained from metabolic pathways description of different plant parts are required. The basic ideas of metabolic modelling and their application to various plant parts will be discussed. Metabolic systems consist of a set of metabolites and reactions that consume or produce them. The metabolic pathways within a metabolic network for each plant part or sub level are characterised and the metabolic fluxes, defined as the amount of converted metabolite per unit time and per unit mass of tissue (or per plant part), can be calculated. MBA (Metabolic flux analysis) which is a constraint based approach is effective at calculating flux distributions through bio-chemical networks. This methodology can be applied to several plants' growth situations. In terms of space appli-cations, it is shown how this approach could bring valuable tools for assessing and quantifying the effects of the environment of a close system on growth rate and conversion yields.

  8. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Advanced UV Absorbers for the Protection of Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Hüglin, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the damaging effects of UV radiation to human skin triggered the market introduction of new cosmetic UV absorbers. This article summarizes the outcome of a multi-year research program, in which the author contributed to the development of different new UV filters. First of all, the molecular design and the basic properties of bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (BEMT) will be presented. This oil-soluble filter, which today is widely used in both beach products and skin care products, exhibits inherent photostability and strong broad-spectrum UV-A+B absorbance. Based on the concept of micronized organic UV absorbers, the UV-B filter tris biphenyl triazine (TBPT) will be introduced. At present TBPT exhibits the highest efficacy of all cosmetic UV absorbers in the market (measured by area under the UV spectrum). Finally, the concept of liposomogenic UV absorbers will be featured. This approach was developed to create water-resistant UV filters, as liposomogenic structures are thought to integrate into the lipids of the horny layer. Due to prohibitively high costs, this technology did not result in a commercial product so far. PMID:27561611

  10. Advanced UV Absorbers for the Protection of Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Hüglin, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the damaging effects of UV radiation to human skin triggered the market introduction of new cosmetic UV absorbers. This article summarizes the outcome of a multi-year research program, in which the author contributed to the development of different new UV filters. First of all, the molecular design and the basic properties of bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (BEMT) will be presented. This oil-soluble filter, which today is widely used in both beach products and skin care products, exhibits inherent photostability and strong broad-spectrum UV-A+B absorbance. Based on the concept of micronized organic UV absorbers, the UV-B filter tris biphenyl triazine (TBPT) will be introduced. At present TBPT exhibits the highest efficacy of all cosmetic UV absorbers in the market (measured by area under the UV spectrum). Finally, the concept of liposomogenic UV absorbers will be featured. This approach was developed to create water-resistant UV filters, as liposomogenic structures are thought to integrate into the lipids of the horny layer. Due to prohibitively high costs, this technology did not result in a commercial product so far.

  11. Advanced Analysis of Pharmaco-Sleep Data in Humans.

    PubMed

    Anderer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaco-sleep studies in humans aim at the description of the effects of drugs, most frequently substances that act on the central nervous system, by means of quantitative analysis of biosignals recorded in subjects during sleep. Up to 2007, the only standard for the classification of sleep macrostructure that found worldwide acceptance were the rules published in 1968 by Rechtschaffen and Kales. In May 2007, the AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events was published by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, and concerning the classification of sleep stages, these new rules are supposed to replace those developed by Rechtschaffen and Kales. As compared to the rather low interrater reliability of manual sleep scoring, semiautomated approaches may achieve a reliability close to 1 (Cohen's kappa 0.99 for 2 semiautomated scorings as compared to 0.76 for 2 manual scorings) without any decline in validity. Depending on the aim of the pharmaco-sleep study, additional analyses concerning sleep fragmentation, sleep microstructure, sleep depth, sleep processes and local aspects of sleep should be considered. For some of these additional features, rules for visual scoring have been established, while for others automatic analysis is obligatory. Generally, for reasons of cost-effectiveness but also reliability, automatic analysis is preferable to visual analysis. However, the validity of the automatic method applied has to be proven. PMID:26901054

  12. Analysis of Logistics in Support of a Human Lunar Outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William; Earle, Kevin; Goodliff, Kandyce; Reeves, j. D.; Andrashko, Mark; Merrill, R. Gabe; Stromgren, Chel

    2008-01-01

    Strategic level analysis of the integrated behavior of lunar transportation system and lunar surface system architecture options is performed to inform NASA Constellation Program senior management on the benefit, viability, affordability, and robustness of system design choices. This paper presents an overview of the approach used to perform the campaign (strategic) analysis, with an emphasis on the logistics modeling and the impacts of logistics resupply on campaign behavior. An overview of deterministic and probabilistic analysis approaches is provided, with a discussion of the importance of each approach to understanding the integrated system behavior. The logistics required to support lunar surface habitation are analyzed from both 'macro-logistics' and 'micro-logistics' perspectives, where macro-logistics focuses on the delivery of goods to a destination and micro-logistics focuses on local handling of re-supply goods at a destination. An example campaign is provided to tie the theories of campaign analysis to results generation capabilities.

  13. Plant diversity to support humans in a CELSS ground based demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, J. M.; Hoff, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) for human habitation in preparation for future long duration space flights is considered. The success of such a system depends upon the feasibility of revitalization of food resources and the human nutritional needs which are to be met by these food resources. Edible higher plants are prime candidates for the photoautotrophic components of this system if nutritionally adequate diets can be derived from these plant sources to support humans. Human nutritional requirements information based on current knowledge are developed for inhabitants envisioned in the CELSS ground based demonstrator. Groups of plant products that can provide the nutrients are identified.

  14. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  15. Concurrent CO2 Control and O2 Generation for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Duncan, Keith L.; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena E.; Bishop, Sean R.; Wachsman, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and widely studied, however, conventional devices using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes operate at temperatures greater than 700 C. Operating at such high temperatures increases system mass compared to lower temperature systems because of increased energy overhead to get the COG up to operating temperature and the need for heavier insulation and/or heat exchangers to reduce the COG oxygen (O2) output temperature for comfortable inhalation. Recently, the University of Florida developed novel ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer electrolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth for NASA's future exploration of Mars. To reduce landed mass and operation expenditures during the mission, in-situ resource utilization was proposed using these COGs to obtain both lifesupporting oxygen and oxidant/propellant fuel, by converting CO2 from the Mars atmosphere. The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. These results indicate that this technology could be adapted to CO2 removal from a spacesuit and other applications in which CO2 removal was an issue. The strategy proposed for CO2 removal for advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer combined with a COG so that it is reduced all the way to solid carbon and oxygen. Hence, a three-phased approach was used for the development of a viable low weight COG for CO2 removal. First, to reduce the COG operating temperature a high oxide ion conductivity electrolyte was developed. Second, to promote full CO2 reduction while avoiding the problem of carbon deposition on the COG cathode, novel cathodes and a removable catalytic carbon deposition layer were designed. Third, to improve efficiency, a pre-stage for CO2 absorption was used to concentrate CO2 from the exhalate before sending it to the COG. These subsystems were then

  16. Hyper-Brain Networks Support Romantic Kissing in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated social interaction is associated with, and presumably dependent on, oscillatory couplings within and between brains, which, in turn, consist of an interplay across different frequencies. Here, we introduce a method of network construction based on the cross-frequency coupling (CFC) and examine whether coordinated social interaction is associated with CFC within and between brains. Specifically, we compare the electroencephalograms (EEG) of 15 heterosexual couples during romantic kissing to kissing one’s own hand, and to kissing one another while performing silent arithmetic. Using graph-theory methods, we identify theta–alpha hyper-brain networks, with alpha serving a cleaving or pacemaker function. Network strengths were higher and characteristic path lengths shorter when individuals were kissing each other than when they were kissing their own hand. In both partner-oriented kissing conditions, greater strength and shorter path length for 5-Hz oscillation nodes correlated reliably with greater partner-oriented kissing satisfaction. This correlation was especially strong for inter-brain connections in both partner-oriented kissing conditions but not during kissing one’s own hand. Kissing quality assessed after the kissing with silent arithmetic correlated reliably with intra-brain strength of 10-Hz oscillation nodes during both romantic kissing and kissing with silent arithmetic. We conclude that hyper-brain networks based on CFC may capture neural mechanisms that support interpersonally coordinated voluntary action and bonding behavior. PMID:25375132

  17. HUMAN HEALTH METRICS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS: LESSONS FROM HEALTH ECONOMICS AND DECISION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decision makers using environmental decision support tools are often confronted with information that predicts a multitude of different human health effects due to environmental stressors. If these health effects need to be contrasted with costs or compared with alternative scena...

  18. Biological systems for human life support: Review of the research in the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepelev, Y. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Various models of biological human life support systems are surveyed. Biological structures, dimensions, and functional parameters of man-chlorella-microorganism models are described. Significant observations and the results obtained from these models are reported.

  19. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  20. Perspectives on the Development and Future of Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrant, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography faced a number of hurdles that nearly derailed the course before it launched in 2000-2001. A dedicated cadre of geography professionals and high school teachers rose to the challenge and the course remains one of the fastest growing AP courses currently offered by College Board. Seventeen readers and leaders…

  1. Placing Advanced Placement® Human Geography: Its Role in U.S. Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Advanced Placement Human Geography (AP HG) in the context of its place in efforts to reform geography education. It presents a critical analysis of the AP program and its curriculum, asserting that it represents "powerful knowledge" as conceptualized by Young. It concludes with a call for research in AP HG aligned…

  2. Familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome: A short-period circadian rhythm variant in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, C R; Campbell, S S; Zone, S E; Cooper, F; DeSano, A; Murphy, P J; Jones, B; Czajkowski, L; Ptácek, L J

    1999-09-01

    Biological circadian clocks oscillate with an approximately 24-hour period, are ubiquitous, and presumably confer a selective advantage by anticipating the transitions between day and night. The circadian rhythms of sleep, melatonin secretion and body core temperature are thought to be generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, the anatomic locus of the mammalian circadian clock. Autosomal semi-dominant mutations in rodents with fast or slow biological clocks (that is, short or long endogenous period lengths; tau) are associated with phase-advanced or delayed sleep-wake rhythms, respectively. These models predict the existence of familial human circadian rhythm variants but none of the human circadian rhythm disorders are known to have a familial tendency. Although a slight 'morning lark' tendency is common, individuals with a large and disabling sleep phase-advance are rare. This disorder, advanced sleep-phase syndrome, is characterized by very early sleep onset and offset; only two cases are reported in young adults. Here we describe three kindreds with a profound phase advance of the sleep-wake, melatonin and temperature rhythms associated with a very short tau. The trait segregates as an autosomal dominant with high penetrance. These kindreds represent a well-characterized familial circadian rhythm variant in humans and provide a unique opportunity for genetic analysis of human circadian physiology. PMID:10470086

  3. Digital communication to support clinical supervision: considering the human factors.

    PubMed

    Mather, Carey; Marlow, Annette; Cummings, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    During the last three years the School of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Tasmania has used a needs assessment survey to explore the needs of organizations and nursing professionals that facilitate and clinically supervise Bachelor of Nursing students in the workplace. Findings from the survey indicated that staff at healthcare organizations wanted a communication strategy that was easily accessible by clinicians who supervised students during work integrated learning placements. In particular they wanted to receive timely information related to the role and function of supervisors in practice. The development of the digital strategy to strengthen the development of a community of practice between the University, organizations, facilities and clinical supervisors was identified as the key method of improving communication. Blogging and micro blogging were selected as methods of choice for the implementation of the digital strategy because they were easy to set up, use and enable equity of access to geographically dispersed practitioners in urban and rural areas. Change champions were identified to disseminate information about the strategy within their workplaces. Although clinicians indicated electronic communication as their preferred method, there were a number of human factors at a systems and individual level identified to be challenges when communicating with clinical supervisors who were based off-campus. Information communication technology policies and embedded culture towards social presence were impediments to using this approach in some organizations. Additionally, it was found that it is necessary for this group of clinicians to be educated about using digital methods to undertake their role as clinical supervisors in their varied clinical practice environments.

  4. FOXO transcription factors support oxidative stress resistance in human chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Akasaki, Yukio; Alvarez-Garcia, Oscar; Saito, Masahiko; Caramés, Beatriz; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Lotz, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A major signaling pathway that regulates cellular aging is the Insulin/IGF-1/Pl3k/Akt/forkhead-box class O (FOXO) transcription factor axis. Previously, we observed that FOXO factors are dysregulated in aged and OA cartilage. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of downregulated FOXOs on chondrocytes. Methods Small interference RNAs (siRNAs) for FOXO1 and FOXO3 were transfected into human articular chondrocytes. Cell viability following treatment with the oxidant tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) was measured by MTT assay. Caspase-3/7 activation and apoptotic cell were examined. Gene and protein expression of antioxidant proteins and autophagy related proteins and changes in inflammatory mediators following treatment with IL-1β were analyzed. Cells transfected with FOXO plasmids were also analyzed. Results Cell viability was significantly reduced by siFOXO under treatment with t-BHP. Apoptosis accompanied by caspase activation was significantly induced in FOXO-siRNA transfected chondrocytes. Knock-down of FOXO1 and FOXO1+3 resulted in significant reductions of GPX-1, catalase, LC3, Beclin1, and SIRT1 proteins following treatment with t-BHP. In contrast, constitutive active form of FOXO 3 increased cell viability while inducing GPX1, Beclin1, and LC3 in response to t-BHP. Expression and production of ADAMTS-4 and Chemerin were significantly increased in FOXO-siRNA transfected chondrocytes. Conclusions Reduced expression of FOXO transcription factors in chondrocytes increased susceptibility to cell death induced by oxidative stress. This was associated with reduced antioxidant proteins and autophagy related proteins. Our data provide evidence for a key role of FOXO transcription factors as regulators of chondrocyte oxidative stress resistance and tissue homeostasis. PMID:25186470

  5. A Study of an EMG-Based Exoskeletal Robot for Human Shoulder Motion Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, Kazuo; Iwami, Koya; Watanabe, Keigo; Fukuda, Toshio

    We have been developing exoskeletal robots in order to realize the human motion support (especially for physically weak people). In this paper, we propose a 2-DOF exoskeletal robot and its method of control to support the human shoulder motion. In this exoskeletal robot, the flexion-extension and abduction-adduction motions of the shoulder are supported by activating the arm holder of the robot, which is atached to the upper arm of the human subject, using wires driven by DC motors. A fuzzy-neuro controller is designed to control the robot according to the skin surface electromyogram(EMG) signals in which the intention of the human subject is reflected. The proposed controller controls the flexion-extension and abduction-adduction motion of the human subject. The effectiveness of the proposed exoskeletal robot has been evaluated experimentally.

  6. Reducing the Human Burden of Breast Cancer: Advanced Radiation Therapy Yields Improved Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Currey, Adam D; Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy R; Wilson, J Frank

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important modality in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. While its efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer was known shortly after the discovery of x-rays, significant advances in radiation delivery over the past 20 years have resulted in improved patient outcomes. With the development of improved systemic therapy, optimizing local control has become increasingly important and has been shown to improve survival. Better understanding of the magnitude of treatment benefit, as well as patient and biological factors that confer an increased recurrence risk, have allowed radiation oncologists to better tailor treatment decisions to individual patients. Furthermore, significant technological advances have occurred that have reduced the acute and long-term toxicity of radiation treatment. These advances continue to reduce the human burden of breast cancer. It is important for radiation oncologists and nonradiation oncologists to understand these advances, so that patients are appropriately educated about the risks and benefits of this important treatment modality.

  7. Spirituality and meaning in supportive care: spirituality- and meaning-centered group psychotherapy interventions in advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, William

    2002-05-01

    Existential and spiritual issues are at the frontier of new clinical and research focus in palliative and supportive care of cancer patients. As concepts of adequate supportive care expand beyond a focus on pain and physical symptom control, existential and spiritual issues such as meaning, hope and spirituality in general have received increased attention from supportive care clinicians and clinical researchers. This paper reviews the topics of spirituality and end-of-life care, defines spirituality, and suggests measures of spirituality that deal with two of its main components: faith/religious beliefs and meaning/spiritual well-being. These two constructs of spirituality are reviewed in terms of their role in supportive care. Finally, a review of existing psychotherapeutic interventions for spiritual suffering are reviewed and a novel meaning-centered group psychotherapy for advanced cancer patients is described.

  8. Shuttle/ISS EMU Failure History and the Impact on Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    As the Shuttle/ISS EMU Program exceeds 35 years in duration and is still supporting the needs of the International Space Station (ISS), a critical benefit of such a long running program with thorough documentation of system and component failures is the ability to study and learn from those failures when considering the design of the next generation space suit. Study of the subject failure history leads to changes in the Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) schematic, selected component technologies, as well as the planned manner of ground testing. This paper reviews the Shuttle/ISS EMU failure history and discusses the implications to the AEMU PLSS.

  9. To be involved or not: factors that influence nurses' involvement in providing treatment decisional support in advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Barthow, Christine; Moss, Cheryle; McKinlay, Eileen; McCullough, Leslie; Wise, Debbie

    2009-02-01

    Decisional support is a multifaceted process of facilitating patients' decision making regarding treatment choices. Effective decisional support practices of nurses in relation to the use of anticancer therapies in patients with advanced disease are central to quality cancer care. A recent qualitative descriptive study (n=21) exploring the decision making practices of doctors and nurses in one tertiary cancer centre in New Zealand identified many complexities associated with nurses and their participation in decisional support. The study revealed that cancer nurses had varied opinions about the meaning and importance of their roles in treatment related decision making. This variation was significant and led the researchers to undertake a detailed secondary exploration of factors that impacted on the nurses' involvement in the provision of decisional support. Four key groups of factors were identified. These were factors relating to degree of knowledge, level of experience, beliefs and understandings about nursing roles and cancer therapies, and structural interfaces in the work setting. Understanding these factors is important because it allows modification of the conditions which impact on the ability to provide effective decisional care. It also provides some understanding of clinical drivers associated with nurses' decisional support work with patients who have advanced cancer.

  10. Advanced Life Support Water Recycling Technologies Case Studies: Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal and Direct Osmotic Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Design for microgravity has traditionally not been well integrated early on into the development of advanced life support (ALS) technologies. NASA currently has a many ALS technologies that are currently being developed to high technology readiness levels but have not been formally evaluated for microgravity compatibility. Two examples of such technologies are the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Technology and the Direct Osmotic Concentration Technology. This presentation will cover the design of theses two systems and will identify potential microgravity issues.

  11. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. I - System approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1989-01-01

    The importance of mission-driven system definition and assessment for extraterrestrial human life support is examined. The tricotyledon theory for system engineering is applied to the physiochemical life support system of the Pathfinder project. The rationale and methodology for adopting the systems approach is discussed. The assessment of the system during technology development is considered.

  12. In Situ Resource Utilization Technology Research and Facilities Supporting the NASA's Human Systems Research and Technology Life Support Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Sibille, Laurent; Sacksteder, Kurt; Owens, Chuck

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Science program has transitioned research required in support of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. Research disciplines including the Materials Science, Fluid Physics and Combustion Science are now being applied toward projects with application in the planetary utilization and transformation of space resources. The scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure in these traditional fields developed at multiple NASA Centers and by external research partners provide essential capabilities to support the agency s new exploration thrusts including In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Among the technologies essential to human space exploration, the production of life support consumables, especially oxygen and; radiation shielding; and the harvesting of potentially available water are realistically achieved for long-duration crewed missions only through the use of ISRU. Ongoing research in the physical sciences have produced a body of knowledge relevant to the extraction of oxygen from lunar and planetary regolith and associated reduction of metals and silicon for use meeting manufacturing and repair requirements. Activities being conducted and facilities used in support of various ISRU projects at the Glenn Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center will be described. The presentation will inform the community of these new research capabilities, opportunities, and challenges to utilize their materials, fluids and combustion science expertise and capabilities to support the vision for space exploration.

  13. Collaboration between Supported Employment and Human Resource Services: Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Michal; Campbell, Camille; Heinz, Tom; Kotsonas, Lori; Montgomery, Joyce; Storey, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the benefits of successful collaboration between supported employment agencies and human resource managers when working together to secure employment for individuals with disabilities. Two case studies are presented: one involving a successful collaboration with county human resource managers in negotiating a change in the…

  14. Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

  15. Representing Human Expertise by the OWL Web Ontology Language to Support Knowledge Engineering in Decision Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Ramzan, Asia; Wang, Hai; Buckingham, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) often base their knowledge and advice on human expertise. Knowledge representation needs to be in a format that can be easily understood by human users as well as supporting ongoing knowledge engineering, including evolution and consistency of knowledge. This paper reports on the development of an ontology specification for managing knowledge engineering in a CDSS for assessing and managing risks associated with mental-health problems. The Galatean Risk and Safety Tool, GRiST, represents mental-health expertise in the form of a psychological model of classification. The hierarchical structure was directly represented in the machine using an XML document. Functionality of the model and knowledge management were controlled using attributes in the XML nodes, with an accompanying paper manual for specifying how end-user tools should behave when interfacing with the XML. This paper explains the advantages of using the web-ontology language, OWL, as the specification, details some of the issues and problems encountered in translating the psychological model to OWL, and shows how OWL benefits knowledge engineering. The conclusions are that OWL can have an important role in managing complex knowledge domains for systems based on human expertise without impeding the end-users' understanding of the knowledge base. The generic classification model underpinning GRiST makes it applicable to many decision domains and the accompanying OWL specification facilitates its implementation.

  16. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 represents the second integrated prototype developed and tested to mature a design that uses advanced technologies to reduce consumables, improve robustness, and provide additional capabilities over the current state of the art. PLSS 2.0 was developed in 2012, with extensive functional evaluations and system performance testing through mid-2014. In late 2014, PLSS 2.0 was integrated with the Mark III space suit in an ambient laboratory environment to facilitate manned testing, designated PLSS 2.0 Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) testing, in which the PLSS prototype performed the primary life support functions, including suit pressure regulation, ventilation, carbon dioxide control, and cooling of the test subject and PLSS avionics. The intent of this testing was to obtain subjective test subject feedback regarding qualitative aspects of PLSS 2.0 performance such as thermal comfort, sounds, smells, and suit pressure fluctuations due to the cycling carbon dioxide removal system, as well as to collect PLSS performance data over a range of human metabolic rates from 500-3000 Btu/hr. Between October 27 and December 18, 2014, nineteen two-hour simulated EVA test points were conducted in which suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to achieve a target metabolic rate. Six test subjects simulated nominal and emergency EVA conditions with varied test parameters including metabolic rate profile, carbon dioxide removal control mode, cooling water temperature, and Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (state of the art or prototype). The nineteen test points achieved more than 60 hours of test time, with 36 hours accounting for simulated EVA time. The PLSS 2.0 test article performed nominally throughout the test series, confirming design intentions for the advanced PLSS. Test subjects' subjective feedback provided valuable insight into thermal comfort and perceptions of suit pressure fluctuations that will influence future

  17. Effects of an Advanced Reactor’s Design, Use of Automation, and Mission on Human Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    The roles, functions, and tasks of the human operator in existing light water nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on sound nuclear and human factors engineering (HFE) principles, are well defined by the plant’s conduct of operations, and have been validated by years of operating experience. However, advanced NPPs whose engineering designs differ from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) will impose changes on the roles, functions, and tasks of the human operators. The plans to increase the use of automation, reduce staffing levels, and add to the mission of these advanced NPPs will also affect the operator’s roles, functions, and tasks. We assert that these factors, which do not appear to have received a lot of attention by the design engineers of advanced NPPs relative to the attention given to conceptual design of these reactors, can have significant risk implications for the operators and overall plant safety if not mitigated appropriately. This paper presents a high-level analysis of a specific advanced NPP and how its engineered design, its plan to use greater levels of automation, and its expanded mission have risk significant implications on operator performance and overall plant safety.

  18. Analysis of mechanical interaction between human gluteal soft tissue and body supports.

    PubMed

    Then, C; Menger, J; Benderoth, G; Alizadeh, M; Vogl, T J; Hübner, F; Silber, G

    2008-01-01

    Pressure sores are the most common complication associated with patient immobilization. They develop through sustained localized tissue strain and stress, primarily caused by body supports. Modifying support design can reduce the risk and extent of pressure sore development with computational simulations helping to provide insight into tissue stress-strain distribution. Appropriate material parameters for human soft tissue and support material, as well as precise anatomical modelling, are indispensable in this process. A finite element (FE) model of the human gluteal region based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data has been developed. In vivo human gluteal skin/fat and muscle long-term material parameters as well as open-cell polyurethane foam support long-term material parameters have been characterised. The Ogden form for slightly compressible materials was employed to describe human gluteal soft tissue behaviour. Altering support geometries and support materials, effects on human gluteal soft tissue could be quantified. FE-analysis indicated maximal tissue stress at the muscle-bone interface, not at the skin. Shear strain maxima were found in the muscle layer near the fat-muscle interface. Maximum compressive stress magnitude at the sacral bone depended strongly on the behaviour of the pelvic diaphragm musculature. We hypothesize that the compliance of the muscles forming the pelvic diaphragm govern the relative motion of the buttock tissue to the adjacent bone structure under compression, thus influencing tissue stress magnitudes.

  19. Creating a Web of Support: An Important Leadership Strategy for Advancing Campus Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Eckel, Peter; Contreras-McGavin, Melissa; Quaye, Stephen John

    2008-01-01

    Research demonstrates that leadership, particularly among presidents, is important for moving a diversity agenda forward and make appreciable progress on it. The research questions pursued here are: What is the role of the college president in advancing a diversity agenda? What strategies do presidents identify as important to facilitating a…

  20. Career Pathways: Aligning Public Resources to Support Individual and Regional Economic Advancement in the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes career pathways, a framework or approach by which regions can better align publicly supported systems and programs to build a knowledge-economy workforce customized to the needs of local labor markets. A career pathway is a series of connected education and training programs and support services that enable individuals to…

  1. Tools to Support Human Factors and Systems Engineering Interactions During Early Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Holden, Kritina; Smith, Danielle Paige

    2006-01-01

    We describe an approach and existing software tool support for effective interactions between human factors engineers and systems engineers in early analysis activities during system acquisition. We examine the tasks performed during this stage, emphasizing those tasks where system engineers and human engineers interact. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) document is an important product during this phase, and particular attention is paid to its influences on subsequent acquisition activities. Understanding this influence helps ConOps authors describe a complete system concept that guides subsequent acquisition activities. We identify commonly used system engineering and human engineering tools and examine how they can support the specific tasks associated with system definition. We identify possible gaps in the support of these tasks, the largest of which appears to be creating the ConOps document itself. Finally, we outline the goals of our future empirical investigations of tools to support system concept definition.

  2. Tools to Support Human Factors and Systems Engineering Interactions During Early Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Holden, Kritina; Smith, Danielle Paige

    2005-01-01

    We describe an approach and existing software tool support for effective interactions between human factors engineers and systems engineers in early analysis activities during system acquisition. We examine the tasks performed during this stage, emphasizing those tasks where system engineers and human engineers interact. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) document is an important product during this phase, and particular attention is paid to its influences on subsequent acquisition activities. Understanding this influence helps ConOps authors describe a complete system concept that guides subsequent acquisition activities. We identify commonly used system engineering and human engineering tools and examine how they can support the specific tasks associated with system definition. We identify possible gaps in the support of these tasks, the largest of which appears to be creating the ConOps document itself. Finally, we outline the goals of our future empirical investigations of tools to support system concept definition.

  3. From the deep sea to the stars: human life support through minimal communities.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Larissa; Mergeay, Max

    2007-06-01

    Support of human life during long-distance exploratory space travel or in the creation of human habitats in extreme environments can be accomplished using the action of microbial consortia inhabiting interconnected bioreactors, designed for the purpose of reconversion of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes produced by the human crew or by one of the compartments of the bioregenerative loop, into nutritional biomass, oxygen and potable water. The microorganisms responsible for bioregenerative life support are part of Earth's own geomicrobial reconversion cycle. Depending on the resources and conditions available, minimal life support systems can be assembled using appropriately selected microorganisms that possess metabolic routes for each specific purpose in the transformation cycle. Under control of an engineered system, a reliable life-support system can hence be provided for.

  4. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T. (Inventor); Gleason, Kevin J. (Inventor); Cowley, Scott W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    There is disclosed a portable life support system with a component for removal of at least one selected gas. In an embodiment, the system includes a supported liquid membrane having a first side and a second side in opposition to one another, the first side configured for disposition toward an astronaut and the second side configured for disposition toward a vacuum atmosphere. The system further includes an ionic liquid disposed between the first side and the second side of the supported liquid membrane, the ionic liquid configured for removal of at least one selected gas from a region housing the astronaut adjacent the first side of the supported liquid membrane to the vacuum atmosphere adjacent the second side of the supported liquid membrane. Other embodiments are also disclosed.

  5. De Novo Generated Human Red Blood Cells in Humanized Mice Support Plasmodium falciparum Infection.

    PubMed

    Amaladoss, Anburaj; Chen, Qingfeng; Liu, Min; Dummler, Sara K; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra; Chen, Jianzhu; Preiser, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Immunodeficient mouse-human chimeras provide a powerful approach to study host specific pathogens like Plasmodium (P.) falciparum that causes human malaria. Existing mouse models of P. falciparum infection require repeated injections of human red blood cells (RBCs). In addition, clodronate lipsomes and anti-neutrophil antibodies are injected to suppress the clearance of human RBCs by the residual immune system of the immunodeficient mice. Engraftment of NOD-scid Il2rg-/- mice with human hematopoietic stem cells leads to reconstitution of human immune cells. Although human B cell reconstitution is robust and T cell reconstitution is reasonable in the recipient mice, human RBC reconstitution is generally poor or undetectable. The poor reconstitution is mainly the result of a deficiency of appropriate human cytokines that are necessary for the development and maintenance of these cell lineages. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding human erythropoietin and interleukin-3 into humanized mice by hydrodynamic tail-vein injection resulted in significantly enhanced reconstitution of erythrocytes. With this improved humanized mouse, here we show that P. falciparum infects de novo generated human RBCs, develops into schizonts and causes successive reinvasion. We also show that different parasite strains exhibit variation in their ability to infect these humanized mice. Parasites could be detected by nested PCR in the blood samples of humanized mice infected with P. falciparum K1 and HB3 strains for 3 cycles, whereas in other strains such as 3D7, DD2, 7G8, FCR3 and W2mef parasites could only be detected for 1 cycle. In vivo adaptation of K1 strain further improves the infection efficiency and parasites can be detected by microscopy for 3 cycles. The parasitemia ranges between 0.13 and 0.25% at the first cycle of infection, falls between 0.08 and 0.15% at the second cycle, and drops to barely detectable levels at the third cycle of infection. Compared to existing mouse models, our

  6. Survey of hardware supported by the Control System at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, K.J.; Nawrocki, G.J.

    1993-12-31

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial control System (EPICS) has been under development at Los Alamos and Argonne National Laboratories for over six years. A wide variety of instrumentation is now supported. This presentation will give an overview of the types of hardware and subsystems which are currently supported and will discuss future plans for addressing additional hardware requirements at the APS. Supported systems to be discussed include: motion control, vacuum pump control and system monitoring, standard laboratory instrumentation (ADCs, DVMs, pulse generators, etc.), image processing, discrete binary and analog I/O, and standard temperature, pressure and flow monitoring.

  7. Optimal restoration of dental esthetics and function with advanced implant-supported prostheses: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Meulen, Peter van der; Linden, Wynand van der; Eeden, Ronnie van

    2012-07-01

    For more than 25 years, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has been used in implant restorative dentistry. Today this technology offers a means of milling titanium frameworks that fit dental implants accurately. This report presents a restoratively driven protocol employing advanced implant restorative and surgical techniques. Treatment of a patient with advanced periodontitis with extensive loss of hard and soft tissues is presented. After extraction of the patient's remaining hopeless teeth, dental implants were placed, along with interim, fixed-margin abutments and abutment protection caps. Two days later, acrylic resin fixed-interim prostheses restored the patient's esthetics and partial masticatory function. After implant osseointegration, maxillary, and mandibular frameworks for definitive prostheses were milled from Ti alloy, using one specific CAD/CAM technology. The benefits of this technology are also discussed.

  8. Materials/manufacturing support element for the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Hoffman, E.E.; Parks, W.P.

    1994-12-31

    In 1993, DOE initiated a program to develop advanced gas turbines for power generation in utility and industrial applications. A materials/manufacturing plan was developed in several stages with input from gas turbine manufacturers, materials suppliers, universities, and government laboratories. This plan was developed by a small advanced materials and turbine technology team over a 6-month period. The technology plan calls for initiation of several high priority projects in FY 1995. The technical program for the materials/manufacturing element focuses on generic materials issues, components, and manufacturing processes. Categories include coatings and process development, turbine airfoil development, ceramics adaptation, directional solidification and single crystal airfoils manufactoring technology, materials characterization, catalytic combustor materials, and technology information exchange.

  9. Guideline for Performing Systematic Approach to Evaluate and Qualify Legacy Documents that Support Advanced Reactor Technology Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Honma, George

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of a systematic process for the evaluation of historic technology information for use in advanced reactor licensing is described. Efforts are underway to recover and preserve Experimental Breeder Reactor II and Fast Flux Test Facility historical data. These efforts have generally emphasized preserving information from data-acquisition systems and hard-copy reports and entering it into modern electronic formats suitable for data retrieval and examination. The guidance contained in this document has been developed to facilitate consistent and systematic evaluation processes relating to quality attributes of historic technical information (with focus on sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) technology) that will be used to eventually support licensing of advanced reactor designs. The historical information may include, but is not limited to, design documents for SFRs, research-and-development (R&D) data and associated documents, test plans and associated protocols, operations and test data, international research data, technical reports, and information associated with past U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews of SFR designs. The evaluation process is prescribed in terms of SFR technology, but the process can be used to evaluate historical information for any type of advanced reactor technology. An appendix provides a discussion of typical issues that should be considered when evaluating and qualifying historical information for advanced reactor technology fuel and source terms, based on current light water reactor (LWR) requirements and recent experience gained from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP).

  10. Exploration life support technology challenges for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and future human missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2010-04-01

    As NASA implements the U.S. Space Exploration Policy, life support systems must be provided for an expanding sequence of exploration missions. NASA has implemented effective life support for Apollo, the Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) and continues to develop advanced systems. This paper provides an overview of life support requirements, previously implemented systems, and new technologies being developed by the Exploration Life Support Project for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Lunar Outpost and future Mars missions. The two contrasting practical approaches to providing space life support are (1) open loop direct supply of atmosphere, water, and food, and (2) physicochemical regeneration of air and water with direct supply of food. Open loop direct supply of air and water is cost effective for short missions, but recycling oxygen and water saves costly launch mass on longer missions. Because of the short CEV mission durations, the CEV life support system will be open loop as in Apollo and Space Shuttle. New life support technologies for CEV that address identified shortcomings of existing systems are discussed. Because both ISS and Lunar Outpost have a planned 10-year operational life, the Lunar Outpost life support system should be regenerative like that for ISS and it could utilize technologies similar to ISS. The Lunar Outpost life support system, however, should be extensively redesigned to reduce mass, power, and volume, to improve reliability and incorporate lessons learned, and to take advantage of technology advances over the last 20 years. The Lunar Outpost design could also take advantage of partial gravity and lunar resources.

  11. Some inadequacies of the current human factors certification process of advanced aircraft technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paries, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Automation related accidents or serious incidents are not limited to advanced technology aircraft. There is a full history of such accidents with conventional technology aircraft. However, this type of occurrence is far from sparing the newest 'glass cockpit' generation, and it even seems to be a growing contributor to its accident rate. Nevertheless, all these aircraft have been properly certificated according to the relevant airworthiness regulations. Therefore, there is a growing concern that with the technological advancement of air transport aircraft cockpits, the current airworthiness regulations addressing cockpit design and human factors may have reached some level of inadequacy. This paper reviews some aspects of the current airworthiness regulations and certification process related to human factors of cockpit design and focuses on questioning their ability to guarantee the intended safety objectives.

  12. Develop Recovery Systems for Separations of Salts from Process Streams for use in Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Guillermo

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were the development of a four-compartment electrolytic cell using high selective membranes to remove nitrate from crop residue leachate and convert it to nitric acid, and the development of an six compartment electrodialysis cell to remove selectively sodium from urine wastes. The recovery of both plant inedible biomass and human wastes nutrients to sustain a biomass production system are important aspects in the development of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) to provide the basic human needs required for life support during long term space missions. A four-compartment electrolytic cell has been proposed to remove selectively nitrate from crop residue and to convert it to nitric acid, which is actually used in the NASA-KSC Controlled Ecological Life Support System to control the pH of the aerobic bioreactors and biomass production chamber. Human activities in a closed system require large amount of air, water and minerals to sustain life and also generate wastes. Before using human wastes as nutrients, these must be treated to reduce organic content and to remove some minerals which have adverse effects on plant growth. Of all the minerals present in human urine, sodium chloride (NACl) is the only one that can not be used as nutrient for most plants. Human activities also requires sodium chloride as part of the diet. Therefore, technology to remove and recover sodium chloride from wastes is highly desirable. A six-compartment electrodialysis cell using high selective membranes has been proposed to remove and recover NaCl from human urine.

  13. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  14. Open Innovation at NASA: A New Business Model for Advancing Human Health and Performance Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Keeton, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new business model for advancing NASA human health and performance innovations and demonstrates how open innovation shaped its development. A 45 percent research and technology development budget reduction drove formulation of a strategic plan grounded in collaboration. We describe the strategy execution, including adoption and results of open innovation initiatives, the challenges of cultural change, and the development of virtual centers and a knowledge management tool to educate and engage the workforce and promote cultural change.

  15. Recent Advances in Understanding the Role of Nutrition in Human Genome Evolution12

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Kaixiong; Gu, Zhenglong

    2011-01-01

    Dietary transitions in human history have been suggested to play important roles in the evolution of mankind. Genetic variations caused by adaptation to diet during human evolution could have important health consequences in current society. The advance of sequencing technologies and the rapid accumulation of genome information provide an unprecedented opportunity to comprehensively characterize genetic variations in human populations and unravel the genetic basis of human evolution. Series of selection detection methods, based on various theoretical models and exploiting different aspects of selection signatures, have been developed. Their applications at the species and population levels have respectively led to the identification of human specific selection events that distinguish human from nonhuman primates and local adaptation events that contribute to human diversity. Scrutiny of candidate genes has revealed paradigms of adaptations to specific nutritional components and genome-wide selection scans have verified the prevalence of diet-related selection events and provided many more candidates awaiting further investigation. Understanding the role of diet in human evolution is fundamental for the development of evidence-based, genome-informed nutritional practices in the era of personal genomics. PMID:22332091

  16. Model implementation for dynamic computation of system cost for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, J. A.; Vaccari, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Life support system designs for long-duration space missions have a multitude of requirements drivers, such as mission objectives, political considerations, cost, crew wellness, inherent mission attributes, as well as many other influences. Evaluation of requirements satisfaction can be difficult, particularly at an early stage of mission design. Because launch cost is a critical factor and relatively easy to quantify, it is a point of focus in early mission design. The method used to determine launch cost influences the accuracy of the estimate. This paper discusses the appropriateness of dynamic mission simulation in estimating the launch cost of a life support system. This paper also provides an abbreviated example of a dynamic simulation life support model and possible ways in which such a model might be utilized for design improvement. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Life Support and Habitation Systems: Crew Support and Protection for Human Exploration Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Life Support and Habitation Systems (LSHS) is one of 10 Foundational Domains as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s proposed Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) Program. LSHS will develop and mature technologies to sustain life on long duration human missions beyond Low Earth Orbit that are reliable, have minimal logistics supply and increase self-sufficiency. For long duration exploration missions, further closure of life support systems is paramount, including focus on key technologies for atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control and crew accommodation that recover additional consumable mass, reduce requirements for power, volume, heat rejection, crew involvement, and which have increased reliability and capability. Other areas of focus include technologies for radiation protection, environmental monitoring and fire protection. Beyond LEO, return to Earth will be constrained. The potability of recycled water and purity of regenerated air must be measured and certified aboard the spacecraft. Missions must be able to recover from fire events through early detection, use of non-toxic suppression agents, and operation of recovery systems that protect on-board Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware. Without the protection of the Earth s geomagnetic field, missions beyond LEO must have improved radiation shielding and dosimetry, as well as warning systems to protect the crew against solar particle events. This paper will describe plans for the new LSHS Foundational Domain and mission factors that will shape its technology development portfolio.

  18. Advancing the public health role of midwives and maternity support workers.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Midwives are crucial to enhancing public health and wellbeing. Caring for families throughout the childbearing continuum offers midwives the perfect opportunity to address many public health agendas. All aspects of midwifery care can influence health outcomes and, as such, it is essential that all midwives embrace their public health role. In this article you will be encouraged to advance your public health role by exploring key midwifery directives regarding public health agendas; examining the outcomes of recent surveys and work conducted by the Royal College of Midwives (RCM), in the United Kingdom (UK); and reviewing ways to develop our public health role from a range of perspectives within maternity services.

  19. Advancing the public health role of midwives and maternity support workers.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Midwives are crucial to enhancing public health and wellbeing. Caring for families throughout the childbearing continuum offers midwives the perfect opportunity to address many public health agendas. All aspects of midwifery care can influence health outcomes and, as such, it is essential that all midwives embrace their public health role. In this article you will be encouraged to advance your public health role by exploring key midwifery directives regarding public health agendas; examining the outcomes of recent surveys and work conducted by the Royal College of Midwives (RCM), in the United Kingdom (UK); and reviewing ways to develop our public health role from a range of perspectives within maternity services. PMID:27451484

  20. Advanced Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: Air and Water Regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions will require regenerative life support techniques. Past manned missions used nonregenerative expendables, except for a molecular sieve based carbon dioxide removal system aboard Skylab. The resupply penalties associated with expendables becomes prohibitive as crew size and mission duration increase. The Space Station scheduled to be operational in the 1990's is based on a crew of four to sixteen and a resupply period of 90 days or greater. It will be the first major spacecraft to employ regenerable techniques for life support. The techniques to be used in the requirements for the space station are addressed.

  1. A case of strong metal-support interactions: combining advanced microscopy and model systems to elucidate the atomic structure of interfaces.

    PubMed

    Willinger, Marc G; Zhang, Wei; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Shaikhutdinov, Shamil; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Schlögl, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A symbiosis of advanced scanning probe and electron microscopy and a well-defined model system may provide a detailed picture of interfaces on nanostructured catalytic systems. This was demonstrated for Pt nanoparticles supported on iron oxide thin films which undergo encapsulation by supporting oxide as a result of strong metal-support interactions.

  2. Biaxial experiments supporting the development of constitutive theories for advanced high-temperature materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Complex states of stress and strain are introduced into components during service in engineering applications. It follows that analysis of such components requires material descriptions, or constitutive theories, which reflect the tensorial nature of stress and strain. For applications involving stress levels above yield, the situation is more complex in that material response is both nonlinear and history dependent. This has led to the development of viscoplastic constitutive theories which introduce time by expressing the flow and evolutionary equation in the form of time derivatives. Models were developed here which can be used to analyze high temperature components manufactured from advanced composite materials. In parallel with these studies, effort was directed at developing multiaxial testing techniques to verify the various theories. Recent progress in the development of constitutive theories from both the theoretical and experimental viewpoints are outlined. One important aspect is that material descriptions for advanced composite materials which can be implemented in general purpose finite element codes and used for practical design are verified.

  3. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  4. Advancing Development of Intercultural Competence through Supporting Predictions in Narrative Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Amy; Aleven, Vincent; Jones, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Most successes in intelligent tutoring systems have come in well-defined domains like algebra or physics. We investigate how to support students in acquiring ill-defined skills of intercultural competence using an online environment that employs clips of feature films from a target culture. To test the effectiveness of a set of attention-focusing…

  5. Advancing Ambitions: The Role of Career Guidance in Supporting Social Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Tristram; Matheson, Jesse; Watts, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Career guidance describes activities that support individuals in learning about education and employment, and in planning for their future lives, learning, and work. These activities contribute to social mobility, which helps people discover and access opportunities that might exist outside of their immediate networks. Changes in funding and in…

  6. Integrating Advance Organizers and Multidimensional Information Display in Electronic Performance Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Wei-Chen; Chao, Chia-An

    2007-01-01

    This study has reviewed major design approaches for electronic performance support systems and identified two common problems: users' inability to comprehend screen-based material and poorly designed instructional scaffolds. This paper presents a design approach, called the "Matrix-Aided Performance System" ("MAPS"), which enables these problems…

  7. Developing an Education Intervention for Staff Supporting Persons with an Intellectual Disability and Advanced Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth; McCarron, Mary; Connaire, Kevin; McCallion, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Generally, staff working in settings that provide care for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have not received specific education with respect to extended care for terminal illnesses or late-stage dementia. Equally, staff working in specialist palliative care often are not familiar with the unique issues of supporting persons with…

  8. Advances in Toxico-Cheminformatics: Supporting a New Paradigm for Predictive Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s National Center for Computational Toxicology is building capabilities to support a new paradigm for toxicity screening and prediction through the harnessing of legacy toxicity data, creation of data linkages, and generation of new high-throughput screening (HTS) data. The D...

  9. Alternative Metrics for Evaluating the Resilence of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Ann Maria; Dearden, Richard; Levri, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Ensuring the safety of the crew is a key performance requirement of a life support system. However, a number of conceptual and practical difficulties arise when devising metrics to concretely measure the ability of a life support system to maintain critical functions in the presence of anticipated and unanticipated faults. Resilience is a dynamic property of a life support system that depends on the complex interactions between faults, controls and system hardware. We review some of the approaches to understanding the robustness or resilience of complex systems being developed in diverse fields such as ecology, software engineering and cell biology and discuss their applicability to regenerative life support systems. We also consider how approaches to measuring resilience vary depending on system design choices such as the definition and choice of the nominal operating regime. Finally, we explore data collection and implementation issues such as the key differences between the instantaneous or conditional and average or overall measures of resilience. Extensive simulation of a hybrid computational model of a water revitalization subsystem (WRS) with probabilistic, component-level faults provides data about off-nominal behavior of the system. The data are used to consider alternative measures of resilience as predictors of the system's ability to recover from component-level faults.

  10. Initial assessments of life support technology evolution and advanced sensor requirements, volume 2, appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.

    1991-01-01

    The primary issues studied were how the transition from a physical/chemical (P/C) to hybrid to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) could be achieved, what sensors and monitors are needed for a P/C -CELSS hybrid system, and how a CELSS could be automated and what controls would be needed to do so.

  11. Recent Efforts in Advanced High Frequency Communications at the Glenn Research Center in Support of NASA Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will discuss research and technology development work at the NASA Glenn Research Center in advanced frequency communications in support of NASAs mission. An overview of the work conducted in-house and also in collaboration with academia, industry, and other government agencies (OGA) in areas such as antenna technology, power amplifiers, radio frequency (RF) wave propagation through Earths atmosphere, ultra-sensitive receivers, among others, will be presented. In addition, the role of these and other related RF technologies in enabling the NASA next generation space communications architecture will be also discussed.

  12. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools--30% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Long, N.

    2007-09-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings (K-12 AEDG), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in K-12 Schools over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The 30% energy savings target is the first step toward achieving net-zero energy schools; schools that, on an annual basis, draw from outside sources less or equal energy than they generate on site from renewable energy sources.

  13. Crop selection for advanced life support systems in the ESA MELiSSA program: Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var durum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiak, M.; Gidzinski, D.; Jordan, M.; Dixon, M.

    2012-06-01

    As part of an ESA MELiSSA investigation into advanced life support (ALS) candidate crop cultivar selection and growth requirements, the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF) conducted a case study on growth and development of four durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum var durum) grown hydroponically under controlled conditions in a sealed environment. Cultivars tested were Canadian developed Avonlea, Commander, Eurostar and Strongfield. There were few fundamental differences in durum quality parameters between hydroponically and field grown wheat, however yields of Eurostar and Strongfield exceeded those of field trials by 41% and 87% respectively.

  14. Designing For Human Presence in Space: An Introduction to Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.

    2005-01-01

    Human exploration and utilization of space requires habitats to provide appropriate conditions for working and living. These conditions are provided by environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) that ensure appropriate atmosphere composition, pressure, and temperature; manage and distribute water, process waste matter, provide fire detection and suppression; and other functions as necessary. The tables in appendix I of NASA RP 1324 "Designing for Human Presence in Space" summarize the life support functions and processes used onboard U.S. and U.S.S.R/Russian space habitats. These tables have been updated to include information on thermal control methods and to provide additional information on the ECLS systems.

  15. Issues in collecting, processing and storing human tissues and associated information to support biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Grizzle, William E; Bell, Walter C; Sexton, Katherine C

    2010-01-01

    The availability of human tissues to support biomedical research is critical to advance translational research focused on identifying and characterizing approaches to individualized (personalized) medical care. Providing such tissues relies on three acceptable models - a tissue banking model, a prospective collection model and a combination of these two models. An unacceptable model is the "catch as catch can" model in which tissues are collected, processed and stored without goals or a plan or without standard operating procedures, i.e., portions of tissues are collected as available and processed and stored when time permits. In the tissue banking model, aliquots of tissues are collected according to SOPs. Usually specific sizes and types of tissues are collected and processed (e.g., 0.1 gm of breast cancer frozen in OCT). Using the banking model, tissues may be collected that may not be used and/or do not meet specific needs of investigators; however, at the time of an investigator request, tissues are readily available as is clinical information including clinical outcomes. In the model of prospective collection, tissues are collected based upon investigator requests including specific requirements of investigators. For example, the investigator may request that two 0.15 gm matching aliquots of breast cancer be minced while fresh, put in RPMI media with and without fetal calf serum, cooled to 4°C and shipped to the investigator on wet ice. Thus, the tissues collected prospectively meet investigator needs, all collected specimens are utilized and storage of specimens is minimized; however, investigators must wait until specimens are collected, and if needed, for clinical outcome. The operation of any tissue repository requires well trained and dedicated personnel. A quality assurance program is required which provides quality control information on the diagnosis of a specimen that is matched specifically to the specimen provided to an investigator instead of an

  16. Development of ASTM standards in support of advanced ceramics -- continuing efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, C.R.

    1998-02-01

    An update is presented of the activities of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee C-28 on Advanced Ceramics. Since its inception in 1986, this committee, which has five standard producing subcommittees, has written and published over 32 consensus standards. These standards are concerned with mechanical testing of monolithic and composite ceramics, nondestructive examination, statistical analysis and design, powder characterization, quantitative microscopy, fractography, and terminology. These standards ensure optimum material behavior with physical and mechanical property reproducibility, component reliability, and well-defined methods of data treatment and material analysis for both monolithic and composite materials. Committee C-28 continues to sponsor technical symposia and to cooperate in the development of international standards. An update of recent and current activities as well as possible new areas of standardization work will be presented.

  17. Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Shuttle/ISS EMU Schematics, a Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt to differing vehicle interfaces such as suitport and airlock, adjust to varying vehicle pressure schedules, tolerate lower quality working fluids, and adapt to differing suit architectures as dictated by a range of mission architectures, the next generation space suit requires more adaptability and robustness over that of the current Shuttle/ISS Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). While some features have been added to facilitate interfaces to differing vehicle and suit architectures, the key performance gains have been made via incorporation of new technologies such as the variable pressure regulators, Rapid Cycle Amine swing-bed, and Suit Water Membrane Evaporator. This paper performs a comparison between the Shuttle/ISS EMU PLSS schematic and the Advanced EMU PLSS schematic complete with a discussion for each difference.

  18. Using OPC technology to support the study of advanced process control.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Magdi S; Sabih, Muhammad; Elshafei, Moustafa

    2015-03-01

    OPC, originally the Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) for Process Control, brings a broad communication opportunity between different kinds of control systems. This paper investigates the use of OPC technology for the study of distributed control systems (DCS) as a cost effective and flexible research tool for the development and testing of advanced process control (APC) techniques in university research centers. Co-Simulation environment based on Matlab, LabVIEW and TCP/IP network is presented here. Several implementation issues and OPC based client/server control application have been addressed for TCP/IP network. A nonlinear boiler model is simulated as OPC server and OPC client is used for closed loop model identification, and to design a Model Predictive Controller. The MPC is able to control the NOx emissions in addition to drum water level and steam pressure. PMID:25702044

  19. Using OPC technology to support the study of advanced process control.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Magdi S; Sabih, Muhammad; Elshafei, Moustafa

    2015-03-01

    OPC, originally the Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) for Process Control, brings a broad communication opportunity between different kinds of control systems. This paper investigates the use of OPC technology for the study of distributed control systems (DCS) as a cost effective and flexible research tool for the development and testing of advanced process control (APC) techniques in university research centers. Co-Simulation environment based on Matlab, LabVIEW and TCP/IP network is presented here. Several implementation issues and OPC based client/server control application have been addressed for TCP/IP network. A nonlinear boiler model is simulated as OPC server and OPC client is used for closed loop model identification, and to design a Model Predictive Controller. The MPC is able to control the NOx emissions in addition to drum water level and steam pressure.

  20. Durability testing at 5 atmospheres of advanced catalysts and catalyst supports for gas turbine engine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, B. A.; Lee, H. C.; Osgerby, I. T.; Heck, R. M.; Hess, H.

    1980-01-01

    The durability of CATCOM catalysts and catalyst supports was experimentally demonstrated in a combustion environment under simulated gas turbine engine combustor operating conditions. A test of 1000 hours duration was completed with one catalyst using no. 2 diesel fuel and operating at catalytically-supported thermal combustion conditions. The performance of the catalyst was determined by monitoring emissions throughout the test, and by examining the physical condition of the catalyst core at the conclusion of the test. Tests were performed periodically to determine changes in catalytic activity of the catalyst core. Detailed parametric studies were also run at the beginning and end of the durability test, using no. 2 fuel oil. Initial and final emissions for the 1000 hours test respectively were: unburned hydrocarbons (C3 vppm):0, 146, carbon monoxide (vppm):30, 2420; nitrogen oxides (vppm):5.7, 5.6.

  1. The Utilization of Urine Processing for the Advancement of Life Support Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse; Hogan, John; Flynn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration missions will depend on resource recovery and the self-sustainability of life support technologies. Current technologies used on the International Space Station (ISS) utilize chemical and mechanical processes, such as filtration, to recover potable water from urine produced by crewmembers. Such technologies have significantly reduced the need for water resupply through closed-loop resource recovery and recycling. Harvesting the important components of urine requires selectivity, whether through the use of membranes or other physical barriers, or by chemical or biological processes. Given the chemical composition of urine, the downstream benefits of urine processing for resource recovery will be critical for many aspects of life support, such as food production and the synthesis of biofuels. This paper discusses the beneficial components of urine and their potential applications, and the challenges associated with using urine for nutrient recycling for space application.

  2. Advances In Infection Surveillance and Clinical Decision Support With Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic.

    PubMed

    Koller, Walter; de Bruin, Jeroen S; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    By the use of extended intelligent information technology tools for fully automated healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance, clinicians can be informed and alerted about the emergence of infection-related conditions in their patients. Moni--a system for monitoring nosocomial infections in intensive care units for adult and neonatal patients--employs knowledge bases that were written with extensive use of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, allowing the inherent un-sharpness of clinical terms and the inherent uncertainty of clinical conclusions to be a part of Moni's output. Thus, linguistic as well as propositional uncertainty became a part of Moni, which can now report retrospectively on HAIs according to traditional crisp HAI surveillance definitions, as well as support clinical bedside work by more complex crisp and fuzzy alerts and reminders. This improved approach can bridge the gap between classical retrospective surveillance of HAIs and ongoing prospective clinical-decision-oriented HAI support.

  3. Metal oxide regenerable carbon dioxide removal system for an advanced portable life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nacheff, Maurena S.; Chang, Craig H.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Cusick, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a CO2 removal system for an astronaut portable life support system to meet the EVA requirements for the Space Station is discussed, focusing on the factors important in the selection of the metal oxide absorbent for CO2 removal. Results from laboratory tests on metal oxide absorbent materials are given, including characterization studies and dynamic CO2 uptake and regeneration measurements. The preliminary design of the breadboard system to perform both the absorption and regeneration functions is presented.

  4. Advanced space system concepts and their orbital support needs (1980 - 2000). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.; Mayer, H. L.; Wolfe, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    The likely system concepts which might be representative of NASA and DoD space programs in the 1980-2000 time period were studied along with the programs' likely needs for major space transportation vehicles, orbital support vehicles, and technology developments which could be shared by the military and civilian space establishments in that time period. Such needs could then be used by NASA as an input in determining the nature of its long-range development plan. The approach used was to develop a list of possible space system concepts (initiatives) in parallel with a list of needs based on consideration of the likely environments and goals of the future. The two lists thus obtained represented what could be done, regardless of need; and what should be done, regardless of capability, respectively. A set of development program plans for space application concepts was then assembled, matching needs against capabilities, and the requirements of the space concepts for support vehicles, transportation, and technology were extracted. The process was pursued in parallel for likely military and civilian programs, and the common support needs thus identified.

  5. Advancement of the segment support system for the Thirty Meter Telescope primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Eric C.; Baffes, Curtis; Mast, Terry; Nelson, Jerry; Platt, Benjamin; Ponchione, R. J.; Ponslet, Eric; Setoodeh, Shahriar; Sirota, Mark; Stephens, Vince; Stepp, Larry; Tubb, Alan

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents refinements to the design of the TMT primary mirror segment passive-support system that are effective in reducing gravity print-through and thermal distortion effects. First, a novel analytical method is presented for tuning the axial and lateral support systems in a manner that results in improved optical performance when subject to varying gravity fields. The method utilizes counterweights attached to the whiffletrees to cancel astigmatic and comatic errors normally resulting when the lateral support system resists transverse loads induced by gravity. Secondly, several central diaphragm designs are presented and analyzed to assess lateral-gravity and thermal distortion performance: 1) a simple flat diaphragm, 2) a stress-relieving diaphragm having a slotted outer rim and a circumferential convolution near the outside diameter, and 3) a flat diaphragm having a slotted outer rim. The latter design is chosen based on results from analytical studies which show it to have better overall optical performance in the presence of gravity and thermal environments.

  6. Transformational Learning and Human Resource Development: Advances toward a Knowledge Based Society through Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    A common thread within a growing globalism is the creation of an emerging knowledge-based workforce. This paper will discuss a message supported by adult education theory that is beginning to manifest itself in human resource development and the growing globalism that steeped in communication and information. Theoretical implications are reviewed…

  7. Combination of Light and Melatonin Time Cues for Phase Advancing the Human Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Tina M.; Markwald, Rachel R.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Snider, Jesse A.; Bessman, Sara C.; Jung, Christopher M.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Photic and non-photic stimuli have been shown to shift the phase of the human circadian clock. We examined how photic and non-photic time cues may be combined by the human circadian system by assessing the phase advancing effects of one evening dose of exogenous melatonin, alone and in combination with one session of morning bright light exposure. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind circadian protocol. The effects of four conditions, dim light (∼1.9 lux, ∼0.6 Watts/m2)-placebo, dim light-melatonin (5 mg), bright light (∼3000 lux, ∼7 Watts/m2)-placebo, and bright light-melatonin on circadian phase was assessed by the change in the salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) prior to and following treatment under constant routine conditions. Melatonin or placebo was administered 5.75 h prior to habitual bedtime and 3 h of bright light exposure started 1 h prior to habitual wake time. Setting: Sleep and chronobiology laboratory environment free of time cues. Participants: Thirty-six healthy participants (18 females) aged 22 ± 4 y (mean ± SD). Results: Morning bright light combined with early evening exogenous melatonin induced a greater phase advance of the DLMO than either treatment alone. Bright light alone and melatonin alone induced similar phase advances. Conclusion: Information from light and melatonin appear to be combined by the human circadian clock. The ability to combine circadian time cues has important implications for understanding fundamental physiological principles of the human circadian timing system. Knowledge of such principles is important for designing effective countermeasures for phase-shifting the human circadian clock to adapt to jet lag, shift work, and for designing effective treatments for circadian sleep-wakefulness disorders. Citation: Burke TM; Markwald RR; Chinoy ED; Snider JA; Bessman SC; Jung CM; Wright Jr KP. Combination of light and melatonin time cues for phase advancing the human circadian

  8. Advances in probing the blood vessels of the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacke, E. Mark

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging offers a marvelous means to probe the vasculature of the human body non-invasively. The first major advances came when the physics of the effects of motion in MRI were first understood well enough that new methods could be designed to compensate for the motion. This led to the development of MR angiography. The second major advance occurred when a contrast agent was used to enhance the signal from vessels independent of blood flow. This made it possible to image much smaller vessels because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio. The third major advance occurred when the susceptibility of the venous blood was used to create a new contrast unique to veins even in the presence of the contrast agent to enhance their signal. The fourth advance is close behind with the potential to use the susceptibility to measure the local oxygen content. Each of these advances involved some interesting physics and raised questions about local magnetic field effects, some of which remain unanswered yet today. We will show results from the first three levels with hints at how to proceed to the fourth. The development of this technology has important clinical implications. With new higher relaxivity contrast agents and higher field magnets coming on the market, the possibility to image vessels down to on the order of 100 microns may be viable. Each advance has enhanced the range of applications from just imaging vessels to occult vascular disease, trauma, the detection of blood products, and physiologic function of the tissue itself.

  9. Advanced Imaging and Tissue Engineering of the Human Limbal Epithelial Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Isobel; Dziasko, Marc; Kureshi, Alvena; Levis, Hannah J.; Morgan, Louise; Neale, Michael; Sheth, Radhika; Tovell, Victoria E.; Vernon, Amanda J.; Funderburgh, James L.; Daniels, Julie T.

    2015-01-01

    The limbal epithelial stem cell niche provides a unique, physically protective environment in which limbal epithelial stem cells reside in close proximity with accessory cell types and their secreted factors. The use of advanced imaging techniques is described to visualize the niche in three dimensions in native human corneal tissue. In addition, a protocol is provided for the isolation and culture of three different cell types, including human limbal epithelial stem cells from the limbal niche of human donor tissue. Finally, the process of incorporating these cells within plastic compressed collagen constructs to form a tissue-engineered corneal limbus is described and how immunohistochemical techniques may be applied to characterize cell phenotype therein. PMID:25388395

  10. Treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with high-dose intensity folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil plus supportive care.

    PubMed

    Petrioli, R; Lorenzi, M; Aquino, A; Marsili, S; Frediani, B; Palazzuoli, V; Marzocca, G; Botta, G; Tani, F; De Martino, A

    1995-11-01

    This randomised clinical trial, involving patients with advanced colorectal cancer, was carried out to compare the effectiveness of accelerated folinic acid (FA) plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with that of the conventional regimen of 5-FU alone. Both regimens were administered with simulataneous supportive care. 185 patients were eligible: 94 were randomly allocated to receive FA 200 mg/m2 i.v. plus 5-FU 400 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1-5 every 3 weeks; and 91 to receive 5-FU 400 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1-5 every 4 weeks. The response rate was 33.3% in the accelerated FA/5-FU and 18.6% in the 5-FU arm (P = 0.045). Median survival was 13.5 months in the FA/5-FU arm and 7.5 months in the 5-FU arm (P = 0.039). Toxicity was mild and slightly more pronounced in the FA/5-FU arm (P = 0.078). This study indicates that, in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, accelerated chemotherapy with FA and 5-FU and simultaneous supportive care is capable of achieving a higher response rate and longer survival than conventional 5-FU alone, without severe toxicity. PMID:8562173

  11. Dignity and Deferral Narratives as Strategies in Facilitated Technology-Based Support Groups for People with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Street, Annette F.; Wakelin, Kate; Hordern, Amanda; Bruce, Nicola; Horey, Dell

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the value of facilitated telephone and online support groups for palliative care. Telephone interviews were conducted with twenty people living with advanced cancer who had participated in either a telephone or online support group facilitated by the Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. Two dominant participant narratives emerged: a focus on dying with dignity or an interest in deferring discussion of death and dying to focus on the present. Despite the different approaches, participants found the technology-based support groups to be accessible and safe environments in which to discuss difficult topics in privacy. Technology-based strategies provide opportunities for health professionals to provide social and emotional care to more people by moving beyond individualised care and facilitate peer-to-peer support at the end of life, especially to those with specific needs. Such options are feasible for palliative care services to set up and acceptable to a group of clients, especially for younger clients or those socially or geographically isolated. PMID:22530115

  12. Redoubling global efforts to support HIV/AIDS and human rights.

    PubMed

    Kazatchkine, Michel

    2010-10-01

    The role that human rights can play in the global response to HIVIAIDS is crucial. People around the world continue to be placed at risk of HIV due to ongoing human rights violations. In this article--based on a public lecture he gave at "From Evidence and Principle to Policy and Action", the 2nd Annual Symposium on HIV, Law and Human Rights, held on 10-12 June 2010 in Toronto, Canada--Michel Kazatchkine, Executive Director of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, discusses how the lack of support for programs that protect and promote human rights is one of the failures in the response to AIDS. He stresses that advocates must reinvigorate efforts for human rights and treatment and prevention for all, including for the most marginalized populations.

  13. Durability testing of advanced catalysts and catalyst supports for gas turbine engine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, R. M.; Chang, M.; Hess, H. W.; Mroz, T. S.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents new information on the durability of a CATCOM catalyst operating at low-emission combustion temperatures (about 1527 K) with a liquid fuel, No. 2 diesel. Information on the activity of No. 2 diesel after 1000 hr of aging is given. In addition, a unique in situ activity test developed for monitoring the subtle changes in the catalyst activity of the CATCOM catalyst is also detailed. The study demonstrated the feasibility of using a CATCOM catalyst in catalytically supported thermal combustion for extended operating periods

  14. Advances in neonatal extracorporeal support: the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the artificial placenta.

    PubMed

    Gray, Brian W; Shaffer, Andrew W; Mychaliska, George B

    2012-06-01

    This review addresses the history and evolution of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), with a discussion of the indications, contraindications, modalities, outcomes, and impact of ECMO. Controversies surrounding novel uses of ECMO in neonates, namely ECMO for premature infants and ex utero intrapartum therapy with transition to ECMO, are discussed. The development of an extracorporeal artificial placenta for support of premature infants is presented, including the rationale, research, and challenges. ECMO has had a dramatic effect on the care of critically ill neonates over the past 4 decades, and there is great potential to expand these benefits in the future.

  15. Challenges and advances in mouse modeling for human pancreatic tumorigenesis and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wanglong

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is critical for developed countries, where its rate of diagnosis has been increasing steadily annually. In the past decade, the advances of pancreatic cancer research have not contributed to the decline in mortality rates from pancreatic cancer—the overall 5-year survival rate remains about 5% low. This number only underscores an obvious urgency for us to better understand the biological features of pancreatic carcinogenesis, to develop early detection methods, and to improve novel therapeutic treatments. To achieve these goals, animal modeling that faithfully recapitulates the whole process of human pancreatic cancer is central to making the advancements. In this review, we summarize the currently available animal models for pancreatic cancer and the advances in pancreatic cancer animal modeling. We compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of three major categories of these models: (1) carcinogen-induced; (2) xenograft and allograft; and (3) genetically engineered mouse models. We focus more on the genetically engineered mouse models, a category which has been rapidly expanded recently for their capacities to mimic human pancreatic cancer and metastasis, and highlight the combinations of these models with various newly developed strategies and cell-lineage labeling systems. PMID:23114842

  16. A framework for advanced methods of control of human-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Paul

    2012-04-01

    The vibration serviceability of civil engineering structures under human dynamic excitation is becoming ever more critical with the design and redevelopment of structures with reduced mass, stiffness and damping. A large number of problems have been reported in floors, footbridges, sports stadia, staircases and other structures. Unfortunately, the range of options available to fix such problems are very limited and are primarily limited to structural modification or the implementation of passive vibration control measures, such as tuned mass dampers. This paper presents the initial development of a new framework for advanced methods of control of humaninduced vibrations in civil engineering structures. This framework includes both existing passive methods of vibration control and more advanced active, semi-active and hybrid control techniques, which may be further developed as practical solutions for these problems. Through the use of this framework, rational decisions as to the most appropriate technologies for particular human vibration problems may be made and pursued further. This framework is also intended to be used in the design of new civil engineering structures, where advanced control technologies may be used both to increase the achievable slenderness and to reduce the amount of construction materials used and hence their embodied energy. This will be an ever more important consideration with the current drive for structures with reduced environmental impact.

  17. Plant diversity to support humans in a CELSS ground-based demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, J. M.; Hoff, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Factors that influence the human nutritional requirements envisioned in a controlled ecological life support system ground-based demonstrator and on bioavailability experiments of Ca, Fe and Zn are discussed. The interrelationhip of protein and magnesium on Ca retention is also described.

  18. AALIM: a cardiac clinical decision support system powered by advanced multi-modal analytics.

    PubMed

    Amir, Arnon; Beymer, David; Grace, Julia; Greenspan, Hayit; Gruhl, Daniel; Hobbs, Allen; Pohl, Kilian; Syeda-Mahmood, Tanveer; Terdiman, Joseph; Wang, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Modern Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems often integrate large amounts of data from multiple disparate sources. To do so, EMR systems must align the data to create consistency between these sources. The data should also be presented in a manner that allows a clinician to quickly understand the complete condition and history of a patient's health. We develop the AALIM system to address these issues using advanced multimodal analytics. First, it extracts and computes multiple features and cues from the patient records and medical tests. This additional metadata facilitates more accurate alignment of the various modalities, enables consistency check and empowers a clear, concise presentation of the patient's complete health information. The system further provides a multimodal search for similar cases within the EMR system, and derives related conditions and drugs information from them. We applied our approach to cardiac data from a major medical care organization and found that it produced results with sufficient quality to assist the clinician making appropriate clinical decisions.

  19. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris advanced design project in support of solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Mitchell, Dominique; Taft, Brett; Chinnock, Paul; Kutz, Bjoern

    1992-01-01

    This paper is regarding a project in the Advanced Design Program at the University of Arizona. The project is named the Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD) and is a NASA/Universities Space Research Association (USRA) sponsored design project. The development of ASPOD and the students' abilities in designing and building a prototype spacecraft are the ultimate goals of this project. This year's focus entailed the development of a secondary robotic arm and end-effector to work in tandem with an existent arm in the removal of orbital debris. The new arm features the introduction of composite materials and a linear drive system, thus producing a light-weight and more accurate prototype. The main characteristic of the end-effector design is that it incorporates all of the motors and gearing internally, thus not subjecting them to the harsh space environment. Furthermore, the arm and the end-effector are automated by a control system with positional feedback. This system is composed of magnetic and optical encoders connected to a 486 PC via two servo-motor controller cards. Programming a series of basic routines and sub-routines has allowed the ASPOD prototype to become more autonomous. The new system is expected to perform specified tasks with a positional accuracy of 0.5 cm.

  20. Simulation for Supporting Scale-Up of a Fluidized Bed Reactor for Advanced Water Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was accomplished for treating wastewater using Fenton reaction, which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The simulation was performed to determine characteristics of FBR performance, concentration profile of the contaminants, and various prominent hydrodynamic properties (e.g., Reynolds number, velocity, and pressure) in the reactor. Simulation was implemented for 2.8 L working volume using hydrodynamic correlations, continuous equation, and simplified kinetic information for phenols degradation as a model. The simulation shows that, by using Fe3+ and Fe2+ mixtures as catalyst, TOC degradation up to 45% was achieved for contaminant range of 40–90 mg/L within 60 min. The concentration profiles and hydrodynamic characteristics were also generated. A subsequent scale-up study was also conducted using similitude method. The analysis shows that up to 10 L working volume, the models developed are applicable. The study proves that, using appropriate modeling and simulation, data can be predicted for designing and operating FBR for wastewater treatment. PMID:25309949

  1. The GMOS cyber(e)-infrastructure: advanced services for supporting science and policy.

    PubMed

    Cinnirella, S; D'Amore, F; Bencardino, M; Sprovieri, F; Pirrone, N

    2014-03-01

    The need for coordinated, systematized and catalogued databases on mercury in the environment is of paramount importance as improved information can help the assessment of the effectiveness of measures established to phase out and ban mercury. Long-term monitoring sites have been established in a number of regions and countries for the measurement of mercury in ambient air and wet deposition. Long term measurements of mercury concentration in biota also produced a huge amount of information, but such initiatives are far from being within a global, systematic and interoperable approach. To address these weaknesses the on-going Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project ( www.gmos.eu ) established a coordinated global observation system for mercury as well it retrieved historical data ( www.gmos.eu/sdi ). To manage such large amount of information a technological infrastructure was planned. This high-performance back-end resource associated with sophisticated client applications enables data storage, computing services, telecommunications networks and all services necessary to support the activity. This paper reports the architecture definition of the GMOS Cyber(e)-Infrastructure and the services developed to support science and policy, including the United Nation Environmental Program. It finally describes new possibilities in data analysis and data management through client applications. PMID:24249682

  2. [Recent advances in nutritional support and postnatal growth in premature infants].

    PubMed

    Senterre, T; Rigo, J

    2013-02-01

    Nutrition has always been described as challenging in premature infants, especially in very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g) infants. Therefore, postnatal malnutrition is frequently observed in these infants and most develop a severe postnatal growth restriction with a very high incidence of hypotrophy at term corrected age. Otherwise, both insufficient nutritional intakes and postnatal growth restriction during the perinatal period have been associated with adverse developmental outcomes. In this article, an optimized nutritional policy characterized by a standardization of nutritional support is discussed. This policy implies the use of one standardized parenteral nutrition solution and a rapidly enriched feeding regimen. Recent studies in VLBW infants have demonstrated that this approach is associated with significant improvement of nutritional support, postnatal growth and biological homeostasis. Only 6% of appropriate for gestational age infants at birth were described small for gestational age at discharge. This policy has recently been reproduced by the industry that developed the first manufactured triple-chamber parenteral nutrition bags specifically designed for premature infants. It represents a great opportunity for premature infants to improve their development and long-term outcomes.

  3. Health: support provided and received in advanced old age. A five-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Armi, F; Guilley, E; Lalive d'Epinay, C J

    2008-02-01

    While research focuses mainly on support provided to the elderly, this paper deals with the very old as a support provider to his family as much as a care recipient from both his family and a formal network. We hypothesize that elders with declining health will try to maintain the provision of services, even when they require and receive help.A total of 340 octogenarians from the Swiss Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study on the Oldest Old (SWILSOO) were interviewed up to five times over five years (N=1225 interviews). A multilevel model was applied to assess the effects of health, controlled for socio-demographic and family network variables, on the frequency of services that the old persons provided to their family and received from their family and formal networks. Health is operationalized in three statuses: ADL-dependent, ADL-independent frail, and robust.While the recourse to the informal network increased progressively with the process of frailty, the recourse to the formal network drastically increased for ADL-dependent individuals. Being ADL-dependent seriously altered the capacity to provide services, but ADL-independent frail persons were providers with the same frequency as the robust oldest old, showing their ability to preserve a principle of reciprocity in their exchanges with their family network. This continuity of roles may help frail persons to maintain their self-esteem and well-being.

  4. The GMOS cyber(e)-infrastructure: advanced services for supporting science and policy.

    PubMed

    Cinnirella, S; D'Amore, F; Bencardino, M; Sprovieri, F; Pirrone, N

    2014-03-01

    The need for coordinated, systematized and catalogued databases on mercury in the environment is of paramount importance as improved information can help the assessment of the effectiveness of measures established to phase out and ban mercury. Long-term monitoring sites have been established in a number of regions and countries for the measurement of mercury in ambient air and wet deposition. Long term measurements of mercury concentration in biota also produced a huge amount of information, but such initiatives are far from being within a global, systematic and interoperable approach. To address these weaknesses the on-going Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project ( www.gmos.eu ) established a coordinated global observation system for mercury as well it retrieved historical data ( www.gmos.eu/sdi ). To manage such large amount of information a technological infrastructure was planned. This high-performance back-end resource associated with sophisticated client applications enables data storage, computing services, telecommunications networks and all services necessary to support the activity. This paper reports the architecture definition of the GMOS Cyber(e)-Infrastructure and the services developed to support science and policy, including the United Nation Environmental Program. It finally describes new possibilities in data analysis and data management through client applications.

  5. Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration Leading to Human Exploration: Results from the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper will provide a summary and analysis of the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop all-day session on "Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration, Leading to Human Exploration", held at Fucino Space Center, Italy on June 12th, 2015. The session was primarily intended to explore how robotic missions and robotics technologies more generally can help lead to human exploration missions. The session included a wide range of presentations that were roughly grouped into (1) broader background, conceptual, and high-level operations concepts presentations such as the International Space Exploration Coordination Group Roadmap, followed by (2) more detailed narrower presentations such as rover autonomy and communications. The broader presentations helped to provide context and specific technical hooks, and helped lay a foundation for the narrower presentations on more specific challenges and technologies, as well as for the discussion that followed. The discussion that followed the presentations touched on key questions, themes, actions and potential international collaboration opportunities. Some of the themes that were touched on were (1) multi-agent systems, (2) decentralized command and control, (3) autonomy, (4) low-latency teleoperations, (5) science operations, (6) communications, (7) technology pull vs. technology push, and (8) the roles and challenges of operations in early human architecture and mission concept formulation. A number of potential action items resulted from the workshop session, including: (1) using CCSDS as a further collaboration mechanism for human mission operations, (2) making further contact with subject matter experts, (3) initiating informal collaborative efforts to allow for rapid and efficient implementation, and (4) exploring how SpaceOps can support collaboration and information exchange with human exploration efforts. This paper will summarize the session and provide an overview of the above subjects as they emerged from the SpaceOps 2015

  6. A framework to support human factors of automation in railway intelligent infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Dadashi, Nastaran; Wilson, John R; Golightly, David; Sharples, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Technological and organisational advances have increased the potential for remote access and proactive monitoring of the infrastructure in various domains and sectors - water and sewage, oil and gas and transport. Intelligent Infrastructure (II) is an architecture that potentially enables the generation of timely and relevant information about the state of any type of infrastructure asset, providing a basis for reliable decision-making. This paper reports an exploratory study to understand the concepts and human factors associated with II in the railway, largely drawing from structured interviews with key industry decision-makers and attachment to pilot projects. Outputs from the study include a data-processing framework defining the key human factors at different levels of the data structure within a railway II system and a system-level representation. The framework and other study findings will form a basis for human factors contributions to systems design elements such as information interfaces and role specifications.

  7. Recent advances in the prenatal interrogation of the human fetal genome.

    PubMed

    Hui, Lisa; Bianchi, Diana W

    2013-02-01

    The amount of genetic and genomic information obtainable from the human fetus during pregnancy is accelerating at an unprecedented rate. Two themes have dominated recent technological advances in prenatal diagnosis: interrogation of the fetal genome in increasingly high resolution and the development of non-invasive methods of fetal testing using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma. These two areas of advancement have now converged with several recent reports of non-invasive assessment of the entire fetal genome from maternal blood. However, technological progress is outpacing the ability of the healthcare providers and patients to incorporate these new tests into existing clinical care, and further complicates many of the economic and ethical dilemmas in prenatal diagnosis. This review summarizes recent work in this field and discusses the integration of these new technologies into the clinic and society.

  8. Advanced space system concepts and their orbital support needs (1980 - 2000). Volume 2: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.; Mayer, H. L.; Wolfe, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of a study which identifies over 100 new and highly capable space systems for the 1980-2000 time period: civilian systems which could bring benefits to large numbers of average citizens in everyday life, much enhance the kinds and levels of public services, increase the economic motivation for industrial investment in space, expand scientific horizons; and, in the military area, systems which could materially alter current concepts of tactical and strategic engagements. The requirements for space transportation, orbital support, and technology for these systems are derived, and those requirements likely to be shared between NASA and the DoD in the time period identified. The high leverage technologies for the time period are identified as very large microwave antennas and optics, high energy power subsystems, high precision and high power lasers, microelectronic circuit complexes and data processors, mosaic solid state sensing devices, and long-life cryogenic refrigerators.

  9. Proposed Schematics for an Advanced Development Lunar Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, Bruce; Chullen, Cinda; Barnes, Bruce; Leavitt, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The latest development of the NASA space suit is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a Pressure Garment System (PGS) and a Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen (O2) subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. This paper baselines a detailed schematic of the PLSS to provide a basis for current and future PLSS development efforts. Both context diagrams and detailed schematics describe the hardware components and overall functions for all three of the PLSS subsystems. The various modes of operations for the PLSS are also presented. A comparison of the proposed PLSS to the Apollo and Shuttle PLSS designs is presented, highlighting several anticipated improvements over the historical PLSS architectures.

  10. Advancing global hydro-climatological data archives to support climate change impact assessments on water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saile, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variations and changing climate will very likely alter the rate and nature of hydrological processes and consequently affect water resources in many regions. Current General Circulation Models and downscaling methods that are increasingly used to assess changes in the water cycle and water resource vulnerabilities introduce a cascade of uncertainties that cannot realistically be dealt with at the moment and are too inaccurate to support improved decision-making for water management and for future water systems design. Therefore, water managers need not only improved hydrological and climate modelling and downscaling methods but also access to adequate hydro-meteorological monitoring networks. The Global Terrestrial Network for Hydrology (GTN-H), a joint effort by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and several global observing systems, aims at integrating in-situ and remote sensing hydrological observations with hydrological model results held by its partner institutions to support a wide range of hydrological applications including research of global and regional climate change. Adhering to the different needs of all data users (scientists, policy makes and other stakeholders) and bridging the gap between the distributed datasets, currently a new information system is being developed to enable web-based discovery, access and analysis of observation data and derived products served through GTN-H. This system is built on international standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) using open standardized web services, namely (1) Catalogue Services for data discovery, (2) Web Map Services for data visualization and (3) Web Feature Services, Web Coverage Services and Sensor Observation Services for data access. This presentation will give an overview about the GTN-H data archive and the design of the new information system including an outlook of its potential use for water related climate change impact assessments.

  11. Measuring therapeutic alliance between oncologists and patients with advanced cancer: The Human Connection Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer W; Block, Susan D.; Nilsson, Matthew; Wright, Alexi; Trice, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Robert; Paulk, Elizabeth; Prigerson, Holly G

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Patients consider having a human connection with a physician to be an important aspect of end-of-life (EOL) care. We sought to develop and validate a measure of therapeutic alliance between advanced cancer patients and their physicians, and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic alliance on EOL experiences and care. Methods We developed The Human Connection (THC) scale to measure the extent to which patients felt a sense of mutual understanding, caring, and trust with their physicians. The scale was administered to 217 advanced cancer patients along with measures of attributes hypothesized to be related to therapeutic alliance, including emotional acceptance of terminal illness. EOL outcomes in 90 patients who died during the study were also examined. Results The 16-item THC questionnaire was internally consistent (Cronbach’s α =.90) and valid, based on its expected positive association with emotional acceptance of the terminal illness (r=.31, P<.0001). THC scores were inversely related to symptom burden (r=−.19, P=.006), functional status (Karnofsky score, r=.22, P=.001), and mental illness (THC score 50.69 for patients with any DSM diagnosis versus 55.22 for those without, P=.03). THC scores were not significantly associated with EOL discussions (P=.68). Among patients who had died, EOL ICU care was inversely associated with therapeutic alliance (THC score 46.5 for those with ICU care versus 55.5 for those without, P=.002), such that patients with higher THC scores were less likely to spend time in the ICU during the last week of life. Conclusion The THC scale is a valid and reliable measure of therapeutic alliance between advanced cancer patients and their physicians. In addition, we found no evidence to suggest that EOL discussions harm patients’ therapeutic alliance. A strong therapeutic alliance is associated with emotional acceptance of a terminal illness and with decreased ICU care at the end of life among patients with advanced cancer

  12. Recombinant human laminin isoforms can support the undifferentiated growth of human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Takamichi; Futaki, Sugiko; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Kawasaki, Miwa; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Kawase, Eihachiro; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi Nakatsuji, Norio; Suemori, Hirofumi

    2008-10-10

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are thought to be a promising cell source for cell transplantation therapy. For such a clinical application, the hESCs should be manipulated using appropriate and qualified materials. In this study, we examined the efficacy of recombinant human laminin (rhLM) isoforms on the undifferentiated growth of hESCs. We first determined the major integrins expressed on the hESCs to reveal the preference of the hESCs for rhLMs, and found that the hESCs mainly expressed integrin {alpha}6{beta}1, which binds predominantly to laminin-111, -332 and -511/-521. When the hESCs were seeded onto rhLMs, the cells indeed adhered markedly to rhLM-332, and to rhLM-511 and rhLM-111 to a lesser extent. The hESCs proliferated on these three rhLMs for several passages while preserving their pluripotency. These results show that rhLM-111, -332, and -511 are good substrates to expand undifferentiated hESCs due to their high affinity to integrin {alpha}6{beta}1 expressed on hESCs.

  13. Association between human papillomavirus and EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Deng, Fang; Qian, Li-Ting; Meng, Shui-Ping; Zhang, Yang; Shan, Wu-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Bao-Long

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in lung cancer patients; however, few studies have investigated this association in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients undergoing gefitinib treatment. The present study investigated the association between HPV and EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. A total of 95 advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients were enrolled in the study. The HPV infection status and presence of EGFR mutations in tumor tissue was evaluated. Patient clinical characteristics were also determined and compared with HPV infection and EGFR mutation status to analyze their impact on progression-free survival. HPV DNA was identified in 27/95 (28.4%) lung adenocarcinoma tumors and was most common in patients with lymph node metastasis (P=0.016). A total of 44/95 (46.3%) cases exhibited EGFR mutations, which were predominantly observed in female patients and non-smokers. The presence of HPV DNA was significantly associated with EGFR mutations (P=0.012) and multivariate analysis also revealed that HPV DNA was significantly associated with EGFR mutations (odds ratio=3.971) in advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Patients with both HPV infections and EGFR mutations exhibit a marked decrease in the risk of lung cancer progression when compared with those without HPV infection or EGFR mutations (adjusted HR=0.640; 95% confidence interval: 0.488–0.840; P=0.001). HPV infection was significantly associated with EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, patients with HPV infections exhibited the longest progression-free survival times, which may be due to good response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor- or platinum-based-adjuvant therapy in these patients. Patients with EGFR mutations exhibited a better prognosis when compared with those exhibiting wild-type EGFR, regardless of HPV status. PMID:27602120

  14. Association between human papillomavirus and EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Deng, Fang; Qian, Li-Ting; Meng, Shui-Ping; Zhang, Yang; Shan, Wu-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Bao-Long

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in lung cancer patients; however, few studies have investigated this association in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients undergoing gefitinib treatment. The present study investigated the association between HPV and EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. A total of 95 advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients were enrolled in the study. The HPV infection status and presence of EGFR mutations in tumor tissue was evaluated. Patient clinical characteristics were also determined and compared with HPV infection and EGFR mutation status to analyze their impact on progression-free survival. HPV DNA was identified in 27/95 (28.4%) lung adenocarcinoma tumors and was most common in patients with lymph node metastasis (P=0.016). A total of 44/95 (46.3%) cases exhibited EGFR mutations, which were predominantly observed in female patients and non-smokers. The presence of HPV DNA was significantly associated with EGFR mutations (P=0.012) and multivariate analysis also revealed that HPV DNA was significantly associated with EGFR mutations (odds ratio=3.971) in advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Patients with both HPV infections and EGFR mutations exhibit a marked decrease in the risk of lung cancer progression when compared with those without HPV infection or EGFR mutations (adjusted HR=0.640; 95% confidence interval: 0.488–0.840; P=0.001). HPV infection was significantly associated with EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, patients with HPV infections exhibited the longest progression-free survival times, which may be due to good response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor- or platinum-based-adjuvant therapy in these patients. Patients with EGFR mutations exhibited a better prognosis when compared with those exhibiting wild-type EGFR, regardless of HPV status.

  15. Prioritized List of Research Needs to support MRWFD Case Study Flowsheet Advancement

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Soelberg, Nicholas Ray

    2015-06-17

    In FY-13, a case study evaluation was performed of full recycle technologies for both the processing of light-water reactor (LWR) used nuclear fuels as well as fast reactor (FR) fuel in the full recycle option. This effort focused on the identification of the case study processes and the initial preparation of material balance flowsheets for the identified technologies. In identifying the case study flowsheets, it was decided that two cases would be developed: one which identifies the flowsheet as currently developed and another near-term target flowsheet which identifies the flowsheet as envisioned within two years, pending the results of ongoing research. The case study focus is on homogeneous aqueous recycle of the U/TRU resulting from the processing of LWR fuel as feed for metal fuel fabrication. The metal fuel is utilized in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and the used fast reactor fuel is processed using electrochemical separations. The recovered U/TRU from electrochemical separations is recycled to fuel fabrication and the fast reactor. Waste streams from the aqueous and electrochemical processing are treated and prepared for disposition. Off-gas from the separations and waste processing are also treated. As part of the FY-13 effort, preliminary process unknowns and research needs to advance the near-term target flowsheets were identified. In FY-14, these research needs were updated, expanded and prioritized. This report again updates the prioritized list of research needs based upon results to date in FY-15. The research needs are listed for each of the main portions of the flowsheet: 1) Aqueous headend, 2) Headend tritium pretreatment off-gas, 3) Aqueous U/Pu/Np recovery, 4) Aqueous TRU product solidification, 5) Aqueous actinide/lanthanide separation, 6) Aqueous off-gas treatment, 7) Aqueous HLW management, 8) Treatment of aqueous process wastes, 9) E-chem actinide separations, 10) E-chem off-gas, 11) E-chem HLW management. The identified research needs

  16. Effect of physical property of supporting media and variable hydraulic loading on hydraulic characteristics of advanced onsite wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was carried out to investigate the effects of physical properties of the supporting media and variable hydraulic shock loads on the hydraulic characteristics of an advanced onsite wastewater treatment system. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic reactors (a septic tank and an anaerobic filter) accommodated within a single unit. The study was divided into three phases on the basis of three different supporting media (Aqwise carriers, corrugated ring and baked clay) used in the anaerobic filter. Hydraulic loadings were based on peak flow factor (PFF), varying from one to six, to simulate the actual conditions during onsite wastewater treatment. Hydraulic characteristics of the system were identified on the basis of residence time distribution analyses. The system showed a very good hydraulic efficiency, between 0.86 and 0.93, with the media of highest porosity at the hydraulic loading of PFF≤4. At the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6 also, an appreciable hydraulic efficiency of 0.74 was observed. The system also showed good chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids removal efficiency of 80.5% and 82.3%, respectively at the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6. Plug-flow dispersion model was found to be the most appropriate one to describe the mixing pattern of the system, with different supporting media at variable loading, during the tracer study.

  17. Effect of physical property of supporting media and variable hydraulic loading on hydraulic characteristics of advanced onsite wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was carried out to investigate the effects of physical properties of the supporting media and variable hydraulic shock loads on the hydraulic characteristics of an advanced onsite wastewater treatment system. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic reactors (a septic tank and an anaerobic filter) accommodated within a single unit. The study was divided into three phases on the basis of three different supporting media (Aqwise carriers, corrugated ring and baked clay) used in the anaerobic filter. Hydraulic loadings were based on peak flow factor (PFF), varying from one to six, to simulate the actual conditions during onsite wastewater treatment. Hydraulic characteristics of the system were identified on the basis of residence time distribution analyses. The system showed a very good hydraulic efficiency, between 0.86 and 0.93, with the media of highest porosity at the hydraulic loading of PFF≤4. At the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6 also, an appreciable hydraulic efficiency of 0.74 was observed. The system also showed good chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids removal efficiency of 80.5% and 82.3%, respectively at the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6. Plug-flow dispersion model was found to be the most appropriate one to describe the mixing pattern of the system, with different supporting media at variable loading, during the tracer study. PMID:25428652

  18. Unattended network operations technology assessment study. Technical support for defining advanced satellite systems concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Holdridge, Mark; Odubiyi, Jide; Jaworski, Allan; Morgan, Herbert K.

    1991-01-01

    The results are summarized of an unattended network operations technology assessment study for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The scope of the work included: (1) identified possible enhancements due to the proposed Mars communications network; (2) identified network operations on Mars; (3) performed a technology assessment of possible supporting technologies based on current and future approaches to network operations; and (4) developed a plan for the testing and development of these technologies. The most important results obtained are as follows: (1) addition of a third Mars Relay Satellite (MRS) and MRS cross link capabilities will enhance the network's fault tolerance capabilities through improved connectivity; (2) network functions can be divided into the six basic ISO network functional groups; (3) distributed artificial intelligence technologies will augment more traditional network management technologies to form the technological infrastructure of a virtually unattended network; and (4) a great effort is required to bring the current network technology levels for manned space communications up to the level needed for an automated fault tolerance Mars communications network.

  19. Bioregenerative food system cost based on optimized menus for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Geoffrey C R.; Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean B.; Dixon, Mike A.; Lasseur, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Optimized menus for a bioregenerative life support system have been developed based on measures of crop productivity, food item acceptability, menu diversity, and nutritional requirements of crew. Crop-specific biomass requirements were calculated from menu recipe demands while accounting for food processing and preparation losses. Under the assumption of staggered planting, the optimized menu demanded a total crop production area of 453 m2 for six crew. Cost of the bioregenerative food system is estimated at 439 kg per menu cycle or 7.3 kg ESM crew-1 day-1, including agricultural waste processing costs. On average, about 60% (263.6 kg ESM) of the food system cost is tied up in equipment, 26% (114.2 kg ESM) in labor, and 14% (61.5 kg ESM) in power and cooling. This number is high compared to the STS and ISS (nonregenerative) systems but reductions in ESM may be achieved through intensive crop productivity improvements, reductions in equipment masses associated with crop production, and planning of production, processing, and preparation to minimize the requirement for crew labor.

  20. Influence of support conditions on vertical whole-body vibration of the seated human body.

    PubMed

    M-Pranesh, Anand; Rakheja, Subhash; Demont, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The vibration transmission to the lumbar and thoracic segments of seated human subjects exposed to whole body vibration of a vehicular nature have been mostly characterised without the back and hand supports, which is not representative of general driving conditions. This non-invasive experimental study investigated the transmission of vertical seat vibration to selected vertebrae and the head along the vertical and fore-aft axes of twelve male human subjects seated on a rigid seat and exposed to random vertical excitation in the 0.5-20 Hz range. The measurements were performed under four different sitting postures involving combinations of back support conditions and hands positions, and three difference magnitudes of vertical vibration (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s(2) rms acceleration). The results showed significant errors induced by sensor misalignment and skin effects, which required appropriate correction methodologies. The averaged corrected responses revealed that the back support attenuates vibration in the vertical axis to all the body locations while increasing the fore-aft transmissibility at the C7 and T5. The hands position generally has a relatively smaller effect, showing some influences on the C7 and L5 vibration. Sitting without a back support resulted in very low magnitude fore-aft vibration at T5, which was substantially higher with a back support, suggestive of a probable change in the body's vibration mode. The effect of back support was observed to be very small on the horizontal vibration of the lower thoracic and lumbar regions. The results suggest that distinctly different target body-segment biodynamic functions need to be defined for different support conditions in order to represent the unique contribution of the specific support condition. These datasets may then be useful for the development of biodynamic models.

  1. Gestural and symbolic development among apes and humans: support for a multimodal theory of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Greenfield, Patricia M; Lyn, Heidi; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue

    2014-01-01

    What are the implications of similarities and differences in the gestural and symbolic development of apes and humans?This focused review uses as a starting point our recent study that provided evidence that gesture supported the symbolic development of a chimpanzee, a bonobo, and a human child reared in language-enriched environments at comparable stages of communicative development. These three species constitute a complete clade, species possessing a common immediate ancestor. Communicative behaviors observed among all species in a clade are likely to have been present in the common ancestor. Similarities in the form and function of many gestures produced by the chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child suggest that shared non-verbal skills may underlie shared symbolic capacities. Indeed, an ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol was present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence or eye-contact) were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. These findings suggest that increasing multimodal expression of communicative intent may have supported the emergence of language among the ancestors of humans. Therefore, this focused review includes new studies, since our 2013 article, that support a multimodal theory of language evolution.

  2. Gestural and symbolic development among apes and humans: support for a multimodal theory of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Greenfield, Patricia M; Lyn, Heidi; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue

    2014-01-01

    What are the implications of similarities and differences in the gestural and symbolic development of apes and humans?This focused review uses as a starting point our recent study that provided evidence that gesture supported the symbolic development of a chimpanzee, a bonobo, and a human child reared in language-enriched environments at comparable stages of communicative development. These three species constitute a complete clade, species possessing a common immediate ancestor. Communicative behaviors observed among all species in a clade are likely to have been present in the common ancestor. Similarities in the form and function of many gestures produced by the chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child suggest that shared non-verbal skills may underlie shared symbolic capacities. Indeed, an ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol was present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence or eye-contact) were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. These findings suggest that increasing multimodal expression of communicative intent may have supported the emergence of language among the ancestors of humans. Therefore, this focused review includes new studies, since our 2013 article, that support a multimodal theory of language evolution. PMID:25400607

  3. Gestural and symbolic development among apes and humans: support for a multimodal theory of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Greenfield, Patricia M.; Lyn, Heidi; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue

    2014-01-01

    What are the implications of similarities and differences in the gestural and symbolic development of apes and humans?This focused review uses as a starting point our recent study that provided evidence that gesture supported the symbolic development of a chimpanzee, a bonobo, and a human child reared in language-enriched environments at comparable stages of communicative development. These three species constitute a complete clade, species possessing a common immediate ancestor. Communicative behaviors observed among all species in a clade are likely to have been present in the common ancestor. Similarities in the form and function of many gestures produced by the chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child suggest that shared non-verbal skills may underlie shared symbolic capacities. Indeed, an ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol was present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence or eye-contact) were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. These findings suggest that increasing multimodal expression of communicative intent may have supported the emergence of language among the ancestors of humans. Therefore, this focused review includes new studies, since our 2013 article, that support a multimodal theory of language evolution. PMID:25400607

  4. Extracellular vesicle–depleted fetal bovine and human sera have reduced capacity to support cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Eitan, Erez; Zhang, Shi; Witwer, Kenneth W.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most widely used serum supplement for mammalian cell culture. It supports cell growth by providing nutrients, growth signals, and protection from stress. Attempts to develop serum-free media that support cell expansion to the same extent as serum-supplemented media have not yet succeeded, suggesting that FBS contains one or more as-yet-undefined growth factors. One potential vehicle for the delivery of growth factors from serum to cultured cells is extracellular vesicles (EVs). Methods EV-depleted FBS and human serum were generated by 120,000g centrifugation, and its cell growth–supporting activity was measured. Isolated EVs from FBS were quantified and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, and protein assay. EV internalization into cells was quantified using fluorescent plate reader analysis and microscopy. Results Most cell types cultured with EV-depleted FBS showed a reduced growth rate but not an increased sensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent etoposide and the endoplasmic reticulum stress–inducing chemical tunicamycin. Supplying cells with isolated FBS-derived EVs enhanced their growth. FBS-derived EVs were internalized by mouse and human cells wherein 65±26% of them interacted with the lysosomes. EV-depleted human serum also exhibited reduced cell growth–promoting activity. Conclusions EVs play a role in the cell growth and survival-promoting effects of FBS and human serum. Thus, it is important to take the effect of EV depletion under consideration when planning EV extraction experiments and while attempting to develop serum-free media that support rapid cell expansion. In addition, these findings suggest roles for circulating EVs in supporting cell growth and survival in vivo. PMID:25819213

  5. Mixed oxide fuels testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Chang, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    An intense worldwide effort is now under way to find means of reducing the stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium. One of the most attractive solutions would be to use WGPu as fuel in existing light water reactors (LWRs) in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel - i.e., plutonia (PUO{sub 2}) mixed with urania (UO{sub 2}). Before U.S. reactors could be used for this purpose, their operating licenses would have to be amended. Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification, (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania, (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition, (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight, (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu, (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu, (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure, (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity, (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products, (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies, and (11) Fuel performance code validation. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified.

  6. Pressurized Testing of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks with Advanced Electrode-Supported Cells

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer; G. Tao

    2012-06-01

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate cell dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this paper.

  7. Advanced signal processing based on support vector regression for lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Malizia, A.; Lungaroni, M.; Peluso, E.; Parracino, S.; Talebzadeh, S.; Vega, J.; Gaudio, P.

    2015-10-01

    The LIDAR technique has recently found many applications in atmospheric physics and remote sensing. One of the main issues, in the deployment of systems based on LIDAR, is the filtering of the backscattered signal to alleviate the problems generated by noise. Improvement in the signal to noise ratio is typically achieved by averaging a quite large number (of the order of hundreds) of successive laser pulses. This approach can be effective but presents significant limitations. First of all, it implies a great stress on the laser source, particularly in the case of systems for automatic monitoring of large areas for long periods. Secondly, this solution can become difficult to implement in applications characterised by rapid variations of the atmosphere, for example in the case of pollutant emissions, or by abrupt changes in the noise. In this contribution, a new method for the software filtering and denoising of LIDAR signals is presented. The technique is based on support vector regression. The proposed new method is insensitive to the statistics of the noise and is therefore fully general and quite robust. The developed numerical tool has been systematically compared with the most powerful techniques available, using both synthetic and experimental data. Its performances have been tested for various statistical distributions of the noise and also for other disturbances of the acquired signal such as outliers. The competitive advantages of the proposed method are fully documented. The potential of the proposed approach to widen the capability of the LIDAR technique, particularly in the detection of widespread smoke, is discussed in detail.

  8. The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

  9. Some Advances in Downscaling Probabilistic Climate Forecasts for Agricultural Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Ines, A.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal climate forecasts, commonly provided in tercile-probabilities format (below-, near- and above-normal), need to be translated into more meaningful information for decision support of practitioners in agriculture. In this paper, we will present two new novel approaches to temporally downscale probabilistic seasonal climate forecasts: one non-parametric and another parametric method. First, the non-parametric downscaling approach called FResampler1 uses the concept of 'conditional block sampling' of weather data to create daily weather realizations of a tercile-based seasonal climate forecasts. FResampler1 randomly draws time series of daily weather parameters (e.g., rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature and solar radiation) from historical records, for the season of interest from years that belong to a certain rainfall tercile category (e.g., being below-, near- and above-normal). In this way, FResampler1 preserves the covariance between rainfall and other weather parameters as if conditionally sampling maximum and minimum temperature and solar radiation if that day is wet or dry. The second approach called predictWTD is a parametric method based on a conditional stochastic weather generator. The tercile-based seasonal climate forecast is converted into a theoretical forecast cumulative probability curve. Then the deviates for each percentile is converted into rainfall amount or frequency or intensity to downscale the 'full' distribution of probabilistic seasonal climate forecasts. Those seasonal deviates are then disaggregated on a monthly basis and used to constrain the downscaling of forecast realizations at different percentile values of the theoretical forecast curve. As well as the theoretical basis of the approaches we will discuss sensitivity analysis (length of data and size of samples) of them. In addition their potential applications for managing climate-related risks in agriculture will be shown through a couple of case studies based on

  10. 4 kW Test of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks with Advanced Electrode-Supported Cells

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. K. Housley; L. Moore-McAteer; G. Tao

    2012-06-01

    A new test stand has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for multi-kW testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. This test stand will initially be operated at the 4 KW scale. The 4 kW tests will include two 60-cell stacks operating in parallel in a single hot zone. The stacks are internally manifolded with an inverted-U flow pattern and an active area of 100 cm2 per cell. Process gases to and from the two stacks are distributed from common inlet/outlet tubing using a custom base manifold unit that also serves as the bottom current collector plate. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells and electrode gases. Sealing is accomplished with compliant mica-glass seals. A spring-loaded test fixture is used for mechanical stack compression. Due to the power level and the large number of cells in the hot zone, process gas flow rates are high and heat recuperation is required to preheat the cold inlet gases upstream of the furnace. Heat recuperation is achieved by means of two inconel tube-in-tube counter-flow heat exchangers. A current density of 0.3 A/cm2 will be used for these tests, resulting in a hydrogen production rate of 25 NL/min. Inlet steam flow rates will be set to achieve a steam utilization value of 50%. The 4 kW test will be performed for a minimum duration of 1000 hours in order to document the long-term durability of the stacks. Details of the test apparatus and initial results will be provided.

  11. Short Blue Light Pulses (30 Min) in the Morning Support a Sleep-Advancing Protocol in a Home Setting.

    PubMed

    Geerdink, Moniek; Walbeek, Thijs J; Beersma, Domien G M; Hommes, Vanja; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2016-10-01

    higher in the amber light group compared to the blue light group during sleep in the treatment period (F1,32 = 4.40, p < 0.05). Performance was significantly worse compared to baseline at all times during (F1,13 = 10.1, p < 0.01) and after amber light treatment (F1,13 = 17.1, p < 0.01), while only in the morning during posttreatment in the blue light condition (F1,10 = 9.8, p < 0.05). The data support the conclusion that blue light was able to compensate for the sleep integrity reduction and to a large extent for the performance decrement that was observed in the amber light condition, both probably as a consequence of the advancing sleep schedule. This study shows that blue light therapy in the morning, applied in a home setting, supports a sleep advancing protocol by phase advancing the circadian rhythm as well as sleep timing. PMID:27449476

  12. Short Blue Light Pulses (30 Min) in the Morning Support a Sleep-Advancing Protocol in a Home Setting.

    PubMed

    Geerdink, Moniek; Walbeek, Thijs J; Beersma, Domien G M; Hommes, Vanja; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2016-10-01

    higher in the amber light group compared to the blue light group during sleep in the treatment period (F1,32 = 4.40, p < 0.05). Performance was significantly worse compared to baseline at all times during (F1,13 = 10.1, p < 0.01) and after amber light treatment (F1,13 = 17.1, p < 0.01), while only in the morning during posttreatment in the blue light condition (F1,10 = 9.8, p < 0.05). The data support the conclusion that blue light was able to compensate for the sleep integrity reduction and to a large extent for the performance decrement that was observed in the amber light condition, both probably as a consequence of the advancing sleep schedule. This study shows that blue light therapy in the morning, applied in a home setting, supports a sleep advancing protocol by phase advancing the circadian rhythm as well as sleep timing.

  13. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP): Advanced Methods in Strategic Analysis, Technology Forecasting and Long Term Planning for Human Exploration and Operations, Advanced Exploration Systems and Advanced Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center is expanding its current technology assessment methodologies. ACO is developing a framework called TAPP that uses a variety of methods, such as association mining and rule learning from data mining, structure development using a Technological Innovation System (TIS), and social network modeling to measure structural relationships. The role of ACO is to 1) produce a broad spectrum of ideas and alternatives for a variety of NASA's missions, 2) determine mission architecture feasibility and appropriateness to NASA's strategic plans, and 3) define a project in enough detail to establish an initial baseline capable of meeting mission objectives ACO's role supports the decision­-making process associated with the maturation of concepts for traveling through, living in, and understanding space. ACO performs concept studies and technology assessments to determine the degree of alignment between mission objectives and new technologies. The first step in technology assessment is to identify the current technology maturity in terms of a technology readiness level (TRL). The second step is to determine the difficulty associated with advancing a technology from one state to the next state. NASA has used TRLs since 1970 and ACO formalized them in 1995. The DoD, ESA, Oil & Gas, and DoE have adopted TRLs as a means to assess technology maturity. However, "with the emergence of more complex systems and system of systems, it has been increasingly recognized that TRL assessments have limitations, especially when considering [the] integration of complex systems." When performing the second step in a technology assessment, NASA requires that an Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2) method be utilized. NASA has used and developed or used a variety of methods to perform this step: Expert Opinion or Delphi Approach, Value Engineering or Value Stream, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for the Order of

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Video Decision Support Tool for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Decision Making in Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volandes, Angelo E.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.; Mitchell, Susan L.; El-Jawahri, Areej; Davis, Aretha Delight; Barry, Michael J.; Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Jackson, Vicki Ann; Gillick, Muriel R.; Walker-Corkery, Elizabeth S.; Chang, Yuchiao; López, Lenny; Kemeny, Margaret; Bulone, Linda; Mann, Eileen; Misra, Sumi; Peachey, Matt; Abbo, Elmer D.; Eichler, April F.; Epstein, Andrew S.; Noy, Ariela; Levin, Tomer T.; Temel, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Decision making regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is challenging. This study examined the effect of a video decision support tool on CPR preferences among patients with advanced cancer. Patients and Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial of 150 patients with advanced cancer from four oncology centers. Participants in the control arm (n = 80) listened to a verbal narrative describing CPR and the likelihood of successful resuscitation. Participants in the intervention arm (n = 70) listened to the identical narrative and viewed a 3-minute video depicting a patient on a ventilator and CPR being performed on a simulated patient. The primary outcome was participants' preference for or against CPR measured immediately after exposure to either modality. Secondary outcomes were participants' knowledge of CPR (score range of 0 to 4, with higher score indicating more knowledge) and comfort with video. Results The mean age of participants was 62 years (standard deviation, 11 years); 49% were women, 44% were African American or Latino, and 47% had lung or colon cancer. After the verbal narrative, in the control arm, 38 participants (48%) wanted CPR, 41 (51%) wanted no CPR, and one (1%) was uncertain. In contrast, in the intervention arm, 14 participants (20%) wanted CPR, 55 (79%) wanted no CPR, and 1 (1%) was uncertain (unadjusted odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 7.2; P < .001). Mean knowledge scores were higher in the intervention arm than in the control arm (3.3 ± 1.0 v 2.6 ± 1.3, respectively; P < .001), and 65 participants (93%) in the intervention arm were comfortable watching the video. Conclusion Participants with advanced cancer who viewed a video of CPR were less likely to opt for CPR than those who listened to a verbal narrative. PMID:23233708

  15. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  16. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, Eric; Leach, Matt; Pless, Shanti

    2013-06-05

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. NASA Glenn's Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig Supported the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Project's Emissions Reduction Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltran, Luis R.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Combustor Rig (ASCR) is NASA Glenn Research Center's unique high-pressure, high-temperature combustor facility supporting the emissions reduction element of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The facility can simulate combustor inlet test conditions up to a pressure of 900 psig and a temperature of 1200 F (non-vitiated). ASCR completed three sector tests in fiscal year 2003 for General Electric, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce North America. This will provide NASA and U.S. engine manufacturers the information necessary to develop future low-emission combustors and will help them to better understand durability and operability at these high pressures and temperatures.

  19. Effect of simulation on knowledge of advanced cardiac life support, knowledge retention, and confidence of nursing students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Tawalbeh, Loai I; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of simulation on nursing students' knowledge of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), knowledge retention, and confidence in applying ACLS skills. An experimental, randomized controlled (pretest-posttest) design was used. The experimental group (n = 40) attended an ACLS simulation scenario, a 4-hour PowerPoint presentation, and demonstration on a static manikin, whereas the control group (n = 42) attended the PowerPoint presentation and a demonstration only. A paired t test indicated that posttest mean knowledge of ACLS and confidence was higher in both groups. The experimental group showed higher knowledge of ACLS and higher confidence in applying ACLS, compared with the control group. Traditional training involving PowerPoint presentation and demonstration on a static manikin is an effective teaching strategy; however, simulation is significantly more effective than traditional training in helping to improve nursing students' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and confidence about ACLS.

  20. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Warehouse and Self-Storage Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan

    2007-12-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Warehouse and Self-storage Buildings (AEDG-WH or the Guide), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in small warehouses over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-WH is the fourth in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).