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Sample records for advanced humanitarian landmine

  1. Market for advanced humanitarian mine detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newnham, Peter; Daniels, David J.

    2001-10-01

    Uncleared landmines and unexploded ordnance remain a major humanitarian and economic threat in over 60 countries. It is estimated that world wide over US 60 million was spent on mien clearance in 1999. Most of this funding is provided by government aid, often channeled via the UN or European Community. The minefield threat is very varied, with many different types of mien, UXO, terrain and climate type. To cope with this variety a range of demining techniques are used: mechanical techniques such as flails are used for vegetation clearance, however the majority of demining work is still carried out by manual deminers using metal detectors and prodders. Over the last 5 years there has been considerable interest within the scientific and engineering communities in the application of advanced technologies to improve the safety and efficiency of this work. Nevertheless few new products have been introduced into, and accepted by, the demining community. Despite the high political profile of the landmine problem very little e hard dat is available on the real characteristics of the demining equipment market. As part of a European Union supported program to evacuate a multi-sensor handheld mien detector concept, Thales and ERA Technology Ltd have carried out an in-depth assessment of this market. This paper describes the cost- benefits that could accrue to the demining community associated with use of advanced equipment under appropriate conditions and the equipment requirements that result. The dynamics of the demining equipment market and the barriers to entry are discussed.

  2. Results of the Development of Humanitarian Landmine Detection System by a Compact Fusion Neutron Source and Dual Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kai; Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Toku, Hisayuki; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hotta, Eiki; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Ohnishi, Masami; Osawa, Hodaka; Shiroya, Seiji; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Doi, Toshiro

    2009-03-10

    A 5-year task is described on the research and development of the advanced humanitarian landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion) device and 3 dual sensors made of BGO and NaI(Tl). With 10{sup 7} D-D neutrons/s stably produced in steady-state mode, H-2.2 MeV, N-5.3, 10.8 MeV {gamma} rays from (n,{gamma}) reaction with hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in the explosives are measured for two kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX), under the conditions of three different buried depths, and soil moistures each. Final probabilities of detection for arid soil are found to be 100% in the present tests. The neutron backscattering method is also found to be efficient.

  3. Advances in the engineering of quadrupole resonance landmine detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrall, G. A.; Arakawa, M.; Barabash, L. S.; Bobroff, S.; Chepin, J. F.; Derby, K. A.; Drew, A. J.; Ermolaev, K. V.; Huo, S.; Lathrop, D. K.; Steiger, M. J.; Stewart, S. H.; Turner, P. J.

    2005-06-01

    Advances in the engineering of Quadrupole Resonance (QR) sensors for landmine detection have resulted in improved performance, as well as massive reductions in power, size and weight. The next generation of vehicle-mounted QR confirmation sensors is over an order of magnitude smaller and more power efficient than the system fielded in 2002 and 2003. Early prototypes have also demonstrated a significant improvement in TNT sensitivity, and similar improvements are anticipated in RDX sensitivity during Q1 2005. Blind test results from 2003 confirm the radio frequency interference and piezo-electric ringing immunity of the Quantum Magnetics QR Confirmation Sensor (QRCS).

  4. Landmine research: technology solutions looking for problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevelyan, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The global landmine problem came to the attention of researchers in the mid 1990's and by 1997 several advanced and expensive sensor research programs had started. Yet, by the end of 2003, there is little sign of a major advance in the technology available to humanitarian demining programs. Given the motivation and dedication of researchers, public goodwill to support such programs, and substantial research resources devoted to the problem, it is worth asking why these programs do not seem to have had an impact on demining costs or casualty rates. Perhaps there are factors that have been overlooked. This paper reviews several research programs to gain a deeper understanding of the problem. A possible explanation is that researchers have accepted mistaken ideas on the nature of the landmine problems that need to be solved. The paper provides several examples where the realities of minefield conditions are quite different to what researchers have been led to believe. Another explanation may lie in the political and economic realities that drive the worldwide effort to eliminate landmines. Most of the resources devoted to landmine clearance programs come from humanitarian aid budgets: landmine affected countries often contribute only a small proportion because they have different priorities based on realistic risk-based assessment of needs and political views of local people. Some aid projects have been driven by the need to find a market for demining technologies rather than by user needs. Finally, there is a common misperception that costs in less developed countries are intrinsically low, reflecting low rates paid for almost all classes of skilled labour. When actual productivity is taken into account, real costs can be higher than industrialized countries. The costs of implementing technological solutions (even using simple technologies) are often significantly under-estimated. Some political decisions may have discouraged thorough investigation of cost

  5. Canadian landmine detection research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Das, Yogadhish; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC), an agency within the Department of National Defence, has been conducting research and development (R&D) on the detection of landmines for countermine operations and of unexploded ordnance (UXO) for range clearance since 1975. The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT), located at DRDC Suffield, was formed in 1998 to carry out R&D related to humanitarian demining. The lead group responsible for formulating and executing both countermine and humanitarian R&D programs in detection is the Threat Detection Group at DRDC Suffield. This paper describes R&D for both programs under the major headings of remote minefield detection, close-in scanning detection, confirmation detection and teleoperated systems. Among DRDC's achievements in landmine and UXO detection R&D are pioneering work in electromagnetic and magnetic identification and classification; the first military-fielded multisensor, teleoperated vehicle-mounted landmine detection system; pioneering use of confirmation detectors for multisensor landmine detection systems; the first fielded thermal neutron activation landmine confirmation sensor; the first detection of landmines using a real-time hyperspectral imager; electrical impedance imaging detection of landmines and UXO and a unique neutron backscatter landmine imager.

  6. Research and Development of Landmine Detection System by a Compact Fusion Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kai; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Mizutani, Toshiyuki; Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Imoto, Masaki; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Ohnishi, Masami; Osawa, Hodaka; Hotta, Eiki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Okino, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masato; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Yuura, Morimasa; Shiroya, Seiji; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Takamasa

    2005-05-15

    Current results are described on the research and development of an advanced anti-personnel landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). Landmines are to be identified through backscattering of neutrons, and specific-energy capture {gamma}-rays by hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in the landmine explosives.For this purpose, improvements in the IECF were made by various methods to achieve a drastic enhancement of neutron yields of more than 10{sup 8} n/s in pulsed operation. This required R and D on the power source, as well as analysis of envisaged detection systems with multi-sensors. The results suggest promising and practical features for humanitarian landmine detection, particularly, in Afghanistan.

  7. Thermal systems for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Marco; Del Vecchio, Luca; Esposito, Salvatore; Balsi, Marco; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents new techniques of landmine detection and localization using thermal methods. Described methods use both dynamical and static analysis. The work is based on datasets obtained from the Humanitarian Demining Laboratory of Università La Sapienza di Roma, Italy.

  8. Detection of landmines and UXO using advanced synthetic aperture radar technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Eric; Peichl, Markus; Dill, Stephan; Heinzel, Andreas; Bischeltsrieder, Florian

    2016-05-01

    A main problem of effective landmine and UXO decontamination is efficient and reliable detection and localization of suspicious objects in reasonable time. This requirement demands for fast sensors investigating large areas with sufficient spatial resolution and sensitivity. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a suitable tool and is considered as a complementing sensor since nearly two decades. However, most GPRs operate in very close distance to ground in a rather punctual method of operation. In contrast, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a technique allowing fast and laminar stand-off investigation of an area. TIRAMI-SAR is imaging radar at lower microwaves for fast close-in detection of buried and unburied objects on a larger area. This allows efficient confirmation of a threat by investigating such regions of detection by other sensors. For proper object detection sufficient spatial resolution is required. Hence the SAR principle is applied. SAR for landmine/UXO detection can be applied by side-looking radar moved on safe ground along the area of interest, being typically the un-safe ground. Additionally, reliable detection of buried and unburied objects requires sufficient suppression of background clutter. For that purpose TIRAMI-SAR is using several antennas in multi-static configuration and wave polarization together with advanced SAR processing. The advantages and necessity of a multi-static antenna configuration for this kind of GPR approach is illustrated in the paper.

  9. Controlled biological and biomimetic systems for landmine detection.

    PubMed

    Habib, Maki K

    2007-08-30

    Humanitarian demining requires to accurately detect, locate and deactivate every single landmine and other buried mine-like objects as safely and as quickly as possible, and in the most non-invasive manner. The quality of landmine detection affects directly the efficiency and safety of this process. Most of the available methods to detect explosives and landmines are limited by their sensitivity and/or operational complexities. All landmines leak with time small amounts of their explosives that can be found on surrounding ground and plant life. Hence, explosive signatures represent the robust primary indicator of landmines. Accordingly, developing innovative technologies and efficient techniques to identify in real-time explosives residue in mined areas represents an attractive and promising approach. Biological and biologically inspired detection technology has the potential to compete with or be used in conjunction with other artificial technology to complement performance strengths. Biological systems are sensitive to many different scents concurrently, a property that has proven difficult to replicate artificially. Understanding biological systems presents unique opportunities for developing new capabilities through direct use of trained bio-systems, integration of living and non-living components, or inspiring new design by mimicking biological capabilities. It is expected that controlled bio-systems, biotechnology and microbial techniques will contribute to the advancement of mine detection and other application domains. This paper provides directions, evaluation and analysis on the progress of controlled biological and biomimetic systems for landmine detection. It introduces and discusses different approaches developed, underlining their relative advantages and limitations, and highlighting trends, safety and ecology concern, and possible future directions. PMID:17662594

  10. Progress in LIBS for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Jennifer L.; Harmon, Russell S.; La Pointe, Aaron

    2009-05-01

    The ability to interrogate objects buried in soil and ascertain their chemical composition in-situ would be an important capability enhancement for both military and humanitarian demining. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a simple spark spectrochemical technique using a pulsed laser. Recent developments in broadband and man-portable LIBS provide the capability for the real-time detection at very high sensitivity of all elements in any target material because all chemical elements emit in the 200-940 nm spectral region. This technological advance offers a unique potential for the development of a rugged and reliable man-portable or robot-deployable chemical sensor that would be capable of both in-situ point probing and chemical sensing for landmine detection. Broadband LIBS data was acquired under laboratory conditions for more than a dozen different types of anti-personnel and anti-tank landmine casings from four countries plus a set of antitank landmine simulants. Subsequently, a statistical classification technique (partial least squares discriminant analysis, PLS-DA) was used to discriminate landmine casings from the simulants and to assign "unknown" spectra to a mine type based upon a library classification approach. Overall, a correct classification success of 99.0% was achieved, with a misclassification rate of only 1.8%. This performance illustrates the potential that LIBS has to be developed into a field-deployable device that could be utilized as a confirmatory sensor in landmine detection. The operational concept envisioned is a small LIBS system that is either man-portable or robot-deployed in which a micro-laser is contained in the handle of a deminer's probe, with laser light delivered and collected through an optical fiber in the tapered tip of the probe. In such a configuration, chemical analysis could be readily accomplished by LIBS after touching the buried object that one is interested in identifying and using real-time statistical

  11. Enhanced Landmine Detection from Low Resolution IR Image Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiesheng; Gu, Irene Yu-Hua; Tjahjadi, Tardi

    We deal with the problem of landmine field detection using low-resolution infrared (IR) image sequences measured from airborne or vehicle-borne passive IR cameras. The proposed scheme contains two parts: a) employ a multi-scale detector, i.e., a special type of isotropic bandpass filters, to detect landmine candidates in each frame; b) enhance landmine detection through seeking maximum consensus of corresponding landmine candidates over image frames. Experiments were conducted on several IR image sequences measured from airborne and vehicle-borne cameras, where some results are included. As shown in our experiments, the landmine signatures have been significantly enhanced using the proposed scheme, and automatic detection results are reasonably good. These methods can therefore be applied to assisting humanitarian demining work for landmine field detection.

  12. Automated calibration methods for robotic multisensor landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, Joe G.; Miller, Jonathan; Schultz, Gregory; Topolosky, Zeke

    2007-04-01

    Both force protection and humanitarian demining missions require efficient and reliable detection and discrimination of buried anti-tank and anti-personnel landmines. Widely varying surface and subsurface conditions, mine types and placement, as well as environmental regimes challenge the robustness of the automatic target recognition process. In this paper we present applications created for the U.S. Army Nemesis detection platform. Nemesis is an unmanned rubber-tracked vehicle-based system designed to eradicate a wide variety of anti-tank and anti-personnel landmines for humanitarian demining missions. The detection system integrates advanced ground penetrating synthetic aperture radar (GPSAR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) arrays, highly accurate global and local positioning, and on-board target detection/classification software on the front loader of a semi-autonomous UGV. An automated procedure is developed to estimate the soil's dielectric constant using surface reflections from the ground penetrating radar. The results have implications not only for calibration of system data acquisition parameters, but also for user awareness and tuning of automatic target recognition detection and discrimination algorithms.

  13. Needs for new tools in humanitarian Demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Alois J.

    2000-12-01

    Humanitarian demining is interdisciplinary, encompassing subjects that span from Engineering, Chemistry, and Physics to the Social Sciences. Partners in this field are not only the suffering community and the deminers, but also researchers, industrial developers, Non Governmental Organisations, policymakers, etc. There is common agreement, that the present approach in demining, means by making use of dogs, prodders, metal detectors and mechanical devices will not allow the global scourge of landmines to be overcome within the next 10 to 15 years, as requested by the Ottawa convention. New tools are needed. Especially in the domains of minefield survey, of close-in mine detection, of quality assurance after finishing clearance and last but not least for the verification of the adherence with the Ottawa Convention. The aim of the talk is to introduce experts in remote sensing sensor systems of different kinds, make them aware about the need for advanced tools for humanitarian demining, and to invite an active brainstorming in order to find new solutions. Furthermore, the presentation will focus on the assessment of the potential of air- and space-borne systems for mine field survey.

  14. Landmine policy in the near-term: a framework for technology analysis and action

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    Any effective solution to the problem of leftover landmines and other post-conflict unexploded ordnance (UXO) must take into account the real capabilities of demining technologies and the availability of sufficient resources to carry out demining operations. Economic and operational factors must be included in analyses of humanitarian demining. These factors will provide a framework for using currently available resources and technologies to complete this task in a time frame that is both practical and useful. Since it is likely that reliable advanced technologies for demining are still several years away, this construct applies to the intervening period. It may also provide a framework for utilizing advanced technologies as they become available. This study is an economic system model for demining operations carried out by the developed nations that clarifies the role and impact of technology on the economic performance and viability of these operations. It also provides a quantitative guide to assess the performance penalties arising from gaps in current technology, as well as the potential advantages and desirable features of new technologies that will significantly affect the international community`s ability to address this problem. Implications for current and near-term landmine and landmine technology policies are drawn.

  15. Using Giant African Pouched Rats ("Cricetomys Gambianus") to Detect Landmines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Within the past decade, giant pouched rats have been used successfully to detect landmines. This manuscript summarizes how these rats are trained and used operationally. The information provided is intended to be of practical value toward strengthening best practices in using "Cricetomys" for humanitarian purposes while simultaneously ensuring the…

  16. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  17. Landmine detection technology research in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleijpen, H. M. A.

    2003-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the activities on research and development in the technology area for landmine detection in the Netherlands. The main players, their projects and the long term and short term project goals are presented. The projects cover the range from military applications to humanitarian demining. In the "conventional" detection systems area the activities on Metal detection, Ground Penetrating Radar and Thermal Infrared are covered. Signal processing and Sensor fusion are key activities in this area and examples of these activities are shown as well. The focus for these techniques is on vehicle mounted and airborne multi-sensor systems. The activities are supported by more fundamental modeling of the interaction of sensors with the landmines and especially the effects of the environment of the mines on this interaction. In the area of more future oriented techniques the following techniques are discussed: forward looking Polarised Infrared for moving platforms, Neutron Backscattering techniques and Laser Vibrometry for acoustic detection.

  18. Nonlinear processing of radar data for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosz, Elizabeth E.; DeJong, Keith; Duvoisin, Herbert A.; Solomon, Geoff Z.; Steinway, William J.; Warren, Albert

    2004-09-01

    Outstanding landmine detection has been achieved by the Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS system) in government-run field tests. The use of anomaly detection using principal component analysis (PCA) on the return of ground penetrating radar (GPR) coupled with metal detection is the key to the success of the HSTAMIDS-like system algorithms. Indications of nonlinearities and asymmetries in Humanitarian Demining (HD) data point to modifications to the current PCA algorithm that might prove beneficial. Asymmetries in the distribution of PCA projections of field data have been quantified in Humanitarian Demining (HD) data. An initial correction for the observed asymmetries has improved the False Alarm Rate (FAR) on this data.

  19. [Humanitarian transition].

    PubMed

    Mattei, Jean-François; Troit, Virginie

    2016-02-01

    In two centuries, modern humanitarian action has experienced several fractures often linked to crises. Although its professionalism and intervention force remain indisputable, it faces, since the 2000s, a new context that limits its ability to act and confronts it with new dilemmas, even though it must deal with needs for aid of unprecedented scale. These difficulties reveal a humanitarian transition period that was not anticipated. This transition period reflects the change from a dominant paradigm of North-South solidarity of Western origin to a much more complex model. This article provides a summary of the current mutations that are dominated by the States' assertion of sovereignty. Among the possible solutions, it argues for an ethical approach and a better integration of the research carried out in the Global South, prerequisites for building a true partnership and placing the victims at the heart of the operations which involve them. PMID:26936180

  20. Chemical detection of buried landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    Of all the buried landmine identification technologies currently available, sensing the chemical signature from the explosive components found in landmines is the only technique that can classify non-explosive objects from the real threat. In the last two decades, advances in chemical detection methods has brought chemical sensing technology to the foreground as an emerging technological solution. In addition, advances have been made in the understanding of the fundamental transport processes that allow the chemical signature to migrate from the buried source to the ground surface. A systematic evaluation of the transport of the chemical signature from inside the mine into the soil environment, and through the soil to the ground surface is being explored to determine the constraints on the use of chemical sensing technology. This effort reports on the results of simulation modeling using a one-dimensional screening model to evaluate the impacts on the transport of the chemical signature by variation of some of the principal soil transport parameters.

  1. Landmine injuries and rehabilitation for landmine survivors.

    PubMed

    Meier, Robert H; Smith, William K

    2002-02-01

    There is a tremendous international need for the development of rehabilitation educational programs, especially in low-income countries. These programs are most urgently needed in those countries where there is active conflict, where there has been recent civil war, and where significant casualties have been created because of landmines and weapons-fire. Most of these countries are developing nations where rehabilitation is a lower priority than the provision of basic health needs. These countries generally have few financial, personnel, and system resources to provide much rehabilitation for their disabled citizens. Also, they generally have few, if any, physicians trained in the principles and practice of rehabilitation medicine. These countries can benefit from the use of psychiatric consultants to help assess their rehabilitation needs in designing relevant educational curricula for health professionals and in developing rehabilitation teams. These teams can then develop systems of care for the most common disabling conditions in that area of the world. Western technology, however, cannot be imposed on these countries. Any rehabilitation systems of care must be established within the context of the particular culture and governmental health system organization, if it is to be useful and succeed in a particular nation. PMID:11878082

  2. A Comparative Study of Landmine Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasban, H.; Zahran, O.; Elaraby, Sayed M.; El-Kordy, M.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

    2010-09-01

    Several countries suffer from the existence of millions of buried landmines in their territories. These landmines have indefinite life, and may still cause horrific personal injuries and economic dislocation for decades after a war has finished. Therefore, there is a growing demand by these countries for reliable landmine inspection systems. There are several landmine detection techniques that can be used for this purpose. Each technique is suitable for detection under some conditions depending on the type of the landmine case, the explosive material, and the soil. This paper presents an overview of some of the existing landmine detection techniques. These techniques are briefly described and their merits and drawbacks are highlighted and compared. The purpose of this comparison is to shows the ideal conditions and the challenges for each technique. Furthermore, a comparison between landmine detection techniques from the points of view of cost, complexity, speed, safety, false alarm rate and effect of environmental conditions is presented.

  3. Discrimination between landmine and mine-like targets using wavelets and spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohana, Mahmoud A.; Abbas, Abbas M.; Gomaa, Mohamed L.; Ebrahim, Shereen M.

    2013-06-01

    Landmine is an explosive apparatus hidden in or on the ground, which blows up when a person or vehicle passes over it. Egypt is one of the countries suffering due to the unexploded ordnance (UXO). Around 2 million UXO are present in the Egyptian soil especially at Al-Alameen province, north of the western desert. Detection of buried landmines is a problem of military and humanitarian importance. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a powerful and non-destructive geophysical approach with a wide range of advantages in the field of landmine inspection. In the present paper, we apply different simulation models with Vivaldi antenna and mine-like targets by using the CST Microwave studio program. The field work is carried out by using a GPR device of model SIR 2000 from GSSI (Geophysical Survey Systems Incorporation) connected to 900 MHz antenna where the targets were buried in sand soil. Depending on the fact that the receiving powers (reflected, refracted and scattered) from the different materials are different, we study the spectral power densities for the received power from the different targets. The techniques used in this study are: direct fast Fourier transform, short time Fourier transform (spectrogram), wavelets transform and denoising techniques. Our results ought to be considered as finger prints for different scanned targets during this work. So we can discriminate between landmines and mine-like targets.

  4. Testing of a locating discriminating metal detector for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Nigel; Hawkins, Mark; Beech, Richard

    2006-05-01

    Conventional metal detectors are established and trusted tools for landmine detection, but their inability to precisely locate a target and discriminate mines from clutter leads to a high false alarm rate and slow rate of progress. This paper reports on developments to the Marmot advanced metal detector, which uses an array of coils to precisely locate a metal target in three dimensions and identify it. Recent developments allow the detector to calculate the magnetic polarizability tensor of a metal object. The magnetic polarizability tensor is unique to a particular target, and is a property of the metal's shape, size, conductivity, permeability and orientation. The eigenvalues of the magnetic polarizability tensor are compared to a library of values in the detector's software, representing common types of mine and clutter. In this way, Marmot can often quickly identify a detected object as a type of mine or a piece of clutter. This identification is independent of the target's orientation and, within limits, its position relative to the search head, thus providing the potential for a target recognition facility. This paper presents the results of tests to determine Marmot's ability to detect, precisely locate and identify common landmines. Tests have been conducted in air and in several types of soil. The instrument is a first step in developing the concept for landmine clearance. Issues for further investigation have been identified, including use of the instrument for identifying high metal content landmines, application of the soil rejection function and signal to noise issues.

  5. Genetic optimization of the HSTAMIDS landmine detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konduri, Ravi K.; Solomon, Geoff Z.; DeJong, Keith; Duvoisin, Herbert A.; Bartosz, Elizabeth E.

    2004-09-01

    CyTerra's dual sensor HSTAMIDS system has demonstrated exceptional landmine detection capabilities in extensive government-run field tests. Further optimization of the highly successful PentAD-class algorithms for Humanitarian Demining (HD) use (to enhance detection (Pd) and to lower the false alarm rate (FAR)) may be possible. PentAD contains several input parameters, making such optimization computationally intensive. Genetic algorithm techniques, which formerly provided substantial improvement in the detection performance of the metal detector sensor algorithm alone, have been applied to optimize the numerical values of the dual-sensor algorithm parameters. Genetic algorithm techniques have also been applied to choose among several sub-models and fusion techniques to potentially train the HSTAMIDS HD system in new ways. In this presentation we discuss the performance of the resulting algorithm as applied to field data.

  6. Visual cues for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszewski, James J.; Davison, Alan D.; Tischuk, Julia A.; Dippel, David J.

    2007-04-01

    Can human vision supplement the information that handheld landmine detection equipment provides its operators to increase detection rates and reduce the hazard of the task? Contradictory viewpoints exist regarding the viability of visual detection of landmines. Assuming both positions are credible, this work aims to reconcile them by exploring the visual information produced by landmine burial and how any visible signatures change as a function of time in a natural environment. Its objective is to acquire objective, foundational knowledge on which training could be based and subsequently evaluated. A representative set of demilitarized landmines were buried at a field site with bare soil and vegetated surfaces using doctrinal procedures. High resolution photographs of the ground surface were taken for approximately one month starting in April 2006. Photos taken immediately after burial show clearly visible surface signatures. Their features change with time and weather exposure, but the patterns they define persist, as photos taken a month later show. An analysis exploiting the perceptual sensitivity of expert observers showed signature photos to domain experts with instructions to identify the cues and patterns that defined the signatures. Analysis of experts' verbal descriptions identified a small set of easily communicable cues that characterize signatures and their changes over the duration of observation. Findings suggest that visual detection training is viable and has potential to enhance detection capabilities. The photos and descriptions generated offer materials for designing such training and testing its utility. Plans for investigating the generality of the findings, especially potential limiting conditions, are discussed.

  7. Soil information requirements for humanitarian demining: the case for a soil properties database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Yogadhish; McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Cross, Guy; Katsube, T. John

    2003-09-01

    Landmines are buried typically in the top 30 cm of soil. A number of physical, chemical and electromagnetic properties of this near-surface layer of ground will potentially affect the wide range of technologies under development worldwide for landmine detection and neutralization. Although standard soil survey information, as related to conventional soil classification, is directed toward agricultural and environmental applications, little or no information seems to exist in a form that is directly useful to humanitarian demining and the related R&D community. Thus, there is a general need for an information database devoted specifically to relevant soil properties, their geographic distribution and climate-driven variability. A brief description of the various detection technologies is used to introduce the full range of related soil properties. Following a general description of the need to establish a comprehensive soil property database, the discussion is then narrowed to soil properties affecting electromagnetic induction metal detectors - a problem of much restricted scope but of immediate and direct relevance to humanitarian demining. In particular, the complex magnetic susceptibility and, to a lesser degree, electrical conductivity of the host soil influence the performance of these widely used tools, and in the extreme instance, can render detectors unusable. A database comprising these properties for soils of landmine-affected countries would assist in predicting local detector performance, planning demining operations, designing and developing improved detectors and establishing realistic and representative test-evaluation facilities. The status of efforts made towards developing a database involving soil electromagnetic properties is reported.

  8. Intelligent Multisensor Prodder for Training Operators in Humanitarian Demining

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool. PMID:27347963

  9. Intelligent Multisensor Prodder for Training Operators in Humanitarian Demining.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool. PMID:27347963

  10. Integration of different data bodies for humanitarian decision support: an example from mine action.

    PubMed

    Benini, Aldo A; Conley, Charles E; Shdeed, Richard; Spurway, Kim; Yarmoshuk, Mark

    2003-12-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly used for integrating data from different sources and substantive areas, including in humanitarian action. The challenges of integration are particularly well illustrated by humanitarian mine action. The informational requirements of mine action are expensive, with socio-economic impact surveys costing over US$1.5 million per country, and are feeding a continuous debate on the merits of considering more factors or 'keeping it simple'. National census offices could, in theory, contribute relevant data, but in practice surveys have rarely overcome institutional obstacles to external data acquisition. A positive exception occurred in Lebanon, where the landmine impact survey had access to agricultural census data. The challenges, costs and benefits of this data integration exercise are analysed in a detailed case study. The benefits are considerable, but so are the costs, particularly the hidden ones. The Lebanon experience prompts some wider reflections. In the humanitarian community, data integration has been fostered not only by the diffusion of GIS technology, but also by institutional changes such as the creation of UN-led Humanitarian Information Centres. There is a question whether the analytic capacity is in step with aggressive data acquisition. Humanitarian action may yet have to build the kind of strong analytic tradition that public health and poverty alleviation have accomplished. PMID:14725088

  11. Nonlinear vibrations of buried landmines.

    PubMed

    Donskoy, Dimitri; Reznik, Alexander; Zagrai, Andrei; Ekimov, Alexander

    2005-02-01

    The seismo-acoustic method is one of the most promising emerging techniques for the detection of landmines. Numerous field tests have demonstrated that buried landmines manifest themselves at the surface through linear and nonlinear responses to acoustic/seismic excitation. The present paper describes modeling of the nonlinear response in the framework of the mass-spring model of the soil-mine system. The perturbation method used in the model allows for the derivation of an analytical solution describing both quadratic and cubic acoustic interactions at the soil-mine interface. This solution has been compared with actual field measurements to obtain nonlinear parameters of the buried mines. These parameters have been analyzed with respect to mine types and burial depths. It was found that the cubic nonlinearity could be a significant contributor to the nonlinear response. This effect has led to the development of a new intermodulation detection algorithm based on dual-frequency excitation. Both quadratic and intermodulation nonlinear algorithms were evaluated at the U.S. Army outdoor testing facilities. The algorithms appear to complement each other in improving the overall detection performance. PMID:15759689

  12. Bioreporter bacteria for landmine detection

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, R.S.; Youngblood, T.; Lamothe, D.

    1998-04-01

    Landmines (and other UXO) gradually leak explosive chemicals into the soil at significant concentrations. Bacteria, which have adapted to scavenge low concentrations of nutrients, can detect these explosive chemicals. Uptake of these chemicals results in the triggering of specific bacterial genes. The authors have created genetically recombinant bioreporter bacteria that detect small concentrations of energetic chemicals. These bacteria are genetically engineered to produce a bioluminescent signal when they contact specific explosives. A gene for a brightly fluorescent compound can be substituted for increased sensitivity. By finding the fluorescent bacteria, you find the landmine. Detection might be accomplished using stand-off illumination of the minefield and GPS technology, which would result in greatly reduced risk to the deminers. Bioreporter technology has been proven at the laboratory scale, and will be tested under field conditions in the near future. They have created a bacterial strain that detects sub-micromolar concentrations of o- and p-nitrotoluene. Related bacterial strains were produced using standard laboratory protocols, and bioreporters of dinitrotoluene and trinitrotoluene were produced, screening for activity with the explosive compounds. Response time is dependent on the growth rate of the bacteria. Although frill signal production may require several hours, the bacteria can be applied over vast areas and scanned quickly, producing an equivalent detection speed that is very fast. This technology may be applicable to other needs, such as locating buried explosives at military and ordnance/explosive manufacturing facilities.

  13. Pulsed Operation of a Compact Fusion Neutron Source Using a High-Voltage Pulse Generator Developed for Landmine Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Kunihito; Watanabe, Masato; Okino, Akitoshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Hotta, Eiki; Yuura, Morimasa

    2005-05-15

    Preliminary experimental results of pulsed neutron source based on a discharge-type beam fusion called Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) for landmine detection are presented. In Japan, a research and development project for constructing an advanced anti-personnel landmine detection system by using IECF, which is effective not only for metal landmines but also for plastic ones, is now in progress. This project consists of some R and D topics, and one of them is R and D of a high-voltage pulse generator system specialized for landmine detection, which can be used in the severe environment such as that in the field in Afghanistan. Thus a prototype of the system for landmine detection was designed and fabricated in consideration of compactness, lightness, cooling performance, dustproof and robustness. By using this prototype pulse generator system, a conventional IECF device was operated as a preliminary experiment. As a result, it was confirmed that the suggested pulse generator system is suitable for landmine detection system, and the results follow the empirical law obtained by the previous experiments. The maximum neutron production rate of 2.0x10{sup 8} n/s was obtained at a pulsed discharge of -51 kV, 7.3 A.

  14. 31 CFR 575.330 - Humanitarian activities, humanitarian purposes, and humanitarian support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Council Resolutions on Iraq, humanitarian relief, educational, cultural, recreational, and human rights-related activities, and activities to ameliorate the effects of or to investigate war crimes....

  15. Humanitarian demining technology toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joynt, Vernon P.

    2003-09-01

    This is a keynote address surveying the field of Humanitarian Demining (HD) from the viewpoint of a participating company. The controlling bodies, funding structures and some of the important sources of R&D relevant to HD are identified. The various techniques and technologies in common use as also technologies freshly put into field use are mentioned. The way in which they all fit into the demining toolbox is explained. Finally a view of future technologies that are potentially able to change HD efficiency and safety is discussed.

  16. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. PMID:27481835

  17. Nonlinear acoustic techniques for landmine detection.

    PubMed

    Korman, Murray S; Sabatier, James M

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of the top surface vibration of a buried (inert) VS 2.2 anti-tank plastic landmine reveal significant resonances in the frequency range between 80 and 650 Hz. Resonances from measurements of the normal component of the acoustically induced soil surface particle velocity (due to sufficient acoustic-to-seismic coupling) have been used in detection schemes. Since the interface between the top plate and the soil responds nonlinearly to pressure fluctuations, characteristics of landmines, the soil, and the interface are rich in nonlinear physics and allow for a method of buried landmine detection not previously exploited. Tuning curve experiments (revealing "softening" and a back-bone curve linear in particle velocity amplitude versus frequency) help characterize the nonlinear resonant behavior of the soil-landmine oscillator. The results appear to exhibit the characteristics of nonlinear mesoscopic elastic behavior, which is explored. When two primary waves f1 and f2 drive the soil over the mine near resonance, a rich spectrum of nonlinearly generated tones is measured with a geophone on the surface over the buried landmine in agreement with Donskoy [SPIE Proc. 3392, 221-217 (1998); 3710, 239-246 (1999)]. In profiling, particular nonlinear tonals can improve the contrast ratio compared to using either primary tone in the spectrum. PMID:15658688

  18. Ritual dynamics in humanitarian assistance.

    PubMed

    Richards, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Those who intervene in crises must take care to ensure that assistance does not undermine the processes through which social cohesion is generated or restored. From a neo-Durkheimian analytical perspective, feeding creates social loyalties as well as saves lives. Humanitarian agencies provide practical assistance to livelihoods, but they need also to create space for the ritual agency on which social cohesion depends. Attention to the rituals of food distribution helps humanitarian actors to address a potentially damaging dissociation between social and material facts. A post-war food security project in Sierra Leone is used to illustrate the point. The lessons of this intervention have implications for the organisation of humanitarian assistance at all levels, both international and local. The paper argues that establishing space for ritualisation within humanitarian programmes is an obligation for those who wish to do no harm. PMID:20132271

  19. A new integrated approach for characterizing the soil electromagnetic properties and detecting landmines using a hand-held vector network analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopera, Olga; Lambot, Sebastien; Slob, Evert; Vanclooster, Marnik; Macq, Benoit; Milisavljevic, Nada

    2006-05-01

    The application of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in humanitarian demining labors presents two major challenges: (1) the development of affordable and practical systems to detect metallic and non-metallic antipersonnel (AP) landmines under different conditions, and (2) the development of accurate soil characterization techniques to evaluate soil properties effects and determine the performance of these GPR-based systems. In this paper, we present a new integrated approach for characterizing electromagnetic (EM) properties of mine-affected soils and detecting landmines using a low cost hand-held vector network analyzer (VNA) connected to a highly directive antenna. Soil characterization is carried out using the radar-antenna-subsurface model of Lambot et al.1 and full-wave inversion of the radar signal focused in the time domain on the surface reflection. This methodology is integrated to background subtraction (BS) and migration to enhance landmine detection. Numerical and laboratory experiments are performed to show the effect of the soil EM properties on the detectability of the landmines and how the proposed approach can ameliorate the GPR performance.

  20. Internally displaced women as knowledge producers and users in humanitarian action: the view from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Lemaitre, Julieta

    2013-07-01

    The literature on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises commonly focuses on how inter-and non-governmental organisations can produce better knowledge and how this can be translated into improved programming. Yet, there is little recorded experience of, or concern about, how the beneficiaries of humanitarian relief can produce and use knowledge of their predicament. This paper is based on a case study of how the Liga de Mujeres Desplazadas, an internally displaced women's organisation in northern Colombia, employs proactively research-generated data to advance its own agenda in its interactions with donor bodies and the government. The paper finds that beneficiaries of humanitarian aid can, and do, use participatory research to advance their own ends in the legal and political spaces created around humanitarian crisis. However, their agency is limited by poverty, violence, and local balances of power. The paper concludes that beneficiaries' priorities in the production of data about humanitarian crises warrant further study. PMID:23905766

  1. Camera-based platform and sensor motion tracking for data fusion in a landmine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Mark, Wannes; van den Heuvel, Johan C.; den Breejen, Eric; Groen, Frans C. A.

    2003-09-01

    Vehicles that serve in the role as landmine detection robots could be an important tool for demining former conflict areas. On the LOTUS platform for humanitarian demining, different sensors are used to detect a wide range of landmine types. Reliable and accurate detection depends on correctly combining the observations from the different sensors on the moving platform. Currently a method based on odometry is used to merge the readings from the sensors. In this paper a vision based approach is presented which can estimate the relative sensor pose and position together with the vehicle motion. To estimate the relative position and orientation of sensors, techniques from camera calibration are used. The platform motion is estimated from tracked features on the ground. A new approach is presented which can reduce the influence of tracking errors or other outliers on the accuracy of the ego-motion estimate. Overall, the new vision based approach for sensor localization leads to better estimates then the current odometry based method.

  2. An experimental study on antipersonnel landmine detection using acoustic-to-seismic coupling.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ning; Sabatier, James M

    2003-03-01

    An acoustic-to-seismic system to detect buried antipersonnel mines exploits airborne acoustic waves penetrating the surface of the ground. Acoustic waves radiating from a sound source above the ground excite Biot type I and II compressional waves in the porous soil. The type I wave and type II waves refract toward the normal and cause air and soil particle motion. If a landmine is buried below the surface of the insonified area, these waves are scattered or reflected by the target, resulting in distinct changes to the acoustically coupled ground motion. A scanning laser Doppler vibrometer measures the motion of the ground surface. In the past, this technique has been employed with remarkable success in locating antitank mines during blind field tests [Sabatier and Xiang, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 1146-1154 (2001)]. The humanitarian demining mission requires an ability to locate antipersonnel mines, requiring a surmounting of additional challenges due to a plethora of shapes and smaller sizes. This paper describes an experimental study on the methods used to locate antipersonnel landmines in recent field measurements. PMID:12656368

  3. An affordable modular vehicle radar for landmine and IED detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David; Curtis, Paul; Dittmer, Jon; Hunt, Nigel; Graham, Blair; Allan, Robert

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a vehicle mounted 8-channel radar system suitable for buried landmine and IED detection. The system is designed to find Anti Tank (AT) landmines and buried Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). The radar uses field-proven ground penetrating radar sub-system modules and is scalable to 16, 32 or 64 channels, for covering greater swathe widths and for providing higher cross track resolution. This offers the capability of detecting smaller targets down to a minimum dimension of 100mm. The current rate of advance of the technology demonstrator is 10 kph; this can be increased to 20 kph where required. The data output is triggered via shaft encoder or via GPS and, for each forward increment; the data output is variable from a single byte per channel through to the 512 samples per channel. Trials using an autonomous vehicle, combined with a COFDM wireless link for data and telemetry back to a base station, have proven successful and the system architecture is described in this paper. The GPR array can be used as a standalone sensor or can be integrated with off-the-shelf software and a metal detection array.

  4. Landmine Detection Using Backscattered X-Ray Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.; Lockwood, G.J.; Selph, M.M.; Shope, S.L.; Wehlburg, J.C.

    1999-07-16

    The implementation of a backscattered x-ray landmine detection system has been demonstrated in laboratories at both Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of Florida (UF) The next step was to evaluate the modality by assembling a system for fieldwork and to evaluate the systems performance with real landmines. To assess the system's response to a variety of objects, buried simulated plastic and metal antitank landmines, surface simulated plastic antipersonnel landmines, and surface metal fragments were used as targets for the field test. The location of the test site was an unprepared field at SNL. The tests conducted using real landmines were held at UF using various burial depths. The field tests yielded the same levels of discrimination between soil and landmines that had been detected in laboratory experiments. The tests on the real landmines showed that the simulated landmines were a good approximation. The real landmines also contained internal features that would allow not only the detection of the landmines, but also the identification of them.

  5. Constrained filter optimization for subsurface landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie; Clodfelter, Fred; Lulich, Dan; Patrikar, Ajay; Howard, Peter; Weaver, Richard; Rosen, Erik

    2006-05-01

    Previous large-scale blind tests of anti-tank landmine detection utilizing the NIITEK ground penetrating radar indicated the potential for very high anti-tank landmine detection probabilities at very low false alarm rates for algorithms based on adaptive background cancellation schemes. Recent data collections under more heterogeneous multi-layered road-scenarios seem to indicate that although adaptive solutions to background cancellation are effective, the adaptive solutions to background cancellation under different road conditions can differ significantly, and misapplication of these adaptive solutions can reduce landmine detection performance in terms of PD/FAR. In this work we present a framework for the constrained optimization of background-estimation filters that specifically seeks to optimize PD/FAR performance as measured by the area under the ROC curve between two FARs. We also consider the application of genetic algorithms to the problem of filter optimization for landmine detection. Results indicate robust results for both static and adaptive background cancellation schemes, and possible real-world advantages and disadvantages of static and adaptive approaches are discussed.

  6. On the use of evidence in humanitarian logistics research.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Martinez, Alfonso J; Stapleton, Orla; Van Wassenhove, Luk N

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the reflections of the authors on the differences between the language and the approach of practitioners and academics to humanitarian logistics problems. Based on a long-term project on fleet management in the humanitarian sector, involving both large international humanitarian organisations and academics, it discusses how differences in language and approach to such problems may create a lacuna that impedes trust. In addition, the paper provides insights into how academic research evidence adapted to practitioner language can be used to bridge the gap. When it is communicated appropriately, evidence strengthens trust between practitioners and academics, which is critical for long-term projects. Once practitioners understand the main trade-offs included in academic research, they can supply valuable feedback to motivate new academic research. Novel research problems promote innovation in the use of traditional academic methods, which should result in a win-win situation: relevant solutions for practice and advances in academic knowledge. PMID:23905767

  7. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  8. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  9. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  10. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  11. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  12. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  13. Multisensor mine detector for peacekeeping: improved landmine detector concept (ILDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Carruthers, Al

    1996-05-01

    The Improved Landmine Detector Concept Project was initiated in Autumn 1994 to develop a prototype vehicle mounted mine detector for low metal content and nonmetallic mines for a peacekeeping role on roads. The system will consist of a teleoperated vehicle carrying a highly sensitive electromagnetic induction (EMI) detector, an infrared imager (IR), ground probing radar (GPR), and a thermal neutron activation (TNA) detector for confirmation. The IR, EMI and TNA detectors have been under test since 1995 and the GPR will be received in June 1996. Results of performance trials of the individual detectors are discussed. Various design configurations and their tradeoffs are discussed. Fusion of data from the detectors to reduce false alarm rate and increase probability of detection, a key element to the success of the system, is discussed. An advanced development model of the system is expected to be complete by Spring 1997.

  14. History and Principles of Humanitarian Action.

    PubMed

    Rysaback-Smith, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Humanitarian aid has been present in some form throughout human history, yet the modern concept of humanitarian aid has only truly emerged since the later half of the 20th century. Through a complex progression of world events and largely brought about in response to armed conflict, modern humanitarian aid is provided by a multitude of organizations and actors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the history of humanitarian action, a review of the principles of humanitarian aid and an overview of the major documents which delineate those principles. PMID:27437525

  15. [Humanitarian plastic surgery in question].

    PubMed

    Montandon, D; Quinodoz, P; Pittet, B

    2004-06-01

    Humanitarian plastic surgery has become very fashionable and more and more surgeons are attracted by this type of commitment. The authors remind here of the necessary conditions and limitations of these actions. The communicative action according to J. Habermas, which means a true partnership with the local health care specialists should be the only valid engagement. PMID:15276263

  16. Polarization differences in airborne ground penetrating radar performance for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogaru, Traian; Le, Calvin

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has investigated the ultra-wideband (UWB) radar technology for detection of landmines, improvised explosive devices and unexploded ordnance, for over two decades. This paper presents a phenomenological study of the radar signature of buried landmines in realistic environments and the performance of airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in detecting these targets as a function of multiple parameters: polarization, depression angle, soil type and burial depth. The investigation is based on advanced computer models developed at ARL. The analysis includes both the signature of the targets of interest and the clutter produced by rough surface ground. Based on our numerical simulations, we conclude that low depression angles and H-H polarization offer the highest target-to-clutter ratio in the SAR images and therefore the best radar performance of all the scenarios investigated.

  17. Nonlinear acoustic detection of weathered, low compliance landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, James M.; Alberts, W. C. Kirkpatrick; Korman, Murray S.

    2005-09-01

    Two potential impediments to acoustic landmine detection are soil weathering processes and low compliance landmines. To bury landmines, the soil within a mine diameter is removed and replaced such that bulk density, compression, and shear strength all decrease, leaving an acoustic scar detectable with the linear acoustic measurement technique. After a few soil wetting and drying cycles, this contrast is reduced. Linear acoustic mine detection measurements were made on a low impedance contrast landmine before the first rainfall on several occasions over the subsequent 5 years. During this period of time, both the spatial and frequency resolution had to be increased to maintain an on/off target velocity ratio that allowed detection. In some cases, the landmine remains undetectable. To address this, two-tone nonlinear acoustic measurements have been made on these landmines. When the landmine is detectable with linear acoustics, two tones are broadcast at the frequency where the on/off target velocity ratio is the largest. For the cases when the landmine is undetectable, a two-tone sweep is performed and the operator observes the real-time velocity FFT, noting nonlinear sidebands. Next, two-tone tests are conducted at these sidebands to determine nonlinear velocity profiles. [Work supported by U.S. Army RDECOM, NVESD.

  18. Rehabilitation of landmine victims--the ultimate challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Nicolas E.; Walsh, Wendy S.

    2003-01-01

    Antipersonnel landmines are often used indiscriminately and frequently result in injury or death of non-combatants. In the last 65 years, over 110 million mines have been spread throughout the world into an estimated 70 countries. Landmine victims use a disproportionately high amount of medical resources; the vast majority of incidents occur in regions and countries without a sophisticated medical infrastructure and with limited resources, where rehabilitation is difficult in the best of circumstances. It is suggested that only a quarter of the patients with amputation secondary to landmines receive appropriate care. PMID:14710508

  19. Reason, emotion, compassion: can altruism survive professionalisation in the humanitarian sector?

    PubMed

    Carbonnier, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    The humanitarian sector has grown enormously over the past two decades. Some fear that professionalisation comes at the expense of altruistic volunteering. This may be a valid concern if altruism is the product of organisational culture and individual experiences rather than an innate trait. This paper examines advances in evolutionary biology and neurology that provide evidence in support of both the nature and nurture arguments, echoing earlier insights from social sciences. It then questions to what extent humanitarian principles build on altruistic impulses or instead seek to constrain them, and reviews recruitment profiles of selected humanitarian organisations and applicants' letters accordingly. This initial investigation warrants further research to identify how altruism as a personal trait and an organisational principle has influenced diverse humanitarian actors and traditions. This paper outlines how training curricula and organisational reward systems can build on-rather than stifle-natural altruism to nurture critical, reflexive practitioners. PMID:25439560

  20. Humanitarian Politics. Headline Series No. 304.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minear, Larry; Weiss, Thomas G.

    This booklet examines the issue of humanitarian aid in times of crises and how the political and military conditions that generate the need for humanitarian action have changed in the post-cold-war era. There are different faces of civil war, changes in international assistance, and complex emergencies that demand new world responses to help those…

  1. Aerodynamic sampling for landmine trace detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary S.; Kester, Douglas A.

    2001-10-01

    Electronic noses and similar sensors show promise for detecting buried landmines through the explosive trace signals they emit. A key step in this detection is the sampler or sniffer, which acquires the airborne trace signal and presents it to the detector. Practicality demands no physical contact with the ground. Further, both airborne particulates and molecular traces must be sampled. Given a complicated minefield terrain and microclimate, this becomes a daunting chore. Our prior research on canine olfactory aerodynamics revealed several ways that evolution has dealt with such problems: 1) proximity of the sniffer to the scent source is important, 2) avoid exhaling back into the scent source, 3) use an aerodynamic collar on the sniffer inlet, 4) use auxiliary airjets to stir up surface particles, and 5) manage the 'impedance mismatch' between sniffer and sensor airflows carefully. Unfortunately, even basic data on aerodynamic sniffer performance as a function of inlet-tube and scent-source diameters, standoff distance, etc., have not been previously obtained. A laboratory-prototype sniffer was thus developed to provide guidance for landmine trace detectors. Initial experiments with this device are the subject of this paper. For example, a spike in the trace signal is observed upon starting the sniffer airflow, apparently due to rapid depletion of the available signal-laden air. Further, shielding the sniffer from disruptive ambient airflows arises as a key issue in sampling efficiency.

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of nitroaromatic landmine signature explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.; Manrique-Bastidas, Cesar A.; Blanco, Alejandro; Primera, Oliva M.; Pacheco, Leonardo C.; Castillo-Chara, Jairo; Castro, Miguel E.; Mina, Nairmen

    2004-09-01

    TNT and DNT are important explosives used as base charges of landmines and other explosive devices. They are often combined with RDX in specific explosive formulations. Their detection in vapor phase as well as in soil in contact with the explosives is important in landmine detection technology. The spectroscopic signatures of nitroaromatic compounds in neat forms: crystals, droplets, and recrystallized samples were determined by Raman Microspectroscopy (RS), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FTIR) and Fiber Optics Coupled - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FOC-FTIR) using a grazing angle (GA) probe. TNT exhibits a series of characteristic bands: vibrational signatures, which allow its detection in soil. The spectroscopic signature of neat TNT is dominated by strong bands about 1380 and 2970 cm-1. The intensity and position of these bands were found remarkably different in soil samples spiked with TNT. The 1380 cm-1 band is split into a number of bands in that region. The 2970 cm-1 band is reduced in intensity and new bands are observed about 2880 cm-1. The results are consistent with a different chemical environment of TNT in soil as compared to neat TNT. Interactions were found to be dependent on the physical source of the explosive. In the case of DNT-sand interactions, shifts in vibrational frequencies of the explosives as well as the substrates were found.

  3. Strengthening the evidence base for health programming in humanitarian crises.

    PubMed

    Ager, A; Burnham, G; Checchi, F; Gayer, M; Grais, R F; Henkens, M; Massaquoi, M B F; Nandy, R; Navarro-Colorado, C; Spiegel, P

    2014-09-12

    Given the growing scale and complexity of responses to humanitarian crises, it is important to develop a stronger evidence base for health interventions in such contexts. Humanitarian crises present unique challenges to rigorous and effective research, but there are substantial opportunities for scientific advance. Studies need to focus where the translation of evidence from noncrisis scenarios is not viable and on ethical ways of determining what happens in the absence of an intervention. Robust methodologies suited to crisis settings have to be developed and used to assess interventions with potential for delivery at scale. Strengthening research capacity in the low- to middle-income countries that are vulnerable to crises is also crucial. PMID:25214616

  4. Anti-personnel landmine injuries: a global epidemic.

    PubMed

    McIvor Joss, D

    1997-01-01

    Injuries and fatalities caused by anti-personnel landmines have become a global epidemic. Over 250 000 people alive today have been injured by landmines, many of whom required amputations. Civilians, including a large percentage of women and children, are injured at least as frequently as are military personnel. An estimated 10 000-100 000 additional people are killed or injured by landmines each year. There are presently in excess of 100 million active landmines buried or scattered throughout the world, and every day, an additional 5000 are put in place. The majority are in poor, underdeveloped, war-torn countries whose populations are already traumatized by conflict. At the cost of $300-000 per mine, the governments of these countries can not afford the process of de-mining their land, nor can they provide adequate emergency medical care and rehabilitation for landmine victims. The presence of mines in agricultural fields, near water supplies, along roadways and around villages, prevents the use of these essential resources, severely impacting on economic development. Health professionals are urged to support national and international legislation to completely ban the manufacture, sale and use of anti-personnel landmines. PMID:24441894

  5. Relevance or Excellence? Setting Research Priorities for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Humanitarian Settings

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between

  6. Landmine detection by 3D GPR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Yokota, Yuya; Takahashi, Kazunori; Grasmueck, Mark

    2012-06-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for detection of small buried objects such as landmine and UXO, conducted demonstration tests by using the 3DGPR system, which is a GPR system combined with high accuracy positing system using a commercial laser positioning system (iGPS). iGPS can provide absolute and better than centimetre precise x,y,z coordinates to multiple mine sensors at the same time. The developed " 3DGPR" system is efficient and capable of high-resolution 3D shallow subsurface scanning of larger areas (25 m2 to thousands of square meters) with irregular topography . Field test by using a 500MHz GPR system equipped with 3DGPR system was conducted. PMN-2 and Type-72 mine models have been buried at the depth of 5-20cm in sand. We could demonstrate that the 3DGPR can visualize each of these buried land mines very clearly.

  7. Humanitarian Surgical Missions: Planning for Success.

    PubMed

    Boston, Mark; Horlbeck, Drew

    2015-09-01

    Humanitarian surgical missions can provide much needed care for those who are otherwise unable to receive such care because of limited local health care resources and cost. These missions also offer excellent training opportunities and can be life-changing experiences for those who participate in them. A successful humanitarian surgical mission requires careful planning and coordination and can be challenging for those tasked with the responsibilities to organize and lead these missions. This article addresses many of the issues and challenges encountered when planning and leading humanitarian surgical missions and offers a template to be used by those who take on these challenges. PMID:26059533

  8. Surface-enhanced raman detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene impurity vapor as a marker to locate landmines.

    PubMed

    Sylvia, J M; Janni, J A; Klein, J D; Spencer, K M

    2000-12-01

    Time, cost, and casualties associated with demining efforts underscore the need for improved detection techniques. Reduction in the number of false positives by directly detecting the explosive material, rather than casing material, is desirable. The desired field sensor must, at a minimum, demonstrate reproducibility, the necessary level of sensitivity, portability, instrumental stability, and fast system response times. Ideally, vibrational spectroscopic techniques have the potential to remove false positives, since every chemical has a unique bond structure. Herein, we demonstrate the capabilities of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to detect the chemical vapor signature emanating from buried TNT-based landmines. We present reproducible results obtained from blind tests controlled by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) that demonstrate vapor detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene at concentration levels of 5 ppb or less. The results presented used acquisition times of 30 s on a fieldable system and showed that SERS can be a significant improvement over current landmine detection methods. PMID:11128944

  9. Tackling the Global Challenge: Humanitarian Catastrophes

    PubMed Central

    Iserson, Kenneth V.

    2014-01-01

    Humanitarian catastrophes,” conflicts and calamities generating both widespread human suffering and destructive events, require a wide range of emergency resources. This paper answers a number of questions that humanitarian catastrophes generate: Why and how do the most-developed countries—those with the resources, capabilities, and willingness to help—intervene in specific types of disasters? What ethical and legal guidelines shape our interventions? How well do we achieve our goals? It then suggests a number of changes to improve humanitarian responses, including better NGO-government cooperation, increased research on the best disaster response methods, clarification of the criteria and roles for humanitarian (military) interventions, and development of post-2015 Millennium Development Goals with more accurate progress measures. PMID:24672618

  10. Humanitarian aid in the archives: introduction.

    PubMed

    Davey, Eleanor; Scriven, Kim

    2015-10-01

    How might historical perspectives assist the goal of improving humanitarian responses? This introduction to a special issue of Disasters on the history of humanitarian action explores this question and outlines how the other submissions to the edition, each with its own approach and focus area from the nineteenth-century to the present today, make different contributions to understanding of humanitarian action. The paper argues that the value of history lies not so much in the information it might offer, but in the challenges it can pose to habitual ways of thinking and in the skills of investigation and interpretation it fosters. These attributes make historical perspectives a potentially valuable addition to the critical questioning of humanitarian practitioners and policymakers. The paper advocates integrating history into a more reflective attitude to change and a more adventurous and holistic approach to innovation, as opposed to simply using it to 'learn lessons'. PMID:26395104

  11. 77 FR 6544 - Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Incentivizing Humanitarian Technologies and Licensing Through the Intellectual Property System, 75 FR 57261... following considerations in mind: (1) Recognized subject matter expertise in science, engineering, economics... considered in four categories: Medical Technology, Food & Nutrition, Clean Technology, and...

  12. Humanitarian response: improving logistics to save lives.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives. PMID:19069032

  13. Analysis of Landmine Fatalities and Injuries in the Kurdistan Region.

    PubMed

    Heshmati, Almas; Khayyat, Nabaz T

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzes landmine victim data in the Kurdistan Region during the period 1960 to 2005. A regression analysis is used to identify the determinants and impact of the probability of getting killed by mines and unexploded ordnances. The rates of killed/injured victims are explained using a set of socioeconomic variables. As the data are a repeated cross-section in which the individuals are observed when they are subjected to landmine incidents, and to account for the dynamic aspect of the process and heterogeneity by location as well as to control for unobserved location and time effects, a pseudo panel data are created where districts are observed over the entire time period forming a panel data. The results show that (a) males, children, and the elderly are more susceptible to a higher level of landmine risks; (b) landmine training and awareness programs do not reduce the rate of landmine mortality; and (c) the rate of incidents are declining over time. This result can be used in the planning, monitoring, and resource allocation for mine action, as well as labor market programs and rehabilitation activities. PMID:25315481

  14. Bayesian probability analysis for acoustic-seismic landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ning; Sabatier, James M.; Goggans, Paul M.

    2002-11-01

    Landmines buried in the subsurface induce distinct changes in the seismic vibration of the ground surface when an acoustic source insonifies the ground. A scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) senses the acoustically-induced seismic vibration of the ground surface in a noncontact, remote manner. The SLDV-based acoustic-to-seismic coupling technology exhibits significant advantages over conventional sensors due to its capability for detecting both metal and nonmetal mines and its stand-off distance. The seismic vibration data scanned from the SLDV are preprocessed to form images. The detection of landmines relies primarily on an analysis of the target amplitude, size, shape, and frequency range. A parametric model has been established [Xiang and Sabatier, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2740 (2001)] to describe the amplified surface vibration velocity induced by buried landmines within an appropriate frequency range. This model incorporates vibrational amplitude, size, position of landmines, and the background amplitude into a model-based analysis process in which Bayesian target detection and parameter estimation have been applied. Based on recent field measurement results, the landmine detection procedure within a Bayesian framework will be discussed. [Work supported by the United States Army Communications-Electronics Command, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate.

  15. Medical humanitarianism: anthropologists speak out on policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon; Marten, Meredith; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, anthropologists have become increasingly present in medical humanitarian situations as scholars, consultants, and humanitarian practitioners and have acquired insight into medical humanitarian policy and practice. In 2012, we implemented a poll on anthropology, health, and humanitarian practice in which 75 anthropologists discussed their experiences in medical humanitarianism. Our goal was to move beyond the existing anarchy of individual voices in anthropological writing and gain an aggregate view of the perspective of anthropologists working in medical humanitarian contexts. Responses lead to six inductively derived thematic priorities. The findings illustrate how anthropologists perceive medical humanitarian practice; which aspects of medical humanitarianism should be seen as priorities for anthropological research; and how anthropologists use ethnography in humanitarian contexts. PMID:25345372

  16. Health information systems in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed Central

    Thieren, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Health information systems (HIS) in emergencies face a double dilemma: the information necessary to understand and respond to humanitarian crises must be timely and detailed, whereas the circumstances of these crises makes it challenging to collect it. Building on the technical work of the Health Metrics Network on HIS and starting with a systemic definition of HIS in emergencies, this paper reviews the various data-collection platforms in these contexts, looking at their respective contributions to providing what humanitarian actors need to know to target their intervention to where the needs really are. Although reporting or sampling errors are unavoidable, it is important to identify them and acknowledge the limitations inherent in generalizing data that were collected in highly heterogeneous environments. To perform well in emergencies, HIS require integration and participation. In spite of notable efforts to coordinate data collection and dissemination practices among humanitarian agencies, it is noted that coordination on the ground depends on the strengths and presence of a lead agency, often WHO, and on the commitment of humanitarian agencies to investing resources in data production. Poorly integrated HIS generate fragmented, incomplete and often contradictory statistics, a situation that leads to a misuse of numbers with negative consequences on humanitarian interventions. As a means to avoid confusion regarding humanitarian health statistics, this paper stresses the importance of submitting statistics to a rigorous and coordinated auditing process prior to their publication. The audit trail should describe the various steps of the data production chains both technically and operationally, and indicate the limits and assumptions under which each number can be used. Finally emphasis is placed on the ethical obligation for humanitarian agencies to ensure that the necessary safeguards on data are in place to protect the confidentiality of victims and

  17. Processing of GPR data from NIITEK landmine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legarsky, Justin J.; Broach, J. T.; Bishop, Steven S.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, a signal processing approach for wide-bandwidth ground-penetrating-radar imagery from Non-Intrusive Inspection Technology, Incorporated (NIITEK) vehicle-mounted landmine detection sensor is investigated. The approach consists of a sequence of processing steps, which include signal filtering, image enhancement and detection. Filtering strategies before detection aid in image visualization by reducing ground bounce, systematic effects and redundant signals. Post-filter image processing helps by enhancing landmine signatures in the NIITEK radar imagery. Study results from applying this signal processing approach are presented for test minefield lane data, which were collected during 2002 from an Army test site.

  18. Three legacies of humanitarianism in China.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Miwa

    2013-10-01

    The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country. PMID:23876108

  19. [Humanitarian ethics and the concept of justice].

    PubMed

    Quadrelli, Silvia; Colt, Henri; Garcia, Camilo

    2011-01-01

    The bases of humanitarian assistance, beyond a legal norm--which appears to be essential given the inalienable obligations that result for all participating bodies--are influenced by philosophical and political conceptualizations framed in an ethics of justice. Actors in the humanitarian field who adhere to the Rawlsian social contract model their actions based on a philosophy that assistance is a noble and desirable option that remains in the hands of those who offer aid, and who can freely choose to not offer such assistance. Peter Singer and Thomas Pogge propose nuances to the understanding of the duty of assistance. Not assisting would be bad, basically tantamount to killing. Assistance is no longer a caring act deserving of praise, but rather a moral obligation. The financial imperatives of associations, the growing complexity of activities and the development of an important element of communication lead to a professionalization of humanitarian medicine. A modern vision of humanitarian assistance requires an understanding of justice and solidarity and global outreach. We believe that ethics need to be embedded firmly in humanitarian actions that have clear political implications. PMID:21717666

  20. Challenges in humanitarian information management and exchange: evidence from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Altay, Nezih; Labonte, Melissa

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing recognition of the critical role information management can play in shaping effective humanitarian response, coordination and decision-making. Quality information, reaching more humanitarian actors, will result in better coordination and better decision-making, thus improving the response to beneficiaries as well as accountability to donors. The humanitarian response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake marked a watershed moment for humanitarian information management. Yet the fragmented nature of the response and the use of hierarchical models of information management, along with other factors, have led some observers to label the Haiti response a failure. Using an analytical framework often found in humanitarian emergencies, this study analyses challenges to information flow in the Haiti case and the implications for effective humanitarian response. It concludes by offering possible paths for overcoming such challenges, and for restoring the value and utility of humanitarian information management and exchange in humanitarian relief settings. PMID:24601932

  1. Feasibility of landmine detection using transgenic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyholos, Michael; Faust, Anthony A.; Miao, Minmin; Montoya, Rebecca; Donahue, D. Aaron

    2006-05-01

    Genetically modified plants that detect TNT and its degradation products are potentially powerful aids in humanitarian demining and detection of unexploded ordnance. Although the feasibility of TNT detection by plants and microorganisms has been demonstrated by several research teams world wide, thus far, none of these previously demonstrated systems has the sensitivity and specificity to be effective under field conditions. We are using two approaches to increase the potential effectiveness of these and related biological detection systems. First, we are expanding the repertoire of explosive-responsive promoters by conducting DNA microarray experiments with plants treated with TNT-degradation products, and characterizing the inducibility of reporter gene expression by these promoters. Second, we are evaluating the dynamics and limiting factors in the transmission of artificial signals from roots to shoots. This will increase the ability of soil-based TNT perception strategies to effect human-readable changes in shoot morphology as part of a practical plant-based explosives detection system.

  2. Procedural Effectiveness of International Humanitarian Assistance.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Ardalan, Ali; Tirone, Daniel C; Waugh, William L; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Procedural effectiveness relates to the impact assessment; so, the objective of this study is to identify the procedural effectiveness indicators and develop a conceptual mapping of existing impact indicators in the field of International Humanitarian Assistance (IHA). We conducted a literature review and searched the websites of humanitarian assistance organizations. Documents were included if they focused on IHA procedural effectiveness or impact evaluations. Reviewers identified the eligible studies and extracted data. A conceptual framework was used to categorize the indicators of secured (protection, good health and food security) and avoided (illness, death and malnutrition) issues. 10 documents were included and categorized based on the framework. It was found that there is no agreed and unique methodology and indicators to assess the impact of humanitarian assistance projects. This study could be the step toward understanding of IHA procedural effectiveness indicators and also the findings can make a base line to start more research. PMID:27241416

  3. On the origin of superparamagnetic minerals of tropical soils and their impact on landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger; Altfelder, Sven

    2010-05-01

    successively with weathering for ultrabasic, basic/intermediate and acid igneous parent material, but, it tends to decrease for clay/clay slate and sandstone. Based on the above observations we conclude that the content of SP minerals depends on both: parent rock and alteration of the material. The total amount of SP minerals rises during weathering, regardless of the parent material. The process is either preferential accumulation of weathering resistant magnetic minerals, including the ultra-fine grained fraction, or neo-formation of new magnetic minerals. The increase of relative frequency dependence of igneous rocks is a clear indication that SP minerals are formed during soil genesis. However, for some sedimentary rocks, the amount of SP minerals is already high and is not subsequently increased further during weathering. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) based metal detectors are the most widely used sensing techniques in landmine clearance operations. They are negatively influenced by magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence. In particular tropical soils show to have a negative impact on EMI sensors. Besides, the tropics are the regions which are most affected by landmines where most of the humanitarian demining-activities concentrate. Currently, no soil classification system exists that helps to predict the influence of frequency dependent susceptibility on landmine detection. We deduce a system that can be used to predict the soil impact depending on parent material and weathering. Our system can be consulted by demining organisations to predict metal detector performance in tropical regions based on geologic and soil maps. Ultra-basic, basic and intermediate igneous rocks have a moderate influence on EMI detectors in average cases and a very severe influence in extreme cases. Soils developed from these rocks have a severe or very severe influence. In contrast, acid igneous rocks and sediments do not influence EMI detectors severely. Soils developed from

  4. Explosives and landmine detection using an artificial olfactory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Kauer, John S.

    2004-09-01

    We are developing a portable, artificial olfactory system based on multiple attributes of the sense of smell to identify air-borne odors, including those associated with buried landmines. Brief (1-2 sec) air samples are drawn over an array of optically-interrogated, cross-reactive chemical sensors. These consist of polymers with high sensitivity and relatively narrow specificity for nitroaromatics (Timothy Swager, MIT), as well as those with broader responses, thus permitting discrimination among substances that may be confused for nitroaromatics. Biologically-based pattern matching algorithms automatically identify odors as one of several to which the device has been trained. In discrimination tests, after training to one concentration of 6 odors, the device gave 95% correct identification when tested at the original plus three different concentrations. Thus, as required in real world applications, the device can identify odors at multiple concentrations without explicitly training on each. In sensitivity tests, the device showed 100% detection and no false alarms for the landmine-related compound DNT at concentrations as low as 500 pp-trillion (quantified by GC/MS) - 10 times lower than average canine behavioral thresholds. To investigate landmine detection capabilities, field studies were conducted at Ft. Leonard Wood, MO. In calibration tests, signals from buried PMA1A anti-personnel landmines were clearly discriminated from background. In a limited 9 site "blind" test, PMA1A detection was 100% with false alarms of 40%. Although requiring further development, these data indicate that a device with appropriate sensors and exploiting olfactory principles can detect and discriminate low concentration vapor signatures, including those of buried landmines.

  5. Humanitarian aid is never a crime”: humanitarianism and illegality in migrant advocacy.

    PubMed

    Cook, Maria Lorena

    2011-01-01

    I analyze the case of humanitarian pro-migrant activists in southern Arizona between 2000 and 2010 to explore how contending groups wield law and legality claims in a dynamic policy environment. Humanitarian activists both evade and engage the law. They appeal to a higher law to elude charges that they are acting illegally, while seeking assurances that their actions are within the law. Law enforcement agents rely on the authority and technical neutrality of the law in redefining humanitarian aid as illegal, while expanding their own claims to carry out humanitarian work. This case study of advocacy on behalf of “illegal” migrants highlights how both activists and those who enforce the law redefine legality in strategic ways. PMID:22165426

  6. International Humanitarian Award: Michael G. Wessells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Michael G. Wessells, recipient of the International Humanitarian Award, is cited for his pioneering and sustained contributions to the protection of children affected by armed conflict and to the development of international guidelines for the provision of community-based, culturally responsive psychosocial support in emergencies. Wessells has…

  7. The Development and Maturation of Humanitarian Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gerard A.

    2007-01-01

    Humanitarian psychological support as an organized field is relatively young. Pioneers in the field were involved primarily in providing psychological support to refugees and internally displaced persons in conflict and nonconflict situations. This article describes basic principles for the design of psychological support programs and…

  8. John W. Thoburn: International Humanitarian Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's International Humanitarian Award. The 2012 winner, John W. Thoburn, is an extraordinary psychologist who devotes himself consistently to service to underserved populations, especially in the aftermath of natural or human-induced disasters. He exemplifies a genuine…

  9. Computational modeling of on-contact antennas for the detection and localization of anti-personnel landmines via ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Margery Jeanne

    background, 92% of the 288 unique cases are shown to be detected, and 49% are accurately located. Additionally, when only examining targets located directly below the Tri-Sphere robotic platform, 100% of both metal and plastic landmines are detected and 97% are shown to be accurately located. Overall, this method shows potential as a strong candidate for humanitarian demining.

  10. States of fragility: stabilisation and its implications for humanitarian action.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Sarah; Elhawary, Samir; Muggah, Robert

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the evolution of international stabilisation agendas and their significance for humanitarian action. Stabilisation includes a combination of military, humanitarian, political and economic activities to control, contain and manage areas affected by armed conflict and complex emergencies. Encompassing narrow security objectives and broader peace-building efforts, stabilisation is both a conservative and potentially transformative, comprehensive and long-term agenda. The open-ended approach allows for widely varying interpretations and applications in different circumstances and by different actors with an assortment of implications for humanitarian action. The relationship between the two is highly uncertain and contentious, due not only to the controversies surrounding stabilisation policies, but also to deep-seated ambiguities at the heart of humanitarianism. While humanitarian actors are preoccupied with the growing involvement of the military in the humanitarian sphere, the paper argues that it is trends in the humanitarian-political interface that represent the more fundamental dilemma. PMID:20846346

  11. Landmine detection using passive hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Anger, Cliff; Achal, Steve; Ivanco, Tyler

    2007-04-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging has been studied since the late 1980s as a tool to detect minefields for military countermine operations and for level I clearance for humanitarian demining. Hyperspectral imaging employed on unmanned ground vehicles may also be used to augment or replace broadband imagers to detect individual mines. This paper will discuss the ability of different optical wavebands - the visible/near infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) - to detect surface-laid and buried mines. The phenomenology that determines performance in the different bands is discussed. Hyperspectral imagers have usually been designed and built for general purpose remote sensing applications and often do not meet the requirements of mine detection. The DRDC mine detection research program has sponsored the development by Itres Research of VNIR, SWIR and TIR instruments specifically intended for mine detection. The requirements for such imagers are described, as well as the instruments. Some results of mine detection experiments are presented. To date, reliable day time detection of surface-laid mines in non-real-time, independent of solar angle, time of day and season has been demonstrated in the VNIR and SWIR. Real-time analysis, necessary for military applications, has been demonstrated from low speed ground vehicles and recently from airborne platforms. Reliable, repeatable detection of buried mines has yet to be demonstrated, although a recently completed TIR hyperspectral imager will soon be tested for such a capability.

  12. Fusion techniques for hybrid ground-penetrating radar: electromagnetic induction landmine detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffin, Matt; Mohamed, Magdi A.; Etebari, Ali; Hibbard, Mark

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors have advanced landmine detection far beyond the capabilities of a single sensing modality. Both probability of detection (PD) and false alarm rate (FAR) are impacted by the algorithms utilized by each sensing mode and the manner in which the information is fused. Algorithm development and fusion will be discussed, with an aim at achieving a threshold probability of detection (PD) of 0.98 with a low false alarm rate (FAR) of less than 1 false alarm per 2 square meters. Stochastic evaluation of prescreeners and classifiers is presented with subdivisions determined based on mine type, metal content, and depth. Training and testing of an optimal prescreener on lanes that contain mostly low metal anti-personnel mines is presented. Several fusion operators for pre-screeners and classifiers, including confidence map multiplication, will be investigated and discussed for integration into the algorithm architecture.

  13. Prediction of the TNT signature from buried UXO/landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.; Phelan, J.M.; Finsterle, S.A.; Pruess, K.

    1998-06-01

    The detection and removal of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) and landmines is one of the most important problems facing the world today. Numerous detection strategies are being developed, including infrared, electrical conductivity, ground-penetrating radar, and chemical sensors. Chemical sensors rely on the detection of TNT molecules, which are transported from buried UXO/landmines by advection and diffusion in the soil. As part of this effort, numerical models are being developed to predict TNT transport in soils including the effect of precipitation and evaporation. Modifications will be made to TOUGH2 for application to the TNT chemical sensing problem. Understanding the fate and transport of TNT in the soil will affect the design, performance and operation of chemical sensors by indicating preferred sensing strategies.

  14. Optimal forward regression for landmine detection by thermal sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Vecchio, Luca; Fallavollita, Paolo; De Marco, Simone; Esposito, Salvatore; Balsi, Marco; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, starting from the GOFR algorithm, a new Forward Regression algorithm for landmine detection and localization using thermal methods is presented. The efficiency of such algorithm is described by showing a valid representation of the typical temperature waveforms taken after heating the ground surface, and detection of temperature anomalies due to the presence of hidden objects. Optimizations to the algorithm are then showed, with the aim of a significant sampling density reduction in space and time.

  15. Food and Shelter Standards in Humanitarian Action.

    PubMed

    Pothiawala, Sohil

    2015-10-01

    The number of disasters, both natural as well as man-made, has been increasing in frequency in the recent years. This leads to short as well as long-term effects on food security and shelter, requiring humanitarian assistance. This article aims to identify the principles and standards that are applicable to food and shelter related aid that needs to be provided by the co-operation of the local government as well as the relevant supporting organizations. Also, food and shelter security during a disaster response is achieved through better preparedness. The level of preparedness must include risk assessment, contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, emergency services and stand-by arrangements, communications, information management and coordination arrangements between various agencies involved. Discussing these issues would contribute to a better understanding of the implications of the right to adequate food and shelter, which in complex humanitarian emergencies, is one of the key necessities of the affected population. PMID:27437530

  16. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.

    2015-05-01

    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP ) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  17. Linear and Nonlinear Acoustic Measurements of Buried Landmines: Detection Schemes Near Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, James M.

    2003-03-01

    Measurements of the acoustic impedance of an anti-personnel and anti-tank plastic, blast-hardened landmines reveal resonances in the frequency range between 100 and 1000 Hz. The top surface resonances are due to its complicated mechanical structure vibrating in air. The lowest mode results from the blast hardened design of the landmine. Typically, a portion or cavity of the landmine is designed to absorb the shock from an explosion that is intended to detonate the landmine but still allow the landmine to trigger its explosive device when a slow steady pressure is applied. The mechanical design of the blast hardened aspects results in a high Q simple harmonic oscillator resonance of the top surface. At higher frequencies the top surface behaves like thin circular plate acoustic modes. When these landmines are buried in soils, the modes are mass loaded. Resonances from measurements of the normal component of the acoustically induced soil surface particle velocity are used for detection schemes. Since the interface between the top plate and the soil responds to pressure fluctuations nonlinearly, characteristics of landmines, the soil, and the interface are rich in nonlinear physics and allow for new methods of landmine detection not previously exploited.

  18. Effect of Weather on the Predicted PMN Landmine Chemical Signature for Kabul, Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, STEPHEN W.; PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-11-01

    Buried landmines are often detected through the chemical signature in the air above the soil surface by mine detection dogs. Environmental processes play a significant role in the chemical signature available for detection. Due to the shallow burial depth of landmines, the weather influences the release of chemicals from the landmine, transport through the soil to the surface, and degradation processes in the soil. The effect of weather on the landmine chemical signature from a PMN landmine was evaluated with the T2TNT code for Kabul, Afghanistan. Results for TNT and DNT gas-phase and soil solid-phase concentrations are presented as a function of time of the day and time of the year.

  19. The military physician and contested medical humanitarianism: a dueling identity?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stuart

    2014-11-01

    A critical issue in the study of humanitarianism is who counts as a medical humanitarian. Military physicians are often characterized as caught between the potentially incompatible roles of physician and military professional. Medical NGOs, such as Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), have also vociferously rejected military medical humanitarianism: questioning the mandate, skills, and appropriateness of military involvement in humanitarian medicine as well as the potential impact on 'humanitarian space'. Yet many military doctors contest this. Consequently this study examines the ways in which primarily British military physicians identify and manage their identities as both medical humanitarians and soldiers. The research utilized a mixed method, grounded theory approach involving systematic document searches/expert identification of a core literature of 300 policy and peer reviewed documents, plus grey literature and 53 formal medical post operational reports from units serving in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2004 and 2012. Semi structured interviews involved purposive sampling (34 respondents) ranging from a former Surgeon General to more junior staff. Methods also included an analysis of the original data and literature from the 2003 Medical Services Delphi study (involving an additional 40 experts and an extensive literature review) on military medical identity/future roles as well as direct observation of military doctors in Iraq and Afghanistan (two, 2 month research trips). The research concluded that military physicians conceived of themselves as autonomous medical humanitarians with an individual morality rooted in civilian medical ethics that facilitated resistance to the potentially hegemonic military identity. Nevertheless military physicians were part of a medical organization with fundamentally different priorities from those of civilian humanitarian physicians. Furthermore, the perceived emergence of multiple civilian 'humanitarianisms' has

  20. Buried explosive hazard characterization using advanced magnetic and electromagnetic induction sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Schultz, Gregory; Shah, Vishal

    2013-06-01

    Advanced electromagnetic induction arrays that feature high sensitivity wideband magnetic field and electromagnetic induction receivers provide significant capability enhancement to landmine, unexploded ordnance, and buried explosives detection applications. Specifically, arrays that are easily and quickly configured for integration with a variety of ground vehicles and mobile platforms offer improved safety and efficiency to personnel conducting detection operations including route clearance, explosive ordnance disposal, and humanitarian demining missions. We present experimental results for explosives detection sensor concepts that incorporate both magnetic and electromagnetic modalities. Key technology components include a multi-frequency continuous wave EMI transmitter, multi-axis induction coil receivers, and a high sensitivity chip scale atomic magnetometer. The use of multi-frequency transmitters provides excitation of metal encased threats as well as low conductivity non-metallic explosive constituents. The integration of a radio frequency tunable atomic magnetometer receiver adds increased sensitivity to lower frequency components of the electromagnetic response. This added sensitivity provides greater capability for detecting deeply buried targets. We evaluate the requirements for incorporating these sensor modalities in forward mounted ground vehicle operations. Specifically, the ability to detect target features in near real-time is critical to non-overpass modes. We consider the requirements for incorporating these sensor technologies in a system that enables detection of a broad range of explosive threats that include both metallic and non-metallic components.

  1. A short wave infrared hyperspectral imager for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve; Ivanco, Tyler; Anger, Cliff

    2005-06-01

    DRDC Suffield and Itres Research have jointly investigated the use of visible and infrared hyperspectral imaging for landmine detection since 1988. There has been considerable success detecting surface-laid landmines by classification of their visible/near infrared (VNIR - 400 to 1000 nm wavelength) spectral signatures, but it has not been possible to find VNIR spectral characteristics that would generically distinguish anthropogenic objects from natural features such as rocks, vegetation, soil, etc. Preliminary studies in 1998 suggested that it might be possible to develop such a generic classifier in the short wave infrared (SWIR) and that detection performance might improve. Because of a lack of available SWIR hyperspectral imagers with adequate performance for mine detection, a prototype pushbroom SWIR hyperspectral imager was developed and completed in summer 2002. The now commercially available instrument, sasi, has 160 bands over a spectral range of 850 to 2450 nm, signal to noise ratio of 400:1 with f/1.8 fore-optics, and 600 pixels over a 37.7° field of view. A number of mission flights have been carried out and excellent imagery obtained. In October 2003, Itres and DRDC Suffield personnel obtained field SWIR hyperspectral imagery in the DRDC Suffield Mine Pen of numerous surface-laid mines, one buried mine, other surface-laid human-made items, background materials and people from a horizontally scanning personnel-lift at an altitude of roughly 5 m. Preliminary indications are that a simple generic classification decision boundary should be able to distinguish surface-laid landmines from many human-made artifacts and natural materials. The buried mine was not detected, but the mine had been buried for several years and hence there would be no residual surface disturbance. Furthermore, the small sample size and limited observation time make it difficult to generalize about SWIR performance for buried mines. The instrument is described and the preliminary

  2. Introduction to the issue of state sovereignty and humanitarian action.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Clea; Cunningham, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    There has been greater discussion among humanitarians in recent years about the rise in the number of 'strong states', and the suggestion has been made that states are increasingly reasserting their sovereignty. This introduction to this special issue of Disasters on 'State Sovereignty and Humanitarian Action' contends that it is not states that have changed, but rather the international framework that surrounds humanitarian action. The latter has altered so substantially that a fundamental gap has developed between states and international humanitarian actors in terms of describing what sovereignty entails and how it is expressed. At the heart of this dilemma are the urgent needs of people caught up in crises, whose well-being becomes the contested ground on which states and humanitarian actors clash. This paper explores the current and historical dimensions of these shifts, and provides a conceptual overview for this special issue. PMID:23875977

  3. Polarization lidar measurements of honeybees for locating buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Joseph A.; Seldomridge, Nathan L.; Dunkle, Dustin L.; Nugent, Paul W.; Spangler, Lee H.; Churnside, James H.; Wilson, James W.; Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.

    2005-08-01

    A polarization-sensitive lidar was used to detect honeybees trained to locate buried landmines by smell. Lidar measurements of bee location agree reasonably well with maps of chemical plume strength and bee density determined by visual and video counts, indicating that the bees are preferentially located near the explosives and that the lidar identifies the locations of higher bee concentration. The co-polarized lidar backscatter signal is more effective than the cross-polarized signal for bee detection. Laboratory measurements show that the depolarization ratio of scattered light is near zero for bee wings and up to approximately thirty percent for bee bodies.

  4. Landmine detection and classification with complex-valued hybrid neural network using scattering parameters dataset.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Chung; Bose, N K

    2005-05-01

    Neural networks have been applied to landmine detection from data generated by different kinds of sensors. Real-valued neural networks have been used for detecting landmines from scattering parameters measured by ground penetrating radar (GPR) after disregarding phase information. This paper presents results using complex-valued neural networks, capable of phase-sensitive detection followed by classification. A two-layer hybrid neural network structure incorporating both supervised and unsupervised learning is proposed to detect and then classify the types of landmines. Tests are also reported on a benchmark data. PMID:15941001

  5. Globalisation, complex humanitarian emergencies and health.

    PubMed

    O'Dempsey, T J D; Munslow, B

    2006-01-01

    A new political economy of conflict has emerged in the aftermath of colonialism and the Cold War. Complex political emergencies have been simmering in the post-colonial world for more than three decades. Intra-country armed conflict, often combined with natural disasters, at present contributes to the displacement of over 20 million people world-wide. The international community remains profoundly uncomfortable with the complex political emergencies of the new era, torn between the respect for national sovereignty upon which the international political system of the United Nations and other agencies is built, and the growth of concern with human rights and a burgeoning International Humanitarian Law. Globalisation may have brought many benefits to some but there are also many losers. The Word Bank and the International Monetary Fund imposed structural adjustment policies to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring that have resulted in a net reduction in expenditure on health, education and development. A downward spiral has been created of debt, disease, malnutrition, missed education, economic entrapment, poverty, powerlessness, marginalization, migration and instability. Africa's complex political emergencies are particularly virulent and tenacious. Three examples that are among the most serious humanitarian emergencies to have faced the world in recent times--those in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan--are reviewed here in detail. The political evolution of these emergencies and their impact on the health of the affected populations are also explored. PMID:16899151

  6. Rape in war: the humanitarian response

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Leslie; Schull, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting. PMID:11079062

  7. A militarily fielded thermal neutron activation sensor for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, E. T. H.; McFee, J. E.; Ing, H.; Andrews, H. R.; Tennant, D.; Harper, E.; Faust, A. A.

    2007-08-01

    The Canadian Department of National Defence has developed a teleoperated, vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor system to detect anti-tank landmines on roads and tracks in peacekeeping operations. A key part of the system is a thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensor which is placed above a suspect location to within a 30 cm radius and confirms the presence of explosives via detection of the 10.835 MeV gamma ray associated with thermal neutron capture on 14N. The TNA uses a 100 μg252Cf neutron source surrounded by four 7.62 cm×7.62 cm NaI(Tl) detectors. The system, consisting of the TNA sensor head, including source, detectors and shielding, the high-rate, fast pulse processing electronics and the data processing methodology are described. Results of experiments to characterize detection performance are also described. The experiments have shown that anti-tank mines buried 10 cm or less can be detected in roughly a minute or less, but deeper mines and mines significantly displaced horizontally take considerably longer time. Mines as deep as 30 cm can be detected for long count times (1000 s). Four TNA detectors are now in service with the Canadian Forces as part of the four multi-sensor systems, making it the first militarily fielded TNA sensor and the first militarily fielded confirmation sensor for landmines. The ability to function well in adverse climatic conditions has been demonstrated, both in trials and operations.

  8. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  9. Ethical codes in humanitarian emergencies: from practice to research?

    PubMed

    Black, Richard

    2003-06-01

    Notable strides have been made in recent years to develop codes of conduct for humanitarian intervention in conflicts on the part of international NGOs and UN organisations. Yet engagement by the academic and broader research communities with humanitarian crises and ongoing complex political emergencies remains relatively ad hoc and unregulated beyond the basic ethical guidelines and norms developed within universities for research in general, and within the governing and representative bodies of particular academic disciplines. This paper draws on a case study of research on humanitarian assistance to Liberia during that country's civil war from 1989 to 1996. The difficulties faced by humanitarian agencies in Liberia led to the development of two key sets of ethical guidelines for humanitarian intervention: the Joint Policy of Operations (JPO) and Principles and Policies of Humanitarian Operations (PPHO). This paper seeks to address what lessons, if any, these ethical guidelines, together with different experiences of conducting research in war-torn Liberia, can provide in terms of the role of academic researchers--and research itself--in humanitarian crises. PMID:12825434

  10. Landscape of WASH-relevant Training for Humanitarian Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Dorea, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both employed humanitarian personnel as well as those seeking to start a career as an aid worker are often provided with or seek training on the theme of humanitarian water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The objective of this study was to conduct a landscaping exercise of the available WASH-relevant training for humanitarian emergencies. Methods: An open internet search was performed with specific terms related to humanitarian WASH. Retained search results included those training opportunities (including past ones) that were themed around or with a mentioned relevance to humanitarian WASH. Results and Discussion: A total of 42 training courses relevant to humanitarian emergency WASH were retained. In addition to the more generic/introductory trainings, some provided thematic variations such as coordination of WASH responses, project management, risk reduction, information, education and communication (IEC), and complex emergencies. Timely topics such as urban WASH, Ebola, and WASH innovations were also observed indicating the responsiveness of the training providers to the changing needs of humanitarian WASH response programmes. This survey also revealed a large variety in terms of target audience, duration, fees, location, and language of courses. There was no centralised listing of courses available on the Internet. Limitations of this exercise were also discussed. PMID:26064781

  11. Study on the Sensitivity of Landmine Electrical Fuse Circuit Under the Interference of Natural Electromagnetic Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dechun

    Landmine electrical fuse circuits on the battlefield will be interfered by natural electromagnetic pulse such as electrostatic discharge and lightning, which will undermine the circuit performance and trigger the early burst or mistaken burst of the landmines. In this paper, numerically simulation analysis is conducted on the electrostatic and lightning effects received by the landmine fuse circuit by means of building simulation model of the fuse circuit and analyzing the electric and magnetic field changes of the observation The mechanism of the influence of electrostatic discharge and lightning on the sensitivity of the fuse circuit is explored. The conclusion is that electrostatic effect cause the mistaken burst of the landmines by enabling the interference voltage to reach the components turn-on threshold and cause the circuit malfunction, and lighting effect by long period accumulation of energy.

  12. Audible and visual representations of the signals from a seismic landmine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Waymond R., Jr.; Larson, Gregg D.; Martin, James S.

    2002-11-01

    A system using high frequency seismic waves to detect buried landmines is being investigated using both experimental and numerical models. The simplest detection cue for the localization of buried landmines has been found to be resonances of the trigger mechanism and overlying soil as these resonances create substantial localized surface displacements over the buried landmine in comparison to other buried objects such as rocks, sticks, and manmade clutter. The prototype system utilizes a noncontact radar sensor to detect surface-normal displacements and a remotely-located surface-contacting source to generate seismic waves in the ground. Processing of the measured data shows the location of mines both graphically and audibly, either of which could be used as inputs for automatic target recognition algorithms. Visual images created by a wavenumber-domain signal processing algorithm and audible representations will be compared for landmines and typical clutter objects. [Work supported by ONR and ARO.

  13. Microwave radiometry for humanitarian demining: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Joel T.; Kim, Hyunjin; Wiggins, David R.; Cheon, Yonghun

    2002-08-01

    Previous modeling studies have indicated that a multi-frequency radiometer could prove advantageous for humanitarian demining due to the oscillatory patterns in brightness temperature versus frequency that would be observed in the presence of a sub-surface target. Initial experimental results are reported in this paper from a multi-frequency radiometer (MFRAD) system operating at 19 frequencies in the 2.1-6.5 GHz band. The basic design of MFRAD is reviewed, and the calibration and noise background removal procedures discussed. Experimental results with sub-surface metallic and styrofoam targets are then provided that demonstrate the predicted oscillatory behavior. An FFT-based detection algorithm is also described and applied to measured data. Further plans for experiments and tests with this system are also detailed.

  14. [Child care management in maxillofacial humanitarian mission].

    PubMed

    Bénateau, H; Traoré, H; Chatellier, A; Caillot, A; Ambroise, B; Veyssière, A

    2015-09-01

    Our practice in a humanitarian (or crisis) context differs from what we experience in daily practice. There are several reasons for this. First, the diseases encountered are sometimes unfamiliar, such as sequelae of noma, or the presentation of familiar diseases may be unusual, such as facial malformations seen at a late stage. Secondly, these missions take place in developing countries, and consequently, evaluation and anticipation of possible malnutrition should be considered, especially because facial diseases themselves may be responsible for nutritional problems. Lastly, conditions are often difficult, occurring in an unusual environment, and we sometimes have to face communication and equipment problems. The goal of our work, based on a 15-year experience (in Bamako and Mopti with the Association "Santé et Développement", and in Ouagadougou with the organization "Les enfants du noma") and the analysis of literature, is to point out these features and maybe to be helpful to others. PMID:26190394

  15. Humanitarian mine detection by acoustic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    The JASON Committee at MITRE Corp. was tasked by DARPA to inquire into suitable technologies for humanitarian mine detection. Acoustic resonance was one of the very few technologies that the JASONs determined might be promising for the task, but was as yet unexplored at the time that they conducted their inquiry. The objective of this Seed Money investigation into acoustic resonance was to determine if it would be feasible to use acoustic resonance to provide an improvement to present methods for humanitarian mine detection. As detailed in this report, acoustic resonance methods do not appear to be feasible for this task. Although acoustic resonant responses are relatively easy to detect when they exist, they are very difficult to excite by the non-contact means that must be used for buried objects. Despite many different attempts, this research did not discover any practical means of using sound to excite resonant responses in objects known to have strong resonances. The shaker table experiments did see an effect that might be attributable to the resonance of the object under test, but the effect was weak, and exploited the a priori knowledge of the resonant frequency of the object under test to distinguish it from the background. If experiments that used objects known to have strong acoustic resonances produced such marginal results, this does not seem to be a practical method to detect objects with weak resonances or non-existent resonances. The results of this work contribute to the ORNL countermine initiative. ORNL is exploring several unconventional mine detection technologies, and is proposed to explore others. Since this research has discovered some major pitfalls in non-metallic mine detection, this experience will add realism to other strategies proposed for mine detection technologies. The experiment provided hands-on experience with inert plastic mines under field conditions, and gives ORNL additional insight into the problems of developing practical

  16. Landmine-detection rats: an evaluation of reinforcement procedures under simulated operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Amanda; Lalonde, Kate; Edwards, Timothy; Cox, Christophe; Weetjens, Bart; Poling, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Because the location of landmines is initially unknown, it is impossible to arrange differential reinforcement for accurate detection of landmines by pouched rats working on actual minefields. Therefore, provision must be made for maintenance of accurate responses by an alternative reinforcement strategy. The present experiment evaluated a procedure in which a plastic bag containing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), the active ingredient in most landmines, was placed in contact with the ground in a disturbed area, then removed, to establish opportunities for reinforcement. Each of five rats continued to accurately detect landmines when extinction was arranged for landmine-detection responses and detections of TNT-contaminated locations were reinforced under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. The results of this translational research study suggest that the TNT-contamination procedure is a viable option for arranging reinforcement opportunities for rats engaged in actual landmine-detection activities and the viability of this procedure is currently being evaluated on minefields in Angola and Mozambique. PMID:24676627

  17. Processing of radar data for landmine detection: nonlinear transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosz, E. E.; Duvoisin, H.; Konduri, R.; Solomon, G. Z.

    2005-06-01

    The Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS system) has achieved outstanding performance in government-run field tests due to its use of anomaly detection using principal component analysis (PCA) on the return of ground penetrating radar (GPR) coupled with metal detection. Indications of nonlinearities and asymmetries in Humanitarian Demining (HD) data point to modifications to the current PCA algorithm that might prove beneficial. Asymmetries in the distribution of PCA projections of field data have been quantified in Humanitarian Demining (HD) data. The data suggest a logarithmic correction to the data. Such a correction has been applied and has improved the FAR on this data set. The increase in performance is comparable to the increase shown using the simpler asymmetric rescaling method.

  18. The professional humanitarian and the downsides of professionalisation.

    PubMed

    James, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Criticisms lodged at humanitarian relief often include the belief that professionalisation is needed. The problems associated with humanitarianism would end, it is assumed, if the delivery of aid, and relief workers themselves, were more professional and 'business like'. To explore this further, the paper asks what comprises a profession, and offers four criteria: (1) specialisation of knowledge; (2) establishment of the profession as a livelihood; (3) organisation and institutionalisation; and (4) legitimacy and authority. A model for understanding professionalisation, as developed by the author, is then presented. The analysis compares six other professions against the same criteria to argue that the humanitarian community already constitutes a profession. Finally, three potential downsides of professionalisation are offered: the distance of the relief worker from the beneficiary, barriers to entry into the humanitarian sector, and adding to risk aversion and a decline in innovation. Based on these findings, professionalisation should be approached with some caution. PMID:26283645

  19. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  20. Refugees, humanitarian aid and the right to decline vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Caplan, A L; Curry, David R

    2015-03-01

    Recent instances of governments and others refusing humanitarian assistance to refugees and IDPs (internally-displaced persons) unless they agreed to polio immunization for their children raise difficult ethical challenges. The authors argue that states have the right and a responsibility to require such vaccinations in instances where the serious vaccine-preventable disease(s) at issue threaten others, including local populations, humanitarian workers, and others in camps or support settings. PMID:25135799

  1. Detection of buried landmine with X-ray backscatter technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuk, Sunwoo; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Yi, Yun

    2006-11-01

    We describe a continuously operating scanning X-ray imaging system developed for landmine detection based on a backscatter X-ray principle, thus detection is done from the same side as the source. The source operates at 120 kV p and 3 mA. To study the physics of Compton X-ray backscattering, the photon transport factor, backscatter factor (BSF) and backscatter probability (BSP) were simulated using Monte-Carlo calculations using the generalized particle transport program MCNP. Based on the Monte-Carlo analyses results, a mine detecting system has been designed. It potentially has a low false alarm rate and a high detection probability, and a direct imaging facility.

  2. The far side: the meta functions of humanitarianism in a globalised world.

    PubMed

    Donini, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores the meta functions of humanitarianism--that is, the functions that, as an ideology, a movement and a profession, it performs, wittingly or unwittingly, in the early twenty-first century. The term humanitarianism is used as shorthand to encompass a complex set of currents of thought, actions and institutions of which the boundaries are unclear. The focus is on mainstream humanitarianism, the dominant Northern/Western enterprise. The paper first discusses the relationship between humanitarianism and globalised power. It goes on to examine three types of functions that humanitarianism and humanitarian action perform: 'macro' functions--the deep undercurrents, power relations and values that humanitarianism articulates and transmits; 'meso' functions--those that relate to the political economy of humanitarian action and to the mechanics (rather than to the ideology) of globalisation; and 'micro' functions that relate to the motivations of the individuals who devote their energies to humanitarianism. PMID:20132266

  3. Fusion of ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction sensors for landmine detection and discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolba, Mark P.; Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2010-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors provide complementary capabilities in detecting buried targets such as landmines, suggesting that the fusion of GPR and EMI modalities may provide improved detection performance over that obtained using only a single modality. This paper considers both pre-screening and the discrimination of landmines from non-landmine objects using real landmine data collected from a U.S. government test site as part of the Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) landmine program. GPR and EMI pre-screeners are first reviewed and then a fusion pre-screener is presented that combines the GPR and EMI prescreeners using a distance-based likelihood ratio test (DLRT) classifier to produce a fused confidence for each pre-screener alarm. The fused pre-screener is demonstrated to provide substantially improved performance over the individual GPR and EMI pre-screeners. The discrimination of landmines from non-landmine objects using feature-based classifiers is also considered. The GPR feature utilized is a pre-processed, spatially filtered normalized energy metric. Features used for the EMI sensor include model-based features generated from the AETC model and a dipole model as well as features from a matched subspace detector. The EMI and GPR features are then fused using a random forest classifier. The fused classifier performance is superior to the performance of classifiers using GPR or EMI features alone, again indicating that performance improvements may be obtained through the fusion of GPR and EMI sensors. The performance improvements obtained both for pre-screening and for discrimination have been verified by blind test results scored by an independent U.S. government contractor.

  4. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Soil Heterogeneity around Landmines in Natural Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallen, B.; Smits, K. M.; Howington, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    The environment in which landmines are placed is oftentimes highly heterogeneous. These heterogeneities such as differences in soil type, packing and moisture, combined with changes in surface and climate conditions can oftentimes mask the presence of the mine. Understanding the impact of heterogeneity on heat and mass transfer behavior in the vicinity of landmines is paramount to properly identifying landmine locations for demining operations. This study investigates the impact of soil heterogeneity on soil moisture and temperature distributions around buried objects with the goal of increasing our ability to model and predict the environmental conditions that are most dynamic to mine detection performance. A ten-day field experiment was conducted in which two anti-personnel landmines at different depths and a limestone block of comparable size were buried. The site was instrumented with a series of sensors, monitoring atmospheric, surface and subsurface conditions to include measurements of soil moisture, soil and air temperature, relative humidity, vapor concentration, and meteorological conditions such as wind speed and net radiation. Infrared thermal imaging was used to provide continuous profiles of surface temperature conditions. The soil was well characterized in the laboratory to provide good understanding of field conditions for numerical modeling efforts. Experimental results demonstrate the strongest thermal contrast between shallow landmine emplacement and the surrounding soil occurring as the sun approaches its zenith and two hours after sunset until the sun directly impacts the soil above the landmine. A finite-element model of fluid flow and heat transport through porous media is compared against experimental observations, capturing the diurnal variation. A validated model, like this one, offers the opportunity to improve landmine detection probabilities and reduce false alarms caused by environmental variability.

  5. Nonparametric Bayesian time-series modeling and clustering of time-domain ground penetrating radar landmine responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie

    2010-04-01

    Time domain ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been shown to be a powerful sensing phenomenology for detecting buried objects such as landmines. Landmine detection with GPR data typically utilizes a feature-based pattern classification algorithm to discriminate buried landmines from other sub-surface objects. In high-fidelity GPR, the time-frequency characteristics of a landmine response should be indicative of the physical construction and material composition of the landmine and could therefore be useful for discrimination from other non-threatening sub-surface objects. In this research we propose modeling landmine time-domain responses with a nonparametric Bayesian time-series model and we perform clustering of these time-series models with a hierarchical nonparametric Bayesian model. Each time-series is modeled as a hidden Markov model (HMM) with autoregressive (AR) state densities. The proposed nonparametric Bayesian prior allows for automated learning of the number of states in the HMM as well as the AR order within each state density. This creates a flexible time-series model with complexity determined by the data. Furthermore, a hierarchical non-parametric Bayesian prior is used to group landmine responses with similar HMM model parameters, thus learning the number of distinct landmine response models within a data set. Model inference is accomplished using a fast variational mean field approximation that can be implemented for on-line learning.

  6. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  7. Dual sensor platforms for UXO/landmine detection using GPR and EMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Jay; Hong, Kevin

    2010-04-01

    Metal detectors and ground penetrating radar have become the standard sensors for buried landmine and UXO detection. Joint systems have existed since the late 90s. Recent system development has again led to the placement of MD and GPR sensors on ground vehicles for detection of in-road landmine and UXO objects. In this work, two prominent systems - one GPR and one metal detector - are operated on a test site populated with landmine and deep buried UXO. The strength of the GPR is the ability to detect plastic cased landmines while the strength of the metal detector is to detect deep buried UXO. The sensors' capabilities overlap in regards to metal cased landmines. A simple fusion approach is used to show how these two sensors can be used together to create a platform that carries the strengths of both sensors. The final alarm list averages the confidence values produced by each sensor. ROC curves are used to quantify the performance. Curves are presented for each sensor standing alone and for their fusion performance.

  8. Optimizing detector trials for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaal, Mate; Baer, Sylke; Bloodworth, Thomas J.; Guelle, Dieter; Lewis, Adam M.; Mueller, Christina; Scharmach, Martina

    2004-09-01

    The performance of mine detecting instruments is embedded in the behavior of a complex system. The total reliability is always composed of the intrinsic physical detection capability of the sensor, application/environmental influences and human factors. The intrinsic capability and some application factors can be investigated in laboratory measurements. Human factors, other application factors and the overall reliability, can only be evaluated in blind field trials in which the probability of detection (PoD) and false alarm rate (FAR) are measured statistically. Both of these approaches are included in CEN Workshop Agreement CWA 14747:2003, which standardizes detector testing in Humanitarian Demining. We report here the results of a study to investigate how to optimize such testing. For efficient and statistically valid field trials, the number, types and burial depths of targets, and the number of test lanes, soil types, repetitions and operators need to be carefully chosen. Laboratory results should be used to help construct field trial protocols and also to help distinguish the different contributions to the PoD and FAR, to determine where to improve insufficient performance. In this study, four models of metal detector were tested in three field trials and in the laboratory. The repeatability of the field trials is assessed, taking into account operator training and experience. Results of the laboratory tests are compared with results of the field trials and used to construct a "modular model" of the system, as used in nondestructive testing. The conclusions are, in principle, applicable to trials of other types of sensor.

  9. Humanitarian action and military intervention: temptations and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Fabrice

    2004-06-01

    Although the war in Liberia in July 2003 claimed hundreds of lives, the international community was reluctant to intervene. In this article, the author debates the question: does international military intervention equal protection of populations? The role of humanitarian organisations in military intervention is considered. Aid organisations cannot call for deployment of a protection force without renouncing their autonomy or appealing to references outside their own practices. Such organisations provide victims with vital assistance and contribute to ensuring that their fate becomes a stake in political debate by exposing the violence that engulfs them, without substituting their own voices for those of the victims. The political content of humanitarian action is also outlined and military intervention in the context of genocide is discussed. The author concludes that the latter is one of the rare situations in which humanitarian actors can consider calling for an armed intervention without renouncing their own logic. PMID:15186365

  10. Multi-robot terrain coverage and task allocation for autonomous detection of landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Prithviraj; Muñoz-Meléndez, Angélica; Guruprasad, K. R.

    2012-06-01

    Multi-robot systems comprising of heterogeneous autonomous vehicles on land, air, water are being increasingly used to assist or replace humans in different hazardous missions. Two crucial aspects in such multi-robot systems are to: a) explore an initially unknown region of interest to discover tasks, and, b) allocate and share the discovered tasks between the robots in a coordinated manner using a multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) algorithm. In this paper, we describe results from our research on multi-robot terrain coverage and MRTA algorithms within an autonomous landmine detection scenario, done as part of the COMRADES project. Each robot is equipped with a different type of landmine detection sensor and different sensors, even of the same type, can have different degrees of accuracy. The landmine detection-related operations performed by each robot are abstracted as tasks and multiple robots are required to complete a single task. First, we describe a distributed and robust terrain coverage algorithm that employs Voronoi partitions to divide the area of interest among the robots and then uses a single-robot coverage algorithm to explore each partition for potential landmines. Then, we describe MRTA algorithms that use the location information of discovered potential landmines and employ either a greedy strategy, or, an opportunistic strategy to allocate tasks among the robots while attempting to minimize the time (energy) expended by the robots to perform the tasks. We report experimental results of our algorithms using accurately-simulated Corobot robots within the Webots simulator performing a multi-robot, landmine detection operation.

  11. Effect of magnetite on GPR for detection of buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Remke L.; Borchers, Brian; Hendrickx, Jan M. H.

    2006-05-01

    Ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite and maghaemite can affect ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals. This may lead to false alarms and missed targets when surveying for the detection of buried landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). In most field situations ferrimagnetic mineral content is too low to affect GPR wave behavior. However, in soils and sedimentary material with magnetite-rich parent material large concentrations of magnetite can be found. This paper is a first systematic experimental effort to study the effects of large concentrations of magnetite for GPR detection of subsurface targets. We study the effects of (i) different homogeneous mixtures of magnetite and quartz sand and (ii) magnetite concentrated in layers (placer deposits), on the propagation behavior of GPR waves and reflection characteristics of steel and plastic balls. The balls are buried in homogeneous mixtures of magnetite and quartz sand and below a layer of pure magnetite. Important observations include that the simulated placer deposits did have a large effect on the detectability of balls below the placer deposits and that homogeneous mixtures had no significant effect.

  12. Whole-field digital vibrometer system for buried landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Amit; Hess, Cecil; Scott, Eddie; Dang, Michael; Nichols, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Previous results have shown the potential of acoustic-to-seismic coupling with Laser Doppler Vibrometry for the detection of buried landmines. An important objective of the present technology is to improve the spatial resolution and the speed of the measurement. In this paper, MetroLaser reports on a whole-field digital vibrometer (WDV) that measures an entire one meter area with sub-centimeter spatial resolution in just a few seconds. The WDV is based on a dual-pulsed laser such that each pulse illuminates a one meter area on the ground, and the temporal separation between the two laser pulses can be adjusted to match the ground excitation frequency. By sweeping this excitation frequency, a displacement map of the ground at each frequency can be quickly generated. In addition, an innovative speckle repositioning strategy allows for movement of the measurement platform at reasonable speeds while still obtaining measurements with interferometric precision. This paper describes the WDV instrument and presents preliminary experimental results obtained with this system. This research is being supported by the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD under Contract W909MY04-C-0004.

  13. State humanitarian verticalism versus universal health coverage: a century of French international health assistance revisited.

    PubMed

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Wilson, Andrew; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-28

    The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer. From decolonisation to the end of the Cold War (1960-99), French assistance to newly independent states was affected by sans frontièrisme, Health for All, and the AIDS pandemic. Since 2000, France has had an active role in development of global health initiatives and favoured multilateral action for health assistance. Today, with adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the challenges of non-communicable diseases, economic inequality, and climate change, French international health assistance needs new direction. In the context of current debate over global health as a universal goal, understanding and acknowledging France's history could help strengthen advocacy in favour of universal health coverage and contribute to advancing global equity through income redistribution, from healthy populations to people who are sick and from wealthy individuals to those who are poor. PMID:27145710

  14. Experimental measurement of noise-removal techniques for Compton backscatter imaging systems as applied to the detection of landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Keshavmurthy, Shyam P.; Dugan, Edward T.; Jacobs, Alan M.

    1996-05-01

    The measurement and removal of noise from images created using lateral migration backscatter radiography (LMBR) a form of Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) is applied to the detection and identification of landmines. The photons that interact with the landmine produce the signal component of interest. The signal is corrupted by both quantum and structured noise. The structured noise is due to photon interaction with non-mine material. Due to the strong response of all detectors to soil surface features and other buried objects, image enhancement methods are essential for landmine identification. A four detector system is used to generate the LMBR/CB images. The inner two detectors are uncollimated and positioned to optimally detect first scattered photons. The outer detectors are collimated to detect photons that have had two or more scatterings. The difference between the collimated and uncollimated detector responses to the different types of landmine image masking phenomena, form the basis of the image enhancement and landmine identification procedures. The surface feature information is obtained by the uncollimated detectors. The collimated detector signal contains information about the surface features as well as the buried objects. Using images from these two sets of detectors the surface objects can be analyzed for possible landmines and then removed. The buried objects can then be resolved. The measurements and image enhancements demonstrate that it is possible to detect 12' plastic landmines at a buried of 3' under simulated battlefield conditions.

  15. Exploiting Multi-Look Information for Landmine Detection in Forward Looking Infrared Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malof, Jordan Milton

    Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) cameras have recently been studied as a sensing modality for use in landmine detection systems. FLIR-based detection systems benefit from larger standoff distances and faster rates of advance than other sensing modalities, but they also present significant challenges for detection algorithm design. FLIR video typically yields multiple looks at each object in the scene, each from a different camera perspective. As a result each object in the scene appears in multiple video frames, and each time at a different shape and size. This presents questions about how best to utilize such information. Evidence in the literature suggests such multi-look information can be exploited to improve detection performance but, to date, there has been no controlled investigation of multi-look information in detection. Any results are further confounded because no precise definition exists for what constitutes multi-look information. This thesis addresses these problems by developing a precise mathematical definition of "a look", and how to quantify the multi-look content of video data. Controlled experiments are conducted to assess the impact of multi-look information on FLIR detection using several popular detection algorithms. Based on these results two novel video processing techniques are presented, the plan-view framework and the FLRX algorithm, to better exploit multi-look information. The results show that multi-look information can have a positive or negative impact on detection performance depending on how it is used. The results also show that the novel algorithms presented here are effective techniques for analyzing video and exploiting any multi-look information to improve detection performance.

  16. Developing Institutional Capacity for Reproductive Health in Humanitarian Settings: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Dawson, Angela; Meyers, Janet; Krause, Sandra; Hickling, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Institutions play a central role in advancing the field of reproductive health in humanitarian settings (RHHS), yet little is known about organizational capacity to deliver RHHS and how this has developed over the past decade. This study aimed to document the current institutional experiences and capacities related to RHHS. Materials and Methods Descriptive study using an online questionnaire tool. Results Respondents represented 82 institutions from 48 countries, of which two-thirds originated from low-and middle-income countries. RHHS work was found not to be restricted to humanitarian agencies (25%), but was also embraced by development organizations (25%) and institutions with dual humanitarian and development mandates (50%). Agencies reported working with refugees (81%), internally-displaced (87%) and stateless persons (20%), in camp-based settings (78%), and in urban (83%) and rural settings (78%). Sixty-eight percent of represented institutions indicated having an RHHS-related policy, 79% an accountability mechanism including humanitarian work, and 90% formal partnerships with other institutions. Seventy-three percent reported routinely appointing RH focal points to ensure coordination of RHHS implementation. There was reported progress in RHHS-related disaster risk reduction (DRR), emergency management and coordination, delivery of the Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP) for RH, comprehensive RH services in post-crisis/recovery situations, gender mainstreaming, and community-based programming. Other reported institutional areas of work included capacity development, program delivery, advocacy/policy work, followed by research and donor activities. Except for abortion-related services, respondents cited improved efforts in advocacy, capacity development and technical support in their institutions for RHHS to address clinical services, including maternal and newborn health, sexual violence prevention and response, HIV prevention, management

  17. Rapid response: email, immediacy, and medical humanitarianism in Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Grayman, Jesse Hession

    2014-11-01

    After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. PMID:24788052

  18. Protective Environments and Quality Education in Humanitarian Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Pilar; Retamal, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    This paper reflects the experience of the authors working in the field of humanitarian education during the last two decades. Important changes have been witnessed since the Central American crises of the seventies, the refugee focus of the eighties and the new UN vision of the complex emergency crisis of the nineties resulting from the post Cold…

  19. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K....

  20. A Directed Energy System for Defeat of Improvised Explosive Devices and Landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C; Fochs, S; Parker, J; Rotter, M; Rubenchik, A; Yamamoto, R

    2006-03-20

    We describe a laser system, built in our laboratory at LLNL, that has near-term, effective applications in exposing and neutralizing improvised explosive devices and landmines. We discuss experiments with this laser, demonstrating excavation capabilities and relevant material interactions. Model results are also described.

  1. Burst fracture of the lumbar vertebra due to a landmine injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Serkan; Kurklu, Mustafa; Yurttas, Yuksel; Ozkan, Huseyin; Sehirlioglu, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The reason we report this case is that spine injuries may well occur due to landmines similar to other injuries like traumatic limb amputations and more over they may be overlooked. Case presentation The patient was 29-years-old Turkish male and was a member of the military. He detonated the landmine that caused his injuries while in a conflict zone. He had a right below knee and left above knee traumatic amputations. He had also mild intermittent pain in his lower back. There were no focal neurological findings such as weakness, altered sensibility, or alteration in the function of the bowel or bladder. Radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed an L2 burst fracture. Computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine demonstrated a burst fracture of the L2 vertebrae and moderate compression in the anterior portion of the thecal sac due to the fracture fragment. Because of the stabile nature of the L2 burst fracture and lack of neurological disturbance, operative decompression, instrumentation and fusion was not performed. After healing of the stumps, the patient was mobilized with immediate prostheses and a thoracolumbosacral brace. Conclusion Spine injuries should not be overlooked when evaluating patients after landmine explosions. After the patient has been stabilized, the secondary screening and radiographic evaluations should also comprise the thoracic, thoracolumbar and lumbar spine when treating patients after landmine injuries. PMID:19829776

  2. Evaluation of seismic noise for landmine detection system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James S.; Larson, Gregg D.; Scott, Waymond R., Jr.; McCall, George S., II

    2003-09-01

    For several years a system has been under development at Georgia Tech that uses seismic surface waves to detect and image buried landmines. The details of this system have been previously reported in the literature. Current work involves the transition from a laboratory experimental system to a field-operable experimental system with the ultimate goal of creating an integrated field-operable prototype. Several issues have arisen in the transition to field testing. One of these is the nature and magnitude of the noise levels that limit system performance at field sites and the relevance of these for predicting noise that might be encountered in a realistic demining scenario. Noise introduced to the system sensor (a radar-based, non-contact displacement sensor) can arise from many sources (both natural and manmade). It may be received through a variety of mechanisms in addition to the sensor's primary transduction mechanism. Moreover, even noise which is received through the primary transduction mechanism need not involve purely seismic motion of the ground that is being interrogated. It might instead represent motion of the sensor's support structure or the purely local coupling of airborne noise into surface motion. To understand these effects, measurements have been made using ground contacting sensors at four field sites where other system-related measurements have also been made. The nature of the noise measurements has required that refinements be made to both the sensors themselves (triaxial geophones) and to the data acquisition system used for the measurement of the system"s seismic interrogation signals (a 12-bit, PC-based digitizer).

  3. Multiple instance learning for landmine detection using ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manandhar, Achut; Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2012-06-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been extensively employed as a technology for the detection of subsurface buried threats. Although vehicular mounted GPRs generate data in three dimensions, alarm declarations are usually only available in the form of 2-D spatial coordinates. The uncertainty in the depth of the target in the three dimensional volume of data, and the difficulties associated with automatically localizing objects in depth, can adversely impact feature extraction and training in some detection algorithms. In order to mitigate the negative impact of uncertainty in target depth, several algorithms have been developed that extract features from multiple depth regions and utilize these feature vectors in classification algorithms to perform final mine/nonmine decisions. However, the uncertainty in object depth significantly complicates learning since features at the correct target depth are often significantly different from features at other depths but in the same volume. Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) is a type of supervised learning approach in which labels are available for a collection of feature vectors but not for individual samples, or in this application, depths. The goal of MIL is to classify new collections of vectors as they become available. This set-based learning method is applicable in the landmine detection problem because features that are extracted independently from several depth bins can be viewed as a set of unlabeled feature vectors, where the entire set either corresponds to a buried threat or a false alarm. In this work, a novel generative Dirichlet Process Gaussian mixture model for MIL is developed that automatically infers the number of mixture components required to model the underlying distributions of mine/non-mine signatures and performs classification using a likelihood ratio test. In this work, we show that the performance of the proposed approach for discriminating targets from non-targets in GPR data is promising.

  4. SIRE: a MIMO radar for landmine/IED detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojowu, Ode; Wu, Yue; Li, Jian; Nguyen, Lam

    2013-05-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems have been shown to have significant performance improvements over their single-input multiple-output (SIMO) counterparts. For transmit and receive elements that are collocated, the waveform diversity afforded by this radar is exploited for performance improvements. These improvements include but are not limited to improved target detection, improved parameter identifiability and better resolvability. In this paper, we present the Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction Radar (SIRE) Ultra-wideband (UWB) radar designed by the Army Research Lab (ARL) for landmine and improvised explosive device (IED) detection as a 2 by 16 MIMO radar (with collocated antennas). Its improvement over its SIMO counterpart in terms of beampattern/cross range resolution are discussed and demonstrated using simulated data herein. The limitations of this radar for Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) suppression are also discussed in this paper. A relaxation method (RELAX) combined with averaging of multiple realizations of the measured data is presented for RFI suppression; results show no noticeable target signature distortion after suppression. In this paper, the back-projection (delay and sum) data independent method is used for generating SAR images. A side-lobe minimization technique called recursive side-lobe minimization (RSM) is also discussed for reducing side-lobes in this data independent approach. We introduce a data-dependent sparsity based spectral estimation technique called Sparse Learning via Iterative Minimization (SLIM) as well as a data-dependent CLEAN approach for generating SAR images for the SIRE radar. These data-adaptive techniques show improvement in side-lobe reduction and resolution for simulated data for the SIRE radar.

  5. Ensemble hidden Markov models with application to landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Anis; Frigui, Hichem

    2015-12-01

    We introduce an ensemble learning method for temporal data that uses a mixture of hidden Markov models (HMM). We hypothesize that the data are generated by K models, each of which reflects a particular trend in the data. The proposed approach, called ensemble HMM (eHMM), is based on clustering within the log-likelihood space and has two main steps. First, one HMM is fit to each of the N individual training sequences. For each fitted model, we evaluate the log-likelihood of each sequence. This results in an N-by-N log-likelihood distance matrix that will be partitioned into K groups using a relational clustering algorithm. In the second step, we learn the parameters of one HMM per cluster. We propose using and optimizing various training approaches for the different K groups depending on their size and homogeneity. In particular, we investigate the maximum likelihood (ML), the minimum classification error (MCE), and the variational Bayesian (VB) training approaches. Finally, to test a new sequence, its likelihood is computed in all the models and a final confidence value is assigned by combining the models' outputs using an artificial neural network. We propose both discrete and continuous versions of the eHMM. Our approach was evaluated on a real-world application for landmine detection using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Results show that both the continuous and discrete eHMM can identify meaningful and coherent HMM mixture components that describe different properties of the data. Each HMM mixture component models a group of data that share common attributes. These attributes are reflected in the mixture model's parameters. The results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the baseline HMM that uses one model for each class in the data.

  6. Humanitarian Interventions: Western Imperialism or a Responsibility to Protect?--An Analysis of the Humanitarian Interventions in Darfur

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damboeck, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide an analysis of the features that have shaped the state's decision-making process in the United Nations, with regard to the humanitarian intervention in Darfur from 2003 onwards. Design/methodology/approach: The methodological approach to the study is a review of political statement papers grounded in…

  7. Invitation withdrawn: humanitarian action, United Nations peacekeeping, and state sovereignty in Chad.

    PubMed

    Karlsrud, John; Felix da Costa, Diana

    2013-10-01

    This paper looks at the three-way relationship between the Government of Chad, humanitarians, and the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) from 2004 until June 2011. Chad was never comfortable with the international presence of either humanitarians or peacekeepers and asserted its sovereignty increasingly during this period. MINURCAT was deployed in 2008 to protect humanitarian workers and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad. This association between the UN mission and humanitarian agencies contributed to making the latter the target of repressive practices by the government, such as the imposition of armed escorts. Facing a steep learning curve, Chad and its state officials gradually appropriated the discourse of the humanitarian and international community and ultimately, in 2010, requested the departure of MINURCAT, claiming that they could meet the protection needs of vulnerable populations in eastern Chad on their own. PMID:23876051

  8. A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John

    2014-05-01

    A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number

  9. Evaluation of various feature extraction methods for landmine detection using hidden Markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Anis; Frigui, Hichem

    2012-06-01

    Hidden Markov Models (HMM) have proved to be eective for detecting buried land mines using data collected by a moving-vehicle-mounted ground penetrating radar (GPR). The general framework for a HMM-based landmine detector consists of building a HMM model for mine signatures and a HMM model for clutter signatures. A test alarm is assigned a condence proportional to the probability of that alarm being generated by the mine model and inversely proportional to its probability in the clutter model. The HMM models are built based on features extracted from GPR training signatures. These features are expected to capture the salient properties of the 3-dimensional alarms in a compact representation. The baseline HMM framework for landmine detection is based on gradient features. It models the time varying behavior of GPR signals, encoded using edge direction information, to compute the likelihood that a sequence of measurements is consistent with a buried landmine. In particular, the HMM mine models learns the hyperbolic shape associated with the signature of a buried mine by three states that correspond to the succession of an increasing edge, a at edge, and a decreasing edge. Recently, for the same application, other features have been used with dierent classiers. In particular, the Edge Histogram Descriptor (EHD) has been used within a K-nearest neighbor classier. Another descriptor is based on Gabor features and has been used within a discrete HMM classier. A third feature, that is closely related to the EHD, is the Bar histogram feature. This feature has been used within a Neural Networks classier for handwritten word recognition. In this paper, we propose an evaluation of the HMM based landmine detection framework with several feature extraction techniques. We adapt and evaluate the EHD, Gabor, Bar, and baseline gradient feature extraction methods. We compare the performance of these features using a large and diverse GPR data collection.

  10. Numerical simulation of the coupling of ultra-wide band electromagnetic pulse into landmine by aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhen-Ru; Zhao, Hui-Chang; Yang, Li; Wang, Feng-Shan

    2015-09-01

    The modern landmine’s electronic fuse is susceptible to strong interference or can even be damaged by the ultra-wide band electromagnetic pulse (UWB-EMP). The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in lossy media with cylindrical coordinates is used to study the interactions of the UWB-EMP with the landmine. First, the coupling of UWB-EMP into the landmine shielding shell through an aperture is numerically simulated. Second, the coupled electromagnetic field of mine shells made of different shielding materials and with apertures of different sizes is plotted. Third, the aperture coupling laws of UWB-EMP into shells are analyzed and categorized. Such an algorithm is capable of effectively preventing ladder similar errors, and consequently improving the calculation precision, and in addition to adopting the message passing interface (MPI) parallel method to divide the total calculating range into more sub-ranges, the overall calculating efficiency is greatly increased. These calculations are surely a constructive reference for modern landmine design against electromagnetic damage. Project supported by the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2014M552610).

  11. New Mexico Tech landmine, UXO, IED detection sensor test facility: measurements in real field soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Alkov, Nicole; Hong, Sung-ho; Van Dam, Remke L.; Kleissl, Jan; Shannon, Heather; Meason, John; Borchers, Brian; Harmon, Russell S.

    2006-05-01

    Modeling studies and experimental work have demonstrated that the dynamic behavior of soil physical properties has a significant effect on most sensors for the detection of buried land mines. An outdoor test site has been constructed allowing full control over soil water content and continuous monitoring of important soil properties and environmental conditions. Time domain reflectometry sensors and thermistors measure soil water1 content and temperature, respectively, at different depths above and below the land mines as well as in homogeneous soil away from the land mines. During the two-year operation of the test-site, the soils have evolved to reflect real field soil conditions. This paper compares visual observations as well as ground-penetrating radar and thermal infrared measurements at this site taken immediately after construction in early 2004 with measurements from early 2006. The visual observations reveal that the 2006 soil surfaces exhibit a much higher spatial variability due to the development of mini-reliefs, "loose" and "connected" soil crusts, cracks in clay soils, and vegetation. Evidence is presented that the increased variability of soil surface characteristics leads to a higher natural spatial variability of soil surface temperatures and, thus, to a lower probability to detect landmines using thermal imagery. No evidence was found that the soil surface changes affect the GPR signatures of landmines under the soil conditions encountered in this study. The New Mexico Tech outdoor Landmine Detection Sensor Test Facility is easily accessible and anyone interested is welcome to use it for sensor testing.

  12. Analytical studies of a backscatter x-ray imaging landmine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavmurthy, Shyam P.; Dugan, Edward T.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Jacobs, Alan M.

    1996-05-01

    The Compton Backscatter Imaging (CBI) technique has been applied successfully to detect buried plastic anti-tank landmines. The images acquired by a CBI system are often cluttered by surface features. Additionally, some buried objects give the same response as the plastic landmines. The landmine detection can be successful only when the detection system is capable of distinguishing between surface features and the mine-like objects. This can be accomplished by designing detectors that differentiate between the surface features and the buried objects. An understanding of the physical phenomena underlining the CB image formation helps us to design these detectors. To study the physics of the Compton backscattering, the photon transport in a CBI system is simulated using Monte-Carlo calculations with the generalized particle transport program MCNP. The photon tracks are graphically displayed using a visualization program SABRINA. On the basis of the results from these Monte-Carlo analyses, a four-detector system has been designed. This detector design utilizes the unique nature of various collision components of the scattered photons to generate separate images of buried objects and surface features. The success of this detector design is demonstrated through a series of analytically generated images. The results of the experimental measurements that validate these analytical predictions are brought out in a separate paper to be presented in this conference.

  13. Nonlinear Acoustic Experiments Involving Landmine Detection: Connections with Mesoscopic Elasticity and Slow Dynamics in Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Murray S.; Sabatier, James M.

    2006-05-01

    The vibration interaction between the top-plate of a buried VS 2.2 plastic, anti-tank landmine and the soil above it appears to exhibit similar characteristics to the nonlinear mesoscopic/nanoscale effects that are observed in geomaterials like rocks or granular materials. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3354-3369 (2004)]. When airborne sound at two primary frequencies f1 and f2 (closely spaced near resonance) undergo acoustic-to-seismic coupling, (A/S), interactions with the mine and soil generate combination frequencies | n f1 ± m f2 | which affect the surface vibration velocity. Profiles at f1, f2, f1 -(f2 - f1) and f2 +(f2 - f1) exhibit single peaks whereas other combination frequencies may involve higher order modes. A family of increasing amplitude tuning curves, involving the surface vibration over the landmine, exhibits a linear relationship between the peak particle velocity and corresponding resonant frequency. Subsequent decreasing amplitude tuning curves exhibit hysteresis effects. New experiments for a buried VS 1.6 anti-tank landmine and a "plastic drum head" mine simulant behave similarly. Slow dynamics explains the amplitude difference in tuning curves for first sweeping upward and then downward through resonance, provided the soil modulus drops after periods of high strain. [Support by U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC, NVESD, Fort Belvoir, VA.

  14. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-06-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  15. The soil moisture and its relevance to the landmine detection by neutron backscattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obhođaš, Jasmina; Sudac, Davorin; Nađ, Karlo; Valković, Vlado; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Viesti, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    The detection of landmines by using available technologies is a time consuming, expensive and extremely dangerous job, so that there is a need for a technological breakthrough in this field. Atomic and nuclear physics based sensors might offer new possibilities in de-mining. Among the available nuclear techniques, the neutron backscattering technique (NBT), based on the detection of the produced thermal neutrons, is thought to be the most promising for field applications. We discuss here two limitations of NBT, being related to the soil moisture. First, the critical value of the soil moisture, reached when the density of the hydrogen atoms in the landmine is equal to that in the background soil, defines a condition for which the detection is not possible. Critical values are small for some of the landmine types, thus suggesting the application of the method to arid countries, where the soil moisture is lower than 10%. Furthermore, small-scale variations of the soil moisture content, experimentally determined for different soil types, are found to be capable of generating false positive readings. To avoid this problem, the integration of the NBT with a second sensor, as the metal detector, is proposed.

  16. Comparative analysis of short and long GPR pulses for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temlioǧlu, Eyyup; Nazlı, Hakkı; Aksoy, Serkan

    2016-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most popular subsurface sensing devices. It has a wide range of applications such as landmine detection, archeological investigations, road condition survey and so on. Hardware and software requirements of the GPR system are strongly dependent on type of applications. Principally, lower frequencies provide deeper penetration and low resolution, but higher frequencies are able to detect shallow objects with high resolution. As a fundamental design criterion, there is a trade-off between penetration depth and vertical resolution. In impulse radar, pulse duration (frequency related) is a key parameter because it affects the system detection performance. Specially, optimization of the pulse duration is a challenging problem for landmine detection because the GPR performance has been strongly affected from mine types, varying terrain and environmental conditions. In this work, two GPR systems with pulse durations of 650 ps and 870 ps are compared for evaluation of their detection performance. The pulses are tested with extensive data sets collected from different soil types by using surrogate mines and other objects. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the system is also calculated. It seems that the 650 ps pulse duration gives better performance than the 870 ps pulse duration for the shallow landmine detection.

  17. Simulation of the environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine and estimate the subsurface total concentration. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  18. An exploratory study of the perceived impact of health problems of landmine/UXO victims versus another disability group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this exploratory study is to pilot a biopsychosocial instrument called the Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP) on a cohort of landmine/Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) victims with lower limb disability versus a cohort of persons with similar disability due to other trauma or medical causes. The aim is to provide greater understanding of the psychosocial impact of landmine/UXO injury to inform victim assistance a interventions within Lao PDR. Methods This study employs a mixed methods design, which involved piloting the PIPP instrument through an interviewer administered questionnaire and demographic questionnaire. Fifty one participants were interviewed in both urban and rural locations within Lao PDR. Results An analysis of the data reveals significant differences in perceived impact for pain, anxiety and how recently the injury/illness occurred. Both groups complained of high levels of anxiety and depression; landmine/UXO victims who complained of anxiety and depression reported a much greater impact on life satisfaction and mood. Conclusion The perceived impact of the disability is greatest on psychosocial factors for both cohorts, but especially in landmine/UXO victims emphasising the need to focus on improving psychosocial interventions for landmine/UXO victims within Victim assistance programmes in Lao PDR. PMID:23016958

  19. Nonlinear acoustic landmine detection: Comparison of ``off target'' soil background and ``on target'' soil-mine nonlinear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Murray S.

    2005-09-01

    When airborne sound at two primary tones, f1, f2 (closely spaced near a resonance) excites the soil surface over a buried landmine, soil wave motion interacts with the landmine generating a scattered surface profile which can be measured over the ``target.'' Profiles at f1, f2, and f1-(f2-f1), f2+(f2-f1), 2f1-(f2-f1), f1+f2 and 2f2+(f2-f1) (among others) are measured for a VS 1.6 plastic, inert, anti-tank landmine, buried at 3.6 cm in sifted loess soil. It is observed that the ``on target'' to ``off target'' contrast ratio for the sum frequency component can be ~20 dB higher than for either primary. The vibration interaction between the top-plate interface of a buried plastic landmine and the soil above it appears to exhibit many characteristics of the mesoscopic/nanoscale nonlinear effects that are observed in geomaterials like sandstone. Near resonance, the bending (softening) of a family of increasing amplitude tuning curves, involving the vibration over the landmine, exhibits a linear relationship between the peak particle velocity and corresponding frequency. Tuning curve experiments along with two-tone tests are performed both on and off the mine in an effort to understand the nonlinearities in each case. [Work supported by U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC, NVESD.

  20. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  1. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  2. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  3. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  4. 77 FR 49782 - Extension of the Application Deadline for Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Pilot'', also known as Patents for Humanity). See Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program, 77 FR 6544 (Feb. 8... response to stakeholder feedback, the USPTO is extending the deadline for applications to the Humanitarian... complete their applications. DATES: Effective Date: August 17, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  5. Humanitarian Information Management Network Effectiveness: An Analysis at the Organizational and Network Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngamassi Tchouakeu, Louis-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Massive international response to humanitarian crises such as the South Asian Tsunami in 2004, the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 highlights the importance of humanitarian inter-organizational collaboration networks, especially in information management and exchange. Despite more than a decade old call for more research…

  6. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

  7. Humanitarian presence and urban development: new opportunities and contrasts in Goma, DRC.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Karen; Vlassenroot, Koen

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the impact of the presence of international humanitarian organisations on local urban transformation processes in the city of Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Rather than evaluating the direct effects of humanitarian interventions and strategies, it focuses on the indirect but profound effects of the presence of this 'humanitarian sector'. It argues that the international humanitarian presence became a significant factor in the recent shaping and reshaping of the city's profile and has reinforced competition over the urban political and socioeconomic space. The paper evaluates the direct and indirect impact of the international humanitarian presence on the local urban economy and the larger political economy of war in eastern DRC. It analyses how this presence has reinforced processes of spatial reconfiguration, how it has influenced urban planning, and how it has affected dynamics of gentrification and marginalisation on the urban spatial level. PMID:20132264

  8. Save the Children, the humanitarian project, and the politics of solidarity: reviving Dorothy Buxton's vision.

    PubMed

    Baughan, Emily; Fiori, Juliano

    2015-10-01

    This paper reflects on the foundational years of Save the Children, one of the oldest and largest Western humanitarian agencies and a mainstay of the humanitarian project. In doing so, it considers how and why, at an early stage, the organisation depoliticised its activities, centring its narrative on the innocent, pre-political child-the image of unsullied humanity. In addition, it seeks to recover the internationalist vision of Save the Children's 'forgotten founder', Dorothy Buxton. Save the Children's turn to non-politics is indicative of the broader depoliticisation of Western humanitarian action. Given the intensely contested spaces in which Western humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) operate, these entities cannot escape politics. This paper argues that Buxton's efforts to build an international solidarity network through humanitarian action after the end of the First World War in 1918 provide an instructive basis on which these NGOs can pursue a politics of solidarity in the present day. PMID:26395105

  9. Use of imagery and GIS for humanitarian demining management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Jack; Gustafson, Glen C.; Kimsey, Mary; Kraenzle, Helmut; Wilson, James; Wright, Stephen

    1997-11-01

    In the Fall of 1996, the Center for Geographic Information Science at James Madison University became involved in a project for the Department of Defense evaluating the data needs and data management systems for humanitarian demining in the Third World. In particular, the effort focused on the information needs of demining in Cambodia and in Bosnia. In the first phase of the project one team attempted to identify all sources of unclassified country data, image data and map data. Parallel with this, another group collected information and evaluations on most of the commercial off-the-shelf computer software packages for the management of such geographic information. The result was a design for the kinds of data and the kinds of systems necessary to establish and maintain such a database as a humanitarian demining management tool. The second phase of the work involved acquiring the recommended data and systems, integrating the two, and producing a demonstration of the system. In general, the configuration involves ruggedized portable computers for field use with a greatly simplified graphical user interface, supported by a more capable central facility based on Pentium workstations and appropriate technical expertise.

  10. [Humanitarian surgery of the hand. Our experience in Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Voche, P; Valenti, P

    1999-02-01

    After a general presentation of the geographical and social aspects of Vietnam, the authors describe the conditions of their surgical work during short time humanitarian hand surgery missions. These missions, lasting 7 to 10 days are dedicated to the care of children, and a half-day of teaching for Vietnamese corresponding surgeons. The technical and material limits, the constraints for the patients to travel to the hospital, to pay for care and the difficulties of follow-up, require the selection of patients in whom the disease can be treated in a single stage procedure. Three types of diseases were treated: congenital anomalies, post-burn and post-trauma sequelae. Typical cases of these diseases are described and shown. Due to the absence of hand rehabilitation, reconstructive tendon surgery is inadvisable to avoid disappointing poor results and discredit this part of hand surgery. For reason of complexity and unreliability of electromyographic examination, brachial plexus injuries cannot be treated, except the simplest cases needing one or two tendon transfers. Concerning skin coverage and reconstructive surgery, our experience has shown that pedicled local and locoregional flaps, and even microsurgical transfers are adapted and reliable techniques due to the imperative of single stage procedure. The education and teaching of young surgeons in European teams and regular relation-ships with corresponding surgeons from developing countries are certainly the best way to promote humanitarian hand surgery. PMID:10188295

  11. Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief: changing the face of defense.

    PubMed

    Laraby, Patrick R; Bourdeaux, Margaret; Casscells, S Ward; Smith, David J; Lawry, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) is evolving to meet new security challenges in the twenty-first century. Today's challenges result from growing political, environmental, and economic instability in important areas of the globe that threaten national and global security. Immediate outreach to foreign nations in times of violent instability or natural disaster fosters security and stability both for the affected country and for the United States. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) is a rapidly evolving military mission that addresses conflict prevention, conflict, postconflict, and natural disasters. With DOD's extensive global medical resources, it is often uniquely qualified to execute a critical role in relief and/or public health efforts. When and how the American military will act in FHA and disaster relief is a still evolving doctrine with three issues deserving particular attention: aligning operations with host government leadership, preserving humanitarian space, and tailoring the US military's unique resources to the specific political and medical situation at hand. The DOD's response to a large-scale earthquake in Peru suggests useful approaches to these three issues, provides a template for future FHA mission, and points to strategic decisions and operational capabilities that need further development to establish the FHA mission firmly within DOD's repertoire of security engagement activities. PMID:19378667

  12. A deployable telemedicine capability in support of humanitarian operations.

    PubMed

    Meade, Kenneth; Lam, David M

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes how a military concept for telemedicine support in humanitarian crisis, the Medical Command, Control, Communication and Telemedicine Special Medical Augmentation Team (MC3T SMART TEAM), was transitioned from a theoretical concept into a functioning, operational entity. The European Regional Medical Command (ERMC) MC3T SMART TEAM successfully tested its capabilities during a military training exercise with the 212th mobile army surgical hospital (MASH). This was followed by successful real-life telemedicine support missions during a planned humanitarian support mission in Africa and then an emergency disaster support mission in Pakistan. While on these missions, the SMART team provided access to the Internet and e-mail by means of limited bandwidth mobile satellite equipment, established a working telemedicine process by introducing the staff to the United States Army's "Army Knowledge Online (AKO) Remote Consultation Program," and established a successful connection of the 212th's digital radiography system to the "Tri-Service Global Encrypted Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and Teleradiology Network." PMID:17603836

  13. Battlefield Utility of Antipersonnel Landmines and Proposed Alternatives (Analysis in Support of the NATO SAS-023 APM Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Crandley, J F; Greenwalt, R J; Magnoli, D E; Randazzo, A S

    2002-02-05

    This study consists of work done in support of the U.S. delegation to the NATO SAS-023 Antipersonnel Landmine Study Group, supplemented by additional work done for the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense Antipersonnel Landmine Alternative Concept Exploration Program (Track III). It explores the battlefield utility of current antipersonnel landmines (APL) in both pure and mixed APL/antitank minefields and evaluates the value of military suggested non-materiel alternatives. The historical record is full of examples where the presence (or absence) of antipersonnel landmines made a critical difference in battle. The current generation of military thinkers and writers lack any significant combat experience employing either mixed or antipersonnel minefields, which leaves a critical gap in available expert advice for policy and decision-makers. Because of this lack of experienced-based professional military knowledge, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed the employment of antipersonnel landmines in tactical mixed minefields and in protective antipersonnel minefields. The scientific method was employed where hypotheses were generated from the tactics and doctrine of the antipersonnel landmine era and tested in a simulation laboratory. A high-resolution, U.S. Joint Forces Command combat simulation model (the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation--JCATS) was used as the laboratory instrument. A realistic European scenario was obtained from a multi-national USAREUR exercise and was approved by the SAS-023 panel members. Additional scenarios were provided by U.S. CINC conferences and were based on Southwest Asia and Northeast Asia. Weapons data was obtained from the U.S. family of Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manuals. The U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency conducted a limited verification and validation assessment of JCATS for purposes of this study.

  14. Physical model of soil and its implications for landmine detection interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsube, T. J.; Grunsky, E.; Das, Y.; DiLabio, R.; McNairn, H.; Connell-Madore, S.; Gauthier, E.; Scromeda, N.

    2006-05-01

    Many soil physical and chemical properties interfere with landmine detection. Prior knowledge of these properties would improve detection technology selection and increase demining safety and efficiency. Developments in rapid mapping of these properties over wide areas is essential to meet military and economic constraints. Fusion of multiple detection technologies is also essential to overcome detection signal interferences. For these purposes, rapid mapping by use of remote sensing is being tested, starting with electrical conductivity mapping by radar remote sensing. Laboratory induced-polarization (IP) is also being tested to develop techniques to discriminate between electromagnetic signals from metallic particles in landmines and in soil, for regions with detection interference. Key physical models of soil are being developed for fusion of various landmine detection systems and to explain remote sensing responses to soil. Radar satellite tests carried out over the Canadian Forces Base Suffield (CFBS; Alberta, Canada) in 2004 and 2005 indicated 10 areas for possible high clay content and electrical conductivity. Eight of these were validated by soil maps and Landsat clay images. Two had high organic content with physical characteristics not known at present. Studies on soil with fine-grained iron-oxide powder and on iron with varied degrees of corrosion show that spectral-IP is sensitive to iron or iron-oxides regardless of their state. Soil has layered structure consisting of various grain-size combinations, but its physical characteristics are significantly influenced by whether its clay content is above or below a critical clay content (15 to 25 %). Results of these tests are discussed in this paper with explanations using the soil physical model.

  15. Mapping soil magnetic properties in Bosnia and Herzegovina for landmine clearance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, J. A.; Dearing, J. A.

    2008-10-01

    Electromagnetic properties of soils have negative impacts on metal detector performance during landmine clearance operations. In particular, topsoils with high concentrations of pedogenic viscous superparamagnetic minerals (magnetite/maghemite) as shown by high values of magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility limit the detector capability of identifying buried landmines. Thus a priori knowledge of the spatial extent of soils that may be problematic for landmine detection would aid strategic planning of clearance operations and ensure appropriate equipment is deployed. Here, we compare two approaches for estimating the broad magnetic properties of soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina: 1) an analogue approach, using data for magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility available for soil types from other temperate and Mediterranean regions; 2) magnetic measurements of a stratified sample of soil samples taken from the Bosnian National Soil Archive. The national soil magnetic maps produced estimate that the area of land inferred as problematic for metal detectors is 4% and 30% according to the analogue and measurement methods respectively. Combining soil type with soil parent material and climate explains the spatial variability of soil magnetic properties in terms of mechanisms of secondary ferrimagnetic mineral production and accumulation. The resulting maps indicate that the magnetic properties of dominant soils in northern Bosnia tend to be unproblematic for detectors, while in central Bosnia there is likely to be moderate detector interference. However, there is a high likelihood of dominant soils affecting detectors in southern and western Bosnia and Herzegovina, equivalent to ~ 30% of the total land area. The mapped outputs of susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility provide demining end-users with an indication of the likelihood of encountering problem soils in areas selected for clearance operations.

  16. Observations on syntactic landmine detection using impulse ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasif, Ahmed O.; Hintz, Kenneth J.

    2011-06-01

    We discuss some results and observations on applying syntactic pattern recognition (SPR) methodology for landmine detection using impulse ground-penetrating radar (GPR). In the SPR approach, the GPR A-scans are first converted into binary-valued strings by inverse filtering, followed by concavity detection to identify the peaks and valleys representing the locations of impedance discontinuities in the return signal. During the training phase, the characteristic binary strings for a particular landmine are found by looking at all the exemplars of that mine and selecting the collection of strings that yield the best detection results on these exemplars. These characteristic strings can be detected very efficiently using finite state machines (FSMs). Finally, the FSM detections are clustered to assign confidence to each detection, and discard sparse detections. Provided that the impulse GPR provides enough resolution in range, the SPR method can be a robust and high-speed solution for landmine detection and classification, because it aims to exploit the impedance discontinuity profile of the target, which is a description of the internal material structure of the target and little affected by external clutter. To evaluate the proposed methodology, the SPR scheme is applied to a set of impulse GPR data taken at a government test site. We suggest that coherent frequency-agile radar may be a better option for the SPR approach, since it addresses some of the drawbacks of a non-coherent impulse GPR caused by internally non-coherent within-channel signals which necessitate non-coherent integration and its attendant longer integration times, and non-coherent adjacent channels which severely limit the ability to do spatial, or at a minimum, cross-range processing if the GPR is in a linear array antenna.

  17. Defence R&D Canada research on nuclear methods of landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) has an active research and development program on detection of landmines using nuclear methods. They are intended for confirmation by detection of characteristic radiation or imaging of back scattered intensity distributions. Both vehicle-mounted and person-portable systems are being developed. Research on thermal neutron analysis (TNA) was initiated in 1994 to provide a confirmation detector for the DRDC developed multisensor, teleoperated, vehicle-mounted, landmine detection system. A version is now commercially available and four units have been fielded by the Canadian Land Forces. A prototype next generation TNA, which uses an electronic neutron generator as a source, has been constructed. Preliminary tests have shown improved performance. Research is now ongoing to investigate the addition of a fast neutron analysis capability to the next generation TNA. Characterization studies and software improvements are being conducted. Related research is investigating whether fast inorganic scintillator materials can provide an improvement in energy resolution. For person-portable applications, both neutron and photon irradiation processes are being investigated. A prototype landmine detector based on neutron moderation imaging has been completed and preliminary images of antipersonnel mine simulants obtained. It consists of a novel thermal neutron imaging system, a unique neutron source to uniformly irradiate the underlying ground and hardware and software for image generation and enhancement. Simulations show that it should provide a significant improvement over non-imaging neutron backscatter systems. X-ray backscatter imaging research is concentrating on non-collimated approaches to enable it to be person-portable. One such method, coded aperture imaging, is being investigated and extensive simulations using Geant4 have demonstrated its merits. Initial joint experiments with UC San Diego, using their HEXIS detector, have been conducted.

  18. Landmine detection using IR image segmentation by means of fractal dimension analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, Horacio A.; Gambini, Juliana; Delrieux, Claudio; Castro, Eduardo H.

    2009-05-01

    This work is concerned with buried landmines detection by long wave infrared images obtained during the heating or cooling of the soil and a segmentation process of the images. The segmentation process is performed by means of a local fractal dimension analysis (LFD) as a feature descriptor. We use two different LFD estimators, box-counting dimension (BC), and differential box counting dimension (DBC). These features are computed in a per pixel basis, and the set of features is clusterized by means of the K-means method. This segmentation technique produces outstanding results, with low computational cost.

  19. Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    2010-04-01

    ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

  20. Development of a thermal neutron sensor for Humanitarian Demining.

    PubMed

    Cinausero, M; Lunardon, M; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Viesti, G; Filippini, V

    2004-07-01

    A thermal neutron sensor prototype for Humanitarian Demining has been developed, trying to minimize cost and complexity of the system as required in such application. A (252)Cf source or a sealed-tube neutron generator is employed to produce primary fast neutrons that are thermalized in a moderator designed to optimize the neutron capture reaction yield in buried samples. A description of the sensor, including the performances of the acquisition system based on a Flash ADC card and final tests with explosive simulants are reported. A comparison of the sensor performance when using a radioactive source to that when employing a sealed-tube neutron generator is presented. Limitations and possible applications of this technique are discussed. PMID:15145439

  1. Dynamics of soil parameters relevant for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obhođaš, Jasmina; Vdović, Neda; Valković, Vlado

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we analyzed characteristics of 6 different soils from the test field at the Ruđer Bošković Institute. Many soil properties relevant for the performance of humanitarian demining tools strongly depend on water content. This is an effort to understand better the soil moisture variability and to find soil parameters that can predict the water content regarding the weather conditions. Such knowledge will allow to optimize demining operations. To gather the main parameters like field capacity, rate and delay of water infiltration and soil water retention which are all related to soil texture, daily time-series of soil moisture from August to November 2001, where analyzed.

  2. Humanitarian responses to mass violence perpetrated against vulnerable populations.

    PubMed Central

    Gellert, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    This multidisciplinary review links three areas of legitimate inquiry for practitioners of medicine and public health. The first is occurrences of mass violence or genocide perpetrated against vulnerable populations, with a focus on the failure of national and international mechanisms to prevent or predict such violence. The second is evolving concepts of national sovereignty and an emerging framework in which the imperative to assist vulnerable populations supersedes a state's right to self determination. The last is how medical, public health, and other systems of surveillance and rapid assessment of mass violence can accelerate public awareness and facilitate structured, consistent political decision making to prevent mass violence and to provide international humanitarian assistance. Images p1000-a PMID:7580643

  3. Characteristics of an Effective International Humanitarian Assistance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Ardalan, Ali; Waugh, William; Tirone, Daniel C.; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study is to identify the effectiveness characteristics, review the definition of them, and develop a conceptual mapping of existing domains in the field of International Humanitarian Assistance (IHA). Methods: We conducted a systematic review and searched the major databases (Science Direct, Scopus, Springer and Pubmed) and grey literature, including references of potentially eligible articles and conference proceedings through March 2015. Articles were included if they focused on IHA effectiveness. Reviewers independently identified the eligible studies and extracted data. Results: 10 studies were included and 48 characteristics were identified. There is a lack of scientific studies and agreement on the characteristics of IHA effectiveness.  Conclusion: This study could be the step toward an understanding of IHA effectiveness characteristics and its definitions with the findings making a base line for more research in this area.  PMID:26981325

  4. The practice of humanitarianism: a village birthing clinic in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Wick, Livia

    2011-01-01

    Discourses and practices surrounding humanitarian organisations have changed over time. This is certainly the case for Palestinian non-governmental organisations, which have followed the structural and ideological transformations observed in local, regional and international contexts. There have been three successive but interlocking generations of groups active in health in Palestine: charitable societies, popular committees, and donor-based entities. Against this background, a village clinic in the West Bank is seen to have gone through various incarnations in the context of an emerging neo-liberal economic, administrative and political environment. Despite the critiques justifiably addressed towards them, non-governmental organisations may in some cases be functionally fluid. Communities and people continue to use them strategically in their relations with states, political groups, individuals and receivers of aid, making them potential networking sites in the context of an ongoing occupation. PMID:24735467

  5. Detection of shallow buried nonmetallic landmine and estimation of its depth at microwave X-band frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, K. C.; Singh, D.; Arora, M.

    2009-05-01

    Current methods of demining are mostly ground or vehicle based and therefore extremely time consuming, risky and also do not produce low false alarm rates. Detection of landmines using airborne and satellite based sensors are a viable risk free alternative. However extracting mine like features from data captured using airborne and satellite based sensors using signal and image processing techniques with low false alarm rates is a subject of active research. Microwave remote sensing in X-band (10 GHz, 3 cm) frequency has the capability for both subsurface penetration and resolution of landmines as well as non-lethal targets. In the present study, a set of experiments under laboratory conditions have been carried out using dummy landmines without explosives buried to different depths up to 10 cm in dry smooth sand. The data generated through the experiments is processed through a series of image processing steps and a region of interest segmented using Otsu and Maximum Entropy based thresholding methods. The region of interest is masked and the average observed backscatter containing the mine further processed through an electromagnetic model developed and optimized using genetic algorithm for estimation of depth. The method does not have any requirement of separate training and test data set to train the optimizer and validate the results. The results under laboratory conditions indicate satisfactory results both for detection of shallow buried landmines and estimation of depth.

  6. Nonlinear acoustic experiments involving landmine detection: Connections with mesoscopic elasticity and slow dynamics in geomaterials, Part III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Murray S.; Sabatier, James M.

    2005-09-01

    In nonlinear acoustic detection schemes, airborne sound at two primary tones, f1, f2 (closely spaced near an 80-Hz resonance) excites the soil surface over a buried landmine. Due to soil wave interactions with the landmine, a scattered surface profile can be measured by a geophone. Profiles at f1, f2, f1-(f2-f1) and f2+(f2-f1) exhibit single peaks; those at 2f1-(f2-f1), f1+f2 and 2f2+(f2-f1) involve higher order mode shapes for a VS 2.2 plastic, inert, anti-tank landmine, buried at 3.6 cm in sifted loess soil [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3354-3369 (2004)]. Near resonance, the bending (softening) of a family of increasing amplitude tuning curves, involving the vibration over the landmine, exhibits a linear relationship between the peak particle velocity and corresponding frequency. Results are similar to nonlinear mesoscopic/nanoscale effects that are observed in granular solids like Berea sandstone. New experiments show that first sweeping up through resonance and then immediately sweeping back down result in different tuning curve behavior that might be explained by ``slow dynamics'' where an effective modulus reduction persists following periods of high strain. Results are similar to those described by TenCate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1020-1023 (2000)]. [Work supported by U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC, NVESD.

  7. Killing Fields: The Deadly Legacy of Landmines. Study Guide. Episode #738. America's Defense Monitor, Educational TV for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Defense Information, Washington, DC.

    This program explores the dangers of landmines as "weapons of mass destruction in slow motion." These hidden killers have been called the "perfect soldier"--never sleeping and never missing--yet kill thousands of people each year, many innocent civilians. The study guide offers questions to use before viewing the video, questions to follow the…

  8. Context-dependent feature selection using unsupervised contexts applied to GPR-based landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2010-04-01

    Context-dependent classification techniques applied to landmine detection with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have demonstrated substantial performance improvements over conventional classification algorithms. Context-dependent algorithms compute a decision statistic by integrating over uncertainty in the unknown, but probabilistically inferable, context of the observation. When applied to GPR, contexts may be defined by differences in electromagnetic properties of the subsurface environment, which are due to discrepancies in soil composition, moisture levels, and surface texture. Context-dependent Feature Selection (CDFS) is a technique developed for selecting a unique subset of features for classifying landmines from clutter in different environmental contexts. In past work, context definitions were assumed to be soil moisture conditions which were known during training. However, knowledge of environmental conditions could be difficult to obtain in the field. In this paper, we utilize an unsupervised learning algorithm for defining contexts which are unknown a priori. Our method performs unsupervised context identification based on similarities in physics-based and statistical features that characterize the subsurface environment of the raw GPR data. Results indicate that utilizing this contextual information improves classification performance, and provides performance improvements over non-context-dependent approaches. Implications for on-line context identification will be suggested as a possible avenue for future work.

  9. Nonlinear acoustic experiments involving landmine detection: Connections with mesoscopic elasticity and slow dynamics in geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Murray S.; Fenneman, Douglas J.; Sabatier, James M.

    2004-10-01

    The vibration interaction between the top-plate of a buried VS 1.6 plastic, anti-tank landmine and the soil above it appears to exhibit similar characteristics to the nonlinear mesoscopic/nanoscale effects that are observed in geomaterials like rocks or granular materials. In nonlinear detection schemes, airborne sound at two primary frequencies f1 and f2 (chosen several Hz apart on either side of resonance) undergo acoustic-to-seismic coupling. Interactions with the compliant mine and soil generate combination frequencies that, through scattering, can effect the vibration velocity at the surface. Profiles at f1, f2, f1-(f2-f1) and f2+(f2-f1) exhibit a single peak while profiles at 2f1-(f2-f1), f1+f2 and 2f2+(f2-f1) are attributed to higher order mode shapes. Near resonance (~125 Hz for a mine buried 3.6 cm deep), the bending (softening) of a family of increasing amplitude tuning curves (involving the surface vibration over the landmine) exhibits a linear relationship between the peak particle velocity and corresponding frequency. Subsequent decreasing amplitude tuning curves exhibit hysteresis effects. Slow dynamics explains the amplitude difference in tuning curves for first sweeping upward and then downward through resonance, provided the soil modulus drops after periods of high strain. [Work supported by U.S. Army RDECOM, CERDEC, NVESD, Fort Belvoir, VA.

  10. Investigation of the feasibility of fast neutron analysis for detection of buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Anthony A.; McFee, John E.; Andrews, H. Robert; Ing, Harry

    2006-05-01

    Nuclear methods have long been one of the few techniques available to aid in the detection and identification of potentially dangerous objects in a non-intrusive manner. The application of neutron-based methods has been particularly successful in bulk material detection and identification, owing to the neutron's capability to penetrate deep into materials, and its nuclide-specific interactions which can be used to make direct measurements of a target's elemental composition. Defence R&D Canada - Suffield's initial work in the area of penetrating radiation resulted in the development of the recently commercialized Minespec, a Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) system for buried-explosives detection. Co-developed with Bubble Technology Industries Inc., as the confirmation detector for a multi-sensor anti-tank landmine detection system, continuing improvements to the TNA system have included the inclusion of an electronic pulsed neutron generator - an upgrade that presents the possibility of utilizing Fast Neutron Analysis (FNA) methods to improve the system's detection capability. In this paper we will discuss the Minespec system and report on our investigations regarding the possibility for incorporating an FNA component to provide complementary information to assist in anti-tank landmine detection.

  11. Nonlinear acoustic landmine detection: comparison of off-target soil background and on-target soil-mine nonlinear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Murray S.; Sabatier, James M.; Pauls, Kathleen E.; Genis, Sean A.

    2006-05-01

    When airborne sound at two primary tones, f I, f II (closely spaced near a resonance) excites the soil surface over a buried landmine, soil wave motion interacts with the landmine generating a scattered surface profile which can be measured over the "target." Profiles at the primaries f I, f II, and nonlinearly generated combination frequencies f I-(f II-f I) and f II+(f II-f I) , 2f I-(f II-f I), f I+f II and 2f II+(f II-f I) (among others) have been measured for a VS 2.2 plastic, inert, anti-tank landmine, buried at 3.6 cm in sifted loess soil and in a gravel road bed. [M.S. Korman and J.M. Sabatier, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3354-3369 (2004)]. It is observed that the "on target" to "off target" contrast ratio for the sum frequency component can be ~20 dB higher than for either primary. The vibration interaction between the top-plate interface of a buried plastic landmine and the soil above it appears to exhibit many characteristics of the mesoscopic/nanoscale nonlinear effects that are observed in geomaterials like sandstone. Near resonance, the bending (softening) of a family of increasing amplitude tuning curves, involving the vibration over the landmine, exhibits a linear relationship between the peak particle velocity and corresponding frequency. Tuning curve experiments are performed both on and off the mine in an effort to understand the nonlinearities in each case.

  12. The Challenges and Recommendations of Accessing to Affected Population for Humanitarian Assistance: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Fatemi, Farin; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Mozafarsaadati, Hossein; Karami, Shirzad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Access to affected people pays an important role in United Nation Organization for Coordination and Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). The aim of this article is to identify the main obstacles of humanitarian access and the humanitarian organization responses to these obstacles and finally suggest some recommendations and strategies. Methods: In this narrative study the researchers searched in different databases. This study focused on the data from five countries in the following areas: access challenges and constraints to affected population and response strategies selected for operations in the affected countries by humanitarian organizations. Results: Three main issues were studied: security threats, bureaucratic restrictions and indirect constraint, which each of them divided to three subcategories. Finally, nine related subcategories emerged from this analysis. Conclusion: Most of these constraints relate to political issues. Changes in policy structures, negotiations and advocacy can be recommended to solve most of the problems in access issues. PMID:25948440

  13. 31 CFR 545.511 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774). ... TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing... nongovernmental organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in the territory of...

  14. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization?s guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations. PMID:22113725

  15. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization's guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations. PMID:21882772

  16. 76 FR 34639 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office... the Office of Food for Peace, U.S. Agency for International Development, RRB 7.06- 085,...

  17. 75 FR 74678 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace Announcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office... Office of Food for Peace, U.S. Agency for International Development, RRB 7.06- 152, 1300...

  18. A research note about military-civilian humanitarianism: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, T G

    1997-06-01

    'Military-civilian humanitarianism'--or the coming together of military forces and civilian aid agencies to deal with the human suffering from complex emergencies--has numerous forms, but disenchantment has resulted from the Somalia and Bosnia syndromes. There is little political will at present, but evidence from the immediate post-Cold War era suggests how multilateral military operations could expand or contract in future to the benefit or peril of war victims. Partly a literature review but more importantly a framework for interpreting recent publications, this essay seeks to move beyond exchanging assertions. There is a contextualisation of recent literature; a definition of military-civilian humanitarianism; a discussion of possible military contributions to humanitarian action; a framework to assess the effectiveness of military-civilian humanitarianism; and a preliminary analysis of experience from northern Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia, Rwanda and Haiti. Caveat lector: At this point in time, there are still 'more questions than answers'. PMID:9235222

  19. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis. PMID:23905768

  20. Characteristics, determinants and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarians: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. Design We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. Setting International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). Results 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8 years with an average of 11.8 years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. Conclusions Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals’ and organisations’ growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate

  1. Data collection tools for maternal and child health in humanitarian emergencies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Fiona; Kerr, Robbie; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Mathai, Matthews; van den Broek, Nynke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe tools used for the assessment of maternal and child health issues in humanitarian emergency settings. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and POPLINE databases for studies published between January 2000 and June 2014. We also searched the websites of organizations active in humanitarian emergencies. We included studies reporting the development or use of data collection tools concerning the health of women and children in humanitarian emergencies. We used narrative synthesis to summarize the studies. Findings We identified 100 studies: 80 reported on conflict situations and 20 followed natural disasters. Most studies (76/100) focused on the health status of the affected population while 24 focused on the availability and coverage of health services. Of 17 different data collection tools identified, 14 focused on sexual and reproductive health, nine concerned maternal, newborn and child health and four were used to collect information on sexual or gender-based violence. Sixty-nine studies were done for monitoring and evaluation purposes, 18 for advocacy, seven for operational research and six for needs assessment. Conclusion Practical and effective means of data collection are needed to inform life-saving actions in humanitarian emergencies. There are a wide variety of tools available, not all of which have been used in the field. A simplified, standardized tool should be developed for assessment of health issues in the early stages of humanitarian emergencies. A cluster approach is recommended, in partnership with operational researchers and humanitarian agencies, coordinated by the World Health Organization. PMID:26478629

  2. Vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations.

    PubMed

    Lam, Eugene; McCarthy, Amanda; Brennan, Muireann

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian emergencies may result in breakdown of regular health services including routine vaccination programs. Displaced populations including refugees and internally displaced persons are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of communicable diseases such as vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Common VPDs encountered in humanitarian emergencies include measles, polio, and depending on geographical location, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis A, and cholera. We conducted a review of 50 published articles from 2000 to 2015 concerning VPDs in humanitarian emergencies. This article provides an update on the available literature regarding vaccinations among this highly vulnerable population and describes the unique challenges of VPDs during humanitarian emergencies. Humanitarian emergencies place affected populations at risk for elevated morbidity and mortality from VPDs due to creation or exacerbation of factors associated with disease transmission such as mass population movements, overcrowding, malnutrition, and poor water and sanitation conditions. Vaccination is one of the most basic and critical health interventions for protecting vulnerable populations during emergencies. Growing insecurity, as seen in the increasing number of targeted attacks on health workers in recent years, as well as destruction of cold chain and infrastructure for transportation of supplies, are creating new challenges in provision of life saving vaccines in conflict settings. Population displacement can also threaten global VPD eradication and elimination efforts. While highly effective vaccines and guidelines to combat VPDs are available, the trend of increasing number of humanitarian emergencies globally poses new and emerging challenges in providing vaccination among displaced populations. PMID:26406333

  3. Teaching Giant African Pouched Rats to Find Landmines: Operant Conditioning With Real Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  4. Teaching giant african pouched rats to find landmines: operant conditioning with real consequences.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  5. Development of low cost composite plates for humanitarian demining operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabet, L.; Scheppers, J.; Verpoest, I.; Pirlot, M.; Desmet, B.; Gilson, L.; Pirard, P.

    2006-08-01

    Composite plates using flax fabrics and maleic anhydride modified polypropylene were fabricated on laboratory scale. The aim of the current research was to develop a low cost composite plate or a hybrid structure based on those plates and steel sheet, for making humanitarian demining clothes protecting against secondary fragmentation caused by anti-personnel blast mines. Ballistic impact tests according to STANAG 2920 were carried out for determining the v{50}-limit. So called field tests were performed by means of simulated anti-personnel mines using M112 explosive; the repeatability and the spatial distribution of the projected fragments were checked before fixing the final experimental setup. The performance of the bare composite plate was compared with the hybrid structures in terms of v{50} and in terms of damage mechanisms. All tested configurations performed amazingly well during the field tests, which was not the case for the ballistic impact tests. This led to the conclusion that v{50} might not be the best criterion to characterize protective clothing. This conclusion is sustained by energetic considerations and by field tests on plates with half the thickness of the initial plates.

  6. Humanitarian Outreach in Cardiothoracic Surgery: From Setup to Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dearani, Joseph A; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Bolman, R Morton; Swain, JaBaris D; Vricella, Luca A; Weinstein, Samuel; Farkas, Emily A; Calhoon, John H

    2016-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases account for 38 million deaths each year, and approximately 75% of these deaths occur in the developing world. The most common causes include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Many adults with acquired cardiothoracic disease around the world have limited access to health care. In addition, congenital heart disease is present in approximately 1% of live births and is therefore the most common congenital abnormality. More than one million children in the world are born with congenital heart disease each year, and approximately 90% of these children receive suboptimal care or have no access to care. Furthermore, many children affected by noncongenital cardiac conditions also require prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Medical and surgical volunteerism can help facilitate improvement in cardiothoracic health care in developing countries. As we move into the future, it is essential for physicians and surgeons to be actively involved in political, economic, and social aspects of society to serve health care interests of the underprivileged around the world. Consequently, in developing countries, a critical need exists to establish an increased number of reputable cardiothoracic programs and to enhance many of the programs that already exist. The optimal strategy is usually based on a long-term educational and technical model of support so that as case volumes increase, quality improves and mortality and morbidity decrease. Humanitarian outreach activities should focus on education and sustainability, and surgical tourism should be limited to those countries that will never have the capability to have free-standing cardiothoracic programs. PMID:27319988

  7. Research ethics in the context of humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal

    2015-02-01

    Research is needed to make responses to disasters and humanitarian emergencies more evidence-based. Such research must also adhere to the generally accepted principles of research ethics. While research into health interventions used in disasters raises distinctive ethical concerns, seven ethical principles developed for clinical research are applied here to disaster research. Practical examples from disaster settings are used to demonstrate how these ethical principles can be applied. This reveals that research ethics needs to be seen as much more than a mechanism to obtain ethical approval for research. Research ethics involves ethical principles and governance frameworks, but must also consider the role of ethical virtues in research. Virtues are essential to ensure that researchers do what they believe is ethically right and resist what is unethical. Research ethics that truly protects participants and promotes respect needs to include training in ethical virtues to ensure disaster research is carried out to the highest ethical standards. This article is based on a presentation at the Evidence Aid Symposium on 20 September 2014, in Hyderabad, India. PMID:25594722

  8. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client’s status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients’ status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors’ rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  9. Geoengineering: re-making climate for profit or humanitarian intervention?

    PubMed

    Buck, Holly Jean

    2012-01-01

    Climate engineering, or geoengineering, refers to large-scale climate interventions to lower the earth's temperature, either by blocking incoming sunlight or removing carbon dioxide from the biosphere. Regarded as ‘technofixes’ by critics, these strategies have evoked concern that they would extend the shelf life of fossil-fuel driven socio-ecological systems for far longer than they otherwise would, or should, endure. A critical reading views geoengineering as a class project that is designed to keep the climate system stable enough for existing production systems to continue operating. This article first examines these concerns, and then goes on to envision a regime driven by humanitarian agendas and concern for vulnerable populations, implemented through international development and aid institutions. The motivations of those who fund research and implement geoengineering techniques are important, as the rationale for developing geoengineering strategies will determine which techniques are pursued, and hence which ecologies are produced. The logic that shapes the geoengineering research process could potentially influence social ecologies centuries from now. PMID:22662349

  10. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client's status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients' status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors' rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  11. Towards metal detection and identification for humanitarian demining using magnetic polarizability tensor spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekdouk, B.; Ktistis, C.; Marsh, L. A.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an inversion procedure to estimate the location and magnetic polarizability tensor of metal targets from broadband electromagnetic induction (EMI) data. The solution of this inversion produces a spectral target signature, which may be used in identifying metal targets in landmines from harmless clutter. In this process, the response of the metal target is modelled with dipole moment and fitted to planar EMI data by solving a minimization least squares problem. A computer simulation platform has been developed using a modelled EMI sensor to produce synthetic data for inversion. The reconstructed tensor is compared with an assumed true solution estimated using a modelled tri-axial Helmholtz coil array. Using some test examples including a sphere which has a known analytical solution, results show the inversion routine produces accurate tensors to within 12% error of the true tensor. A good convergence rate is also demonstrated even when the target location is mis-estimated by a few centimeters. Having verified the inversion routine using finite element modelling, a swept frequency EMI experimental setup is used to compute tensors for a set of test samples representing examples of metallic landmine components and clutter for a broadband range of frequencies (kHz to tens of kHz). Results show the reconstructed spectral target signatures are very distinctive and hence potentially offer an efficient physical approach for landmine identification. The accuracy of the evaluated spectra is similarly verified using a uniform field forming sensor.

  12. Portable robotic platform for handheld landmine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Herman; McMahill, Jeffrey

    2004-09-01

    To support the development of advanced algorithms for hand-held detectors, it is desirable to collect data with a specific sweep rate, height and spacing. In addition, it is also important that the position of each data point produced by the detector is known. Since it is impossible for a human operator to precisely control these sweep parameters, we have developed a semi-autonomous robotic data collection system. It is designed as a portable robot with a 2-axis manipulator that can be used to sweep any hand-held detector at a precise sweep rate, height, and spacing. It is also equipped with an interface to the hand-held detector, so it can log the output data during the sweeping motion. It also tags the output data with the position data from the on-board positioning system. As a result, we can construct an accurate 2-D or 3-D grid of the detector's output as a function of horizontal and vertical position of the detector. The manipulator is also equipped with force sensing capability that can be used to sense terrain height or collision. To increase deployment flexibility, all functions of the robot are controlled through a wireless communication link by a hand-held computer with a maximum operating distance of at least 100m. Through the hand-held computer, the operator can move the robot, and program its behavior using a script based motion sequencer. The robot has been deployed successfully on several data acquisition activities, and successfully produced high-resolution 2-D map of the buried targets.

  13. Challenging Operations: An Ethical Framework to Assist Humanitarian Aid Workers in their Decision-making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Clarinval, Caroline; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims to raise awareness regarding ethical issues in the context of humanitarian action, and to offer a framework for systematically and effectively addressing such issues. Methods: Several cases highlight ethical issues that humanitarian aid workers are confronted with at different levels over the course of their deployments. The first case discusses a situation at a macro-level concerning decisions being made at the headquarters of a humanitarian organization. The second case looks at meso-level issues that need to be solved at a country or regional level. The third case proposes an ethical dilemma at the micro-level of the individual patient-provider relationship. Discussion: These real-life cases have been selected to illustrate the ethical dimension of conflicts within the context of humanitarian action that might remain unrecognized in everyday practice. In addition, we propose an ethical framework to assist humanitarian aid workers in their decision-making process. The framework draws on the principles and values that guide humanitarian action and public health ethics more generally. Beyond identifying substantive core values, the framework also includes a ten-step process modelled on tools used in the clinical setting that promotes a transparent and clear decision-making process and improves the monitoring and evaluation of aid interventions. Finally, we recommend organizational measures to implement the framework effectively. Conclusion: This paper uses a combination of public health/clinical ethics concepts and practices and applies them to the decision-making challenges encountered in relief operations in the humanitarian aid context. PMID:24987575

  14. Wideband nonlinear time reversal seismo-acoustic method for landmine detection.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Alexander; Libbey, Brad; Fillinger, Laurent; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2009-04-01

    Acoustic and seismic waves provide a method to localize compliant mines by vibrating the top plate and a thin soil layer above the mine. This vibration is mostly linear, but also includes a small nonlinear deviation. The main goal of this paper is to introduce a method of processing that uses phase-inversion to observe nonlinear effects in a wide frequency band. The method extracts a nonlinear part of surface velocity from two similar broadcast signals of opposite sign by summing and cancelling the linear components and leaving the nonlinear components. This phase-inversion method is combined with time reversal focusing to provide increased seismic vibration and enhance the nonlinear effect. The experiments used six loudspeakers in a wood box placed over sand in which inert landmines were buried. The nonlinear surface velocity of the sand with a mine compared to the sand without a mine was greater as compared to a linear technique. PMID:19354365

  15. Rapid Mapping of Soil Electrical Conductivity by Radar Satellite Remote Sensing for Landmine Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNairn, H.; Katsube, T. J.; Das, Y.; Holt, R. M.

    2005-05-01

    Many soil physical and chemical properties interfere with landmine detector signals. It has been shown that prior knowledge of the distribution of these properties would allow appropriate technology selection and increased demining operation effectiveness/efficiency. For this reason, economic and rapid mapping techniques using remote sensing for these properties over wide areas are considered. Since soil electrical conductivity (EC) interferes with the most widely used landmine detection systems, such as metal detectors and ground penetrating radar, it has been proposed to start with developing a rapid mapping technique for EC using remote sensing. Although airborne, ground EM systems, and laboratory analyses are proven methods for mapping EC, they generally lack the appropriate resolution required. In addition surveys by such methods are costly and time consuming for mapping large areas such as entire countries. Therefore, EC prediction by satellite imaging of soil moisture change using RADARSAT is being tested in eastern Alberta (Canada) and northern Mississippi (U.S.A.). Areas of little soil moisture change with time can be associated with high moisture retention and higher clay content, suggesting an association with higher EC. However, use of airborne and ground EM systems and laboratory analyses are recommended for validation of EC distributions mapped by remote sensing. Fusion of RADARSAT soil moisture images at varied dates are used to identify boundaries between high and low moisture retention areas in both the northern Mississippi and Alberta test sites to predict areas of high and low EC. These predictions are being validated by ground EM surveys, laboratory analyses and, in some cases, by various other methods such as soil and military traficability maps. Soil sample are collected across the high-low EC boundaries for laboratory analyses. Laboratory analyses consist of soil texture/mineralogy, moisture versus spectral EC, and strength tests.

  16. Earth Science Data and Models for Improved Targeting of Humanitarian Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    Humanitarian assistance to developing countries has long focused on countries that have political, economic and strategic interest to the United States. Recent changes in global security concerns have heightened the perception that humanitarian action is becoming increasingly politicized. This is seen to be largely driven by the 'global war on terror' along with a push by donors and the United Nations for closer integration between humanitarian action and diplomatic, military and other spheres of engagement in conflict and crisis-affected states (HPG 2010). As we enter an era of rising commodity prices and increasing uncertainty in global food production due to a changing climate, scientific data and analysis will be increasingly important to improve the targeting of humanitarian assistance. Earth science data enables appropriate humanitarian response to complex food emergencies that arise in regions outside the areas of current strategic and security focus. As the climate changes, new places will become vulnerable to food insecurity and will need emergency assistance. Earth science data and multidisciplinary models will enable an information-based comparison of need that goes beyond strategic and political considerations to identify new hotspots of food insecurity as they emerge. These analyses will improve aid targeting and timeliness while reducing strategic risk by highlighting new regions at risk of crisis in a rapidly changing world. Improved targeting with respect to timing and location could reduce cost while increasing the likelihood that those who need aid get it.

  17. International humanitarian actors and governments in areas of conflict: challenges, obligations, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Paul

    2013-10-01

    For too long international humanitarian aid has neglected the primary responsibility of the state to assist and protect its citizens in times of disaster. A focus on the role of the state in contexts where governments are active parties to a conflict and are failing to live up to these responsibilities is difficult and underpins many of the recurring dilemmas of humanitarian action. The fundamental principles of humanitarian action should offer a framework for principled engagement with governments in situations of conflict but too often they are still interpreted as shorthand for ignoring governments. Using principles to inform engagement with both states and other international actors engaged in crises could provide a way forward. However, this would need to be a humanitarian agenda that engages with developing country governments, with non-OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) donors, and with the stabilisation and security agendas of Western governments, and not one that attempts to ring-fence an ever-shrinking isolationist humanitarian space. PMID:23876011

  18. Dividing disasters in Aceh, Indonesia: separatist conflict and tsunami, human rights and humanitarianism.

    PubMed

    Zeccola, Paul

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the interface between human rights and humanitarian action in the context of the conflict and tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia, between 1998 and 2007. It looks at the challenges international humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) faced as they engaged in human rights work in the conflict period and in conflict-related activities in the post-tsunami period. The paper argues that many large NGOs may have compromised what some would hold to be essential principles for humanitarian action because of domestic political concerns, donor restrictions and resistance among certain NGO chiefs. In contrast with the pre-tsunami period, in which NGOs worked for years amid military operations, in the post-tsunami period NGOs were decidedly apolitical, neglecting the conflict in their tsunami response--despite significant developments that permitted greater political engagement in Aceh's post-conflict transformation. The evidence suggests that NGOs are challenged in contextualising humanitarian responses and that there is a need to underscore donor flexibility and independence in humanitarian action. PMID:21054497

  19. Cracking the humanitarian logistic coordination challenge: lessons from the urban search and rescue community.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Peter; Spens, Karen

    2016-04-01

    The challenges of achieving successful inter-agency logistic coordination in preparing for and responding to natural disasters and complex emergencies are both well understood and well documented. However, although many of these challenges remain unresolved, the literature reveals that the organisations that form the urban search and rescue (USAR) community have attained a high level of coherence and interoperability that results in a highly efficient and effective response. Therefore, this paper uses the idea of 'borrowing' from other fields as it explores how the processes and procedures used by the USAR community might be applied to improve humanitarian logistic operations. The paper analyses the USAR model and explores how the resultant challenges might be addressed in a humanitarian logistic context. The paper recommends that further research be undertaken in order to develop a modified USAR model that could be operationalised by the international community of humanitarian logisticians. PMID:26283578

  20. Humanitarian accountability, bureaucracy, and self-regulation: the view from the archive.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Sarah; Strange, Julie-Marie; Taithe, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    This paper contains a systematic exploration of local and national archives and sources relevant to charities and humanitarian fund appeals of the late Victorian and Edwardian eras (1870-1912) in Great Britain. It shows that the charitable world and humanitarian work share the same matrix and originate from the same roots, with considerable overlap between fundraising for domestic charity and overseas relief. These campaigns engaged in crucial self-regulatory processes very early on that involved concepts such as formal accountability and the close monitoring of delivery. Far from lagging behind in terms of formal practices of auditing and accounts, charities and humanitarian funds often were in the pioneering group as compared with mainstream businesses of the period. The charitable sector, notably through the Charity Organisation Society in cooperation with the press, developed and delivered accountability and monitoring, while the state and the Charity Commission played a negligible role in this process. PMID:26395108

  1. THE LOSS OF MALAYSIA AIRLINES FLIGHT MH17: A FORENSIC AND HUMANITARIAN TASK.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2015-06-01

    While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey. PMID:26349375

  2. Perceptions of work in humanitarian assistance: interviews with returning Swedish health professionals.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; Diskett, Patricia; Garrett, Martha J

    2004-01-01

    Health personnel volunteering for humanitarian assistance assignments work in increasingly dangerous situations and increasingly complex roles. A qualitative analysis of interviews with returning Swedish aid workers, who collectively had been on 74 missions in 32 different countries, revealed that they felt positive about their contribution, but experienced high levels of stress and frustration. They were also surprised and inadequately prepared for tasks that fell outside their professional health care training, including ones demanding pedagogic and management skills. The volunteers perceived their success on humanitarian assistance assignments as being affected not only by their own professional competence and special preparatory training, but also by many other factors. In particular, recruiting organizations could improve volunteer performance by accepting only experienced professionals, requiring special preparatory training, clarifying the exact nature of the work, and providing better support during the assignment. Further analysis of humanitarian assistance as a complex and dynamic system involving multiple 'actors' could lead to improved understanding and better performance. PMID:15448624

  3. Cruel wars and safe havens: humanitarian aid in Liberia 1989-1996.

    PubMed

    Outram, Q

    1997-09-01

    This article considers the role of military intervention by peace-keeping and peace-enforcement troops in the provision of humanitarian aid to Liberia during the armed conflicts of the past seven years. The article focuses on the role of the de facto safe haven which peace-keeping and enforcing troops protected in Liberia between 1990 and 1996 and puts the Liberian case in the context of the growing debate about the usefulness of military interventions in humanitarian emergencies. It argues that the safe haven has enabled significant humanitarian achievements but has also demonstrated fundamental failures. Central to these failures have been the absence of consent, under-resourcing and a loss of control of the safe haven to factional interests. PMID:9301136

  4. 75 FR 26344 - Temporary Exclusion of the Assessment of Overflight Fees for Humanitarian Flights Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Humanitarian Flights Related to the January 12, 2010, Earthquake in Haiti AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Fees for humanitarian flights in response to the earthquake in Haiti. SUMMARY: On January 12, 2010, the nation of Haiti was hit by a devastating earthquake near the heaviest populated part of the country,...

  5. Violence against children in humanitarian settings: A literature review of population-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lindsay; Landis, Debbie

    2016-03-01

    Children in humanitarian settings are thought to experience increased exposure to violence, which can impair their physical, emotional, and social development. Violence against children has important economic and social consequences for nations as a whole. The purpose of this review is to examine population-based approaches measuring violence against children in humanitarian settings. The authors reviewed prevalence studies of violence against children in humanitarian contexts appearing in peer-reviewed journals within the past twenty years. A Boolean search procedure was conducted in October 2014 of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and PsychInfo. If abstracts contained evidence of the study's four primary themes--violence, children, humanitarian contexts and population-based measurement--a full document review was undertaken to confirm relevance. Out of 2634 identified articles, 22 met the final inclusion criteria. Across studies, there was varying quality and no standardization in measurement approach. Nine out of 22 studies demonstrated a relationship between conflict exposure and adverse health or mental health outcomes. Among studies that compared rates of violence between boys and girls, boys reported higher rates of physical violence, while girls reported higher rates of sexual violence. Children in infancy and early childhood were found to be among the most under-researched. Ultimately, the body of evidence in this review offers an incomplete picture regarding the prevalence, nature and impact of violence against children in emergencies, demonstrating a weak evidence base for some of the basic assumptions underpinning humanitarian practice. The development of standardized approaches to more rigorously measure violence against children is urgently needed in order to understand trends of violence against children in humanitarian contexts, and to promote children's healthy development and well-being. PMID:26854623

  6. Preliminary experimental validation of a landmine detection system based on localized heating and sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsi, M.; Corcione, M.; Dell'Omo, P.; Esposito, S.; Magliocchetti, L.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present results of experimental validation of a new methodology for anti-personnel mine (APM) detection for humanitarian demining, proposed by the authors and previously validated only by simulation. The technique is based on local heating and sensing by contactless thermometers (pyrometers). A large sand box (2.6m 3) has been realized and fitted with a cart moving on rails and holding instrumentation. Accurate mine surrogates have been hidden in the sand together with confounders. Preliminary measurements are consistent with simulations and prove validity of the approach.

  7. Magnetic viscosity of tropical soils: classification and prediction as an aid for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, J.; Preetz, H.; Altfelder, S.

    2012-08-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI)-based metal detectors are the most widely used sensing techniques in landmine clearance operations; however, they are negatively influenced by frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility. A total of 466 rock and soil samples collected from across the tropics are investigated in this study. The data show that frequency-dependent susceptibility depends on the parent material as well as on the degree of weathering. Ultramafic and mafic rocks and their derivatives have higher susceptibility and absolute frequency dependence than material originating from intermediate, felsic and sedimentary rocks. Within each parent material group, absolute frequency dependence increases steadily with increasing alteration from unweathered rock to topsoil. This effect is likely due to either the residual enrichment of weathering resistant ferrimagnetic minerals including superparamagnetic (SP) grains, the comminution of larger ferrimagnetic minerals or the neoformation of SP minerals during soil formation. Relative frequency dependence is generally lower than 15 per cent for the investigated samples with a few exceptions. It increases with alteration for igneous rocks but remains at the initially high level for sediments. This finding indicates that the relative concentration of SP minerals changes with respect to the total magnetic fraction for igneous rocks but remains constant for sediments. Soils derived from ultramafic, mafic and intermediate rocks show low relative frequency dependence, and their magnetic susceptibility is mainly the result of multidomain lithogenic minerals. In contrast, soils derived from felsic rocks and sediments show the highest values, and their susceptibility is due to SP minerals that are either formed during pedogenesis or residually enriched. The average and extreme values of the absolute frequency dependence within each subgroup, based on parent material and alteration grade, are used to design a prognosis system for

  8. Surface Electrical Conductivity Prediction by Soil Moisture and Electromagnetic Mapping Techniques: Implication for Landmine Detection Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsube, J.; McNairn, H.; Keating, P. K.; Das, Y.; Dyke, L.; Best, M. E.; Singhroy, V.; Connell-Madore, S.; Hunter, J.; Klassen, R.; Dilabio, R.; Moore, A.

    2004-05-01

    Electrical conductivity (EC) can be a source of significant signal interference in landmine detection, implying that there is a necessity for soil EC prediction in order to carry out safe demining operations in landmine affected countries in the world. A fundamental study on soil EC mechanisms and their relationship to moisture content has been carried out in order to increase the soil EC prediction accuracy when using data from various sensors, such as remote sensing, airborne and surficial electromagnetic (EM) methods. Results indicate that soil moisture consists of free water filling pore spaces and bound water which forms adsorbed water layers on the grain surfaces. The response of these two water phases to drying rates and EC are very different, to the extent that a moist clay poor soil may have low EC but a dry clay rich soil may have higher EC. This is a result of not only the bound water layers being a significant source of EC, but of the capillary component of the free water reacting differently to the different grain-sizes of the soil. The capillary water forms important electrical conductive bridges between the adsorbed water layers on the grains that constitute the soil. This implies that information on soil texture, mineralogy and their distribution are required for accurate EC prediction. Whereas information on these soil characteristics may be acquired by remote sensing and soil maps, soil moisture content is likely to vary from the time of data acquisition to that of demining operations, implying methods to predict these changes are required. In addition, soil type inhomogeniety, such as vertical and horizontal variation can also be a source of inaccuracies in moisture and EC predictions. However, these investigations also indicate that a wide band electrical frequency signal may have the possibility of providing information on, not only metallic mineral content, but on pore space, clay mineral type and water content. In addition, applications of

  9. Analytical modelling of soil effects on electromagnetic induction sensor for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, D.; Ambruš, D.; Bilas, V.

    2013-06-01

    Accurate compensation of the soil effect is essential for a new generation of sensitive classification-based electromagnetic induction landmine detectors. We present an analytical model for evaluation of the soil effect suitable for straightforward numerical implementation. The modelled soil consists of arbitrary number of conductive and magnetic layers. The solution region is truncated leading to the solution in form of a series rather than infinite integrals. Frequency-dependent permeability is inherent to the model, and time domain analysis can be made using DFT. In order to illustrate the model usage, we evaluate performances of three metal detector designs.

  10. Engendering care: HIV, humanitarian assistance in Africa, and the reproduction of gender stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mindry, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes as starting point research conducted in Durban, South Africa to unravel the complexities of care ethics in the context of humanitarian aid. It investigates how the gendering of care shapes humanitarian aid in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in Africa constructing an image of “virile” and “violent” African masculinity. Humanitarian organizations construct imagined relations of caring invoking notions of a shared humanity as informing the imperative to facilitate change. This paper draws on varied examples of research and NGO activity to illustrate how these relations of care are gendered. Humanitarian interventions which invoke universalizing conceptions of need could instead draw on feminist care ethics that seeks to balance rights, justice and care in ways that attend to the webs of relationships through which specific lived realities are shaped. Essentialising, feminized discourses on care result in a skewed analysis of international crises that invariably invoke women (and children) as victims in need of care and, at best, ignore the lived experiences of men, and at worst, cast men as virile and violent vectors of disease and social disorder. PMID:20432080

  11. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Iraq. (a) A nongovernmental organization specifically licensed pursuant to 31 CFR part 575 or otherwise authorized pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 to conduct certain humanitarian activities in and around Iraq is... organization pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 and the terms of its license or registration. This section does...

  12. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Iraq. (a) A nongovernmental organization specifically licensed pursuant to 31 CFR part 575 or otherwise authorized pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 to conduct certain humanitarian activities in and around Iraq is... organization pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 and the terms of its license or registration. This section does...

  13. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Iraq. (a) A nongovernmental organization specifically licensed pursuant to 31 CFR part 575 or otherwise authorized pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 to conduct certain humanitarian activities in and around Iraq is... organization pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 and the terms of its license or registration. This section does...

  14. 31 CFR 538.521 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Applicants for registration numbers must comply with the requirements of § 501.801(c), 31 CFR chapter V. (b... Administration Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774). ... organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in Sudan, authorizing transactions by...

  15. 31 CFR 538.521 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Applicants for registration numbers must comply with the requirements of § 501.801(c), 31 CFR chapter V. (b... Administration Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774). ... organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in Sudan, authorizing transactions by...

  16. 31 CFR 538.521 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Applicants for registration numbers must comply with the requirements of § 501.801(c), 31 CFR chapter V. (b... Administration Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774). ... organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in Sudan, authorizing transactions by...

  17. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury....532 Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for...

  18. 31 CFR 538.521 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Applicants for registration numbers must comply with the requirements of § 501.801(c), 31 CFR chapter V. (b... Administration Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774). ... organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in Sudan, authorizing transactions by...

  19. Using Contests to Provide Business Students Project-Based Learning in Humanitarian Logistics: PSAid Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Koray; Chen, Yuwen; Hales, Doug; Yu, Degan; Yalcin, Mehmet G.

    2014-01-01

    Business students appreciate working on classroom projects that are both enjoyable and useful in preparing them for future careers. Promoting competition among project teams is also used as a method to motivate students. The Humanitarian Logistics Project (HLP) teaches undergraduate students the logistical implications of unsolicited material…

  20. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  1. 31 CFR 537.523 - Authorization of nongovernmental organizations to engage in humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774). ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of nongovernmental organizations to engage in humanitarian or religious activities. 537.523 Section 537.523 Money and...

  2. 75 FR 51749 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Office of Food for Peace Announcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Office of Food for Peace Announcement... Programs by contacting the Office of Food for Peace, U.S. Agency for International Development, RRB...

  3. 75 FR 4526 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace; Announcement... International Development, RRB 7.06-152, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20523-7600. Juli...

  4. 15 CFR 740.12 - Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT). 740.12 Section 740.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS § 740.12...

  5. 15 CFR 740.12 - Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT). 740.12 Section 740.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS § 740.12...

  6. 75 FR 39263 - Guidance for Humanitarian Device Exemption Holders, Institutional Review Boards, Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... their device. In the Federal Register of August 5, 2008 (73 FR 45460), FDA published a 60-day notice... September 30, 2009 (74 FR 50214), but republished a 30-day notice on February 18, 2010 (75 FR 7270), to..., Institutional Review Boards, Clinical Investigators, and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian...

  7. Interns at an International, Humanitarian Organization: Career Pathways and Meaning Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the career shaping experiences and related meaning making processes of 12 interns at The Carter Center, an international, humanitarian organization. Experiences shaping participants' careers were grouped into the following themes--academics and intellectual curiosity; travel abroad; religion; relationships--family,…

  8. A solution from hell: the United States and the rise of humanitarian interventionism, 1991-2003.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the rise of humanitarian interventionist ideas in the US from 1991 to 2003. Until 1997, humanitarian intervention was a relatively limited affair, conceived ad hoc more than systematically, prioritized below multilateralism, aiming to relieve suffering without transforming foreign polities. For this reason, US leaders and citizens scarcely contemplated armed intervention in the Rwandan genocide of 1994: the US 'duty to stop genocide' was a norm still under development. It flourished only in the late 1990s, when humanitarian interventionism, like neoconservatism, became popular in the US establishment and enthusiastic in urging military invasion to remake societies. Now inaction in Rwanda looked outrageous. Stopping the genocide seemed, in retrospect, easily achieved by 5,000 troops, a projection that ignored serious obstacles. On the whole, humanitarian interventionists tended to understate difficulties of halting ethnic conflict, ignore challenges of postconflict reconstruction, discount constraints imposed by public opinion, and override multilateral procedures. These assumptions primed politicians and the public to regard the Iraq war of 2003 as virtuous at best and unworthy of strenuous dissent at worst. The normative commitment to stop mass killing outstripped US or international capabilities—a formula for dashed hopes and dangerous deployments that lives on in the 'responsibility to protect'. PMID:21280380

  9. Motivations, concerns, and expectations of Scandinavian health professionals volunteering for humanitarian assignments.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; McSpadden, Lucia Ann; Garrett, Martha J

    2006-01-01

    International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in humanitarian assistance employ millions of volunteers. One of the major challenges for the organizations is the high turnover rate among their personnel. Another is recruiting the right persons. As part of a series of studies investigating factors that affect the recruitment process and the success of assignment, this qualitative study examined health professionals' motivations for volunteering, their various concerns, and their expectations about themselves and the organizations for which they would work. The findings from focus group interviews with potential humanitarian volunteers were considered within the framework of Hertzberg's theory of motivations and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The study has significant implications for personnel policy and practice in the humanitarian sector. Recruitment officers should have the self-actualized person, as described by Maslow, in mind when interviewing candidates. This perspective would make it easier for them to understand the candidates' thoughts and concerns and would lead to more effective interventions. Program officers should have satisfiers and dissatisfiers, as identified by Herzberg, in mind when planning programs. The probability that personnel will leave humanitarian work is lower if they perceive working conditions as good. PMID:16580984

  10. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  11. 15 CFR 740.12 - Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT). 740.12 Section 740.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS § 740.12...

  12. Helping Hands: A Cost-Effectiveness Study of a Humanitarian Hand Surgery Mission

    PubMed Central

    Tadisina, Kashyap K.; Chopra, Karan; Tangredi, John; Thomson, J. Grant; Singh, Devinder P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Congenital anomalies and injuries of the hand are often undertreated in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Humanitarian missions to LMICs are commonplace, but few exclusively hand surgery missions have been reported and none have attempted to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness. We present the first study evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a humanitarian hand surgery mission to Honduras as a method of reducing the global burden of surgically treatable disease. Methods. Data were collected from a hand surgery mission to San Pedro Sula, Honduras. Costs were estimated for local and volunteer services. The total burden of disease averted from patients receiving surgical reconstruction was derived using the previously described disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) system. Results. After adjusting for likelihood of disability associated with the diagnosis and likelihood of the surgery's success, DALYs averted totaled 104.6. The total cost for the mission was $45,779 (USD). The cost per DALY averted was calculated to be $437.80 (USD), which is significantly below the accepted threshold of two times the per capita gross national income of Honduras. Conclusions. This hand surgery humanitarian mission trip to Honduras was found to be cost-effective. This model and analysis should help in guiding healthcare professionals to organize future plastic surgery humanitarian missions. PMID:25225616

  13. The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs (HESPER) Scale

    PubMed Central

    Semrau, Maya; van Ommeren, Mark; Blagescu, Monica; Griekspoor, Andre; Howard, Louise M.; Jordans, Mark; Lempp, Heidi; Marini, Anita; Pedersen, Jon; Pilotte, Isabelle; Slade, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We developed the Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs (HESPER) Scale, a valid and reliable scale to rapidly assess perceived needs of populations in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries. Methods. We generated items through a literature review; reduced the number of items on the basis of a survey with humanitarian experts; pilot-tested the scale in Gaza, Jordan, Sudan, and the United Kingdom; and field-tested it in Haiti, Jordan, and Nepal. Results. During field-testing, intraclass correlation coefficients (absolute agreement) for the total number of unmet needs were 0.998 in Jordan, 0.986 in Haiti, and 0.995 in Nepal (interrater reliability), and 0.961 in Jordan and 0.773 in Nepal (test–retest reliability). Cohen’s κ for the 26 individual HESPER items ranged between 0.66 and 1.0 (interrater reliability) and between 0.07 and 1.0 (test–retest reliability) across sites. Most HESPER items correlated as predicted with related questions of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 (WHOQOL-100), and participants found items comprehensive and relevant, suggesting criterion (concurrent) validity and content validity. Conclusions. The HESPER Scale rapidly provides valid and reliable population-based data on perceived needs in humanitarian settings. PMID:22897533

  14. Challenges and Psychosocial Growth for Older Volunteers Giving Intensive Humanitarian Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Kathleen W.; Cheek, Cheryl; Teemant, Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: We conducted a qualitative study of 38 mid-late life volunteers in intensive humanitarian service to ascertain the challenges, personal changes, and benefits they experienced from their volunteer activities. Intensive volunteering was defined as service done on a 24-hr a day basis at a location away from home. Design and…

  15. Overseas testing of a multisensor landmine detection system: results and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, Joe G.; Topolosky, Zeke

    2009-05-01

    The Nemesis detection system has been developed to provide an efficient and reliable unmanned, multi-sensor, groundbased platform to detect and mark landmines. The detection system consists of two detection sensor arrays: a Ground Penetrating Synthetic Aperture Radar (GPSAR) developed by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI) and an electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor array developed by Minelab Electronics, PTY. Limited. Under direction of the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), overseas testing was performed at Kampong Chhnang Test Center (KCTC), Cambodia, from May 12-30, 2008. Test objectives included: evaluation of detection performance, demonstration of real-time visualization and alarm generation, and evaluation of system operational efficiency. Testing was performed on five sensor test lanes, each consisting of a unique soil mixture and three off-road lanes which include curves, overgrowth, potholes, and non-uniform lane geometry. In this paper, we outline the test objectives, procedures, results, and lessons learned from overseas testing. We also describe the current state of the system, and plans for future enhancements and modifications including clutter rejection and feature-level fusion.

  16. Remote detection of buried land-mines and IEDs using LWIR polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Gurton, Kristan P; Felton, Melvin

    2012-09-24

    We report results of an ongoing study designed to assess the ability for enhanced detection of recently buried land-mines and/or improvised explosive devices (IED) devices using passive long-wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imaging. Polarimetric results are presented for a series of field tests conducted at various locations and soil types. Well-calibrated Stokes images, S0, S1, S2, and the degree-of-linear-polarization (DoLP) are recorded for different line-of-sight (LOS) slant paths at varying distances. Results span a three-year time period in which three different LWIR polarimetric camera systems are used. All three polarimetric imaging platforms used a spinning-achromatic-retarder (SAR) design capable of achieving high polarimetric frame rates and good radiometric throughput without the loss of spatial resolution inherent in other optical designs. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis and a standardized contrast parameter are used to compare detectability between conventional LWIR thermal and polarimetric imagery. Results suggest improved detectability, regardless of geographic location or soil type. PMID:23037383

  17. Rapid mapping of soil electrical conductivity by remote sensing: implication for landmine detection and vehicle mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsube, T. J.; McNairn, H.; Das, Y.; Gauthier, E.; Holt, R. M.; Singhroy, V.; DiLabio, R.; Connell-Madore, S.; Dyke, L.

    2005-06-01

    Many soil physical and chemical properties interfere with landmine detection signals. Since prior knowledge of these property distributions would allow appropriate technology selection and efficient demining operations, rapid mapping of these properties over wide areas are considered for meeting military and economic constraints. As soil electrical conductivity (EC) interferes with widely used detection systems, such as metal detectors and ground penetrating radar, we have started with developing a rapid mapping technique for EC using remote sensing. Electromagnetic surveys are proven methods for mapping EC, but do not provide all information required for demining. Therefore, EC prediction by imaging of soil moisture change using radar satellite imagery acquired by RADARSAT is being tested in eastern Alberta, Canada; northern Mississippi (U.S.A.). Areas of little soil moisture change with time are associated with high moisture retention and high clay content, suggesting higher EC. These soil characteristics are also associated with trafficability. RADARSAT soil moisture change detection images for eastern Alberta identified five areas with possible high moisture retention characteristics. Validation by soil and trafficability maps verified the predictions for more than half of the areas. Lack of some prediction accuracy is considered due to image acquisition timing and lack of physical property knowledge of some soil constituents.

  18. Soil moisture and electrical conductivity prediction and their implication for landmine detection technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsube, T. John; Keating, Pierre K.; McNairn, Heather; Das, Yogadhish; DiLabio, Ron; Singhroy, Vern; Connell-Madore, Shauna; Best, Mel E.; Hunter, James; Klassen, Rod; Dyke, Larry

    2004-09-01

    Physical properties, such as soil moisture, magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity (EC) are sources of signal interference for many landmine detectors. Soil EC mechanisms and their relationship to moisture are being studied to increase the soil EC prediction accuracy by radar remote sensing, airborne and ground electromagnetic (EM) methods. This is required for effective detection operations in problematic regions of the world. Results indicate that responses of free water and bound water to drying rates and EC are very different, to the extent that moist clay-poor soil may have lower EC compared to dryer clay-rich soil at certain moisture contents. These suggest that soil EC prediction should start with analyses of radar remote sensing data acquired on separate days, followed by high frequency airborne EM surveys, and validation by ground EM surveys and laboratory soil sample analyses. Due to the various expertise required, a team of relevant experts (e.g., geology, geophysics, remote sensing, petrophysics, agriculture, soil physics, electrical engineering and demining) should be organized to provide information on detector viability for demining in problematic areas in the world. It is also proposed to develop wide frequency band EM systems to provide much of the required information in one measurement.

  19. Blast injury research: modeling injury effects of landmines, bullets, and bombs.

    PubMed

    Hayda, Roman; Harris, Robert M; Bass, Cameron Dale

    2004-05-01

    Terrorist blasts and landmine injuries have become more common in the past several decades generating thousands of casualties. Preventive and prognostic measures are limited by the lack of knowledge of these complex events. Previous blast research has focused on primary blast injuries that involve the lung, despite musculoskeletal injuries being the most common. Through the use of instrumented cadavers, Hybrid III test dummies, and other surrogates, unique models of these events have been created. The investigations studied the effectiveness of antimine footwear, forces and injury mechanisms in temporary shelters subjected to blast, modeling of blast-induced glass fragmentation, and helmet deformation and injury potential under ballistic load. Despite blasts being much higher rate events than those seen in automotive blunt trauma, we were able to measure forces and create injury models. We found that antimine footwear will require additional development to be effective. Guidelines for shelter placement have been altered, and tempered glass seems to offer no protection when compared with annealed glass. Although these models are in their nascent phase, the thorough understanding of the biomechanical nature of these blast injuries will assist in developing strategies to reduce injuries and in the creation of forecasting models. PMID:15187840

  20. 3D numerical simulation of the transport of chemical signature compounds from buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrazabal, Maik; Borrero, Ernesto; Briano, Julio G.; Castro, Miguel; Hernandez, Samuel P.

    2005-06-01

    The transport of the chemical signature compounds from buried landmines in a three-dimensional (3D) array has been numerically modeled using the finite-volume technique. Compounds such as trinitrotoluene, dinitrotoluene, and their degradation products, are semi volatile and somewhat soluble in water. Furthermore, they can strongly adsorb to the soil and undergo chemical and biological degradation. Consequently, the spatial and temporal concentration distributions of such chemicals depend on the mobility of the water and gaseous phases, their molecular and mechanical diffusion, adsorption characteristics, soil water content, compaction, and environmental factors. A 3D framework is required since two-dimensional (2D) symmetry may easily fade due to terrain topography: non-flat surfaces, soil heterogeneity, or underground fractures. The spatial and temporal distribution of the chemical-signature-compounds, in an inclined grid has been obtained. The fact that the chemicals may migrate horizontally, giving higher surface concentrations at positions not directly on top of the objects, emphasizes the need for understanding the transport mechanism when a chemical detector is used. Deformation in the concentration contours after rainfall is observed in the inclined surface and is attributed to both: the advective flux, and to the water flux at the surface caused by the slope. The analysis of the displacements in the position of the maximum concentrations at the surface, respect to the actual location of the mine, in an inclined system, is presented.

  1. Standoff detection of explosives and buried landmines using fluorescent bacterial sensor cells.

    PubMed

    Kabessa, Yossef; Eyal, Ori; Bar-On, Ofer; Korouma, Victor; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon; Agranat, Aharon J

    2016-05-15

    A standoff detection scheme for buried landmines and concealed explosive charges is presented. The detection procedure consists of the following: Live bacterial sensor strains, genetically engineered to produce a dose-dependent amount of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence of explosives' vapors, are encapsulated and spread on the suspected area. The fluorescence produced by the bacteria in response to traces of the explosive material in their microenvironment is remotely detected by a phase-locked optoelectronic sampling system. This scheme enables fast direct access to a large minefield area, while obviating the need to endanger personnel and equipment. Moreover, the employment of phase locking detection efficiently isolates the bacterial sensors' fluorescent output from the background optical signals. This facilitates the application of bacterial sensors in an outdoor environment, where control of background illumination is not possible. Using this system, we demonstrate standoff detection of 2,4-DNT both in aqueous solution and when buried in soil, by sensor bacteria either in liquid culture or agar-immobilized, respectively, at a distance of 50 m in a realistic optically noisy environment. PMID:26774094

  2. A neutron Albedo system with time rejection for landmine and IED detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaltchouk, V. D.; Andrews, H. R.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Faust, A. A.; Ing, H.; McFee, J. E.

    2011-10-01

    A neutron Albedo system has been developed for imaging of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). It involves irradiating the ground with fast neutrons and subsequently detecting the thermalized neutrons that return. A scintillating 6Li loaded ZnS(Ag) screen with a sensitive area of 40 cm×40 cm is used as a thermal neutron detector. Scintillation light is captured by orthogonal arrays of wavelength-shifting fibers placed on either side of the scintillator surface and then transferred to X and Y multi-pixel PMTs. A timing circuit, used with pulsed neutron sources, records the time when a neutron detection takes place relative to an external synchronization pulse from the pulsed source. Experimental tests of the Albedo system performance have been done in a sand box with a 252Cf neutron source (no time gating) and with pulsed D-D (2.6 MeV) neutrons from the Defense R&D Ottawa Van de Graaff accelerator (with time gating). Information contained in the time evolution of the thermal neutron field provided improved detection capability and image reconstruction. The detector design is described and experimental results are discussed.

  3. Landmine detection using ensemble discrete hidden Markov models with context dependent training methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Anis; Missaoui, Oualid; Frigui, Hichem; Gader, Paul

    2010-04-01

    We propose a landmine detection algorithm that uses ensemble discrete hidden Markov models with context dependent training schemes. We hypothesize that the data are generated by K models. These different models reflect the fact that mines and clutter objects have different characteristics depending on the mine type, soil and weather conditions, and burial depth. Model identification is based on clustering in the log-likelihood space. First, one HMM is fit to each of the N individual sequence. For each fitted model, we evaluate the log-likelihood of each sequence. This will result in an N x N log-likelihood distance matrix that will be partitioned into K groups. In the second step, we learn the parameters of one discrete HMM per group. We propose using and optimizing various training approaches for the different K groups depending on their size and homogeneity. In particular, we will investigate the maximum likelihood, and the MCE-based discriminative training approaches. Results on large and diverse Ground Penetrating Radar data collections show that the proposed method can identify meaningful and coherent HMM models that describe different properties of the data. Each HMM models a group of alarm signatures that share common attributes such as clutter, mine type, and burial depth. Our initial experiments have also indicated that the proposed mixture model outperform the baseline HMM that uses one model for the mine and one model for the background.

  4. Neonatal survival in complex humanitarian emergencies: setting an evidence-based research agenda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 40% of all deaths among children under 5 are neonatal deaths (0–28 days), and this proportion is increasing. In 2012, 2.9 million newborns died, with 99% occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Many of the countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates globally are currently or have recently been affected by complex humanitarian emergencies. Despite the global burden of neonatal morbidity and mortality and risks inherent in complex emergency situations, research investments are not commensurate to burden and little is known about the epidemiology or best practices for neonatal survival in these settings. Methods We used the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology to prioritize research questions on neonatal health in complex humanitarian emergencies. Experts evaluated 35 questions using four criteria (answerability, feasibility, relevance, equity) with three subcomponents per criterion. Using SAS 9.2, a research prioritization score (RPS) and average expert agreement score (AEA) were calculated for each question. Results Twenty-eight experts evaluated all 35 questions. RPS ranged from 0.846 to 0.679 and the AEA ranged from 0.667 to 0.411. The top ten research priorities covered a range of issues but generally fell into two categories– epidemiologic and programmatic components of neonatal health. The highest ranked question in this survey was “What strategies are effective in increasing demand for, and use of skilled attendance?” Conclusions In this study, a diverse group of experts used the CHRNI methodology to systematically identify and determine research priorities for neonatal health and survival in complex humanitarian emergencies. The priorities included the need to better understand the magnitude of the disease burden and interventions to improve neonatal health in complex humanitarian emergencies. The findings from this study will provide guidance to researchers and program implementers in

  5. The Effectiveness of Interventions for Non-Communicable Diseases in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, Alexander; Knight, Abigail; Perel, Pablo; Blanchet, Karl; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are of increasing concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) affected humanitarian crises. Humanitarian agencies and governments are increasingly challenged with how to effectively tackle NCDs. Reviewing the evidence of interventions for NCDs in humanitarian crises can help guide future policies and research by identifying effective interventions and evidence gaps. The aim of this paper is to systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of interventions targeting NCDs during humanitarian crises in LMICs. Methods A systematic review methodology was followed using PRISMA standards. Studies were selected on NCD interventions with civilian populations affected by humanitarian crises in low- and middle-income countries. Five bibliographic databases and a range of grey literature sources were searched. Descriptive analysis was applied and a quality assessment conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for observational studies and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for experimental studies. Results The search yielded 4919 references of which 8 studies met inclusion criteria. Seven of the 8 studies were observational, and one study was a non-blinded randomised-controlled trial. Diseases examined included hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, thalassaemia, and arthritis. Study settings included locations in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and South Asia. Interventions featuring disease-management protocols and/or cohort monitoring demonstrated the strongest evidence of effectiveness. No studies examined intervention costs. The quality of studies was limited, with a reliance on observational study designs, limited use of control groups, biases associated with missing data and inadequate patient-follow-up, and confounding was poorly addressed. Conclusions The review highlights the extremely limited quantity and quality of evidence on this topic. Interventions that

  6. Combining Dedicated Online Training and Apprenticeships in the Field to Assist in Professionalization of Humanitarian Aid Workers: a 2-year Pilot Project for Anesthesia and Intensive Care Residents Working in Resource Constrained and Low-income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Foletti, Marco; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Burkle, Frederick M.; Della Corte, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: As a result of the gaps in humanitarian response highlighted by several reports, the international community called for an increased professionalization of humanitarian aid workers. This paper describes a pilot project by an Italian university and a non-profit, non-governmental organization to implement a medical apprenticeship in low-income countries during Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine residencies. Methods: Before deployment, participants were required to complete a dedicated online training course about safety and security in the field, principles of anesthesia at the district hospital level, emergency and essential surgical care, essentials of medical treatment in resource-constrained environments and psychological support in emergencies. Results: At the end of the program, a qualitative self-evaluation questionnaire administered to participants highlighted how the project allowed the participants to advance their professional skills when working in a low-resource environment, while also mastering their adapting skills and the ability to interact and cooperate with local healthcare personnel. The project also proved to be a means for personal growth, making these experiences a recommendation for all residents as a necessary step for the professionalization of healthcare personnel involved in humanitarian aid. PMID:25642362

  7. Detection of explosive as an indicator of landmines: BIOSENS project methodology and field tests in Southeast Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabbe, Stephen; Eng, Lars; Gardhagen, Peter; Berg, Anders

    2005-06-01

    The IST-2000-25348-BIOSENS project carried out a number of studies to assess the use of explosive detection technology for humanitarian demining. This paper presents sampling/collection technology developed, test methodology and results including comparisons with dogs and soil sampling. Findings are presented in terms of the detection of explosive from mines in the environment and demining.

  8. Refugee flow or brain-drain? The humanitarian policy and post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f

    1997-03-01

    "The humanitarian policy that the Canadian government implemented in response to the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown changed a migration system primarily based on personal networks into a brain drain. Post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigrants (MCIs) were better educated than those arriving in Canada previously. Among the post-Tiananmen MCIs, those who landed under the policy were better educated than those landing in other categories. The analysis suggests that post-Tiananmen MCIs represented a brain-drain rather than a refugee flow, that the humanitarian policy implicitly contained ideological and human capital concerns in addition to humanitarian concerns, and that Canada benefited from the policy by obtaining human capital as well as satisfying its humanitarian obligations and ideological aspirations." PMID:12321147

  9. Toward a Communications Satellite Network for Humanitarian Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction in 2008 of the "Ring Road" concept, proposing a communications satellite network designed to support disadvantaged populations, there have been a number of advances in the underlying technologies, CubeSat picosatellites and Delay-Tolerant Networking. We review the original Ring Road proposal, discuss relevant recent technological progress, and offer some tentative notes on projected cost and performance.

  10. The co-construction of medical humanitarianism: analysis of personal, organizationally condoned narratives from an agency website.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alastair; Iacovou, Melina

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen significant growth in both the size and profile of the humanitarian sector. However, little research has focused upon the constructions of humanitarian practice negotiated by agencies and their workers that serve to sustain engagement in the face personal challenges and critique of the humanitarian enterprise. This study used the public narrative of 129 website postings by humanitarian workers deployed with the health-focused international humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to identify recurrent themes in personal, organizationally-condoned, public discourse regarding humanitarian practice. Data represented all eligible postings from a feature on the agency's UK website from May 2002 to April 2012. The text of postings was analysed with respect to emergent themes on an iterative basis. Comprehensive coding of material was achieved through a thematic structure that reflected the core domains of project details, the working environment, characteristics of beneficiaries and recurrent motivational sub-texts. Features of the co-construction of narratives include language serving to neutralize complex political contexts; the specification of barriers as substantive but surmountable; the dominance of the construct of national-international in understanding the operation of teams; intense personal identification with organization values; and the use of resilience as a framing of beneficiary adaptation and perseverance in conditions that--from an external perspective--warrant despair and withdrawal. Recurrent motivational sub-texts include 'making a difference' and contrasts with 'past professional constraints' and 'ordinary life back home.' The prominence of these sub-texts not only highlights key personal agendas but also suggests--notwithstanding policy initiatives regarding stronger contextual rooting and professionalism--continuing organizational emphasis on externality and volunteerism. Overall, postings illustrate a

  11. Nonlinear acoustic experiments for landmine detection: the significance of the top-plate normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Murray S.; Alberts, W. C. K., II; Sabatier, James M.

    2004-09-01

    In nonlinear acoustic detection experiments involving a buried inert VS 2.2 anti-tank landmine, airborne sound at two closely spaced primary frequencies f1 and f2 couple into the ground and interact nonlinearly with the soil-top pressure plate interface. Scattering generates soil vibration at the surface at the combination frequencies | m f1 +- n f2 | , where m and n are integers. The normal component of the particle velocity at the soil surface has been measured with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and with a geophone by Sabatier et. al. [SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4742, (695-700), 2002; Vol. 5089, (476-486), 2003] at the gravel lane test site. Spatial profiles of the particle velocity measured for both primary components and for various combination frequencies indicate that the modal structure of the mine is playing an important role. Here, an experimental modal analysis is performed on a VS 1.6 inert anti-tank mine that is resting on sand but is not buried. Five top-plate mode shapes are described. The mine is then buried in dry finely sifted natural loess soil and excited at f1 = 120 Hz and f2 = 130 Hz. Spatial profiles at the primary components and the nonlinearly generated f1 - (f2 - f1) component are characterized by a single peak. For the 2f1+f2 and 2f2 + f1 components, the doubly peaked profiles can be attributed to the familiar mode shape of a timpani drum (that is shifted lower in frequency due to soil mass loading). Other nonlinear profiles appear to be due to a mixture of modes. This material is based upon work supported by the U. S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate under Contract DAAB15-02-C-0024.

  12. The Canadian Forces ILDS: a militarily fielded multisensor vehicle-mounted teleoperated landmine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Chesney, Robert H.; Faust, Anthony A.; Das, Yogadhish

    2006-05-01

    The Improved Landmine Detection System (ILDS) is intended to meet Canadian military mine clearance requirements in rear area combat situations and peacekeeping on roads and tracks. The system consists of two teleoperated vehicles and a command vehicle. The teleoperated protection vehicle precedes, clearing antipersonnel mines and magnetic and tilt rod-fuzed antitank mines. It consists of an armoured personnel carrier with a forward looking infrared imager, a finger plow or roller and a magnetic signature duplicator. The teleoperated detection vehicle follows to detect antitank mines. The purpose-built vehicle carries forward looking infrared and visible imagers, a 3 m wide, down-looking sensitive electromagnetic induction detector array and a 3 m wide down-looking ground probing radar, which scan the ground in front of the vehicle. Sensor information is combined using navigation sensors and custom navigation, registration, spatial correspondence and data fusion algorithms. Suspicious targets are then confirmed by a thermal neutron activation detector. The prototype, designed and built by Defence R&D Canada, was completed in October 1997. General Dynamics Canada delivered four production units, based on the prototype concept and technologies, to the Canadian Forces (CF) in 2002. ILDS was deployed in Afghanistan in 2003, making the system the first militarily fielded, teleoperated, multi-sensor vehicle-mounted mine detector and the first with a fielded confirmation sensor. Performance of the prototype in Canadian and independent US trials is summarized and recent results from the production version of the confirmation sensor are discussed. CF operations with ILDS in Afghanistan are described.

  13. Socially Responsible Citizens: Promoting Gifts and Talents That Support Social and Humanitarian Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez de Hahn, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of an enhanced sense of social responsibility in the use of talents and the creation of programmes and services that focus on the promotion of these traits among a wider student population. Selection of students for these offerings should not mirror the rigid identification of academically or intellectually…

  14. Improved landmine detection capability (ILDC): systematic approach to the detection of buried mines using passive IR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Jean-Robert

    1996-05-01

    In order to reduce the serious problem associated with the mining of important supply/communication roads by hostile parties during peacekeeping operations, the Canadian Department of National Defense has recently begun the development of a multi-sensor teleoperated mine detection vehicle, the Improved Landmine Detection Capability. One sensor identified as a serious candidate for that project is a passive IR camera. In the past, many organizations have assessed the efficiency of this technique of detection and reported widely fluctuating results. It is believed that the main reason for these fluctuations is associated with the ad hoc interpretations used by different researchers. In this paper, a more systematic analysis is presented which takes into account variables such as time of the day, time of the year, weather conditions, type of road and many others. A working model is proposed in order to facilitate the prediction of the IR signature of the buried land-mine and is compared with data acquired from multiple trials. These trials were done with live mines (without fuzes) and surrogates buried in different types of road (packed gravel and sand) and during different times of the day and different times of the year.

  15. The humanitarian situation in syria: a snapshot in the third year of the crisis.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Delbiso, Tefera D; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Between April and June 2014, International Orthodox Christian Charities (IOCC), an International NGO, and the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East (GOPA) conducted a needs assessment of Syrians affected by the crisis with the objective of gaining a better understanding of humanitarian needs and assistance priorities. Findings suggest that interventions that increase access to non-food items, food, medication and education should be prioritized where cost was the primary barrier to accessing goods and services. Cash transfer programs and direct provision of material assistance should be considered, though the most appropriate assistance modality is likely to vary by sector, location and the preferences and prior experience of donors and implementing organizations. Renewed international commitment to funding humanitarian assistance efforts in Syria and neighboring countries where the burden of refugees is greatest is essential from both a human rights perspective and in terms of maintaining stability in the region. PMID:25821647

  16. Humanitarian Medical Response to the Syrian Arab Republic (April 7, 2013 to April 23, 2013).

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Motara, Feroza; Bham, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    The Syrian Arab Republic is entrenched in a deadly civil war, plunging the country into a state of chaos. With 3.2 million refugees abroad, 7.6 million internally displaced persons, and more than 200,000 killed, humanitarian assistance and international intervention are in dire need. This report outlines the response to the Syrian humanitarian crisis by a South African-based nongovernmental organization (NGO). It describes the experiences of a health care worker, the patient profiles, and the lessons learned in a war zone. Responding to a nation in need is of paramount importance. In order to maximize the benefit conferred, the team should always attempt to implement measures that leave a lasting legacy. PMID:26674667

  17. Books vs bombs? Humanitarian development and the narrative of terror in Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nosheen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of humanitarian discourse and development in reconfiguring the contemporary culture of empire and its war on terror. It takes as its point of entry the immensely popular biographical tale, Three Cups of Tea, which details how the American mountaineer Greg Mortenson has struggled to counter terrorism in Northern Pakistan through the creation of schools. Even as this text appears to provide a self-critical and humane perspective on terrorism, the article argues that it constructs a misleading narrative of terror in which the realities of Northern Pakistan and Muslim life-worlds are distorted through simplistic tropes of ignorance, backwardness and extremism, while histories of US geopolitics and violence are erased. The text has further facilitated the emergence of a participatory militarism, whereby humanitarian work helps to reinvent the military as a culturally sensitive and caring institution in order to justify and service the project of empire. PMID:20607902

  18. Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and State Violence: Medical Documentation of Torture in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Başak

    2016-09-01

    State authorities invested in developing official expert discourses and practices to deny torture in post-1980 coup d'état Turkey. Documentation of torture was therefore crucial for the incipient human rights movement there in the 1980s. Human rights physicians used their expertise not only to treat torture victims but also to document torture and eventually found the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) in 1990. Drawing on an ethnographic and archival research at the HRFT, this article examines the genealogy of anti-torture struggles in Turkey and argues that locally mediated intimacies and/or hostilities between victims of state violence, human rights physicians, and official forensics reveal the limitations of certain universal humanitarian and human rights principles. It also shows that locally mediated long-term humanitarian encounters around the question of political violence challenge forensic denial of violence and remake the legitimate levels of state violence. PMID:26435482

  19. Ethnicity, politics and inequality: post-tsunami humanitarian aid delivery in Ampara District, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri de Silva, M W

    2009-04-01

    The provision of humanitarian aid at times of disaster in multi-ethnic community settings may lead to conflict, tension and even the widening of the distance between various ethnic groups. That aid agencies distribute humanitarian aid directly to affected communities, to speed up recovery, may often lead to chaos and the intensification of ethnic sentiments. The new distribution mechanisms introduced for the delivery of tsunami aid in Ampara District, Sri Lanka, did not recognise local networks and the culture of the ethnically mixed community setting. This paper analyses post-tsunami aid distribution in Ampara and shows how such an extemporised effort in an ethnically cognisant context increased ethnic division, inequality and disorder, while marginalising the poor segments of the affected population. It recommends the inclusion of local networks in aid dissemination as a measure for improving ethnic neutrality and social harmony in disaster-hit multi-ethnic communities. PMID:18717702

  20. The Humanitarian Situation in Syria: A Snapshot in the Third Year of the Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Delbiso, Tefera D.; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Between April and June 2014, International Orthodox Christian Charities (IOCC), an International NGO, and the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East (GOPA) conducted a needs assessment of Syrians affected by the crisis with the objective of gaining a better understanding of humanitarian needs and assistance priorities. Findings suggest that interventions that increase access to non-food items, food, medication and education should be prioritized where cost was the primary barrier to accessing goods and services. Cash transfer programs and direct provision of material assistance should be considered, though the most appropriate assistance modality is likely to vary by sector, location and the preferences and prior experience of donors and implementing organizations. Renewed international commitment to funding humanitarian assistance efforts in Syria and neighboring countries where the burden of refugees is greatest is essential from both a human rights perspective and in terms of maintaining stability in the region. PMID:25821647

  1. Stabilising a victor's peace? Humanitarian action and reconstruction in eastern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Goodhand, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    This paper focuses on the 'Sri Lankan model' of counter-insurgency and stabilisation and its implications for humanitarian and development actors. The Sri Lanka case shows that discourses, policies and practices associated with 'stabilisation' are not confined to 'fragile state' contexts in which there is heavy (and often militarised) international engagement--even though exemplars such as Afghanistan and Iraq have tended to dominate debates on this issue. Rather than being a single template, the 'stabilisation agenda' takes on very different guises in different contexts, presenting quite specific challenges to humanitarian and development actors. This is particularly true in settings like Sri Lanka, where there is a strong state, which seeks to make aid 'coherent' with its own vision of a militarily imposed political settlement. Working in such environments involves navigating a highly-charged domestic political arena, shaped by concerns about sovereignty, nationalism and struggles for legitimacy. PMID:20846349

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of humanitarian relief interventions: visceral leishmaniasis treatment in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Griekspoor, A; Sondorp, E; Vos, T

    1999-03-01

    Spending by aid agencies on emergencies has quadrupled over the last decade, to over US$6 billion. To date, cost-effectiveness has seldom been considered in the prioritization and evaluation of emergency interventions. The sheer volume of resources spent on humanitarian aid and the chronicity of many humanitarian interventions call for more attention to be paid to the issue of 'value for money'. In this paper we present data from a major humanitarian crisis, an epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in war-torn Sudan. The special circumstances provided us, in retrospect, with unusually accurate data on excess mortality, costs of the intervention and its effects, thus allowing us to express cost-effectiveness as the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted. The cost-effectiveness ratio, of US$18.40 per DALY (uncertainty range between US$13.53 and US$27.63), places the treatment of VL in Sudan among health interventions considered 'very good value for money' (interventions of less than US$25 per DALY). We discuss the usefulness of this analysis to the internal management of the VL programme, the procurement of funds for the programme, and more generally, to priority setting in humanitarian relief interventions. We feel that in evaluations of emergency interventions attempts could be made more often to perform cost-effectiveness analyses, including the use of DALYs, provided that the outcomes of these analyses are seen in the broad context of the emergency situation and its consequences on the affected population. This paper provides a first contribution to what is hoped to become an international database of cost-effectiveness studies of health interventions during relief operations, which use a comparable measure of health outcome such as the DALY. PMID:10351471

  3. Burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following humanitarian emergencies: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, Kaitlin G.; Sharma, Davina; Wardlow, Robert D.; Singh, Sonal

    2016-01-01

    Background The global burden of cardiovascular mortality is increasing, as is the number of large-scale humanitarian emergencies. The interaction between these phenomena is not well understood. This review aims to clarify the relationship between humanitarian emergencies and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods With assistance from a research librarian, electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Global Health) were searched in January 2014. Findings were supplemented by reviewing citations of included trials. Observational studies reporting the effect of natural disasters and conflict events on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults since 1997 were included. Studies without a comparison group were not included. Double-data extraction was utilized to abstract information on acute coronary syndrome (ACS), acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), and cardiac death (SCD). Review Manager 5.0 was used to create figures for qualitative synthesis (Version 5.2, Copenhagen Denmark, The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Results The search retrieved 1697 unique records; 24 studies were included (17 studies of natural disasters, 7 studies of conflict). These studies involved 14,583 cardiac events. All studies utilized retrospective designs: 4 were population-based, 15 were single-center, and 5 were multicenter studies. 23 studies utilized historical controls in the primary analysis, and 1 utilized primarily geographical controls. Conflicts are associated with an increase in long-term morbidity from ACS; the short-term effects of conflict vary by study. Natural disasters exhibit heterogeneous effects including increased occurrence of ACS, ADHF, and SCD. Conclusions In certain settings, humanitarian emergencies are associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality that may persist for years following the event. Humanitarian aid organizations should consider morbidity from non-communicable disease when planning relief and recuperation projects. PMID

  4. Does need matter? Needs assessments and decision-making among major humanitarian health agencies.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, Martin; Chataigner, Patrice; Tax, Leonie; Kubai, Anne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Disasters of physical origin, including earthquakes, floods, landslides, tidal waves, tropical storms, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, have affected millions of people globally over the past 100 years. Proportionately, there is far greater likelihood of being affected by such disasters in low-income countries than in high-income countries. Furthermore, low-income countries are in need of international assistance following disasters more often than high-income countries. The funding of international humanitarian assistance has increased from USD 12.9 billion in 2006 to an estimated USD 16.7 billion in 2010. The majority of this funding is channelled through humanitarian agencies and is supposed to be distributed based on the need of those affected, as assessed using needs assessments. Such needs assessments may be used to inform decisions internally, to influence others, to justify response decisions, and to obtain funding. Little is known about the quality of needs assessments in practical applications. Consequently, this paper reports on and analyses the views of operational decision-makers in major health-related humanitarian agencies on needs assessments. PMID:24905705

  5. Medical Humanitarianism Under Atmospheric Violence: Health Professionals in the 2013 Gezi Protests in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aciksoz, Salih Can

    2016-06-01

    During the 2013 Gezi protests in Turkey, volunteering health professionals provided on-site medical assistance to protesters faced with police violence characterized by the extensive use of riot control agents. This led to a government crackdown on the medical community and the criminalization of "unauthorized" first aid amidst international criticisms over violations of medical neutrality. Drawing from ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews with health care professionals, and archival research, this article ethnographically analyzes the polarized encounter between the Turkish government and medical professionals aligned with social protest. I demonstrate how the context of "atmospheric violence"-the extensive use of riot control agents like tear gas-brings about new politico-ethical spaces and dilemmas for healthcare professionals. I then analyze how Turkish health professionals framed their provision of health services to protestors in the language of medical humanitarianism, and how the state dismissed their claims to humanitarian neutrality by criminalizing emergency care. Exploring the vexed role that health workers and medical organizations played in the Gezi protests and the consequent political contestations over doctors' ethical, professional, and political responsibilities, this article examines challenges to medical humanitarianism and neutrality at times of social protest in and beyond the Middle East. PMID:26246184

  6. Trauma and humanitarian translation in Liberia: the tale of open mole.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane

    2010-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the intercultural process through which Open Mole and trauma-related mental illnesses are brought together in the postconflict mental health encounter. In this paper, I explore the historical dimension of this process by reviewing the history of Open Mole, and the ways in which it has been interpreted, acted on, and objectified by external observers over the last half-century. Moving into Liberia's recent war and postconflict period, I examine the process by which Open Mole is transformed from a culture-bound disorder into a local idiom of trauma, and how it has become a gateway diagnosis of PTSD-related mental illnesses, and consider how it is produced as an objectified experience of psychiatric disorder in clinical humanitarian contexts. By studying how Open Mole is transformed in the humanitarian encounter, I address the structure and teleology of the humanitarian encounter and challenge some of the foundational assumptions about cultural sensitivity and community-based mental health care in postconflict settings that are prevalent in scholarship and practice today. PMID:20401629

  7. Educational, personal, and cultural attributes of dental students' humanitarian trips to Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bimstein, Enrique; Gardner, Quinton W; Riley, Joseph L; Gibson, Robert W

    2008-12-01

    This article evaluates the educational, personal, and cultural attributes that motivate or inhibit dental students' participation in humanitarian and educational trips to underserved communities in Latin America. Interviews, concentrating on students' expectations and experiences, were conducted with students who participated in the trips and with those who did not. A survey of a larger group of students (including those interviewed) was also conducted; the survey included demographic data, ethnic affiliation, cultural competence, motivators and inhibitors to attend trips, and trip attributes. One hundred and seventy-four students at one dental school completed the survey; the group interviews were conducted with twenty-three students who attended humanitarian and educational trips and nine students who did not. This research found that skill development, educational opportunity, and philanthropy were the most important motivators for trip participation. Cost and time commitments were the strongest inhibitors to participate. Exposure to infectious diseases, substandard working and living conditions, threat of crime, and language barriers were mostly considered as "not important." However, female dental students were more concerned than males about crime, living conditions, and infectious diseases during the trips. Cultural education, increased knowledge, cross-cultural professional relationships, increased self-confidence, and public health awareness were the most important attributes of the trips. This study indicates that the undergraduate humanitarian educational trips to underserved Latin American communities have a most significant personal, professional, and social impact on dental students. PMID:19056629

  8. Availability and Diversity of Training Programs for Responders to International Disasters and Complex Humanitarian Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Gabrielle A.; Obi, Chioma C.; Chang, Mary P.; Bayram, Jamil D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Volunteers and members of relief organizations increasingly seek formal training prior to international field deployment. This paper identifies training programs for personnel responding to international disasters and complex humanitarian emergencies, and provides concise information – if available- regarding the founding organization, year established, location, cost, duration of training, participants targeted, and the content of each program. Methods: An environmental scan was conducted through a combination of a peer-reviewed literature search and an open Internet search for the training programs. Literature search engines included EMBASE, Cochrane, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science databases using the search terms “international,” “disaster,” “complex humanitarian emergencies,” “training,” and “humanitarian response”. Both searches were conducted between January 2, 2013 and September 12, 2013. Results: 14 peer-reviewed articles mentioned or described eight training programs, while open Internet search revealed 13 additional programs. In total, twenty-one training programs were identified as currently available for responders to international disasters and CHE. Each of the programs identified has different goals and objectives, duration, expenses, targeted trainees and modules. Each of the programs identified has different goals and objectives, duration, expenses, targeted trainees and modules. Seven programs (33%) are free of charge and four programs (19%) focus on the mental aspects of disasters. The mean duration for each training program is 5 to 7 days. Fourteen of the trainings are conducted in multiple locations (66%), two in Cuba (9%) and two in Australia (9%). The cost-reported in US dollars- ranges from $100 to $2,400 with a mean cost of $480 and a median cost of $135. Most of the programs are open to the public, but some are only available by invitation only, such as the International Mobilization Preparation for

  9. Comparison of some quality properties of soils around land-mined areas and adjacent agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Ozturkmen, Ali Rıza; Kavdir, Yasemin

    2012-03-01

    When agricultural lands are no longer used for agriculture and allowed to recover its natural vegetation, soil organic carbon can accumulate in the soil. Measurements of soil organic carbon and aggregate stability changes under various forms of land use are needed for the development of sustainable systems. Therefore, comparison of soil samples taken from both agricultural and nearby area close to land-mined fields where no agricultural practices have been done since 1956 can be a good approach to evaluate the effects of tillage and agriculture on soil quality. The objective of this study was to compare tillage, cropping and no tillage effects on some soil-quality parameters. Four different locations along the Turkey-Syria border were selected to determine effects of tillage and cropping on soil quality. Each location was evaluated separately because of different soil type and treatments. Comparisons were made between non-tilled and non-cropped fallow since 1956 and adjacent restricted lands that were tilled about every 2 years but not planted (T) or adjacent lands tilled and planted with wheat and lentil (P). Three samples were taken from the depths of 0-20 and 20-40 cm each site. Soil organic carbon (SOC), pH ,electrical conductivity, water soluble Ca(++), Mg(++), CO₃⁻² and HCO₃⁻, extractable potassium (K(+)) and sodium (Na(+)), soil texture, ammonium (NH₄⁺-N) and nitrate (NO(3)-N), extractable phosphorous and soil aggregate stability were determined. While the SOC contents of continuous tillage without cropping and continuous tillage and cropping were 2.2 and 11.6 g kg(-1), respectively, it was 30 g kg(-1) in non-tilled and non-planted site. Tillage of soil without the input of any plant material resulted in loss of carbon from the soil in all sites. Soil extractable NO(3)-N contents of non-tilled and non-cropped sites were greatest among all treatments. Agricultural practices increased phosphorus and potassium contents in the soil profile. P(2)O(5

  10. A Test Study to Display Buried Anti-Tank Landmines with GPR and Research Soil Characteristics with CRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    An anti-tank mine (AT mine) is a type of land mine designed to damage or destroy vehicles including tanks and armored fighting vehicles. Anti-tank mines typically have a much larger explosive charge, and a fuze designed only to be triggered by vehicles or, in some cases, tampering with the mine. There are a lot of AT mine types. In our test study, MK4 and MK5 AT mine types has been used. The Mk 5 was a cylindrical metal cased U.K. anti-tank blast mine that entered service in 1943, during the Second World War. General Specifications of them are 203 mm diameter, 127 mm height, 4.4-5.7 kg weight, 2.05-3.75 kg of TNT explosive content and 350 lbs operating pressure respectively. The aims of the test study were to image anti-tank landmine with GPR method and to analyse the soil characteristics before the mines made explode and after made be exploded and determine changing of the soil characteristics. We realized data measurement on the real 6 unexploded anti-tank landmine buried approximately 15 cm in depth. The mines spaced 3 m were buried in two lines. Space between lines was 1.5 m. We gathered data on the profiles, approximately 7 m, with a Ramac CUII system and 800 MHz shielded antenna. We collected soil samples on the mines, near and around the mines, on the area in village. We collected soil samples before exploding and after exploding mines. We imaged anti-tank landmines on the depth slices of the GPR data and in their interactive transparent 3D subsets successfully. We used polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS) to identify soil characteristic before and after exploitation. The results presented that GPR method and its 3D imaging were successful to determine AT mines, and there was no important changing on mineralogical and petrographical characterization of the soil before and after exploding processing. This project has been supported by Ankara University under grant no 11B6055002. The study is a contribution to the EU funded COST action TU

  11. The League of Nations' rescue of Armenian genocide survivors and the making of modern humanitarianism, 1920-1927.

    PubMed

    Watenpaugh, Keith David

    2010-01-01

    The essay centers of the efforts by the League of Nations to rescue women and children survivors of the 1915 Armenian Genocide. This rescue -- a seemingly unambiguous good -- was at once a constitutive act in drawing the boundaries of the international community, a key moment in the definition of humanitarianism, and a site of resistance to the colonial presence in the post-Ottoman Eastern Mediterranean. Drawing from a wide range of source materials in a number of languages, including Turkish, Armenian, and Arabic, the essay brings the intellectual and social context of humanitarianism in initiating societies together with the lived experience of humanitarianism in the places where the act took form. In so doing, it draws our attention to the proper place of the Eastern mediterranean, and its women and children, in the global history of humanitarianism. The prevailing narrative of the history of human rights places much of its emphasis on the post-World War II era, the international reaction to the Holocaust, and the founding of the United Nations. yet contemporary human rights thinking also took place within practices of humanitarianism in the interwar period, and is necessarily inseparable from the histories of refugees, colonialism, and the non-West. PMID:21246885

  12. Development and Performance of an Ultrawideband Stepped-Frequency Radar for Landmine and Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Brian R.; Gallagher, Kyle A.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2014-11-01

    Under support from the Army Research Laboratory's Partnerships in Research Transition program, a stepped-frequency radar (SFR) is currently under development, which allows for manipulation of the radiated spectrum while still maintaining an effective ultra-wide bandwidth. The SFR is a vehicle-mounted forward-looking ground-penetrating radar designed for high-resolution detection of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices. The SFR can be configured to precisely excise prohibited or interfering frequency bands and also possesses frequency-hopping capabilities. This paper discusses the expected performance features of the SFR as derived from laboratory testing and characterization. Ghosts and artifacts appearing in the range profile arise from gaps in the operating band when the system is configured to omit specific frequencies. An analysis of these effects is discussed and our current solution is presented. Future prospects for the SFR are also discussed, including data collection campaigns at the Army's Adelphi Laboratory Center and the Countermine Test Site.

  13. LIBS: a new versatile field-deployable real-time detector system with potential for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Russell S.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Winkel, Raymond J., Jr.; LaPointe, Aaron; Grossman, Scott L.; McNesby, Kevin L.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2003-09-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic emission spectroscopic technique that utilizes a pulsed laser to create a microplasma on the target together with an array spectrometer to capture the transient light for elemental identification and quantification. LIBS has certain important characteristics that make it a very attractive sensor technology for military uses. Such attributes include that facts that LIBS (1) is relatively simple and straightforward, (2) requires no sample preparation, (3) generates a real-time response, and (4) only engages a very small sample (pg-ng) of matter in each laser shot and microplasma event, (5) has inherent high sensitivity, and (6) responds to all forms of unknowns, and, therefore, is particularly suited for the sensing of dangerous materials. Additionally, a LIBS sensor system can be inexpensive, configured to be man-portable, and designed for both in-situ point sensing and remote stand-off detection with distances of up to 20-25 meters. Broadband LIBS results covering the spectral region from 200-970 nm acquired at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) under laboratory conditions for a variety of landmine casings and explosive materials. This data will illustrate the potential that LIBS has to be developed into a hand-deployable device that could be utilized as a confirmatory sensor in landmine detection. The concept envisioned is a backpack-size system in which an eyesafe micro-laser is contained in the handle of a deminer's probe and light is delivered and collected through an optical fiber in the tapered tip of the probe. In such a configuration, analyses can be made readily by touching the buried object that one is interested in identifying.

  14. Employing moderate resolution sensors in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andrew J.

    Organizations concerned with human rights are increasingly using remote sensing as a tool to improve their detection of human rights and international humanitarian law violations. However, as these organizations have transitioned to human rights monitoring campaigns conducted over large regions and extended periods of time, current methods of using fine- resolution sensors and manpower-intensive analyses have become cost- prohibitive. To support the continued growth of remote sensing in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring campaigns, this study researches how moderate resolution land observatories can provide complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates the capacity of moderate resolutions to provide data to monitoring efforts by developing an approach that uses Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as part of a system for the detection of village destruction in Darfur, Sudan. Village destruction is an indicator of a human rights or international humanitarian law violations in Darfur during the 2004 study period. This analysis approach capitalizes on Landsat's historical archive and systematic observations by constructing a historic spectral baseline for each village in the study area that supports automated detection of a potentially destroyed village with each new overpass of the sensor. Using Landsat's near-infrared band, the approach demonstrates high levels of accuracy when compared with a U.S. government database documenting destroyed villages. This approach is then applied to the Darfur conflict from 2002 to 2008, providing new data on when and where villages were destroyed in this widespread and long-lasting conflict. This application to the duration of a real-world conflict illustrates the abilities and shortcomings of moderate resolution sensors in human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates that moderate resolution satellites have the capacity to contribute

  15. Progress and gaps in reproductive health services in three humanitarian settings: mixed-methods case studies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Reproductive health (RH) care is an essential component of humanitarian response. Women and girls living in humanitarian settings often face high maternal mortality and are vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexual violence. This study explored the availability and quality of, and access barriers to RH services in three humanitarian settings in Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and South Sudan. Methods Data collection was conducted between July and October 2013. In total, 63 purposively selected health facilities were assessed: 28 in Burkina Faso, 25 in DRC, and nine in South Sudan, and 42 providers completed a questionnaire to assess RH knowledge and attitudes. Thirty-four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 members of the host communities and 273 displaced married and unmarried women and men to understand access barriers. Results All facilities reported providing some RH services in the prior three months. Five health facilities in Burkina Faso, six in DRC, and none in South Sudan met the criteria as a family planning service delivery point. Two health facilities in Burkina Faso, one in DRC, and two in South Sudan met the criteria as an emergency obstetric and newborn care service delivery point. Across settings, three facilities in DRC adequately provided selected elements of clinical management of rape. Safe abortion was unavailable. Many providers lacked essential knowledge and skills. Focus groups revealed limited knowledge of available RH services and socio-cultural barriers to accessing them, although participants reported a remarkable increase in use of facility-based delivery services. Conclusion Although RH services are being provided, the availability of good quality RH services was inconsistent across settings. Commodity management and security must be prioritized to ensure consistent availability of essential supplies. It is critical to improve the attitudes, managerial and technical

  16. Evaluations of reproductive health programs in humanitarian settings: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Provision of reproductive health (RH) services is a minimum standard of health care in humanitarian settings; however access to these services is often limited. This systematic review, one component of a global evaluation of RH in humanitarian settings, sought to explore the evidence regarding RH services provided in humanitarian settings and to determine if programs are being evaluated. In addition, the review explored which RH services receive more attention based on program evaluations and descriptive data. Peer-reviewed papers published between 2004 and 2013 were identified via the Ovid MEDLINE database, followed by a PubMed search. Papers on quantitative evaluations of RH programs, including experimental and non-experimental designs that reported outcome data, implemented in conflict and natural disaster settings, were included. Of 5,669 papers identified in the initial search, 36 papers describing 30 programs met inclusion criteria. Twenty-five papers described programs in sub-Saharan Africa, six in Asia, two in Haiti and three reported data from multiple countries. Some RH technical areas were better represented than others: seven papers reported on maternal and newborn health (including two that also covered family planning), six on family planning, three on sexual violence, 20 on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and two on general RH topics. In comparison to the program evaluation papers identified, three times as many papers were found that reported RH descriptive or prevalence data in humanitarian settings. While data demonstrating the magnitude of the problem are crucial and were previously lacking, the need for RH services and for evaluations to measure their effectiveness is clear. Program evaluation and implementation science should be incorporated into more programs to determine the best ways to serve the RH needs of people affected by conflict or natural disaster. Standard program design should include rigorous program evaluation, and

  17. Mobile computing in the humanitarian assistance setting: an introduction and some first steps.

    PubMed

    Selanikio, Joel D; Kemmer, Teresa M; Bovill, Maria; Geisler, Karen

    2002-04-01

    We developed a Palm operating system-based handheld computer system for admin istering nutrition questionnaires and used it to gather nutritional information among the Burmese refugees in the Mae La refugee camp on the Thai-Burma border Our experience demonstrated that such technology can be easily adapted for such an austere setting and used to great advantage. Further, the technology showed tremendous potential to reduce both time required and errors commonly encountered when field staff collect information in the humanitarian setting. We also identified several areas needing further development. PMID:11993568

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS Pt. 740, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS Pt. 740, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce...

  20. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. Aim To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980–2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Results Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. Conclusion The current evidence base on the impact of WASH

  1. Electrodynamic soil plate oscillator: Modeling nonlinear mesoscopic elastic behavior and hysteresis in nonlinear acoustic landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, M. S.; Duong, D. V.; Kalsbeck, A. E.

    2015-10-01

    An apparatus (SPO), designed to study flexural vibrations of a soil loaded plate, consists of a thin circular elastic clamped plate (and cylindrical wall) supporting a vertical soil column. A small magnet attached to the center of the plate is driven by a rigid AC coil (located coaxially below the plate) to complete the electrodynamic soil plate oscillator SPO design. The frequency dependent mechanical impedance Zmech (force / particle velocity, at the plate's center) is inversely proportional to the electrical motional impedance Zmot. Measurements of Zmot are made using the complex output to input response of a Wheatstone bridge that has an identical coil element in one of its legs. Near resonance, measurements of Zmot (with no soil) before and after a slight point mass loading at the center help determine effective mass, spring, damping and coupling constant parameters of the system. "Tuning curve" behavior of real{ Zmot } and imaginary{ Zmot } at successively higher vibration amplitudes of dry sifted masonry sand are measured. They exhibit a decrease "softening" in resonance frequency along with a decrease in the quality Q factor. In soil surface vibration measurements a bilinear hysteresis model predicts the tuning curve shape for this nonlinear mesoscopic elastic SPO behavior - which also models the soil vibration over an actual plastic "inert" VS 1.6 buried landmine. Experiments are performed where a buried 1m cube concrete block supports a 12 inch deep by 30 inch by 30 inch concrete soil box for burying a VS 1.6 in dry sifted masonry sand for on-the-mine and off-the-mine soil vibration experiments. The backbone curve (a plot of the peak amplitude vs. corresponding resonant frequency from a family of tuning curves) exhibits mostly linear behavior for "on target" soil surface vibration measurements of the buried VS 1.6 or drum-like mine simulants for relatively low particle velocities of the soil. Backbone curves for "on target" measurements exhibit

  2. Gnawing Pains, Festering Ulcers, and Nightmare Suffering: Selling Leprosy as a Humanitarian Cause in the British Empire, c. 1890-1960

    PubMed Central

    Vongsathorn, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    When British attention was drawn to the issue of leprosy in the Empire, humanitarian organisations rose to take on responsibility for the ‘fight against leprosy’. In an effort to fundraise for a distant cause at a time when hundreds of charities competed for the financial support of British citizens, fundraisers developed propaganda to set leprosy apart from all other humanitarian causes. They drew on leprosy’s relationship with Christianity, its debilitating symptoms, and the supposed vulnerability of leprosy sufferers in order to mobilise Britain’s sense of humanitarian, Christian, and patriotic duty. This article traces the emergence of leprosy as a popular imperial humanitarian cause in modern Britain and analyses the narratives of religion, suffering, and disease that they created and employed in order to fuel their growth and sell leprosy as a British humanitarian cause. PMID:24932060

  3. Humanitarian assistance: technical assessment and public health support for coordinated relief in the former Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Leus, X; Watson, F; Forte, G

    1993-01-01

    Since July 1992, the WHO Regional Office for Europe has been using epidemiological and public health assessment techniques to guide its interventions in the crisis in the former Yugoslavia. WHO field operations have evolved into the largest emergency relief operation ever undertaken in the European Region. The WHO programme of humanitarian assistance focuses on five major areas: public health, equipment, supplies and logistic support, support to war victims, primary health care for refugees and rehabilitation of the health care system. The main thrust of the programme is to implement the public health measures required for survival. The first step is to provide health intelligence for international humanitarian assistance programmes through health and nutrition monitoring. This leads to targeted intervention. While involved in all aspects of relief, WHO clearly justifies its presence by its technical focus, bringing its network of expertise and experience to bear on the assessment of need and the coordination of intervention. Three examples of this approach are given: the nutrition programme, which includes emergency food aid and health and nutrition monitoring, the winter protection programme in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the medical kit programme, involving the design and use of special kits to cover basic emergency needs for medical supplies to the maximum number of people. In the former Yugoslavia, the WHO Regional Office for Europe has concentrated on technical situation analysis and sound public health grounding to guide and direct intervention. PMID:8017078

  4. Vaccine-preventable disease and the under-utilization of immunizations in complex humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Close, Ryan M; Pearson, Catherine; Cohn, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    Complex humanitarian emergencies affect 40-60 million people annually and are a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite efforts to provide medical and public health services to populations affected by complex emergencies, significant morbidity and mortality persist. Measles is a major communicable disease threat, but through vaccination of broader target age groups beyond the traditional immunization schedule, measles-related mortality has been significantly reduced during crises. Yet, a limited number of vaccine-preventable diseases continue to contribute disproportionately to morbidity and mortality in complex emergencies. The literature suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rotavirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type-b should be key targets for vaccination programs. Because of the significant contribution of these three pathogens to complex humanitarian emergencies in low and middle-income countries regardless of disaster type, geography, or population, their vaccines should be considered essential components of the standard emergency response effort. We discuss the barriers to vaccine distribution and provide evidence for strategies to improve distribution, including expanded target age-range and reduced dose schedules. Our review includes specific recommendations for the expanded use of these three vaccines in complex emergencies in low and middle-income countries as a way to guide future policy discussions. PMID:27527818

  5. Fluid technologies: The Bush Pump, the LifeStraw and microworlds of humanitarian design.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, many ingenious, small-scale gadgets have appeared in response to problems of disaster and extreme poverty. Focusing on the LifeStraw, a water filtration device invented by the company Vestergaard Frandsen, I situate this wave of humanitarian design relative to Marianne de Laet and Annemarie Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwe Bush Pump. The LifeStraw shares the Bush Pump's principle of technical minimalism, as well as its ethical desire to improve the lives of communities. Unlike the pump, however, the straw defines itself through rather than against market logic, accepting the premise that one can 'do well while doing good'. Moreover, it does not share the assumed framework of de Laet and Mol's Zimbabwean socio-technical landscape: a postcolonial state happily en route to national self-definition. Nonetheless, it clearly embodies moral affect, if in the idiom of humanitarian concern rather than development. My aim is to open up three interrelated lines of inquiry for discussion. First, I consider aspects of a postcolonial condition at the micro-level of immediate needs, including assumptions about nation-state politics and markets. Second, I emphasize science and technology in the form of infrastructure, the material frontline of norms. Third, I return reflexively to love, and the complicated allure of engagement in academic work. PMID:27263235

  6. The impact of humanitarian context conditions and individual characteristics on aid worker retention.

    PubMed

    Korff, Valeska P; Balbo, Nicoletta; Mills, Melinda; Heyse, Liesbet; Wittek, Rafael

    2015-07-01

    High employee turnover rates constitute a major challenge to effective aid provision. This study examines how features of humanitarian work and aid workers' individual characteristics affect retention within one humanitarian organisation, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Holland. The study extends existing research by providing new theoretical explanations of employment opportunities and constraints and by engaging in the first large-scale quantitative analysis of aid worker retention. Using a database of field staff (N=1,955), a logistic regression is performed of the likelihood of reenlistment after a first mission. The findings demonstrate that only 40 per cent of employees reenlist for a second mission with MSF Holland, and that workplace location and security situation, age, and gender have no significant effect. Individuals are less likely to reenlist if they returned early from the first mission for a personal reason, are in a relationship, are medical doctors, or if they come from highly developed countries. The paper reflects on the findings in the light of policy. PMID:25581498

  7. Deployment of dual-sensor ALIS for humanitarian demining in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-01

    We are in the process of developing a high-resolution landmine scanning system "ALIS" which produces horizontal slices of the shallow subsurface for visualization of buried explosives and inert clutter. As many AP mines contain minimum amounts of metal, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is widely accepted for subsurface sensing in the fields of geology, archaeology and utility detection. The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. The key requirement for sharp images of the subsurface is the precise tracking of the geophysical sensor(s) during data collection. We should also notice that GPR system is a very wide band radar system, and equivalent to UWB radar, which has recently been developed for short-range high-accuracy radar. We are testing simplified but effective signal processing for imaging mines. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a realtime sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce the GPR systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. ALIS has been deployed in Cambodia since 2009 and detected more than 70 mines in mine fields, and returned more than 13ha cleaned fields to local farmers. We also report the current status of ALIS in Cambodia.

  8. Ethical dilemmas in medical humanitarian practice: cases for reflection from Médecins Sans Frontières.

    PubMed

    Sheather, Julian; Shah, Tejshri

    2011-03-01

    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is an independent medical humanitarian organisation working in over 70 countries. It has provided medical assistance for over 35 years to populations vulnerable through conflict, disease and inadequate health systems. Medical ethics define the starting point of the relationship between medical staff and patients. The ethics of humanitarian interventions and of research in conflict settings are much debated. However, less is known about the ethical dilemmas faced by medical humanitarian staff in their daily work. Ethical dilemmas can be intensified in humanitarian contexts by insecure environments, lack of optimum care, language barriers, potentially heightened power discrepancies between care providers and patients, differing cultural values and perceptions of patients, communities and medical staff. Time constraints, stressful conditions and lack of familiarity with ethical frameworks can prevent reflection on these dilemmas, as can frustration that such reflection does not necessarily provide instant solutions. Lack of reflection, however, can be distressing for medical practitioners and can reduce the quality of care. Ethical reflection has a central role in MSF, and the organisation uses ethical frameworks to help with clinical and programmatic decisions as well as in deliberations over operational research. We illustrate and discuss some real ethical dilemmas facing MSF teams. Only by sharing and seeking guidance can MSF and similar actors make more thoughtful and appropriate decisions. Our aim in sharing these cases is to invite discussion and dialogue in the wider medical community working in crisis, conflict or with severe resource limitations. PMID:21084354

  9. Designing for Multiple Stakeholder Interests within the Humanitarian Market: The Case of Off-Grid Energy Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Brita Fladvad; Rodrigues Santos, Ana Laura

    2013-01-01

    A "humanitarian market" for off-grid renewable energy technologies for displaced populations in remote areas has emerged. Within this market, there are multiple stakeholder agendas. End-user needs and sustainable development goals are currently not considered through the customer-enterprise relationship and the applied product and…

  10. El Niño-Flood Predictability for Early Humanitarian Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerton, Rebecca; Stephens, Liz; Cloke, Hannah; Woolnough, Steve; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a mode of variability which sees anomalously high or low sea surface temperatures in the Pacific, is known to have a significant impact on both hydrology and meteorology across the globe. One significant influence is that of El Niño, the warm phase of ENSO, on flooding in the Piura region of Peru. The anticipation and forecasting of floods is crucial for flood preparedness, and the link between El Niño and flooding in Peru, alongside the predictive skill of El Niño up to seasons ahead, may provide an early indication of upcoming severe flood events. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been used to create the first 110-year global reanalysis dataset of river discharge, using the ECMWF ERA-20C atmospheric reanalysis. These datasets are being used to analyse the predictability of flood events in Peru in relation to ENSO, using both hydrological and meteorological approaches; with the aim of providing early indicators of potential flood events and thresholds for early humanitarian action in the region. In particular, this research also aims to determine the causes of the most extreme flood events, such as those observed in 1982/83 and 1997/98, through investigation of the changes in atmospheric circulation during these events. Forecast-based Financing (FbF) is an initiative of the German Red Cross, for disbursing humanitarian funding as soon as a forecast threshold is crossed, prior to a severe event. Collaboration with the Peruvian Red Cross and SENAHMI during 2015 led to the use of such research to define thresholds for action in Piura during an El Niño, as part of an FbF pilot study. We will present here the link between El Niño and flooding, with a focus on the Piura region of Peru, and how this El Niño-flood predictability may be used for flood preparedness and early humanitarian action in regions across the globe.

  11. Geoscientists Without Borders: a new SEG Foundation program sponsoring humanitarian applications of geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, C. J.

    2008-12-01

    Despite the depth of knowledge and technology in the geosciences today, it is unfortunate that direct impact from the geosciences on improving the lives of the world's underserved people still is lacking - particularly in the case of the geoscientists and technology residing in the energy sector. This somewhat abstract concept took on real meaning when, as President of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) in 2004 - 2005, I was accountable for the response of the SEG to the terrible 2004 Tsunami. This event proved to be a catalyst and as a result of the continuing efforts of many, at the beginning of 2008, the SEG Foundation accepted a 1,000,000 donation from Schlumberger to found Geoscientists without Borders. This program will make grants on the order of 100,000 per year over the next five years for projects involving humanitarian applications of geophysics. The distinguishing characteristics of this program are that proposed projects must involve the application of geophysics to humanitarian needs and must include geoscience students and institutions in a significant way. Thus, the program seeks not only to accomplish significant humanitarian goals, but also to plant seeds for the future by involving next-generation scientists in worthy causes and to foster communications on this topic among all geoscientists. Moreover, cultural and other types of diversity are highly valued. In this talk I will illustrate the issues involved in developing such a program and discuss ways in which it could be strengthened by collaboration. Already, the program has made two project awards and has received more worthwhile proposals than can be funded at this time. Although it is early days, I will discuss briefly the funded projects as an indication of what can happen in a very short time period. We hope and expect that by demonstrating the value of this program with early successes, it will attract significant funding to continue beyond its initial five year funding, with

  12. Improving the performance of community health workers in humanitarian emergencies: a realist evaluation protocol for the PIECES programme

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Brynne; Adams, Ben Jack; Bartoloni, Alex; Alhaydar, Bana; McAuliffe, Eilish; Raven, Joanna; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Vallières, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding what enhances the motivation and performance of community health workers (CHWs) in humanitarian emergencies represents a key research gap within the field of human resources for health. This paper presents the research protocol for the Performance ImprovEment of CHWs in Emergency Settings (PIECES) research programme. Enhancing Learning and Research in Humanitarian Action (ELRHA) funded the development of this protocol as part of their Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) call (No.19839). PIECES aims to understand what factors improve the performance of CHWs in level III humanitarian emergencies. Methods and analysis The suggested protocol uses a realist evaluation with multiple cases across the 3 country sites: Turkey, Iraq and Lebanon. Working with International Medical Corps (IMC), an initial programme theory was elicited through literature and document reviews, semistructured interviews and focus groups with IMC programme managers and CHWs. Based on this initial theory, this protocol proposes a combination of semistructured interviews, life histories and critical incident narratives, surveys and latent variable modelling of key constructs to explain how contextual factors work to trigger mechanisms for specific outcomes relating to IMC's 300+ CHWs' performance. Participants will also include programme staff, CHWs and programme beneficiaries. Realist approaches will be used to better understand ‘what works, for whom and under what conditions’ for improving CHW performance within humanitarian contexts. Ethics and dissemination Trinity College Dublin's Health Policy and Management/Centre for Global Health Research Ethics Committee gave ethical approval for the protocol development phase. For the full research project, additional ethical approval will be sought from: Université St. Joseph (Lebanon), the Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health in Baghdad (Iraq) and the Middle East Technical University (Turkey). Dissemination

  13. Nursing and complex humanitarian emergencies: Ebola is more than a disease.

    PubMed

    Downes, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To effectively address the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, it must be viewed in terms of the connections between health, politics, security, the environment, and poverty. For the people in the countries involved and those responding, it is more than the viral illness. Although the medical management of the disease is far from simple, it is really only the proximal event of much greater social upheaval in the region, creating what is known as a complex humanitarian emergency (CHE). This article describes a course to introduce nursing students to CHEs and the role of nurses in the field of global response. CHEs are becoming more frequent with high death and disease rates. Nurses must become familiar with their complexity and multifaceted response. Although the planning for the course predated the current epidemic, the Ebola outbreak in West Africa served as an excellent exemplar for the health sector response in CHEs. PMID:25645474

  14. The humanitarian and scientific interests of Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866), discoverer of a disease.

    PubMed

    Dubovsky, H

    1996-05-01

    Thomas Hodgkin is generally famous for the discovery of a lymphoma in 1837, but not for his remarkable relationship as physician and friend with the philanthropist, Sir Moses Montefiore (1784-1885), and their six shared journeys to Europe, the Near East and North Africa to alleviate the plight of religious and ethnic minorities. Also less well known are Hodgkin's humanitarian activities, inspired by his being a Quaker: his assistance of freed slaves, and his involvement in the movement for the abolition of capital punishment and in mental hospital and prison reform. His wide range of scientific interests included medical education, geography, ethnology and social anthropology. He is buried in Jaffa, Israel, where he died of dysentery while on a trip with Montefiore. PMID:8711558

  15. Legal issues of humanitarian assistance after the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Bambarén, Celso

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the central coast of Peru on 15 August 2007 was a disaster that mobilized international humanitarian assistance to address the needs of the affected people in the regions of Huancavelica, Ica, and Lima. It also was an opportunity to prove the effectiveness of regulations and procedures to facilitate the entry and distribution of donations and medical goods during a major emergency. In the first month after the earthquake, the national government approved new regulations that aimed to reduce waiting time while reducing the number of requisites required by customs. More than 5,500 tons of international donations arrived in Peru in a short period of time. Many donated medicines arrived unsorted, without an international non-proprietary (generic) name on the label, and some medicines did not have any relationship with the diseases that would appear in the aftermath of the event. PMID:20586009

  16. Mandated to fail? Humanitarian agencies and the protection of Palestinian children.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jason; Forte, Claudia Lo

    2013-10-01

    This paper considers the efforts of United Nations and international agencies to address the threats to Palestinian children arising from Israeli occupation. It contains an account of the reasons why agencies have failed, over many years, to prevent systematic violations by the Israeli authorities and settlers. The discussion is organised around two inter-related domains: institutional and political. The paper argues that, in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), limitations to the ways in which child protection has been conceptualised and pursued in practice are abundantly evident. Nevertheless, political pressure by Western donor governments serves to constrain an approach to child protection that is more preventative in nature, that addresses more explicitly Israeli violations of international law, and that reflects the experience and aspirations of Palestinian children themselves. Ultimately, therefore, the failure to protect Palestinian children must be seen not only as a result of humanitarian miscalculation but also as a consequence of political strategy. PMID:24007521

  17. Addressing symptoms but not causes: stabilisation and humanitarian action in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Lothe, Elisabeth; Peake, Gordon

    2010-10-01

    Asia's newest nation--Timor-Leste--has an unenviable track record of two Australian-led military stabilisation missions, five United Nations (UN) missions, and a vast humanitarian and international response over the course of the past decade. Two distinct approaches to stabilisation can be observed on this small half-island. The first is a 'security-first' approach, where development activities are complementary and serve to support security sector assistance, while the second emphasises traditional development activities and institution-building as the foundation for a stable country. Whereas these different approaches highlight various interpretations of the underlying problems and the task at hand, efforts aimed at stabilisation have crystallised the challenges of coordinating and integrating activities that are clearly interlinked and interdependent, whether within a UN integrated mission or implemented by bilateral actors. Consequently, the question of whether, or how, to measure progress towards this shared objective has gone largely unaddressed. PMID:20846353

  18. The United Kingdom's stabilisation model and Afghanistan: the impact on humanitarian actors.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stuart

    2010-10-01

    'Stabilisation' has emerged as a powerful policy framework since 2004. The United Kingdom has been at the forefront of states adopting and developing a 'stabilisation' model and has adapted government policy, processes and structures in its efforts to deliver 'stability' in Afghanistan's Helmand Province and Iraq--as well as elsewhere, such as in Nepal and Sudan. The experience acquired in Helmand in particular is likely to shape both future UK approaches and those of other donor states. The paper argues that the UK's model has evolved significantly since 2006, from a reconstruction strategy towards one that is based on supporting host-nation governance arrangements. Consequently, this paper addresses three principal themes: the origins and conceptualisation of the stabilisation discourse (and its relationship with state-building and early recovery concepts); the role of the UK's experience in Helmand in shaping the British approach; and the impact of the stabilisation model on the humanitarian community. PMID:20846350

  19. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. PMID:21168249

  20. Too complicated for the field? Measuring quality of care in humanitarian aid settings

    PubMed Central

    Kersten, Roland; Bosse, Götz; Dörner, Frank; Slavuckij, Andrej; Fernandez, Gustavo; Marx, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While quality of care is a major concern in the western world, not many studies investigate this topic in low-income countries. Even less is known about the quality of care in humanitarian aid settings, where additional challenges from natural or manmade disasters contribute to additional challenges. This study tried to address this gap by introducing a new approach to systematically measure quality of care in a project of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Agok area, between South Sudan and Sudan. Our objective was to obtain a valid snapshot of quality of care for a MSF project in three weeks that has the potential to serve as a baseline for quality improvement strategies. The evaluation followed a cross-sectional study design to assess structural, process and outcome quality according to Donabedian's criteria of quality of care. A bundle of well-established methods for collection of quantitative and qualitative data was used to assess the project by following a triangulated mixed-methods approach. Mean structural quality scored 73% of expected performance level and mean process quality 59%. The overall mortality rate for the hospital was 3.6%. On average, less complicated cases got a better level of care than patients who were seriously ill. Significant motivational issues were discovered in staff interviews potentially affecting quality of care. The tool appeared to be quick, feasible and effective in judging quality of care in the selected project. To tap the whole potential of the approach a re-evaluation should be carried out to assess the effectiveness of implemented improvement strategies in Agok. To confirm the usefulness of the approach, more studies are needed covering the variety of different humanitarian aid settings. PMID:23683715

  1. Militarized humanitarianism meets carceral feminism: the politics of sex, rights, and freedom in contemporary antitrafficking campaigns.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, abolitionist feminist and evangelical Christian activists have directed increasing attention toward the “traffic in women” as a dangerous manifestation of global gender inequalities. Despite renowned disagreements around the politics of sex and gender, these groups have come together to advocate for harsher penalties against traffickers, prostitutes’ customers, and nations deemed to be taking insufficient steps to stem the flow of trafficked women. In this essay, I argue that what has served to unite this coalition of "strange bedfellows" is not simply an underlying commitment to conservative ideals of sexuality, as previous commentators have offered, but an equally significant commitment to carceral paradigms of justice and to militarized humanitarianism as the preeminent mode of engagement by the state. I draw upon my ongoing ethnographic research with feminist and evangelical antitrafficking movement leaders to argue that the alliance that has been so efficacious in framing contemporary antitrafficking politics is the product of two historically unique and intersecting trends: a rightward shift on the part of many mainstream feminists and other secular liberals away from a redistributive model of justice and toward a politics of incarceration, coincident with a leftward sweep on the part of many younger evangelicals toward a globally oriented social justice theology. In the final section of this essay, I consider the resilience of these trends given a newly installed and more progressive Obama administration, positing that they are likely to continue even as the terrain of militarized humanitarian action shifts in accordance with new sets of geopolitical interests. PMID:20827852

  2. Long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services: experience, performance and scientific output

    PubMed Central

    Geissbuhler, Antoine; Jethwani, Kamal; Kovarik, Carrie; Person, Donald A; Vladzymyrskyy, Anton; Zanaboni, Paolo; Zolfo, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the experience, performance and scientific output of long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services. Methods Nine long-running networks – those operating for five years or more– were identified and seven provided detailed information about their activities, including performance and scientific output. Information was extracted from peer-reviewed papers describing the networks’ study design, effectiveness, quality, economics, provision of access to care and sustainability. The strength of the evidence was scored as none, poor, average or good. Findings The seven networks had been operating for a median of 11 years (range: 5–15). All networks provided clinical tele-consultations for humanitarian purposes using store-and-forward methods and five were also involved in some form of education. The smallest network had 15 experts and the largest had more than 500. The clinical caseload was 50 to 500 cases a year. A total of 59 papers had been published by the networks, and 44 were listed in Medline. Based on study design, the strength of the evidence was generally poor by conventional standards (e.g. 29 papers described non-controlled clinical series). Over half of the papers provided evidence of sustainability and improved access to care. Uncertain funding was a common risk factor. Conclusion Improved collaboration between networks could help attenuate the lack of resources reported by some networks and improve sustainability. Although the evidence base is weak, the networks appear to offer sustainable and clinically useful services. These findings may interest decision-makers in developing countries considering starting, supporting or joining similar telemedicine networks. PMID:22589567

  3. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Tamara; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Darzi, Andrea; Hajjar, Rayan; El Rahyel, Ahmed; El Eid, Jamale; Itani, Mira; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. Methods: We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library. We also searched websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology. Results: Our search captured 14,309 citations. The screening process identified 34 eligible papers describing five models of coordination of delivering health services: the “Cluster Approach” (with 16 case studies), the 4Ws “Who is Where, When, doing What” mapping tool (with four case studies), the “Sphere Project” (with two case studies), the “5x5” model (with one case study), and the “model of information coordination” (with one case study). The 4Ws and the 5x5 focus on coordination of services for mental health, the remaining models do not focus on a specific health topic. The Cluster approach appears to be the most widely used. One case study was a mixed implementation of the Cluster approach and the Sphere model. We identified no model of coordination for funding of health service. Conclusion: This systematic review identified five proposed coordination models that have been implemented by entities funding or delivering health service in humanitarian crises. There is a need to compare the effect of these different models on outcomes such as availability of and access to health services. PMID:27617167

  4. Achievements and bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: final results from the EC DELVE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, Hichem; Bruschini, Claudio; Van Kempen, Luc; Schleijpen, Ric; den Breejen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology Development (RTD) situation from early 1990 until 2006. The situation at the European level was analyzed with emphasis on activities sponsored by the European Commission (EC). This was also done for four European countries and Japan, with emphasis on national activities. The developments in HD during the last 10 years underline the fact that in a number of cases demining related developments have been terminated or at least put on hold. The study also showed that the funding provided by the EC under the Framework Program for RTD has led directly to the creation of an extensive portfolio of Humanitarian Demining technology development projects. The latter provided a range of research and supporting measures addressing the critical issues identified as a result of the regulatory policies developed in the field of Humanitarian Demining over the last ten years. However, the range of instruments available to the EC to finance the necessary research and development were limited, to pre-competitive research. The EC had no tools or programs to directly fund actual product development. As a first consequence, the EC funding program for development of technology for Humanitarian Demining unfortunately proved to be largely unsuitable for the small-scale development needed in a field where there is only a very limited market. As a second consequence, most of the research has been demonstrator-oriented. Moreover, the timeframe for RTD in Humanitarian Demining has not been sufficiently synchronized with the timeframe of the EC policies and regulations. The separation of the Mine Action and RTD funding streams in the EC did also negatively affect the take-up of new technologies. As a

  5. Detection and discrimination of landmines in ground-penetrating radar using an EigenMine and fuzzy-membership-function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigui, Hichem; Gader, Paul D.; Satyanarayana, Kotturu

    2004-09-01

    This paper introduces a system for landmine detection using sensor data generated by a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The GPR produces a three-dimensional array of intensity values, representing a volume below the surface of the ground. First, a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detector is used to focus attention and identify candidates that resemble mines. Next, translation invariant features are extracted by projecting the magnitude of the Fourier transformation onto the dominant eigenvectors in the training data. The training signatures are then clustered to identify prototypes. Crisp and fuzzy k-nearest neighbor rules are used to distinguish true detections from false alarms.

  6. The simultaneous death of seven people due to the detonation of an antipersonnel landmine at the land borders of the European Union during peacetime.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Pavlos; Karakasi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    This incident concerns the simultaneous death of seven people as a result of the accidental triggering of an antipersonnel landmine during peacetime. The victims were illegal migrants who attempted to cross the Greek-Turkish border zone and accidentally entered a demarcated minefield. This incident is presented because of its rarity and highlights the devastating consequences of the residual mines on the European Union eastern frontiers in peacetime. It also showcases the difficulties and risks that arise during the identification process in illegal migration issues. The victims' positions at the moment of explosion are indicated by the detailed forensic examination and comparison of the injuries' anatomical dispersion and their severity. PMID:26312497

  7. Apples, pears and porridge: the origins and impact of the search for 'coherence' between humanitarian and political responses to chronic political emergencies.

    PubMed

    Macrae, J; Leader, N

    2001-12-01

    During the 1990s a consensus emerged within the international humanitarian system that there was a need to enhance the 'coherence' between humanitarian and political responses to complex political emergencies. Closer integration between aid and political responses was seen to be necessary in order to address the root causes of conflict-induced crises, and to ensure that aid did not exacerbate political tensions. This paper explores the theory and practice of coherence over the past decade. It argues that, by sleight of hand, the coherence agenda has been reinterpreted such that humanitarian action has become the primary form of political action, rather than merely a substitute for it. The coherence agenda has been driven by geopolitical events, domestic policy considerations in donor countries and the more parochial concerns of aid policy, and is reflected in a number of substantive changes in the humanitarian architecture. Many of the tenets of this 'new humanitarianism' have been embraced by the majority of relief agencies, and thus legitimised it. The paper concludes that political humanitarianism, as opposed to active engagement by political and military actors, is flawed ethically and technically. It will provide neither an effective palliative for the ill effects of war, nor address its causes. PMID:11780855

  8. Systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness of sexual and reproductive health interventions in humanitarian crises

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Emily; Post, Nathan; Hossain, Mazeda; Blanchet, Karl; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) interventions delivered in humanitarian crises. Setting Crisis affected low-income or middle-income countries. Participants Crisis-affected populations in low-income or middle-income countries. Method Peer-reviewed and grey literature sources were systematically searched for relevant papers detailing interventions from 1 January 1980 until the search date on 30 April 2013. Data from included studies were then extracted, and the papers’ quality evaluated using criteria based on modified STROBE and CONSORT checklists. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes include, but are not limited to, changes in morbidity, mortality, sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis or gender-based violence. Secondary outcomes include, but are not limited to, reported condom use or skilled attendance at birth. Primary outputs include, but are not limited to, condoms distributed or education courses taught. Results Of 7149 returned citations, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only one randomised controlled trial was identified. The remaining observational studies were of moderate quality, demonstrating limited use of controls and inadequate attempts to address bias. Evidence of effectiveness was available for the following interventions: impregnated bed nets for pregnant women, subsidised refugee healthcare, female community health workers, and tiered community reproductive health services. Conclusions The limited evidence base for SRH interventions highlights the need for improved research on the effectiveness of public health interventions in humanitarian crises. While interventions proven efficacious in stable settings are being used in humanitarian efforts, more evidence is required to demonstrate the effectiveness of delivering and scaling-up such interventions in humanitarian crises. PMID:26685020

  9. Active-Duty Physicians' Perceptions and Satisfaction with Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Missions: Implications for the Field

    PubMed Central

    Oravec, Geoffrey J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Hickey, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The United States Department of Defense participates in more than 500 missions every year, including humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, as part of medical stability operations. This study assessed perceptions of active-duty physicians regarding these activities and related these findings to the retention and overall satisfaction of healthcare professionals. Methods and Findings An Internet-based survey was developed and validated. Of the 667 physicians who responded to the survey, 47% had participated in at least one mission. On a 7-point, Likert-type response scale, physicians reported favorable overall satisfaction with their participation in these missions (mean  = 5.74). Perceived benefit was greatest for the United States (mean  = 5.56) and self (mean  = 5.39) compared to the target population (mean  = 4.82). These perceptions were related to participants' intentions to extend their military medical service (total model R2  = .37), with the strongest predictors being perceived benefit to self (β = .21, p<.01), the U.S. (β = .19, p<.01), and satisfaction (β = .18, p<.05). In addition, Air Force physicians reported higher levels of satisfaction (mean  = 6.10) than either Army (mean  = 5.27, Cohen's d = 0.75, p<.001) or Navy (mean  = 5.60, Cohen's d  = 0.46, p<.01) physicians. Conclusions Military physicians are largely satisfied with humanitarian missions, reporting the greatest benefit of such activities for themselves and the United States. Elucidation of factors that may increase the perceived benefit to the target populations is warranted. Satisfaction and perceived benefits of humanitarian missions were positively correlated with intentions to extend time in service. These findings could inform the larger humanitarian community as well as military medical practices for both recruiting and retaining medical professionals. PMID:23555564

  10. The International Space Station: New Capabilities for Disaster Response and Humanitarian Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been acquiring Earth imagery since 2000, primarily in the form of astronaut photography using hand-held film and digital cameras. Recent additions of more sophisticated multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems have expanded both the capabilities and relevance of the ISS to basic research, applied Earth science, and development of new sensor technologies. Funding opportunities established within NASA, the US National Laboratories and the international partner organizations have generated instrument proposals that will further enhance these capabilities. With both internal and external sensor location options, and the availability of both automated and human-tended operational environments, the ISS is a unique platform within the constellation of Earth-observing satellites currently in orbit. Current progress and challenges associated with development of ISS terrestrial remote sensing capabilities in the area of disaster response and support of relief efforts will be presented. The ISS orbit allows for imaging of the Earth's surface at varying times of day and night, providing opportunities for data collection over approximately 95% of the populated regions. These opportunities are distinct from--yet augment--the data collection windows for the majority of sensors on polar-orbiting satellites. In addition to this potential for "being in the right place at the right time" to collect critical information on an evolving disaster, the presence of a human crew also allows for immediate recognition of an event from orbit, notification of relevant organizations on the ground, and re-tasking of available remote sensing resources to support humanitarian response and relief efforts. Challenges to establishing an integrated response capability are both technical (coordination of sensor targeting and data collection, rapid downlink and posting of data to a central accessible hub, timely generation and distribution of relevant data

  11. Camel milk, amoxicillin, and a prayer: medical pluralism and medical humanitarian aid in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2014-11-01

    This paper details how exposure to new clinics, diagnostic technologies, and pharmaceuticals during humanitarian relief operations in the Somali Region of Ethiopia shaped local pluralistic health systems and altered the ways in which residents subsequently conceived of and treated illness and disease. Despite rising demand for pharmaceuticals and diagnostic technologies among Somalis in Ethiopia, local ethnophysiologies continued to draw upon popular ideas about humoral flows, divine action, and spirit possession. Demands for therapeutic camel milk, Qur'anic spiritual healing, herbal remedies, and other historically popular therapies persisted, but were shaped by concurrent demands for and understandings of diagnostic biotechnologies and pharmaceutical medications. The reverse was also true: contemporary understandings and uses of non-biomedical healing modalities among Somalis shaped evaluations of clinical care, including healthcare during humanitarian responses. To illustrate these phenomena, based on ethnographic research in eastern Ethiopia between 2007 and 2009, this paper explores three topics vital to Somalis' pluralistic healthcare systems: camel milk and the management of digestive bile; women's experiences and clinical presentations with pain and disorder in their reproductive systems; and the rising popularity of high-tech diagnostic tests. I conclude that medical humanitarian aid never happens in a vacuum or among truly treatment-naïve populations. Instead, aid unfolds within ever-changing and pluralistic health cultures, and it permanently alters and is altered by the frames within which people evaluate and make future decisions about healthcare. PMID:24673888

  12. A multi-static ground-penetrating radar with an array of resistively loaded vee dipole antennas for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kangwook; Gurbuz, Ali C.; Scott, Waymond R., Jr.; McClellan, James H.

    2005-06-01

    A multi-static ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been developed to investigate the potential of multi-static inversion algorithms. The GPR consists of a linear array of six resistively-loaded vee dipoles (RVDs), a network analyzer, and a microwave switch matrix all under computer control. The antennas in the array are spaced 12cm apart so the spacing between the transmitter and the receiver pairs in the measurements are from 12cm to 96cm in 12cm increments. The size of the array is suitable for the landmine problem and scaled measurements of the buried structure problem. The RVD is chosen as an array element because it is very "clean" in that it has very little self clutter and a very low radar cross section to lessen the reflections between the ground and the antenna. The shape and the loading profile of the antenna are designed to decrease the reflection at the drive point of the antenna while increasing the forward gain. The antenna and balun are made in a module, which is mechanically reliable without significant performance degradation. The multi-static GPR operation is demonstrated on targets buried in clean sand and targets buried under the ground covered by rocks. The responses of the targets are measured by each transmitter-receiver pair. A synthetic aperture, multi-static GPR imaging algorithm is extended from conventional monostatic back-projection techniques and used to process the data. Initial images obtained from the multi-static data are clearer than those obtained from bistatic data.

  13. Holographic neural networks versus conventional neural networks: a comparative evaluation for the classification of landmine targets in ground-penetrating radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudigonda, Naga R.; Kacelenga, Ray; Edwards, Mark

    2004-09-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of a holographic neural network in comparison with a conventional feedforward backpropagation neural network for the classification of landmine targets in ground penetrating radar images. The data used in the study was acquired from four different test sites using the landmine detection system developed by General Dynamics Canada Ltd., in collaboration with the Defense Research and Development Canada, Suffield. A set of seven features extracted for each detected alarm is used as stimulus inputs for the networks. The recall responses of the networks are then evaluated against the ground truth to declare true or false detections. The area computed under the receiver operating characteristic curve is used for comparative purposes. With a large dataset comprising of data from multiple sites, both the holographic and conventional networks showed comparable trends in recall accuracies with area values of 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. By using independent validation datasets, the holographic network"s generalization performance was observed to be better (mean area = 0.86) as compared to the conventional network (mean area = 0.82). Despite the widely publicized theoretical advantages of the holographic technology, use of more than the required number of cortical memory elements resulted in an over-fitting phenomenon of the holographic network.

  14. Ebola virus disease in a humanitarian aid worker - New York City, October 2014.

    PubMed

    Yacisin, Kari; Balter, Sharon; Fine, Annie; Weiss, Don; Ackelsberg, Joel; Prezant, David; Wilson, Ross; Starr, David; Rakeman, Jennifer; Raphael, Marisa; Quinn, Celia; Toprani, Amita; Clark, Nancy; Link, Nathan; Daskalakis, Demetre; Maybank, Aletha; Layton, Marcelle; Varma, Jay K

    2015-04-01

    In late October 2014, Ebola virus disease (Ebola) was diagnosed in a humanitarian aid worker who recently returned from West Africa to New York City (NYC). The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) actively monitored three close contacts of the patient and 114 health care personnel. No secondary cases of Ebola were detected. In collaboration with local and state partners, DOHMH had developed protocols to respond to such an event beginning in July 2014. These protocols included safely transporting a person at the first report of symptoms to a local hospital prepared to treat a patient with Ebola, laboratory testing for Ebola, and monitoring of contacts. In response to this single case of Ebola, initial health care worker active monitoring protocols needed modification to improve clarity about what types of exposure should be monitored. The response costs were high in both human resources and money: DOHMH alone spent $4.3 million. However, preparedness activities that include planning and practice in effectively monitoring the health of workers involved in Ebola patient care can help prevent transmission of Ebola. PMID:25837242

  15. Theorizing the relationship between NGOs and the state in medical humanitarian development projects.

    PubMed

    Asad, Asad L; Kay, Tamara

    2014-11-01

    Social scientists have fiercely debated the relationship between non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the state in NGO-led development projects. However, this research often carries an implicit, and often explicit, anti-state bias, suggesting that when NGOs collaborate with states, they cease to be a progressive force. This literature thus fails to recognize the state as a complex, heterogeneous, and fragmented entity. In particular, the unique political context within which an NGO operates is likely to influence how it carries out its work. In this article, we ask: how do NGOs work and build relationships with different types of states and--of particular relevance to practitioners--what kinds of relationship building lead to more successful development outcomes on the ground? Drawing on 29 in-depth interviews with members of Partners in Health and Oxfam America conducted between September 2010 and February 2014, we argue that NGOs and their medical humanitarian projects are more likely to succeed when they adjust how they interact with different types of states through processes of interest harmonization and negotiation. We offer a theoretical model for understanding how these processes occur across organizational fields. Specifically, we utilize field overlap theory to illuminate how successful outcomes depend on NGOs' ability to leverage resources--alliances and networks; political, financial, and cultural resources; and frames--across state and non-state fields. By identifying how NGOs can increase the likelihood of project success, our research should be of interest to activists, practitioners, and scholars. PMID:24852816

  16. The symphony of the damned: racial discourse, complex political emergencies and humanitarian aid.

    PubMed

    Duffield, M

    1996-09-01

    This paper concerns the manner in which the West is responding to protracted political crises beyond its borders. It examines the conceptual world-view that aid agencies bring to complex emergencies and which shapes action. The paper provides an analysis of developmentalism. That is, the currently dominant idea of development which is an adapted form of multiculturalism. It is based on the empowerment of cultural differences and the relativisation of progress. As a variant of multiculturalism, developmentalism is part of Western racial discourse. In terms of understanding conflict, it establishes a mirror-image relationship with new rascist ideas premised on cultural pluralism inevitably leading to social breakdown, violence and anarchy. To the contrary, with its functional view of social harmony, libertine developmentalism claims that even unresolved political crisis constitutes a development opportunity. Developmentalism, like culturalism generally, is incapable of analysing power. It therefore cannot understand the effects and significance of its own organisational forms. Moreover, since the absence of power translates into operational neutrality in a war zone, it is also unable to analyse the nature of new political formations emerging in the global periphery. That is, the so-called weak or failed states, warlords and so on. This functional ignorance has allowed a widespread incorporation of humanitarian aid into the fabric of political violence. Developmentalism is an essential underpinning for the growing organisational accommodation to ongoing conflict and eroding standards of justice and accountability. PMID:8854455

  17. Subsurface Imaging by UWB Radar: Application to Humanitarian Demining in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been widely used applications which include detection of subsurface facilities, concrete inspection and archaeology. Among these applications, humanitarian demining is still difficult task. Since 2002, we have developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. ALIS can process the data and is used for image re-construction by migration processing. ALIS is the only one mine detection system in the world which can visualize the GPR image by hand scanning. We found that the migration processing can reduce the clutter and gives us clear images of buried mines. After several tests of ALIS in mine affected courtiers, operation of ALIS in mine fields in Cambodia started in summer 2009. Two sets of ALIS have been operated in Cambodia and more than 77 antipersonnel mines have been detected and 137,000m2 farmland was cleaned.

  18. The academic health center in complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Christine; Theodosis, Christian; Bills, Corey; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Turner, Madeleine; Millis, Michael; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Olopade, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. The event disrupted infrastructure and was marked by extreme morbidity and mortality. The global response to the disaster was rapid and immense, comprising multiple actors-including academic health centers (AHCs)-that provided assistance in the field and from home. The authors retrospectively examine the multidisciplinary approach that the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) applied to postearthquake Haiti, which included the application of institutional structure and strategy, systematic deployment of teams tailored to evolving needs, and the actual response and recovery. The university mobilized significant human and material resources for deployment within 48 hours and sustained the effort for over four months. In partnership with international and local nongovernmental organizations as well as other AHCs, the UCM operated one of the largest and more efficient acute field hospitals in the country. The UCM's efforts in postearthquake Haiti provide insight into the role AHCs can play, including their strengths and limitations, in complex disasters. AHCs can provide necessary intellectual and material resources as well as technical expertise, but the cost and speed required for responding to an emergency, and ongoing domestic responsibilities, may limit the response of a large university and hospital system. The authors describe the strong institutional backing, the detailed predeployment planning and logistical support UCM provided, the engagement of faculty and staff who had previous experience in complex humanitarian emergencies, and the help of volunteers fluent in the local language which, together, made UCM's mission in postearthquake Haiti successful. PMID:23018336

  19. Measuring and Increasing Adoption Rates of Cookstoves in a Humanitarian Crisis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel L; Coyle, Jeremy; Kirk, Angeli; Rosa, Javier; Abbas, Omnia; Adam, Mohammed Idris; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-08-01

    Traditional smoky cooking fires are one of today's greatest environmental threats to human life. These fires, used by 40% of the global population, cause 3.9 million annual premature deaths. "Clean cookstoves" have potential to improve this situation; however, most cookstove programs do not employ objective measurement of adoption to inform design, marketing, subsidies, finance, or dissemination practices. Lack of data prevents insights and may contribute to consistently low adoption rates. In this study, we used sensors and surveys to measure objective versus self-reported adoption of freely-distributed cookstoves in an internally displaced persons camp in Darfur, Sudan. Our data insights demonstrate how to effectively measure and promote adoption, especially in a humanitarian crisis. With sensors, we measured that 71% of participants were cookstove "users" compared to 95% of respondents reporting the improved cookstove was their "primary cookstove." No line of survey questioning, whether direct or indirect, predicted sensor-measured usage. For participants who rarely or never used their cookstoves after initial dissemination ("non-users"), we found significant increases in adoption after a simple followup survey (p = 0.001). The followup converted 83% of prior "non-users" to "users" with average daily adoption of 1.7 cooking hours over 2.2 meals. This increased adoption, which we posit resulted from cookstove familiarization and social conformity, was sustained for a 2-week observation period post intervention. PMID:27435285

  20. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Recommendations for reducing risk during travel for healthcare and humanitarian work.

    PubMed

    Seaworth, Barbara J; Armitige, Lisa Y; Aronson, Naomi E; Hoft, Daniel F; Fleenor, Michael E; Gardner, Adrian F; Harris, Drew A; Stricof, Rachel L; Nardell, Edward A

    2014-03-01

    Healthcare and humanitarian workers who travel to work where the incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is high and potential transmission may occur are at risk of infection and disease due to these resistant strains. Transmission occurs due to inadequate transmission control practices and the inability to provide timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment of persons with MDR TB. Patients risk exposure if active TB is unrecognized in workers after they return to lower-risk settings. Guidance for risk reduction measures for workers in high-risk areas is limited, and no studies confirm the efficacy of treatment regimens for latent TB infection due to MDR TB. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination decreases the risk of active TB and possibly latent infection. IFN-γ release assays differentiate TB infection from BCG vaccination effect. A series of risk reduction measures are provided as a potential strategy. These measures include risk reductions before travel, including risk assessment, TB screening, education, respirator fit testing, and BCG vaccination. Measures during travel include use of respirators in settings where this may not be common practice, transmission control practices, triaging of patients with consistent symptoms, providing education for good cough etiquette, and provision of care in well-ventilated areas, including open air areas. Risk reduction measures after return include TB screening 8 to 10 weeks later and recommendations for management of latent TB infection in areas where the likelihood of MDR TB exposure is high. PMID:24673692

  1. Providing more than health care: the dynamics of humanitarian surgery efforts on the local microeconomy.

    PubMed

    Nagengast, Eric S; Caterson, E J; Magee, William P; Hatcher, Kristin; Ramos, Margarita S; Campbell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Humanitarian cleft surgery has long been provided by teams from resource-rich countries traveling for short-term missions to resource-poor countries. After identifying an area of durable unmet need through surgical missions, Operation Smile constructed a permanent center for cleft care in Northeast India. The Operation Smile Guwahati Comprehensive Cleft Care Center (GCCCC) uses a high-volume subspecialized institution to provide safe, quality, comprehensive, and cost-effective cleft care to a highly vulnerable patient population in Assam, India. The purpose of this study was to profile the expenses of several cleft missions carried out in Assam and to compare these to the expenditures of the permanent comprehensive cleft care center. We reviewed financial data from 4 Operation Smile missions in Assam between December 2009 and February 2011 and from the GCCCC for the 2012-2013 fiscal year. Expenses from the 2 models were categorized and compared. In the studied period, 33% of the mission expenses were spent locally compared to 94% of those of the center. The largest expenses in the mission model were air travel (48.8%) and hotel expenses (21.6%) for the team, whereas salaries (46.3%) and infrastructure costs (19.8%) made up the largest fractions of expenses in the center model. The evolution from mission-based care to a specialty hospital model in Guwahati incorporated a transition from vertical inputs to investments in infrastructure and human capital to create a sustainable local care delivery system. PMID:25162554

  2. Needs, Acceptability, and Value of Humanitarian Medical Assistance in Remote Peruvian Amazon Riverine Communities

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Juan F.; Halsey, Eric S.; Bayer, Angela M.; Beltran, Martin; Razuri, Hugo R.; Velasquez, Daniel E.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Graf, Paul C. F.; Quispe, Antonio M.; Maves, Ryan C.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Sanders, John W.; Lescano, Andres G.

    2015-01-01

    Much debate exists regarding the need, acceptability, and value of humanitarian medical assistance. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 457 children under 5 years from four remote riverine communities in the Peruvian Amazon and collected anthropometric measures, blood samples (1–4 years), and stool samples. Focus groups and key informant interviews assessed perspectives regarding medical aid delivered by foreigners. The prevalence of stunting, anemia, and intestinal parasites was 20%, 37%, and 62%, respectively. Infection with multiple parasites, usually geohelminths, was detected in 41% of children. The prevalence of intestinal parasites both individual and polyparasitism increased with age. Participants from smaller communities less exposed to foreigners expressed lack of trust and fear of them. However, participants from all communities were positive about foreigners visiting to provide health support. Prevalent health needs such as parasitic infections and anemia may be addressed by short-term medical interventions. There is a perceived openness to and acceptability of medical assistance delivered by foreign personnel. PMID:25846293

  3. Needs, acceptability, and value of humanitarian medical assistance in remote Peruvian Amazon riverine communities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Juan F; Halsey, Eric S; Bayer, Angela M; Beltran, Martin; Razuri, Hugo R; Velasquez, Daniel E; Cama, Vitaliano A; Graf, Paul C F; Quispe, Antonio M; Maves, Ryan C; Montgomery, Joel M; Sanders, John W; Lescano, Andres G

    2015-06-01

    Much debate exists regarding the need, acceptability, and value of humanitarian medical assistance. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 457 children under 5 years from four remote riverine communities in the Peruvian Amazon and collected anthropometric measures, blood samples (1-4 years), and stool samples. Focus groups and key informant interviews assessed perspectives regarding medical aid delivered by foreigners. The prevalence of stunting, anemia, and intestinal parasites was 20%, 37%, and 62%, respectively. Infection with multiple parasites, usually geohelminths, was detected in 41% of children. The prevalence of intestinal parasites both individual and polyparasitism increased with age. Participants from smaller communities less exposed to foreigners expressed lack of trust and fear of them. However, participants from all communities were positive about foreigners visiting to provide health support. Prevalent health needs such as parasitic infections and anemia may be addressed by short-term medical interventions. There is a perceived openness to and acceptability of medical assistance delivered by foreign personnel. PMID:25846293

  4. Advances in nonlethal electronic weaponry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, James F.

    1998-12-01

    Non-lethal electronic weapons in the form of tasers (a stand-off incapacitation device with a range of about 15 feet) and stun guns (which are not a gun, but a close contact stun device) have been used by law enforcement for over 18 years. The taser has dominated this market, since it does not require the close physical contact (with the resultant injuries) that the stun gun requires. Tasers are effective against even determined assailants where OC or pepper sprays consistently fail. The taser also does not have the close range lethality of low impact munitions. These electronic non-lethal weapons have saved the lives of thousands of suspects and have prevented the injury of thousands of law enforcement officers. Recent advances in laser sight technology have permitted the development of a patented dual laser sight that not only increased accuracy, but have made these weapons even more intimidating, increasing surrender rates. Now increased ranges are feasible and r & d on non-lethal military weapons to replace the anti-personnel landmine has resulted in new, unmanned, non-lethal taser weapons for law enforcement corrections and border patrol perimeter control use.

  5. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  6. Factors Associated with Nursing Activities in Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Norihito; Inoue, Satoshi; Shimanoe, Chisato; Shibayama, Kaoru; Shinchi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Although nurses play an important role in humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HA/DR), little is known about the nursing activities that are performed in HA/DR. We aimed to clarify the nursing activities performed by Japanese nurses in HA/DR and to examine the factors associated with the frequency of nursing activities. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by 147 nurses with HA/DR experience. The survey extracted information on demographic characteristics, past experience (e.g., disaster medical training experience, HA/DR experience), circumstances surrounding their dispatched to HA/DR (e.g., team size, disaster type, post-disaster phase, mission term), and the frequency of nursing activities performed under HA/DR. The frequency of nursing activities was rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Evaluation of nursing activities was conducted based on the “nursing activity score”, which represents the frequency of each nursing activity. Factors related to the nursing activity score were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Nurses were involved in 27 nursing activities in HA/DR, 10 of which were performed frequently. On analysis, factors significantly associated with nursing activity score were nursing license as a registered nurse (OR 7.79, 95% CI 2.95–20.57), two or more experiences with disaster medical training (OR 2.90 95%, CI 1.12–7.49) and a post-disaster phase of three weeks or longer (OR 8.77, 95% CI 2.59–29.67). Conclusions These results will contribute to the design of evidence-based disaster medical training that improves the quality of nursing activities. PMID:26959351

  7. The Malaysian Orthopaedic Association humanitarian mission to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S

    2005-07-01

    The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts. PMID

  8. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007–10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007–09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] −0.38, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (−0.36, −0.83 to 0.10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD −0.24, −0.40 to −0.09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. PMID:22008428

  9. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research.

    PubMed

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2011-10-29

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007-10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007-09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] -0·38, 95% CI -0·55 to -0·20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (-0·36, -0·83 to 0·10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD -0·24, -0·40 to -0·09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. PMID:22008428

  10. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of "Humanitarian Parole".

    PubMed

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population. PMID:26157791

  11. Users' guides to the medical literature: how to use an article about mortality in a humanitarian emergency

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward J; Checchi, Francesco; Orbinski, James J; Schull, Michael J; Burkle, Frederick M; Beyrer, Chris; Cooper, Curtis; Hardy, Colleen; Singh, Sonal; Garfield, Richard; Woodruff, Bradley A; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2008-01-01

    The accurate interpretation of mortality surveys in humanitarian crises is useful for both public health responses and security responses. Recent examples suggest that few medical personnel and researchers can accurately interpret the validity of a mortality survey in these settings. Using an example of a mortality survey from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we demonstrate important methodological considerations that readers should keep in mind when reading a mortality survey to determine the validity of the study and the applicability of the findings to their settings. PMID:18826636

  12. Tracking humanitarian funding for reproductive health: a systematic analysis of health and protection proposals from 2002-2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises conducted a ten-year global evaluation of reproductive health in humanitarian settings. This paper examines proposals for reproductive health activities under humanitarian health and protection funding mechanisms for 2002-2013, and the level at which these reproductive health proposals were funded. Methods The study used English and French health and protection proposal data for 2002-2013, extracted from the Financial Tracking Service (FTS) database managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Every project was reviewed for relevance against pre-determined reproductive health definitions for 2002-2008. An in-depth analysis was additionally conducted for 2009-2013 through systematically reviewing proposals via a key word search and subsequently classifying them under designated reproductive health categories. Among the relevant reproductive health proposals, counts and proportions were calculated in Excel based on their reproductive health components, primarily by year. Contributions, requests, and unfunded requests were calculated based on the data provided by FTS. Results Among the 11,347 health and protection proposals issued from 345 emergencies between 2002 and 2013, 3,912 were relevant to reproductive health (34.5%). The number of proposals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 21.9% per year, while the proportion of health and protection sector appeals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 10.1% per year. The total funding request over the 12 years amounted to $4.720 billion USD, of which $2.031 billion USD was received. Among reproductive health components for 2009-2013 proposals, maternal newborn health comprised the largest proportion (56.4%), followed by reproductive health-related gender-based violence (45.9%), HIV/sexually transmitted infections (37.5%), general reproductive health

  13. The Prevalence of Sexual Violence among Female Refugees in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Alexander; Adam, Atif; Wirtz, Andrea; Pham, Kiemanh; Rubenstein, Leonard; Glass, Nancy; Beyrer, Chris; Singh, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    Importance: Refugees and internally displaced persons are highly vulnerable to sexual violence during conflict and subsequent displacement. However, accurate estimates of the prevalence of sexual violence among in these populations remain uncertain. Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of sexual violence among refugees and displaced persons in complex humanitarian emergencies. Data Source: We conducted systematic review of relevant literature in multiple databases (EMBASE, CINAHL, and MEDLINE) through February 2013 to identify studies. We also reviewed reference lists of included articles to identify any missing sources. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria required identification of sexual violence among refugees and internally displaced persons or those displaced by conflict in complex humanitarian settings. Studies were excluded if they did not provide female sexual violence prevalence, or that included only single case reports, anecdotes, and those that focused on displacement associated with natural disasters. After a review of 1175 citations 19 unique studies were selected. Data Extraction: Two reviewers worked independently to identify final selection and a third reviewer adjudicated any differences. Descriptive and quantitative information was extracted; prevalence estimates were synthesized. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Main Outcomes: The main outcome of interest was sexual violence among female refugees and internally displaced persons in complex humanitarian settings. Results: The prevalence of sexual violence was estimated at 21.4% (95% CI, 14.9-28.7; I2=98.3%), using a random effects model. Statistical heterogeneity was noted with studies using probability sampling designs reporting lower prevalence of sexual violence (21.0%, 95% CI, 13.2-30.1; I2=98.6%), compared to lower quality studies (21.7%, 95% CI, 11.5-34.2; I2=97.4%). We could not rule out the presence of publication bias. Conclusions: The findings suggest that

  14. Center for Victims of Torture--Guinea 2004-2005 International Mental Health Team: international humanitarian award.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for the Center for Victims of Torture--Guinea 2004-2005 International Mental Health Team, who received the International Humanitarian Award "for their outstanding commitment to the healing of torture victims and to educating the world community about torture and war trauma." A brief profile of the Center is presented, as well as the Center's award address, entitled Trauma Healing in Refugee Camps in Guinea: A Psychosocial Program for Liberian and Sierra Leonean Survivors of Torture and War. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115851

  15. Fusion of forward looking infrared and ground penetrating radar for improved stopping distances in landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malof, Jordan M.; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2014-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a popular sensing modality for buried threat detection that offers low false alarm rates (FARs), but suffers from a short detection stopping or standoff distance. This short stopping distance leaves little time for the system operator to react when a threat is detected, limiting the speed of advance. This problem arises, in part, because of the way GPR data is typically processed. GPR data is first prescreened to reduce the volume of data considered for higher level feature-processing. Although fast, prescreening introduces latency that delays the feature processing and lowers the stopping distance of the system. In this work we propose a novel sensor fusion framework where a forward looking infrared (FLIR) camera is used as a prescreener, providing suspicious locations to the GPRbased system with zero latency. The FLIR camera is another detection modality that typically yields a higher FAR than GPR while offering much larger stopping distances. This makes it well-suited in the role of a zero-latency prescreener. In this framework, GPR-based feature processing can begin without any latency, improving stopping distances. This framework was evaluated using well-known FLIR and GPR detection algorithms on a large dataset collected at a Western US test site. Experiments were conducted to investigate the tradeoff between early stopping distance and FAR. The results indicate that earlier stopping distances are achievable while maintaining effective FARs. However, because an earlier stopping distance yields less data for feature extraction, there is a general tradeoff between detection performance and stopping distance.

  16. Design and performance of an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency radar with precise frequency control for landmine and IED detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Brian R.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2014-05-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed an impulse-based vehicle-mounted forward-looking ultra- wideband (UWB) radar for imaging buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). However, there is no control of the radiated spectrum in this system. As part of ARL's Partnerships in Research Transition (PIRT) program, the above deficiency is addressed by the design of a Stepped-Frequency Radar (SFR) which allows for precise control over the radiated spectrum, while still maintaining an effective ultra-wide bandwidth. The SFR utilizes a frequency synthesizer which can be configured to excise prohibited and interfering frequency bands and also implement frequency-hopping capabilities. The SFR is designed to be a forward-looking ground- penetrating (FLGPR) Radar utilizing a uniform linear array of sixteen (16) Vivaldi notch receive antennas and two (2) Quad-ridge horn transmit antennas. While a preliminary SFR consisting of four (4) receive channels has been designed, this paper describes major improvements to the system, and an analysis of expected system performance. The 4-channel system will be used to validate the SFR design which will eventually be augmented in to the full 16-channel system. The SFR has an operating frequency band which ranges from 300 - 2000 MHz, and a minimum frequency step-size of 1 MHz. The radar system is capable of illuminating range swaths that have maximum extents of 30 to 150 meters (programmable). The transmitter has the ability to produce approximately -2 dBm/MHz average power over the entire operating frequency range. The SFR will be used to determine the practicality of detecting and classifying buried and concealed landmines and IEDs from safe stand-off distances.

  17. A public health approach to address the mental health burden of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M; Berckmoes, Lidewyde H; Kohrt, Brandon A; Song, Suzan J; Tol, Wietse A; Reis, Ria

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates, individual and family needs, and available human and material resources. We propose four strategies to develop a participatory public health approach for these youth, based on principles of equity, feasibility, and a balance between prevention and treatment. The first strategy uses ecological and transgenerational resilience as a theoretical framework to facilitate a systems approach to the plight of youth and families. This theoretical base helps to engage health care professionals in a multisectoral analysis and a collaborative public health strategy. The second strategy is to translate pre-program assessment into mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) priorities. Defining priorities helps to develop programs and policies that align with preventive and curative interventions in multiple tiers of the public health system. The third is a realistic budgetary framework as a condition for the development of sustainable institutional capacity including a monitoring system. The fourth strategy is to direct research to address the knowledge gap about effective practices for youth mental health in humanitarian settings. PMID:26021862

  18. "Nationals" and "expatriates": challenges of fulfilling "sans frontières" ("without borders") ideals in international humanitarian action.

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Olga; Fox, Renée C

    2008-01-01

    The international humanitarian organization, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), is strongly committed to principles of universalism, egalitarianism, and equity, in both its internal and external relations. Nevertheless, the organization distinguishes between so-called "national" staff members (those who are indigenous to the countries where MSF projects are located), and "expatriate" staff (those who are involved in projects outside their countries of residence), in certain ways that it has self-critically termed "discriminatory", "colonialist", and even "racist". It has resolved to remedy such practices. Through a first-hand case study of MSF activities in Russia, this article demonstrates that the dynamics of the "nationals"/ "expatriates" divide is a more complex phenomenon than MSF's self-accusatory diagnosis implies; that a fuller recognition and utilization of nationals' local knowledge would mitigate some of the conditions of inequality and inequity that they experience; but that it would not necessarily be desirable to expunge all differences between the two groups of staff Furthermore, because they are intrinsic to the structure and conditions of international humanitarian action, some of these differences could not easily be elminated by MSF, or by any other organization engaged in this kind of action. PMID:20845834

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY...

  20. Strange but common bedfellows: the relationship between humanitarians and the military in developing psychosocial interventions for civilian populations affected by armed conflict.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, Hanna; Pedersen, Duncan

    2012-07-01

    This essay analyses how the relationships between Cold War and post-Cold War politics, military psychiatry, humanitarian aid and mental health interventions in war and post-war contexts have transformed over time. It focuses on the restrictions imposed on humanitarian interventions and aid during the Cold War; the politics leading to the transfer of the PTSD diagnosis and its treatment from the military to civilian populations; humanitarian intervention campaigns in the post-Cold War era; and the development of psychosocial intervention programs and standards of care for civilian populations affected by armed conflict. Viewing these developments in their broader historical, political and social contexts reveals the politics behind mental health interventions conducted in countries and populations affected by warfare. In such militarized contexts, the work of NGOs providing assistance to people suffering from trauma-related health problems is far from neutral as it depends on the support of the military and plays an important role in the shaping of international politics and humanitarian aid programs. PMID:22722981

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  2. Epidemic neuropathy in Cuba: a plea to end the United States economic embargo on a humanitarian basis.

    PubMed

    Román, G C

    1994-10-01

    During 1992-1993, an epidemic of neurologic disease in Cuba affected 50,862 patients with optic neuropathy, sensorineural deafness, predominantly sensory peripheral neuropathy, and dorsolateral myelopathy. The clinical syndromes were identical to those of prisoners of war subjected to nutritional restriction in tropical prison camps during World War II (Strachan's disease). A dietary deficiency of group B vitamins and sulfur-containing amino acids appears to have been the primary cause of the epidemic. This was a consequence of economic and political events in Cuba linked to the collapse of the Soviet Union and socialist countries. The recently toughened 30-year-old US economic embargo on Cuba contributed to these problems and hampered the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the epidemic. A plea is made to the neurologic community to request the lifting of the trade blockade on a humanitarian basis. PMID:7936221

  3. From war on terror to war on weather? Rethinking humanitarianism in a new era of chronic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Munslow, Barry; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Third World Quarterly makes a case for redirecting attention and resources away from the 'war on terror' and focussing as a matter of urgency on the causes and consequences of global climate change. Global climate change must be recognised as an issue of national and international security. Increased competition for scarce resources and migration are key factors in the propagation of many of today's chronic complex humanitarian emergencies. The relentless growth of megacities in natural disaster hotspots places unprecedented numbers of vulnerable people at risk of disease and death. The Earth's fragile ecosystem has reached a critical tipping point. Today's most urgent need is for a collective endeavour on the part of the international community to redirect resources, enterprise and creativity away from the war on terror and to earnestly redeploy these in seeking solutions to the far greater and increasingly imminent threats that confront us as a consequence of global climate change. PMID:21495286

  4. Direct killing of patients in humanitarian situations and armed conflicts: the profession of medicine is losing its meaning.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin

    2015-04-01

    During armed conflicts over the past several years, attacks on humanitarian workers and patients have increased, including the most recent overt killing of patients in their hospital beds in South Sudan and Central African Republic, and bombardments of hospitals in Iraq, Syria, and other countries. Direct attacks on patients inside hospitals, as well as social structural dynamics that undermine patient safety and security, are met with apparent indifference by international and medical communities. How can the medical profession remain silent and stand by while these factors render its core mission futile? In this article, I aim to shed light on this issue, and its implications for the future of the neutral and impartial provision of medical care; provide an analysis of underlying and contributing factors; discuss current international strategies; reflect on the responsibility of health providers; explore ways to strengthen our roles as physician advocates; and call for the medical profession to do more to protect medicine's core values. PMID:25646255

  5. Changing tracks as situations change: humanitarian and health response along the Liberia-Côte d'Ivoire border.

    PubMed

    Derderian, Katharine

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, protracted crises and fragile post-conflict settings have challenged the co-existence, and even the linear continuum, of relief and development aid. Forced migration has tested humanitarian and development paradigms where sudden-onset emergencies, violence and displacement arise alongside ongoing development work. Drawing on Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in the region from December 2010 to May 2011, this paper examines aid and healthcare responses to displacement in Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; it focuses on challenges to the maintenance of preparedness for such foreseeable emergencies and to adaptation in response to changing situations of displacement and insecurity. This 'backsliding' from development to emergency remains a substantial challenge to aid; yet, in exactly such cases, it also presents the opportunity to ensure access to medical care that is much more urgently needed in times of crisis, including the suspension of user fees for medical care. PMID:25196331

  6. Direct Killing of Patients in Humanitarian Situations and Armed Conflicts: The Profession of Medicine Is Losing Its Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    During armed conflicts over the past several years, attacks on humanitarian workers and patients have increased, including the most recent overt killing of patients in their hospital beds in South Sudan and Central African Republic, and bombardments of hospitals in Iraq, Syria, and other countries. Direct attacks on patients inside hospitals, as well as social structural dynamics that undermine patient safety and security, are met with apparent indifference by international and medical communities. How can the medical profession remain silent and stand by while these factors render its core mission futile? In this article, I aim to shed light on this issue, and its implications for the future of the neutral and impartial provision of medical care; provide an analysis of underlying and contributing factors; discuss current international strategies; reflect on the responsibility of health providers; explore ways to strengthen our roles as physician advocates; and call for the medical profession to do more to protect medicine's core values. PMID:25646255

  7. Disaster Metrics: A Proposed Quantitative Assessment Tool in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies - The Public Health Impact Severity Scale (PHISS)

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Jamil D.; Kysia, Rashid; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complex Humanitarian Emergencies (CHE) result in rapid degradation of population health and quickly overwhelm indigenous health resources. Numerous governmental, non-governmental, national and international organizations and agencies are involved in the assessment of post-CHE affected populations. To date, there is no entirely quantitative assessment tool conceptualized to measure the public health impact of CHE. Methods: Essential public health parameters in CHE were identified based on the Sphere Project "Minimum Standards", and scoring rubrics were proposed based on the prevailing evidence when applicable. Results: 12 quantitative parameters were identified, representing the four categories of “Minimum Standards for Disaster Response” according to the Sphere Project; health, shelter, food and nutrition, in addition to water and sanitation. The cumulative tool constitutes a quantitative scale, referred to as the Public Health Impact Severity Scale (PHISS), and the score on this scale ranges from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 100. Conclusion: Quantitative measurement of the public health impact of CHE is germane to accurate assessment, in order to identify the scale and scope of the critical response required for the relief efforts of the affected populations. PHISS is a new conceptual metric tool, proposed to add an objective quantitative dimension to the post-CHE assessment arsenal. PHISS has not yet been validated, and studies are needed with prospective data collection to test its validity, feasibility and reliability. Citation: Bayram JD, Kysia R, Kirsch TD. Disaster Metrics: A Proposed Quantitative Assessment Tool in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies – The Public Health Impact Severity Scale (PHISS). PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 21. doi: 10.1371/4f7b4bab0d1a3. PMID:22984643

  8. Effectiveness of Mechanisms and Models of Coordination between Organizations, Agencies and Bodies Providing or Financing Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Elie A.; El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou Karroum, Lama; El-Eid, Jamale; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; Itani, Mira; Farha, Aida; Pottie, Kevin; Oliver, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing health services in humanitarian crises is required to ensure efficiency of services, avoid duplication, and improve equity. The objective of this review was to assess how, during and after humanitarian crises, different mechanisms and models of coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing health services compare in terms of access to health services and health outcomes. Methods We registered a protocol for this review in PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews under number PROSPERO2014:CRD42014009267. Eligible studies included randomized and nonrandomized designs, process evaluations and qualitative methods. We electronically searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library and websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology for the selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Results Of 14,309 identified citations from databases and organizations' websites, we identified four eligible studies. Two studies used mixed-methods, one used quantitative methods, and one used qualitative methods. The available evidence suggests that information coordination between bodies providing health services in humanitarian crises settings may be effective in improving health systems inputs. There is additional evidence suggesting that management/directive coordination such as the cluster model may improve health system inputs in addition to access to health services. None of the included studies assessed coordination through common representation and framework coordination. The evidence was judged to be of very low quality. Conclusion This systematic review provides evidence of possible effectiveness of information coordination

  9. Non-conventional humanitarian interventions on Ebola outbreak crisis in West Africa: health, ethics and legal implications.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of Ebola outbreak early warning alert, preparedness, surveillance and response systems, the most deadly, complex and largest ever seen Ebola war has been devastating West African communities. The unparalleled Ebola tsunami has prompted interrogations into, and uncertainties about, the effectiveness and efficiency of national, regional and international community's illed- responses using conventional humanitarian control and containment approaches and methods. The late humanitarian and local non-government organisations emergency responses and challenges to curb transmission dynamics and stop the ongoing spread in the Ebola outbreak in West Africa have led to an unprecedented toll of 14,413 reported Ebola cases in eight countries since the outbreak began, with 5,177 reported deaths including 571 health-care workers and 325 died as 14 November 2014. These indications the need of further evaluation of monitoring as substantial proportion of infections outside the context of Ebola epicentres, Ebola health centres treatment and care, infection prevention and control quality assurance checks in these countries. At the same time, exhaustive efforts should target ensuring an sufficient supply of optimal personal protective equipment (PPE) to all Ebola treatment facilities, along with the provision of training and relevant guidelines to limit to the minimum possible level of risk. The continent hosts a big proportion of the world's wealth, yet its people live in abject poverty, with governments unable to feed and govern them effectively, and who are condemned to endure even darker moments with the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Institutionalisation of practical and operational non-conventional emergency response models efficient health systems, and tailored programmes can clearly support to prevent, control and eventually stamp out Ebola geo-distribution in addition to population mental health services that are requisite to address the massive range of the

  10. Counselling in humanitarian settings: a retrospective analysis of 18 individual-focused non-specialised counselling programmes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) provides individual counselling interventions in medical humanitarian programmes in contexts affected by conflict and violence. Although mental health and psychosocial interventions are a common part of the humanitarian response, little is known about how the profile and outcomes for individuals seeking care differs across contexts. We did a retrospective analysis of routine programme data to determine who accessed MSF counselling services and why, and the individual and programmatic risk factors for poor outcomes. Methods We analysed data from 18 mental health projects run by MSF in 2009 in eight countries. Outcome measures were client-rating scores (1–10 scale; 1 worst) for complaint severity and functioning and counsellor assessment. The effect of client and programme factors on outcomes was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess binary outcome variables. Results 48704 counselling sessions were held with 14963 individuals. Excluding women-focused projects, 66.8% of patients were women. Mean (SD) age was 33.3 (14.1) years. Anxiety-related complaints were the most common (35.0%), followed by family-related problems (15.7%), mood-related problems (14.1%) and physical complaints (13.7%). Only 2.0% presented with a serious mental health condition. 27.2% did not identify a traumatic precipitating event. 24.6% identified domestic discord or violence and 17.5% psychological violence as the precipitating event. 6244 (43.9%) had only one session. For 91% of 7837 who returned, the counsellor reported the problem had decreased or resolved. The mean (SD) complaint rating improved by 4.7 (2.4) points (p < 0.001) and by 4.2 (2.3, p < 0.001) for functional rating. Risk factors for poorer outcomes were few sessions, non-conflict setting (stable or societal violence settings), serious mental health condition, or attending a large, recently opened project. Conclusions The majority of

  11. Evaluating the co-production of a near real time Earthquake Aftershock forecasting tool for humanitarian risk assessment and emergency planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; NicBhloscaidh, Mairead; Jimenez, Abigail; Dunlop, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Concern Worldwide and the University of Ulster Geophysics Research Group are engaged in a project to co-produce a suite of software and mapping tools to assess aftershock hazard in near real-time during the emergency response phase of earthquake disaster, and inform humanitarian emergency planning and response activities. This paper uses a social learning approach to evaluate this co-production process. Following Wenger (1999) we differentiate between the earthquake science and humanitarian communities of practice (CoP) along three dimensions: enterprise (the purpose of CoPs and the problems participants are working to address), repertoire (knowledge, skills, language), and identity (values and boundaries). We examine the effectiveness of learning between CoP, focusing on boundary work and objects, and various organisational structures and aspects of the wider political economy of learning that enable and hinder the co-production process. We conclude by identifying a number of ways to more effectively integrate earthquake science into humanitarian decision-making, policy development and programme design.

  12. Using Airborne Remote Sensing to Increase Situational Awareness in Civil Protection and Humanitarian Relief - the Importance of User Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, H.; Kiefl, R.; Henkel, F.; Wenxi, C.; Nippold, R.; Kurz, F.; Kippnich, U.

    2016-06-01

    Enhancing situational awareness in real-time (RT) civil protection and emergency response scenarios requires the development of comprehensive monitoring concepts combining classical remote sensing disciplines with geospatial information science. In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) monitoring tools are being developed by which innovative data acquisition approaches are combined with information extraction as well as the generation and dissemination of information products to a specific user. DLR's 3K and 4k camera system which allow for a RT acquisition and pre-processing of high resolution aerial imagery are applied in two application examples conducted with end users: a civil protection exercise with humanitarian relief organisations and a large open-air music festival in cooperation with a festival organising company. This study discusses how airborne remote sensing can significantly contribute to both, situational assessment and awareness, focussing on the downstream processes required for extracting information from imagery and for visualising and disseminating imagery in combination with other geospatial information. Valuable user feedback and impetus for further developments has been obtained from both applications, referring to innovations in thematic image analysis (supporting festival site management) and product dissemination (editable web services). Thus, this study emphasises the important role of user involvement in application-related research, i.e. by aligning it closer to user's requirements.

  13. Perspectives from Ethiopia regarding U.S. military humanitarian assistance: how to build a better medical civil action project (MEDCAP).

    PubMed

    Miles, Shana; Malone, Joseph L

    2013-12-01

    Assuming that budgetary constraints continue over the next several years, the U.S. military's overseas medical activities including medical civic action projects (MEDCAPs) and humanitarian assistance projects could comprise an increasing proportion of the contributions of U.S. government (USG) to improving global health. We have identified several issues with MEDCAPs in Ethiopia since 2009 that resulted in delays or project cancellations. These were mostly related to lack of a plan to develop sustainable capacities. Although there are many obvious medical needs for civilian populations in Ethiopia, the provision of sustainable development assistance involving these Ethiopian populations on behalf of the USG is a complex undertaking involving coordination with many partners and coordination with several other USG agencies. Military medical professionals planning MEDCAPs and other cooperative global health projects would benefit from consultation and close coordination with U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Agency of International Development (USAID) experts who are involved in supporting medium- and long-term health projects in Ethiopia. The establishment of durable military medical academic relationships and involvement of overseas military medical research units could also help promote sustainable projects and build robust professional relationships in global health. PMID:24306018

  14. Matching humanitarian norms with cold, hard interests: the making of refugee policies in Mexico and Honduras, 1980-89.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, K

    1992-01-01

    Humanitarian norms and institutions should be considered when analyzing the development and state of national policy. Mexico and Honduras, for example, have provided physical security, health care, and education to most Guatemalans and Salvadorans seeking asylum. In neither case, however, are Mexico's and Honduras' economic and political interests being best served. National interest initially forced the deportation or massacre of these refugees, in the case of Honduras, in the early 1980s. In the absence of change in neither national interests nor attitude, these refugees owe their current treatment to the Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. These cases support this paper's argument that national policy is shaped over time by interaction with international norm-promoting institutions. In the interest of minimizing costs and risk, policymakers and governments tend to adapt institutionally developed and internationally accepted policies to suit their needs. National policy is not developed solely on the basis of calculations of national interest outside of internationally accepted norms. This paper demonstrates the ability to empirically test the nature of forces guiding the development of national policy. PMID:12343989

  15. Prediction as a Humanitarian and Pragmatic Contribution from Human Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Gabrieli, John D.E.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging has greatly enhanced the cognitive neuroscience understanding of the human brain and its variation across individuals (neurodiversity) in both health and disease. Such progress has not yet, however, propelled changes in educational or medical practices that improve people’s lives. We review neuroimaging findings in which initial brain measures (neuromarkers) are correlated with or predict future (1) education, learning, and performance in children and adults; (2) criminality; (3) health-related behaviors; and (4) responses to pharmacological or behavioral treatments. Neuromarkers often provide better predictions (neuroprognosis), alone or in combination with other measures, than traditional behavioral measures. With further advances in study designs and analyses, neuromarkers may offer opportunities to personalize educational and clinical practices that lead to better outcomes for people. PMID:25569345

  16. Bounded agency in humanitarian settings: a qualitative study of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among refugees situated in Kenya and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Joshua B; Rhodes, Tim; Spiegel, Paul; Schilperoord, Marian; Burton, John Wagacha; Balasundaram, Susheela; Wong, Chunting; Ross, David A

    2014-11-01

    HIV-positive refugees confront a variety of challenges in accessing and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and attaining durable viral suppression; however, there is little understanding of what these challenges are, how they are navigated, or how they may differ across humanitarian settings. We sought to document and examine accounts of the threats, barriers and facilitators experienced in relation to HIV treatment and care and to conduct comparisons across settings. We conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of 14 refugees attending a public, urban HIV clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (July-September 2010), and 12 refugees attending a camp-based HIV clinic in Kakuma, Kenya (February-March 2011). We used framework methods and between-case comparison to analyze and interpret the data, identifying social and environmental factors that influenced adherence. The multiple issues that threatened adherence to antiretroviral therapy or precipitated actual adherence lapses clustered into three themes: "migration", "insecurity", and "resilience". The migration theme included issues related to crossing borders and integrating into treatment systems upon arrival in a host country. Challenges related to crossing borders were reported in both settings, but threats pertaining to integration into, and navigation of, a new health system were exclusive to the Malaysian setting. The insecurity theme included food insecurity, which was most commonly reported in the Kenyan setting; health systems insecurity, reported in both settings; and emotional insecurity, which was most common in the Kenyan setting. Resilient processes were reported in both settings. We drew on the concept of "bounded agency" to argue that, despite evidence of personal and community resilience, these processes were sometimes insufficient for overcoming social and environmental barriers to adherence. In general, interventions might aim to bolster individuals' range of action with

  17. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of “Humanitarian Parole”

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A.; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US–Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population. PMID:26157791

  18. What Evidence Exists for Initiatives to Reduce Risk and Incidence of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict and Other Humanitarian Crises? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Steinacker, Léa; Zwi, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i) survivor care; ii) livelihood initiatives; iii) community mobilisation; iv) personnel initiatives; v) systems and security responses; vi) legal interventions and vii) multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms, settings

  19. What evidence exists for initiatives to reduce risk and incidence of sexual violence in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Steinacker, Léa; Zwi, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i) survivor care; ii) livelihood initiatives; iii) community mobilisation; iv) personnel initiatives; v) systems and security responses; vi) legal interventions and vii) multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms, settings

  20. Perceptions of oral cholera vaccine and reasons for full, partial and non-acceptance during a humanitarian crisis in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Peprah, Dorothy; Palmer, Jennifer J; Rubin, G James; Abubakar, Abdinasir; Costa, Alejandro; Martin, Stephen; Perea, William; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-07-19

    Oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaigns were conducted from February to April 2014 among internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the midst of a humanitarian crisis in Juba, South Sudan. IDPs were predominantly members of the Nuer ethnic group who had taken refuge in United Nations bases following the eruption of violence in December 2013. The OCV campaigns, which were conducted by United Nations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) at the request of the Ministry of Health, reached an estimated 85-96% of the target population. As no previous studies on OCV acceptance have been conducted in the context of an on-going humanitarian crisis, semi-structured interviews were completed with 49 IDPs in the months after the campaigns to better understand perceptions of cholera and reasons for full, partial or non-acceptance of the OCV. Heightened fears of disease and political danger contributed to camp residents' perception of cholera as a serious illness and increased trust in United Nations and NGOs providing the vaccine to IDPs. Reasons for partial and non-acceptance of the vaccination included lack of time and fear of side effects, similar to reasons found in OCV campaigns in non-crisis settings. In addition, distrust in national institutions in a context of fears of ethnic persecution was an important reason for hesitancy and refusal. Other reasons included fear of taking the vaccine alongside other medication or with alcohol. The findings highlight the importance of considering the target populations' perceptions of institutions in the delivery of OCV interventions in humanitarian contexts. They also suggest a need for better communication about the vaccine, its side effects and interactions with other substances. PMID:27265459

  1. Incidence, Etiology and Risk Factors for Travelers’ Diarrhea during a Hospital Ship-Based Military Humanitarian Mission: Continuing Promise 2011

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Martin, Gregory J.; Scouten, William T.; Brooks, Krista; Putnam, Shannon D.; Riddle, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Travelers’ diarrhea (TD) is the most common ailment affecting travelers, including deployed U.S. military. Continuing Promise 2011 was a 5-month humanitarian assistance/disaster response (HA/DR) military and non-governmental organization training mission aboard the hospital ship USNS Comfort, which deployed to Central and South America and the Caribbean between April and September 2011. Enhanced TD surveillance was undertaken during this mission for public health purposes. Passive surveillance (clinic visits), active surveillance (self-reported questionnaires), and stool samples were collected weekly from shipboard personnel. Descriptive statistics and multivariate-logistic regression methods were used to estimate disease burden and risk factor identification. Two polymerase chain reaction methods on frozen stool were used for microbiological identification. TD was the primary complaint for all clinic visits (20%) and the leading cause of lost duties days due to bed rest confinement (62%), though underreported, as the active self-reported incidence was 3.5 times higher than the passive clinic-reported incidence. Vomiting (p = 0.002), feeling lightheaded or weak (p = 0.005), and being a food handler (p = 0.017) were associated with increased odds of lost duty days. Thirty-eight percent of self-reported cases reported some amount of performance impact. Based on the epidemiological curve, country of exercise and liberty appeared to be temporally associated with increased risk. From the weekly self-reported questionnaire risk factor analysis, eating off ship in the prior week was strongly associated (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.4, p<0.001). Consumption of seafood increased risk (aOR 1.7, p = 0.03), though consumption of ice appeared protective (aOR 0.3, p = 0.01). Etiology was bacterial (48%), with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (35%). Norovirus was identified as a sole pathogen in 12%, though found as a copathogen in an additional 6

  2. Incidence, Etiology and Risk Factors for Travelers' Diarrhea during a Hospital Ship-Based Military Humanitarian Mission: Continuing Promise 2011.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Jessica M; McCaffrey, Ramona L; McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Martin, Gregory J; Scouten, William T; Brooks, Krista; Putnam, Shannon D; Riddle, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is the most common ailment affecting travelers, including deployed U.S. military. Continuing Promise 2011 was a 5-month humanitarian assistance/disaster response (HA/DR) military and non-governmental organization training mission aboard the hospital ship USNS Comfort, which deployed to Central and South America and the Caribbean between April and September 2011. Enhanced TD surveillance was undertaken during this mission for public health purposes. Passive surveillance (clinic visits), active surveillance (self-reported questionnaires), and stool samples were collected weekly from shipboard personnel. Descriptive statistics and multivariate-logistic regression methods were used to estimate disease burden and risk factor identification. Two polymerase chain reaction methods on frozen stool were used for microbiological identification. TD was the primary complaint for all clinic visits (20%) and the leading cause of lost duties days due to bed rest confinement (62%), though underreported, as the active self-reported incidence was 3.5 times higher than the passive clinic-reported incidence. Vomiting (p = 0.002), feeling lightheaded or weak (p = 0.005), and being a food handler (p = 0.017) were associated with increased odds of lost duty days. Thirty-eight percent of self-reported cases reported some amount of performance impact. Based on the epidemiological curve, country of exercise and liberty appeared to be temporally associated with increased risk. From the weekly self-reported questionnaire risk factor analysis, eating off ship in the prior week was strongly associated (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.4, p<0.001). Consumption of seafood increased risk (aOR 1.7, p = 0.03), though consumption of ice appeared protective (aOR 0.3, p = 0.01). Etiology was bacterial (48%), with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (35%). Norovirus was identified as a sole pathogen in 12%, though found as a copathogen in an additional 6

  3. The 1999 international emergency humanitarian evacuation of the Kosovars to Canada: A qualitative study of service providers' perspectives at the international, national and local levels

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Nancy; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Molinaro, Elizabeth; Howard, Michelle; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Jafarpour, Morteza; Robinson, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Background In response to the Kosovo crisis, Canada received 5,500 Albanian Kosovar refugees in 1999 as part of the emergency humanitarian evacuation and settlement effort. This study attempts to describe the experiences of service providers at the international, national, and local levels, involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement services in Canada for the Kosovar refugees. Methods A qualitative case study design using key informant interviews was used. Nominated sampling was used to identify 17 individuals involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement. Key themes were identified and recommendations made to provide a framework for the development of policy to guide response to future humanitarian emergencies. Results Six themes emerged: (1) A sense of being overwhelmed, (2) A multitude of health issues, (3) critical challenges in providing health care, (4) access to health and settlement services, (5) overall successes and (6) need for a coordinated approach to migration health. Conclusions For those involved, the experience was overwhelming but rewarding. Interviewees' major concerns were the need for a more comprehensive and coordinated approach to the flow of medical information and handling of specific health problems. PMID:15647108

  4. A humanitarian preparedness toolbox: estimating flood affected figures and exposure of livelihoods to future floods events, using freely available datasets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Paolo; von Hagen, Craig; Peppino Disperati, Stefano; Hermansyah, Budi; Shaheen, Imra; Jan, Qasim; Berloffa, Andrea; Khan, Ruby; Fakhre, Alam

    2013-04-01

    Pakistan is highly disaster-prone, with three major flood disasters occurred in the past three years, yet major losses are not inevitable. Farming-based families still struggling to recover from 2010 and 2011 floods have again faced another bad monsoon season in 2012. Meanwhile, the likelihood of yet more natural disasters in the future is high as the phenomenon of climate change is increasing the prevalence of extreme weather conditions. Even with less rainfall, the risk of flooding this year remains high, while many villages have not fully recovered from the 2011-2012 floods. It is of utmost importance to support the most vulnerable rural communities to recover their flood-affected livelihoods. In the meantime, prioritizing disaster preparedness through flood hazard and population mapping is crucial to ensure that realistic contingency plans are in place to deliver an effective and timely response and reduce the impact of floods before they strike. To increase preparedness in future floods, an integrated approach that builds the resilience of flood affected community and enhances emergency preparedness based on reliable data is critical. We present here the innovative methodology developed for estimating population and livelihood that could potentially be affected by a future flood scenario, as well as a methodology for knowing where these people are located, along with an overview of their livelihood pattern. This project has used only freely available dataset, due to the urgency of providing a toolbox to the humanitarian community and the absence of readily available detailed information on natural hazards and exposure in Pakistan. The estimated figures resulting from this project, would provide the Food Security stakeholders with adequate information and data for programming a tailored response in case of floods during future monsoon season. For the purpose of preparedness, understanding the risks, and its potential magnitude, is crucial to provide decision

  5. Learning lessons from field surveys in humanitarian contexts: a case study of field surveys conducted in North Kivu, DRC 2006-2008

    PubMed Central

    Grais, Rebecca F; Luquero, Francisco J; Grellety, Emmanuel; Pham, Heloise; Coghlan, Benjamin; Salignon, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Survey estimates of mortality and malnutrition are commonly used to guide humanitarian decision-making. Currently, different methods of conducting field surveys are the subject of debate among epidemiologists. Beyond the technical arguments, decision makers may find it difficult to conceptualize what the estimates actually mean. For instance, what makes this particular situation an emergency? And how should the operational response be adapted accordingly. This brings into question not only the quality of the survey methodology, but also the difficulties epidemiologists face in interpreting results and selecting the most important information to guide operations. As a case study, we reviewed mortality and nutritional surveys conducted in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) published from January 2006 to January 2009. We performed a PubMed/Medline search for published articles and scanned publicly available humanitarian databases and clearinghouses for grey literature. To evaluate the surveys, we developed minimum reporting criteria based on available guidelines and selected peer-review articles. We identified 38 reports through our search strategy; three surveys met our inclusion criteria. The surveys varied in methodological quality. Reporting against minimum criteria was generally good, but presentation of ethical procedures, raw data and survey limitations were missed in all surveys. All surveys also failed to consider contextual factors important for data interpretation. From this review, we conclude that mechanisms to ensure sound survey design and conduct must be implemented by operational organisations to improve data quality and reporting. Training in data interpretation would also be useful. Novel survey methods should be trialled and prospective data gathering (surveillance) employed wherever feasible. PMID:19744319

  6. Advance directives

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Rory; Mailo, Kevin; Angeles, Ricardo; Agarwal, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of patients with advance directives in a family practice, and to describe patients’ perspectives on a family doctor’s role in initiating discussions about advance directives. Design A self-administered patient questionnaire. Setting A busy urban family medicine teaching clinic in Hamilton, Ont. Participants A convenience sample of adult patients attending the clinic over the course of a typical business week. Main outcome measures The prevalence of advance directives in the patient population was determined, and the patients’ expectations regarding the role of their family doctors were elucidated. Results The survey population consisted of 800 participants (a response rate of 72.5%) well distributed across age groups; 19.7% had written advance directives and 43.8% had previously discussed the topic of advance directives, but only 4.3% of these discussions had occurred with family doctors. In 5.7% of cases, a family physician had raised the issue; 72.3% of respondents believed patients should initiate the discussion. Patients who considered advance directives extremely important were significantly more likely to want their family doctors to start the conversation (odds ratio 3.98; P < .05). Conclusion Advance directives were not routinely addressed in the family practice. Most patients preferred to initiate the discussion of advance directives. However, patients who considered the subject extremely important wanted their family doctors to initiate the discussion. PMID:25873704

  7. Moisès Broggi i Vallès (1908-2012): Military surgeon and Catalan humanitarian.

    PubMed

    Derby, Mark; Jorge, David

    2016-02-01

    Catalan surgeon Moisès Broggi entered medical practice in 1931 as Spain was modernizing rapidly. Five years later, however, an attempted military coup sparked a nationwide civil war. Broggi offered his services to the embattled Republic and joined the Medical Service of the International Brigades. He served alongside colleagues from many countries, helping to develop advances in military medicine and especially trauma surgery. Broggi chose to remain working in Barcelona as Franco's Nationalist forces entered the city, in spite of the risk of reprisal he faced as a former officer of the International Brigades. Although forced from his leading position in the public health service, he developed a distinguished private practice. In the year of Franco's death he became President of Barcelona's Royal Academy of Medicine and he received many other honours. Just months before his death at the remarkable age of 104, Dr Moisès Broggi continued to discuss and write about the concerns that had directed the course of his life--advances in medical science and the intellectual and political repression that had hindered delivery of those advances. In an article titled Exile and Silence he noted the groundbreaking work carried out under the auspices of the prestigious scientific institutions founded during Spain's Second Republic and the subsequent dark decades of exile suffered by many of their prominent scientists, some of them his close friends. PMID:26873168

  8. Development of a screening tool to identify female survivors of gender-based violence in a humanitarian setting: qualitative evidence from research among refugees in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High levels of gender-based violence (GBV) persist among conflict-affected populations and within humanitarian settings and are paralleled by under-reporting and low service utilization. Novel and evidence-based approaches are necessary to change the current state of GBV amongst these populations. We present the findings of qualitative research, which were used to inform the development of a screening tool as one potential strategy to identify and respond to GBV for females in humanitarian settings. Methods Qualitative research methods were conducted from January-February 2011 to explore the range of experiences of GBV and barriers to reporting GBV among female refugees. Individual interview participants (n=37) included female refugees (≥15 years), who were survivors of GBV, living in urban or one of three camps settings in Ethiopia, and originating from six conflict countries. Focus group discussion participants (11 groups; 77 participants) included health, protection and community service staff working in the urban or camp settings. Interviews and discussions were conducted in the language of preference, with assistance by interpreters when needed, and transcribed for analysis by grounded-theory technique. Results Single and multiple counts of GBV were reported and ranged from psychological and social violence; rape, gang rape, sexual coercion, and other sexual violence; abduction; and physical violence. Domestic violence was predominantly reported to occur when participants were living in the host country. Opportunistic violence, often manifested by rape, occurred during transit when women depended on others to reach their destination. Abduction within the host country, and often across borders, highlighted the constant state of vulnerability of refugees. Barriers to reporting included perceived and experienced stigma in health settings and in the wider community, lack of awareness of services, and inability to protect children while mothers sought

  9. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  10. An Analysis of Cesarean Section and Emergency Hernia Ratios as Markers of Surgical Capacity in Low-Income Countries Affected by Humanitarian Emergencies from 2008 – 2014 at Médecins sans Frontières Operations Centre Brussels Projects

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay; Wong, Evan; Papillon-Smith, Jessica; Trelles Centurion, Miguel Antonio; Dominguez, Lynette; Ao, Supongmeren; Jean-Paul, Basimuoneye Kahutsi; Kamal, Mustafa; Helmand, Rahmatullah; Naseer, Aamer; Kushner, Adam L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical capacity assessments in low-income countries have demonstrated critical deficiencies. Though vital for planning capacity improvements, these assessments are resource intensive and impractical during the planning phase of a humanitarian crisis. This study aimed to determine cesarean sections to total operations performed (CSR) and emergency herniorrhaphies to all herniorrhaphies performed (EHR) ratios from Médecins Sans Frontières Operations Centre Brussels (MSF-OCB) projects and examine if these established metrics are useful proxies for surgical capacity in low-income countries affected by crisis. Methods: All procedures performed in MSF-OCB operating theatres from July 2008 through June 2014 were reviewed. Projects providing only specialty care, not fully operational or not offering elective surgeries were excluded. Annual CSRs and EHRs were calculated for each project. Their relationship was assessed with linear regression. Results: After applying the exclusion criteria, there were 47,472 cases performed at 13 sites in 8 countries. There were 13,939 CS performed (29% of total cases). Of the 4,632 herniorrhaphies performed (10% of total cases), 30% were emergency procedures. CSRs ranged from 0.06 to 0.65 and EHRs ranged from 0.03 to 1.0. Linear regression of annual ratios at each project did not demonstrate statistical evidence for the CSR to predict EHR [F(2,30)=2.34, p=0.11, R2=0.11]. The regression equation was: EHR = 0.25 + 0.52(CSR) + 0.10(reason for MSF-OCB assistance). Conclusion: Surgical humanitarian assistance projects operate in areas with critical surgical capacity deficiencies that are further disrupted by crisis. Rapid, accurate assessments of surgical capacity are necessary to plan cost- and clinically-effective humanitarian responses to baseline and acute unmet surgical needs in LICs affected by crisis. Though CSR and EHR may meet these criteria in ‘steady-state’ healthcare systems, they may not be useful during

  11. Pre-Travel Preparation of US Travelers Going Abroad to Provide Humanitarian Service, Global TravEpiNet 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Stoney, Rhett J.; Jentes, Emily S.; Sotir, Mark J.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Rao, Sowmya R.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of humanitarian service workers (HSWs) seen pre-travel at Global TravEpiNet (GTEN) practices during 2009–2011. Of 23,264 travelers, 3,663 (16%) travelers were classified as HSWs. Among HSWs, 1,269 (35%) travelers were medical workers, 1,298 (35%) travelers were non-medical service workers, and 990 (27%) travelers were missionaries. Median age was 29 years, and 63% of travelers were female. Almost one-half (49%) traveled to 1 of 10 countries; the most frequent destinations were Haiti (14%), Honduras (8%), and Kenya (6%). Over 90% of travelers were vaccinated for or considered immune to hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever. However, for hepatitis B, 292 (29%) of 990 missionaries, 228 (18%) of 1,298 non-medical service workers, and 76 (6%) of 1,269 medical workers were not vaccinated or considered immune. Of HSWs traveling to Haiti during 2010, 5% of travelers did not receive malaria chemoprophylaxis. Coordinated efforts from HSWs, HSW agencies, and clinicians could reduce vaccine coverage gaps and improve use of malaria chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24445203

  12. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  13. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  14. Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief mission by a tripartite medical team led by the Singapore Armed Forces after the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming Li Leonard; Lim, Jonathan Zhao Min; Tan, Mark Zhong Wei; Kok, Wai Leong; Zhang, Jun Ren; Tan, Mian Yi; Tan, Adrian Chong Beng

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to report the injury or disease patterns, challenges, key observations, and recommendations by the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) team that embarked on an Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) mission in the aftermath of the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. METHODS The SAF medical team that provided HADR assistance to Nepal consisted of personnel from the SAF, Singapore¢s Ministry of Health and the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. Upon arrival in Kathmandu, Nepal, the SAF medical team was assigned to the Gokarna district by the local health authorities. In addition to providing primary healthcare, the medical facility was equipped to perform resuscitation and minor procedures. We also assembled mobile medical teams (MMTs) that travelled to various remote areas of the country to deliver medical aid. RESULTS A total of 3,014 patients were managed by the SAF medical team. Of these patients, 1,286 (42.7%) were men. 574 (19.0%) patients sustained earthquake-related injuries or illnesses, while 2,440 (81.0%) sustained non-earthquake-related injuries or illnesses. The team treated a total of 447 (77.9%) adults and 127 (22.1%) paediatric patients with earthquake-related injuries or illnesses. A significant number of patients developed exacerbations of underlying medical conditions. 2,161 (71.7%) patients were treated in our main facility in Gokarna, while 853 patients (28.3%) were treated by our MMTs. CONCLUSION The ability to transport healthcare personnel and essential medical equipment within a short time allowed the SAF medical team to provide crucial medical care in the aftermath of the 2015 Nepal earthquake. PMID:27549187

  15. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  16. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  17. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  18. A tribute to Dr. Robert C. Allen, an inspirational teacher, humanitarian, and friend (Nov. 18, 1950-Mar. 24, 2005).

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Greene, Jill A; Long, William B

    2006-01-01

    lens, you should go to the website for more information http://www.nike.com/nikevision/content.html. The website has a list of practitioners who can service the patients with the respective sunglasses. With their exciting technologic advances in sunglass products, as well as tinted soft contact lens, the authors would encourage Nike Vision to develop an expanded international marketing program that allows all individuals in the world to easily purchase its products. PMID:17073568

  19. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  20. [Combination of Genetic and Humanitarian (Cross-Cultural) Methods for the Identification of Human Genes Involved in the Process of Adaptation to Evolutionary New Environmental Factors].

    PubMed

    Borinskaya, S A; Yankovsky, N K

    2015-04-01

    Human settlement from the African ancestral home was accompanied by cultural and genetic adaptation to new habitat conditions (climate, infections, diet, etc.). We previously suggested for the first time an approach to the identification of human genes presumably involved in adaptation to evolutionary new environmental factors based on a combination of genetic and humanitarian methods of study. In order to search for the genes involved in adaptation and for environmental factors (to which this adaptation occurs), we attempted to find correlations between the population allele frequencies of the studied gene and formalized descriptions of peculiarities of the habitat of ethnic groups given in "Ethnographic Atlas" by G. P. Murdock. In the presented review, we summarized our own data on an experimental determination of the allele frequencies for lactase (LCT*), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B) genes in populations of Russia. Based on these data and available materials of other investigators, we developed maps of worldwide allele frequency distribution for these genes. We detected a correlation of allele frequencies of these genes in populations with the presence of certain factors of the environment that these populations inhabit. It was also confirmed that the evolutionarily young LCT*-13910T allele, which determines lactase persistence and the possibility of milk consumption in adults, is distributed in populations for which dairy animal husbandry is typical. During the analysis of 68 populations, we for the first time demonstrated that the frequency of the APOE e4 allele (which is ancestral for humans and influences the lipid metabolism) is higher in groups with a high contribution of hunting and gathering. Our data are in favor of the hypothesis that it was exactly the e4 allele that was a subject for selection, while the e3 allele was less important for adaptation. We also for the first time demonstrated that the evolutionarily young ADH

  1. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    remain unaddressed in official assessments conducted in partnership with the SPDC. Private, community-based relief organizations like EAT are well positioned and able to independently assess human rights conditions in response to complex humanitarian emergencies such as Cyclone Nargis; efforts of this nature must be encouraged, particularly in settings where human rights abuses have been documented and censorship is widespread. PMID:20403200

  2. Advanced Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  3. Applications of advanced V/STOL aircraft concepts to civil utility missions, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The suitability of advanced V/STOL aircraft to civil utility applications was assessed for offshore oil support, forest fire support, transport, and humanitarian missions. The aircraft concepts considered were a lift fan aircraft, a tilt rotor aircraft, and an advanced helicopter. All the aircraft had a design payload of 2,268 kg. (5,000 lb.) with the maximum range varying from 2,224 km. (1,800 nm) for the lift fan STOL to 1,482 km (800 nm) for the advanced helicopter. The analysis of these missions considered such factors as aircraft performance, annual utilization, initial cost, and operating cost. It is concluded that all the advanced V/STOL aircraft concepts generally performed these missions better than contemporary aircraft. The lift fan aircraft and the tilt rotor aircraft were found to be effective for the offshore oil and the forest fire support missions. The lift fan aircraft in the VTOL mode was also found to be very attractive for the executive transport mission where the passenger time value was $30/hr. or more.

  4. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. D.; Buritz, R. S.; Taylor, A. R.; Bullwinkel, E. P.

    1982-11-01

    An experimental development program was conducted to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. High rep rate and low rate capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, and high frequency ac capacitors for series resonant inverters were considered. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film. Initially, low breakdown strength was thought to be related to inclusions of conductive particles. The effect of filtration of the casting solution was investigated. These experiments showed that more filtration was not the entire solution to low breakdown. The film samples were found to contain dissolved ionic impurities that move through the dielectric when voltage is applied and cause enhancement of the electric field. These contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and can be partially removed. However, these treatments did not significantly improve the breakdown characteristics. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films. this is the first step toward a replacement for kraft paper.

  5. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  6. Future advances.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future advances in the auditory systems are difficult to predict, and only educated guesses are possible. It is expected that innovative technologies in the field of neuroscience will be applied to the auditory system. Optogenetics, Brainbow, and CLARITY will improve our knowledge of the working of neural auditory networks and the relationship between sound and language, providing a dynamic picture of the brain in action. CLARITY makes brain tissue transparent and offers a three-dimensional view of neural networks, which, combined with genetically labeling neurons with multiple, distinct colors (Optogenetics), will provide detailed information of the complex brain system. Molecular functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow the study of neurotransmitters detectable by MRI and their function in the auditory pathways. The Human Connectome project will study the patterns of distributed brain activity that underlie virtually all aspects of cognition and behavior and determine if abnormalities in the distributed patterns of activity may result in hearing and behavior disorders. Similarly, the programs of Big Brain and ENIGMA will improve our understanding of auditory disorders. New stem-cell therapy and gene therapies therapy may bring about a partial restoration of hearing for impaired patients by inducing regeneration of cochlear hair cells. PMID:25726297

  7. Study of global operational needs for mine clearance equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagden, Paddy M.

    2003-09-01

    The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining studied the needs of landmine clearance groups for equipment to carry out specific functions of mine clearance. This was done on a global level, and useful results were obtained, which will provide the basis for further analysis.

  8. Advanced Technologies for Space Life Science Payloads on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) is a specialized, high-performance work group organized to provide advanced engineering and technology support for NASA's Life Sciences spaceflight and ground-based research and development programs. In support of these objectives, S2K! manages NASA's Advanced Technology Development Program for Biosensor and Biotelemetry Systems (ATD-B), with particular emphasis on technologies suitable for Gravitational Biology, Human Health and Performance, and Information Technology and Systems Management. A concurrent objective is to apply and transition ATD-B developed technologies to external, non-NASA humanitarian (medical, clinical, surgical, and emergency) situations and to stimulate partnering and leveraging with other government agencies, academia, and the commercial/industrial sectors. A phased long-term program has been implemented to support science disciplines and programs requiring specific biosensor (i.e., biopotential, biophysical, biochemical, and biological) measurements from humans, animals (mainly primates and rodents), and cells under controlled laboratory and simulated microgravity situations. In addition to the technology programs described above, NASA's Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Office has initiated a Technology Infusion process to identify and coordinate the utilization and integration of advanced technologies into its International Space Station Facilities. This project has recently identified a series of technologies, tasks, and products which, if implemented, would significantly increase the science return, decrease costs, and provide improved technological capability. This presentation will review the programs described above and discuss opportunities for collaboration, leveraging, and partnering with NASA.

  9. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  10. Sensor fusion for airborne landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Miranda A.; Gader, Paul D.; Bolton, Jeremy; Zare, Alina; Mendez-Vasquez, Andres

    2006-05-01

    Sensor fusion has become a vital research area for mine detection because of the countermine community's conclusion that no single sensor is capable of detecting mines at the necessary detection and false alarm rates over a wide variety of operating conditions. The U. S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) evaluates sensors and algorithms for use in a multi-sensor multi-platform airborne detection modality. A large dataset of hyperspectral and radar imagery exists from the four major data collections performed at U. S. Army temperate and arid testing facilities in Autumn 2002, Spring 2003, Summer 2004, and Summer 2005. There are a number of algorithm developers working on single-sensor algorithms in order to optimize feature and classifier selection for that sensor type. However, a given sensor/algorithm system has an absolute limitation based on the physical phenomena that system is capable of sensing. Therefore, we perform decision-level fusion of the outputs from single-channel algorithms and we choose to combine systems whose information is complementary across operating conditions. That way, the final fused system will be robust to a variety of conditions, which is a critical property of a countermine detection system. In this paper, we present the analysis of fusion algorithms on data from a sensor suite consisting of high frequency radar imagery combined with hyperspectral long-wave infrared sensor imagery. The main type of fusion being considered is Choquet integral fusion. We evaluate performance achieved using the Choquet integral method for sensor fusion versus Boolean and soft "and," "or," mean, or majority voting.

  11. Advance Care Planning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... Is Advance Care Planning? Advance care planning involves learning about the types of decisions that might need ...

  12. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  13. Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate. PMID:20018582

  14. Advanced information society (12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    In this paper, the original Japanese idea of "advanced information society" was reviewed at the first step. Thus, advancement of information/communication technology, advancement of information/communication needs and tendency of industrialization of information" were examined. Next, by comparing studies on advanced information society in various countries, the Japanese characteristics of consensus building was reviewed. Finally, in pursuit of prospect and tasks for the society, advancement of innovation and convergence information/communication technology, information/communication needs, institutional environment for utilization of information/communication and countermeasures against information pollution. Matching of information/communication technology and needs, besides with countermeasures against information pollution were discussed.

  15. Advance Care Planning.

    PubMed

    Stallworthy, Elizabeth J

    2013-04-16

    Advance care planning should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease, including end-stage kidney disease on renal replacement therapy. Advance care planning is a process of patient-centred discussion, ideally involving family/significant others, to assist the patient to understand how their illness might affect them, identify their goals and establish how medical treatment might help them to achieve these. An Advance Care Plan is only one useful outcome from the Advance Care Planning process, the education of patient and family around prognosis and treatment options is likely to be beneficial whether or not a plan is written or the individual loses decision making capacity at the end of life. Facilitating Advance Care Planning discussions requires an understanding of their purpose and communication skills which need to be taught. Advance Care Planning needs to be supported by effective systems to enable the discussions and any resulting Plans to be used to aid subsequent decision making. PMID:23586906

  16. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  17. Advanced Airspace Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) is presented. The topics include: 1) Limitations of the existing system; 2) The Advanced Airspace Concept; 3) Candidate architecture for the AAC; 4) Separation assurance and conflict avoidance system (TSAFE); and 5) Ground-Air Interactions. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  18. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  19. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  20. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  1. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  2. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  3. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  4. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  5. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  6. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  7. Advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is presented. The costs, reliability, capabilities, infrastructure are briefly described. Quality approach, failure modes, structural design, technology benefits, and key facilities are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  8. Advanced camera for surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Ford, Holland C.; Bartko, Frank; Bely, Pierre Y.; Broadhurst, Tom; Burrows, Christopher J.; Cheng, Edward S.; Crocker, James H.; Franx, Marijn; Feldman, Paul D.; Golimowski, David A.; Hartig, George F.; Illingworth, Garth; Kimble, Randy A.; Lesser, Michael P.; Miley, George H.; Postman, Marc; Rafal, Marc D.; Rosati, Piero; Sparks, William B.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; White, Richard L.; Sullivan, Pamela; Volmer, Paul; LaJeunesse, Tom

    2000-07-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a third generation instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It is currently planned for installation in HST during the fourth servicing mission in Summer 2001. The ACS will have three cameras.

  9. The Advanced Energy Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, JoAnn; Joseck, Fred; Wang, Michael; Yuzugullu, Elvin

    The President's Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI), launched in 2006, addresses the challenges of energy supply and demand facing our Nation by supporting research and development of advanced technologies for transportation and stationary power generation. The AEI portfolio includes clean coal, nuclear and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind) for stationary power generation and advanced battery technologies, cellulosic ethanol as a fuel and hydrogen fuel cells for transportation. These research and development programs are underpinned by comprehensive life-cycle analysis efforts using models such as Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) and Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) to enable a better understanding of the characteristics and trade-offs associated with advanced energy options and to help decision makers choose viable pathways for clean, reliable and affordable energy.

  10. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  11. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  12. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  13. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  14. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem. PMID:25743056

  15. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  16. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  17. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  18. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  19. A direct advance on advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2012-06-01

    Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as 'living wills', are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to the doctrine of necessity. While patients can request particular treatments in an AD, only refusals are binding. This paper will examine whether ADs safeguard the autonomy and best interests of the incompetent patient, and whether legislating for the use of ADs is justified, using the specific context of the legal situation in the United Kingdom to illustrate the debate. The issue of whether the law should permit ADs is itself dependent on the issue of whether ADs are ethically justified; thus we must answer a normative question in order to answer the legislative one. It emerges that ADs suffer from two major problems, one related to autonomy and one to consent. First, ADs' emphasis on precedent autonomy effectively sentences some people who want to live to death. Second, many ADs might not meet the standard criteria for informed refusal of treatment, because they fail on the crucial criterion of sufficient information. Ultimately, it transpires that ADs are typically only appropriate for patients who temporarily lose physical or mental capacity. PMID:21133977

  20. Recruit and ADVANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  1. Advanced access appointments

    PubMed Central

    Hudec, John C.; MacDougall, Steven; Rankin, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of advanced access (same-day physician appointments) on patient and provider satisfaction and to determine its association with other variables such as physician income and patient emergency department use. DESIGN Patient satisfaction survey and semistructured interviews with physicians and support staff; analysis of physician medical insurance billings and patient emergency department visits. SETTING Cape Breton, NS. PARTICIPANTS Patients, physicians, and support staff of 3 comparable family physician practices that had not implemented advanced access and an established advanced access practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported provider and patient satisfaction, physician office income, and patients’ emergency department use. RESULTS The key benefits of implementation of advanced access were an increase in provider and patient satisfaction levels, same or greater physician office income, and fewer less urgent (triage level 4) and nonurgent (triage level 5) emergency department visits by patients. CONCLUSION Currently within the Central Cape Breton Region, 33% of patients wait 4 or more days for urgent appointments. Findings from this study can be used to enhance primary care physician practice redesign. This research supports many benefits of transitioning to an advanced access model of patient booking. PMID:20944024

  2. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  3. Advanced thermionic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. D.; Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical and experimental exploration was conducted on several types of advanced thermionic energy converters, and preliminary analysis was performed on systems utilizing advanced converter performance. The Pt--Nb cylindrical diode which exhibited a suppressed arc drop, as described in the preceding report, was reassembled and the existence of the postulated hydrid mode of operation was tentatively confirmed. Initial data obtained on ignited and unignited triode operation in the demountable cesium vapor system essentially confirmed the design principles developed in earlier work, with a few exceptions. Three specific advanced converter concepts were selected as candidates for concentrated basic study and for practical evaluation in fixed-configuration converters. Test vehicles and test stands for these converters and a unique controlled-atmosphere station for converter assembly and processing were designed, and procurement was initiated.

  4. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  5. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  6. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  7. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-02-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  8. Cascaded humidified advanced turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhamkin, M.; Swenson, E.C.; Cohn, A.; Bradshaw, D.; Taylor, R.; Wilson, J.M.; Gaul, G.; Jahnke, F.; Polsky, M.

    1995-05-01

    This article describes how, by combining the best features of simple- and combined-cycle gas turbine power plants, the CHAT cycle concept offers power producers a clean, more efficient and less expensive alternative to both. The patented cascaded advanced turbine and its cascaded humidified advanced turbine (CHAT) derivative offer utilities and other power producers a practical advanced gas turbine power plant by combining commercially-available gas turbine and industrial compressor technologies in a unique way. Compared to combined-cycle plants, a CHAT power plant has lower emissions and specific capital costs-approximately 20 percent lower than what is presently available. Further, CHAT`s operating characteristics are especially well-suited to load following quick start-up scenarios and they are less susceptible to power degradation from higher ambient air temperature conditions.

  9. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  10. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  11. Commercialization of advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, J.

    1996-11-01

    Mader and Associates has been working as a contractor for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) for the past several years. During this period it has performed various assessments of advanced battery technology as well as established the Advanced Battery Task Force. The following paper is Mader`s view of the status of battery technologies that are competing for the electric vehicle (EV) market being established by the California Air Resources Board`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. The ZEV market is being competed for by various advanced battery technologies. And, given the likelihood of modifications to the Mandate, the most promising technologies should capture the following market share during the initial 10 years: Lead-Acid--8.4%, Nickel Metal Hydride--50.8%, Sodium Sulfur--7.8%, Lithium Ion 33.0%.

  12. The Advanced LIGO Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritschel, Peter

    2016-03-01

    After decades of development, the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are now operating, and they completed their first observational run in early 2016. Advanced LIGO consists of two 4-km scale interferometric detectors located at separate sites in the US. The first year of detector commissioning that led to the first observation run produced instruments that have several times better sensitivity to gravitational-wave strain than previous instruments. At their final design sensitivity, the detectors will be another factor of 2-3x more sensitive than current performance. This talk will cover the design of Advanced LIGO, explain how the sensitivity improvements have been achieved, and lay out the path to reaching final design sensitivity.

  13. [Advanced Composites Technology Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julian, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    This final report closes out the W02 NASA Grant #NCC5-646. The FY02 grant for advanced technology initiatives through the Advanced Composites Technology Institute in Bridgeport, WV, at the Robert C. Byrd Institute (RCBI) Bridgeport Manufacturing Technology Center, is complete; all funding has been expended. RCBI continued to expand access to technology; develop and implement a workforce-training curriculum; improve material development; and provide prototyping and demonstrations of new and advanced composites technologies for West Virginia composites firms. The FY 02 efforts supported workforce development, technical training and the HST development effort of a super-lightweight composite carrier prototype and expanded the existing technical capabilities of the growing aerospace industry across West Virginia to provide additional support for NASA missions. Additionally, the Composites Technology and Training Center was awarded IS0 9001 - 2000 certification and Cleanroom Class 1000 certification during this report period.

  14. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  15. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  16. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-02-08

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. The advanced containment system comprises a plurality of casing sections with each casing section interlocked to an adjacent casing section. Each casing section includes a complementary interlocking structure that interlocks with the complementary interlocking structure on an adjacent casing section. A barrier filler substantially fills the casing sections and may substantially fill the spaces of the complementary interlocking structure to form a substantially impermeable barrier. Some of the casing sections may include sensors so that the casing sections and the zone of interest may be remotely monitored after the casing sections are emplaced in the ground.

  17. MR Neurography: Advances

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Zhao, Lianxin; Carrino, John A.; Trueblood, Eo; Koceski, Saso; Shteriev, Filip; Lenkinski, Lionel; Sinclair, Christopher D. J.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    High resolution and high field magnetic resonance neurography (MR neurography, MRN) is shown to have excellent anatomic capability. There have been considerable advances in the technology in the last few years leading to various feasibility studies using different structural and functional imaging approaches in both clinical and research settings. This paper is intended to be a useful seminar for readers who want to gain knowledge of the advancements in the MRN pulse sequences currently used in clinical practice as well as learn about the other techniques on the horizon aimed at better depiction of nerve anatomy, pathology, and potential noninvasive evaluation of nerve degeneration or regeneration. PMID:23589774

  18. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  19. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  20. Avionics advanced development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  1. Advances in attosecond science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Francesca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Nisoli, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond science offers formidable tools for the investigation of electronic processes at the heart of important physical processes in atomic, molecular and solid-state physics. In the last 15 years impressive advances have been obtained from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Attosecond pulses, in the form of isolated pulses or of trains of pulses, are now routinely available in various laboratories. In this review recent advances in attosecond science are reported and important applications are discussed. After a brief presentation of various techniques that can be employed for the generation and diagnosis of sub-femtosecond pulses, various applications are reported in atomic, molecular and condensed-matter physics.

  2. Technological advances in teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Orphanoudakis, S C; Kaldoudi, E; Tsiknakis, M

    1996-06-01

    Teleradiology consists of a set of added-value telematic services, implemented over an advanced telecommunications infrastructure and supported by different information technologies and related applications. The main goal of teleradiology is to provide different levels of support for remote diagnostic imaging procedures. This paper considers technological advances in this important area, including a discussion of the various added-value telematic services, applications supporting these services, and the required information technology and telecommunications infrastructure. Teleradiology is also considered in the general context of an integrated regional health telematics network, emphasizing its role and its interaction with other information and networking services. PMID:8832235

  3. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  4. Advanced Neuroimaging of Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Prashant; Steven, Andrew; Rath, Tanya; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2016-05-01

    Although tinnitus may originate in damage to the peripheral auditory apparatus, its perception and distressing symptomatology are consequences of alterations to auditory, sensory, and limbic neural networks. This has been described in several studies, some using advanced structural MR imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging. An understanding of these complex changes could enable development of targeted treatment. New MR imaging techniques enabling detailed depiction of the labyrinth may be useful when diagnosis of Meniere disease is equivocal. Advances in computed tomography and MR imaging have enabled noninvasive diagnosis of dural arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:27154611

  5. Advanced sensors technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G.; Costello, David J.; Davis, Jerry G.; Horst, Richard L.; Lessard, Charles S.; Peel, H. Herbert; Tolliver, Robert

    1992-01-01

    This project assesses the state-of-the-art in advanced or 'smart' sensors technology for NASA Life Sciences research applications with an emphasis on those sensors with potential applications on the space station freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to conduct literature reviews on relevant advanced sensor technology; (2) to interview various scientists and engineers in industry, academia, and government who are knowledgeable on this topic; (3) to provide viewpoints and opinions regarding the potential applications of this technology on the SSF; and (4) to provide summary charts of relevant technologies and centers where these technologies are being developed.

  6. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  7. Demining Dogs in Colombia - A Review of Operational Challenges, Chemical Perspectives, and Practical Implications.

    PubMed

    Prada, Paola A; Chávez Rodríguez, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Within the framework of an internal armed conflict in Colombia, the use of antipersonnel mines by revolutionary armed forces represents a strategic factor for these groups. Antipersonnel mines are used by these revolutionary forces as a mean to hinder the advancement of the national armed forces in the recovery of territory and to protect tactical natural resources and illegal economies within a given area. These antipersonnel mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are not of industrial manufacturing, and have a variety of activating mechanisms as well as non-metal materials which make them difficult for successful detection. The Colombian experience strongly represents the current need for advanced research and development of effective field operations within its affected territory. Current efforts are focused on a more operational demining perspective in coca cultivation sites in charge of mobile squadrons of eradication (EMCAR) from the National Police of Colombia working towards a future humanitarian demining upon an eventual peace process. The objectives of this review are not only to highlight already existing mine detection methods, but present a special emphasis on the role of mine detection canine teams in the context of this humanitarian issue in Colombia. This review seeks to bring together a description of chemical interactions of the environment with respect to landmine odor signatures, as well as mine detection dog operational perspectives for this specific detection task. The aim is to highlight that given the limited knowledge on the subject, there is a research gap that needs to be attended in order to efficiently establish optimal operating conditions for the reliable performance of mine detection dogs in Colombian demining field applications. PMID:27320400

  8. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2013-05-28

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  9. Technological advances transforming rheumatology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, William H.; Mao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances over the past decade have revolutionized many areas of rheumatology, ranging from diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic development to the mechanistic understanding of rheumatic diseases. This overview highlights key technological innovations and discusses the major impact that these developments are having on research and clinical practice. PMID:26439404

  10. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  11. Advances in photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Baron, Elma D; Kirkland, Eugene B; Domingo, Diana Santo

    2008-08-01

    Major advancements in the realm of photoprotection have occurred over the last decade providing potential means to reduce the prevalence of ultraviolet radiation-related skin problems. This review elucidates current photoprotective methods and recent developments that may hold future promise. PMID:18819220

  12. Advancement's Sticky Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The author did not expect to be surprised or disturbed by the data from the latest Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) salary survey; however, she was. CASE has been conducting the survey since 1982, so she assumed the findings would mirror her own salary history and those of her peers. While she suspected that older women…

  13. Skimming & Scanning. Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward B.

    Part of a series intended to develop essential specialized reading skills, this text/workbook is designed to provide instruction and practice in skimming and scanning for students reading at the seventh through tenth grade reading levels, considered the advanced level. Part 1 of the book deals with skimming. A lesson defines skimming (the rapid…

  14. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  15. Impedance cardiography: recent advancements.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Gerard; Strasz, Anna; Niewiadomski, Wiktor; Gąsiorowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the presentation of recent advancements in impedance cardiography regarding methodical approach, applied equipment and clinical or research implementations. The review is limited to the papers which were published over last 17 months (dated 2011 and 2012) in well recognised scientific journals. PMID:23042327

  16. Advances in fetal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pedreira, Denise Araujo Lapa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper discusses the main advances in fetal surgical therapy aiming to inform health care professionals about the state-of-the-art techniques and future challenges in this field. We discuss the necessary steps of technical evolution from the initial open fetal surgery approach until the development of minimally invasive techniques of fetal endoscopic surgery (fetoscopy). PMID:27074241

  17. NIST ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Not-yet-possible technologies are the domain of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Advanced Technology Program. The ATP is a unique partnership between government and private industry to accelerate the development of high-risk technologies that promise sign...

  18. Oklahoma's Advanced School Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary

    A new means of funding school operations known as advanced school funding allows Oklahoma schools financing during the temporary cash shortfalls. The program consists of the Oklahoma Development Authority issuing revenue bonds purchased by E. F. Hutton and Company, Inc., which then sells the tax free bonds to investors throughout the country. A…

  19. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  20. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-12-31

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  1. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  2. Management of advanced melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, L. )

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on the subject of management of advanced melanoma. The topics covered are: non-investigational cytotoxic agents; high-dosage chemotherapy in antologous bone marrow transplantation; Radiotherapy of melanomas; hyperthermia; ureal melanoma; surgical treatment of recurrent a metastatic melanoma; role of interferons in management of melanoma and molecular genetics of melanoma.

  3. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  4. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  5. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  6. Advances in satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  7. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. The Advancement Checkup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that an external audit of a college advancement program is analogous to a periodic physical examination that offers objectivity and expertise. Audits are appropriate at the time of administrative transitions, performance difficulties, and even periods of sustained success. Guidelines and expectations are discussed. (MSE)

  9. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  10. Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Oct 8,2015 When heart failure (HF) ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  11. Cartoons as Advance Organizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalik, Cindy L.; Williams, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated student reaction to the use of cartoons as advance organizers for online discussions in an online course. A convenience sample of 15 students participated in the study by contributing cartoons, participating in online discussions, and completing a survey. Overall, survey results indicated student reaction to the…

  12. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  13. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and progress of the Advanced Gas Turbine engine program is examined. An analysis of the role of ceramics in the design and major engine components is included. Projected fuel economy, emissions and performance standards, and versatility in fuel use are also discussed.

  14. Advanced radiator concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem-Kirsop, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid droplet radiator and the liquid belt radiator currently under study by the NASA LeRC are discussed. These advanced concepts offer benefits in reduced mass, compact stowage, and ease of deployment. Operation and components of the radiators are described, heat transfer characteristics are discussed, and critical technologies are identified. The impact of the radiators on large power systems is also assessed.

  15. Advanced fossil energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium ‘Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization’ co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 26–30, 2009.

  16. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  17. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Leslie, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Chemical Propulsion (ACP) provides near-term incremental improvements in propulsion system performance and/or cost. It is an evolutionary approach to technology development that produces useful products along the way to meet increasingly more demanding mission requirements while focusing on improving payload mass fraction to yield greater science capability. Current activities are focused on two areas: chemical propulsion component, subsystem, and manufacturing technologies that offer measurable system level benefits; and the evaluation of high-energy storable propellants with enhanced performance for in-space application. To prioritize candidate propulsion technology alternatives, a variety of propulsion/mission analyses and trades have been conducted for SMD missions to yield sufficient data for investment planning. They include: the Advanced Chemical Propulsion Assessment; an Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Model; a LOx-LH2 small pumps conceptual design; a space storables propellant study; a spacecraft cryogenic propulsion study; an advanced pressurization and mixture ratio control study; and a pump-fed vs. pressure-fed study.

  18. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Eleven study tasks are described and key results are discussed for the following: advanced planning activity; cost estimation research; planetary missions performance handbooks-revisions; multiple discipline science assessment; asteroid workshop; galilean lander mission strategies; asteroid exploration study; ion drive transport capabilities; Mars strategy study; Venus surface sample return; and ion drive/solar sail assessment study.

  19. Advanced electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, L.G.

    1980-07-01

    The Advanced Electric Vehicle is defined as an automobile which can fulfill the general-purpose role of today's internal-combustion-engine-powered car without utilizing petroleum fuels directly. It relies principally on the utilization of electricity. A number of candidate systems are described. The present status of each is discussed as are the problems to be overcome before implementation can proceed.

  20. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-10-26

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.