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Sample records for advanced humanitarian landmine

  1. Results of the Development of Humanitarian Landmine Detection System by a Compact Fusion Neutron Source and Dual Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kai; Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Toku, Hisayuki; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hotta, Eiki; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Ohnishi, Masami; Osawa, Hodaka; Shiroya, Seiji; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Doi, Toshiro

    2009-03-10

    A 5-year task is described on the research and development of the advanced humanitarian landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion) device and 3 dual sensors made of BGO and NaI(Tl). With 10{sup 7} D-D neutrons/s stably produced in steady-state mode, H-2.2 MeV, N-5.3, 10.8 MeV {gamma} rays from (n,{gamma}) reaction with hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in the explosives are measured for two kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX), under the conditions of three different buried depths, and soil moistures each. Final probabilities of detection for arid soil are found to be 100% in the present tests. The neutron backscattering method is also found to be efficient.

  2. An unmanned ground vehicle for landmine remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, Steven R.; Guilberto, Jose; Ogg, Wade; Wedeward, Kevin; Bruder, Stephen; El-Osery, Aly

    2004-09-01

    Anti-tank (AT) landmines slow down and endanger military advances and present sizeable humanitarian problems. The remediation of these mines by direct human intervention is both dangerous and costly. The Intelligent Systems & Robotics Group (ISRG) at New Mexico Tech has provided a partial solution to this problem by developing an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) to remediate these mines without endangering human lives. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of this UGV. Current results and future work are also described herein. To initiate the remediation process the UGV is given the GPS coordinates of previously detected landmines. Once the UGV autonomously navigates to an acceptable proximity of the landmine, a remote operator acquires control over a wireless network link using a joystick on a base station. Utilizing two cameras mounted on the UGV, the operator is able to accurately position the UGV directly over the landmine. The UGV houses a self-contained drill system equipped with its own processing resources, sensors, and actuators. The drill system deploys a neutralizing device over the landmine to neutralize it. One such device, developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), employs incendiary materials to melt through the container of the landmine and slowly burn the explosive material, thereby safely and remotely disabling the landmine.

  3. Landmine research: technology solutions looking for problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevelyan, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The global landmine problem came to the attention of researchers in the mid 1990's and by 1997 several advanced and expensive sensor research programs had started. Yet, by the end of 2003, there is little sign of a major advance in the technology available to humanitarian demining programs. Given the motivation and dedication of researchers, public goodwill to support such programs, and substantial research resources devoted to the problem, it is worth asking why these programs do not seem to have had an impact on demining costs or casualty rates. Perhaps there are factors that have been overlooked. This paper reviews several research programs to gain a deeper understanding of the problem. A possible explanation is that researchers have accepted mistaken ideas on the nature of the landmine problems that need to be solved. The paper provides several examples where the realities of minefield conditions are quite different to what researchers have been led to believe. Another explanation may lie in the political and economic realities that drive the worldwide effort to eliminate landmines. Most of the resources devoted to landmine clearance programs come from humanitarian aid budgets: landmine affected countries often contribute only a small proportion because they have different priorities based on realistic risk-based assessment of needs and political views of local people. Some aid projects have been driven by the need to find a market for demining technologies rather than by user needs. Finally, there is a common misperception that costs in less developed countries are intrinsically low, reflecting low rates paid for almost all classes of skilled labour. When actual productivity is taken into account, real costs can be higher than industrialized countries. The costs of implementing technological solutions (even using simple technologies) are often significantly under-estimated. Some political decisions may have discouraged thorough investigation of cost

  4. Advanced modeling of thermal NDT problems: from buried landmines to defects in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilov, Vladimir P.; Burleigh, Douglas D.; Klimov, Alexey G.

    2002-03-01

    Advanced thermal models that can be used in the detection of buried landmines and the TNDT (thermographic nondestructive testing) of composites are discussed. The interdependence between surface temperature signals and various complex parameters, such as surface and volumetric moisture, the shape of a heat pulse, material anisotropy, etc., is demonstrated.

  5. Canadian landmine detection research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Das, Yogadhish; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC), an agency within the Department of National Defence, has been conducting research and development (R&D) on the detection of landmines for countermine operations and of unexploded ordnance (UXO) for range clearance since 1975. The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT), located at DRDC Suffield, was formed in 1998 to carry out R&D related to humanitarian demining. The lead group responsible for formulating and executing both countermine and humanitarian R&D programs in detection is the Threat Detection Group at DRDC Suffield. This paper describes R&D for both programs under the major headings of remote minefield detection, close-in scanning detection, confirmation detection and teleoperated systems. Among DRDC's achievements in landmine and UXO detection R&D are pioneering work in electromagnetic and magnetic identification and classification; the first military-fielded multisensor, teleoperated vehicle-mounted landmine detection system; pioneering use of confirmation detectors for multisensor landmine detection systems; the first fielded thermal neutron activation landmine confirmation sensor; the first detection of landmines using a real-time hyperspectral imager; electrical impedance imaging detection of landmines and UXO and a unique neutron backscatter landmine imager.

  6. Research and Development of Landmine Detection System by a Compact Fusion Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kai; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Mizutani, Toshiyuki; Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Imoto, Masaki; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Ohnishi, Masami; Osawa, Hodaka; Hotta, Eiki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Okino, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masato; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Yuura, Morimasa; Shiroya, Seiji; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Takamasa

    2005-05-15

    Current results are described on the research and development of an advanced anti-personnel landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). Landmines are to be identified through backscattering of neutrons, and specific-energy capture {gamma}-rays by hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in the landmine explosives.For this purpose, improvements in the IECF were made by various methods to achieve a drastic enhancement of neutron yields of more than 10{sup 8} n/s in pulsed operation. This required R and D on the power source, as well as analysis of envisaged detection systems with multi-sensors. The results suggest promising and practical features for humanitarian landmine detection, particularly, in Afghanistan.

  7. LANDMARC - making land-mine detection and removal practical

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, S.

    1997-11-01

    While diplomats work to restrict the manufacture, sale, and use of land mines worldwide, a massive cleanup effort is needed to find and destroy the estimated 100 million land mines still buried in 65 countries. Land mines left behind from wars worldwide are one of the century`s main unsolved problems of war and remain the focus of humanitarian mine detection and removal primarily in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. A combination of technologies from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being directed toward the most daunting challenge presented by land mines - quickly determining the location of each individual land mine in an area so all of them can be removed. The Laboratory`s patented micropower impulse radar and advanced imaging technologies are being combined in a practical system called the Land-Mine Detection Advanced Radar Concept, or LANDMARC, that is making pivotal advances in meeting the challenge of land-mine detection.

  8. Detection of landmines and UXO using advanced synthetic aperture radar technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Eric; Peichl, Markus; Dill, Stephan; Heinzel, Andreas; Bischeltsrieder, Florian

    2016-05-01

    A main problem of effective landmine and UXO decontamination is efficient and reliable detection and localization of suspicious objects in reasonable time. This requirement demands for fast sensors investigating large areas with sufficient spatial resolution and sensitivity. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a suitable tool and is considered as a complementing sensor since nearly two decades. However, most GPRs operate in very close distance to ground in a rather punctual method of operation. In contrast, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a technique allowing fast and laminar stand-off investigation of an area. TIRAMI-SAR is imaging radar at lower microwaves for fast close-in detection of buried and unburied objects on a larger area. This allows efficient confirmation of a threat by investigating such regions of detection by other sensors. For proper object detection sufficient spatial resolution is required. Hence the SAR principle is applied. SAR for landmine/UXO detection can be applied by side-looking radar moved on safe ground along the area of interest, being typically the un-safe ground. Additionally, reliable detection of buried and unburied objects requires sufficient suppression of background clutter. For that purpose TIRAMI-SAR is using several antennas in multi-static configuration and wave polarization together with advanced SAR processing. The advantages and necessity of a multi-static antenna configuration for this kind of GPR approach is illustrated in the paper.

  9. Thermal systems for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Marco; Del Vecchio, Luca; Esposito, Salvatore; Balsi, Marco; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents new techniques of landmine detection and localization using thermal methods. Described methods use both dynamical and static analysis. The work is based on datasets obtained from the Humanitarian Demining Laboratory of Università La Sapienza di Roma, Italy.

  10. Controlled biological and biomimetic systems for landmine detection.

    PubMed

    Habib, Maki K

    2007-08-30

    Humanitarian demining requires to accurately detect, locate and deactivate every single landmine and other buried mine-like objects as safely and as quickly as possible, and in the most non-invasive manner. The quality of landmine detection affects directly the efficiency and safety of this process. Most of the available methods to detect explosives and landmines are limited by their sensitivity and/or operational complexities. All landmines leak with time small amounts of their explosives that can be found on surrounding ground and plant life. Hence, explosive signatures represent the robust primary indicator of landmines. Accordingly, developing innovative technologies and efficient techniques to identify in real-time explosives residue in mined areas represents an attractive and promising approach. Biological and biologically inspired detection technology has the potential to compete with or be used in conjunction with other artificial technology to complement performance strengths. Biological systems are sensitive to many different scents concurrently, a property that has proven difficult to replicate artificially. Understanding biological systems presents unique opportunities for developing new capabilities through direct use of trained bio-systems, integration of living and non-living components, or inspiring new design by mimicking biological capabilities. It is expected that controlled bio-systems, biotechnology and microbial techniques will contribute to the advancement of mine detection and other application domains. This paper provides directions, evaluation and analysis on the progress of controlled biological and biomimetic systems for landmine detection. It introduces and discusses different approaches developed, underlining their relative advantages and limitations, and highlighting trends, safety and ecology concern, and possible future directions. PMID:17662594

  11. Progress in LIBS for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Jennifer L.; Harmon, Russell S.; La Pointe, Aaron

    2009-05-01

    The ability to interrogate objects buried in soil and ascertain their chemical composition in-situ would be an important capability enhancement for both military and humanitarian demining. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a simple spark spectrochemical technique using a pulsed laser. Recent developments in broadband and man-portable LIBS provide the capability for the real-time detection at very high sensitivity of all elements in any target material because all chemical elements emit in the 200-940 nm spectral region. This technological advance offers a unique potential for the development of a rugged and reliable man-portable or robot-deployable chemical sensor that would be capable of both in-situ point probing and chemical sensing for landmine detection. Broadband LIBS data was acquired under laboratory conditions for more than a dozen different types of anti-personnel and anti-tank landmine casings from four countries plus a set of antitank landmine simulants. Subsequently, a statistical classification technique (partial least squares discriminant analysis, PLS-DA) was used to discriminate landmine casings from the simulants and to assign "unknown" spectra to a mine type based upon a library classification approach. Overall, a correct classification success of 99.0% was achieved, with a misclassification rate of only 1.8%. This performance illustrates the potential that LIBS has to be developed into a field-deployable device that could be utilized as a confirmatory sensor in landmine detection. The operational concept envisioned is a small LIBS system that is either man-portable or robot-deployed in which a micro-laser is contained in the handle of a deminer's probe, with laser light delivered and collected through an optical fiber in the tapered tip of the probe. In such a configuration, chemical analysis could be readily accomplished by LIBS after touching the buried object that one is interested in identifying and using real-time statistical

  12. Enhanced Landmine Detection from Low Resolution IR Image Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiesheng; Gu, Irene Yu-Hua; Tjahjadi, Tardi

    We deal with the problem of landmine field detection using low-resolution infrared (IR) image sequences measured from airborne or vehicle-borne passive IR cameras. The proposed scheme contains two parts: a) employ a multi-scale detector, i.e., a special type of isotropic bandpass filters, to detect landmine candidates in each frame; b) enhance landmine detection through seeking maximum consensus of corresponding landmine candidates over image frames. Experiments were conducted on several IR image sequences measured from airborne and vehicle-borne cameras, where some results are included. As shown in our experiments, the landmine signatures have been significantly enhanced using the proposed scheme, and automatic detection results are reasonably good. These methods can therefore be applied to assisting humanitarian demining work for landmine field detection.

  13. Automated calibration methods for robotic multisensor landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, Joe G.; Miller, Jonathan; Schultz, Gregory; Topolosky, Zeke

    2007-04-01

    Both force protection and humanitarian demining missions require efficient and reliable detection and discrimination of buried anti-tank and anti-personnel landmines. Widely varying surface and subsurface conditions, mine types and placement, as well as environmental regimes challenge the robustness of the automatic target recognition process. In this paper we present applications created for the U.S. Army Nemesis detection platform. Nemesis is an unmanned rubber-tracked vehicle-based system designed to eradicate a wide variety of anti-tank and anti-personnel landmines for humanitarian demining missions. The detection system integrates advanced ground penetrating synthetic aperture radar (GPSAR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) arrays, highly accurate global and local positioning, and on-board target detection/classification software on the front loader of a semi-autonomous UGV. An automated procedure is developed to estimate the soil's dielectric constant using surface reflections from the ground penetrating radar. The results have implications not only for calibration of system data acquisition parameters, but also for user awareness and tuning of automatic target recognition detection and discrimination algorithms.

  14. Landmine policy in the near-term: a framework for technology analysis and action

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    Any effective solution to the problem of leftover landmines and other post-conflict unexploded ordnance (UXO) must take into account the real capabilities of demining technologies and the availability of sufficient resources to carry out demining operations. Economic and operational factors must be included in analyses of humanitarian demining. These factors will provide a framework for using currently available resources and technologies to complete this task in a time frame that is both practical and useful. Since it is likely that reliable advanced technologies for demining are still several years away, this construct applies to the intervening period. It may also provide a framework for utilizing advanced technologies as they become available. This study is an economic system model for demining operations carried out by the developed nations that clarifies the role and impact of technology on the economic performance and viability of these operations. It also provides a quantitative guide to assess the performance penalties arising from gaps in current technology, as well as the potential advantages and desirable features of new technologies that will significantly affect the international community`s ability to address this problem. Implications for current and near-term landmine and landmine technology policies are drawn.

  15. Using Giant African Pouched Rats ("Cricetomys Gambianus") to Detect Landmines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Within the past decade, giant pouched rats have been used successfully to detect landmines. This manuscript summarizes how these rats are trained and used operationally. The information provided is intended to be of practical value toward strengthening best practices in using "Cricetomys" for humanitarian purposes while simultaneously ensuring the…

  16. Needs for new tools in humanitarian Demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Alois J.

    2000-12-01

    Humanitarian demining is interdisciplinary, encompassing subjects that span from Engineering, Chemistry, and Physics to the Social Sciences. Partners in this field are not only the suffering community and the deminers, but also researchers, industrial developers, Non Governmental Organisations, policymakers, etc. There is common agreement, that the present approach in demining, means by making use of dogs, prodders, metal detectors and mechanical devices will not allow the global scourge of landmines to be overcome within the next 10 to 15 years, as requested by the Ottawa convention. New tools are needed. Especially in the domains of minefield survey, of close-in mine detection, of quality assurance after finishing clearance and last but not least for the verification of the adherence with the Ottawa Convention. The aim of the talk is to introduce experts in remote sensing sensor systems of different kinds, make them aware about the need for advanced tools for humanitarian demining, and to invite an active brainstorming in order to find new solutions. Furthermore, the presentation will focus on the assessment of the potential of air- and space-borne systems for mine field survey.

  17. Landmine detection technology research in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleijpen, H. M. A.

    2003-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the activities on research and development in the technology area for landmine detection in the Netherlands. The main players, their projects and the long term and short term project goals are presented. The projects cover the range from military applications to humanitarian demining. In the "conventional" detection systems area the activities on Metal detection, Ground Penetrating Radar and Thermal Infrared are covered. Signal processing and Sensor fusion are key activities in this area and examples of these activities are shown as well. The focus for these techniques is on vehicle mounted and airborne multi-sensor systems. The activities are supported by more fundamental modeling of the interaction of sensors with the landmines and especially the effects of the environment of the mines on this interaction. In the area of more future oriented techniques the following techniques are discussed: forward looking Polarised Infrared for moving platforms, Neutron Backscattering techniques and Laser Vibrometry for acoustic detection.

  18. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  19. Nonlinear processing of radar data for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosz, Elizabeth E.; DeJong, Keith; Duvoisin, Herbert A.; Solomon, Geoff Z.; Steinway, William J.; Warren, Albert

    2004-09-01

    Outstanding landmine detection has been achieved by the Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS system) in government-run field tests. The use of anomaly detection using principal component analysis (PCA) on the return of ground penetrating radar (GPR) coupled with metal detection is the key to the success of the HSTAMIDS-like system algorithms. Indications of nonlinearities and asymmetries in Humanitarian Demining (HD) data point to modifications to the current PCA algorithm that might prove beneficial. Asymmetries in the distribution of PCA projections of field data have been quantified in Humanitarian Demining (HD) data. An initial correction for the observed asymmetries has improved the False Alarm Rate (FAR) on this data.

  20. [Humanitarian transition].

    PubMed

    Mattei, Jean-François; Troit, Virginie

    2016-02-01

    In two centuries, modern humanitarian action has experienced several fractures often linked to crises. Although its professionalism and intervention force remain indisputable, it faces, since the 2000s, a new context that limits its ability to act and confronts it with new dilemmas, even though it must deal with needs for aid of unprecedented scale. These difficulties reveal a humanitarian transition period that was not anticipated. This transition period reflects the change from a dominant paradigm of North-South solidarity of Western origin to a much more complex model. This article provides a summary of the current mutations that are dominated by the States' assertion of sovereignty. Among the possible solutions, it argues for an ethical approach and a better integration of the research carried out in the Global South, prerequisites for building a true partnership and placing the victims at the heart of the operations which involve them. PMID:26936180

  1. A Comparative Study of Landmine Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasban, H.; Zahran, O.; Elaraby, Sayed M.; El-Kordy, M.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

    2010-09-01

    Several countries suffer from the existence of millions of buried landmines in their territories. These landmines have indefinite life, and may still cause horrific personal injuries and economic dislocation for decades after a war has finished. Therefore, there is a growing demand by these countries for reliable landmine inspection systems. There are several landmine detection techniques that can be used for this purpose. Each technique is suitable for detection under some conditions depending on the type of the landmine case, the explosive material, and the soil. This paper presents an overview of some of the existing landmine detection techniques. These techniques are briefly described and their merits and drawbacks are highlighted and compared. The purpose of this comparison is to shows the ideal conditions and the challenges for each technique. Furthermore, a comparison between landmine detection techniques from the points of view of cost, complexity, speed, safety, false alarm rate and effect of environmental conditions is presented.

  2. Testing of a locating discriminating metal detector for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Nigel; Hawkins, Mark; Beech, Richard

    2006-05-01

    Conventional metal detectors are established and trusted tools for landmine detection, but their inability to precisely locate a target and discriminate mines from clutter leads to a high false alarm rate and slow rate of progress. This paper reports on developments to the Marmot advanced metal detector, which uses an array of coils to precisely locate a metal target in three dimensions and identify it. Recent developments allow the detector to calculate the magnetic polarizability tensor of a metal object. The magnetic polarizability tensor is unique to a particular target, and is a property of the metal's shape, size, conductivity, permeability and orientation. The eigenvalues of the magnetic polarizability tensor are compared to a library of values in the detector's software, representing common types of mine and clutter. In this way, Marmot can often quickly identify a detected object as a type of mine or a piece of clutter. This identification is independent of the target's orientation and, within limits, its position relative to the search head, thus providing the potential for a target recognition facility. This paper presents the results of tests to determine Marmot's ability to detect, precisely locate and identify common landmines. Tests have been conducted in air and in several types of soil. The instrument is a first step in developing the concept for landmine clearance. Issues for further investigation have been identified, including use of the instrument for identifying high metal content landmines, application of the soil rejection function and signal to noise issues.

  3. Measuring humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Richard

    2007-11-01

    The ability to monitor assistance, define humanitarian needs, and approach equity in the distribution of assistance has lagged behind the world's growing commitment to responding to humanitarian emergencies. This article highlights relevant data sources to elucidate elements of an operational definition of humanitarian need. New and refined measures are proposed to assist in assessing the level of need among affected populations. An original measure that combines data on conflict and disasters to summarize the cumulative magnitude of 4 types of humanitarian threats is presented.

  4. Genetic optimization of the HSTAMIDS landmine detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konduri, Ravi K.; Solomon, Geoff Z.; DeJong, Keith; Duvoisin, Herbert A.; Bartosz, Elizabeth E.

    2004-09-01

    CyTerra's dual sensor HSTAMIDS system has demonstrated exceptional landmine detection capabilities in extensive government-run field tests. Further optimization of the highly successful PentAD-class algorithms for Humanitarian Demining (HD) use (to enhance detection (Pd) and to lower the false alarm rate (FAR)) may be possible. PentAD contains several input parameters, making such optimization computationally intensive. Genetic algorithm techniques, which formerly provided substantial improvement in the detection performance of the metal detector sensor algorithm alone, have been applied to optimize the numerical values of the dual-sensor algorithm parameters. Genetic algorithm techniques have also been applied to choose among several sub-models and fusion techniques to potentially train the HSTAMIDS HD system in new ways. In this presentation we discuss the performance of the resulting algorithm as applied to field data.

  5. Visual cues for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszewski, James J.; Davison, Alan D.; Tischuk, Julia A.; Dippel, David J.

    2007-04-01

    Can human vision supplement the information that handheld landmine detection equipment provides its operators to increase detection rates and reduce the hazard of the task? Contradictory viewpoints exist regarding the viability of visual detection of landmines. Assuming both positions are credible, this work aims to reconcile them by exploring the visual information produced by landmine burial and how any visible signatures change as a function of time in a natural environment. Its objective is to acquire objective, foundational knowledge on which training could be based and subsequently evaluated. A representative set of demilitarized landmines were buried at a field site with bare soil and vegetated surfaces using doctrinal procedures. High resolution photographs of the ground surface were taken for approximately one month starting in April 2006. Photos taken immediately after burial show clearly visible surface signatures. Their features change with time and weather exposure, but the patterns they define persist, as photos taken a month later show. An analysis exploiting the perceptual sensitivity of expert observers showed signature photos to domain experts with instructions to identify the cues and patterns that defined the signatures. Analysis of experts' verbal descriptions identified a small set of easily communicable cues that characterize signatures and their changes over the duration of observation. Findings suggest that visual detection training is viable and has potential to enhance detection capabilities. The photos and descriptions generated offer materials for designing such training and testing its utility. Plans for investigating the generality of the findings, especially potential limiting conditions, are discussed.

  6. Sensor management for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Jay A.; Hero, Alfred O.; Yagle, Andrew E.

    2005-06-01

    A method known as active sensing is applied to the problem of landmine detection. The platform utilizes two scanning sensor arrays composed of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) metal detectors. Six simulated confirmation sensors are then dynamically deployed according to their ability to enhance information gain. Objects of interest are divided into ten class types: three classes are for metal landmines, three classes for plastic landmines, three classes for clutter objects, and one final class for background clutter. During the initial scan mode, a uniform probability is assumed for the ten classes. The scanning measurement assigns an updated probability based on the observations of the scanning sensors. At this point a confirmation sensor is chosen to re-interrogate the object. The confirmation sensor used is the one expected to produce the maximum information gain. A measure of entropy called the Renyi divergence is applied to the class probabilities to predict the information gain for each sensor. A time monitoring extension to the approach keeps track of time, and chooses the confirmation sensor based on a combination of maximum information gain and fastest processing time. Confusion matrices are presented for the scanning sensors showing the initial classification capability. Subsequent confusion matrices show the classification performance after applying active sensing myopically and with the time monitoring extension.

  7. In defence of humanitarianism.

    PubMed

    Stockton, N

    1998-12-01

    The humanitarian crisis which followed in the wake of the genocidal regime in Rwanda in 1994 generated massive media attention and an unprecedented outpouring of international public and private assistance. In late 1997, the Rwanda refugee population in Zaire was subjected to a disaster of similarly epic proportions as a result of military action. Yet this crisis went relatively under-reported and failed to attract substantial aid funds, particularly from official donors. This paper seeks to document and account for the demise of the humanitarian imperative. It confronts a number of the criticisms of humanitarian action, concluding that, rather than being flawed, traditional humanitarian values remain valid and should be defended wherever there are situations of conflict. PMID:9874900

  8. Soil information requirements for humanitarian demining: the case for a soil properties database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Yogadhish; McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Cross, Guy; Katsube, T. John

    2003-09-01

    Landmines are buried typically in the top 30 cm of soil. A number of physical, chemical and electromagnetic properties of this near-surface layer of ground will potentially affect the wide range of technologies under development worldwide for landmine detection and neutralization. Although standard soil survey information, as related to conventional soil classification, is directed toward agricultural and environmental applications, little or no information seems to exist in a form that is directly useful to humanitarian demining and the related R&D community. Thus, there is a general need for an information database devoted specifically to relevant soil properties, their geographic distribution and climate-driven variability. A brief description of the various detection technologies is used to introduce the full range of related soil properties. Following a general description of the need to establish a comprehensive soil property database, the discussion is then narrowed to soil properties affecting electromagnetic induction metal detectors - a problem of much restricted scope but of immediate and direct relevance to humanitarian demining. In particular, the complex magnetic susceptibility and, to a lesser degree, electrical conductivity of the host soil influence the performance of these widely used tools, and in the extreme instance, can render detectors unusable. A database comprising these properties for soils of landmine-affected countries would assist in predicting local detector performance, planning demining operations, designing and developing improved detectors and establishing realistic and representative test-evaluation facilities. The status of efforts made towards developing a database involving soil electromagnetic properties is reported.

  9. Lessons on humanitarian assistance.

    PubMed Central

    Gracia Antequera, M.; Morales Suárez-Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    Conflict almost completely destroyed Rwanda's infrastructure in 1994. Natural disasters, as well as disasters caused by humans, have severely challenged humanitarian aid available within the country. In this study, we have analysed the experiences of nongovernmental organizations since the summer of 1994 to evaluate how these difficulties may be overcome. One of the problems identified has been restrictions on the ability to introduce effective health planning due to the poor quality of available local information. The implementation of effective plans that show due consideration to the environment and society is clearly necessary. Effective monitoring and detailed observation are identified as being essential to the continuity of existing humanitarian assistance. PMID:10444885

  10. Resonance vibrations of buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrai, Andrei N.; Donskoy, Dimitri M.; Ekimov, Alexander E.

    2004-09-01

    Resonance behavior of many types of landmines was first experimentally discovered in 2000 (Donskoy et al. in Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4394, pp. 575-582, 2001). Laboratory studies and field tests have shown that mine"s resonance response is a complex phenomenon dependent upon interaction between soil and mines and their respective properties. Although the resonance effect was successfully used by various research teams for detection of landmines, there were no thorough studies on various factors influencing buried mine's resonance response. This paper presents results of theoretical and experimental investigation of this problem including multi-modal structure of mine's vibration response, effect of burial depth and soil condition. In the modeling efforts we considered multiple modes of vibration of mine casing and represented them as oscillators with effective parameters. This approach allowed for simplification of analysis and expanding existing lump-element model to account for multiple vibration modes. The experimental tests were focused on studying the effects of burial depth and soil moisture content on resonance behavior of soil-mine system. The tests have shown that a resonance frequency initially decreases with burial depth, as expected. However, an anomalous resonance frequency increase was observed at greater depths; soil moisture even further increases the resonance frequency.

  11. Bioreporter bacteria for landmine detection

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, R.S.; Youngblood, T.; Lamothe, D.

    1998-04-01

    Landmines (and other UXO) gradually leak explosive chemicals into the soil at significant concentrations. Bacteria, which have adapted to scavenge low concentrations of nutrients, can detect these explosive chemicals. Uptake of these chemicals results in the triggering of specific bacterial genes. The authors have created genetically recombinant bioreporter bacteria that detect small concentrations of energetic chemicals. These bacteria are genetically engineered to produce a bioluminescent signal when they contact specific explosives. A gene for a brightly fluorescent compound can be substituted for increased sensitivity. By finding the fluorescent bacteria, you find the landmine. Detection might be accomplished using stand-off illumination of the minefield and GPS technology, which would result in greatly reduced risk to the deminers. Bioreporter technology has been proven at the laboratory scale, and will be tested under field conditions in the near future. They have created a bacterial strain that detects sub-micromolar concentrations of o- and p-nitrotoluene. Related bacterial strains were produced using standard laboratory protocols, and bioreporters of dinitrotoluene and trinitrotoluene were produced, screening for activity with the explosive compounds. Response time is dependent on the growth rate of the bacteria. Although frill signal production may require several hours, the bacteria can be applied over vast areas and scanned quickly, producing an equivalent detection speed that is very fast. This technology may be applicable to other needs, such as locating buried explosives at military and ordnance/explosive manufacturing facilities.

  12. Pulsed Operation of a Compact Fusion Neutron Source Using a High-Voltage Pulse Generator Developed for Landmine Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Kunihito; Watanabe, Masato; Okino, Akitoshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Hotta, Eiki; Yuura, Morimasa

    2005-05-15

    Preliminary experimental results of pulsed neutron source based on a discharge-type beam fusion called Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) for landmine detection are presented. In Japan, a research and development project for constructing an advanced anti-personnel landmine detection system by using IECF, which is effective not only for metal landmines but also for plastic ones, is now in progress. This project consists of some R and D topics, and one of them is R and D of a high-voltage pulse generator system specialized for landmine detection, which can be used in the severe environment such as that in the field in Afghanistan. Thus a prototype of the system for landmine detection was designed and fabricated in consideration of compactness, lightness, cooling performance, dustproof and robustness. By using this prototype pulse generator system, a conventional IECF device was operated as a preliminary experiment. As a result, it was confirmed that the suggested pulse generator system is suitable for landmine detection system, and the results follow the empirical law obtained by the previous experiments. The maximum neutron production rate of 2.0x10{sup 8} n/s was obtained at a pulsed discharge of -51 kV, 7.3 A.

  13. Intelligent Multisensor Prodder for Training Operators in Humanitarian Demining.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2016-06-24

    Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool.

  14. Intelligent Multisensor Prodder for Training Operators in Humanitarian Demining.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool. PMID:27347963

  15. Intelligent Multisensor Prodder for Training Operators in Humanitarian Demining

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool. PMID:27347963

  16. Integration of different data bodies for humanitarian decision support: an example from mine action.

    PubMed

    Benini, Aldo A; Conley, Charles E; Shdeed, Richard; Spurway, Kim; Yarmoshuk, Mark

    2003-12-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly used for integrating data from different sources and substantive areas, including in humanitarian action. The challenges of integration are particularly well illustrated by humanitarian mine action. The informational requirements of mine action are expensive, with socio-economic impact surveys costing over US$1.5 million per country, and are feeding a continuous debate on the merits of considering more factors or 'keeping it simple'. National census offices could, in theory, contribute relevant data, but in practice surveys have rarely overcome institutional obstacles to external data acquisition. A positive exception occurred in Lebanon, where the landmine impact survey had access to agricultural census data. The challenges, costs and benefits of this data integration exercise are analysed in a detailed case study. The benefits are considerable, but so are the costs, particularly the hidden ones. The Lebanon experience prompts some wider reflections. In the humanitarian community, data integration has been fostered not only by the diffusion of GIS technology, but also by institutional changes such as the creation of UN-led Humanitarian Information Centres. There is a question whether the analytic capacity is in step with aggressive data acquisition. Humanitarian action may yet have to build the kind of strong analytic tradition that public health and poverty alleviation have accomplished. PMID:14725088

  17. LIBS for landmine detection and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Russell S; DeLucia, Frank C; LaPointe, Aaron; Winkel, Raymond J; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2006-07-01

    The concept of utilizing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technology for landmine detection and discrimination has been evaluated using both laboratory LIBS and a prototype man-portable LIBS systems. LIBS spectra were collected for a suite of landmine casings, non-mine plastic materials, and "clutter-type" objects likely to be present in the soil of a conflict area or a former conflict area. Landmine casings examined included a broad selection of anti-personnel and anti-tank mines from different countries of manufacture. Other materials analyzed included rocks and soil, metal objects, cellulose materials, and different types of plastics. Two "blind" laboratory tests were conducted in which 100 broadband LIBS spectra were obtained for a mixed suite of landmine casings and clutter objects and compared with a previously-assembled spectral reference library. Using a linear correlation approach, "mine/no mine" determinations were correctly made for more than 90% of the samples in both tests. A similar test using a prototype man-portable LIBS system yielded an analogous result, validating the concept of using LIBS for landmine detection and discrimination. PMID:16724215

  18. 31 CFR 575.330 - Humanitarian activities, humanitarian purposes, and humanitarian support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Council Resolutions on Iraq, humanitarian relief, educational, cultural, recreational, and human rights-related activities, and activities to ameliorate the effects of or to investigate war crimes....

  19. Humanitarian demining technology toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joynt, Vernon P.

    2003-09-01

    This is a keynote address surveying the field of Humanitarian Demining (HD) from the viewpoint of a participating company. The controlling bodies, funding structures and some of the important sources of R&D relevant to HD are identified. The various techniques and technologies in common use as also technologies freshly put into field use are mentioned. The way in which they all fit into the demining toolbox is explained. Finally a view of future technologies that are potentially able to change HD efficiency and safety is discussed.

  20. A new integrated approach for characterizing the soil electromagnetic properties and detecting landmines using a hand-held vector network analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopera, Olga; Lambot, Sebastien; Slob, Evert; Vanclooster, Marnik; Macq, Benoit; Milisavljevic, Nada

    2006-05-01

    The application of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in humanitarian demining labors presents two major challenges: (1) the development of affordable and practical systems to detect metallic and non-metallic antipersonnel (AP) landmines under different conditions, and (2) the development of accurate soil characterization techniques to evaluate soil properties effects and determine the performance of these GPR-based systems. In this paper, we present a new integrated approach for characterizing electromagnetic (EM) properties of mine-affected soils and detecting landmines using a low cost hand-held vector network analyzer (VNA) connected to a highly directive antenna. Soil characterization is carried out using the radar-antenna-subsurface model of Lambot et al.1 and full-wave inversion of the radar signal focused in the time domain on the surface reflection. This methodology is integrated to background subtraction (BS) and migration to enhance landmine detection. Numerical and laboratory experiments are performed to show the effect of the soil EM properties on the detectability of the landmines and how the proposed approach can ameliorate the GPR performance.

  1. Prediction of the effects of soil and target properties on the antipersonnel landmine detection performance of ground-penetrating radar: A Colombian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopera, Olga; Milisavljevic, Nada

    2007-09-01

    The performance of ground-penetrating (GPR) radar is determined fundamentally by the soil electromagnetic (EM) properties and the target characteristics. In this paper, we predict the effects of such properties on the antipersonnel (AP) landmine detection performance of GPR in a Colombian scenario. Firstly, we use available soil geophysical information in existing pedotransfer models to calculate soil EM properties. The latter are included in a two-dimensional (2D), finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling program in conjunction with the characteristics of AP landmines to calculate the buried target reflection. The approach is applied to two soils selected among Colombian mine-affected areas, and several local improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and AP landmines are modeled as targets. The signatures from such targets buried in the selected soils are predicted, considering different conditions. Finally, we show how the GPR can contribute in detecting low- and non-metallic targets in these Colombian soils. Such a system could be quite adequate for complementing humanitarian landmine detection by metal detectors.

  2. Camera-based platform and sensor motion tracking for data fusion in a landmine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Mark, Wannes; van den Heuvel, Johan C.; den Breejen, Eric; Groen, Frans C. A.

    2003-09-01

    Vehicles that serve in the role as landmine detection robots could be an important tool for demining former conflict areas. On the LOTUS platform for humanitarian demining, different sensors are used to detect a wide range of landmine types. Reliable and accurate detection depends on correctly combining the observations from the different sensors on the moving platform. Currently a method based on odometry is used to merge the readings from the sensors. In this paper a vision based approach is presented which can estimate the relative sensor pose and position together with the vehicle motion. To estimate the relative position and orientation of sensors, techniques from camera calibration are used. The platform motion is estimated from tracked features on the ground. A new approach is presented which can reduce the influence of tracking errors or other outliers on the accuracy of the ego-motion estimate. Overall, the new vision based approach for sensor localization leads to better estimates then the current odometry based method.

  3. An experimental study on antipersonnel landmine detection using acoustic-to-seismic coupling.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ning; Sabatier, James M

    2003-03-01

    An acoustic-to-seismic system to detect buried antipersonnel mines exploits airborne acoustic waves penetrating the surface of the ground. Acoustic waves radiating from a sound source above the ground excite Biot type I and II compressional waves in the porous soil. The type I wave and type II waves refract toward the normal and cause air and soil particle motion. If a landmine is buried below the surface of the insonified area, these waves are scattered or reflected by the target, resulting in distinct changes to the acoustically coupled ground motion. A scanning laser Doppler vibrometer measures the motion of the ground surface. In the past, this technique has been employed with remarkable success in locating antitank mines during blind field tests [Sabatier and Xiang, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 1146-1154 (2001)]. The humanitarian demining mission requires an ability to locate antipersonnel mines, requiring a surmounting of additional challenges due to a plethora of shapes and smaller sizes. This paper describes an experimental study on the methods used to locate antipersonnel landmines in recent field measurements. PMID:12656368

  4. An experimental study on antipersonnel landmine detection using acoustic-to-seismic coupling.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ning; Sabatier, James M

    2003-03-01

    An acoustic-to-seismic system to detect buried antipersonnel mines exploits airborne acoustic waves penetrating the surface of the ground. Acoustic waves radiating from a sound source above the ground excite Biot type I and II compressional waves in the porous soil. The type I wave and type II waves refract toward the normal and cause air and soil particle motion. If a landmine is buried below the surface of the insonified area, these waves are scattered or reflected by the target, resulting in distinct changes to the acoustically coupled ground motion. A scanning laser Doppler vibrometer measures the motion of the ground surface. In the past, this technique has been employed with remarkable success in locating antitank mines during blind field tests [Sabatier and Xiang, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 1146-1154 (2001)]. The humanitarian demining mission requires an ability to locate antipersonnel mines, requiring a surmounting of additional challenges due to a plethora of shapes and smaller sizes. This paper describes an experimental study on the methods used to locate antipersonnel landmines in recent field measurements.

  5. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. PMID:27481835

  6. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation.

  7. Multisensor mine detector for peacekeeping: improved landmine detector concept (ILDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Carruthers, Al

    1996-05-01

    The Improved Landmine Detector Concept Project was initiated in Autumn 1994 to develop a prototype vehicle mounted mine detector for low metal content and nonmetallic mines for a peacekeeping role on roads. The system will consist of a teleoperated vehicle carrying a highly sensitive electromagnetic induction (EMI) detector, an infrared imager (IR), ground probing radar (GPR), and a thermal neutron activation (TNA) detector for confirmation. The IR, EMI and TNA detectors have been under test since 1995 and the GPR will be received in June 1996. Results of performance trials of the individual detectors are discussed. Various design configurations and their tradeoffs are discussed. Fusion of data from the detectors to reduce false alarm rate and increase probability of detection, a key element to the success of the system, is discussed. An advanced development model of the system is expected to be complete by Spring 1997.

  8. Internally displaced women as knowledge producers and users in humanitarian action: the view from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Lemaitre, Julieta

    2013-07-01

    The literature on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises commonly focuses on how inter-and non-governmental organisations can produce better knowledge and how this can be translated into improved programming. Yet, there is little recorded experience of, or concern about, how the beneficiaries of humanitarian relief can produce and use knowledge of their predicament. This paper is based on a case study of how the Liga de Mujeres Desplazadas, an internally displaced women's organisation in northern Colombia, employs proactively research-generated data to advance its own agenda in its interactions with donor bodies and the government. The paper finds that beneficiaries of humanitarian aid can, and do, use participatory research to advance their own ends in the legal and political spaces created around humanitarian crisis. However, their agency is limited by poverty, violence, and local balances of power. The paper concludes that beneficiaries' priorities in the production of data about humanitarian crises warrant further study. PMID:23905766

  9. Internally displaced women as knowledge producers and users in humanitarian action: the view from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Lemaitre, Julieta

    2013-07-01

    The literature on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises commonly focuses on how inter-and non-governmental organisations can produce better knowledge and how this can be translated into improved programming. Yet, there is little recorded experience of, or concern about, how the beneficiaries of humanitarian relief can produce and use knowledge of their predicament. This paper is based on a case study of how the Liga de Mujeres Desplazadas, an internally displaced women's organisation in northern Colombia, employs proactively research-generated data to advance its own agenda in its interactions with donor bodies and the government. The paper finds that beneficiaries of humanitarian aid can, and do, use participatory research to advance their own ends in the legal and political spaces created around humanitarian crisis. However, their agency is limited by poverty, violence, and local balances of power. The paper concludes that beneficiaries' priorities in the production of data about humanitarian crises warrant further study.

  10. Polarization differences in airborne ground penetrating radar performance for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogaru, Traian; Le, Calvin

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has investigated the ultra-wideband (UWB) radar technology for detection of landmines, improvised explosive devices and unexploded ordnance, for over two decades. This paper presents a phenomenological study of the radar signature of buried landmines in realistic environments and the performance of airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in detecting these targets as a function of multiple parameters: polarization, depression angle, soil type and burial depth. The investigation is based on advanced computer models developed at ARL. The analysis includes both the signature of the targets of interest and the clutter produced by rough surface ground. Based on our numerical simulations, we conclude that low depression angles and H-H polarization offer the highest target-to-clutter ratio in the SAR images and therefore the best radar performance of all the scenarios investigated.

  11. Landmine associated injuries in children in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Muhammet; Yildirimcan, Humeyra; Ozkalipci, Onder; Melek, Mehmet; Edirne, Yesim; Bicer, Umit; Uner, Huseyin Bulent

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to examine trends of injuries due to landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) and to determine problems during and after the treatment of children and adolescent victims in Turkey. Data from the records of 23 children injured from landmines and UXO were analyzed from April 2001 to October 2008. Cases consist of 21 (91.3%) males and two (8.7%) females with a mean age of 12.8 years. Cause of injury was landmine explosion in 20 (87.0%) and UXO in three (13.0%) cases. Injuries in upper and lower extremities were determined in eight (34.8%) children. Hand amputation was the result in 10 (43.5%) children where in two cases a leg, in one case an eye, in one case a hand and arm, in two cases a hand and leg, in one case an eye and a leg and in three cases a hand and eye were lost. One case of death was recorded from UXO with an autopsy performed. Contaminated areas in our region should be cleared according to international contracts to prevent injuries in children, centers providing rehabilitation services should be established and policies regarding social support for child victims should be ascertained.

  12. Strengthening the evidence base for health programming in humanitarian crises.

    PubMed

    Ager, A; Burnham, G; Checchi, F; Gayer, M; Grais, R F; Henkens, M; Massaquoi, M B F; Nandy, R; Navarro-Colorado, C; Spiegel, P

    2014-09-12

    Given the growing scale and complexity of responses to humanitarian crises, it is important to develop a stronger evidence base for health interventions in such contexts. Humanitarian crises present unique challenges to rigorous and effective research, but there are substantial opportunities for scientific advance. Studies need to focus where the translation of evidence from noncrisis scenarios is not viable and on ethical ways of determining what happens in the absence of an intervention. Robust methodologies suited to crisis settings have to be developed and used to assess interventions with potential for delivery at scale. Strengthening research capacity in the low- to middle-income countries that are vulnerable to crises is also crucial.

  13. Landmines: The Hidden Crisis. For Middle School Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jacquelyn S.

    Intended to make the issue of landmines pertinent and accessible to classroom teachers, this curriculum unit provides material to teach middle school students about the numbers and dangers of anti-personnel landmines placed around the world. By completing the unit, students demonstrate their achievement of several of the social studies standards…

  14. On the use of evidence in humanitarian logistics research.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Martinez, Alfonso J; Stapleton, Orla; Van Wassenhove, Luk N

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the reflections of the authors on the differences between the language and the approach of practitioners and academics to humanitarian logistics problems. Based on a long-term project on fleet management in the humanitarian sector, involving both large international humanitarian organisations and academics, it discusses how differences in language and approach to such problems may create a lacuna that impedes trust. In addition, the paper provides insights into how academic research evidence adapted to practitioner language can be used to bridge the gap. When it is communicated appropriately, evidence strengthens trust between practitioners and academics, which is critical for long-term projects. Once practitioners understand the main trade-offs included in academic research, they can supply valuable feedback to motivate new academic research. Novel research problems promote innovation in the use of traditional academic methods, which should result in a win-win situation: relevant solutions for practice and advances in academic knowledge.

  15. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  16. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  17. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  18. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  19. History and Principles of Humanitarian Action.

    PubMed

    Rysaback-Smith, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Humanitarian aid has been present in some form throughout human history, yet the modern concept of humanitarian aid has only truly emerged since the later half of the 20th century. Through a complex progression of world events and largely brought about in response to armed conflict, modern humanitarian aid is provided by a multitude of organizations and actors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the history of humanitarian action, a review of the principles of humanitarian aid and an overview of the major documents which delineate those principles. PMID:27437525

  20. Rehabilitation of landmine victims--the ultimate challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Nicolas E.; Walsh, Wendy S.

    2003-01-01

    Antipersonnel landmines are often used indiscriminately and frequently result in injury or death of non-combatants. In the last 65 years, over 110 million mines have been spread throughout the world into an estimated 70 countries. Landmine victims use a disproportionately high amount of medical resources; the vast majority of incidents occur in regions and countries without a sophisticated medical infrastructure and with limited resources, where rehabilitation is difficult in the best of circumstances. It is suggested that only a quarter of the patients with amputation secondary to landmines receive appropriate care. PMID:14710508

  1. CFAR detection algorithm for acoustic-seismic landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matalkah, Ghaith M.; Matalgah, Mustafa M.; Sabatier, James M.

    2007-04-01

    Automating the detection process in acoustic-seismic landmine detection speeds up the detection process and eliminates the need for a human operator in the minefield. Previous automatic detection algorithms for acoustic landmine detection showed excellent results for detecting landmines in various environments. However, these algorithms use environment-specific noise-removal procedures that rely on training sets acquired over mine-free areas. In this work, we derive a new detection algorithm that adapts to varying conditions and employs environment-independent techniques. The algorithm is based on the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test and asymptotically achieves a constant false alarm rate (CFAR). The algorithm processes the magnitude and phase of the vibrational velocity and shows satisfying results of detecting landmines in gravel and dirt lanes.

  2. Reason, emotion, compassion: can altruism survive professionalisation in the humanitarian sector?

    PubMed

    Carbonnier, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    The humanitarian sector has grown enormously over the past two decades. Some fear that professionalisation comes at the expense of altruistic volunteering. This may be a valid concern if altruism is the product of organisational culture and individual experiences rather than an innate trait. This paper examines advances in evolutionary biology and neurology that provide evidence in support of both the nature and nurture arguments, echoing earlier insights from social sciences. It then questions to what extent humanitarian principles build on altruistic impulses or instead seek to constrain them, and reviews recruitment profiles of selected humanitarian organisations and applicants' letters accordingly. This initial investigation warrants further research to identify how altruism as a personal trait and an organisational principle has influenced diverse humanitarian actors and traditions. This paper outlines how training curricula and organisational reward systems can build on-rather than stifle-natural altruism to nurture critical, reflexive practitioners.

  3. Reason, emotion, compassion: can altruism survive professionalisation in the humanitarian sector?

    PubMed

    Carbonnier, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    The humanitarian sector has grown enormously over the past two decades. Some fear that professionalisation comes at the expense of altruistic volunteering. This may be a valid concern if altruism is the product of organisational culture and individual experiences rather than an innate trait. This paper examines advances in evolutionary biology and neurology that provide evidence in support of both the nature and nurture arguments, echoing earlier insights from social sciences. It then questions to what extent humanitarian principles build on altruistic impulses or instead seek to constrain them, and reviews recruitment profiles of selected humanitarian organisations and applicants' letters accordingly. This initial investigation warrants further research to identify how altruism as a personal trait and an organisational principle has influenced diverse humanitarian actors and traditions. This paper outlines how training curricula and organisational reward systems can build on-rather than stifle-natural altruism to nurture critical, reflexive practitioners. PMID:25439560

  4. Contribution of 3-D electrical resistivity tomography for landmines detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwaly, M.; El-Qady, G.; Matsushima, J.; Szalai, S.; Al-Arifi, N. S. N.; Taha, A.

    2008-12-01

    Landmines are a type of inexpensive weapons widely used in the pre-conflicted areas in many countries worldwide. The two main types are the metallic and non-metallic (mostly plastic) landmines. They are most commonly investigated by magnetic, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and metal detector (MD) techniques. These geophysical techniques however have significant limitations in resolving the non-metallic landmines and wherever the host materials are conductive. In this work, the 3-D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) technique is evaluated as an alternative and/or confirmation detection system for both landmine types, which are buried in different soil conditions and at different depths. This can be achieved using the capacitive resistivity imaging system, which does not need direct contact with the ground surface. Synthetic models for each case have been introduced using metallic and non-metallic bodies buried in wet and dry environments. The inversion results using the L1 norm least-squares optimization method tend to produce robust blocky models of the landmine body. The dipole axial and the dipole equatorial arrays tend to have the most favorable geometry by applying dynamic capacitive electrode and they show significant signal strength for data sets with up to 5% noise. Increasing the burial depth relative to the electrode spacing as well as the noise percentage in the resistivity data is crucial in resolving the landmines at different environments. The landmine with dimension and burial depth of one electrode separation unit is over estimated while the spatial resolutions decrease as the burial depth and noise percentage increase.

  5. Surface-enhanced raman detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene impurity vapor as a marker to locate landmines.

    PubMed

    Sylvia, J M; Janni, J A; Klein, J D; Spencer, K M

    2000-12-01

    Time, cost, and casualties associated with demining efforts underscore the need for improved detection techniques. Reduction in the number of false positives by directly detecting the explosive material, rather than casing material, is desirable. The desired field sensor must, at a minimum, demonstrate reproducibility, the necessary level of sensitivity, portability, instrumental stability, and fast system response times. Ideally, vibrational spectroscopic techniques have the potential to remove false positives, since every chemical has a unique bond structure. Herein, we demonstrate the capabilities of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to detect the chemical vapor signature emanating from buried TNT-based landmines. We present reproducible results obtained from blind tests controlled by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) that demonstrate vapor detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene at concentration levels of 5 ppb or less. The results presented used acquisition times of 30 s on a fieldable system and showed that SERS can be a significant improvement over current landmine detection methods. PMID:11128944

  6. Surface-enhanced raman detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene impurity vapor as a marker to locate landmines.

    PubMed

    Sylvia, J M; Janni, J A; Klein, J D; Spencer, K M

    2000-12-01

    Time, cost, and casualties associated with demining efforts underscore the need for improved detection techniques. Reduction in the number of false positives by directly detecting the explosive material, rather than casing material, is desirable. The desired field sensor must, at a minimum, demonstrate reproducibility, the necessary level of sensitivity, portability, instrumental stability, and fast system response times. Ideally, vibrational spectroscopic techniques have the potential to remove false positives, since every chemical has a unique bond structure. Herein, we demonstrate the capabilities of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to detect the chemical vapor signature emanating from buried TNT-based landmines. We present reproducible results obtained from blind tests controlled by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) that demonstrate vapor detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene at concentration levels of 5 ppb or less. The results presented used acquisition times of 30 s on a fieldable system and showed that SERS can be a significant improvement over current landmine detection methods.

  7. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... intended to benefit legitimately independent civil society groups; environmental projects; projects... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may...

  8. Strengthening the evidence base for health programming in humanitarian crises.

    PubMed

    Ager, A; Burnham, G; Checchi, F; Gayer, M; Grais, R F; Henkens, M; Massaquoi, M B F; Nandy, R; Navarro-Colorado, C; Spiegel, P

    2014-09-12

    Given the growing scale and complexity of responses to humanitarian crises, it is important to develop a stronger evidence base for health interventions in such contexts. Humanitarian crises present unique challenges to rigorous and effective research, but there are substantial opportunities for scientific advance. Studies need to focus where the translation of evidence from noncrisis scenarios is not viable and on ethical ways of determining what happens in the absence of an intervention. Robust methodologies suited to crisis settings have to be developed and used to assess interventions with potential for delivery at scale. Strengthening research capacity in the low- to middle-income countries that are vulnerable to crises is also crucial. PMID:25214616

  9. Analysis of Landmine Fatalities and Injuries in the Kurdistan Region.

    PubMed

    Heshmati, Almas; Khayyat, Nabaz T

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzes landmine victim data in the Kurdistan Region during the period 1960 to 2005. A regression analysis is used to identify the determinants and impact of the probability of getting killed by mines and unexploded ordnances. The rates of killed/injured victims are explained using a set of socioeconomic variables. As the data are a repeated cross-section in which the individuals are observed when they are subjected to landmine incidents, and to account for the dynamic aspect of the process and heterogeneity by location as well as to control for unobserved location and time effects, a pseudo panel data are created where districts are observed over the entire time period forming a panel data. The results show that (a) males, children, and the elderly are more susceptible to a higher level of landmine risks; (b) landmine training and awareness programs do not reduce the rate of landmine mortality; and (c) the rate of incidents are declining over time. This result can be used in the planning, monitoring, and resource allocation for mine action, as well as labor market programs and rehabilitation activities. PMID:25315481

  10. Portable humanitarian mine detector overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allsopp, David J.; Dibsdall, Ian M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper will present an overview and early results of the QinetiQ Portable Humanitarian Mine Detector project, funded by the UK Treasury Capital Modernization Fund. The project aims to develop a prototype multi-sensor man-portable detector for humanitarian demining, drawing on experience from work for UK MoD. The project runs from July 2000 to October 2002. The project team have visited mined areas and worked closely with a number of demining organizations and a manufacturer of metal detectors used in the field. The primary objective is to reduce the number of false alarms resulting from metallic ground clutter. An analysis of such clutter items found during actual demining has shown a large proportion to be very small when compared with anti-personnel mines. The planned system integrates: a lightweight multi-element pseudo-random-code ground penetrating radar array; a pulse induction metal detector and a capacitive sensor. Data from the GPR array and metal detector are fused to provide a simple audio-visual operator interface. The capacitive sensor provides information to aid processing of the radar responses and to provide feedback to the operator of the position of the sensors above the ground. At the time of presentation the project should be in the final stages of build, prior to tests and field trials, which QinetiQ hope to carry out under the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) banner.

  11. Relevance or Excellence? Setting Research Priorities for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Humanitarian Settings

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between

  12. Humanitarian aid in the archives: introduction.

    PubMed

    Davey, Eleanor; Scriven, Kim

    2015-10-01

    How might historical perspectives assist the goal of improving humanitarian responses? This introduction to a special issue of Disasters on the history of humanitarian action explores this question and outlines how the other submissions to the edition, each with its own approach and focus area from the nineteenth-century to the present today, make different contributions to understanding of humanitarian action. The paper argues that the value of history lies not so much in the information it might offer, but in the challenges it can pose to habitual ways of thinking and in the skills of investigation and interpretation it fosters. These attributes make historical perspectives a potentially valuable addition to the critical questioning of humanitarian practitioners and policymakers. The paper advocates integrating history into a more reflective attitude to change and a more adventurous and holistic approach to innovation, as opposed to simply using it to 'learn lessons'. PMID:26395104

  13. Tackling the Global Challenge: Humanitarian Catastrophes

    PubMed Central

    Iserson, Kenneth V.

    2014-01-01

    Humanitarian catastrophes,” conflicts and calamities generating both widespread human suffering and destructive events, require a wide range of emergency resources. This paper answers a number of questions that humanitarian catastrophes generate: Why and how do the most-developed countries—those with the resources, capabilities, and willingness to help—intervene in specific types of disasters? What ethical and legal guidelines shape our interventions? How well do we achieve our goals? It then suggests a number of changes to improve humanitarian responses, including better NGO-government cooperation, increased research on the best disaster response methods, clarification of the criteria and roles for humanitarian (military) interventions, and development of post-2015 Millennium Development Goals with more accurate progress measures. PMID:24672618

  14. Tackling the global challenge: humanitarian catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2014-03-01

    "Humanitarian catastrophes," conflicts and calamities generating both widespread human suffering and destructive events, require a wide range of emergency resources. This paper answers a number of questions that humanitarian catastrophes generate: Why and how do the most-developed countries-those with the resources, capabilities, and willingness to help-intervene in specific types of disasters? What ethical and legal guidelines shape our interventions? How well do we achieve our goals? It then suggests a number of changes to improve humanitarian responses, including better NGO-government cooperation, increased research on the best disaster response methods, clarification of the criteria and roles for humanitarian (military) interventions, and development of post-2015 Millennium Development Goals with more accurate progress measures.

  15. Feasibility of landmine detection using transgenic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyholos, Michael; Faust, Anthony A.; Miao, Minmin; Montoya, Rebecca; Donahue, D. Aaron

    2006-05-01

    Genetically modified plants that detect TNT and its degradation products are potentially powerful aids in humanitarian demining and detection of unexploded ordnance. Although the feasibility of TNT detection by plants and microorganisms has been demonstrated by several research teams world wide, thus far, none of these previously demonstrated systems has the sensitivity and specificity to be effective under field conditions. We are using two approaches to increase the potential effectiveness of these and related biological detection systems. First, we are expanding the repertoire of explosive-responsive promoters by conducting DNA microarray experiments with plants treated with TNT-degradation products, and characterizing the inducibility of reporter gene expression by these promoters. Second, we are evaluating the dynamics and limiting factors in the transmission of artificial signals from roots to shoots. This will increase the ability of soil-based TNT perception strategies to effect human-readable changes in shoot morphology as part of a practical plant-based explosives detection system.

  16. Humanitarian response: improving logistics to save lives.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives.

  17. Explosives and landmine detection using an artificial olfactory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Kauer, John S.

    2004-09-01

    We are developing a portable, artificial olfactory system based on multiple attributes of the sense of smell to identify air-borne odors, including those associated with buried landmines. Brief (1-2 sec) air samples are drawn over an array of optically-interrogated, cross-reactive chemical sensors. These consist of polymers with high sensitivity and relatively narrow specificity for nitroaromatics (Timothy Swager, MIT), as well as those with broader responses, thus permitting discrimination among substances that may be confused for nitroaromatics. Biologically-based pattern matching algorithms automatically identify odors as one of several to which the device has been trained. In discrimination tests, after training to one concentration of 6 odors, the device gave 95% correct identification when tested at the original plus three different concentrations. Thus, as required in real world applications, the device can identify odors at multiple concentrations without explicitly training on each. In sensitivity tests, the device showed 100% detection and no false alarms for the landmine-related compound DNT at concentrations as low as 500 pp-trillion (quantified by GC/MS) - 10 times lower than average canine behavioral thresholds. To investigate landmine detection capabilities, field studies were conducted at Ft. Leonard Wood, MO. In calibration tests, signals from buried PMA1A anti-personnel landmines were clearly discriminated from background. In a limited 9 site "blind" test, PMA1A detection was 100% with false alarms of 40%. Although requiring further development, these data indicate that a device with appropriate sensors and exploiting olfactory principles can detect and discriminate low concentration vapor signatures, including those of buried landmines.

  18. Medical humanitarianism: anthropologists speak out on policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon; Marten, Meredith; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, anthropologists have become increasingly present in medical humanitarian situations as scholars, consultants, and humanitarian practitioners and have acquired insight into medical humanitarian policy and practice. In 2012, we implemented a poll on anthropology, health, and humanitarian practice in which 75 anthropologists discussed their experiences in medical humanitarianism. Our goal was to move beyond the existing anarchy of individual voices in anthropological writing and gain an aggregate view of the perspective of anthropologists working in medical humanitarian contexts. Responses lead to six inductively derived thematic priorities. The findings illustrate how anthropologists perceive medical humanitarian practice; which aspects of medical humanitarianism should be seen as priorities for anthropological research; and how anthropologists use ethnography in humanitarian contexts.

  19. On the origin of superparamagnetic minerals of tropical soils and their impact on landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger; Altfelder, Sven

    2010-05-01

    successively with weathering for ultrabasic, basic/intermediate and acid igneous parent material, but, it tends to decrease for clay/clay slate and sandstone. Based on the above observations we conclude that the content of SP minerals depends on both: parent rock and alteration of the material. The total amount of SP minerals rises during weathering, regardless of the parent material. The process is either preferential accumulation of weathering resistant magnetic minerals, including the ultra-fine grained fraction, or neo-formation of new magnetic minerals. The increase of relative frequency dependence of igneous rocks is a clear indication that SP minerals are formed during soil genesis. However, for some sedimentary rocks, the amount of SP minerals is already high and is not subsequently increased further during weathering. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) based metal detectors are the most widely used sensing techniques in landmine clearance operations. They are negatively influenced by magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence. In particular tropical soils show to have a negative impact on EMI sensors. Besides, the tropics are the regions which are most affected by landmines where most of the humanitarian demining-activities concentrate. Currently, no soil classification system exists that helps to predict the influence of frequency dependent susceptibility on landmine detection. We deduce a system that can be used to predict the soil impact depending on parent material and weathering. Our system can be consulted by demining organisations to predict metal detector performance in tropical regions based on geologic and soil maps. Ultra-basic, basic and intermediate igneous rocks have a moderate influence on EMI detectors in average cases and a very severe influence in extreme cases. Soils developed from these rocks have a severe or very severe influence. In contrast, acid igneous rocks and sediments do not influence EMI detectors severely. Soils developed from

  20. Humanitarian IED clearance in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Molina, A.; Diaz, D.; Grasmueck, M.; Moreno, H. A.; Hernández, R. D.

    2008-04-01

    The development of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED's) by insurgents in Colombia is characterized by a quick response to counter IED measures. Many current IED's do not contain any metal parts and can have any shape or form. Due to the low metal content or the absence of any metal parts, sensors based on metal detection are not useful anymore. Due to the wide variety of sizes, shapes, and enclosure materials of current IED's, one and two-dimensional GPR sensors using a "library" of known shapes as well as acoustic sensors using material characteristic frequencies have become ineffective. Therefore, the Colombian experience strongly suggests that chemical sensors are the way for IED detection in soils since they do not depend on IED metal content, size, or shape but only on the presence of explosives, a necessary ingredient for any IED. Promising recently developed chemical sensors make use of semiconducting organic polymers (SOPs) such as FIDO and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Once an explosive has been detected, the IED needs to be identified and located. Therefore, there is a need for three-dimensional high resolution scans for identification of all subsoil features including rocks, roots, and IED's. The recently developed 3D-GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) can map all features of the subsoil with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm or less. The objectives of this contribution are to inform about the IED problem in Colombia and how novel technologies may contribute to humanitarian IED clearance under humid tropical conditions.

  1. Health information systems in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed Central

    Thieren, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Health information systems (HIS) in emergencies face a double dilemma: the information necessary to understand and respond to humanitarian crises must be timely and detailed, whereas the circumstances of these crises makes it challenging to collect it. Building on the technical work of the Health Metrics Network on HIS and starting with a systemic definition of HIS in emergencies, this paper reviews the various data-collection platforms in these contexts, looking at their respective contributions to providing what humanitarian actors need to know to target their intervention to where the needs really are. Although reporting or sampling errors are unavoidable, it is important to identify them and acknowledge the limitations inherent in generalizing data that were collected in highly heterogeneous environments. To perform well in emergencies, HIS require integration and participation. In spite of notable efforts to coordinate data collection and dissemination practices among humanitarian agencies, it is noted that coordination on the ground depends on the strengths and presence of a lead agency, often WHO, and on the commitment of humanitarian agencies to investing resources in data production. Poorly integrated HIS generate fragmented, incomplete and often contradictory statistics, a situation that leads to a misuse of numbers with negative consequences on humanitarian interventions. As a means to avoid confusion regarding humanitarian health statistics, this paper stresses the importance of submitting statistics to a rigorous and coordinated auditing process prior to their publication. The audit trail should describe the various steps of the data production chains both technically and operationally, and indicate the limits and assumptions under which each number can be used. Finally emphasis is placed on the ethical obligation for humanitarian agencies to ensure that the necessary safeguards on data are in place to protect the confidentiality of victims and

  2. Computational modeling of on-contact antennas for the detection and localization of anti-personnel landmines via ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Margery Jeanne

    background, 92% of the 288 unique cases are shown to be detected, and 49% are accurately located. Additionally, when only examining targets located directly below the Tri-Sphere robotic platform, 100% of both metal and plastic landmines are detected and 97% are shown to be accurately located. Overall, this method shows potential as a strong candidate for humanitarian demining.

  3. Three legacies of humanitarianism in China.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Miwa

    2013-10-01

    The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country. PMID:23876108

  4. Landmine detection using passive hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Anger, Cliff; Achal, Steve; Ivanco, Tyler

    2007-04-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging has been studied since the late 1980s as a tool to detect minefields for military countermine operations and for level I clearance for humanitarian demining. Hyperspectral imaging employed on unmanned ground vehicles may also be used to augment or replace broadband imagers to detect individual mines. This paper will discuss the ability of different optical wavebands - the visible/near infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) - to detect surface-laid and buried mines. The phenomenology that determines performance in the different bands is discussed. Hyperspectral imagers have usually been designed and built for general purpose remote sensing applications and often do not meet the requirements of mine detection. The DRDC mine detection research program has sponsored the development by Itres Research of VNIR, SWIR and TIR instruments specifically intended for mine detection. The requirements for such imagers are described, as well as the instruments. Some results of mine detection experiments are presented. To date, reliable day time detection of surface-laid mines in non-real-time, independent of solar angle, time of day and season has been demonstrated in the VNIR and SWIR. Real-time analysis, necessary for military applications, has been demonstrated from low speed ground vehicles and recently from airborne platforms. Reliable, repeatable detection of buried mines has yet to be demonstrated, although a recently completed TIR hyperspectral imager will soon be tested for such a capability.

  5. Challenges in humanitarian information management and exchange: evidence from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Altay, Nezih; Labonte, Melissa

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing recognition of the critical role information management can play in shaping effective humanitarian response, coordination and decision-making. Quality information, reaching more humanitarian actors, will result in better coordination and better decision-making, thus improving the response to beneficiaries as well as accountability to donors. The humanitarian response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake marked a watershed moment for humanitarian information management. Yet the fragmented nature of the response and the use of hierarchical models of information management, along with other factors, have led some observers to label the Haiti response a failure. Using an analytical framework often found in humanitarian emergencies, this study analyses challenges to information flow in the Haiti case and the implications for effective humanitarian response. It concludes by offering possible paths for overcoming such challenges, and for restoring the value and utility of humanitarian information management and exchange in humanitarian relief settings.

  6. The humanitarians' tragedy: escapable and inescapable cruelties.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Alex

    2010-04-01

    Paradoxically, elements of cruelty are intrinsic to the humanitarian enterprise.(1) This paper focuses on some of these. Escapable cruelties arise from technical failings, but the gradual professionalisation of the field and improvements in relief technologies mean that they have been significantly reduced in comparison to earlier eras. Other cruelties arise from clashes among rights, and the tensions inherent in trying to promote humanity amid the horrors of war. These are inescapable and constitute the 'humanitarians' tragedy'. Among them is the individual cruelty of failing to do good at the margin: a clash between the individual's impulses and ideals and the constraints of operating in constrained circumstances. This is a version of triage. In addition, there is the cruelty of compromising dearly-held principles when faced with other competing or overriding demands. There is also the cruelty whereby humanitarians feed victims' dreams that there is an alternative reality, which in fact cannot be attained.

  7. Detection of landmines using ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoubir, Abdelhak M.; Iskander, D. R.; Chant, Ian J.; Carevic, Dragana

    1999-08-01

    The detection of anti-personnel landmines is very difficult due to the minimal content of metal in their structure, and thus, the inability to detect them with a metal detector. A promising alternative to metal detector technology is given by GPR systems. These have the potential to detect low- and non-metallic landmines and can be used to classify the targets. We propose two methods based on the bootstrap to detect changes in backscattering echoes. The first approach is parametric in which each signal is modelled by an AM-FM signal. The difference in the phase of the signal suggest possible existence of a target. The second approach is nonparametric where the existence of a target is indicated by the change in the average signal power. We apply the methods to real GPR data.

  8. Complex, humanitarian emergencies: I. Concept and participants.

    PubMed

    Burkle, F M

    1995-01-01

    Complex, humanitarian emergencies, the result of civil strife and armed conflict affecting large populations at the brink of extinction, represent the most compelling of disaster relief challenges. They require the coordination of the United Nations agencies, the International Committee of the Red Cross, international nongovernmental relief organizations, and military forces. An increasing number of civilian and military health-care providers find themselves involved in the planning, coordination, and direct patient-care aspects of these emergencies, often without proper initiation and understanding of the unique nature of these disasters. This article provides a primer on the concept of complex, humanitarian emergencies and the contributions, characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of each major participant.

  9. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.

    2016-07-01

    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  10. Linear and Nonlinear Acoustic Measurements of Buried Landmines: Detection Schemes Near Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, James M.

    2003-03-01

    Measurements of the acoustic impedance of an anti-personnel and anti-tank plastic, blast-hardened landmines reveal resonances in the frequency range between 100 and 1000 Hz. The top surface resonances are due to its complicated mechanical structure vibrating in air. The lowest mode results from the blast hardened design of the landmine. Typically, a portion or cavity of the landmine is designed to absorb the shock from an explosion that is intended to detonate the landmine but still allow the landmine to trigger its explosive device when a slow steady pressure is applied. The mechanical design of the blast hardened aspects results in a high Q simple harmonic oscillator resonance of the top surface. At higher frequencies the top surface behaves like thin circular plate acoustic modes. When these landmines are buried in soils, the modes are mass loaded. Resonances from measurements of the normal component of the acoustically induced soil surface particle velocity are used for detection schemes. Since the interface between the top plate and the soil responds to pressure fluctuations nonlinearly, characteristics of landmines, the soil, and the interface are rich in nonlinear physics and allow for new methods of landmine detection not previously exploited.

  11. Humanitarian aid is never a crime”: humanitarianism and illegality in migrant advocacy.

    PubMed

    Cook, Maria Lorena

    2011-01-01

    I analyze the case of humanitarian pro-migrant activists in southern Arizona between 2000 and 2010 to explore how contending groups wield law and legality claims in a dynamic policy environment. Humanitarian activists both evade and engage the law. They appeal to a higher law to elude charges that they are acting illegally, while seeking assurances that their actions are within the law. Law enforcement agents rely on the authority and technical neutrality of the law in redefining humanitarian aid as illegal, while expanding their own claims to carry out humanitarian work. This case study of advocacy on behalf of “illegal” migrants highlights how both activists and those who enforce the law redefine legality in strategic ways. PMID:22165426

  12. Tests of the HYDAD-D Landmine Detector on Dry Soil in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavez, Cristian; Brooks, Frank D.; Smit, F. D.; Moreno, José; Altamirano, Luis; Soto, Leopoldo

    2010-08-01

    HYDAD is an acronym of HYdrogen Density Anomaly Detector. It is a device that detects hydrogen-rich objects by analysis the energy-moderation of fast neutrons by hydrogen [1]. A HYDAD-D was assembled at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) guided by the South African developers, aimed to detecting landmines in arid soils. The device was tested under controlled conditions in dry soil equivalent to the mine fields of the frontier zones of the north of Chile. The tests were carried out in Arica, in collaboration with the Chilean Army, using antipersonnel landmines, antitank landmines and objects with a high Hydrogen content (e.g, water vessel, paraffin wax). The test results demonstrated that HYDAD-D can detect antipersonnel landmines as small as the M14 (mass 100 g, including only 29 g of TNT in a plastic container), in dry sand, at typical landmines bury-depths (less than 5 cm).

  13. Effect of Weather on the Predicted PMN Landmine Chemical Signature for Kabul, Afghanistan

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, STEPHEN W.; PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-11-01

    Buried landmines are often detected through the chemical signature in the air above the soil surface by mine detection dogs. Environmental processes play a significant role in the chemical signature available for detection. Due to the shallow burial depth of landmines, the weather influences the release of chemicals from the landmine, transport through the soil to the surface, and degradation processes in the soil. The effect of weather on the landmine chemical signature from a PMN landmine was evaluated with the T2TNT code for Kabul, Afghanistan. Results for TNT and DNT gas-phase and soil solid-phase concentrations are presented as a function of time of the day and time of the year.

  14. 77 FR 6544 - Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Incentivizing Humanitarian Technologies and Licensing Through the Intellectual Property System, 75 FR 57261... patent application has been issued before any certificate will be awarded. Inventions from any field of... following considerations in mind: (1) Recognized subject matter expertise in science, engineering,...

  15. International Humanitarian Award: Michael G. Wessells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Michael G. Wessells, recipient of the International Humanitarian Award, is cited for his pioneering and sustained contributions to the protection of children affected by armed conflict and to the development of international guidelines for the provision of community-based, culturally responsive psychosocial support in emergencies. Wessells has…

  16. The Development and Maturation of Humanitarian Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gerard A.

    2007-01-01

    Humanitarian psychological support as an organized field is relatively young. Pioneers in the field were involved primarily in providing psychological support to refugees and internally displaced persons in conflict and nonconflict situations. This article describes basic principles for the design of psychological support programs and…

  17. John W. Thoburn: International Humanitarian Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's International Humanitarian Award. The 2012 winner, John W. Thoburn, is an extraordinary psychologist who devotes himself consistently to service to underserved populations, especially in the aftermath of natural or human-induced disasters. He exemplifies a genuine…

  18. Polarization lidar measurements of honeybees for locating buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Joseph A.; Seldomridge, Nathan L.; Dunkle, Dustin L.; Nugent, Paul W.; Spangler, Lee H.; Churnside, James H.; Wilson, James W.; Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.

    2005-08-01

    A polarization-sensitive lidar was used to detect honeybees trained to locate buried landmines by smell. Lidar measurements of bee location agree reasonably well with maps of chemical plume strength and bee density determined by visual and video counts, indicating that the bees are preferentially located near the explosives and that the lidar identifies the locations of higher bee concentration. The co-polarized lidar backscatter signal is more effective than the cross-polarized signal for bee detection. Laboratory measurements show that the depolarization ratio of scattered light is near zero for bee wings and up to approximately thirty percent for bee bodies.

  19. Food and Shelter Standards in Humanitarian Action.

    PubMed

    Pothiawala, Sohil

    2015-10-01

    The number of disasters, both natural as well as man-made, has been increasing in frequency in the recent years. This leads to short as well as long-term effects on food security and shelter, requiring humanitarian assistance. This article aims to identify the principles and standards that are applicable to food and shelter related aid that needs to be provided by the co-operation of the local government as well as the relevant supporting organizations. Also, food and shelter security during a disaster response is achieved through better preparedness. The level of preparedness must include risk assessment, contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, emergency services and stand-by arrangements, communications, information management and coordination arrangements between various agencies involved. Discussing these issues would contribute to a better understanding of the implications of the right to adequate food and shelter, which in complex humanitarian emergencies, is one of the key necessities of the affected population. PMID:27437530

  20. Humanitarian engineering placements in our own communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderSteen, J. D. J.; Hall, K. R.; Baillie, C. A.

    2010-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in the humanitarian engineering curriculum, and a service-learning placement could be an important component of such a curriculum. International placements offer some important pedagogical advantages, but also have some practical and ethical limitations. Local community-based placements have the potential to be transformative for both the student and the community, although this potential is not always seen. In order to investigate the role of local placements, qualitative research interviews were conducted. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted and analysed, resulting in a distinct outcome space. It is concluded that local humanitarian engineering placements greatly complement international placements and are strongly recommended if international placements are conducted. More importantly it is seen that we are better suited to address the marginalised in our own community, although it is often easier to see the needs of an outside populace.

  1. Landmine detection and classification with complex-valued hybrid neural network using scattering parameters dataset.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Chung; Bose, N K

    2005-05-01

    Neural networks have been applied to landmine detection from data generated by different kinds of sensors. Real-valued neural networks have been used for detecting landmines from scattering parameters measured by ground penetrating radar (GPR) after disregarding phase information. This paper presents results using complex-valued neural networks, capable of phase-sensitive detection followed by classification. A two-layer hybrid neural network structure incorporating both supervised and unsupervised learning is proposed to detect and then classify the types of landmines. Tests are also reported on a benchmark data. PMID:15941001

  2. Preventing corruption in humanitarian assistance: perceptions, gaps and challenges.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Daniel; Bailey, Sarah; Harvey, Paul; Walker, Peter; Sharbatke-Church, Cheyanne; Savage, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is a threat to the purpose of humanitarian assistance. Until fairly recently, humanitarian assistance has not been considered an important arena in broader efforts aimed at curbing corruption, and corruption has not always been considered a particularly important concern for humanitarian assistance despite the obviously challenging nature of the context of humanitarian emergencies. Corruption, though, is a threat to humanitarian action because it can prevent assistance from getting to the people who most need it, and because it can potentially undermine public support for such assistance. This paper examines perceptions of corruption and its affects, documents best practices, and outlines gaps in understanding. It suggests recommendations for improving the capacity of humanitarian agencies to prevent and manage the risk of corruption. Agencies have taken steps to combat corruption and improve accountability--downwards and upwards--but scope remains for improvement and for greater sharing of learning and good practice.

  3. Buried explosive hazard characterization using advanced magnetic and electromagnetic induction sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Schultz, Gregory; Shah, Vishal

    2013-06-01

    Advanced electromagnetic induction arrays that feature high sensitivity wideband magnetic field and electromagnetic induction receivers provide significant capability enhancement to landmine, unexploded ordnance, and buried explosives detection applications. Specifically, arrays that are easily and quickly configured for integration with a variety of ground vehicles and mobile platforms offer improved safety and efficiency to personnel conducting detection operations including route clearance, explosive ordnance disposal, and humanitarian demining missions. We present experimental results for explosives detection sensor concepts that incorporate both magnetic and electromagnetic modalities. Key technology components include a multi-frequency continuous wave EMI transmitter, multi-axis induction coil receivers, and a high sensitivity chip scale atomic magnetometer. The use of multi-frequency transmitters provides excitation of metal encased threats as well as low conductivity non-metallic explosive constituents. The integration of a radio frequency tunable atomic magnetometer receiver adds increased sensitivity to lower frequency components of the electromagnetic response. This added sensitivity provides greater capability for detecting deeply buried targets. We evaluate the requirements for incorporating these sensor modalities in forward mounted ground vehicle operations. Specifically, the ability to detect target features in near real-time is critical to non-overpass modes. We consider the requirements for incorporating these sensor technologies in a system that enables detection of a broad range of explosive threats that include both metallic and non-metallic components.

  4. Neurological disorders in complex humanitarian emergencies and natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2010-09-01

    Complex humanitarian emergencies include the relatively acute, severe, and overwhelming health consequences of armed conflict, food scarcity, mass displacement, and political strife. Neurological manifestations of complex humanitarian emergencies are important and underappreciated consequences of emergencies in populations worldwide. This review critically assesses the existing knowledge of the range of neurological disorders that accompany complex humanitarian emergencies and natural disasters in both the acute phase of crisis and the "long shadow" that follows. PMID:20818788

  5. Neurological disorders in complex humanitarian emergencies and natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2010-09-01

    Complex humanitarian emergencies include the relatively acute, severe, and overwhelming health consequences of armed conflict, food scarcity, mass displacement, and political strife. Neurological manifestations of complex humanitarian emergencies are important and underappreciated consequences of emergencies in populations worldwide. This review critically assesses the existing knowledge of the range of neurological disorders that accompany complex humanitarian emergencies and natural disasters in both the acute phase of crisis and the "long shadow" that follows.

  6. The military physician and contested medical humanitarianism: a dueling identity?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stuart

    2014-11-01

    A critical issue in the study of humanitarianism is who counts as a medical humanitarian. Military physicians are often characterized as caught between the potentially incompatible roles of physician and military professional. Medical NGOs, such as Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), have also vociferously rejected military medical humanitarianism: questioning the mandate, skills, and appropriateness of military involvement in humanitarian medicine as well as the potential impact on 'humanitarian space'. Yet many military doctors contest this. Consequently this study examines the ways in which primarily British military physicians identify and manage their identities as both medical humanitarians and soldiers. The research utilized a mixed method, grounded theory approach involving systematic document searches/expert identification of a core literature of 300 policy and peer reviewed documents, plus grey literature and 53 formal medical post operational reports from units serving in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2004 and 2012. Semi structured interviews involved purposive sampling (34 respondents) ranging from a former Surgeon General to more junior staff. Methods also included an analysis of the original data and literature from the 2003 Medical Services Delphi study (involving an additional 40 experts and an extensive literature review) on military medical identity/future roles as well as direct observation of military doctors in Iraq and Afghanistan (two, 2 month research trips). The research concluded that military physicians conceived of themselves as autonomous medical humanitarians with an individual morality rooted in civilian medical ethics that facilitated resistance to the potentially hegemonic military identity. Nevertheless military physicians were part of a medical organization with fundamentally different priorities from those of civilian humanitarian physicians. Furthermore, the perceived emergence of multiple civilian 'humanitarianisms' has

  7. Facing the challenges in human resources for humanitarian health.

    PubMed

    Mowafi, Hani; Nowak, Kristin; Hein, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The human resources crisis in humanitarian health care parallels that seen in the broader area of health care. This crisis is exacerbated by the lack of resources in areas in which humanitarian action is needed--difficult environments that often are remote and insecure--and the requirement of specific skill sets is not routinely gained during traditional medical training. While there is ample data to suggest that health outcomes improve when worker density is increased, this remains an area of critical under-investment in humanitarian health care. In addition to under-investment, other factors limit the availability of human resources for health (HRH) in humanitarian work including: (1) over-reliance on degrees as surrogates for specific competencies; (2) under-development and under-utilization of national staff and beneficiaries as humanitarian health workers; (3) lack of standardized training modules to ensure adequate preparation for work in complex emergencies; (4) and the draining of limited available HRH from countries with low prevalence and high need to wealthier, developed nations also facing HRH shortages. A working group of humanitarian health experts from implementing agencies, United Nations agencies, private and governmental financiers, and members of academia gathered at Hanover, New Hampshire for a conference to discuss elements of the HRH problem in humanitarian health care and how to solve them. Several key elements of successful solutions were highlighted, including: (1) the need to develop a set of standards of what would constitute "adequate training" for humanitarian health work; (2) increasing the utilization and professional development of national staff; (3) "training with a purpose" specific to humanitarian health work (not simply relying on professional degrees as surrogates); (4) and developing specific health task-based competencies thereby increasing the pool of potential workers. Such steps would accomplish several key goals, such as

  8. Sensor fusion for hand-held multisensor landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sanjeev; Chander, Venkat S.; Palit, Partha P.; Stanley, Joe; Mitchell, O. Robert

    2001-10-01

    Sensor fusion issues in a streamlined assimilation of multi-sensor information for landmine detection are discussed. In particular multi-sensor fusion in hand-held landmine detection system with ground penetrating radar (GPR) and metal detector sensors is investigated. The fusion architecture consists of feature extraction for individual sensors followed by a feed-forward neural network training to learn the feature space representation of the mine/no-mine classification. A correlation feature from GPR, and slope and energy feature from metal detector are used for discrimination. Various fusion strategies are discussed and results compared against each other and against individual sensors using ROC curves for the available multi-sensor data. Both feature level and decision level fusion have been investigated. Simple decision level fusion scheme based on Dempster-Shafer evidence accumulation, soft AND, MIN and MAX are compared. Feature level fusion using neural network training is shown to provide best results. However comparable performance is achieved using decision level sensor fusion based on Dempster-Shafer accumulation. It is noted that, the above simple feed-forward fusion scheme lacks a means to verify detections after a decision has been made. New detection algorithms that are more than anomaly detectors are needed. Preliminary results with features based on independent component analysis (ICA) show promising results towards this end.

  9. Dynamic template-matching-based processing for handheld landmine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. C.; Gader, Paul D.

    2003-09-01

    This paper investigates the use of landmine templates in the GPR data to improve the detection accuracy for a hand-held mine detection unit. The proposed algorithm applies to the discrimination operating mode after the initial detection from the search mode. The proposed template matching-based algorithm extracts the mine templates from the data acquired during the first few sweeps, and correlates the templates from the data at subsequent sweeps to enhance the detection of landmine. The proposed technique does not have a time lag in producing detection values and a detection value is generated at each sample location. Experimental results show that the proposed template matching-based detector is able to increase the detection especially for low-metal anti-personnel mines. Based on the experiment performed over the data set collected at a test site, at 95% Pd, the proposed algorithm reduces the probability of false alarms by 66% for the low-metal anti-personnel mines and 30% for the low-metal anti-tank mines.

  10. A militarily fielded thermal neutron activation sensor for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, E. T. H.; McFee, J. E.; Ing, H.; Andrews, H. R.; Tennant, D.; Harper, E.; Faust, A. A.

    2007-08-01

    The Canadian Department of National Defence has developed a teleoperated, vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor system to detect anti-tank landmines on roads and tracks in peacekeeping operations. A key part of the system is a thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensor which is placed above a suspect location to within a 30 cm radius and confirms the presence of explosives via detection of the 10.835 MeV gamma ray associated with thermal neutron capture on 14N. The TNA uses a 100 μg252Cf neutron source surrounded by four 7.62 cm×7.62 cm NaI(Tl) detectors. The system, consisting of the TNA sensor head, including source, detectors and shielding, the high-rate, fast pulse processing electronics and the data processing methodology are described. Results of experiments to characterize detection performance are also described. The experiments have shown that anti-tank mines buried 10 cm or less can be detected in roughly a minute or less, but deeper mines and mines significantly displaced horizontally take considerably longer time. Mines as deep as 30 cm can be detected for long count times (1000 s). Four TNA detectors are now in service with the Canadian Forces as part of the four multi-sensor systems, making it the first militarily fielded TNA sensor and the first militarily fielded confirmation sensor for landmines. The ability to function well in adverse climatic conditions has been demonstrated, both in trials and operations.

  11. Investigations on landmine detection by neutron-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Csikai, J; Dóczi, R; Király, B

    2004-07-01

    Principles and techniques of some neutron-based methods used to identify the antipersonnel landmines (APMs) are discussed. New results have been achieved in the field of neutron reflection, transmission, scattering and reaction techniques. Some conclusions are as follows: The neutron hand-held detector is suitable for the observation of anomaly caused by a DLM2-like sample in different soils with a scanning speed of 1m(2)/1.5 min; the reflection cross section of thermal neutrons rendered the determination of equivalent thickness of different soil components possible; a simple method was developed for the determination of the thermal neutron flux perturbation factor needed for multi-elemental analysis of bulky samples; unfolded spectra of elastically backscattered neutrons using broad-spectrum sources render the identification of APMs possible; the knowledge of leakage spectra of different source neutrons is indispensable for the determination of the differential and integrated reaction rates and through it the dimension of the interrogated volume; the precise determination of the C/O atom fraction requires the investigations on the angular distribution of the 6.13MeV gamma-ray emitted in the (16)O(n,n'gamma) reaction. These results, in addition to the identification of landmines, render the improvement of the non-intrusive neutron methods possible.

  12. Study on the Sensitivity of Landmine Electrical Fuse Circuit Under the Interference of Natural Electromagnetic Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dechun

    Landmine electrical fuse circuits on the battlefield will be interfered by natural electromagnetic pulse such as electrostatic discharge and lightning, which will undermine the circuit performance and trigger the early burst or mistaken burst of the landmines. In this paper, numerically simulation analysis is conducted on the electrostatic and lightning effects received by the landmine fuse circuit by means of building simulation model of the fuse circuit and analyzing the electric and magnetic field changes of the observation The mechanism of the influence of electrostatic discharge and lightning on the sensitivity of the fuse circuit is explored. The conclusion is that electrostatic effect cause the mistaken burst of the landmines by enabling the interference voltage to reach the components turn-on threshold and cause the circuit malfunction, and lighting effect by long period accumulation of energy.

  13. Mental health survey among landmine survivors in Siem Reap province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Blanton, Curtis; Zalewski, Tami; Tor, Svang; McDonald, Laura; Lavelle, James; Brooks, Robert; Anderson, Mark; Mollica, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Many survivors of the Khmer Rouge period in Cambodia and the subsequent war with Vietnam have now returned to Cambodia. In this two-stage household cluster survey in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia, we explored the mental health consequences on 166 landmine injury survivors selected from 1000 household in 50 clusters and an oversample of all landmine survivors. We found a prevalence of anxiety of 62% for all respondents, 74% for depression, and 34% for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These prevalences were statistically significantly higher than among the adult population who had not been injured by landmines. These data underscore the importance of providing mental health care services for the people in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia who have been injured by landmines. PMID:22873010

  14. 76 FR 34639 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office..., Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. BILLING CODE P...

  15. 75 FR 74678 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace Announcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office..., Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. BILLING CODE P...

  16. Landmine-detection rats: an evaluation of reinforcement procedures under simulated operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Amanda; Lalonde, Kate; Edwards, Timothy; Cox, Christophe; Weetjens, Bart; Poling, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Because the location of landmines is initially unknown, it is impossible to arrange differential reinforcement for accurate detection of landmines by pouched rats working on actual minefields. Therefore, provision must be made for maintenance of accurate responses by an alternative reinforcement strategy. The present experiment evaluated a procedure in which a plastic bag containing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), the active ingredient in most landmines, was placed in contact with the ground in a disturbed area, then removed, to establish opportunities for reinforcement. Each of five rats continued to accurately detect landmines when extinction was arranged for landmine-detection responses and detections of TNT-contaminated locations were reinforced under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. The results of this translational research study suggest that the TNT-contamination procedure is a viable option for arranging reinforcement opportunities for rats engaged in actual landmine-detection activities and the viability of this procedure is currently being evaluated on minefields in Angola and Mozambique.

  17. Military Intervention Decisions regarding Humanitarian Crises: Framing Induced Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, William A., III

    2004-01-01

    Factors that may affect public support or opposition to U.S. military intervention in humanitarian crises around the world are examined to determine the impact of foreign policy frames on individual risk propensity. The source of the foreign policy frames, type of humanitarian crisis, location of the crisis and race/ethnicity/religion of the…

  18. Processing of radar data for landmine detection: nonlinear transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosz, E. E.; Duvoisin, H.; Konduri, R.; Solomon, G. Z.

    2005-06-01

    The Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS system) has achieved outstanding performance in government-run field tests due to its use of anomaly detection using principal component analysis (PCA) on the return of ground penetrating radar (GPR) coupled with metal detection. Indications of nonlinearities and asymmetries in Humanitarian Demining (HD) data point to modifications to the current PCA algorithm that might prove beneficial. Asymmetries in the distribution of PCA projections of field data have been quantified in Humanitarian Demining (HD) data. The data suggest a logarithmic correction to the data. Such a correction has been applied and has improved the FAR on this data set. The increase in performance is comparable to the increase shown using the simpler asymmetric rescaling method.

  19. Landmine detection using two-tapped joint orthogonal matching pursuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Sean; Glenn, Taylor; Wilson, Joseph N.; Gader, Paul D.

    2012-06-01

    Joint Orthogonal Matching Pursuits (JOMP) is used here in the context of landmine detection using data obtained from an electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor. The response from an object containing metal can be decomposed into a discrete spectrum of relaxation frequencies (DSRF) from which we construct a dictionary. A greedy iterative algorithm is proposed for computing successive residuals of a signal by subtracting away the highest matching dictionary element at each step. The nal condence of a particular signal is a combination of the reciprocal of this residual and the mean of the complex component. A two-tap approach comparing signals on opposite sides of the geometric location of the sensor is examined and found to produce better classication. It is found that using only a single pursuit does a comparable job, reducing complexity and allowing for real-time implementation in automated target recognition systems. JOMP is particularly highlighted in comparison with a previous EMI detection algorithm known as String Match.

  20. Kalman detection of landmines in metal detector array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeynayake, Canicious G.; Chant, Ian J.; Nash, Graeme

    2003-09-01

    Tens of millions of mines are currently buried in a number of countries around the world. They cause injuries to civilians and economic damage to war-torn countries by restricting the civilian access to huge agricultural lands. Rapid Route and Area Mine Neutralisation System (RRAMNS) is a Capability Technology Demonstrator (CTD) conducted by Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) in Australia. The detection system consists of three sensors: a metal detector array, an array of ground penetrating radar (GPR), and forward looking infrared and visual imaging systems. The Kalman filter-based detection technique has previously been shown to be a powerful tool for detection of landmines from metal detector data. In this paper scalar Kalman filter-based detection algorithm has been extended to the multi-dimensional case. The new version of the detection technique has been successfully implemented in RRAMNS real-time mine detection system.

  1. Globalisation, complex humanitarian emergencies and health.

    PubMed

    O'Dempsey, T J D; Munslow, B

    2006-01-01

    A new political economy of conflict has emerged in the aftermath of colonialism and the Cold War. Complex political emergencies have been simmering in the post-colonial world for more than three decades. Intra-country armed conflict, often combined with natural disasters, at present contributes to the displacement of over 20 million people world-wide. The international community remains profoundly uncomfortable with the complex political emergencies of the new era, torn between the respect for national sovereignty upon which the international political system of the United Nations and other agencies is built, and the growth of concern with human rights and a burgeoning International Humanitarian Law. Globalisation may have brought many benefits to some but there are also many losers. The Word Bank and the International Monetary Fund imposed structural adjustment policies to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring that have resulted in a net reduction in expenditure on health, education and development. A downward spiral has been created of debt, disease, malnutrition, missed education, economic entrapment, poverty, powerlessness, marginalization, migration and instability. Africa's complex political emergencies are particularly virulent and tenacious. Three examples that are among the most serious humanitarian emergencies to have faced the world in recent times--those in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan--are reviewed here in detail. The political evolution of these emergencies and their impact on the health of the affected populations are also explored. PMID:16899151

  2. Rape in war: the humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Shanks, L; Schull, M J

    2000-10-31

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting.

  3. Globalisation, complex humanitarian emergencies and health.

    PubMed

    O'Dempsey, T J D; Munslow, B

    2006-01-01

    A new political economy of conflict has emerged in the aftermath of colonialism and the Cold War. Complex political emergencies have been simmering in the post-colonial world for more than three decades. Intra-country armed conflict, often combined with natural disasters, at present contributes to the displacement of over 20 million people world-wide. The international community remains profoundly uncomfortable with the complex political emergencies of the new era, torn between the respect for national sovereignty upon which the international political system of the United Nations and other agencies is built, and the growth of concern with human rights and a burgeoning International Humanitarian Law. Globalisation may have brought many benefits to some but there are also many losers. The Word Bank and the International Monetary Fund imposed structural adjustment policies to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring that have resulted in a net reduction in expenditure on health, education and development. A downward spiral has been created of debt, disease, malnutrition, missed education, economic entrapment, poverty, powerlessness, marginalization, migration and instability. Africa's complex political emergencies are particularly virulent and tenacious. Three examples that are among the most serious humanitarian emergencies to have faced the world in recent times--those in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan--are reviewed here in detail. The political evolution of these emergencies and their impact on the health of the affected populations are also explored.

  4. Rape in war: the humanitarian response

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Leslie; Schull, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting. PMID:11079062

  5. Surface-contacting vibrometers for seismic landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James S.; Larson, Gregg D.; Scott, Waymond R., Jr.

    2005-06-01

    A technique has been developed that exploits remote seismic sources and local measurement of the surface displacement of the ground for the detection of buried landmines. Most of the previously reported investigation of this technique has focused on non-contact displacement sensors in order to ensure the safety of the operators of both handheld and vehicle-based systems. This is not inherently a constraint that requires a non-contact sensor, but rather one requiring a sensor that is non-intrusive (i.e. its presence does not alter the measured quantity). Current research is directed toward the development of autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic systems based on this technique. Here both unit cost and power consumption are issues of comparable importance to the survival of the sensor platform. Non-intrusive surface-contacting vibrometers are therefore a reasonable alternative. Several configurations have been studied for suitable vibrometers. The configuration that has shown the most promise is based on a commercial accelerometer coupled to the ground with a small normal force and isolated from the backing structure that is used to reposition it between measurements. It is a relatively simple matter to detect seismic motion with an accelerometer. The major issue in an effective implementation of the technique is to combine reproducibility with fidelity in the measurement. These are competing goals in that reproducibility is easily achieved with large normal forces, but fidelity requires that these be small. Sufficient reproducibility for imaging purposes has been achieved with normal forces that pose no danger of landmine detonation. Unlike reproducibility, fidelity is linked to both the nature of the imposed force and to its magnitude through the nonlinearity of the soil"s elasticity. Both continuous and incremental motions of the sensor platform have been studied, although incremental movement shows the most promise for the intended application.

  6. The application of Dempster-Shafer theory for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudigonda, Naga R.; Kacelenga, Ray; Erickson, David

    2003-04-01

    This paper explores the concepts of multisensor data fusion based on the Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidential theory in order to achieve a mine versus false-alarm (FA) classification of landmine targets. Initially, a decision-level DS algorithm is proposed to combine the evidence from multiple sensors of the landmine detection system developed by the General Dynamics Canada Limited (GD Canada). Subsequently, a feature-level DS fusion algorithm is employed to operate on a set of features reported by the ground penetrating radar (GPR) sensor of the system. The data used in the present study was acquired from the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG) test site in USA as part of the Ground Standoff Mine Detection System (GSTAMIDS) trials. The proposed decision-level DS algorithm yielded a probability of detection (pd) of 92.53% at a false-alarm rate (FAR) value of 0.0697 FAs/m2. The Pd and the FAR performance results achieved by using the decision-level DS algorithm are comparable with the results obtained using three other decision-level fusion algorithms that were previously developed by GD Canada based on heuristic, Bayesian inference, and Voting fusion concepts. On the other hand, the feature-level DS fusion, when tested with the information presented by the GPR sensor only, resulted in a higher Pd value of 78.54% as compared to the corresponding result of 61.43% obtained by using the heuristic algorithm. The GPR sensor is one of the three scanning sensors present on the system.

  7. The 2016 World Humanitarian Summit Report Card: Both Failing Marks and Substantive Gains for an Increasingly Globalized Humanitarian Landscape

    PubMed Central

    V. Canyon, Deon; Burkle, Frederick M.

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of the World Humanitarian Summit were mixed with some refreshing new directions being endorsed and a lack of systemic reform. The selective agenda and OCHAs lack of success in engaging pre-meeting political participation not only hampered the Summit’s ability to deal with global issues and institutional reform, but also alienated it from leading aid agencies and governments. The UN’s failure to commit to humanitarian principles and global disarray of the humanitarian system indicates the need for extensive reform or a new global humanitarian body. This agency needs to employ a decentralized model to manage aid funds, assume coordination of international responses, resolve civil-military coordination, cater for people affected by both conflict and disasters, and professionalize the humanitarian career.  PMID:27679738

  8. The 2016 World Humanitarian Summit Report Card: Both Failing Marks and Substantive Gains for an Increasingly Globalized Humanitarian Landscape.

    PubMed

    V Canyon, Deon; Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of the World Humanitarian Summit were mixed with some refreshing new directions being endorsed and a lack of systemic reform. The selective agenda and OCHAs lack of success in engaging pre-meeting political participation not only hampered the Summit's ability to deal with global issues and institutional reform, but also alienated it from leading aid agencies and governments. The UN's failure to commit to humanitarian principles and global disarray of the humanitarian system indicates the need for extensive reform or a new global humanitarian body. This agency needs to employ a decentralized model to manage aid funds, assume coordination of international responses, resolve civil-military coordination, cater for people affected by both conflict and disasters, and professionalize the humanitarian career. PMID:27679738

  9. The 2016 World Humanitarian Summit Report Card: Both Failing Marks and Substantive Gains for an Increasingly Globalized Humanitarian Landscape

    PubMed Central

    V. Canyon, Deon; Burkle, Frederick M.

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of the World Humanitarian Summit were mixed with some refreshing new directions being endorsed and a lack of systemic reform. The selective agenda and OCHAs lack of success in engaging pre-meeting political participation not only hampered the Summit’s ability to deal with global issues and institutional reform, but also alienated it from leading aid agencies and governments. The UN’s failure to commit to humanitarian principles and global disarray of the humanitarian system indicates the need for extensive reform or a new global humanitarian body. This agency needs to employ a decentralized model to manage aid funds, assume coordination of international responses, resolve civil-military coordination, cater for people affected by both conflict and disasters, and professionalize the humanitarian career. 

  10. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Soil Heterogeneity around Landmines in Natural Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallen, B.; Smits, K. M.; Howington, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    The environment in which landmines are placed is oftentimes highly heterogeneous. These heterogeneities such as differences in soil type, packing and moisture, combined with changes in surface and climate conditions can oftentimes mask the presence of the mine. Understanding the impact of heterogeneity on heat and mass transfer behavior in the vicinity of landmines is paramount to properly identifying landmine locations for demining operations. This study investigates the impact of soil heterogeneity on soil moisture and temperature distributions around buried objects with the goal of increasing our ability to model and predict the environmental conditions that are most dynamic to mine detection performance. A ten-day field experiment was conducted in which two anti-personnel landmines at different depths and a limestone block of comparable size were buried. The site was instrumented with a series of sensors, monitoring atmospheric, surface and subsurface conditions to include measurements of soil moisture, soil and air temperature, relative humidity, vapor concentration, and meteorological conditions such as wind speed and net radiation. Infrared thermal imaging was used to provide continuous profiles of surface temperature conditions. The soil was well characterized in the laboratory to provide good understanding of field conditions for numerical modeling efforts. Experimental results demonstrate the strongest thermal contrast between shallow landmine emplacement and the surrounding soil occurring as the sun approaches its zenith and two hours after sunset until the sun directly impacts the soil above the landmine. A finite-element model of fluid flow and heat transport through porous media is compared against experimental observations, capturing the diurnal variation. A validated model, like this one, offers the opportunity to improve landmine detection probabilities and reduce false alarms caused by environmental variability.

  11. Ethical codes in humanitarian emergencies: from practice to research?

    PubMed

    Black, Richard

    2003-06-01

    Notable strides have been made in recent years to develop codes of conduct for humanitarian intervention in conflicts on the part of international NGOs and UN organisations. Yet engagement by the academic and broader research communities with humanitarian crises and ongoing complex political emergencies remains relatively ad hoc and unregulated beyond the basic ethical guidelines and norms developed within universities for research in general, and within the governing and representative bodies of particular academic disciplines. This paper draws on a case study of research on humanitarian assistance to Liberia during that country's civil war from 1989 to 1996. The difficulties faced by humanitarian agencies in Liberia led to the development of two key sets of ethical guidelines for humanitarian intervention: the Joint Policy of Operations (JPO) and Principles and Policies of Humanitarian Operations (PPHO). This paper seeks to address what lessons, if any, these ethical guidelines, together with different experiences of conducting research in war-torn Liberia, can provide in terms of the role of academic researchers--and research itself--in humanitarian crises.

  12. Landscape of WASH-relevant Training for Humanitarian Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Dorea, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both employed humanitarian personnel as well as those seeking to start a career as an aid worker are often provided with or seek training on the theme of humanitarian water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The objective of this study was to conduct a landscaping exercise of the available WASH-relevant training for humanitarian emergencies. Methods: An open internet search was performed with specific terms related to humanitarian WASH. Retained search results included those training opportunities (including past ones) that were themed around or with a mentioned relevance to humanitarian WASH. Results and Discussion: A total of 42 training courses relevant to humanitarian emergency WASH were retained. In addition to the more generic/introductory trainings, some provided thematic variations such as coordination of WASH responses, project management, risk reduction, information, education and communication (IEC), and complex emergencies. Timely topics such as urban WASH, Ebola, and WASH innovations were also observed indicating the responsiveness of the training providers to the changing needs of humanitarian WASH response programmes. This survey also revealed a large variety in terms of target audience, duration, fees, location, and language of courses. There was no centralised listing of courses available on the Internet. Limitations of this exercise were also discussed. PMID:26064781

  13. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  14. Dual sensor platforms for UXO/landmine detection using GPR and EMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Jay; Hong, Kevin

    2010-04-01

    Metal detectors and ground penetrating radar have become the standard sensors for buried landmine and UXO detection. Joint systems have existed since the late 90s. Recent system development has again led to the placement of MD and GPR sensors on ground vehicles for detection of in-road landmine and UXO objects. In this work, two prominent systems - one GPR and one metal detector - are operated on a test site populated with landmine and deep buried UXO. The strength of the GPR is the ability to detect plastic cased landmines while the strength of the metal detector is to detect deep buried UXO. The sensors' capabilities overlap in regards to metal cased landmines. A simple fusion approach is used to show how these two sensors can be used together to create a platform that carries the strengths of both sensors. The final alarm list averages the confidence values produced by each sensor. ROC curves are used to quantify the performance. Curves are presented for each sensor standing alone and for their fusion performance.

  15. Detection of metallic and plastic landmines using the GPR and 2-D resistivity techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwaly, M.

    2007-12-01

    Low and non-metallic landmines are one of the most difficult subsurface targets to be detected using several geophysical techniques. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) performance at different field sites shows great success in detecting metallic landmines. However significant limitations are taking place in the case of low and non-metallic landmines. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) technique is tested to be an alternative or confirmation technique for detecting the metallic and non-metallic landmines in suspicious cleared areas. The electrical resistivity responses using forward modeling for metallic and non-metallic landmines buried in dry and wet environments utilizing the common electrode configurations have been achieved. Roughly all the utilized electrode arrays can establish the buried metallic and plastic mines correctly in dry and wet soil. The accuracy differs from one array to the other based on the relative resistivity contrast to the host soil and the subsurface distribution of current and potential lines as well as the amplitude of the noises in the data. The ERI technique proved to be fast and effective tool for detecting the non-metallic mines especially in the conductive environment whereas the performances of the other metal detector (MD) and GPR techniques show great limitation.

  16. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  17. [Child care management in maxillofacial humanitarian mission].

    PubMed

    Bénateau, H; Traoré, H; Chatellier, A; Caillot, A; Ambroise, B; Veyssière, A

    2015-09-01

    Our practice in a humanitarian (or crisis) context differs from what we experience in daily practice. There are several reasons for this. First, the diseases encountered are sometimes unfamiliar, such as sequelae of noma, or the presentation of familiar diseases may be unusual, such as facial malformations seen at a late stage. Secondly, these missions take place in developing countries, and consequently, evaluation and anticipation of possible malnutrition should be considered, especially because facial diseases themselves may be responsible for nutritional problems. Lastly, conditions are often difficult, occurring in an unusual environment, and we sometimes have to face communication and equipment problems. The goal of our work, based on a 15-year experience (in Bamako and Mopti with the Association "Santé et Développement", and in Ouagadougou with the organization "Les enfants du noma") and the analysis of literature, is to point out these features and maybe to be helpful to others.

  18. Microwave radiometry for humanitarian demining: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Joel T.; Kim, Hyunjin; Wiggins, David R.; Cheon, Yonghun

    2002-08-01

    Previous modeling studies have indicated that a multi-frequency radiometer could prove advantageous for humanitarian demining due to the oscillatory patterns in brightness temperature versus frequency that would be observed in the presence of a sub-surface target. Initial experimental results are reported in this paper from a multi-frequency radiometer (MFRAD) system operating at 19 frequencies in the 2.1-6.5 GHz band. The basic design of MFRAD is reviewed, and the calibration and noise background removal procedures discussed. Experimental results with sub-surface metallic and styrofoam targets are then provided that demonstrate the predicted oscillatory behavior. An FFT-based detection algorithm is also described and applied to measured data. Further plans for experiments and tests with this system are also detailed.

  19. Humanitarian mine detection by acoustic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    The JASON Committee at MITRE Corp. was tasked by DARPA to inquire into suitable technologies for humanitarian mine detection. Acoustic resonance was one of the very few technologies that the JASONs determined might be promising for the task, but was as yet unexplored at the time that they conducted their inquiry. The objective of this Seed Money investigation into acoustic resonance was to determine if it would be feasible to use acoustic resonance to provide an improvement to present methods for humanitarian mine detection. As detailed in this report, acoustic resonance methods do not appear to be feasible for this task. Although acoustic resonant responses are relatively easy to detect when they exist, they are very difficult to excite by the non-contact means that must be used for buried objects. Despite many different attempts, this research did not discover any practical means of using sound to excite resonant responses in objects known to have strong resonances. The shaker table experiments did see an effect that might be attributable to the resonance of the object under test, but the effect was weak, and exploited the a priori knowledge of the resonant frequency of the object under test to distinguish it from the background. If experiments that used objects known to have strong acoustic resonances produced such marginal results, this does not seem to be a practical method to detect objects with weak resonances or non-existent resonances. The results of this work contribute to the ORNL countermine initiative. ORNL is exploring several unconventional mine detection technologies, and is proposed to explore others. Since this research has discovered some major pitfalls in non-metallic mine detection, this experience will add realism to other strategies proposed for mine detection technologies. The experiment provided hands-on experience with inert plastic mines under field conditions, and gives ORNL additional insight into the problems of developing practical

  20. The professional humanitarian and the downsides of professionalisation.

    PubMed

    James, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Criticisms lodged at humanitarian relief often include the belief that professionalisation is needed. The problems associated with humanitarianism would end, it is assumed, if the delivery of aid, and relief workers themselves, were more professional and 'business like'. To explore this further, the paper asks what comprises a profession, and offers four criteria: (1) specialisation of knowledge; (2) establishment of the profession as a livelihood; (3) organisation and institutionalisation; and (4) legitimacy and authority. A model for understanding professionalisation, as developed by the author, is then presented. The analysis compares six other professions against the same criteria to argue that the humanitarian community already constitutes a profession. Finally, three potential downsides of professionalisation are offered: the distance of the relief worker from the beneficiary, barriers to entry into the humanitarian sector, and adding to risk aversion and a decline in innovation. Based on these findings, professionalisation should be approached with some caution.

  1. Refugees, humanitarian aid and the right to decline vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Caplan, A L; Curry, David R

    2015-03-01

    Recent instances of governments and others refusing humanitarian assistance to refugees and IDPs (internally-displaced persons) unless they agreed to polio immunization for their children raise difficult ethical challenges. The authors argue that states have the right and a responsibility to require such vaccinations in instances where the serious vaccine-preventable disease(s) at issue threaten others, including local populations, humanitarian workers, and others in camps or support settings. PMID:25135799

  2. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  3. Refugees, humanitarian aid and the right to decline vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Caplan, A L; Curry, David R

    2015-03-01

    Recent instances of governments and others refusing humanitarian assistance to refugees and IDPs (internally-displaced persons) unless they agreed to polio immunization for their children raise difficult ethical challenges. The authors argue that states have the right and a responsibility to require such vaccinations in instances where the serious vaccine-preventable disease(s) at issue threaten others, including local populations, humanitarian workers, and others in camps or support settings.

  4. Investigation of microphones as near-ground sensors for seismic detection of buried landmines.

    PubMed

    Larson, Gregg D; Martin, James S; Scott, Waymond R

    2007-07-01

    Commercially available microphones were investigated as near-ground sensors to measure the acoustic pressure and the vertical pressure gradient of evanescent air-acoustic waves associated with audio-frequency seismic waves. Measurements in close proximity to the surface and the use of waveguides were found to improve the microphone signal's quality, the comparison of its seismic sensitivity to its sensitivity to propagating sound (ambient acoustic noise and nonseismic reverberation). Landmine images formed using microphone data collected in a laboratory experimental model clearly locate buried inert landmines but exhibit more clutter than images of the same objects formed with seismic displacement data collected using other techniques.

  5. The far side: the meta functions of humanitarianism in a globalised world.

    PubMed

    Donini, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores the meta functions of humanitarianism--that is, the functions that, as an ideology, a movement and a profession, it performs, wittingly or unwittingly, in the early twenty-first century. The term humanitarianism is used as shorthand to encompass a complex set of currents of thought, actions and institutions of which the boundaries are unclear. The focus is on mainstream humanitarianism, the dominant Northern/Western enterprise. The paper first discusses the relationship between humanitarianism and globalised power. It goes on to examine three types of functions that humanitarianism and humanitarian action perform: 'macro' functions--the deep undercurrents, power relations and values that humanitarianism articulates and transmits; 'meso' functions--those that relate to the political economy of humanitarian action and to the mechanics (rather than to the ideology) of globalisation; and 'micro' functions that relate to the motivations of the individuals who devote their energies to humanitarianism.

  6. [Daily risks in the devaluation of the image of humanitarian action].

    PubMed

    Biquet, J M

    2002-01-01

    After restating the definition, purpose, and role of humanitarian assistance, the author emphasizes the dangers that misuse for political considerations represents for the image of humanitarian action. While recognizing that technical expertise is important for effective provision of aid, the author stresses that humanitarianism requires more than technology. He also warns that collecting the funds necessary for relief operations must not lead to commercial-style marketing of humanitarian assistance. Similarly he cautions that the targets for humanitarian action should not be determined by television pictures. In conclusion the author advocates responsible administration of humanitarian programs.

  7. [Daily risks in the devaluation of the image of humanitarian action].

    PubMed

    Biquet, J M

    2002-01-01

    After restating the definition, purpose, and role of humanitarian assistance, the author emphasizes the dangers that misuse for political considerations represents for the image of humanitarian action. While recognizing that technical expertise is important for effective provision of aid, the author stresses that humanitarianism requires more than technology. He also warns that collecting the funds necessary for relief operations must not lead to commercial-style marketing of humanitarian assistance. Similarly he cautions that the targets for humanitarian action should not be determined by television pictures. In conclusion the author advocates responsible administration of humanitarian programs. PMID:12534185

  8. A Directed Energy System for Defeat of Improvised Explosive Devices and Landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C; Fochs, S; Parker, J; Rotter, M; Rubenchik, A; Yamamoto, R

    2006-03-20

    We describe a laser system, built in our laboratory at LLNL, that has near-term, effective applications in exposing and neutralizing improvised explosive devices and landmines. We discuss experiments with this laser, demonstrating excavation capabilities and relevant material interactions. Model results are also described.

  9. Burst fracture of the lumbar vertebra due to a landmine injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Serkan; Kurklu, Mustafa; Yurttas, Yuksel; Ozkan, Huseyin; Sehirlioglu, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The reason we report this case is that spine injuries may well occur due to landmines similar to other injuries like traumatic limb amputations and more over they may be overlooked. Case presentation The patient was 29-years-old Turkish male and was a member of the military. He detonated the landmine that caused his injuries while in a conflict zone. He had a right below knee and left above knee traumatic amputations. He had also mild intermittent pain in his lower back. There were no focal neurological findings such as weakness, altered sensibility, or alteration in the function of the bowel or bladder. Radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed an L2 burst fracture. Computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine demonstrated a burst fracture of the L2 vertebrae and moderate compression in the anterior portion of the thecal sac due to the fracture fragment. Because of the stabile nature of the L2 burst fracture and lack of neurological disturbance, operative decompression, instrumentation and fusion was not performed. After healing of the stumps, the patient was mobilized with immediate prostheses and a thoracolumbosacral brace. Conclusion Spine injuries should not be overlooked when evaluating patients after landmine explosions. After the patient has been stabilized, the secondary screening and radiographic evaluations should also comprise the thoracic, thoracolumbar and lumbar spine when treating patients after landmine injuries. PMID:19829776

  10. Innovation in Graduate Education for Health Professionals in Humanitarian Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dabney P; Anderson, Mark; Shahpar, Cyrus; Del Rio, Carlos; Curran, James W

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this report was to show how the Center for Humanitarian Emergencies (the Center) at Emory University (Atlanta, Georgia USA) has trained graduate students to respond to complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs) through innovative educational programs, with the goal of increasing the number of trained humanitarian workers. Natural disasters are on the rise with more than twice as many occurring from 2000-2009 as there were from 1980-1989. In 2012 alone, 144 million people were affected by a natural disaster or displaced by conflict worldwide. This has created an immense need for trained humanitarian workers to respond effectively to such disasters. The Center has developed a model for educational programming that targets learners along an educational continuum ranging from the undergraduate level through continuing professional education. These programs, based in the Rollins School of Public Health (RSPH) of Emory University, include: a competency-based graduate certificate program (the Certificate) in humanitarian emergencies; a fellowship program for mid-career professionals; and funded field practica. The competency-based Certificate program began in 2010 with a cohort of 14 students. Since then, 101 students have received the Certificate with 50 more due for completion in 2016 and 2017 combined. The fellowship program for mid-career professionals has hosted four fellows from conflict-affected or resource-poor countries, who have then gone on to assume leadership positions with humanitarian organizations. From 2009-2015, the field practicum program supported 34 students in international summer practicum experiences related to emergency response or preparedness. Students have participated in summer field experiences on every continent but Australia. Together the Certificate, funded field practicum opportunities, and the fellowship comprise current efforts in providing innovative education and training for graduate and post-graduate students of public

  11. Radar classification of landmines by time-frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, D.; Nguyen, L.; Gaunaurd, G.

    2007-04-01

    A flying platform illuminates a land mine field with mixtures of various landmines (i.e., buried, on the surface, plastic or metallic) and some "confusers", with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. The polarimetric echoes returned by the mine field are mapped into an overall synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image, which is then analyzed pixel-by-pixel by modern time-frequency (t-f) techniques. The t-f analysis of any echo from any of the individual scatterers in the mine field can be performed using a number of t-f distributions, which in turn generate two-dimensional plots of each such scatterer in t-f space. These plots are richer in information than those in the original SAR image, and they offer a larger variety of clues useful for the discrimination of each type of mine from the others or from the confusers. Several t-f distributions are employed in the study, and it is found that some are better than others for the present purpose of target detection and classification. From the images obtained we can conclude that the Pseudo-Wigner-Ville and the Choi-Williams distributions provide the best discrimination results. It is also found that the larger mines such as those denoted here as of "type-1" are the easiest to identify. Using the above-mentioned distributions it follows that the distinction between actual mines and clutter objects (or "confusers") becomes clearer, particularly when the latter objects are metallic. Numerous images generated in this study confirm the above conclusions.

  12. Evaluation of seismic noise for landmine detection system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James S.; Larson, Gregg D.; Scott, Waymond R., Jr.; McCall, George S., II

    2003-09-01

    For several years a system has been under development at Georgia Tech that uses seismic surface waves to detect and image buried landmines. The details of this system have been previously reported in the literature. Current work involves the transition from a laboratory experimental system to a field-operable experimental system with the ultimate goal of creating an integrated field-operable prototype. Several issues have arisen in the transition to field testing. One of these is the nature and magnitude of the noise levels that limit system performance at field sites and the relevance of these for predicting noise that might be encountered in a realistic demining scenario. Noise introduced to the system sensor (a radar-based, non-contact displacement sensor) can arise from many sources (both natural and manmade). It may be received through a variety of mechanisms in addition to the sensor's primary transduction mechanism. Moreover, even noise which is received through the primary transduction mechanism need not involve purely seismic motion of the ground that is being interrogated. It might instead represent motion of the sensor's support structure or the purely local coupling of airborne noise into surface motion. To understand these effects, measurements have been made using ground contacting sensors at four field sites where other system-related measurements have also been made. The nature of the noise measurements has required that refinements be made to both the sensors themselves (triaxial geophones) and to the data acquisition system used for the measurement of the system"s seismic interrogation signals (a 12-bit, PC-based digitizer).

  13. SIRE: a MIMO radar for landmine/IED detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojowu, Ode; Wu, Yue; Li, Jian; Nguyen, Lam

    2013-05-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems have been shown to have significant performance improvements over their single-input multiple-output (SIMO) counterparts. For transmit and receive elements that are collocated, the waveform diversity afforded by this radar is exploited for performance improvements. These improvements include but are not limited to improved target detection, improved parameter identifiability and better resolvability. In this paper, we present the Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction Radar (SIRE) Ultra-wideband (UWB) radar designed by the Army Research Lab (ARL) for landmine and improvised explosive device (IED) detection as a 2 by 16 MIMO radar (with collocated antennas). Its improvement over its SIMO counterpart in terms of beampattern/cross range resolution are discussed and demonstrated using simulated data herein. The limitations of this radar for Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) suppression are also discussed in this paper. A relaxation method (RELAX) combined with averaging of multiple realizations of the measured data is presented for RFI suppression; results show no noticeable target signature distortion after suppression. In this paper, the back-projection (delay and sum) data independent method is used for generating SAR images. A side-lobe minimization technique called recursive side-lobe minimization (RSM) is also discussed for reducing side-lobes in this data independent approach. We introduce a data-dependent sparsity based spectral estimation technique called Sparse Learning via Iterative Minimization (SLIM) as well as a data-dependent CLEAN approach for generating SAR images for the SIRE radar. These data-adaptive techniques show improvement in side-lobe reduction and resolution for simulated data for the SIRE radar.

  14. Ensemble hidden Markov models with application to landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Anis; Frigui, Hichem

    2015-12-01

    We introduce an ensemble learning method for temporal data that uses a mixture of hidden Markov models (HMM). We hypothesize that the data are generated by K models, each of which reflects a particular trend in the data. The proposed approach, called ensemble HMM (eHMM), is based on clustering within the log-likelihood space and has two main steps. First, one HMM is fit to each of the N individual training sequences. For each fitted model, we evaluate the log-likelihood of each sequence. This results in an N-by-N log-likelihood distance matrix that will be partitioned into K groups using a relational clustering algorithm. In the second step, we learn the parameters of one HMM per cluster. We propose using and optimizing various training approaches for the different K groups depending on their size and homogeneity. In particular, we investigate the maximum likelihood (ML), the minimum classification error (MCE), and the variational Bayesian (VB) training approaches. Finally, to test a new sequence, its likelihood is computed in all the models and a final confidence value is assigned by combining the models' outputs using an artificial neural network. We propose both discrete and continuous versions of the eHMM. Our approach was evaluated on a real-world application for landmine detection using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Results show that both the continuous and discrete eHMM can identify meaningful and coherent HMM mixture components that describe different properties of the data. Each HMM mixture component models a group of data that share common attributes. These attributes are reflected in the mixture model's parameters. The results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the baseline HMM that uses one model for each class in the data.

  15. Optimizing detector trials for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaal, Mate; Baer, Sylke; Bloodworth, Thomas J.; Guelle, Dieter; Lewis, Adam M.; Mueller, Christina; Scharmach, Martina

    2004-09-01

    The performance of mine detecting instruments is embedded in the behavior of a complex system. The total reliability is always composed of the intrinsic physical detection capability of the sensor, application/environmental influences and human factors. The intrinsic capability and some application factors can be investigated in laboratory measurements. Human factors, other application factors and the overall reliability, can only be evaluated in blind field trials in which the probability of detection (PoD) and false alarm rate (FAR) are measured statistically. Both of these approaches are included in CEN Workshop Agreement CWA 14747:2003, which standardizes detector testing in Humanitarian Demining. We report here the results of a study to investigate how to optimize such testing. For efficient and statistically valid field trials, the number, types and burial depths of targets, and the number of test lanes, soil types, repetitions and operators need to be carefully chosen. Laboratory results should be used to help construct field trial protocols and also to help distinguish the different contributions to the PoD and FAR, to determine where to improve insufficient performance. In this study, four models of metal detector were tested in three field trials and in the laboratory. The repeatability of the field trials is assessed, taking into account operator training and experience. Results of the laboratory tests are compared with results of the field trials and used to construct a "modular model" of the system, as used in nondestructive testing. The conclusions are, in principle, applicable to trials of other types of sensor.

  16. Health equity in humanitarian emergencies: a role for evidence aid.

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    Humanitarian emergencies require a range of planned and coordinated actions: security, healthcare, and, as this article highlights, health equity responses. Health equity is an evidence-based science that aims to address unfair and unjust health inequality outcomes. New approaches are using health equity to guide the development of community programs, equity methods are being used to identify disadvantaged groups that may face health inequities in a humanitarian emergency, and equity is being used to prevent unintended harms and consequences in interventions. Limitations to health equity approaches include acquiring sufficient data to make equity interpretations, integrating disadvantage populations in to the equity approach, and ensuring buy-in from decision-makers. This article uses examples from World Health Organization, Refugee Health Guidelines and Health Impact Assessment to demonstrate the emerging role for health equity in humanitarian emergencies. It is based on a presentation at the Evidence Aid Symposium, on 20 September 2014, at Hyderabad, India.

  17. [The human, humanistic, humanist and humanitarian in medicine].

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, A

    1997-01-01

    The Spanish use of words like human, humane, humanitarian, humanist and humanistic (humano, humanista, humanístico y humanitario) as synonyms has created some confusion. Human (humano) is related with man's nature, its goodness and evil; humane and humanitarian (humanitario) with kindness and benevolence; humanistic (humanístico) with the cultural and artistic movement that began in renaissance and with anthropocentric philosophy, while humanist (humanista) is identified with the fields of learning (humanities) including the arts, history, literature, and philosophy, excluding the sciences. Medicine and physicians must have all these attributes. PMID:9303871

  18. State humanitarian verticalism versus universal health coverage: a century of French international health assistance revisited.

    PubMed

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Wilson, Andrew; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-28

    The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer. From decolonisation to the end of the Cold War (1960-99), French assistance to newly independent states was affected by sans frontièrisme, Health for All, and the AIDS pandemic. Since 2000, France has had an active role in development of global health initiatives and favoured multilateral action for health assistance. Today, with adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the challenges of non-communicable diseases, economic inequality, and climate change, French international health assistance needs new direction. In the context of current debate over global health as a universal goal, understanding and acknowledging France's history could help strengthen advocacy in favour of universal health coverage and contribute to advancing global equity through income redistribution, from healthy populations to people who are sick and from wealthy individuals to those who are poor.

  19. State humanitarian verticalism versus universal health coverage: a century of French international health assistance revisited.

    PubMed

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Wilson, Andrew; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-28

    The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer. From decolonisation to the end of the Cold War (1960-99), French assistance to newly independent states was affected by sans frontièrisme, Health for All, and the AIDS pandemic. Since 2000, France has had an active role in development of global health initiatives and favoured multilateral action for health assistance. Today, with adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the challenges of non-communicable diseases, economic inequality, and climate change, French international health assistance needs new direction. In the context of current debate over global health as a universal goal, understanding and acknowledging France's history could help strengthen advocacy in favour of universal health coverage and contribute to advancing global equity through income redistribution, from healthy populations to people who are sick and from wealthy individuals to those who are poor. PMID:27145710

  20. Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Menghestab

    2005-01-01

    security and vulnerability of rural communities have become more predictable and can be monitored effectively. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how current advances in the understanding of climate variability, weather patterns and food security could contribute to improved humanitarian decision-making. The paper will propose new approaches for triggering humanitarian responses to weather-induced food crises. PMID:16433102

  1. Developing Institutional Capacity for Reproductive Health in Humanitarian Settings: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Dawson, Angela; Meyers, Janet; Krause, Sandra; Hickling, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Institutions play a central role in advancing the field of reproductive health in humanitarian settings (RHHS), yet little is known about organizational capacity to deliver RHHS and how this has developed over the past decade. This study aimed to document the current institutional experiences and capacities related to RHHS. Materials and Methods Descriptive study using an online questionnaire tool. Results Respondents represented 82 institutions from 48 countries, of which two-thirds originated from low-and middle-income countries. RHHS work was found not to be restricted to humanitarian agencies (25%), but was also embraced by development organizations (25%) and institutions with dual humanitarian and development mandates (50%). Agencies reported working with refugees (81%), internally-displaced (87%) and stateless persons (20%), in camp-based settings (78%), and in urban (83%) and rural settings (78%). Sixty-eight percent of represented institutions indicated having an RHHS-related policy, 79% an accountability mechanism including humanitarian work, and 90% formal partnerships with other institutions. Seventy-three percent reported routinely appointing RH focal points to ensure coordination of RHHS implementation. There was reported progress in RHHS-related disaster risk reduction (DRR), emergency management and coordination, delivery of the Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP) for RH, comprehensive RH services in post-crisis/recovery situations, gender mainstreaming, and community-based programming. Other reported institutional areas of work included capacity development, program delivery, advocacy/policy work, followed by research and donor activities. Except for abortion-related services, respondents cited improved efforts in advocacy, capacity development and technical support in their institutions for RHHS to address clinical services, including maternal and newborn health, sexual violence prevention and response, HIV prevention, management

  2. Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Haile, Menghestab

    2005-11-29

    security and vulnerability of rural communities have become more predictable and can be monitored effectively. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how current advances in the understanding of climate variability, weather patterns and food security could contribute to improved humanitarian decision-making. The paper will propose new approaches for triggering humanitarian responses to weather-induced food crises.

  3. Rapid response: email, immediacy, and medical humanitarianism in Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Grayman, Jesse Hession

    2014-11-01

    After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. PMID:24788052

  4. Protective Environments and Quality Education in Humanitarian Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Pilar; Retamal, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    This paper reflects the experience of the authors working in the field of humanitarian education during the last two decades. Important changes have been witnessed since the Central American crises of the seventies, the refugee focus of the eighties and the new UN vision of the complex emergency crisis of the nineties resulting from the post Cold…

  5. Humanitarian Curriculum and Psychosocial Interventions: An Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retamal, Gonzalo; Low, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an analytical description of the impact of violence and natural disasters on schoolchildren. It attempts to explore the present state of the art in psychosocial aspects of education and the curriculum in humanitarian settings. This is carried out through a compilation and a brief annotated bibliography of existing literature…

  6. Humanitarian Interventions: Western Imperialism or a Responsibility to Protect?--An Analysis of the Humanitarian Interventions in Darfur

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damboeck, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide an analysis of the features that have shaped the state's decision-making process in the United Nations, with regard to the humanitarian intervention in Darfur from 2003 onwards. Design/methodology/approach: The methodological approach to the study is a review of political statement papers grounded in…

  7. Phantom Limb Sensation (PLS) and Phantom Limb Pain (PLP) among Young Landmine Amputees

    PubMed Central

    POOR ZAMANY NEJATKERMANY, Mahtab; MODIRIAN, Ehsan; SOROUSH, Mohammadreza; MASOUMI, Mehdi; HOSSEINI, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of phantom limb sensation (PLS) and phantom limb pain (PLP) in children and young adults suffering landmine-related amputation. Materials & Methods All youths with amputation due to landmine explosions participated in this study. The proportions of patients with phantom limb sensation/pain, intensity and frequency of pain were reported. Chi square test was used to examine the relationship between variables. Comparison of PLP and PLS between upper and lower amputation was done by unpaired t-test. Results There were 38 male and 3 female with the mean age of 15.8±2.4yr. The mean interval between injury and follow-up was 90.7±39.6 months. Twelve (44.4%) upper limb amputees and 11 (26.8%) lower limb amputees had PLS. Nine (33.3%) upper limb amputees and 7 (17.1%) lower limb amputees experienced PLP. Of 27 upper limb amputees, 6 (14.6%) and among 15 lower limb amputees, 6 (14.6%) had both PLS and PLP. One case suffered amputation of upper and lower limbs and was experiencing PLS and PLP in both parts. PLS had a significant difference between the upper and lower amputated groups. Significant relationship was observed between age of casualty and duration of injury with PLP. Conclusion Phantom limb sensation and pain in young survivors of landmine explosions appear to be common, even years after amputation. PMID:27375755

  8. New Mexico Tech landmine, UXO, IED detection sensor test facility: measurements in real field soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Alkov, Nicole; Hong, Sung-ho; Van Dam, Remke L.; Kleissl, Jan; Shannon, Heather; Meason, John; Borchers, Brian; Harmon, Russell S.

    2006-05-01

    Modeling studies and experimental work have demonstrated that the dynamic behavior of soil physical properties has a significant effect on most sensors for the detection of buried land mines. An outdoor test site has been constructed allowing full control over soil water content and continuous monitoring of important soil properties and environmental conditions. Time domain reflectometry sensors and thermistors measure soil water1 content and temperature, respectively, at different depths above and below the land mines as well as in homogeneous soil away from the land mines. During the two-year operation of the test-site, the soils have evolved to reflect real field soil conditions. This paper compares visual observations as well as ground-penetrating radar and thermal infrared measurements at this site taken immediately after construction in early 2004 with measurements from early 2006. The visual observations reveal that the 2006 soil surfaces exhibit a much higher spatial variability due to the development of mini-reliefs, "loose" and "connected" soil crusts, cracks in clay soils, and vegetation. Evidence is presented that the increased variability of soil surface characteristics leads to a higher natural spatial variability of soil surface temperatures and, thus, to a lower probability to detect landmines using thermal imagery. No evidence was found that the soil surface changes affect the GPR signatures of landmines under the soil conditions encountered in this study. The New Mexico Tech outdoor Landmine Detection Sensor Test Facility is easily accessible and anyone interested is welcome to use it for sensor testing.

  9. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-06-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  10. Comparative analysis of short and long GPR pulses for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temlioǧlu, Eyyup; Nazlı, Hakkı; Aksoy, Serkan

    2016-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most popular subsurface sensing devices. It has a wide range of applications such as landmine detection, archeological investigations, road condition survey and so on. Hardware and software requirements of the GPR system are strongly dependent on type of applications. Principally, lower frequencies provide deeper penetration and low resolution, but higher frequencies are able to detect shallow objects with high resolution. As a fundamental design criterion, there is a trade-off between penetration depth and vertical resolution. In impulse radar, pulse duration (frequency related) is a key parameter because it affects the system detection performance. Specially, optimization of the pulse duration is a challenging problem for landmine detection because the GPR performance has been strongly affected from mine types, varying terrain and environmental conditions. In this work, two GPR systems with pulse durations of 650 ps and 870 ps are compared for evaluation of their detection performance. The pulses are tested with extensive data sets collected from different soil types by using surrogate mines and other objects. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the system is also calculated. It seems that the 650 ps pulse duration gives better performance than the 870 ps pulse duration for the shallow landmine detection.

  11. Numerical simulation of the coupling of ultra-wide band electromagnetic pulse into landmine by aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhen-Ru; Zhao, Hui-Chang; Yang, Li; Wang, Feng-Shan

    2015-09-01

    The modern landmine’s electronic fuse is susceptible to strong interference or can even be damaged by the ultra-wide band electromagnetic pulse (UWB-EMP). The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in lossy media with cylindrical coordinates is used to study the interactions of the UWB-EMP with the landmine. First, the coupling of UWB-EMP into the landmine shielding shell through an aperture is numerically simulated. Second, the coupled electromagnetic field of mine shells made of different shielding materials and with apertures of different sizes is plotted. Third, the aperture coupling laws of UWB-EMP into shells are analyzed and categorized. Such an algorithm is capable of effectively preventing ladder similar errors, and consequently improving the calculation precision, and in addition to adopting the message passing interface (MPI) parallel method to divide the total calculating range into more sub-ranges, the overall calculating efficiency is greatly increased. These calculations are surely a constructive reference for modern landmine design against electromagnetic damage. Project supported by the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2014M552610).

  12. An exploratory study of the perceived impact of health problems of landmine/UXO victims versus another disability group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this exploratory study is to pilot a biopsychosocial instrument called the Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP) on a cohort of landmine/Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) victims with lower limb disability versus a cohort of persons with similar disability due to other trauma or medical causes. The aim is to provide greater understanding of the psychosocial impact of landmine/UXO injury to inform victim assistance a interventions within Lao PDR. Methods This study employs a mixed methods design, which involved piloting the PIPP instrument through an interviewer administered questionnaire and demographic questionnaire. Fifty one participants were interviewed in both urban and rural locations within Lao PDR. Results An analysis of the data reveals significant differences in perceived impact for pain, anxiety and how recently the injury/illness occurred. Both groups complained of high levels of anxiety and depression; landmine/UXO victims who complained of anxiety and depression reported a much greater impact on life satisfaction and mood. Conclusion The perceived impact of the disability is greatest on psychosocial factors for both cohorts, but especially in landmine/UXO victims emphasising the need to focus on improving psychosocial interventions for landmine/UXO victims within Victim assistance programmes in Lao PDR. PMID:23016958

  13. New trends of short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism: professional and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin; Junck, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism has grown significantly among both clinicians and trainees over the past several years. Increasingly, both volunteers and their respective institutions have faced important challenges in regard to medical ethics and professional codes that should not be overlooked. We explore these potential concerns and their risk factors in three categories: ethical responsibilities in patient care, professional responsibility to communities and populations, and institutional responsibilities towards trainees. We discuss factors increasing the risk of harm to patients and communities, including inadequate preparation, the use of advanced technology and the translation of Western medicine, issues with clinical epidemiology and test utility, difficulties with the principles of justice and clinical justice, the lack of population-based medicine, sociopolitical effects of foreign aid, volunteer stress management, and need for sufficient trainee supervision. We review existing resources and offer suggestions for future skill-based training, organisational responsibilities, and ethical preparation.

  14. Locating responsibility: the Sphere Humanitarian Charter and its rationale.

    PubMed

    Darcy, James

    2004-06-01

    Criticised by some as a technical initiative that neglects core principles, Sphere was seen by its originators precisely as an articulation of principle. The Humanitarian Charter was the main vehicle through which this was expressed, but its relationship to the Minimum Standards has remained a matter of uncertainty. Specifically, it was unclear in the original (1999) edition of Sphere how the concept of rights informed the Minimum Standards. The revised (2004) edition goes some way to clarifying this in the way the standards are framed, yet the link between the standards and the charter remains unclear. The concern with the quality and accountability of humanitarian assistance, which motivated the attempt to establish system-wide standards through the Sphere Project, was accompanied by a desire to establish such actions in a wider framework of legal and political responsibility. In part, this reflects the conditional nature of the undertaking that agencies make when they adopt Sphere. This aspect of the charter has been neglected, but it is fundamental to an understanding of the standards and their application. This paper considers the rationale of the Sphere Humanitarian Charter and the conceptual model that underpins it. It discusses the relationship between the charter and the Minimum Standards, and the sense in which the latter are properly called "rights-based" (explored further in a related paper herein by Young and Taylor). The author was closely involved in the conception and drafting of the charter, and this paper attempts to convey some of the thinking that lay behind it.

  15. Ethical considerations for vaccination programmes in acute humanitarian emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Kate; Selgelid, Michael J; Waldman, Ronald J; Strebel, Peter; Rees, Helen; Durrheim, David N

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Humanitarian emergencies result in a breakdown of critical health-care services and often make vulnerable communities dependent on external agencies for care. In resource-constrained settings, this may occur against a backdrop of extreme poverty, malnutrition, insecurity, low literacy and poor infrastructure. Under these circumstances, providing food, water and shelter and limiting communicable disease outbreaks become primary concerns. Where effective and safe vaccines are available to mitigate the risk of disease outbreaks, their potential deployment is a key consideration in meeting emergency health needs. Ethical considerations are crucial when deciding on vaccine deployment. Allocation of vaccines in short supply, target groups, delivery strategies, surveillance and research during acute humanitarian emergencies all involve ethical considerations that often arise from the tension between individual and common good. The authors lay out the ethical issues that policy-makers need to bear in mind when considering the deployment of mass vaccination during humanitarian emergencies, including beneficence (duty of care and the rule of rescue), non-maleficence, autonomy and consent, and distributive and procedural justice. PMID:23599553

  16. Ethical considerations for vaccination programmes in acute humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Keymanthri; Hardie, Kate; Selgelid, Michael J; Waldman, Ronald J; Strebel, Peter; Rees, Helen; Durrheim, David N

    2013-04-01

    Humanitarian emergencies result in a breakdown of critical health-care services and often make vulnerable communities dependent on external agencies for care. In resource-constrained settings, this may occur against a backdrop of extreme poverty, malnutrition, insecurity, low literacy and poor infrastructure. Under these circumstances, providing food, water and shelter and limiting communicable disease outbreaks become primary concerns. Where effective and safe vaccines are available to mitigate the risk of disease outbreaks, their potential deployment is a key consideration in meeting emergency health needs. Ethical considerations are crucial when deciding on vaccine deployment. Allocation of vaccines in short supply, target groups, delivery strategies, surveillance and research during acute humanitarian emergencies all involve ethical considerations that often arise from the tension between individual and common good. The authors lay out the ethical issues that policy-makers need to bear in mind when considering the deployment of mass vaccination during humanitarian emergencies, including beneficence (duty of care and the rule of rescue), non-maleficence, autonomy and consent, and distributive and procedural justice.

  17. Shelter strategies, humanitarian praxis and critical urban theory in post-crisis reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lilianne

    2012-07-01

    The paper seeks to link contemporary thinking on urban shelter in the humanitarian sector to debates in the field of 'critical urban theory'. It argues that current humanitarian thinking on urban shelter shares many common concerns with critical urban theory, but that these concerns are rarely translated effectively into humanitarian practice. It attributes this disconnect not only to weaknesses in implementation capacity, but also to the need to reorient humanitarian action to address more definitively questions of power and justice. Humanitarian actors need to step back from product-delivery approaches and find ways of integrating into their analytical, planning, implementation and monitoring tools questions about access, exclusion and the historically specific ways in which these aspects converge in particular urban spaces. By doing so, the humanitarian community would benefit from a more explicit, systematic and sustained engagement with the catalytic theoretical resources that critical urban theory has to offer.

  18. Invitation withdrawn: humanitarian action, United Nations peacekeeping, and state sovereignty in Chad.

    PubMed

    Karlsrud, John; Felix da Costa, Diana

    2013-10-01

    This paper looks at the three-way relationship between the Government of Chad, humanitarians, and the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) from 2004 until June 2011. Chad was never comfortable with the international presence of either humanitarians or peacekeepers and asserted its sovereignty increasingly during this period. MINURCAT was deployed in 2008 to protect humanitarian workers and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad. This association between the UN mission and humanitarian agencies contributed to making the latter the target of repressive practices by the government, such as the imposition of armed escorts. Facing a steep learning curve, Chad and its state officials gradually appropriated the discourse of the humanitarian and international community and ultimately, in 2010, requested the departure of MINURCAT, claiming that they could meet the protection needs of vulnerable populations in eastern Chad on their own.

  19. Shelter strategies, humanitarian praxis and critical urban theory in post-crisis reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lilianne

    2012-07-01

    The paper seeks to link contemporary thinking on urban shelter in the humanitarian sector to debates in the field of 'critical urban theory'. It argues that current humanitarian thinking on urban shelter shares many common concerns with critical urban theory, but that these concerns are rarely translated effectively into humanitarian practice. It attributes this disconnect not only to weaknesses in implementation capacity, but also to the need to reorient humanitarian action to address more definitively questions of power and justice. Humanitarian actors need to step back from product-delivery approaches and find ways of integrating into their analytical, planning, implementation and monitoring tools questions about access, exclusion and the historically specific ways in which these aspects converge in particular urban spaces. By doing so, the humanitarian community would benefit from a more explicit, systematic and sustained engagement with the catalytic theoretical resources that critical urban theory has to offer. PMID:22687157

  20. Invitation withdrawn: humanitarian action, United Nations peacekeeping, and state sovereignty in Chad.

    PubMed

    Karlsrud, John; Felix da Costa, Diana

    2013-10-01

    This paper looks at the three-way relationship between the Government of Chad, humanitarians, and the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) from 2004 until June 2011. Chad was never comfortable with the international presence of either humanitarians or peacekeepers and asserted its sovereignty increasingly during this period. MINURCAT was deployed in 2008 to protect humanitarian workers and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad. This association between the UN mission and humanitarian agencies contributed to making the latter the target of repressive practices by the government, such as the imposition of armed escorts. Facing a steep learning curve, Chad and its state officials gradually appropriated the discourse of the humanitarian and international community and ultimately, in 2010, requested the departure of MINURCAT, claiming that they could meet the protection needs of vulnerable populations in eastern Chad on their own. PMID:23876051

  1. A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John

    2014-05-01

    A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number

  2. Battlefield Utility of Antipersonnel Landmines and Proposed Alternatives (Analysis in Support of the NATO SAS-023 APM Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Crandley, J F; Greenwalt, R J; Magnoli, D E; Randazzo, A S

    2002-02-05

    This study consists of work done in support of the U.S. delegation to the NATO SAS-023 Antipersonnel Landmine Study Group, supplemented by additional work done for the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense Antipersonnel Landmine Alternative Concept Exploration Program (Track III). It explores the battlefield utility of current antipersonnel landmines (APL) in both pure and mixed APL/antitank minefields and evaluates the value of military suggested non-materiel alternatives. The historical record is full of examples where the presence (or absence) of antipersonnel landmines made a critical difference in battle. The current generation of military thinkers and writers lack any significant combat experience employing either mixed or antipersonnel minefields, which leaves a critical gap in available expert advice for policy and decision-makers. Because of this lack of experienced-based professional military knowledge, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed the employment of antipersonnel landmines in tactical mixed minefields and in protective antipersonnel minefields. The scientific method was employed where hypotheses were generated from the tactics and doctrine of the antipersonnel landmine era and tested in a simulation laboratory. A high-resolution, U.S. Joint Forces Command combat simulation model (the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation--JCATS) was used as the laboratory instrument. A realistic European scenario was obtained from a multi-national USAREUR exercise and was approved by the SAS-023 panel members. Additional scenarios were provided by U.S. CINC conferences and were based on Southwest Asia and Northeast Asia. Weapons data was obtained from the U.S. family of Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manuals. The U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency conducted a limited verification and validation assessment of JCATS for purposes of this study.

  3. Performance of a four parameter model for modeling landmine signatures in frequency domain wideband electromagnetic induction detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fails, Eric B.; Torrione, Peter A.; Scott, Waymond R., Jr.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2007-04-01

    This work explores possible performance enhancements for landmine detection algorithms using frequency domain wideband electromagnetic induction sensors. A pre-existing four parameter model for conducting objects based on empirically collected data for UXO is discussed, and its application for accurately modeling landmine signatures is also considered. Discrimination of mines versus clutter based on the extracted model parameters is considered. Furthermore, this work will compare the effectiveness of discrimination based on the four parameter model to a matched subspace detection algorithm. Experimental results using data from government run test sites will be presented.

  4. On the use of a (252Cf-3He) assembly for landmine detection by the neutron back-scattering method.

    PubMed

    Elsheikh, N; Viesti, G; ElAgib, I; Habbani, F

    2012-04-01

    Experiments were carried out to optimize the performance of the neutron back-scattering (NBS) technique in landmine detection using an assembly consisting of three different layers placed above a (252)Cf neuron source, producing about 10(4)s(-1), in conjunction with a (3)He detector. The assembly was optimized experimentally. The selected assembly configuration was then examined against different (252)Cf stand-off distances and mine burial depths using dummy landmines. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the effect of the shield when a (252)Cf source in the range 10(4)-10(7)s(-1) was employed, and to optimize the geometry for future prototypes.

  5. Humanitarian nursing challenges: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Almonte, Angelica L C

    2009-05-01

    In response to the 2004 tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean, the U.S. Navy deployed teams aboard the USNS Mercy to provide aid during Operation Unified Assistance (OUA). To date, few research studies have examined how Navy nurses prepared for and clinically performed during this relief operation. The current article describes the challenges faced by Navy nurses throughout OUA. A purposive convenience sample was recruited; 11 participated. Data were collected from interviews, observations, field notes, memos, and a demographic tool. Information was categorized, coded, compared to incoming data, then analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's open coding, axial coding, and selective coding methods. A theoretical model was developed to illustrate how participants experienced the mission. Key lessons learned were that most were unprepared for providing pediatric care, and saying "No" in delivering care. Recommendations include: deployment of advanced-practice nurses (specialists in pediatrics and well-mental health) and predeployment training on moral distress.

  6. Humanitarian otolaryngology: a navy hospital ship experience.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Jonathan L; Sridhara, Shankar; Goodrich, Jennifer; Mitchell, Allen O; Gessler, Eric M

    2014-12-01

    The USNS Comfort (T-AH-20) is 1 of 2 United States Navy hospital ships. In 2011, she deployed to 9 countries in Central and South America including Jamaica, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Haiti. Eight surgical specialties including otolaryngology were involved, for a combined total of about 150 cases per country. An advance team coordinated patients with the Host Nation to be seen for presurgical screening. Selected patients were then taken aboard the ship for surgery and recovered in either the ship's intensive care unit or ward. They were then discharged prior to ship embarkment to the next country. A total of 95 otolaryngology cases were performed during 9 mission stops. The mean number of procedures performed was 12 per country, with thyroidectomy being the most common. A wide variety of general otolaryngology procedures were performed without significant complications, markedly impacting the quality of life in these underserved countries. PMID:25193516

  7. Humanitarian otolaryngology: a navy hospital ship experience.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Jonathan L; Sridhara, Shankar; Goodrich, Jennifer; Mitchell, Allen O; Gessler, Eric M

    2014-12-01

    The USNS Comfort (T-AH-20) is 1 of 2 United States Navy hospital ships. In 2011, she deployed to 9 countries in Central and South America including Jamaica, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Haiti. Eight surgical specialties including otolaryngology were involved, for a combined total of about 150 cases per country. An advance team coordinated patients with the Host Nation to be seen for presurgical screening. Selected patients were then taken aboard the ship for surgery and recovered in either the ship's intensive care unit or ward. They were then discharged prior to ship embarkment to the next country. A total of 95 otolaryngology cases were performed during 9 mission stops. The mean number of procedures performed was 12 per country, with thyroidectomy being the most common. A wide variety of general otolaryngology procedures were performed without significant complications, markedly impacting the quality of life in these underserved countries.

  8. Physical model of soil and its implications for landmine detection interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsube, T. J.; Grunsky, E.; Das, Y.; DiLabio, R.; McNairn, H.; Connell-Madore, S.; Gauthier, E.; Scromeda, N.

    2006-05-01

    Many soil physical and chemical properties interfere with landmine detection. Prior knowledge of these properties would improve detection technology selection and increase demining safety and efficiency. Developments in rapid mapping of these properties over wide areas is essential to meet military and economic constraints. Fusion of multiple detection technologies is also essential to overcome detection signal interferences. For these purposes, rapid mapping by use of remote sensing is being tested, starting with electrical conductivity mapping by radar remote sensing. Laboratory induced-polarization (IP) is also being tested to develop techniques to discriminate between electromagnetic signals from metallic particles in landmines and in soil, for regions with detection interference. Key physical models of soil are being developed for fusion of various landmine detection systems and to explain remote sensing responses to soil. Radar satellite tests carried out over the Canadian Forces Base Suffield (CFBS; Alberta, Canada) in 2004 and 2005 indicated 10 areas for possible high clay content and electrical conductivity. Eight of these were validated by soil maps and Landsat clay images. Two had high organic content with physical characteristics not known at present. Studies on soil with fine-grained iron-oxide powder and on iron with varied degrees of corrosion show that spectral-IP is sensitive to iron or iron-oxides regardless of their state. Soil has layered structure consisting of various grain-size combinations, but its physical characteristics are significantly influenced by whether its clay content is above or below a critical clay content (15 to 25 %). Results of these tests are discussed in this paper with explanations using the soil physical model.

  9. Mapping soil magnetic properties in Bosnia and Herzegovina for landmine clearance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, J. A.; Dearing, J. A.

    2008-10-01

    Electromagnetic properties of soils have negative impacts on metal detector performance during landmine clearance operations. In particular, topsoils with high concentrations of pedogenic viscous superparamagnetic minerals (magnetite/maghemite) as shown by high values of magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility limit the detector capability of identifying buried landmines. Thus a priori knowledge of the spatial extent of soils that may be problematic for landmine detection would aid strategic planning of clearance operations and ensure appropriate equipment is deployed. Here, we compare two approaches for estimating the broad magnetic properties of soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina: 1) an analogue approach, using data for magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility available for soil types from other temperate and Mediterranean regions; 2) magnetic measurements of a stratified sample of soil samples taken from the Bosnian National Soil Archive. The national soil magnetic maps produced estimate that the area of land inferred as problematic for metal detectors is 4% and 30% according to the analogue and measurement methods respectively. Combining soil type with soil parent material and climate explains the spatial variability of soil magnetic properties in terms of mechanisms of secondary ferrimagnetic mineral production and accumulation. The resulting maps indicate that the magnetic properties of dominant soils in northern Bosnia tend to be unproblematic for detectors, while in central Bosnia there is likely to be moderate detector interference. However, there is a high likelihood of dominant soils affecting detectors in southern and western Bosnia and Herzegovina, equivalent to ~ 30% of the total land area. The mapped outputs of susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility provide demining end-users with an indication of the likelihood of encountering problem soils in areas selected for clearance operations.

  10. Observations on syntactic landmine detection using impulse ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasif, Ahmed O.; Hintz, Kenneth J.

    2011-06-01

    We discuss some results and observations on applying syntactic pattern recognition (SPR) methodology for landmine detection using impulse ground-penetrating radar (GPR). In the SPR approach, the GPR A-scans are first converted into binary-valued strings by inverse filtering, followed by concavity detection to identify the peaks and valleys representing the locations of impedance discontinuities in the return signal. During the training phase, the characteristic binary strings for a particular landmine are found by looking at all the exemplars of that mine and selecting the collection of strings that yield the best detection results on these exemplars. These characteristic strings can be detected very efficiently using finite state machines (FSMs). Finally, the FSM detections are clustered to assign confidence to each detection, and discard sparse detections. Provided that the impulse GPR provides enough resolution in range, the SPR method can be a robust and high-speed solution for landmine detection and classification, because it aims to exploit the impedance discontinuity profile of the target, which is a description of the internal material structure of the target and little affected by external clutter. To evaluate the proposed methodology, the SPR scheme is applied to a set of impulse GPR data taken at a government test site. We suggest that coherent frequency-agile radar may be a better option for the SPR approach, since it addresses some of the drawbacks of a non-coherent impulse GPR caused by internally non-coherent within-channel signals which necessitate non-coherent integration and its attendant longer integration times, and non-coherent adjacent channels which severely limit the ability to do spatial, or at a minimum, cross-range processing if the GPR is in a linear array antenna.

  11. Locating responsibility: the Sphere Humanitarian Charter and its rationale.

    PubMed

    Darcy, James

    2004-06-01

    Criticised by some as a technical initiative that neglects core principles, Sphere was seen by its originators precisely as an articulation of principle. The Humanitarian Charter was the main vehicle through which this was expressed, but its relationship to the Minimum Standards has remained a matter of uncertainty. Specifically, it was unclear in the original (1999) edition of Sphere how the concept of rights informed the Minimum Standards. The revised (2004) edition goes some way to clarifying this in the way the standards are framed, yet the link between the standards and the charter remains unclear. The concern with the quality and accountability of humanitarian assistance, which motivated the attempt to establish system-wide standards through the Sphere Project, was accompanied by a desire to establish such actions in a wider framework of legal and political responsibility. In part, this reflects the conditional nature of the undertaking that agencies make when they adopt Sphere. This aspect of the charter has been neglected, but it is fundamental to an understanding of the standards and their application. This paper considers the rationale of the Sphere Humanitarian Charter and the conceptual model that underpins it. It discusses the relationship between the charter and the Minimum Standards, and the sense in which the latter are properly called "rights-based" (explored further in a related paper herein by Young and Taylor). The author was closely involved in the conception and drafting of the charter, and this paper attempts to convey some of the thinking that lay behind it. PMID:15186359

  12. Detection of shallow buried nonmetallic landmine and estimation of its depth at microwave X-band frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, K. C.; Singh, D.; Arora, M.

    2009-05-01

    Current methods of demining are mostly ground or vehicle based and therefore extremely time consuming, risky and also do not produce low false alarm rates. Detection of landmines using airborne and satellite based sensors are a viable risk free alternative. However extracting mine like features from data captured using airborne and satellite based sensors using signal and image processing techniques with low false alarm rates is a subject of active research. Microwave remote sensing in X-band (10 GHz, 3 cm) frequency has the capability for both subsurface penetration and resolution of landmines as well as non-lethal targets. In the present study, a set of experiments under laboratory conditions have been carried out using dummy landmines without explosives buried to different depths up to 10 cm in dry smooth sand. The data generated through the experiments is processed through a series of image processing steps and a region of interest segmented using Otsu and Maximum Entropy based thresholding methods. The region of interest is masked and the average observed backscatter containing the mine further processed through an electromagnetic model developed and optimized using genetic algorithm for estimation of depth. The method does not have any requirement of separate training and test data set to train the optimizer and validate the results. The results under laboratory conditions indicate satisfactory results both for detection of shallow buried landmines and estimation of depth.

  13. Killing Fields: The Deadly Legacy of Landmines. Study Guide. Episode #738. America's Defense Monitor, Educational TV for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Defense Information, Washington, DC.

    This program explores the dangers of landmines as "weapons of mass destruction in slow motion." These hidden killers have been called the "perfect soldier"--never sleeping and never missing--yet kill thousands of people each year, many innocent civilians. The study guide offers questions to use before viewing the video, questions to follow the…

  14. New humanitarianism: does it provide a moral banner for the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Fox, F

    2001-12-01

    There is a 'new humanitarianism' for the new millennium. It is 'principled', 'human-rights based' and politically sensitive. Above all it is new. It marks a break from the past and a rejection of the traditional principles that guided humanitarianism through the last century. New humanitarians reject the political naivety of the past, assess the long-term political impact of relief and are prepared to see humanitarian aid used as a tool to achieve human rights and political goals. New Humanitarianism is compelling, in tune with our times and offers a new moral banner for humanitarians to cling to as we enter the new millennium. Or does it? After outlining the key elements of new humanitarianism, including the human rights approach and developmental relief, the paper spells out some of the dangers. The author claims that new humanitarianism results in an overt politicisation of aid in which agencies themselves use relief as a tool to achieve wider political goals. The paper shows how this approach has spawned a new conditionality which allowsfor aid to be withheld and has produced a moral hierarchy of victims in which some are more deserving than others. The paper concludes with a plea for a revival of the principle of universalism as the first step to a new set of principles.

  15. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

  16. 77 FR 49782 - Extension of the Application Deadline for Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Pilot'', also known as Patents for Humanity). See Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program, 77 FR 6544 (Feb. 8... Pilot Program AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... Pilot Program, which recognizes patent holders who use their technology for humanitarian purposes....

  17. Humanitarian Information Management Network Effectiveness: An Analysis at the Organizational and Network Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngamassi Tchouakeu, Louis-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Massive international response to humanitarian crises such as the South Asian Tsunami in 2004, the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 highlights the importance of humanitarian inter-organizational collaboration networks, especially in information management and exchange. Despite more than a decade old call for more research…

  18. Humanitarian presence and urban development: new opportunities and contrasts in Goma, DRC.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Karen; Vlassenroot, Koen

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the impact of the presence of international humanitarian organisations on local urban transformation processes in the city of Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Rather than evaluating the direct effects of humanitarian interventions and strategies, it focuses on the indirect but profound effects of the presence of this 'humanitarian sector'. It argues that the international humanitarian presence became a significant factor in the recent shaping and reshaping of the city's profile and has reinforced competition over the urban political and socioeconomic space. The paper evaluates the direct and indirect impact of the international humanitarian presence on the local urban economy and the larger political economy of war in eastern DRC. It analyses how this presence has reinforced processes of spatial reconfiguration, how it has influenced urban planning, and how it has affected dynamics of gentrification and marginalisation on the urban spatial level. PMID:20132264

  19. Establishing moral bearings: ethics and expatriate health care professionals in humanitarian work.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew R

    2011-07-01

    Expatriate health care professionals frequently participate in international responses to natural disasters and humanitarian emergencies. This field of practice presents important clinical, logistical and ethical challenges for clinicians. This paper considers the ethics of health care practice in humanitarian contexts. It examines features that contribute to forming the moral landscape of humanitarian work, and discusses normative guidelines and approaches that are relevant for this work. These tools and frameworks provide important ethics resources for humanitarian settings. Finally, it elaborates a set of questions that can aid health care professionals as they analyse ethical issues that they experience in the field. The proposed process can assist clinicians as they seek to establish their moral bearings in situations of ethical complexity and uncertainty. Identifying and developing ethics resources and vocabulary for clinical practice in humanitarian work will help health care professionals provide ethically sound care to patients and communities.

  20. Social dimensions of science-humanitarian collaboration: lessons from Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Rachel; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; Crowley, Dominic; Crichton, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This paper contains a critical exploration of the social dimensions of the science-humanitarian relationship. Drawing on literature on the social role of science and on the social dimensions of humanitarian practice, it analyses a science-humanitarian partnership for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area threatened by tsunamigenic earthquakes. The paper draws on findings from case study research that was conducted between 2010 and 2011. The case study illustrates the social processes that enabled and hindered collaboration between the two spheres, including the informal partnership of local people and scientists that led to the co-production of earthquake and tsunami DRR and limited organisational capacity and support in relation to knowledge exchange. The paper reflects on the implications of these findings for science-humanitarian partnering in general, and it assesses the value of using a social dimensions approach to understand scientific and humanitarian dialogue.

  1. Detection of Landmines by Neutron Backscattering: Effects of Soil Moisture on the Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Baysoy, D. Y.; Subasi, M.

    2010-01-21

    Detection of buried land mines by using neutron backscattering technique (NBS) is a well established method. It depends on detecting a hydrogen anomaly in dry soil. Since a landmine and its plastic casing contain much more hydrogen atoms than the dry soil, this anomaly can be detected by observing a rise in the number of neutrons moderated to thermal or epithermal energy. But, the presence of moisture in the soil limits the effectiveness of the measurements. In this work, a landmine detection system using the NBS technique was designed. A series of Monte Carlo calculations was carried out to determine the limits of the system due to the moisture content of the soil. In the simulations, an isotropic fast neutron source ({sup 252}Cf, 100 mug) and a neutron detection system which consists of five {sup 3}He detectors were used in a practicable geometry. In order to see the effects of soil moisture on the efficiency of the detection system, soils with different water contents were tested.

  2. Nonlinear acoustic landmine detection: comparison of off-target soil background and on-target soil-mine nonlinear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Murray S.; Sabatier, James M.; Pauls, Kathleen E.; Genis, Sean A.

    2006-05-01

    When airborne sound at two primary tones, f I, f II (closely spaced near a resonance) excites the soil surface over a buried landmine, soil wave motion interacts with the landmine generating a scattered surface profile which can be measured over the "target." Profiles at the primaries f I, f II, and nonlinearly generated combination frequencies f I-(f II-f I) and f II+(f II-f I) , 2f I-(f II-f I), f I+f II and 2f II+(f II-f I) (among others) have been measured for a VS 2.2 plastic, inert, anti-tank landmine, buried at 3.6 cm in sifted loess soil and in a gravel road bed. [M.S. Korman and J.M. Sabatier, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3354-3369 (2004)]. It is observed that the "on target" to "off target" contrast ratio for the sum frequency component can be ~20 dB higher than for either primary. The vibration interaction between the top-plate interface of a buried plastic landmine and the soil above it appears to exhibit many characteristics of the mesoscopic/nanoscale nonlinear effects that are observed in geomaterials like sandstone. Near resonance, the bending (softening) of a family of increasing amplitude tuning curves, involving the vibration over the landmine, exhibits a linear relationship between the peak particle velocity and corresponding frequency. Tuning curve experiments are performed both on and off the mine in an effort to understand the nonlinearities in each case.

  3. Global health on the edge--the humanitarian tipping point.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Jason W

    2013-01-01

    Major disasters pose significant threats to population health: rapid-onset crises can result in a massive loss of life, while protracted emergencies can result in both direct and indirect adverse effects to population health and livelihoods. In many cases, windows of opportunity present themselves to mitigate the effects of emergencies, but these opportunities must be seized and acted upon. Regrettably, current models of international development and global public health are frequently reactive, rather than preventive, with regard to major emergencies; major humanitarian responses frequently occur only once select indicators have reached or breached established emergency thresholds, which are late indicators of a population's health. In order to avoid these predictable late responses, current models of international development and their relationship to emergency humanitarian responses need to be placed under the microscope. The public health community must serve as strong advocates for interventions to address worsening public health situations before they tip into crisis, and should be advocates for the reconceptualization and reform of priority setting in international development. The failure to do so quite clearly comes at the expense of some of the world's most vulnerable populations.

  4. A deployable telemedicine capability in support of humanitarian operations.

    PubMed

    Meade, Kenneth; Lam, David M

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes how a military concept for telemedicine support in humanitarian crisis, the Medical Command, Control, Communication and Telemedicine Special Medical Augmentation Team (MC3T SMART TEAM), was transitioned from a theoretical concept into a functioning, operational entity. The European Regional Medical Command (ERMC) MC3T SMART TEAM successfully tested its capabilities during a military training exercise with the 212th mobile army surgical hospital (MASH). This was followed by successful real-life telemedicine support missions during a planned humanitarian support mission in Africa and then an emergency disaster support mission in Pakistan. While on these missions, the SMART team provided access to the Internet and e-mail by means of limited bandwidth mobile satellite equipment, established a working telemedicine process by introducing the staff to the United States Army's "Army Knowledge Online (AKO) Remote Consultation Program," and established a successful connection of the 212th's digital radiography system to the "Tri-Service Global Encrypted Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and Teleradiology Network." PMID:17603836

  5. Future humanitarian crises: challenges for practice, policy, and public health.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2010-01-01

    After more than three decades of preoccupation with wars and internal political conflicts, the humanitarian community has the opportunity to reevaluate what humanitarian crises will dominate both policy and practice in the future. In reality, these crises are already active and some are over the tipping point of recovery. These crises share the common thread of being major public health emergencies which, with a preponderance of excess or indirect mortality and morbidity dominating the consequences, requires new approaches, including unprecedented improvements and alterations in education, training, research, strategic planning, and policy and treaty agendas. Unfortunately, political solutions offered up to date are nation-state centric and miss opportunities to provide what must be global solutions. Public health, redefined as the infrastructure and systems necessary to allow communities, urban settings, and nation-states to provide physical and social protections to their populations has become an essential element of all disciplines from medicine, engineering, law, social sciences, and economics. Public health, which must be recognized as a strategic and security issue should take precedence over politics at every level, not be driven by political motives, and be globally monitored.

  6. Future humanitarian crises: challenges for practice, policy, and public health.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2010-01-01

    After more than three decades of preoccupation with wars and internal political conflicts, the humanitarian community has the opportunity to reevaluate what humanitarian crises will dominate both policy and practice in the future. In reality, these crises are already active and some are over the tipping point of recovery. These crises share the common thread of being major public health emergencies which, with a preponderance of excess or indirect mortality and morbidity dominating the consequences, requires new approaches, including unprecedented improvements and alterations in education, training, research, strategic planning, and policy and treaty agendas. Unfortunately, political solutions offered up to date are nation-state centric and miss opportunities to provide what must be global solutions. Public health, redefined as the infrastructure and systems necessary to allow communities, urban settings, and nation-states to provide physical and social protections to their populations has become an essential element of all disciplines from medicine, engineering, law, social sciences, and economics. Public health, which must be recognized as a strategic and security issue should take precedence over politics at every level, not be driven by political motives, and be globally monitored. PMID:20586007

  7. Use of imagery and GIS for humanitarian demining management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Jack; Gustafson, Glen C.; Kimsey, Mary; Kraenzle, Helmut; Wilson, James; Wright, Stephen

    1997-11-01

    In the Fall of 1996, the Center for Geographic Information Science at James Madison University became involved in a project for the Department of Defense evaluating the data needs and data management systems for humanitarian demining in the Third World. In particular, the effort focused on the information needs of demining in Cambodia and in Bosnia. In the first phase of the project one team attempted to identify all sources of unclassified country data, image data and map data. Parallel with this, another group collected information and evaluations on most of the commercial off-the-shelf computer software packages for the management of such geographic information. The result was a design for the kinds of data and the kinds of systems necessary to establish and maintain such a database as a humanitarian demining management tool. The second phase of the work involved acquiring the recommended data and systems, integrating the two, and producing a demonstration of the system. In general, the configuration involves ruggedized portable computers for field use with a greatly simplified graphical user interface, supported by a more capable central facility based on Pentium workstations and appropriate technical expertise.

  8. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  9. The role of evidence in humanitarian assessment: the Seed System Security Assessment and the Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Goeldner Byrne, Karri; March, Julie; McGuire, Shawn; Meissner, Laura; Sperling, Louise

    2013-07-01

    This paper reviews advances in the development and use of two evidence-based assessment toolkits: the Seed System Security Assessment (SSSA) and the Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis (EMMA). Both were created in the past five years and have been employed in a range of acute and chronic stress contexts across Africa, Asia, and parts of the Americas, in periods of civil strife, displacement, and drought, as well as following earthquakes, flooding, and political instability. The aims of this paper are threefold: to review advances with regard to each tool; to compare how each toolkit gathers and uses evidence, while considering possibilities for greater complementarity; and to reflect on the nature of 'evidence' used to guide humanitarian response in sudden-onset and chronic crisis situations. A comparison highlights the importance of triangulation and informed analysis for drawing conclusions from imperfect evidence, understanding the limitations of each assessment methodology, and confronting tacit assumptions.

  10. Disaster relief in post-earthquake Haiti: unintended consequences of humanitarian volunteerism.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of US humanitarian relief efforts in Haiti following the earthquake on January 12, 2010. Humanitarian aid arrived rapidly from many sources and was largely provided by organized and skilled humanitarian volunteers. There are however multiple impacts on the existing health care systems, as well as the pharmaceutical and medical supply chain created by massive relief efforts involving personnel, medicines, supplies and equipment that should be considered even in the immediate post-disaster period. Additionally the consequences of short-term medical missions by secular and non-secular NGOs should be considered carefully both in the post-disaster period and as ongoing support to underserved populations.

  11. The effects of stabilisation on humanitarian action in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Muggah, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Haiti is routinely characterised as an archetypical fragile state. In spite of considerable donor investment in security promotion, real and perceived safety have proven frustratingly elusive. In the years before the devastating earthquake of 12 January 2010, the country's capital, Port-au-Prince, was also the site of considerable experimentation to promote security and stability. T his paper reviews the discourse, practice and outcomes associated with three parallel stabilisation initiatives undertaken in Haiti between 2007 and 2009. Although they shared many similar objectives, the paper describes how these separate interventions mobilised very different approaches. The specific focus is on United States, United Nations and combined Brazilian, Canadian and Norwegian stabilisation efforts and their implications for humanitarian actors, including the International Committee of the Red Cross and Médecins Sans Frontières. The paper concludes with some reflections on the implications of stabilisation before and after the country's most recent natural disaster.

  12. Humanitarian responses to mass violence perpetrated against vulnerable populations.

    PubMed Central

    Gellert, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    This multidisciplinary review links three areas of legitimate inquiry for practitioners of medicine and public health. The first is occurrences of mass violence or genocide perpetrated against vulnerable populations, with a focus on the failure of national and international mechanisms to prevent or predict such violence. The second is evolving concepts of national sovereignty and an emerging framework in which the imperative to assist vulnerable populations supersedes a state's right to self determination. The last is how medical, public health, and other systems of surveillance and rapid assessment of mass violence can accelerate public awareness and facilitate structured, consistent political decision making to prevent mass violence and to provide international humanitarian assistance. Images p1000-a PMID:7580643

  13. Development of a thermal neutron sensor for Humanitarian Demining.

    PubMed

    Cinausero, M; Lunardon, M; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Viesti, G; Filippini, V

    2004-07-01

    A thermal neutron sensor prototype for Humanitarian Demining has been developed, trying to minimize cost and complexity of the system as required in such application. A (252)Cf source or a sealed-tube neutron generator is employed to produce primary fast neutrons that are thermalized in a moderator designed to optimize the neutron capture reaction yield in buried samples. A description of the sensor, including the performances of the acquisition system based on a Flash ADC card and final tests with explosive simulants are reported. A comparison of the sensor performance when using a radioactive source to that when employing a sealed-tube neutron generator is presented. Limitations and possible applications of this technique are discussed. PMID:15145439

  14. Dynamics of soil parameters relevant for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obhođaš, Jasmina; Vdović, Neda; Valković, Vlado

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we analyzed characteristics of 6 different soils from the test field at the Ruđer Bošković Institute. Many soil properties relevant for the performance of humanitarian demining tools strongly depend on water content. This is an effort to understand better the soil moisture variability and to find soil parameters that can predict the water content regarding the weather conditions. Such knowledge will allow to optimize demining operations. To gather the main parameters like field capacity, rate and delay of water infiltration and soil water retention which are all related to soil texture, daily time-series of soil moisture from August to November 2001, where analyzed.

  15. RPC as Thermal Neutron Detector for Humanitarian De-Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; de Marco, N.; Ferretti, A.; Gallio, M.; Musso, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Piccotti, A.; Poggio, F.; Scomparin, E.; Sigaudo, F.; Travaglia, G.; Vercellin, E.; Cortese, P.; Dellacasa, G.

    2003-12-01

    The possibility of detecting thermal neutrons with single gap Resistive Plate Chambers has been investigated. The development of the detector has been performed in the framework of the DIAMINE European Project for Humanitarian De-mining. To convert neutrons the inner surface of one RPC electrode has been coated with a thin layer of 10B4C. The RPC detects the charged particles generated by neutrons via the (n,α) reaction on Boron. Tests of converter samples have been performed with a thermalized 252Cf source in order to evaluate the conversion efficiency: a good agreement between experimental results and simulation has been achieved. Futhermore a detailed description of a first detector prototype together with the results of a test on low energy neutron beams are presented.

  16. Characteristics of an Effective International Humanitarian Assistance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Ardalan, Ali; Waugh, William; Tirone, Daniel C.; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study is to identify the effectiveness characteristics, review the definition of them, and develop a conceptual mapping of existing domains in the field of International Humanitarian Assistance (IHA). Methods: We conducted a systematic review and searched the major databases (Science Direct, Scopus, Springer and Pubmed) and grey literature, including references of potentially eligible articles and conference proceedings through March 2015. Articles were included if they focused on IHA effectiveness. Reviewers independently identified the eligible studies and extracted data. Results: 10 studies were included and 48 characteristics were identified. There is a lack of scientific studies and agreement on the characteristics of IHA effectiveness.  Conclusion: This study could be the step toward an understanding of IHA effectiveness characteristics and its definitions with the findings making a base line for more research in this area.  PMID:26981325

  17. Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    2010-04-01

    ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

  18. Emerging issues and future needs in humanitarian assistance.

    PubMed

    VanRooyen, M J; Hansch, S; Curtis, D; Burnham, G

    2001-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been tremendous investment in the ability to intervene in disaster settings, and significant barriers remain to providing appropriate services to populations affected by natural and man-made calamities. Many of the barriers to providing effective assistance exist within the NGO community, and illustrate emerging needs for international agencies. These emerging needs include improving methods of recipient participation to promote the local health system, developing improved methods for quality assurance, enhancing options for personnel development, and addressing long-term needs of reconstruction and rehabilitation. Relief agencies face challenges on all levels to develop sound practices in providing humanitarian assistance that can lead to long-term benefits to populations affected by disaster.

  19. The practice of humanitarianism: a village birthing clinic in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Wick, Livia

    2011-01-01

    Discourses and practices surrounding humanitarian organisations have changed over time. This is certainly the case for Palestinian non-governmental organisations, which have followed the structural and ideological transformations observed in local, regional and international contexts. There have been three successive but interlocking generations of groups active in health in Palestine: charitable societies, popular committees, and donor-based entities. Against this background, a village clinic in the West Bank is seen to have gone through various incarnations in the context of an emerging neo-liberal economic, administrative and political environment. Despite the critiques justifiably addressed towards them, non-governmental organisations may in some cases be functionally fluid. Communities and people continue to use them strategically in their relations with states, political groups, individuals and receivers of aid, making them potential networking sites in the context of an ongoing occupation. PMID:24735467

  20. Portable robotic platform for handheld landmine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Herman; McMahill, Jeffrey

    2004-09-01

    To support the development of advanced algorithms for hand-held detectors, it is desirable to collect data with a specific sweep rate, height and spacing. In addition, it is also important that the position of each data point produced by the detector is known. Since it is impossible for a human operator to precisely control these sweep parameters, we have developed a semi-autonomous robotic data collection system. It is designed as a portable robot with a 2-axis manipulator that can be used to sweep any hand-held detector at a precise sweep rate, height, and spacing. It is also equipped with an interface to the hand-held detector, so it can log the output data during the sweeping motion. It also tags the output data with the position data from the on-board positioning system. As a result, we can construct an accurate 2-D or 3-D grid of the detector's output as a function of horizontal and vertical position of the detector. The manipulator is also equipped with force sensing capability that can be used to sense terrain height or collision. To increase deployment flexibility, all functions of the robot are controlled through a wireless communication link by a hand-held computer with a maximum operating distance of at least 100m. Through the hand-held computer, the operator can move the robot, and program its behavior using a script based motion sequencer. The robot has been deployed successfully on several data acquisition activities, and successfully produced high-resolution 2-D map of the buried targets.

  1. Teaching Giant African Pouched Rats to Find Landmines: Operant Conditioning With Real Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  2. Teaching giant african pouched rats to find landmines: operant conditioning with real consequences.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  3. Teaching giant african pouched rats to find landmines: operant conditioning with real consequences.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining.

  4. Wideband nonlinear time reversal seismo-acoustic method for landmine detection.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Alexander; Libbey, Brad; Fillinger, Laurent; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2009-04-01

    Acoustic and seismic waves provide a method to localize compliant mines by vibrating the top plate and a thin soil layer above the mine. This vibration is mostly linear, but also includes a small nonlinear deviation. The main goal of this paper is to introduce a method of processing that uses phase-inversion to observe nonlinear effects in a wide frequency band. The method extracts a nonlinear part of surface velocity from two similar broadcast signals of opposite sign by summing and cancelling the linear components and leaving the nonlinear components. This phase-inversion method is combined with time reversal focusing to provide increased seismic vibration and enhance the nonlinear effect. The experiments used six loudspeakers in a wood box placed over sand in which inert landmines were buried. The nonlinear surface velocity of the sand with a mine compared to the sand without a mine was greater as compared to a linear technique. PMID:19354365

  5. Rapid Mapping of Soil Electrical Conductivity by Radar Satellite Remote Sensing for Landmine Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNairn, H.; Katsube, T. J.; Das, Y.; Holt, R. M.

    2005-05-01

    Many soil physical and chemical properties interfere with landmine detector signals. It has been shown that prior knowledge of the distribution of these properties would allow appropriate technology selection and increased demining operation effectiveness/efficiency. For this reason, economic and rapid mapping techniques using remote sensing for these properties over wide areas are considered. Since soil electrical conductivity (EC) interferes with the most widely used landmine detection systems, such as metal detectors and ground penetrating radar, it has been proposed to start with developing a rapid mapping technique for EC using remote sensing. Although airborne, ground EM systems, and laboratory analyses are proven methods for mapping EC, they generally lack the appropriate resolution required. In addition surveys by such methods are costly and time consuming for mapping large areas such as entire countries. Therefore, EC prediction by satellite imaging of soil moisture change using RADARSAT is being tested in eastern Alberta (Canada) and northern Mississippi (U.S.A.). Areas of little soil moisture change with time can be associated with high moisture retention and higher clay content, suggesting an association with higher EC. However, use of airborne and ground EM systems and laboratory analyses are recommended for validation of EC distributions mapped by remote sensing. Fusion of RADARSAT soil moisture images at varied dates are used to identify boundaries between high and low moisture retention areas in both the northern Mississippi and Alberta test sites to predict areas of high and low EC. These predictions are being validated by ground EM surveys, laboratory analyses and, in some cases, by various other methods such as soil and military traficability maps. Soil sample are collected across the high-low EC boundaries for laboratory analyses. Laboratory analyses consist of soil texture/mineralogy, moisture versus spectral EC, and strength tests.

  6. Improvement of Plastic Landmine Visualization Performance by Use of Ring-CSOM and Frequency-Domain Local Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Yukimasa; Hirose, Akira

    The complex-valued self-organizing map (CSOM) realizes an adaptive distinction between plastic landmines and other objects in landmine visualization systems. However, when the spatial resolution in electromagnetic-wave measurement is not sufficiently high, the distinction sometimes fails. To solve this problem, in this paper, we propose two techniques to enhance the visualization ability. One is the utilization of SOM-space topology in the CSOM adaptive classification. The other is a novel feature extraction method paying attention to local correlation in the frequency domain. In experimental results, we find that these two techniques significantly improve the visualization performance. The local-correlation method contributes also to the reduction of the number of tuning parameters in the CSOM classification.

  7. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis. PMID:23905768

  8. 75 FR 51749 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Office of Food for Peace Announcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Office of Food for Peace Announcement... and Technical Division, Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and...

  9. A research note about military-civilian humanitarianism: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, T G

    1997-06-01

    'Military-civilian humanitarianism'--or the coming together of military forces and civilian aid agencies to deal with the human suffering from complex emergencies--has numerous forms, but disenchantment has resulted from the Somalia and Bosnia syndromes. There is little political will at present, but evidence from the immediate post-Cold War era suggests how multilateral military operations could expand or contract in future to the benefit or peril of war victims. Partly a literature review but more importantly a framework for interpreting recent publications, this essay seeks to move beyond exchanging assertions. There is a contextualisation of recent literature; a definition of military-civilian humanitarianism; a discussion of possible military contributions to humanitarian action; a framework to assess the effectiveness of military-civilian humanitarianism; and a preliminary analysis of experience from northern Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia, Rwanda and Haiti. Caveat lector: At this point in time, there are still 'more questions than answers'. PMID:9235222

  10. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization's guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations.

  11. Rwanda 1994: a study of medical support in military humanitarian operations.

    PubMed

    Hawley, A

    1997-06-01

    The deployment of British Contingent (BRITCON) to United Nations Force in Rwanda (UNAMIR) on Operation GABRIEL in 1994, proved to be a successful deployment on humanitarian operations. Many of the lessons have been successfully incorporated into training, equipment and organisational structures since the deployment. Others require further work to develop and assimilate. The essential issue concerning principles of humanitarian relief doctrine, mission definition, understanding the Disaster-Development continuum, capability mix, spectrum of military utility and the importance of force maintenance were all highlighted by the Rwanda deployment. Implications for future humanitarian operations include a co-operative approach to pre-deployment training with the Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) community. This will help to promote understanding between the 2 arms of the humanitarian effort and will exploit the strengths of both sides. Equally, the military medical services have to be fully aware of mission definition and its centrality to planning, execution and audit of performance.

  12. Characteristics, determinants and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarians: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. Design We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. Setting International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). Results 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8 years with an average of 11.8 years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. Conclusions Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals’ and organisations’ growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate

  13. Data collection tools for maternal and child health in humanitarian emergencies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Fiona; Kerr, Robbie; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Mathai, Matthews; van den Broek, Nynke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe tools used for the assessment of maternal and child health issues in humanitarian emergency settings. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and POPLINE databases for studies published between January 2000 and June 2014. We also searched the websites of organizations active in humanitarian emergencies. We included studies reporting the development or use of data collection tools concerning the health of women and children in humanitarian emergencies. We used narrative synthesis to summarize the studies. Findings We identified 100 studies: 80 reported on conflict situations and 20 followed natural disasters. Most studies (76/100) focused on the health status of the affected population while 24 focused on the availability and coverage of health services. Of 17 different data collection tools identified, 14 focused on sexual and reproductive health, nine concerned maternal, newborn and child health and four were used to collect information on sexual or gender-based violence. Sixty-nine studies were done for monitoring and evaluation purposes, 18 for advocacy, seven for operational research and six for needs assessment. Conclusion Practical and effective means of data collection are needed to inform life-saving actions in humanitarian emergencies. There are a wide variety of tools available, not all of which have been used in the field. A simplified, standardized tool should be developed for assessment of health issues in the early stages of humanitarian emergencies. A cluster approach is recommended, in partnership with operational researchers and humanitarian agencies, coordinated by the World Health Organization. PMID:26478629

  14. Vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations.

    PubMed

    Lam, Eugene; McCarthy, Amanda; Brennan, Muireann

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian emergencies may result in breakdown of regular health services including routine vaccination programs. Displaced populations including refugees and internally displaced persons are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of communicable diseases such as vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Common VPDs encountered in humanitarian emergencies include measles, polio, and depending on geographical location, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis A, and cholera. We conducted a review of 50 published articles from 2000 to 2015 concerning VPDs in humanitarian emergencies. This article provides an update on the available literature regarding vaccinations among this highly vulnerable population and describes the unique challenges of VPDs during humanitarian emergencies. Humanitarian emergencies place affected populations at risk for elevated morbidity and mortality from VPDs due to creation or exacerbation of factors associated with disease transmission such as mass population movements, overcrowding, malnutrition, and poor water and sanitation conditions. Vaccination is one of the most basic and critical health interventions for protecting vulnerable populations during emergencies. Growing insecurity, as seen in the increasing number of targeted attacks on health workers in recent years, as well as destruction of cold chain and infrastructure for transportation of supplies, are creating new challenges in provision of life saving vaccines in conflict settings. Population displacement can also threaten global VPD eradication and elimination efforts. While highly effective vaccines and guidelines to combat VPDs are available, the trend of increasing number of humanitarian emergencies globally poses new and emerging challenges in providing vaccination among displaced populations. PMID:26406333

  15. Vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations.

    PubMed

    Lam, Eugene; McCarthy, Amanda; Brennan, Muireann

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian emergencies may result in breakdown of regular health services including routine vaccination programs. Displaced populations including refugees and internally displaced persons are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of communicable diseases such as vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Common VPDs encountered in humanitarian emergencies include measles, polio, and depending on geographical location, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis A, and cholera. We conducted a review of 50 published articles from 2000 to 2015 concerning VPDs in humanitarian emergencies. This article provides an update on the available literature regarding vaccinations among this highly vulnerable population and describes the unique challenges of VPDs during humanitarian emergencies. Humanitarian emergencies place affected populations at risk for elevated morbidity and mortality from VPDs due to creation or exacerbation of factors associated with disease transmission such as mass population movements, overcrowding, malnutrition, and poor water and sanitation conditions. Vaccination is one of the most basic and critical health interventions for protecting vulnerable populations during emergencies. Growing insecurity, as seen in the increasing number of targeted attacks on health workers in recent years, as well as destruction of cold chain and infrastructure for transportation of supplies, are creating new challenges in provision of life saving vaccines in conflict settings. Population displacement can also threaten global VPD eradication and elimination efforts. While highly effective vaccines and guidelines to combat VPDs are available, the trend of increasing number of humanitarian emergencies globally poses new and emerging challenges in providing vaccination among displaced populations.

  16. Vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Eugene; McCarthy, Amanda; Brennan, Muireann

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian emergencies may result in breakdown of regular health services including routine vaccination programs. Displaced populations including refugees and internally displaced persons are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of communicable diseases such as vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Common VPDs encountered in humanitarian emergencies include measles, polio, and depending on geographical location, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis A, and cholera. We conducted a review of 50 published articles from 2000 to 2015 concerning VPDs in humanitarian emergencies. This article provides an update on the available literature regarding vaccinations among this highly vulnerable population and describes the unique challenges of VPDs during humanitarian emergencies. Humanitarian emergencies place affected populations at risk for elevated morbidity and mortality from VPDs due to creation or exacerbation of factors associated with disease transmission such as mass population movements, overcrowding, malnutrition, and poor water and sanitation conditions. Vaccination is one of the most basic and critical health interventions for protecting vulnerable populations during emergencies. Growing insecurity, as seen in the increasing number of targeted attacks on health workers in recent years, as well as destruction of cold chain and infrastructure for transportation of supplies, are creating new challenges in provision of life saving vaccines in conflict settings. Population displacement can also threaten global VPD eradication and elimination efforts. While highly effective vaccines and guidelines to combat VPDs are available, the trend of increasing number of humanitarian emergencies globally poses new and emerging challenges in providing vaccination among displaced populations. PMID:26406333

  17. Neonatal survival interventions in humanitarian emergencies: a survey of current practices and programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neonatal deaths account for over 40% of all deaths in children younger than five years of age and neonatal mortality rates are highest in areas affected by humanitarian emergencies. Of the ten countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates globally, six are currently or recently affected by a humanitarian emergency. Yet, little is known about newborn care in crisis settings. Understanding current policies and practices for the care of newborns used by humanitarian aid organizations will inform efforts to improve care in these challenging settings. Methods Between August 18 and September 25, 2009, 56 respondents that work in humanitarian emergencies completed a web-based survey either in English or French. A snow ball sampling technique was used to identify organizations that provide health services during humanitarian emergencies to gather information on current practices for maternal and newborn care in these settings. Information was collected about continuum-of-care services for maternal, newborn and child health, referral services, training and capacity development, health information systems, policies and guidelines, and organizational priorities. Data were entered into MS Excel and frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results The majority of responding organizations reported implementing components of neonatal and maternal health interventions. However, multiple barriers exist in providing comprehensive care, including: funding shortages (63.3%), gaps in training (51.0%) and staff shortages and turnover (44.9%). Conclusions Neonatal care is provided by most of the responding humanitarian organizations; however, the quality, breadth and consistency of this care are limited. PMID:22824461

  18. Towards metal detection and identification for humanitarian demining using magnetic polarizability tensor spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekdouk, B.; Ktistis, C.; Marsh, L. A.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an inversion procedure to estimate the location and magnetic polarizability tensor of metal targets from broadband electromagnetic induction (EMI) data. The solution of this inversion produces a spectral target signature, which may be used in identifying metal targets in landmines from harmless clutter. In this process, the response of the metal target is modelled with dipole moment and fitted to planar EMI data by solving a minimization least squares problem. A computer simulation platform has been developed using a modelled EMI sensor to produce synthetic data for inversion. The reconstructed tensor is compared with an assumed true solution estimated using a modelled tri-axial Helmholtz coil array. Using some test examples including a sphere which has a known analytical solution, results show the inversion routine produces accurate tensors to within 12% error of the true tensor. A good convergence rate is also demonstrated even when the target location is mis-estimated by a few centimeters. Having verified the inversion routine using finite element modelling, a swept frequency EMI experimental setup is used to compute tensors for a set of test samples representing examples of metallic landmine components and clutter for a broadband range of frequencies (kHz to tens of kHz). Results show the reconstructed spectral target signatures are very distinctive and hence potentially offer an efficient physical approach for landmine identification. The accuracy of the evaluated spectra is similarly verified using a uniform field forming sensor.

  19. Geoengineering: re-making climate for profit or humanitarian intervention?

    PubMed

    Buck, Holly Jean

    2012-01-01

    Climate engineering, or geoengineering, refers to large-scale climate interventions to lower the earth's temperature, either by blocking incoming sunlight or removing carbon dioxide from the biosphere. Regarded as ‘technofixes’ by critics, these strategies have evoked concern that they would extend the shelf life of fossil-fuel driven socio-ecological systems for far longer than they otherwise would, or should, endure. A critical reading views geoengineering as a class project that is designed to keep the climate system stable enough for existing production systems to continue operating. This article first examines these concerns, and then goes on to envision a regime driven by humanitarian agendas and concern for vulnerable populations, implemented through international development and aid institutions. The motivations of those who fund research and implement geoengineering techniques are important, as the rationale for developing geoengineering strategies will determine which techniques are pursued, and hence which ecologies are produced. The logic that shapes the geoengineering research process could potentially influence social ecologies centuries from now.

  20. Humanitarian Outreach in Cardiothoracic Surgery: From Setup to Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dearani, Joseph A; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Bolman, R Morton; Swain, JaBaris D; Vricella, Luca A; Weinstein, Samuel; Farkas, Emily A; Calhoon, John H

    2016-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases account for 38 million deaths each year, and approximately 75% of these deaths occur in the developing world. The most common causes include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Many adults with acquired cardiothoracic disease around the world have limited access to health care. In addition, congenital heart disease is present in approximately 1% of live births and is therefore the most common congenital abnormality. More than one million children in the world are born with congenital heart disease each year, and approximately 90% of these children receive suboptimal care or have no access to care. Furthermore, many children affected by noncongenital cardiac conditions also require prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Medical and surgical volunteerism can help facilitate improvement in cardiothoracic health care in developing countries. As we move into the future, it is essential for physicians and surgeons to be actively involved in political, economic, and social aspects of society to serve health care interests of the underprivileged around the world. Consequently, in developing countries, a critical need exists to establish an increased number of reputable cardiothoracic programs and to enhance many of the programs that already exist. The optimal strategy is usually based on a long-term educational and technical model of support so that as case volumes increase, quality improves and mortality and morbidity decrease. Humanitarian outreach activities should focus on education and sustainability, and surgical tourism should be limited to those countries that will never have the capability to have free-standing cardiothoracic programs. PMID:27319988

  1. Humanitarian action in developing countries: who evaluates who?

    PubMed

    Pérouse de Montclos, Marc-Antoine

    2012-02-01

    Humanitarian NGOs and intergovernmental organisations are usually assessed by their funders, not their beneficiaries. In most cases, their evaluation relies on interviews with "professionals", neglects field surveys, does not use opinion polls and seldom tries to assess the socioeconomic impact of relief. Moreover, it is commissioned by stakeholders at the risk of being judge and party. Such a system brings several conflicts of interest: (1) it needs to be approved by those who are evaluated and so does not deal with "bad eggs" that refuse to be investigated; (2) it produces biased analysis, does not name names and passes over fundamental issues; (3) it is very formal and technocratic, if not meaningless; (4) it does not help to learn from past mistakes. Hence this article proposes a framework to develop third party evaluations. It is suggested that, to be really independent, evaluation should neither be paid or commissioned by stakeholders, i.e. NGOs and institutional funders. To facilitate learning, its methodology and its results must also be available to the general public. To be accepted by those who are evaluated, finally, it should highlight the difficulties, explain the political context, acknowledge its subjectivity, recognize its limits, focus on processes more than results and develop qualitative analysis out of quantitative indicators.

  2. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client’s status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients’ status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors’ rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  3. Development of low cost composite plates for humanitarian demining operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabet, L.; Scheppers, J.; Verpoest, I.; Pirlot, M.; Desmet, B.; Gilson, L.; Pirard, P.

    2006-08-01

    Composite plates using flax fabrics and maleic anhydride modified polypropylene were fabricated on laboratory scale. The aim of the current research was to develop a low cost composite plate or a hybrid structure based on those plates and steel sheet, for making humanitarian demining clothes protecting against secondary fragmentation caused by anti-personnel blast mines. Ballistic impact tests according to STANAG 2920 were carried out for determining the v{50}-limit. So called field tests were performed by means of simulated anti-personnel mines using M112 explosive; the repeatability and the spatial distribution of the projected fragments were checked before fixing the final experimental setup. The performance of the bare composite plate was compared with the hybrid structures in terms of v{50} and in terms of damage mechanisms. All tested configurations performed amazingly well during the field tests, which was not the case for the ballistic impact tests. This led to the conclusion that v{50} might not be the best criterion to characterize protective clothing. This conclusion is sustained by energetic considerations and by field tests on plates with half the thickness of the initial plates.

  4. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client's status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients' status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors' rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  5. Another view of "humanitarian ventures" and "fistula tourism".

    PubMed

    Morgan, Mark A

    2007-06-01

    There are many ethical issues involved in medical missions to developing countries. The Current Opinion/Update "Humanitarian ventures or 'fistula tourism?': the ethical perils of pelvic surgery in the developing world" raised many concerns about surgical trips to treat obstetric fistula. Despite a lack of experience with obstetric fistula, western surgeons may still bring surgical and public health techniques that may be of value to health systems in developing countries. Emphasis should be placed on program development and assessment first. This should include not only surgical training but also help with counseling, prevention and reintegration. Participation in clinical trials should be up to the health care personnel in the country being helped, and aide should not depend on such participation. Success will likely be determined by a national effort and integration into existing health systems, not isolated "fistula champions." The appalling situation of obstetric fistula in the twenty-first century should be a wake-up call to obstetricians/gynecologists and urologists. The dictum "first do no harm" must not evolve into "first do nothing." PMID:17252312

  6. Humanitarian agencies and authoritarian states: a symbiotic relationship?

    PubMed

    del Valle, Hernan; Healy, Sean

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between humanitarian agencies and authoritarian states is of growing concern to Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), given the recurring difficulties experienced in negotiating access and implementing operations in such contexts. The effort to negotiate and gain approval from states to operate on their territory prompts reflection on the sources of legitimacy for action. Drawing on direct field examples in two countries only very rarely examined--Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan--this paper explores MSF's attempts to offer live-saving medical care there. It shows that successful access negotiations hinged heavily on demonstrating added value (medical relevance) while simultaneously building relationships with authorities, identifying possible allies within health ministries, and hoping that such measures could promote a level of acceptance or trust needed to operate. It is clear that the operational space achieved is bound to remain limited and fragile, and that many compromises have to be considered and judged against ethical principles and the overall impact of the intervention. PMID:23876075

  7. Research ethics in the context of humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal

    2015-02-01

    Research is needed to make responses to disasters and humanitarian emergencies more evidence-based. Such research must also adhere to the generally accepted principles of research ethics. While research into health interventions used in disasters raises distinctive ethical concerns, seven ethical principles developed for clinical research are applied here to disaster research. Practical examples from disaster settings are used to demonstrate how these ethical principles can be applied. This reveals that research ethics needs to be seen as much more than a mechanism to obtain ethical approval for research. Research ethics involves ethical principles and governance frameworks, but must also consider the role of ethical virtues in research. Virtues are essential to ensure that researchers do what they believe is ethically right and resist what is unethical. Research ethics that truly protects participants and promotes respect needs to include training in ethical virtues to ensure disaster research is carried out to the highest ethical standards. This article is based on a presentation at the Evidence Aid Symposium on 20 September 2014, in Hyderabad, India.

  8. Identification of current priorities for research in humanitarian action: proceedings of the First Annual UN OCHA Policy and Research Conference.

    PubMed

    Foran, Mark P; Greenough, Paul G; Thow, Andrew; Gilman, Daniel; Schütz, Andreas; Chandran, Rahul; Baiocchi, Allegra

    2012-06-01

    On December 12-13, 2011, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) hosted a humanitarian policy and research conference on the theme of "Risk, Adaptation and Innovation in Humanitarian Action." The four sessions of the conference covered humanitarian action in a changing world, adaptation and innovation in humanitarian action, humanitarian action in protracted and violent conflict, and effective humanitarian action. This special report contains summaries of presentations in each session and the conclusions resulting from the discussions throughout. Through a process of open discussion, debate, and a closing survey, the conference participants identified four top priorities in humanitarian research for the coming years: evidence-driven humanitarian decision-making; accountability and transparency; risk and agility; and partnership. In addition to plans for a 2nd Annual Research and Policy conference in December of 2012, specific outcomes of the conference include a series of regional workshops in 2012 and 2013, launching with Asia, Africa and the Middle East; creation of Policy Working Groups (PWG) for each research priority identified; and a new flagship OCHA publication, to be launched in late 2012 or early 2013, which will share the progress made on the research priorities identified.

  9. Preliminary experimental validation of a landmine detection system based on localized heating and sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsi, M.; Corcione, M.; Dell'Omo, P.; Esposito, S.; Magliocchetti, L.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present results of experimental validation of a new methodology for anti-personnel mine (APM) detection for humanitarian demining, proposed by the authors and previously validated only by simulation. The technique is based on local heating and sensing by contactless thermometers (pyrometers). A large sand box (2.6m 3) has been realized and fitted with a cart moving on rails and holding instrumentation. Accurate mine surrogates have been hidden in the sand together with confounders. Preliminary measurements are consistent with simulations and prove validity of the approach.

  10. Challenging Operations: An Ethical Framework to Assist Humanitarian Aid Workers in their Decision-making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Clarinval, Caroline; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims to raise awareness regarding ethical issues in the context of humanitarian action, and to offer a framework for systematically and effectively addressing such issues. Methods: Several cases highlight ethical issues that humanitarian aid workers are confronted with at different levels over the course of their deployments. The first case discusses a situation at a macro-level concerning decisions being made at the headquarters of a humanitarian organization. The second case looks at meso-level issues that need to be solved at a country or regional level. The third case proposes an ethical dilemma at the micro-level of the individual patient-provider relationship. Discussion: These real-life cases have been selected to illustrate the ethical dimension of conflicts within the context of humanitarian action that might remain unrecognized in everyday practice. In addition, we propose an ethical framework to assist humanitarian aid workers in their decision-making process. The framework draws on the principles and values that guide humanitarian action and public health ethics more generally. Beyond identifying substantive core values, the framework also includes a ten-step process modelled on tools used in the clinical setting that promotes a transparent and clear decision-making process and improves the monitoring and evaluation of aid interventions. Finally, we recommend organizational measures to implement the framework effectively. Conclusion: This paper uses a combination of public health/clinical ethics concepts and practices and applies them to the decision-making challenges encountered in relief operations in the humanitarian aid context. PMID:24987575

  11. Surface Electrical Conductivity Prediction by Soil Moisture and Electromagnetic Mapping Techniques: Implication for Landmine Detection Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsube, J.; McNairn, H.; Keating, P. K.; Das, Y.; Dyke, L.; Best, M. E.; Singhroy, V.; Connell-Madore, S.; Hunter, J.; Klassen, R.; Dilabio, R.; Moore, A.

    2004-05-01

    Electrical conductivity (EC) can be a source of significant signal interference in landmine detection, implying that there is a necessity for soil EC prediction in order to carry out safe demining operations in landmine affected countries in the world. A fundamental study on soil EC mechanisms and their relationship to moisture content has been carried out in order to increase the soil EC prediction accuracy when using data from various sensors, such as remote sensing, airborne and surficial electromagnetic (EM) methods. Results indicate that soil moisture consists of free water filling pore spaces and bound water which forms adsorbed water layers on the grain surfaces. The response of these two water phases to drying rates and EC are very different, to the extent that a moist clay poor soil may have low EC but a dry clay rich soil may have higher EC. This is a result of not only the bound water layers being a significant source of EC, but of the capillary component of the free water reacting differently to the different grain-sizes of the soil. The capillary water forms important electrical conductive bridges between the adsorbed water layers on the grains that constitute the soil. This implies that information on soil texture, mineralogy and their distribution are required for accurate EC prediction. Whereas information on these soil characteristics may be acquired by remote sensing and soil maps, soil moisture content is likely to vary from the time of data acquisition to that of demining operations, implying methods to predict these changes are required. In addition, soil type inhomogeniety, such as vertical and horizontal variation can also be a source of inaccuracies in moisture and EC predictions. However, these investigations also indicate that a wide band electrical frequency signal may have the possibility of providing information on, not only metallic mineral content, but on pore space, clay mineral type and water content. In addition, applications of

  12. Magnetic viscosity of tropical soils: classification and prediction as an aid for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, J.; Preetz, H.; Altfelder, S.

    2012-08-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI)-based metal detectors are the most widely used sensing techniques in landmine clearance operations; however, they are negatively influenced by frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility. A total of 466 rock and soil samples collected from across the tropics are investigated in this study. The data show that frequency-dependent susceptibility depends on the parent material as well as on the degree of weathering. Ultramafic and mafic rocks and their derivatives have higher susceptibility and absolute frequency dependence than material originating from intermediate, felsic and sedimentary rocks. Within each parent material group, absolute frequency dependence increases steadily with increasing alteration from unweathered rock to topsoil. This effect is likely due to either the residual enrichment of weathering resistant ferrimagnetic minerals including superparamagnetic (SP) grains, the comminution of larger ferrimagnetic minerals or the neoformation of SP minerals during soil formation. Relative frequency dependence is generally lower than 15 per cent for the investigated samples with a few exceptions. It increases with alteration for igneous rocks but remains at the initially high level for sediments. This finding indicates that the relative concentration of SP minerals changes with respect to the total magnetic fraction for igneous rocks but remains constant for sediments. Soils derived from ultramafic, mafic and intermediate rocks show low relative frequency dependence, and their magnetic susceptibility is mainly the result of multidomain lithogenic minerals. In contrast, soils derived from felsic rocks and sediments show the highest values, and their susceptibility is due to SP minerals that are either formed during pedogenesis or residually enriched. The average and extreme values of the absolute frequency dependence within each subgroup, based on parent material and alteration grade, are used to design a prognosis system for

  13. Dividing disasters in Aceh, Indonesia: separatist conflict and tsunami, human rights and humanitarianism.

    PubMed

    Zeccola, Paul

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the interface between human rights and humanitarian action in the context of the conflict and tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia, between 1998 and 2007. It looks at the challenges international humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) faced as they engaged in human rights work in the conflict period and in conflict-related activities in the post-tsunami period. The paper argues that many large NGOs may have compromised what some would hold to be essential principles for humanitarian action because of domestic political concerns, donor restrictions and resistance among certain NGO chiefs. In contrast with the pre-tsunami period, in which NGOs worked for years amid military operations, in the post-tsunami period NGOs were decidedly apolitical, neglecting the conflict in their tsunami response--despite significant developments that permitted greater political engagement in Aceh's post-conflict transformation. The evidence suggests that NGOs are challenged in contextualising humanitarian responses and that there is a need to underscore donor flexibility and independence in humanitarian action.

  14. Earth Science Data and Models for Improved Targeting of Humanitarian Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    Humanitarian assistance to developing countries has long focused on countries that have political, economic and strategic interest to the United States. Recent changes in global security concerns have heightened the perception that humanitarian action is becoming increasingly politicized. This is seen to be largely driven by the 'global war on terror' along with a push by donors and the United Nations for closer integration between humanitarian action and diplomatic, military and other spheres of engagement in conflict and crisis-affected states (HPG 2010). As we enter an era of rising commodity prices and increasing uncertainty in global food production due to a changing climate, scientific data and analysis will be increasingly important to improve the targeting of humanitarian assistance. Earth science data enables appropriate humanitarian response to complex food emergencies that arise in regions outside the areas of current strategic and security focus. As the climate changes, new places will become vulnerable to food insecurity and will need emergency assistance. Earth science data and multidisciplinary models will enable an information-based comparison of need that goes beyond strategic and political considerations to identify new hotspots of food insecurity as they emerge. These analyses will improve aid targeting and timeliness while reducing strategic risk by highlighting new regions at risk of crisis in a rapidly changing world. Improved targeting with respect to timing and location could reduce cost while increasing the likelihood that those who need aid get it.

  15. International Oral Care: a proposed model for the humanitarian dental missions.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Massimo; Panaia, Vincenzo; Marrelli, Doriana; Tatullo, Marco

    2014-09-01

    The creation of a good "field hospital" operating in the humanitarian missions has ever been the main aim to reach in any humanitarian missions. The Authors want to propose a model for all the humanitarian dental missions, so to standardize the activities and to make the results predictable in all the missions: this model has been named "International Oral Care" project. In the light of the experiences in the previous humanitarian missions, we have developed and standardized a protocol that provides a complex organizational planning for each phase of the mission. Our strengths are the "Dental-Marquee", the"Dental-Ambulance", the "Dental-Roulotte" and a well-tested operative workflow. In the last 3 years of activity on the field, International Oral Care has achieved an increase of treated patients, certainly consequential to the increase of operators on the field, but also due to the optimization of internal processes and the improvement of organizational structures. IOC has achieved in recent years an organization optimized and highly predictable: this makes it a model for humanitarian missions in the field of dentistry, a model that could be adopted also by international NGOs operating in war zones, or in the major natural disasters.

  16. Physicians and international humanitarian law in complex emergencies: controversies and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M H

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the areas in which the Geneva Conventions no longer are adequate as a source of legal description or prescription for the challenges faced by physicians working in complex emergencies. It covers the conceptual pitfalls facing the medical profession in connection with humanitarian interventions, which often are conventional military operations, but are not recognized as such because they may vary in some respects from more familiar forms of interstate conflict. Emerging categories of combatants who pose a major threat during complex emergencies also are identified. Opportunities to meet these challenges with the tools and culture of medicine are explored, and are proposed to the medical community as an opportunity for leadership. The paper proposes that new, epidemiological standards should be developed in order to identify the outbreak of armed conflicts and the trigger points for application of international humanitarian law. Such could replace the political model that presently underlies international humanitarian law. It also argues that international humanitarian law is not the starting point for application of humanitarian standards in war zones, but rather is built upon a peacetime medical culture that must be replicated in complex emergencies as a precursor to effective application of the law.

  17. Application of health technology in humanitarian response: U.S. Military deployed health technology summit--a summary.

    PubMed

    Doarn, Charles R; Barrigan, Cynthia R; Poropatich, Ronald K

    2011-01-01

    Disasters are unpredictable, occurring without notice. They have a devastating effect and forever change the people they affect. We have witnessed the devastation from several significant events in 2010 and 2011, including the horrendous earthquakes in Haiti, Chili, New Zealand, and Japan. In the Japanese earthquake, a tsunami caused significant destruction to property and, of special concern, nuclear power plants along the Pacific Ocean, which will likely have a lasting impact worldwide. In a number of these events, the U.S. Military is often called upon to provide some level of support to help in the immediate aftermath. In early 2010, a massive earthquake struck the island nation of Haiti. In the days that followed, there was a significant influx of help from both military and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Although the response was not coordinated in any significant way, there was, nevertheless, wide application of various technologies as never before. Aside for the need to respond rapidly and efficiently, the U.S. Military is especially interested in how to utilize technology in a better way both internally and with NGOs. In the fall of 2010, the U.S. Army's Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center partnered with the American Telemedicine Association to bring together a group of experts from industry, government, and academia to assess the challenges and opportunities for applying technologies not only in combat missions but for humanitarian response as well. This article summarizes the "U.S. Military Deployed Health Technology Summit" held on September 29, 2010, in Baltimore, Maryland, highlighting significant points. It presents a balance of capabilities across a broad spectrum of technologies and will help the U.S. Military in defining a roadmap for research and development to strengthen its ability to respond in future disasters and humanitarian events.

  18. Rapid mapping of soil electrical conductivity by remote sensing: implication for landmine detection and vehicle mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsube, T. J.; McNairn, H.; Das, Y.; Gauthier, E.; Holt, R. M.; Singhroy, V.; DiLabio, R.; Connell-Madore, S.; Dyke, L.

    2005-06-01

    Many soil physical and chemical properties interfere with landmine detection signals. Since prior knowledge of these property distributions would allow appropriate technology selection and efficient demining operations, rapid mapping of these properties over wide areas are considered for meeting military and economic constraints. As soil electrical conductivity (EC) interferes with widely used detection systems, such as metal detectors and ground penetrating radar, we have started with developing a rapid mapping technique for EC using remote sensing. Electromagnetic surveys are proven methods for mapping EC, but do not provide all information required for demining. Therefore, EC prediction by imaging of soil moisture change using radar satellite imagery acquired by RADARSAT is being tested in eastern Alberta, Canada; northern Mississippi (U.S.A.). Areas of little soil moisture change with time are associated with high moisture retention and high clay content, suggesting higher EC. These soil characteristics are also associated with trafficability. RADARSAT soil moisture change detection images for eastern Alberta identified five areas with possible high moisture retention characteristics. Validation by soil and trafficability maps verified the predictions for more than half of the areas. Lack of some prediction accuracy is considered due to image acquisition timing and lack of physical property knowledge of some soil constituents.

  19. Soil moisture and electrical conductivity prediction and their implication for landmine detection technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsube, T. John; Keating, Pierre K.; McNairn, Heather; Das, Yogadhish; DiLabio, Ron; Singhroy, Vern; Connell-Madore, Shauna; Best, Mel E.; Hunter, James; Klassen, Rod; Dyke, Larry

    2004-09-01

    Physical properties, such as soil moisture, magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity (EC) are sources of signal interference for many landmine detectors. Soil EC mechanisms and their relationship to moisture are being studied to increase the soil EC prediction accuracy by radar remote sensing, airborne and ground electromagnetic (EM) methods. This is required for effective detection operations in problematic regions of the world. Results indicate that responses of free water and bound water to drying rates and EC are very different, to the extent that moist clay-poor soil may have lower EC compared to dryer clay-rich soil at certain moisture contents. These suggest that soil EC prediction should start with analyses of radar remote sensing data acquired on separate days, followed by high frequency airborne EM surveys, and validation by ground EM surveys and laboratory soil sample analyses. Due to the various expertise required, a team of relevant experts (e.g., geology, geophysics, remote sensing, petrophysics, agriculture, soil physics, electrical engineering and demining) should be organized to provide information on detector viability for demining in problematic areas in the world. It is also proposed to develop wide frequency band EM systems to provide much of the required information in one measurement.

  20. Spectrum analysis of seismic surface waves and its applications in seismic landmine detection.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mubashir; McClellan, James H; Scott, Waymond R

    2007-03-01

    In geophysics, spectrum analysis of surface waves (SASW) refers to a noninvasive method for soil characterization. However, the term spectrum analysis can be used in a wider sense to mean a method for determining and identifying various modes of seismic surface waves and their properties such as velocity, polarization, etc. Surface waves travel along the free boundary of a medium and can be easily detected with a transducer placed on the free surface of the boundary. A new method based on vector processing of space-time data obtained from an array of triaxial sensors is proposed to produce high-resolution, multimodal spectra from surface waves. Then individual modes can be identified in the spectrum and reconstructed in the space-time domain; also, reflected waves can be separated easily from forward waves in the spectrum domain. This new SASW method can be used for detecting and locating landmines by analyzing the reflected waves for resonance. Processing examples are presented for numerically generated data, experimental data collected in a laboratory setting, and field data.

  1. Blast injury research: modeling injury effects of landmines, bullets, and bombs.

    PubMed

    Hayda, Roman; Harris, Robert M; Bass, Cameron Dale

    2004-05-01

    Terrorist blasts and landmine injuries have become more common in the past several decades generating thousands of casualties. Preventive and prognostic measures are limited by the lack of knowledge of these complex events. Previous blast research has focused on primary blast injuries that involve the lung, despite musculoskeletal injuries being the most common. Through the use of instrumented cadavers, Hybrid III test dummies, and other surrogates, unique models of these events have been created. The investigations studied the effectiveness of antimine footwear, forces and injury mechanisms in temporary shelters subjected to blast, modeling of blast-induced glass fragmentation, and helmet deformation and injury potential under ballistic load. Despite blasts being much higher rate events than those seen in automotive blunt trauma, we were able to measure forces and create injury models. We found that antimine footwear will require additional development to be effective. Guidelines for shelter placement have been altered, and tempered glass seems to offer no protection when compared with annealed glass. Although these models are in their nascent phase, the thorough understanding of the biomechanical nature of these blast injuries will assist in developing strategies to reduce injuries and in the creation of forecasting models.

  2. Standoff detection of explosives and buried landmines using fluorescent bacterial sensor cells.

    PubMed

    Kabessa, Yossef; Eyal, Ori; Bar-On, Ofer; Korouma, Victor; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon; Agranat, Aharon J

    2016-05-15

    A standoff detection scheme for buried landmines and concealed explosive charges is presented. The detection procedure consists of the following: Live bacterial sensor strains, genetically engineered to produce a dose-dependent amount of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence of explosives' vapors, are encapsulated and spread on the suspected area. The fluorescence produced by the bacteria in response to traces of the explosive material in their microenvironment is remotely detected by a phase-locked optoelectronic sampling system. This scheme enables fast direct access to a large minefield area, while obviating the need to endanger personnel and equipment. Moreover, the employment of phase locking detection efficiently isolates the bacterial sensors' fluorescent output from the background optical signals. This facilitates the application of bacterial sensors in an outdoor environment, where control of background illumination is not possible. Using this system, we demonstrate standoff detection of 2,4-DNT both in aqueous solution and when buried in soil, by sensor bacteria either in liquid culture or agar-immobilized, respectively, at a distance of 50 m in a realistic optically noisy environment. PMID:26774094

  3. Standoff detection of explosives and buried landmines using fluorescent bacterial sensor cells.

    PubMed

    Kabessa, Yossef; Eyal, Ori; Bar-On, Ofer; Korouma, Victor; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon; Agranat, Aharon J

    2016-05-15

    A standoff detection scheme for buried landmines and concealed explosive charges is presented. The detection procedure consists of the following: Live bacterial sensor strains, genetically engineered to produce a dose-dependent amount of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence of explosives' vapors, are encapsulated and spread on the suspected area. The fluorescence produced by the bacteria in response to traces of the explosive material in their microenvironment is remotely detected by a phase-locked optoelectronic sampling system. This scheme enables fast direct access to a large minefield area, while obviating the need to endanger personnel and equipment. Moreover, the employment of phase locking detection efficiently isolates the bacterial sensors' fluorescent output from the background optical signals. This facilitates the application of bacterial sensors in an outdoor environment, where control of background illumination is not possible. Using this system, we demonstrate standoff detection of 2,4-DNT both in aqueous solution and when buried in soil, by sensor bacteria either in liquid culture or agar-immobilized, respectively, at a distance of 50 m in a realistic optically noisy environment.

  4. Context extraction for local fusion for landmine detection with multi-sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigui, Hichem; Gader, Paul D.; Ben Abdallah, Ahmed Chamseddine

    2009-05-01

    We present a local method for fusing the results of several landmine detectors using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Wideband Electro-Magnetic Induction (WEMI) sensors. The detectors considered include Edge Histogram Descriptor (EHD), Hidden Markov Models (HMM), and Spectral Correlation Feature (SCF) for the GPR sensor, and a feature-based classifier for the metal detector. The above detectors use different types of features and different classification methods. Our approach, called Context Extraction for Local Fusion with Feature Discrimination(CELF-FD), is a local approach that adapts the fusion method to different regions of the feature space. It is based on a novel objective function that combines context identification and multi-algorithm fusion criteria into a joint objective function. The context identification component thrives to partition the input feature space into clusters and identify the relevant features within each cluster. The fusion component thrives to learns the optimal fusion parameters within each cluster. Results on large and diverse GPR and WEMI data collections show that the proposed method can identify meaningful and coherent clusters and that these clusters require different fusion parameters. Our initial experiments have also indicated that CELF-FD outperforms the original CELF algorithm and all individual detectors.

  5. A neutron Albedo system with time rejection for landmine and IED detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaltchouk, V. D.; Andrews, H. R.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Faust, A. A.; Ing, H.; McFee, J. E.

    2011-10-01

    A neutron Albedo system has been developed for imaging of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). It involves irradiating the ground with fast neutrons and subsequently detecting the thermalized neutrons that return. A scintillating 6Li loaded ZnS(Ag) screen with a sensitive area of 40 cm×40 cm is used as a thermal neutron detector. Scintillation light is captured by orthogonal arrays of wavelength-shifting fibers placed on either side of the scintillator surface and then transferred to X and Y multi-pixel PMTs. A timing circuit, used with pulsed neutron sources, records the time when a neutron detection takes place relative to an external synchronization pulse from the pulsed source. Experimental tests of the Albedo system performance have been done in a sand box with a 252Cf neutron source (no time gating) and with pulsed D-D (2.6 MeV) neutrons from the Defense R&D Ottawa Van de Graaff accelerator (with time gating). Information contained in the time evolution of the thermal neutron field provided improved detection capability and image reconstruction. The detector design is described and experimental results are discussed.

  6. THE LOSS OF MALAYSIA AIRLINES FLIGHT MH17: A FORENSIC AND HUMANITARIAN TASK.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2015-06-01

    While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey. PMID:26349375

  7. Cracking the humanitarian logistic coordination challenge: lessons from the urban search and rescue community.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Peter; Spens, Karen

    2016-04-01

    The challenges of achieving successful inter-agency logistic coordination in preparing for and responding to natural disasters and complex emergencies are both well understood and well documented. However, although many of these challenges remain unresolved, the literature reveals that the organisations that form the urban search and rescue (USAR) community have attained a high level of coherence and interoperability that results in a highly efficient and effective response. Therefore, this paper uses the idea of 'borrowing' from other fields as it explores how the processes and procedures used by the USAR community might be applied to improve humanitarian logistic operations. The paper analyses the USAR model and explores how the resultant challenges might be addressed in a humanitarian logistic context. The paper recommends that further research be undertaken in order to develop a modified USAR model that could be operationalised by the international community of humanitarian logisticians. PMID:26283578

  8. THE LOSS OF MALAYSIA AIRLINES FLIGHT MH17: A FORENSIC AND HUMANITARIAN TASK.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2015-06-01

    While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.

  9. 75 FR 26344 - Temporary Exclusion of the Assessment of Overflight Fees for Humanitarian Flights Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Humanitarian Flights Related to the January 12, 2010, Earthquake in Haiti AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Fees for humanitarian flights in response to the earthquake in Haiti. SUMMARY: On January 12, 2010, the nation of Haiti was hit by a devastating earthquake near the heaviest populated part of the country,...

  10. Violence against children in humanitarian settings: A literature review of population-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lindsay; Landis, Debbie

    2016-03-01

    Children in humanitarian settings are thought to experience increased exposure to violence, which can impair their physical, emotional, and social development. Violence against children has important economic and social consequences for nations as a whole. The purpose of this review is to examine population-based approaches measuring violence against children in humanitarian settings. The authors reviewed prevalence studies of violence against children in humanitarian contexts appearing in peer-reviewed journals within the past twenty years. A Boolean search procedure was conducted in October 2014 of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and PsychInfo. If abstracts contained evidence of the study's four primary themes--violence, children, humanitarian contexts and population-based measurement--a full document review was undertaken to confirm relevance. Out of 2634 identified articles, 22 met the final inclusion criteria. Across studies, there was varying quality and no standardization in measurement approach. Nine out of 22 studies demonstrated a relationship between conflict exposure and adverse health or mental health outcomes. Among studies that compared rates of violence between boys and girls, boys reported higher rates of physical violence, while girls reported higher rates of sexual violence. Children in infancy and early childhood were found to be among the most under-researched. Ultimately, the body of evidence in this review offers an incomplete picture regarding the prevalence, nature and impact of violence against children in emergencies, demonstrating a weak evidence base for some of the basic assumptions underpinning humanitarian practice. The development of standardized approaches to more rigorously measure violence against children is urgently needed in order to understand trends of violence against children in humanitarian contexts, and to promote children's healthy development and well-being.

  11. The Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) and the Humanitarian Industry in Britain, 1963-85.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the history of modern British humanitarianism. Specifically, it charts the rise of an extensive humanitarian aid 'industry' in Britain, between 1963 and 1985. It does so through a focus on the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC), an umbrella body for joint emergency fundraising established in 1963. The DEC is an enduring and important presence in the British humanitarian landscape, as it brings together leading aid agencies to make fundraising campaigns on television after major disasters. This article represents the first systematic historical analysis of the DEC, which it uses to illuminate larger questions about the politics of non-state humanitarianism, state-voluntary sector relations, the political impact of television, and the end of empire. It is shown that while DEC appeals fuelled the growth of its members, this was also a problematic process. Many principal aid agencies wished to shift their focus away from short-term disaster relief work to tackling the long-term structural causes of global poverty instead. It is argued that, despite an increasing political focus, humanitarian organizations were constrained from doing so by the power of television; a perceived lack of public support; the interventions of the British government; and competition between aid agencies in a crowded marketplace. Consequently, continued involvement in short-term, apolitical emergency assistance remained a requirement even for agencies sceptical about its value and impact. This analysis complicates linear narratives of a transition from emergency relief to development aid in post-war British humanitarianism, instead presenting the period as characterized by competing and even contradictory trajectories. PMID:26775518

  12. A climate-compatible approach to development practice by international humanitarian NGOs.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Matthew; de Cruz, Ian

    2015-01-01

    If current climate-change predictions prove accurate, non-linear change, including potentially catastrophic change, is possible and the environments in which international humanitarian NGOs operate will change figuratively and literally. This paper proposes that a new approach to development is required that takes changing climate into account. This 'climate-compatible approach' to development is a bleak shift from some of the current orthodox positions and will be a major challenge to international humanitarian NGOs working with the most vulnerable. However, it is necessary to address the challenges and context such NGOs face, and the need to be resilient and adaptive to these changes.

  13. Emergency preparedness and humanitarian action: the research deficit. Eastern Mediterranean Region perspective.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, I A; Musani, A

    2006-01-01

    The WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, extending from Morocco in the west to Pakistan in the east, with a population exceeding 490 million, suffers a large proportion of both natural and man-made disasters. Humanitarian partners in the health sector have played a major role in averting the excessive mortality and morbidity in response to previous emergencies; nevertheless much remains to be done to provide the evidence through rigorous research methods to standardize other essential elements of the health response to humanitarian emergencies. Strengthening of academic institutions, prioritization of research, financial resources and linkages with institutions in the developed world can ameliorate the situation in the Region.

  14. Analytical modelling of soil effects on electromagnetic induction sensor for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, D.; Ambruš, D.; Bilas, V.

    2013-06-01

    Accurate compensation of the soil effect is essential for a new generation of sensitive classification-based electromagnetic induction landmine detectors. We present an analytical model for evaluation of the soil effect suitable for straightforward numerical implementation. The modelled soil consists of arbitrary number of conductive and magnetic layers. The solution region is truncated leading to the solution in form of a series rather than infinite integrals. Frequency-dependent permeability is inherent to the model, and time domain analysis can be made using DFT. In order to illustrate the model usage, we evaluate performances of three metal detector designs.

  15. Detection of explosive as an indicator of landmines: BIOSENS project methodology and field tests in Southeast Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabbe, Stephen; Eng, Lars; Gardhagen, Peter; Berg, Anders

    2005-06-01

    The IST-2000-25348-BIOSENS project carried out a number of studies to assess the use of explosive detection technology for humanitarian demining. This paper presents sampling/collection technology developed, test methodology and results including comparisons with dogs and soil sampling. Findings are presented in terms of the detection of explosive from mines in the environment and demining.

  16. The Canadian Forces ILDS: a militarily fielded multisensor vehicle-mounted teleoperated landmine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Chesney, Robert H.; Faust, Anthony A.; Das, Yogadhish

    2006-05-01

    The Improved Landmine Detection System (ILDS) is intended to meet Canadian military mine clearance requirements in rear area combat situations and peacekeeping on roads and tracks. The system consists of two teleoperated vehicles and a command vehicle. The teleoperated protection vehicle precedes, clearing antipersonnel mines and magnetic and tilt rod-fuzed antitank mines. It consists of an armoured personnel carrier with a forward looking infrared imager, a finger plow or roller and a magnetic signature duplicator. The teleoperated detection vehicle follows to detect antitank mines. The purpose-built vehicle carries forward looking infrared and visible imagers, a 3 m wide, down-looking sensitive electromagnetic induction detector array and a 3 m wide down-looking ground probing radar, which scan the ground in front of the vehicle. Sensor information is combined using navigation sensors and custom navigation, registration, spatial correspondence and data fusion algorithms. Suspicious targets are then confirmed by a thermal neutron activation detector. The prototype, designed and built by Defence R&D Canada, was completed in October 1997. General Dynamics Canada delivered four production units, based on the prototype concept and technologies, to the Canadian Forces (CF) in 2002. ILDS was deployed in Afghanistan in 2003, making the system the first militarily fielded, teleoperated, multi-sensor vehicle-mounted mine detector and the first with a fielded confirmation sensor. Performance of the prototype in Canadian and independent US trials is summarized and recent results from the production version of the confirmation sensor are discussed. CF operations with ILDS in Afghanistan are described.

  17. Improved landmine detection capability (ILDC): systematic approach to the detection of buried mines using passive IR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Jean-Robert

    1996-05-01

    In order to reduce the serious problem associated with the mining of important supply/communication roads by hostile parties during peacekeeping operations, the Canadian Department of National Defense has recently begun the development of a multi-sensor teleoperated mine detection vehicle, the Improved Landmine Detection Capability. One sensor identified as a serious candidate for that project is a passive IR camera. In the past, many organizations have assessed the efficiency of this technique of detection and reported widely fluctuating results. It is believed that the main reason for these fluctuations is associated with the ad hoc interpretations used by different researchers. In this paper, a more systematic analysis is presented which takes into account variables such as time of the day, time of the year, weather conditions, type of road and many others. A working model is proposed in order to facilitate the prediction of the IR signature of the buried land-mine and is compared with data acquired from multiple trials. These trials were done with live mines (without fuzes) and surrogates buried in different types of road (packed gravel and sand) and during different times of the day and different times of the year.

  18. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  19. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Iraq. (a) A nongovernmental organization specifically licensed pursuant to 31 CFR part 575 or otherwise authorized pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 to conduct certain humanitarian activities in and around Iraq is... organization pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 and the terms of its license or registration. This section does...

  20. Using Contests to Provide Business Students Project-Based Learning in Humanitarian Logistics: PSAid Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Koray; Chen, Yuwen; Hales, Doug; Yu, Degan; Yalcin, Mehmet G.

    2014-01-01

    Business students appreciate working on classroom projects that are both enjoyable and useful in preparing them for future careers. Promoting competition among project teams is also used as a method to motivate students. The Humanitarian Logistics Project (HLP) teaches undergraduate students the logistical implications of unsolicited material…

  1. Challenges and Psychosocial Growth for Older Volunteers Giving Intensive Humanitarian Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Kathleen W.; Cheek, Cheryl; Teemant, Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: We conducted a qualitative study of 38 mid-late life volunteers in intensive humanitarian service to ascertain the challenges, personal changes, and benefits they experienced from their volunteer activities. Intensive volunteering was defined as service done on a 24-hr a day basis at a location away from home. Design and…

  2. Motivations, concerns, and expectations of Scandinavian health professionals volunteering for humanitarian assignments.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; McSpadden, Lucia Ann; Garrett, Martha J

    2006-01-01

    International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in humanitarian assistance employ millions of volunteers. One of the major challenges for the organizations is the high turnover rate among their personnel. Another is recruiting the right persons. As part of a series of studies investigating factors that affect the recruitment process and the success of assignment, this qualitative study examined health professionals' motivations for volunteering, their various concerns, and their expectations about themselves and the organizations for which they would work. The findings from focus group interviews with potential humanitarian volunteers were considered within the framework of Hertzberg's theory of motivations and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The study has significant implications for personnel policy and practice in the humanitarian sector. Recruitment officers should have the self-actualized person, as described by Maslow, in mind when interviewing candidates. This perspective would make it easier for them to understand the candidates' thoughts and concerns and would lead to more effective interventions. Program officers should have satisfiers and dissatisfiers, as identified by Herzberg, in mind when planning programs. The probability that personnel will leave humanitarian work is lower if they perceive working conditions as good. PMID:16580984

  3. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  4. 75 FR 4526 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace; Announcement... Manager, Policy and Technical Division, Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict...

  5. 75 FR 4526 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace; Announcement..., Grants Manager, Policy and Technical Division, Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy,...

  6. Engendering care: HIV, humanitarian assistance in Africa, and the reproduction of gender stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mindry, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes as starting point research conducted in Durban, South Africa to unravel the complexities of care ethics in the context of humanitarian aid. It investigates how the gendering of care shapes humanitarian aid in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in Africa constructing an image of “virile” and “violent” African masculinity. Humanitarian organizations construct imagined relations of caring invoking notions of a shared humanity as informing the imperative to facilitate change. This paper draws on varied examples of research and NGO activity to illustrate how these relations of care are gendered. Humanitarian interventions which invoke universalizing conceptions of need could instead draw on feminist care ethics that seeks to balance rights, justice and care in ways that attend to the webs of relationships through which specific lived realities are shaped. Essentialising, feminized discourses on care result in a skewed analysis of international crises that invariably invoke women (and children) as victims in need of care and, at best, ignore the lived experiences of men, and at worst, cast men as virile and violent vectors of disease and social disorder. PMID:20432080

  7. 31 CFR 537.523 - Authorization of nongovernmental organizations to engage in humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... acronym or other names used to identify the individuals or organizations); (8) Independent accounting... the organization's humanitarian, environmental or religious activities and projects in countries or... Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774)....

  8. Motivations, concerns, and expectations of Scandinavian health professionals volunteering for humanitarian assignments.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; McSpadden, Lucia Ann; Garrett, Martha J

    2006-01-01

    International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in humanitarian assistance employ millions of volunteers. One of the major challenges for the organizations is the high turnover rate among their personnel. Another is recruiting the right persons. As part of a series of studies investigating factors that affect the recruitment process and the success of assignment, this qualitative study examined health professionals' motivations for volunteering, their various concerns, and their expectations about themselves and the organizations for which they would work. The findings from focus group interviews with potential humanitarian volunteers were considered within the framework of Hertzberg's theory of motivations and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The study has significant implications for personnel policy and practice in the humanitarian sector. Recruitment officers should have the self-actualized person, as described by Maslow, in mind when interviewing candidates. This perspective would make it easier for them to understand the candidates' thoughts and concerns and would lead to more effective interventions. Program officers should have satisfiers and dissatisfiers, as identified by Herzberg, in mind when planning programs. The probability that personnel will leave humanitarian work is lower if they perceive working conditions as good.

  9. Interns at an International, Humanitarian Organization: Career Pathways and Meaning Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the career shaping experiences and related meaning making processes of 12 interns at The Carter Center, an international, humanitarian organization. Experiences shaping participants' careers were grouped into the following themes--academics and intellectual curiosity; travel abroad; religion; relationships--family,…

  10. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Iran or controlled on the United States Munitions List, and (2) Any such personal items are either... Iraq. (a) A nongovernmental organization specifically licensed pursuant to 31 CFR part 575 or otherwise authorized pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 to conduct certain humanitarian activities in and around Iraq...

  11. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Iraq. (a) A nongovernmental organization specifically licensed pursuant to 31 CFR part 575 or otherwise authorized pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 to conduct certain humanitarian activities in and around Iraq is... organization pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 and the terms of its license or registration. This section does...

  12. Implications of humanitarian orthopaedic surgery in a combat zone: Operation Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom experience.

    PubMed

    Robins, R Judd; Porta, C Rees; Eastridge, Brian J; Holcomb, John B; Martin, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The primary mission of deployed military orthopaedic surgeons in a combat zone is to treat musculoskeletal battlefield trauma and associated wartime injuries. The role of humanitarian surgical care during combat operations has not been defined. An anonymous online survey was sent to databases containing all U.S. military active-duty orthopaedic surgeons as well as to members of the Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons. Inclusion criteria for the study were defined as at least one deployment to Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom, OIF) or Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF). Three hundred fifty-six invitations were sent with 107 orthopaedic surgeons completing the survey. Respondents reported approximately 3,000 humanitarian surgeries performed in the combat zone, with 70% to 80% involving chronic deformity and nonunion surgeries. Seventy-nine percent of the respondents believed that humanitarian surgery was a key component of the mission, improved skills (73%), benefited population (76%), and improved security (61%). A significant amount of humanitarian surgery in the combat zone has been performed in OEF/OIF. PMID:25153810

  13. Combining Dedicated Online Training and Apprenticeships in the Field to Assist in Professionalization of Humanitarian Aid Workers: a 2-year Pilot Project for Anesthesia and Intensive Care Residents Working in Resource Constrained and Low-income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Foletti, Marco; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Burkle, Frederick M.; Della Corte, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: As a result of the gaps in humanitarian response highlighted by several reports, the international community called for an increased professionalization of humanitarian aid workers. This paper describes a pilot project by an Italian university and a non-profit, non-governmental organization to implement a medical apprenticeship in low-income countries during Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine residencies. Methods: Before deployment, participants were required to complete a dedicated online training course about safety and security in the field, principles of anesthesia at the district hospital level, emergency and essential surgical care, essentials of medical treatment in resource-constrained environments and psychological support in emergencies. Results: At the end of the program, a qualitative self-evaluation questionnaire administered to participants highlighted how the project allowed the participants to advance their professional skills when working in a low-resource environment, while also mastering their adapting skills and the ability to interact and cooperate with local healthcare personnel. The project also proved to be a means for personal growth, making these experiences a recommendation for all residents as a necessary step for the professionalization of healthcare personnel involved in humanitarian aid. PMID:25642362

  14. A Test Study to Display Buried Anti-Tank Landmines with GPR and Research Soil Characteristics with CRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    An anti-tank mine (AT mine) is a type of land mine designed to damage or destroy vehicles including tanks and armored fighting vehicles. Anti-tank mines typically have a much larger explosive charge, and a fuze designed only to be triggered by vehicles or, in some cases, tampering with the mine. There are a lot of AT mine types. In our test study, MK4 and MK5 AT mine types has been used. The Mk 5 was a cylindrical metal cased U.K. anti-tank blast mine that entered service in 1943, during the Second World War. General Specifications of them are 203 mm diameter, 127 mm height, 4.4-5.7 kg weight, 2.05-3.75 kg of TNT explosive content and 350 lbs operating pressure respectively. The aims of the test study were to image anti-tank landmine with GPR method and to analyse the soil characteristics before the mines made explode and after made be exploded and determine changing of the soil characteristics. We realized data measurement on the real 6 unexploded anti-tank landmine buried approximately 15 cm in depth. The mines spaced 3 m were buried in two lines. Space between lines was 1.5 m. We gathered data on the profiles, approximately 7 m, with a Ramac CUII system and 800 MHz shielded antenna. We collected soil samples on the mines, near and around the mines, on the area in village. We collected soil samples before exploding and after exploding mines. We imaged anti-tank landmines on the depth slices of the GPR data and in their interactive transparent 3D subsets successfully. We used polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS) to identify soil characteristic before and after exploitation. The results presented that GPR method and its 3D imaging were successful to determine AT mines, and there was no important changing on mineralogical and petrographical characterization of the soil before and after exploding processing. This project has been supported by Ankara University under grant no 11B6055002. The study is a contribution to the EU funded COST action TU

  15. Requirements for independent community-based quality assessment and accountability practices in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief activities.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Thomas D; Perrin, Paul; Burkle, Frederick M; Canny, William; Purdin, Susan; Lin, William; Sauer, Lauren

    2012-06-01

    During responses to disasters, the credibility of humanitarian agencies can be threatened by perceptions of poor quality of the responses. Many initiatives have been introduced over the last two decades to help address these issues and enhance the overall quality of humanitarian response, often with limited success. There remain important gaps and deficiencies in quality assurance efforts, including potential conflicts of interest. While many definitions for quality exist, a common component is that meeting the needs of the "beneficiary" or "client" is the ultimate determinant of quality. This paper examines the current status of assessment and accountability practices in the humanitarian response community, identifies gaps, and recommends timely, concise, and population-based assessments to elicit the perspective of quality performance and accountability to the affected populations. Direct and independent surveys of the disaster-affected population will help to redirect ongoing aid efforts, and generate more effective and comparable methods for assessing the quality of humanitarian practices and assistance activities.

  16. Toward a Communications Satellite Network for Humanitarian Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction in 2008 of the "Ring Road" concept, proposing a communications satellite network designed to support disadvantaged populations, there have been a number of advances in the underlying technologies, CubeSat picosatellites and Delay-Tolerant Networking. We review the original Ring Road proposal, discuss relevant recent technological progress, and offer some tentative notes on projected cost and performance.

  17. Socially Responsible Citizens: Promoting Gifts and Talents That Support Social and Humanitarian Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez de Hahn, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of an enhanced sense of social responsibility in the use of talents and the creation of programmes and services that focus on the promotion of these traits among a wider student population. Selection of students for these offerings should not mirror the rigid identification of academically or intellectually…

  18. The co-construction of medical humanitarianism: analysis of personal, organizationally condoned narratives from an agency website.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alastair; Iacovou, Melina

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen significant growth in both the size and profile of the humanitarian sector. However, little research has focused upon the constructions of humanitarian practice negotiated by agencies and their workers that serve to sustain engagement in the face personal challenges and critique of the humanitarian enterprise. This study used the public narrative of 129 website postings by humanitarian workers deployed with the health-focused international humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to identify recurrent themes in personal, organizationally-condoned, public discourse regarding humanitarian practice. Data represented all eligible postings from a feature on the agency's UK website from May 2002 to April 2012. The text of postings was analysed with respect to emergent themes on an iterative basis. Comprehensive coding of material was achieved through a thematic structure that reflected the core domains of project details, the working environment, characteristics of beneficiaries and recurrent motivational sub-texts. Features of the co-construction of narratives include language serving to neutralize complex political contexts; the specification of barriers as substantive but surmountable; the dominance of the construct of national-international in understanding the operation of teams; intense personal identification with organization values; and the use of resilience as a framing of beneficiary adaptation and perseverance in conditions that--from an external perspective--warrant despair and withdrawal. Recurrent motivational sub-texts include 'making a difference' and contrasts with 'past professional constraints' and 'ordinary life back home.' The prominence of these sub-texts not only highlights key personal agendas but also suggests--notwithstanding policy initiatives regarding stronger contextual rooting and professionalism--continuing organizational emphasis on externality and volunteerism. Overall, postings illustrate a

  19. The co-construction of medical humanitarianism: analysis of personal, organizationally condoned narratives from an agency website.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alastair; Iacovou, Melina

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen significant growth in both the size and profile of the humanitarian sector. However, little research has focused upon the constructions of humanitarian practice negotiated by agencies and their workers that serve to sustain engagement in the face personal challenges and critique of the humanitarian enterprise. This study used the public narrative of 129 website postings by humanitarian workers deployed with the health-focused international humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to identify recurrent themes in personal, organizationally-condoned, public discourse regarding humanitarian practice. Data represented all eligible postings from a feature on the agency's UK website from May 2002 to April 2012. The text of postings was analysed with respect to emergent themes on an iterative basis. Comprehensive coding of material was achieved through a thematic structure that reflected the core domains of project details, the working environment, characteristics of beneficiaries and recurrent motivational sub-texts. Features of the co-construction of narratives include language serving to neutralize complex political contexts; the specification of barriers as substantive but surmountable; the dominance of the construct of national-international in understanding the operation of teams; intense personal identification with organization values; and the use of resilience as a framing of beneficiary adaptation and perseverance in conditions that--from an external perspective--warrant despair and withdrawal. Recurrent motivational sub-texts include 'making a difference' and contrasts with 'past professional constraints' and 'ordinary life back home.' The prominence of these sub-texts not only highlights key personal agendas but also suggests--notwithstanding policy initiatives regarding stronger contextual rooting and professionalism--continuing organizational emphasis on externality and volunteerism. Overall, postings illustrate a

  20. Fusion of KLMS and blob based pre-screener for buried landmine detection using ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baydar, Bora; Akar, Gözde Bozdaǧi.; Yüksel, Seniha E.; Öztürk, Serhat

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a decision level fusion using multiple pre-screener algorithms is proposed for the detection of buried landmines from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data. The Kernel Least Mean Square (KLMS) and the Blob Filter pre-screeners are fused together to work in real time with less false alarms and higher true detection rates. The effect of the kernel variance is investigated for the KLMS algorithm. Also, the results of the KLMS and KLMS+Blob filter algorithms are compared to the LMS method in terms of processing time and false alarm rates. Proposed algorithm is tested on both simulated data and real data collected at the field of IPA Defence at METU, Ankara, Turkey.

  1. Development and Performance of an Ultrawideband Stepped-Frequency Radar for Landmine and Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Brian R.; Gallagher, Kyle A.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2014-11-01

    Under support from the Army Research Laboratory's Partnerships in Research Transition program, a stepped-frequency radar (SFR) is currently under development, which allows for manipulation of the radiated spectrum while still maintaining an effective ultra-wide bandwidth. The SFR is a vehicle-mounted forward-looking ground-penetrating radar designed for high-resolution detection of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices. The SFR can be configured to precisely excise prohibited or interfering frequency bands and also possesses frequency-hopping capabilities. This paper discusses the expected performance features of the SFR as derived from laboratory testing and characterization. Ghosts and artifacts appearing in the range profile arise from gaps in the operating band when the system is configured to omit specific frequencies. An analysis of these effects is discussed and our current solution is presented. Future prospects for the SFR are also discussed, including data collection campaigns at the Army's Adelphi Laboratory Center and the Countermine Test Site.

  2. LIBS: a new versatile field-deployable real-time detector system with potential for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Russell S.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Winkel, Raymond J., Jr.; LaPointe, Aaron; Grossman, Scott L.; McNesby, Kevin L.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2003-09-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic emission spectroscopic technique that utilizes a pulsed laser to create a microplasma on the target together with an array spectrometer to capture the transient light for elemental identification and quantification. LIBS has certain important characteristics that make it a very attractive sensor technology for military uses. Such attributes include that facts that LIBS (1) is relatively simple and straightforward, (2) requires no sample preparation, (3) generates a real-time response, and (4) only engages a very small sample (pg-ng) of matter in each laser shot and microplasma event, (5) has inherent high sensitivity, and (6) responds to all forms of unknowns, and, therefore, is particularly suited for the sensing of dangerous materials. Additionally, a LIBS sensor system can be inexpensive, configured to be man-portable, and designed for both in-situ point sensing and remote stand-off detection with distances of up to 20-25 meters. Broadband LIBS results covering the spectral region from 200-970 nm acquired at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) under laboratory conditions for a variety of landmine casings and explosive materials. This data will illustrate the potential that LIBS has to be developed into a hand-deployable device that could be utilized as a confirmatory sensor in landmine detection. The concept envisioned is a backpack-size system in which an eyesafe micro-laser is contained in the handle of a deminer's probe and light is delivered and collected through an optical fiber in the tapered tip of the probe. In such a configuration, analyses can be made readily by touching the buried object that one is interested in identifying.

  3. Books vs bombs? Humanitarian development and the narrative of terror in Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nosheen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of humanitarian discourse and development in reconfiguring the contemporary culture of empire and its war on terror. It takes as its point of entry the immensely popular biographical tale, Three Cups of Tea, which details how the American mountaineer Greg Mortenson has struggled to counter terrorism in Northern Pakistan through the creation of schools. Even as this text appears to provide a self-critical and humane perspective on terrorism, the article argues that it constructs a misleading narrative of terror in which the realities of Northern Pakistan and Muslim life-worlds are distorted through simplistic tropes of ignorance, backwardness and extremism, while histories of US geopolitics and violence are erased. The text has further facilitated the emergence of a participatory militarism, whereby humanitarian work helps to reinvent the military as a culturally sensitive and caring institution in order to justify and service the project of empire. PMID:20607902

  4. Stabilising a victor's peace? Humanitarian action and reconstruction in eastern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Goodhand, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    This paper focuses on the 'Sri Lankan model' of counter-insurgency and stabilisation and its implications for humanitarian and development actors. The Sri Lanka case shows that discourses, policies and practices associated with 'stabilisation' are not confined to 'fragile state' contexts in which there is heavy (and often militarised) international engagement--even though exemplars such as Afghanistan and Iraq have tended to dominate debates on this issue. Rather than being a single template, the 'stabilisation agenda' takes on very different guises in different contexts, presenting quite specific challenges to humanitarian and development actors. This is particularly true in settings like Sri Lanka, where there is a strong state, which seeks to make aid 'coherent' with its own vision of a militarily imposed political settlement. Working in such environments involves navigating a highly-charged domestic political arena, shaped by concerns about sovereignty, nationalism and struggles for legitimacy. PMID:20846349

  5. Humanitarian Medical Response to the Syrian Arab Republic (April 7, 2013 to April 23, 2013).

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Motara, Feroza; Bham, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    The Syrian Arab Republic is entrenched in a deadly civil war, plunging the country into a state of chaos. With 3.2 million refugees abroad, 7.6 million internally displaced persons, and more than 200,000 killed, humanitarian assistance and international intervention are in dire need. This report outlines the response to the Syrian humanitarian crisis by a South African-based nongovernmental organization (NGO). It describes the experiences of a health care worker, the patient profiles, and the lessons learned in a war zone. Responding to a nation in need is of paramount importance. In order to maximize the benefit conferred, the team should always attempt to implement measures that leave a lasting legacy. PMID:26674667

  6. Ethics beyond borders: how health professionals experience ethics in humanitarian assistance and development work.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew R

    2008-08-01

    Health professionals are involved in humanitarian assistance and development work in many regions of the world. They participate in primary health care, immunization campaigns, clinic- and hospital-based care, rehabilitation and feeding programs. In the course of this work, clinicians are frequently exposed to complex ethical issues. This paper examines how health workers experience ethics in the course of humanitarian assistance and development work. A qualitative study was conducted to consider this question. Five core themes emerged from the data, including: tension between respecting local customs and imposing values; obstacles to providing adequate care; differing understandings of health and illness; questions of identity for health workers; and issues of trust and distrust. Recommendations are made for organizational strategies that could help aid agencies support and equip their staff as they respond to ethical issues.

  7. The humanitarian situation in syria: a snapshot in the third year of the crisis.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Delbiso, Tefera D; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Between April and June 2014, International Orthodox Christian Charities (IOCC), an International NGO, and the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East (GOPA) conducted a needs assessment of Syrians affected by the crisis with the objective of gaining a better understanding of humanitarian needs and assistance priorities. Findings suggest that interventions that increase access to non-food items, food, medication and education should be prioritized where cost was the primary barrier to accessing goods and services. Cash transfer programs and direct provision of material assistance should be considered, though the most appropriate assistance modality is likely to vary by sector, location and the preferences and prior experience of donors and implementing organizations. Renewed international commitment to funding humanitarian assistance efforts in Syria and neighboring countries where the burden of refugees is greatest is essential from both a human rights perspective and in terms of maintaining stability in the region. PMID:25821647

  8. Jockeying for position in the humanitarian field: Iraqi refugees and faith-based organisations in Damascus.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Tahir

    2012-07-01

    The rise in the number of interventions by faith-based organisations in the humanitarian field has reignited debate about the role of religion in the public sphere. This paper presents a nuanced examination of the part played by religious institutions and networks in the strategies of forced migrants in urban contexts. Furthermore, it considers how such organisations work to integrate displaced populations into their new surroundings. Drawing on two case studies and ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews with Iraqi refugees and refugee service providers in Damascus, Syria, carried out between March 2010 and March 2011, it evaluates how Iraqi refugees, as active social agents, utilise religious institutions and networks in conjunction with established international humanitarian organisations to produce a distinctive geography of exile. In addition, it draws attention to how the Syrian state exerts influence over religious actors and how ultimately this affects the decision-making of forced migrants.

  9. Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and State Violence: Medical Documentation of Torture in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Başak

    2016-09-01

    State authorities invested in developing official expert discourses and practices to deny torture in post-1980 coup d'état Turkey. Documentation of torture was therefore crucial for the incipient human rights movement there in the 1980s. Human rights physicians used their expertise not only to treat torture victims but also to document torture and eventually found the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) in 1990. Drawing on an ethnographic and archival research at the HRFT, this article examines the genealogy of anti-torture struggles in Turkey and argues that locally mediated intimacies and/or hostilities between victims of state violence, human rights physicians, and official forensics reveal the limitations of certain universal humanitarian and human rights principles. It also shows that locally mediated long-term humanitarian encounters around the question of political violence challenge forensic denial of violence and remake the legitimate levels of state violence.

  10. Books vs bombs? Humanitarian development and the narrative of terror in Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nosheen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of humanitarian discourse and development in reconfiguring the contemporary culture of empire and its war on terror. It takes as its point of entry the immensely popular biographical tale, Three Cups of Tea, which details how the American mountaineer Greg Mortenson has struggled to counter terrorism in Northern Pakistan through the creation of schools. Even as this text appears to provide a self-critical and humane perspective on terrorism, the article argues that it constructs a misleading narrative of terror in which the realities of Northern Pakistan and Muslim life-worlds are distorted through simplistic tropes of ignorance, backwardness and extremism, while histories of US geopolitics and violence are erased. The text has further facilitated the emergence of a participatory militarism, whereby humanitarian work helps to reinvent the military as a culturally sensitive and caring institution in order to justify and service the project of empire.

  11. Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and State Violence: Medical Documentation of Torture in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Başak

    2016-09-01

    State authorities invested in developing official expert discourses and practices to deny torture in post-1980 coup d'état Turkey. Documentation of torture was therefore crucial for the incipient human rights movement there in the 1980s. Human rights physicians used their expertise not only to treat torture victims but also to document torture and eventually found the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) in 1990. Drawing on an ethnographic and archival research at the HRFT, this article examines the genealogy of anti-torture struggles in Turkey and argues that locally mediated intimacies and/or hostilities between victims of state violence, human rights physicians, and official forensics reveal the limitations of certain universal humanitarian and human rights principles. It also shows that locally mediated long-term humanitarian encounters around the question of political violence challenge forensic denial of violence and remake the legitimate levels of state violence. PMID:26435482

  12. Jockeying for position in the humanitarian field: Iraqi refugees and faith-based organisations in Damascus.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Tahir

    2012-07-01

    The rise in the number of interventions by faith-based organisations in the humanitarian field has reignited debate about the role of religion in the public sphere. This paper presents a nuanced examination of the part played by religious institutions and networks in the strategies of forced migrants in urban contexts. Furthermore, it considers how such organisations work to integrate displaced populations into their new surroundings. Drawing on two case studies and ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews with Iraqi refugees and refugee service providers in Damascus, Syria, carried out between March 2010 and March 2011, it evaluates how Iraqi refugees, as active social agents, utilise religious institutions and networks in conjunction with established international humanitarian organisations to produce a distinctive geography of exile. In addition, it draws attention to how the Syrian state exerts influence over religious actors and how ultimately this affects the decision-making of forced migrants. PMID:22687154

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of humanitarian relief interventions: visceral leishmaniasis treatment in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Griekspoor, A; Sondorp, E; Vos, T

    1999-03-01

    Spending by aid agencies on emergencies has quadrupled over the last decade, to over US$6 billion. To date, cost-effectiveness has seldom been considered in the prioritization and evaluation of emergency interventions. The sheer volume of resources spent on humanitarian aid and the chronicity of many humanitarian interventions call for more attention to be paid to the issue of 'value for money'. In this paper we present data from a major humanitarian crisis, an epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in war-torn Sudan. The special circumstances provided us, in retrospect, with unusually accurate data on excess mortality, costs of the intervention and its effects, thus allowing us to express cost-effectiveness as the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted. The cost-effectiveness ratio, of US$18.40 per DALY (uncertainty range between US$13.53 and US$27.63), places the treatment of VL in Sudan among health interventions considered 'very good value for money' (interventions of less than US$25 per DALY). We discuss the usefulness of this analysis to the internal management of the VL programme, the procurement of funds for the programme, and more generally, to priority setting in humanitarian relief interventions. We feel that in evaluations of emergency interventions attempts could be made more often to perform cost-effectiveness analyses, including the use of DALYs, provided that the outcomes of these analyses are seen in the broad context of the emergency situation and its consequences on the affected population. This paper provides a first contribution to what is hoped to become an international database of cost-effectiveness studies of health interventions during relief operations, which use a comparable measure of health outcome such as the DALY. PMID:10351471

  14. Burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following humanitarian emergencies: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, Kaitlin G.; Sharma, Davina; Wardlow, Robert D.; Singh, Sonal

    2016-01-01

    Background The global burden of cardiovascular mortality is increasing, as is the number of large-scale humanitarian emergencies. The interaction between these phenomena is not well understood. This review aims to clarify the relationship between humanitarian emergencies and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods With assistance from a research librarian, electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Global Health) were searched in January 2014. Findings were supplemented by reviewing citations of included trials. Observational studies reporting the effect of natural disasters and conflict events on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults since 1997 were included. Studies without a comparison group were not included. Double-data extraction was utilized to abstract information on acute coronary syndrome (ACS), acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), and cardiac death (SCD). Review Manager 5.0 was used to create figures for qualitative synthesis (Version 5.2, Copenhagen Denmark, The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Results The search retrieved 1697 unique records; 24 studies were included (17 studies of natural disasters, 7 studies of conflict). These studies involved 14,583 cardiac events. All studies utilized retrospective designs: 4 were population-based, 15 were single-center, and 5 were multicenter studies. 23 studies utilized historical controls in the primary analysis, and 1 utilized primarily geographical controls. Conflicts are associated with an increase in long-term morbidity from ACS; the short-term effects of conflict vary by study. Natural disasters exhibit heterogeneous effects including increased occurrence of ACS, ADHF, and SCD. Conclusions In certain settings, humanitarian emergencies are associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality that may persist for years following the event. Humanitarian aid organizations should consider morbidity from non-communicable disease when planning relief and recuperation projects. PMID

  15. Operation PATWIN: HMS DARING's experience of providing humanitarian disaster relief following super-Typhoon Haiyan.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, S J

    2014-01-01

    Super-Typhoon Haiyan struck the Philippines on 7 November 2013. The initial reports estimated 10 000 fatalities and four million displaced persons. As the United Kingdom's initial response to this disaster, HMS DARING was diverted from her deployment to take part in humanitarian aid, named Operation PATWIN. This article will outline the medical aspects of the relief effort undertaken and aim to identify any lessons that may inform future operations.

  16. Soil properties and performance of landmine detection by metal detector and ground-penetrating radar — Soil characterisation and its verification by a field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Preetz, Holger; Igel, Jan

    2011-04-01

    Metal detectors have commonly been used for landmine detection, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is about to be deployed for this purpose. These devices are influenced by the magnetic and electric properties of soil, since both employ electromagnetic techniques. Various soil properties and their spatial distributions were measured and determined with geophysical methods in four soil types where a test of metal detectors and GPR systems took place. By analysing the soil properties, these four soils were classified based on the expected influence of each detection technique and predicted soil difficulty. This classification was compared to the detection performance of the detectors and a clear correlation between the predicted soil difficulty and performance was observed. The detection performance of the metal detector and target identification performance of the GPR systems degraded in soils that were expected to be problematic. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the metal detector and GPR performance for landmine detection can be assessed qualitatively by geophysical analyses.

  17. Trauma and humanitarian translation in Liberia: the tale of open mole.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane

    2010-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the intercultural process through which Open Mole and trauma-related mental illnesses are brought together in the postconflict mental health encounter. In this paper, I explore the historical dimension of this process by reviewing the history of Open Mole, and the ways in which it has been interpreted, acted on, and objectified by external observers over the last half-century. Moving into Liberia's recent war and postconflict period, I examine the process by which Open Mole is transformed from a culture-bound disorder into a local idiom of trauma, and how it has become a gateway diagnosis of PTSD-related mental illnesses, and consider how it is produced as an objectified experience of psychiatric disorder in clinical humanitarian contexts. By studying how Open Mole is transformed in the humanitarian encounter, I address the structure and teleology of the humanitarian encounter and challenge some of the foundational assumptions about cultural sensitivity and community-based mental health care in postconflict settings that are prevalent in scholarship and practice today. PMID:20401629

  18. Engendering care: HIV, humanitarian assistance in Africa and the reproduction of gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Mindry, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    This paper draws upon recent research in Durban, South Africa to unravel the complexities of care ethics in the context of humanitarian aid. It investigates how the gendering of care shapes the provision of aid in the context of the HIV in Africa constructing an image of 'virile' and 'violent' African masculinity. Humanitarian organisations construct imagined relations of caring, invoking notions of a shared humanity as informing the imperative to facilitate change. This paper draws on varied examples of research and NGO activity to illustrate how these relations of care are strongly gendered. Humanitarian interventions that invoke universalising conceptions of need could instead draw on feminist care ethics that seeks to balance rights, justice and care in ways that attend to the webs of relationships through which specific lived realities are shaped. Essentialising feminized discourses on care result in a skewed analysis of international crises that invariably construct women (and children) as victims in need of care, which at best ignore the lived experiences of men and, at worst, cast men as virile and violent vectors of disease and social disorder.

  19. Supporting evidence-based health care in crises: what information do humanitarian organizations need?

    PubMed

    Turner, Tari; Green, Sally; Harris, Claire

    2011-03-01

    In crisis situations, there is an enormous burden of disease and very limited resources. To achieve the best possible health outcomes in these situations and ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, knowledge from health research needs to be translated into practice. We investigated what information from health research was needed by humanitarian aid workers in crisis settings and how it could be best provided. Semistructured interviews were conducted by telephone with 19 humanitarian aid workers from a range of organizations around the world and the results analyzed thematically. Participants identified a clear and currently unmet need for access to high-quality health research to support evidence-based practice in crisis situations. They emphasized that research into delivery of health care was potentially more valuable than research into the effectiveness of particular clinical interventions and highlighted the importance of including contextual information to enable the relevance of the research to be assessed. They suggested that providers of health research information and humanitarian aid organizations work together to develop these resources.

  20. Medical Humanitarianism Under Atmospheric Violence: Health Professionals in the 2013 Gezi Protests in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aciksoz, Salih Can

    2016-06-01

    During the 2013 Gezi protests in Turkey, volunteering health professionals provided on-site medical assistance to protesters faced with police violence characterized by the extensive use of riot control agents. This led to a government crackdown on the medical community and the criminalization of "unauthorized" first aid amidst international criticisms over violations of medical neutrality. Drawing from ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews with health care professionals, and archival research, this article ethnographically analyzes the polarized encounter between the Turkish government and medical professionals aligned with social protest. I demonstrate how the context of "atmospheric violence"-the extensive use of riot control agents like tear gas-brings about new politico-ethical spaces and dilemmas for healthcare professionals. I then analyze how Turkish health professionals framed their provision of health services to protestors in the language of medical humanitarianism, and how the state dismissed their claims to humanitarian neutrality by criminalizing emergency care. Exploring the vexed role that health workers and medical organizations played in the Gezi protests and the consequent political contestations over doctors' ethical, professional, and political responsibilities, this article examines challenges to medical humanitarianism and neutrality at times of social protest in and beyond the Middle East. PMID:26246184

  1. Does need matter? Needs assessments and decision-making among major humanitarian health agencies.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, Martin; Chataigner, Patrice; Tax, Leonie; Kubai, Anne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Disasters of physical origin, including earthquakes, floods, landslides, tidal waves, tropical storms, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, have affected millions of people globally over the past 100 years. Proportionately, there is far greater likelihood of being affected by such disasters in low-income countries than in high-income countries. Furthermore, low-income countries are in need of international assistance following disasters more often than high-income countries. The funding of international humanitarian assistance has increased from USD 12.9 billion in 2006 to an estimated USD 16.7 billion in 2010. The majority of this funding is channelled through humanitarian agencies and is supposed to be distributed based on the need of those affected, as assessed using needs assessments. Such needs assessments may be used to inform decisions internally, to influence others, to justify response decisions, and to obtain funding. Little is known about the quality of needs assessments in practical applications. Consequently, this paper reports on and analyses the views of operational decision-makers in major health-related humanitarian agencies on needs assessments. PMID:24905705

  2. Core Competencies in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Gotz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fisher, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Stal, Marc; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2015-08-01

    Disaster response demands a large workforce covering diverse professional sectors. Throughout this article, we illustrate the results of a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to identify existing competency sets for disaster management and humanitarian assistance that would serve as guidance for the development of a common disaster curriculum. A systematic review of English-language articles was performed on PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, ERIC, and Cochrane Library. Studies were included if reporting competency domains, abilities, knowledge, skills, or attitudes for professionals involved disaster relief or humanitarian assistance. Exclusion criteria included abstracts, citations, case studies, and studies not dealing with disasters or humanitarian assistance. Thirty-eight papers were analyzed. Target audience was defined in all articles. Five references (13%) reported cross-sectorial competencies. Most of the articles (81.6%) were specific to health care. Eighteen (47%) papers included competencies for at least 2 different disciplines and 18 (47%) for different professional groups. Nursing was the most widely represented cadre. Eighteen papers (47%) defined competency domains and 36 (94%) reported list of competencies. Nineteen articles (50%) adopted consensus-building to define competencies, and 12 (31%) included competencies adapted to different professional responsibility levels. This systematic review revealed that the largest number of papers were mainly focused on the health care sector and presented a lack of agreement on the terminology used for competency-based definition.

  3. Electrodynamic soil plate oscillator: Modeling nonlinear mesoscopic elastic behavior and hysteresis in nonlinear acoustic landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, M. S.; Duong, D. V.; Kalsbeck, A. E.

    2015-10-01

    An apparatus (SPO), designed to study flexural vibrations of a soil loaded plate, consists of a thin circular elastic clamped plate (and cylindrical wall) supporting a vertical soil column. A small magnet attached to the center of the plate is driven by a rigid AC coil (located coaxially below the plate) to complete the electrodynamic soil plate oscillator SPO design. The frequency dependent mechanical impedance Zmech (force / particle velocity, at the plate's center) is inversely proportional to the electrical motional impedance Zmot. Measurements of Zmot are made using the complex output to input response of a Wheatstone bridge that has an identical coil element in one of its legs. Near resonance, measurements of Zmot (with no soil) before and after a slight point mass loading at the center help determine effective mass, spring, damping and coupling constant parameters of the system. "Tuning curve" behavior of real{ Zmot } and imaginary{ Zmot } at successively higher vibration amplitudes of dry sifted masonry sand are measured. They exhibit a decrease "softening" in resonance frequency along with a decrease in the quality Q factor. In soil surface vibration measurements a bilinear hysteresis model predicts the tuning curve shape for this nonlinear mesoscopic elastic SPO behavior - which also models the soil vibration over an actual plastic "inert" VS 1.6 buried landmine. Experiments are performed where a buried 1m cube concrete block supports a 12 inch deep by 30 inch by 30 inch concrete soil box for burying a VS 1.6 in dry sifted masonry sand for on-the-mine and off-the-mine soil vibration experiments. The backbone curve (a plot of the peak amplitude vs. corresponding resonant frequency from a family of tuning curves) exhibits mostly linear behavior for "on target" soil surface vibration measurements of the buried VS 1.6 or drum-like mine simulants for relatively low particle velocities of the soil. Backbone curves for "on target" measurements exhibit

  4. Availability and Diversity of Training Programs for Responders to International Disasters and Complex Humanitarian Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Gabrielle A.; Obi, Chioma C.; Chang, Mary P.; Bayram, Jamil D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Volunteers and members of relief organizations increasingly seek formal training prior to international field deployment. This paper identifies training programs for personnel responding to international disasters and complex humanitarian emergencies, and provides concise information – if available- regarding the founding organization, year established, location, cost, duration of training, participants targeted, and the content of each program. Methods: An environmental scan was conducted through a combination of a peer-reviewed literature search and an open Internet search for the training programs. Literature search engines included EMBASE, Cochrane, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science databases using the search terms “international,” “disaster,” “complex humanitarian emergencies,” “training,” and “humanitarian response”. Both searches were conducted between January 2, 2013 and September 12, 2013. Results: 14 peer-reviewed articles mentioned or described eight training programs, while open Internet search revealed 13 additional programs. In total, twenty-one training programs were identified as currently available for responders to international disasters and CHE. Each of the programs identified has different goals and objectives, duration, expenses, targeted trainees and modules. Each of the programs identified has different goals and objectives, duration, expenses, targeted trainees and modules. Seven programs (33%) are free of charge and four programs (19%) focus on the mental aspects of disasters. The mean duration for each training program is 5 to 7 days. Fourteen of the trainings are conducted in multiple locations (66%), two in Cuba (9%) and two in Australia (9%). The cost-reported in US dollars- ranges from $100 to $2,400 with a mean cost of $480 and a median cost of $135. Most of the programs are open to the public, but some are only available by invitation only, such as the International Mobilization Preparation for

  5. The League of Nations' rescue of Armenian genocide survivors and the making of modern humanitarianism, 1920-1927.

    PubMed

    Watenpaugh, Keith David

    2010-01-01

    The essay centers of the efforts by the League of Nations to rescue women and children survivors of the 1915 Armenian Genocide. This rescue -- a seemingly unambiguous good -- was at once a constitutive act in drawing the boundaries of the international community, a key moment in the definition of humanitarianism, and a site of resistance to the colonial presence in the post-Ottoman Eastern Mediterranean. Drawing from a wide range of source materials in a number of languages, including Turkish, Armenian, and Arabic, the essay brings the intellectual and social context of humanitarianism in initiating societies together with the lived experience of humanitarianism in the places where the act took form. In so doing, it draws our attention to the proper place of the Eastern mediterranean, and its women and children, in the global history of humanitarianism. The prevailing narrative of the history of human rights places much of its emphasis on the post-World War II era, the international reaction to the Holocaust, and the founding of the United Nations. yet contemporary human rights thinking also took place within practices of humanitarianism in the interwar period, and is necessarily inseparable from the histories of refugees, colonialism, and the non-West.

  6. Employing moderate resolution sensors in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andrew J.

    Organizations concerned with human rights are increasingly using remote sensing as a tool to improve their detection of human rights and international humanitarian law violations. However, as these organizations have transitioned to human rights monitoring campaigns conducted over large regions and extended periods of time, current methods of using fine- resolution sensors and manpower-intensive analyses have become cost- prohibitive. To support the continued growth of remote sensing in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring campaigns, this study researches how moderate resolution land observatories can provide complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates the capacity of moderate resolutions to provide data to monitoring efforts by developing an approach that uses Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as part of a system for the detection of village destruction in Darfur, Sudan. Village destruction is an indicator of a human rights or international humanitarian law violations in Darfur during the 2004 study period. This analysis approach capitalizes on Landsat's historical archive and systematic observations by constructing a historic spectral baseline for each village in the study area that supports automated detection of a potentially destroyed village with each new overpass of the sensor. Using Landsat's near-infrared band, the approach demonstrates high levels of accuracy when compared with a U.S. government database documenting destroyed villages. This approach is then applied to the Darfur conflict from 2002 to 2008, providing new data on when and where villages were destroyed in this widespread and long-lasting conflict. This application to the duration of a real-world conflict illustrates the abilities and shortcomings of moderate resolution sensors in human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates that moderate resolution satellites have the capacity to contribute

  7. Of special humanitarian concern: U.S. refugee admissions since passage of the Refugee Act.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, D; Forbes, S; Fagan, P W

    1986-01-01

    The Refugee Act of 1980 is the 1st comprehensive legislation on the admission of refugees to the US; in the 5+ years since its enactment, over 500,000 refugees from more than 25 countries have been admitted to the US. This report assesses the effectiveness of the law in achieving its objectives in making and implementing decisions about the admission of refugees. The objectives of the Act include 1) a desire for a humanitarian response to refugee emergencies and a desire for control over that response, 2) a concern that ideological and geographic restrictions on refugee admissions be removed, and 3) a desire to balance international concerns and domestic impacts in making decisions on refugee admissions. The authors conclude that the refugee program does not serve the broad humanitarian purposes of previous parole programs, due to its stringent review requirements. The formal Congressional Consultations on refugee numbers should be rescheduled to allow regular Congressional input. The program needs a contingency budget for changing situations. The program needs more input from nongovernmental agencies and information sources. Recommendations on refugee admission numbers and allocations have not been well substantiated. Determinations as to which refugees are of "special humanitarian concern" are made solely on the basis of nationality; these decisions should also incorporate other factors. Admissions priorities are generally based on ties to this country, but this makes the refugee program a surrogate immigration program. Although the application of the refugee definition is difficult in practice, it forms the essence of the admission process. US staff must be trained to make these decisions; indecisiveness must not be allowed to jeopardize refugees.

  8. Access to healthcare for the most vulnerable migrants: a humanitarian crisis.

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin; Martin, Jorge Pedro; Cornish, Stephen; Biorklund, Linn Maria; Gayton, Ivan; Doerner, Frank; Schneider, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    A series of Médecins Sans Frontières projects for irregular migrants over the past decade have consistently documented high rates of 14 physical and sexual trauma, extortion and mental illness amidst severe healthcare, food, and housing limitations. Complex interventions were needed to begin to address illness and barriers to healthcare and to help restore dignity to the most vulnerable women, children and men. Promising interventions included mobile clinics, use of cultural mediators, coordination with migrant-friendly entities and NGOs and integrating advocacy programs and mental health care with medical services. Ongoing interventions, research and coordination are needed to address this neglected humanitarian crisis. PMID:25991922

  9. Doing good, but looking bad? Local perceptions of two humanitarian organisations in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Dijkzeul, Dennis; Wakenge, Claude Iguma

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines local perceptions of two international humanitarian organisations, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) and Malteser International, in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (formerly known as Zaire). At times, the self-perception of these organisations differs considerably from the perceptions of local beneficiaries and stakeholders. This study begins by reviewing the current status of research on local perceptions of externally-introduced humanitarian action. It goes on to discuss the local perceptions of the IRC and Malteser International, as well as the origins of these perceptions, and to show that three different narratives are used by local actors to explain their different perceptions. The paper ends with an examination of the factors that help to account for the differences in perceptions and of the implications of this type of research for humanitarian principles and management, as well as for the study of local perceptions.

  10. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. Aim To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980–2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Results Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. Conclusion The current evidence base on the impact of WASH

  11. Gnawing Pains, Festering Ulcers, and Nightmare Suffering: Selling Leprosy as a Humanitarian Cause in the British Empire, c. 1890-1960

    PubMed Central

    Vongsathorn, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    When British attention was drawn to the issue of leprosy in the Empire, humanitarian organisations rose to take on responsibility for the ‘fight against leprosy’. In an effort to fundraise for a distant cause at a time when hundreds of charities competed for the financial support of British citizens, fundraisers developed propaganda to set leprosy apart from all other humanitarian causes. They drew on leprosy’s relationship with Christianity, its debilitating symptoms, and the supposed vulnerability of leprosy sufferers in order to mobilise Britain’s sense of humanitarian, Christian, and patriotic duty. This article traces the emergence of leprosy as a popular imperial humanitarian cause in modern Britain and analyses the narratives of religion, suffering, and disease that they created and employed in order to fuel their growth and sell leprosy as a British humanitarian cause. PMID:24932060

  12. The ethics of engaged presence: a framework for health professionals in humanitarian assistance and development work.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew R; Schwartz, Lisa; Sinding, Christina; Elit, Laurie

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we present an ethics framework for health practice in humanitarian and development work: the ethics of engaged presence. The ethics of engaged presence framework aims to articulate in a systematic fashion approaches and orientations that support the engagement of expatriate health care professionals in ways that align with diverse obligations and responsibilities, and promote respectful and effective action and relationships. Drawn from a range of sources, the framework provides a vocabulary and narrative structure for examining the moral dimensions of providing development or humanitarian health assistance to individuals and communities, and working with and alongside local and international actors. The elements also help minimize or avoid certain miscalculations and harms. Emphasis is placed on the shared humanity of those who provide and those who receive assistance, acknowledgement of limits and risks related to the contributions of expatriate health care professionals, and the importance of providing skillful and relevant assistance. These elements articulate a moral posture for expatriate health care professionals that contributes to orienting the practice of clinicians in ways that reflect respect, humility, and solidarity. Health care professionals whose understanding and actions are consistent with the ethics of engaged presence will be oriented toward introspection and reflective practice and toward developing, sustaining and promoting collaborative partnerships.

  13. Militarized humanitarianism meets carceral feminism: the politics of sex, rights, and freedom in contemporary antitrafficking campaigns.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, abolitionist feminist and evangelical Christian activists have directed increasing attention toward the “traffic in women” as a dangerous manifestation of global gender inequalities. Despite renowned disagreements around the politics of sex and gender, these groups have come together to advocate for harsher penalties against traffickers, prostitutes’ customers, and nations deemed to be taking insufficient steps to stem the flow of trafficked women. In this essay, I argue that what has served to unite this coalition of "strange bedfellows" is not simply an underlying commitment to conservative ideals of sexuality, as previous commentators have offered, but an equally significant commitment to carceral paradigms of justice and to militarized humanitarianism as the preeminent mode of engagement by the state. I draw upon my ongoing ethnographic research with feminist and evangelical antitrafficking movement leaders to argue that the alliance that has been so efficacious in framing contemporary antitrafficking politics is the product of two historically unique and intersecting trends: a rightward shift on the part of many mainstream feminists and other secular liberals away from a redistributive model of justice and toward a politics of incarceration, coincident with a leftward sweep on the part of many younger evangelicals toward a globally oriented social justice theology. In the final section of this essay, I consider the resilience of these trends given a newly installed and more progressive Obama administration, positing that they are likely to continue even as the terrain of militarized humanitarian action shifts in accordance with new sets of geopolitical interests.

  14. Vaccine-preventable disease and the under-utilization of immunizations in complex humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Close, Ryan M; Pearson, Catherine; Cohn, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    Complex humanitarian emergencies affect 40-60 million people annually and are a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite efforts to provide medical and public health services to populations affected by complex emergencies, significant morbidity and mortality persist. Measles is a major communicable disease threat, but through vaccination of broader target age groups beyond the traditional immunization schedule, measles-related mortality has been significantly reduced during crises. Yet, a limited number of vaccine-preventable diseases continue to contribute disproportionately to morbidity and mortality in complex emergencies. The literature suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rotavirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type-b should be key targets for vaccination programs. Because of the significant contribution of these three pathogens to complex humanitarian emergencies in low and middle-income countries regardless of disaster type, geography, or population, their vaccines should be considered essential components of the standard emergency response effort. We discuss the barriers to vaccine distribution and provide evidence for strategies to improve distribution, including expanded target age-range and reduced dose schedules. Our review includes specific recommendations for the expanded use of these three vaccines in complex emergencies in low and middle-income countries as a way to guide future policy discussions. PMID:27527818

  15. Fluid technologies: The Bush Pump, the LifeStraw and microworlds of humanitarian design.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, many ingenious, small-scale gadgets have appeared in response to problems of disaster and extreme poverty. Focusing on the LifeStraw, a water filtration device invented by the company Vestergaard Frandsen, I situate this wave of humanitarian design relative to Marianne de Laet and Annemarie Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwe Bush Pump. The LifeStraw shares the Bush Pump's principle of technical minimalism, as well as its ethical desire to improve the lives of communities. Unlike the pump, however, the straw defines itself through rather than against market logic, accepting the premise that one can 'do well while doing good'. Moreover, it does not share the assumed framework of de Laet and Mol's Zimbabwean socio-technical landscape: a postcolonial state happily en route to national self-definition. Nonetheless, it clearly embodies moral affect, if in the idiom of humanitarian concern rather than development. My aim is to open up three interrelated lines of inquiry for discussion. First, I consider aspects of a postcolonial condition at the micro-level of immediate needs, including assumptions about nation-state politics and markets. Second, I emphasize science and technology in the form of infrastructure, the material frontline of norms. Third, I return reflexively to love, and the complicated allure of engagement in academic work. PMID:27263235

  16. Fluid technologies: The Bush Pump, the LifeStraw and microworlds of humanitarian design.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, many ingenious, small-scale gadgets have appeared in response to problems of disaster and extreme poverty. Focusing on the LifeStraw, a water filtration device invented by the company Vestergaard Frandsen, I situate this wave of humanitarian design relative to Marianne de Laet and Annemarie Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwe Bush Pump. The LifeStraw shares the Bush Pump's principle of technical minimalism, as well as its ethical desire to improve the lives of communities. Unlike the pump, however, the straw defines itself through rather than against market logic, accepting the premise that one can 'do well while doing good'. Moreover, it does not share the assumed framework of de Laet and Mol's Zimbabwean socio-technical landscape: a postcolonial state happily en route to national self-definition. Nonetheless, it clearly embodies moral affect, if in the idiom of humanitarian concern rather than development. My aim is to open up three interrelated lines of inquiry for discussion. First, I consider aspects of a postcolonial condition at the micro-level of immediate needs, including assumptions about nation-state politics and markets. Second, I emphasize science and technology in the form of infrastructure, the material frontline of norms. Third, I return reflexively to love, and the complicated allure of engagement in academic work.

  17. Deployment of dual-sensor ALIS for humanitarian demining in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-01

    We are in the process of developing a high-resolution landmine scanning system "ALIS" which produces horizontal slices of the shallow subsurface for visualization of buried explosives and inert clutter. As many AP mines contain minimum amounts of metal, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is widely accepted for subsurface sensing in the fields of geology, archaeology and utility detection. The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. The key requirement for sharp images of the subsurface is the precise tracking of the geophysical sensor(s) during data collection. We should also notice that GPR system is a very wide band radar system, and equivalent to UWB radar, which has recently been developed for short-range high-accuracy radar. We are testing simplified but effective signal processing for imaging mines. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a realtime sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce the GPR systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. ALIS has been deployed in Cambodia since 2009 and detected more than 70 mines in mine fields, and returned more than 13ha cleaned fields to local farmers. We also report the current status of ALIS in Cambodia.

  18. 76 FR 77542 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use Device Designations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a...

  19. Designing for Multiple Stakeholder Interests within the Humanitarian Market: The Case of Off-Grid Energy Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Brita Fladvad; Rodrigues Santos, Ana Laura

    2013-01-01

    A "humanitarian market" for off-grid renewable energy technologies for displaced populations in remote areas has emerged. Within this market, there are multiple stakeholder agendas. End-user needs and sustainable development goals are currently not considered through the customer-enterprise relationship and the applied product and…

  20. Ethical dilemmas in medical humanitarian practice: cases for reflection from Médecins Sans Frontières.

    PubMed

    Sheather, Julian; Shah, Tejshri

    2011-03-01

    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is an independent medical humanitarian organisation working in over 70 countries. It has provided medical assistance for over 35 years to populations vulnerable through conflict, disease and inadequate health systems. Medical ethics define the starting point of the relationship between medical staff and patients. The ethics of humanitarian interventions and of research in conflict settings are much debated. However, less is known about the ethical dilemmas faced by medical humanitarian staff in their daily work. Ethical dilemmas can be intensified in humanitarian contexts by insecure environments, lack of optimum care, language barriers, potentially heightened power discrepancies between care providers and patients, differing cultural values and perceptions of patients, communities and medical staff. Time constraints, stressful conditions and lack of familiarity with ethical frameworks can prevent reflection on these dilemmas, as can frustration that such reflection does not necessarily provide instant solutions. Lack of reflection, however, can be distressing for medical practitioners and can reduce the quality of care. Ethical reflection has a central role in MSF, and the organisation uses ethical frameworks to help with clinical and programmatic decisions as well as in deliberations over operational research. We illustrate and discuss some real ethical dilemmas facing MSF teams. Only by sharing and seeking guidance can MSF and similar actors make more thoughtful and appropriate decisions. Our aim in sharing these cases is to invite discussion and dialogue in the wider medical community working in crisis, conflict or with severe resource limitations. PMID:21084354

  1. El Niño-Flood Predictability for Early Humanitarian Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerton, Rebecca; Stephens, Liz; Cloke, Hannah; Woolnough, Steve; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a mode of variability which sees anomalously high or low sea surface temperatures in the Pacific, is known to have a significant impact on both hydrology and meteorology across the globe. One significant influence is that of El Niño, the warm phase of ENSO, on flooding in the Piura region of Peru. The anticipation and forecasting of floods is crucial for flood preparedness, and the link between El Niño and flooding in Peru, alongside the predictive skill of El Niño up to seasons ahead, may provide an early indication of upcoming severe flood events. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been used to create the first 110-year global reanalysis dataset of river discharge, using the ECMWF ERA-20C atmospheric reanalysis. These datasets are being used to analyse the predictability of flood events in Peru in relation to ENSO, using both hydrological and meteorological approaches; with the aim of providing early indicators of potential flood events and thresholds for early humanitarian action in the region. In particular, this research also aims to determine the causes of the most extreme flood events, such as those observed in 1982/83 and 1997/98, through investigation of the changes in atmospheric circulation during these events. Forecast-based Financing (FbF) is an initiative of the German Red Cross, for disbursing humanitarian funding as soon as a forecast threshold is crossed, prior to a severe event. Collaboration with the Peruvian Red Cross and SENAHMI during 2015 led to the use of such research to define thresholds for action in Piura during an El Niño, as part of an FbF pilot study. We will present here the link between El Niño and flooding, with a focus on the Piura region of Peru, and how this El Niño-flood predictability may be used for flood preparedness and early humanitarian action in regions across the globe.

  2. Improving the performance of community health workers in humanitarian emergencies: a realist evaluation protocol for the PIECES programme

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Brynne; Adams, Ben Jack; Bartoloni, Alex; Alhaydar, Bana; McAuliffe, Eilish; Raven, Joanna; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Vallières, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding what enhances the motivation and performance of community health workers (CHWs) in humanitarian emergencies represents a key research gap within the field of human resources for health. This paper presents the research protocol for the Performance ImprovEment of CHWs in Emergency Settings (PIECES) research programme. Enhancing Learning and Research in Humanitarian Action (ELRHA) funded the development of this protocol as part of their Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) call (No.19839). PIECES aims to understand what factors improve the performance of CHWs in level III humanitarian emergencies. Methods and analysis The suggested protocol uses a realist evaluation with multiple cases across the 3 country sites: Turkey, Iraq and Lebanon. Working with International Medical Corps (IMC), an initial programme theory was elicited through literature and document reviews, semistructured interviews and focus groups with IMC programme managers and CHWs. Based on this initial theory, this protocol proposes a combination of semistructured interviews, life histories and critical incident narratives, surveys and latent variable modelling of key constructs to explain how contextual factors work to trigger mechanisms for specific outcomes relating to IMC's 300+ CHWs' performance. Participants will also include programme staff, CHWs and programme beneficiaries. Realist approaches will be used to better understand ‘what works, for whom and under what conditions’ for improving CHW performance within humanitarian contexts. Ethics and dissemination Trinity College Dublin's Health Policy and Management/Centre for Global Health Research Ethics Committee gave ethical approval for the protocol development phase. For the full research project, additional ethical approval will be sought from: Université St. Joseph (Lebanon), the Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health in Baghdad (Iraq) and the Middle East Technical University (Turkey). Dissemination

  3. Success in Kashmir: a positive trend in civil-military integration during humanitarian assistance operations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Wiley C

    2010-01-01

    The modern cast of disaster relief actors includes host nations, non-governmental organisations, private volunteer organisations, military organisations and others. Each group, civilian or military, has valuable skills and experiences critical to disaster relief work. The goal of this paper is to supplement the study of civil-military relief efforts with contemporary anecdotal experience. The paper examines the interaction between US military forces and other disaster relief actors during the 2005 Kashmir earthquake relief effort. The author uses direct observations made while working in Pakistan to contrast the relationships and activities from that effort with other accounts in prevailing scholarly disaster literature and military doctrine. Finally, this paper suggests that the Kashmir model of integration, coordination and transparency of intent creates a framework in which future humanitarian assistance operations could be successfully executed. Recommendations to improve civil-military interaction in future relief efforts will also be addressed.

  4. Mandated to fail? Humanitarian agencies and the protection of Palestinian children.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jason; Forte, Claudia Lo

    2013-10-01

    This paper considers the efforts of United Nations and international agencies to address the threats to Palestinian children arising from Israeli occupation. It contains an account of the reasons why agencies have failed, over many years, to prevent systematic violations by the Israeli authorities and settlers. The discussion is organised around two inter-related domains: institutional and political. The paper argues that, in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), limitations to the ways in which child protection has been conceptualised and pursued in practice are abundantly evident. Nevertheless, political pressure by Western donor governments serves to constrain an approach to child protection that is more preventative in nature, that addresses more explicitly Israeli violations of international law, and that reflects the experience and aspirations of Palestinian children themselves. Ultimately, therefore, the failure to protect Palestinian children must be seen not only as a result of humanitarian miscalculation but also as a consequence of political strategy.

  5. When "humanitarianism" becomes "development": the politics of international aid in Syria's Palestinian refugee camps.

    PubMed

    Gabiam, Nell

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has attempted to go beyond its role as a provider of relief and basic services in Palestinian refugee camps and emphasize its role as a development agency. In this article, I focus on the Neirab Rehabilitation Project, an UNRWA-sponsored development project taking place in the Palestinian refugee camps of Ein el Tal and Neirab in northern Syria. I argue that UNRWA's role as a relief-centered humanitarian organization highlights the everyday suffering of Palestinian refugees, suffering that has become embedded in refugees’ political claims. I show that UNRWA's emphasis on “development” in the refugee camps is forcing Palestinian refugees in Ein el Tal and Neirab to reassess the political narrative through which they have understood their relationship with UNRWA.

  6. Post-earthquake Haiti: the critical role for rehabilitation services following a humanitarian crisis.

    PubMed

    Landry, Michel D; O'Connell, Colleen; Tardif, Gaetan; Burns, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake that occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010 resulted in massive infrastructure damage, and created one of the largest single-day loss of life events in modern history. Despite the tragic mortality rates, many people with catastrophic injuries including spinal cord injuries and amputations survived due to swift emergency responses by local and international non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The outcome however is that Haiti now has a considerable cohort of people who live with important disabilities. In this 'perspectives in rehabilitation' we share our experiences of working in post-earthquake Haiti, and highlight that this event has raised awareness of the critical importance of providing rehabilitation services during and after a humanitarian crisis of this magnitude.

  7. The humanitarian and scientific interests of Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866), discoverer of a disease.

    PubMed

    Dubovsky, H

    1996-05-01

    Thomas Hodgkin is generally famous for the discovery of a lymphoma in 1837, but not for his remarkable relationship as physician and friend with the philanthropist, Sir Moses Montefiore (1784-1885), and their six shared journeys to Europe, the Near East and North Africa to alleviate the plight of religious and ethnic minorities. Also less well known are Hodgkin's humanitarian activities, inspired by his being a Quaker: his assistance of freed slaves, and his involvement in the movement for the abolition of capital punishment and in mental hospital and prison reform. His wide range of scientific interests included medical education, geography, ethnology and social anthropology. He is buried in Jaffa, Israel, where he died of dysentery while on a trip with Montefiore. PMID:8711558

  8. Post-earthquake Haiti: the critical role for rehabilitation services following a humanitarian crisis.

    PubMed

    Landry, Michel D; O'Connell, Colleen; Tardif, Gaetan; Burns, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake that occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010 resulted in massive infrastructure damage, and created one of the largest single-day loss of life events in modern history. Despite the tragic mortality rates, many people with catastrophic injuries including spinal cord injuries and amputations survived due to swift emergency responses by local and international non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The outcome however is that Haiti now has a considerable cohort of people who live with important disabilities. In this 'perspectives in rehabilitation' we share our experiences of working in post-earthquake Haiti, and highlight that this event has raised awareness of the critical importance of providing rehabilitation services during and after a humanitarian crisis of this magnitude. PMID:20594036

  9. The humanitarian and scientific interests of Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866), discoverer of a disease.

    PubMed

    Dubovsky, H

    1996-05-01

    Thomas Hodgkin is generally famous for the discovery of a lymphoma in 1837, but not for his remarkable relationship as physician and friend with the philanthropist, Sir Moses Montefiore (1784-1885), and their six shared journeys to Europe, the Near East and North Africa to alleviate the plight of religious and ethnic minorities. Also less well known are Hodgkin's humanitarian activities, inspired by his being a Quaker: his assistance of freed slaves, and his involvement in the movement for the abolition of capital punishment and in mental hospital and prison reform. His wide range of scientific interests included medical education, geography, ethnology and social anthropology. He is buried in Jaffa, Israel, where he died of dysentery while on a trip with Montefiore.

  10. Needs, acceptability, and value of humanitarian medical assistance in remote Peruvian Amazon riverine communities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Juan F; Halsey, Eric S; Bayer, Angela M; Beltran, Martin; Razuri, Hugo R; Velasquez, Daniel E; Cama, Vitaliano A; Graf, Paul C F; Quispe, Antonio M; Maves, Ryan C; Montgomery, Joel M; Sanders, John W; Lescano, Andres G

    2015-06-01

    Much debate exists regarding the need, acceptability, and value of humanitarian medical assistance. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 457 children under 5 years from four remote riverine communities in the Peruvian Amazon and collected anthropometric measures, blood samples (1-4 years), and stool samples. Focus groups and key informant interviews assessed perspectives regarding medical aid delivered by foreigners. The prevalence of stunting, anemia, and intestinal parasites was 20%, 37%, and 62%, respectively. Infection with multiple parasites, usually geohelminths, was detected in 41% of children. The prevalence of intestinal parasites both individual and polyparasitism increased with age. Participants from smaller communities less exposed to foreigners expressed lack of trust and fear of them. However, participants from all communities were positive about foreigners visiting to provide health support. Prevalent health needs such as parasitic infections and anemia may be addressed by short-term medical interventions. There is a perceived openness to and acceptability of medical assistance delivered by foreign personnel.

  11. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability.

  12. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Tamara; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Darzi, Andrea; Hajjar, Rayan; El Rahyel, Ahmed; El Eid, Jamale; Itani, Mira; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. Methods: We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library. We also searched websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology. Results: Our search captured 14,309 citations. The screening process identified 34 eligible papers describing five models of coordination of delivering health services: the “Cluster Approach” (with 16 case studies), the 4Ws “Who is Where, When, doing What” mapping tool (with four case studies), the “Sphere Project” (with two case studies), the “5x5” model (with one case study), and the “model of information coordination” (with one case study). The 4Ws and the 5x5 focus on coordination of services for mental health, the remaining models do not focus on a specific health topic. The Cluster approach appears to be the most widely used. One case study was a mixed implementation of the Cluster approach and the Sphere model. We identified no model of coordination for funding of health service. Conclusion: This systematic review identified five proposed coordination models that have been implemented by entities funding or delivering health service in humanitarian crises. There is a need to compare the effect of these different models on outcomes such as availability of and access to health services.

  13. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Tamara; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Darzi, Andrea; Hajjar, Rayan; El Rahyel, Ahmed; El Eid, Jamale; Itani, Mira; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. Methods: We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library. We also searched websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology. Results: Our search captured 14,309 citations. The screening process identified 34 eligible papers describing five models of coordination of delivering health services: the “Cluster Approach” (with 16 case studies), the 4Ws “Who is Where, When, doing What” mapping tool (with four case studies), the “Sphere Project” (with two case studies), the “5x5” model (with one case study), and the “model of information coordination” (with one case study). The 4Ws and the 5x5 focus on coordination of services for mental health, the remaining models do not focus on a specific health topic. The Cluster approach appears to be the most widely used. One case study was a mixed implementation of the Cluster approach and the Sphere model. We identified no model of coordination for funding of health service. Conclusion: This systematic review identified five proposed coordination models that have been implemented by entities funding or delivering health service in humanitarian crises. There is a need to compare the effect of these different models on outcomes such as availability of and access to health services. PMID:27617167

  14. Militarized humanitarianism meets carceral feminism: the politics of sex, rights, and freedom in contemporary antitrafficking campaigns.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, abolitionist feminist and evangelical Christian activists have directed increasing attention toward the “traffic in women” as a dangerous manifestation of global gender inequalities. Despite renowned disagreements around the politics of sex and gender, these groups have come together to advocate for harsher penalties against traffickers, prostitutes’ customers, and nations deemed to be taking insufficient steps to stem the flow of trafficked women. In this essay, I argue that what has served to unite this coalition of "strange bedfellows" is not simply an underlying commitment to conservative ideals of sexuality, as previous commentators have offered, but an equally significant commitment to carceral paradigms of justice and to militarized humanitarianism as the preeminent mode of engagement by the state. I draw upon my ongoing ethnographic research with feminist and evangelical antitrafficking movement leaders to argue that the alliance that has been so efficacious in framing contemporary antitrafficking politics is the product of two historically unique and intersecting trends: a rightward shift on the part of many mainstream feminists and other secular liberals away from a redistributive model of justice and toward a politics of incarceration, coincident with a leftward sweep on the part of many younger evangelicals toward a globally oriented social justice theology. In the final section of this essay, I consider the resilience of these trends given a newly installed and more progressive Obama administration, positing that they are likely to continue even as the terrain of militarized humanitarian action shifts in accordance with new sets of geopolitical interests. PMID:20827852

  15. Achievements and bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: final results from the EC DELVE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, Hichem; Bruschini, Claudio; Van Kempen, Luc; Schleijpen, Ric; den Breejen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology Development (RTD) situation from early 1990 until 2006. The situation at the European level was analyzed with emphasis on activities sponsored by the European Commission (EC). This was also done for four European countries and Japan, with emphasis on national activities. The developments in HD during the last 10 years underline the fact that in a number of cases demining related developments have been terminated or at least put on hold. The study also showed that the funding provided by the EC under the Framework Program for RTD has led directly to the creation of an extensive portfolio of Humanitarian Demining technology development projects. The latter provided a range of research and supporting measures addressing the critical issues identified as a result of the regulatory policies developed in the field of Humanitarian Demining over the last ten years. However, the range of instruments available to the EC to finance the necessary research and development were limited, to pre-competitive research. The EC had no tools or programs to directly fund actual product development. As a first consequence, the EC funding program for development of technology for Humanitarian Demining unfortunately proved to be largely unsuitable for the small-scale development needed in a field where there is only a very limited market. As a second consequence, most of the research has been demonstrator-oriented. Moreover, the timeframe for RTD in Humanitarian Demining has not been sufficiently synchronized with the timeframe of the EC policies and regulations. The separation of the Mine Action and RTD funding streams in the EC did also negatively affect the take-up of new technologies. As a

  16. Apples, pears and porridge: the origins and impact of the search for 'coherence' between humanitarian and political responses to chronic political emergencies.

    PubMed

    Macrae, J; Leader, N

    2001-12-01

    During the 1990s a consensus emerged within the international humanitarian system that there was a need to enhance the 'coherence' between humanitarian and political responses to complex political emergencies. Closer integration between aid and political responses was seen to be necessary in order to address the root causes of conflict-induced crises, and to ensure that aid did not exacerbate political tensions. This paper explores the theory and practice of coherence over the past decade. It argues that, by sleight of hand, the coherence agenda has been reinterpreted such that humanitarian action has become the primary form of political action, rather than merely a substitute for it. The coherence agenda has been driven by geopolitical events, domestic policy considerations in donor countries and the more parochial concerns of aid policy, and is reflected in a number of substantive changes in the humanitarian architecture. Many of the tenets of this 'new humanitarianism' have been embraced by the majority of relief agencies, and thus legitimised it. The paper concludes that political humanitarianism, as opposed to active engagement by political and military actors, is flawed ethically and technically. It will provide neither an effective palliative for the ill effects of war, nor address its causes.

  17. Consensus statements regarding the multidisciplinary care of limb amputation patients in disasters or humanitarian emergencies: report of the 2011 Humanitarian Action Summit Surgical Working Group on amputations following disasters or conflict.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Lisa Marie; Gosney, James E; Chackungal, Smita; Altschuler, Eric; Black, Lynn; Burkle, Frederick M; Casey, Kathleen; Crandell, David; Demey, Didier; Di Giacomo, Lillian; Dohlman, Lena; Goldstein, Joshua; Gosselin, Richard; Ikeda, Keita; Le Roy, Andree; Linden, Allison; Mullaly, Catherine M; Nickerson, Jason; O'Connell, Colleen; Redmond, Anthony D; Richards, Adam; Rufsvold, Robert; Santos, Anna L R; Skelton, Terri; McQueen, Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Limb amputations are frequently performed as a result of trauma inflicted during conflict or disasters. As demonstrated during the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, coordinating care of these patients in austere settings is complex. During the 2011 Humanitarian Action Summit, consensus statements were developed for international organizations providing care to limb amputation patients during disasters or humanitarian emergencies. Expanded planning is needed for a multidisciplinary surgical care team, inclusive of surgeons, anesthesiologists, rehabilitation specialists and mental health professionals. Surgical providers should approach amputation using an operative technique that optimizes limb length and prosthetic fitting. Appropriate anesthesia care involves both peri-operative and long-term pain control. Rehabilitation specialists must be involved early in treatment, ideally before amputation, and should educate the surgical team in prosthetic considerations. Mental health specialists must be included to help the patient with community reintegration. A key step in developing local health systems the establishment of surgical outcomes monitoring. Such monitoring can optimizepatient follow-up and foster professional accountability for the treatment of amputation patients in disaster settings and humanitarian emergencies.

  18. Advances in nonlethal electronic weaponry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, James F.

    1998-12-01

    Non-lethal electronic weapons in the form of tasers (a stand-off incapacitation device with a range of about 15 feet) and stun guns (which are not a gun, but a close contact stun device) have been used by law enforcement for over 18 years. The taser has dominated this market, since it does not require the close physical contact (with the resultant injuries) that the stun gun requires. Tasers are effective against even determined assailants where OC or pepper sprays consistently fail. The taser also does not have the close range lethality of low impact munitions. These electronic non-lethal weapons have saved the lives of thousands of suspects and have prevented the injury of thousands of law enforcement officers. Recent advances in laser sight technology have permitted the development of a patented dual laser sight that not only increased accuracy, but have made these weapons even more intimidating, increasing surrender rates. Now increased ranges are feasible and r & d on non-lethal military weapons to replace the anti-personnel landmine has resulted in new, unmanned, non-lethal taser weapons for law enforcement corrections and border patrol perimeter control use.

  19. Systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness of sexual and reproductive health interventions in humanitarian crises

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Emily; Post, Nathan; Hossain, Mazeda; Blanchet, Karl; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) interventions delivered in humanitarian crises. Setting Crisis affected low-income or middle-income countries. Participants Crisis-affected populations in low-income or middle-income countries. Method Peer-reviewed and grey literature sources were systematically searched for relevant papers detailing interventions from 1 January 1980 until the search date on 30 April 2013. Data from included studies were then extracted, and the papers’ quality evaluated using criteria based on modified STROBE and CONSORT checklists. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes include, but are not limited to, changes in morbidity, mortality, sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis or gender-based violence. Secondary outcomes include, but are not limited to, reported condom use or skilled attendance at birth. Primary outputs include, but are not limited to, condoms distributed or education courses taught. Results Of 7149 returned citations, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only one randomised controlled trial was identified. The remaining observational studies were of moderate quality, demonstrating limited use of controls and inadequate attempts to address bias. Evidence of effectiveness was available for the following interventions: impregnated bed nets for pregnant women, subsidised refugee healthcare, female community health workers, and tiered community reproductive health services. Conclusions The limited evidence base for SRH interventions highlights the need for improved research on the effectiveness of public health interventions in humanitarian crises. While interventions proven efficacious in stable settings are being used in humanitarian efforts, more evidence is required to demonstrate the effectiveness of delivering and scaling-up such interventions in humanitarian crises. PMID:26685020

  20. Camel milk, amoxicillin, and a prayer: medical pluralism and medical humanitarian aid in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2014-11-01

    This paper details how exposure to new clinics, diagnostic technologies, and pharmaceuticals during humanitarian relief operations in the Somali Region of Ethiopia shaped local pluralistic health systems and altered the ways in which residents subsequently conceived of and treated illness and disease. Despite rising demand for pharmaceuticals and diagnostic technologies among Somalis in Ethiopia, local ethnophysiologies continued to draw upon popular ideas about humoral flows, divine action, and spirit possession. Demands for therapeutic camel milk, Qur'anic spiritual healing, herbal remedies, and other historically popular therapies persisted, but were shaped by concurrent demands for and understandings of diagnostic biotechnologies and pharmaceutical medications. The reverse was also true: contemporary understandings and uses of non-biomedical healing modalities among Somalis shaped evaluations of clinical care, including healthcare during humanitarian responses. To illustrate these phenomena, based on ethnographic research in eastern Ethiopia between 2007 and 2009, this paper explores three topics vital to Somalis' pluralistic healthcare systems: camel milk and the management of digestive bile; women's experiences and clinical presentations with pain and disorder in their reproductive systems; and the rising popularity of high-tech diagnostic tests. I conclude that medical humanitarian aid never happens in a vacuum or among truly treatment-naïve populations. Instead, aid unfolds within ever-changing and pluralistic health cultures, and it permanently alters and is altered by the frames within which people evaluate and make future decisions about healthcare. PMID:24673888

  1. The International Space Station: New Capabilities for Disaster Response and Humanitarian Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been acquiring Earth imagery since 2000, primarily in the form of astronaut photography using hand-held film and digital cameras. Recent additions of more sophisticated multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems have expanded both the capabilities and relevance of the ISS to basic research, applied Earth science, and development of new sensor technologies. Funding opportunities established within NASA, the US National Laboratories and the international partner organizations have generated instrument proposals that will further enhance these capabilities. With both internal and external sensor location options, and the availability of both automated and human-tended operational environments, the ISS is a unique platform within the constellation of Earth-observing satellites currently in orbit. Current progress and challenges associated with development of ISS terrestrial remote sensing capabilities in the area of disaster response and support of relief efforts will be presented. The ISS orbit allows for imaging of the Earth's surface at varying times of day and night, providing opportunities for data collection over approximately 95% of the populated regions. These opportunities are distinct from--yet augment--the data collection windows for the majority of sensors on polar-orbiting satellites. In addition to this potential for "being in the right place at the right time" to collect critical information on an evolving disaster, the presence of a human crew also allows for immediate recognition of an event from orbit, notification of relevant organizations on the ground, and re-tasking of available remote sensing resources to support humanitarian response and relief efforts. Challenges to establishing an integrated response capability are both technical (coordination of sensor targeting and data collection, rapid downlink and posting of data to a central accessible hub, timely generation and distribution of relevant data

  2. Design and performance of an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency radar with precise frequency control for landmine and IED detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Brian R.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2014-05-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed an impulse-based vehicle-mounted forward-looking ultra- wideband (UWB) radar for imaging buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). However, there is no control of the radiated spectrum in this system. As part of ARL's Partnerships in Research Transition (PIRT) program, the above deficiency is addressed by the design of a Stepped-Frequency Radar (SFR) which allows for precise control over the radiated spectrum, while still maintaining an effective ultra-wide bandwidth. The SFR utilizes a frequency synthesizer which can be configured to excise prohibited and interfering frequency bands and also implement frequency-hopping capabilities. The SFR is designed to be a forward-looking ground- penetrating (FLGPR) Radar utilizing a uniform linear array of sixteen (16) Vivaldi notch receive antennas and two (2) Quad-ridge horn transmit antennas. While a preliminary SFR consisting of four (4) receive channels has been designed, this paper describes major improvements to the system, and an analysis of expected system performance. The 4-channel system will be used to validate the SFR design which will eventually be augmented in to the full 16-channel system. The SFR has an operating frequency band which ranges from 300 - 2000 MHz, and a minimum frequency step-size of 1 MHz. The radar system is capable of illuminating range swaths that have maximum extents of 30 to 150 meters (programmable). The transmitter has the ability to produce approximately -2 dBm/MHz average power over the entire operating frequency range. The SFR will be used to determine the practicality of detecting and classifying buried and concealed landmines and IEDs from safe stand-off distances.

  3. Measuring and Increasing Adoption Rates of Cookstoves in a Humanitarian Crisis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel L; Coyle, Jeremy; Kirk, Angeli; Rosa, Javier; Abbas, Omnia; Adam, Mohammed Idris; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-08-01

    Traditional smoky cooking fires are one of today's greatest environmental threats to human life. These fires, used by 40% of the global population, cause 3.9 million annual premature deaths. "Clean cookstoves" have potential to improve this situation; however, most cookstove programs do not employ objective measurement of adoption to inform design, marketing, subsidies, finance, or dissemination practices. Lack of data prevents insights and may contribute to consistently low adoption rates. In this study, we used sensors and surveys to measure objective versus self-reported adoption of freely-distributed cookstoves in an internally displaced persons camp in Darfur, Sudan. Our data insights demonstrate how to effectively measure and promote adoption, especially in a humanitarian crisis. With sensors, we measured that 71% of participants were cookstove "users" compared to 95% of respondents reporting the improved cookstove was their "primary cookstove." No line of survey questioning, whether direct or indirect, predicted sensor-measured usage. For participants who rarely or never used their cookstoves after initial dissemination ("non-users"), we found significant increases in adoption after a simple followup survey (p = 0.001). The followup converted 83% of prior "non-users" to "users" with average daily adoption of 1.7 cooking hours over 2.2 meals. This increased adoption, which we posit resulted from cookstove familiarization and social conformity, was sustained for a 2-week observation period post intervention. PMID:27435285

  4. Needs, Acceptability, and Value of Humanitarian Medical Assistance in Remote Peruvian Amazon Riverine Communities

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Juan F.; Halsey, Eric S.; Bayer, Angela M.; Beltran, Martin; Razuri, Hugo R.; Velasquez, Daniel E.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Graf, Paul C. F.; Quispe, Antonio M.; Maves, Ryan C.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Sanders, John W.; Lescano, Andres G.

    2015-01-01

    Much debate exists regarding the need, acceptability, and value of humanitarian medical assistance. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 457 children under 5 years from four remote riverine communities in the Peruvian Amazon and collected anthropometric measures, blood samples (1–4 years), and stool samples. Focus groups and key informant interviews assessed perspectives regarding medical aid delivered by foreigners. The prevalence of stunting, anemia, and intestinal parasites was 20%, 37%, and 62%, respectively. Infection with multiple parasites, usually geohelminths, was detected in 41% of children. The prevalence of intestinal parasites both individual and polyparasitism increased with age. Participants from smaller communities less exposed to foreigners expressed lack of trust and fear of them. However, participants from all communities were positive about foreigners visiting to provide health support. Prevalent health needs such as parasitic infections and anemia may be addressed by short-term medical interventions. There is a perceived openness to and acceptability of medical assistance delivered by foreign personnel. PMID:25846293

  5. Theorizing the relationship between NGOs and the state in medical humanitarian development projects.

    PubMed

    Asad, Asad L; Kay, Tamara

    2014-11-01

    Social scientists have fiercely debated the relationship between non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the state in NGO-led development projects. However, this research often carries an implicit, and often explicit, anti-state bias, suggesting that when NGOs collaborate with states, they cease to be a progressive force. This literature thus fails to recognize the state as a complex, heterogeneous, and fragmented entity. In particular, the unique political context within which an NGO operates is likely to influence how it carries out its work. In this article, we ask: how do NGOs work and build relationships with different types of states and--of particular relevance to practitioners--what kinds of relationship building lead to more successful development outcomes on the ground? Drawing on 29 in-depth interviews with members of Partners in Health and Oxfam America conducted between September 2010 and February 2014, we argue that NGOs and their medical humanitarian projects are more likely to succeed when they adjust how they interact with different types of states through processes of interest harmonization and negotiation. We offer a theoretical model for understanding how these processes occur across organizational fields. Specifically, we utilize field overlap theory to illuminate how successful outcomes depend on NGOs' ability to leverage resources--alliances and networks; political, financial, and cultural resources; and frames--across state and non-state fields. By identifying how NGOs can increase the likelihood of project success, our research should be of interest to activists, practitioners, and scholars. PMID:24852816

  6. The symphony of the damned: racial discourse, complex political emergencies and humanitarian aid.

    PubMed

    Duffield, M

    1996-09-01

    This paper concerns the manner in which the West is responding to protracted political crises beyond its borders. It examines the conceptual world-view that aid agencies bring to complex emergencies and which shapes action. The paper provides an analysis of developmentalism. That is, the currently dominant idea of development which is an adapted form of multiculturalism. It is based on the empowerment of cultural differences and the relativisation of progress. As a variant of multiculturalism, developmentalism is part of Western racial discourse. In terms of understanding conflict, it establishes a mirror-image relationship with new rascist ideas premised on cultural pluralism inevitably leading to social breakdown, violence and anarchy. To the contrary, with its functional view of social harmony, libertine developmentalism claims that even unresolved political crisis constitutes a development opportunity. Developmentalism, like culturalism generally, is incapable of analysing power. It therefore cannot understand the effects and significance of its own organisational forms. Moreover, since the absence of power translates into operational neutrality in a war zone, it is also unable to analyse the nature of new political formations emerging in the global periphery. That is, the so-called weak or failed states, warlords and so on. This functional ignorance has allowed a widespread incorporation of humanitarian aid into the fabric of political violence. Developmentalism is an essential underpinning for the growing organisational accommodation to ongoing conflict and eroding standards of justice and accountability.

  7. Subsurface Imaging by UWB Radar: Application to Humanitarian Demining in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been widely used applications which include detection of subsurface facilities, concrete inspection and archaeology. Among these applications, humanitarian demining is still difficult task. Since 2002, we have developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. ALIS can process the data and is used for image re-construction by migration processing. ALIS is the only one mine detection system in the world which can visualize the GPR image by hand scanning. We found that the migration processing can reduce the clutter and gives us clear images of buried mines. After several tests of ALIS in mine affected courtiers, operation of ALIS in mine fields in Cambodia started in summer 2009. Two sets of ALIS have been operated in Cambodia and more than 77 antipersonnel mines have been detected and 137,000m2 farmland was cleaned.

  8. Humanitarian multisensor hand-held mine detector: exploitation of ancillary data in GPR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Graeme N.; Hill, Andrew

    2002-08-01

    QinetiQ is developing a hand held Multi-sensor mine detector prototype for humanitarian applications. The sensor consists of a GPR, a metal detector and ancillary sensors. This paper describes how data produced by ancillary sensors can be exploited in order to assist the GPR processing. The GPR consists of a 3x3 array of antennas, and focused images of the volume beneath the sensor are formed by post reception synthetic aperture processing. The mine detector is intended to detect sub surface targets, and an accurate knowledge of the ground surface position relative to the sensor is required. Also the high frequency dielectric constant of the ground medium is required in order to produce focused images. This paper analyses the requirements for good post reception synthetic aperture processing. The accuracy of the ground surface position data and the dielectric constant estimation are determined. A model for soil dielectric constant is used to derive the sensitivity of post reception synthetic aperture processing to unknown soil texture. It is show that for the GPR configuration considered, a wide range of texture variations is tolerable provided the soil moisture can be accurately estimated. Variations in soil composition are also tolerable.

  9. The academic health center in complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Christine; Theodosis, Christian; Bills, Corey; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Turner, Madeleine; Millis, Michael; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Olopade, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. The event disrupted infrastructure and was marked by extreme morbidity and mortality. The global response to the disaster was rapid and immense, comprising multiple actors-including academic health centers (AHCs)-that provided assistance in the field and from home. The authors retrospectively examine the multidisciplinary approach that the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) applied to postearthquake Haiti, which included the application of institutional structure and strategy, systematic deployment of teams tailored to evolving needs, and the actual response and recovery. The university mobilized significant human and material resources for deployment within 48 hours and sustained the effort for over four months. In partnership with international and local nongovernmental organizations as well as other AHCs, the UCM operated one of the largest and more efficient acute field hospitals in the country. The UCM's efforts in postearthquake Haiti provide insight into the role AHCs can play, including their strengths and limitations, in complex disasters. AHCs can provide necessary intellectual and material resources as well as technical expertise, but the cost and speed required for responding to an emergency, and ongoing domestic responsibilities, may limit the response of a large university and hospital system. The authors describe the strong institutional backing, the detailed predeployment planning and logistical support UCM provided, the engagement of faculty and staff who had previous experience in complex humanitarian emergencies, and the help of volunteers fluent in the local language which, together, made UCM's mission in postearthquake Haiti successful.

  10. Ebola virus disease in a humanitarian aid worker - New York City, October 2014.

    PubMed

    Yacisin, Kari; Balter, Sharon; Fine, Annie; Weiss, Don; Ackelsberg, Joel; Prezant, David; Wilson, Ross; Starr, David; Rakeman, Jennifer; Raphael, Marisa; Quinn, Celia; Toprani, Amita; Clark, Nancy; Link, Nathan; Daskalakis, Demetre; Maybank, Aletha; Layton, Marcelle; Varma, Jay K

    2015-04-01

    In late October 2014, Ebola virus disease (Ebola) was diagnosed in a humanitarian aid worker who recently returned from West Africa to New York City (NYC). The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) actively monitored three close contacts of the patient and 114 health care personnel. No secondary cases of Ebola were detected. In collaboration with local and state partners, DOHMH had developed protocols to respond to such an event beginning in July 2014. These protocols included safely transporting a person at the first report of symptoms to a local hospital prepared to treat a patient with Ebola, laboratory testing for Ebola, and monitoring of contacts. In response to this single case of Ebola, initial health care worker active monitoring protocols needed modification to improve clarity about what types of exposure should be monitored. The response costs were high in both human resources and money: DOHMH alone spent $4.3 million. However, preparedness activities that include planning and practice in effectively monitoring the health of workers involved in Ebola patient care can help prevent transmission of Ebola. PMID:25837242

  11. [GESNOMA (Geneva Study Group on Noma): state-of-the-art medical research for humanitarian purposes].

    PubMed

    Baratti-Mayer, D; Pittet, B; Montandon, D

    2004-06-01

    Noma is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to severe tissue destructions in the face. It is seen almost exclusively in children living in less developed countries. The exact prevalence of the disease is unknown and the cause remains unknown too. Risk factors are: malnutrition, a compromised immune system, poor oral hygiene and a lesion of the gingival mucosal barrier, as well as an unidentified bacterial factor. Herpes viruses might also contribute. Studies of the buccal flora in acute phases of noma and comparison with control children do not exist. Our study takes place in Niger. For each child (cases and controls) we take samples of gingival fluid, saliva, blood and mouth mucosal swabs. The samples are analysed in Geneva in different laboratories. We control the serologies for Herpes viruses and measles. We also perform a nutritional assessment and the mucosal swabs are cultivated for the presence of viruses. The gingival flora is investigated by microarrays. These microarrays are instrumental to test for the presence of thousands of different bacteria in each clinical sample. This method allows a qualitative and quantitative description of the oral flora in noma-children and control cases. This is the first large scale study on the etiology of noma which uses new technical approaches for humanitarian purposes.

  12. Providing more than health care: the dynamics of humanitarian surgery efforts on the local microeconomy.

    PubMed

    Nagengast, Eric S; Caterson, E J; Magee, William P; Hatcher, Kristin; Ramos, Margarita S; Campbell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Humanitarian cleft surgery has long been provided by teams from resource-rich countries traveling for short-term missions to resource-poor countries. After identifying an area of durable unmet need through surgical missions, Operation Smile constructed a permanent center for cleft care in Northeast India. The Operation Smile Guwahati Comprehensive Cleft Care Center (GCCCC) uses a high-volume subspecialized institution to provide safe, quality, comprehensive, and cost-effective cleft care to a highly vulnerable patient population in Assam, India. The purpose of this study was to profile the expenses of several cleft missions carried out in Assam and to compare these to the expenditures of the permanent comprehensive cleft care center. We reviewed financial data from 4 Operation Smile missions in Assam between December 2009 and February 2011 and from the GCCCC for the 2012-2013 fiscal year. Expenses from the 2 models were categorized and compared. In the studied period, 33% of the mission expenses were spent locally compared to 94% of those of the center. The largest expenses in the mission model were air travel (48.8%) and hotel expenses (21.6%) for the team, whereas salaries (46.3%) and infrastructure costs (19.8%) made up the largest fractions of expenses in the center model. The evolution from mission-based care to a specialty hospital model in Guwahati incorporated a transition from vertical inputs to investments in infrastructure and human capital to create a sustainable local care delivery system. PMID:25162554

  13. Measuring and Increasing Adoption Rates of Cookstoves in a Humanitarian Crisis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel L; Coyle, Jeremy; Kirk, Angeli; Rosa, Javier; Abbas, Omnia; Adam, Mohammed Idris; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-08-01

    Traditional smoky cooking fires are one of today's greatest environmental threats to human life. These fires, used by 40% of the global population, cause 3.9 million annual premature deaths. "Clean cookstoves" have potential to improve this situation; however, most cookstove programs do not employ objective measurement of adoption to inform design, marketing, subsidies, finance, or dissemination practices. Lack of data prevents insights and may contribute to consistently low adoption rates. In this study, we used sensors and surveys to measure objective versus self-reported adoption of freely-distributed cookstoves in an internally displaced persons camp in Darfur, Sudan. Our data insights demonstrate how to effectively measure and promote adoption, especially in a humanitarian crisis. With sensors, we measured that 71% of participants were cookstove "users" compared to 95% of respondents reporting the improved cookstove was their "primary cookstove." No line of survey questioning, whether direct or indirect, predicted sensor-measured usage. For participants who rarely or never used their cookstoves after initial dissemination ("non-users"), we found significant increases in adoption after a simple followup survey (p = 0.001). The followup converted 83% of prior "non-users" to "users" with average daily adoption of 1.7 cooking hours over 2.2 meals. This increased adoption, which we posit resulted from cookstove familiarization and social conformity, was sustained for a 2-week observation period post intervention.

  14. [Definition and evaluation of therapeutic food for severely malnourished children in situations of humanitarian emergencies].

    PubMed

    Desjeux, J F; Briend, A; Prudhon, C; Greletty, Y; Golden, M H

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, median case fatality rate of severely malnourished children treated in hospitals is 23.5%, a rate which has not changed for the last 50 years. This is probably related to the use of inappropriate or even unsafe treatment protocols. This work aimed at reducing case fatality rates of severe malnutrition by developing a treatment protocol and assessing its effectiveness during humanitarian crises. A therapeutic food was designed from pathophysiologic studies and its use adapted to therapeutic feeding centres. This food (F100) contains 100 Kcal/100 ml, with 10% of its energy derived from proteins; it has a low sodium and iron content but is fortified with vitamins and minerals. It can be prepared either at the treatment centre or at an industrial level. Industrial production, which started in 1993 reached 1,500 MT in 1997. In refugee camps, F100 was used according to a strict protocol adapted to local conditions. Intakes started at 100 Kcal/kg/day and reached 200 kcal/kg/day once appetite was restored. A model to assess the risk of death according to weight, height and oedema was developed. First results show that mortality was often below 5%. Hence, it is possible to standardise and evaluate a nutritional treatment in such unfavourable conditions as a refugee camp. Standardised use of F100 can markedly reduce mortality of severely malnourished children.

  15. Medical humanitarianism in the United States: alternative healthcare, spirituality and political advocacy in the case of Our Lady Guadalupe Free Clinic.

    PubMed

    Tiedje, Kristina; Plevak, David J

    2014-11-01

    Exclusionary practices in dominant market-based systems are recognized as contributing to global health inequities. Undocumented immigrants are particularly vulnerable to unequal access to healthcare. Humanitarian NGOs strive to respond meaningfully to these health inequities among migrants and undocumented immigrants. Few studies describe the work of humanitarian NGOs that advocate for the right to health of undocumented immigrants in high-income countries. This paper discusses immigration, health, and human rights while examining solidarity, spirituality, and advocacy using a U.S.-based example of medical humanitarianism: the 'Our Lady of Guadalupe Free Clinic.' In 2011, the Free Clinic began in the basement of a Catholic parish in Minnesota in response to the lack of access to medical services for undocumented immigrants. Run by a local grassroots organization, it is held every six weeks and offers free primary healthcare to Latino immigrants and the uninsured. In this article, we examine the tricky relationship between humanitarianism and human rights in the U.S. Using ethnography, we draw on participant observation and interviews with 30 clinic volunteers, including health professionals, administrators, language interpreters, and spiritual leaders. The study was conducted September 2012-December 2013 in southern Minnesota. We examine how notions of solidarity, spirituality, and advocacy structure faith-based medical humanitarianism in the U.S. and explore the underlying tensions between the humanitarian mandate, spiritual teachings (social justice, solidarity), and political advocacy. Examining a moment of "crisis" in the Clinic, our study shows that volunteers experience the alliance between spirituality and advocacy with uneasiness. While a spiritual calling may initially motivate volunteers to serve, an embrace of human rights advocacy is important in a sustained effort to provide humanitarian medical care to individuals who fall outside of the political

  16. Medical humanitarianism in the United States: alternative healthcare, spirituality and political advocacy in the case of Our Lady Guadalupe Free Clinic.

    PubMed

    Tiedje, Kristina; Plevak, David J

    2014-11-01

    Exclusionary practices in dominant market-based systems are recognized as contributing to global health inequities. Undocumented immigrants are particularly vulnerable to unequal access to healthcare. Humanitarian NGOs strive to respond meaningfully to these health inequities among migrants and undocumented immigrants. Few studies describe the work of humanitarian NGOs that advocate for the right to health of undocumented immigrants in high-income countries. This paper discusses immigration, health, and human rights while examining solidarity, spirituality, and advocacy using a U.S.-based example of medical humanitarianism: the 'Our Lady of Guadalupe Free Clinic.' In 2011, the Free Clinic began in the basement of a Catholic parish in Minnesota in response to the lack of access to medical services for undocumented immigrants. Run by a local grassroots organization, it is held every six weeks and offers free primary healthcare to Latino immigrants and the uninsured. In this article, we examine the tricky relationship between humanitarianism and human rights in the U.S. Using ethnography, we draw on participant observation and interviews with 30 clinic volunteers, including health professionals, administrators, language interpreters, and spiritual leaders. The study was conducted September 2012-December 2013 in southern Minnesota. We examine how notions of solidarity, spirituality, and advocacy structure faith-based medical humanitarianism in the U.S. and explore the underlying tensions between the humanitarian mandate, spiritual teachings (social justice, solidarity), and political advocacy. Examining a moment of "crisis" in the Clinic, our study shows that volunteers experience the alliance between spirituality and advocacy with uneasiness. While a spiritual calling may initially motivate volunteers to serve, an embrace of human rights advocacy is important in a sustained effort to provide humanitarian medical care to individuals who fall outside of the political

  17. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  18. The Malaysian Orthopaedic Association humanitarian mission to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S

    2005-07-01

    The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts.

  19. Factors Associated with Nursing Activities in Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Norihito; Inoue, Satoshi; Shimanoe, Chisato; Shibayama, Kaoru; Shinchi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Although nurses play an important role in humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HA/DR), little is known about the nursing activities that are performed in HA/DR. We aimed to clarify the nursing activities performed by Japanese nurses in HA/DR and to examine the factors associated with the frequency of nursing activities. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by 147 nurses with HA/DR experience. The survey extracted information on demographic characteristics, past experience (e.g., disaster medical training experience, HA/DR experience), circumstances surrounding their dispatched to HA/DR (e.g., team size, disaster type, post-disaster phase, mission term), and the frequency of nursing activities performed under HA/DR. The frequency of nursing activities was rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Evaluation of nursing activities was conducted based on the “nursing activity score”, which represents the frequency of each nursing activity. Factors related to the nursing activity score were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Nurses were involved in 27 nursing activities in HA/DR, 10 of which were performed frequently. On analysis, factors significantly associated with nursing activity score were nursing license as a registered nurse (OR 7.79, 95% CI 2.95–20.57), two or more experiences with disaster medical training (OR 2.90 95%, CI 1.12–7.49) and a post-disaster phase of three weeks or longer (OR 8.77, 95% CI 2.59–29.67). Conclusions These results will contribute to the design of evidence-based disaster medical training that improves the quality of nursing activities. PMID:26959351

  20. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of "Humanitarian Parole".

    PubMed

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population.

  1. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of "Humanitarian Parole".

    PubMed

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population. PMID:26157791

  2. Users' guides to the medical literature: how to use an article about mortality in a humanitarian emergency

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward J; Checchi, Francesco; Orbinski, James J; Schull, Michael J; Burkle, Frederick M; Beyrer, Chris; Cooper, Curtis; Hardy, Colleen; Singh, Sonal; Garfield, Richard; Woodruff, Bradley A; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2008-01-01

    The accurate interpretation of mortality surveys in humanitarian crises is useful for both public health responses and security responses. Recent examples suggest that few medical personnel and researchers can accurately interpret the validity of a mortality survey in these settings. Using an example of a mortality survey from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we demonstrate important methodological considerations that readers should keep in mind when reading a mortality survey to determine the validity of the study and the applicability of the findings to their settings. PMID:18826636

  3. Tracking humanitarian funding for reproductive health: a systematic analysis of health and protection proposals from 2002-2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises conducted a ten-year global evaluation of reproductive health in humanitarian settings. This paper examines proposals for reproductive health activities under humanitarian health and protection funding mechanisms for 2002-2013, and the level at which these reproductive health proposals were funded. Methods The study used English and French health and protection proposal data for 2002-2013, extracted from the Financial Tracking Service (FTS) database managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Every project was reviewed for relevance against pre-determined reproductive health definitions for 2002-2008. An in-depth analysis was additionally conducted for 2009-2013 through systematically reviewing proposals via a key word search and subsequently classifying them under designated reproductive health categories. Among the relevant reproductive health proposals, counts and proportions were calculated in Excel based on their reproductive health components, primarily by year. Contributions, requests, and unfunded requests were calculated based on the data provided by FTS. Results Among the 11,347 health and protection proposals issued from 345 emergencies between 2002 and 2013, 3,912 were relevant to reproductive health (34.5%). The number of proposals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 21.9% per year, while the proportion of health and protection sector appeals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 10.1% per year. The total funding request over the 12 years amounted to $4.720 billion USD, of which $2.031 billion USD was received. Among reproductive health components for 2009-2013 proposals, maternal newborn health comprised the largest proportion (56.4%), followed by reproductive health-related gender-based violence (45.9%), HIV/sexually transmitted infections (37.5%), general reproductive health

  4. Transversing Landmines (Book Reviews).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Riki

    2000-01-01

    Discusses connections between the ambiguous status of Mexican immigrants, Mestizas, and others inhabiting border areas described in Marleen Pugach's "On the Border of Opportunity" (1998) and in Gloria Anzaldua's "Borderlands: La Frontera, the New Mestiza" (1987) and postmodernist identity-formation opportunities in Zohar and Marshall's "The…

  5. Trauma and resilience during war: a look at the children and humanitarian aid workers of Bosnia.

    PubMed

    Berk, J H

    1998-08-01

    In summary, resilience in both the children and the workers had key aspects which were definable and similar. Both groups required support and connectedness to others, as well as a need to distance themselves from the impact of the suffering. Both groups required the use of similar mechanisms, such as cognitive restructuring, relaxation, and thought-stopping. The activities of "healthy" individuals in both populations were parallel. In both populations, some actions occurred spontaneously and could be bolstered through circumscribed interventions. In other cases, actions and activities to promote resilience of both populations needed to be created. These actions would affect not only the stress experienced by the workers in the field, improving their quality of life and longevity of service, and reducing costs for the agency involved, but also the children who were being serviced by those workers. Truly working on these strategies seemed to make the difference between short-term coping and longer-term resilience. Those individuals who were not able to incorporate the resilience-promoting factors may have been able to cope in the short term with the immediate threat, but then had difficulties following the cessation of the armed conflict. Over the course of my subsequent visits to Bosnia I found a higher rate of alcoholism and suicide among teenagers than anticipated. They had apparently survived the most imminent threat and then succumbed to the long-term stress. Some of these problems were due to demobilization from the army of those teenagers who had been in the military. They were now left with no defined role after having had an important one, which had given them considerable power. The demobilization of their fathers caused problems as well. Friction between the parents arose as the father took authority back from the mother who had been in charge of the family in the father's absence. I also found considerable turnover among the humanitarian aid workers

  6. A public health approach to address the mental health burden of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M; Berckmoes, Lidewyde H; Kohrt, Brandon A; Song, Suzan J; Tol, Wietse A; Reis, Ria

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates, individual and family needs, and available human and material resources. We propose four strategies to develop a participatory public health approach for these youth, based on principles of equity, feasibility, and a balance between prevention and treatment. The first strategy uses ecological and transgenerational resilience as a theoretical framework to facilitate a systems approach to the plight of youth and families. This theoretical base helps to engage health care professionals in a multisectoral analysis and a collaborative public health strategy. The second strategy is to translate pre-program assessment into mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) priorities. Defining priorities helps to develop programs and policies that align with preventive and curative interventions in multiple tiers of the public health system. The third is a realistic budgetary framework as a condition for the development of sustainable institutional capacity including a monitoring system. The fourth strategy is to direct research to address the knowledge gap about effective practices for youth mental health in humanitarian settings. PMID:26021862

  7. A public health approach to address the mental health burden of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M; Berckmoes, Lidewyde H; Kohrt, Brandon A; Song, Suzan J; Tol, Wietse A; Reis, Ria

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates, individual and family needs, and available human and material resources. We propose four strategies to develop a participatory public health approach for these youth, based on principles of equity, feasibility, and a balance between prevention and treatment. The first strategy uses ecological and transgenerational resilience as a theoretical framework to facilitate a systems approach to the plight of youth and families. This theoretical base helps to engage health care professionals in a multisectoral analysis and a collaborative public health strategy. The second strategy is to translate pre-program assessment into mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) priorities. Defining priorities helps to develop programs and policies that align with preventive and curative interventions in multiple tiers of the public health system. The third is a realistic budgetary framework as a condition for the development of sustainable institutional capacity including a monitoring system. The fourth strategy is to direct research to address the knowledge gap about effective practices for youth mental health in humanitarian settings.

  8. No task fit for a soldier? Canadian forces medical personnel and humanitarian relief missions since the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Rawling, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Modern armies of the industrialized world operate in accordance with a doctrine, that is to say a philosophy linked to a series of procedures themselves determined by the tactical and strategic environment. These same armies, however, answer to civilian governments that do not limit their demands or instructions to the types of operations an army might list in its doctrine. For Canada's armed services, such seems to have been the case in regards to humanitarian operations which, even if they were not part of these services' operational philosophies, have nonetheless been of no little importance in the history of the air force, the navy, and the army since the end of the Second World War. This study will explore humanitarian operations from the second half of the 1940s to the formation and first missions of a unit specializing in such work in the 1990s. It will focus mainly on medical practice during these missions and attempt to determine whether medical practitioners had to change their basic approach to accomplish their tasks, or whether it sufficed to adapt procedures in accordance with the operational situation.

  9. Humanitarian cleft care in Southeast Asia: military-civilian partnerships and the role of the US Navy ship Mercy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Alan A; Salas, Carlos; Kumar, Anand R

    2012-11-01

    The primary mission of the US Navy (USN) is to maintain superior naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, and maintaining freedom of the seas. However, a major core capability of the present-day USN includes the ability to effectively and rapidly provide humanitarian assistance and disaster response whenever the need arises. Occurring annually since 2006, Pacific Partnership is an ongoing USN operation that aims to strengthen regional alliances and improve delivery of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. A major focus of Pacific Partnership 2010 was the delivery of medical care to underserved communities in the region. A significant portion of the medical mission was specifically directed toward the treatment of patients with cleft lip and palate. As the main operational platform, the USN Ship Mercy provided an unparalleled environment in which to provide state-of-the-art multidisciplinary treatment to patients with cleft lip and palate. With the cooperation of host nations and locally active nongovernmental organizations, a sustainable model for providing treatment for cleft lip and palate can be developed.

  10. 31 CFR 585.524 - Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of...-by-case basis to permit exportation to, or transshipment through, the United Nations Protected Areas... permit importation from, exportation to, or transshipment through the United Nations Protected Areas...

  11. Strange but common bedfellows: the relationship between humanitarians and the military in developing psychosocial interventions for civilian populations affected by armed conflict.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, Hanna; Pedersen, Duncan

    2012-07-01

    This essay analyses how the relationships between Cold War and post-Cold War politics, military psychiatry, humanitarian aid and mental health interventions in war and post-war contexts have transformed over time. It focuses on the restrictions imposed on humanitarian interventions and aid during the Cold War; the politics leading to the transfer of the PTSD diagnosis and its treatment from the military to civilian populations; humanitarian intervention campaigns in the post-Cold War era; and the development of psychosocial intervention programs and standards of care for civilian populations affected by armed conflict. Viewing these developments in their broader historical, political and social contexts reveals the politics behind mental health interventions conducted in countries and populations affected by warfare. In such militarized contexts, the work of NGOs providing assistance to people suffering from trauma-related health problems is far from neutral as it depends on the support of the military and plays an important role in the shaping of international politics and humanitarian aid programs.

  12. Strange but common bedfellows: the relationship between humanitarians and the military in developing psychosocial interventions for civilian populations affected by armed conflict.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, Hanna; Pedersen, Duncan

    2012-07-01

    This essay analyses how the relationships between Cold War and post-Cold War politics, military psychiatry, humanitarian aid and mental health interventions in war and post-war contexts have transformed over time. It focuses on the restrictions imposed on humanitarian interventions and aid during the Cold War; the politics leading to the transfer of the PTSD diagnosis and its treatment from the military to civilian populations; humanitarian intervention campaigns in the post-Cold War era; and the development of psychosocial intervention programs and standards of care for civilian populations affected by armed conflict. Viewing these developments in their broader historical, political and social contexts reveals the politics behind mental health interventions conducted in countries and populations affected by warfare. In such militarized contexts, the work of NGOs providing assistance to people suffering from trauma-related health problems is far from neutral as it depends on the support of the military and plays an important role in the shaping of international politics and humanitarian aid programs. PMID:22722981

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Resources Equipment Food Agricultural Materials and Machinery Suited to Small-Scale Farming Operations... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and... Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the...

  14. Direct Killing of Patients in Humanitarian Situations and Armed Conflicts: The Profession of Medicine Is Losing Its Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    During armed conflicts over the past several years, attacks on humanitarian workers and patients have increased, including the most recent overt killing of patients in their hospital beds in South Sudan and Central African Republic, and bombardments of hospitals in Iraq, Syria, and other countries. Direct attacks on patients inside hospitals, as well as social structural dynamics that undermine patient safety and security, are met with apparent indifference by international and medical communities. How can the medical profession remain silent and stand by while these factors render its core mission futile? In this article, I aim to shed light on this issue, and its implications for the future of the neutral and impartial provision of medical care; provide an analysis of underlying and contributing factors; discuss current international strategies; reflect on the responsibility of health providers; explore ways to strengthen our roles as physician advocates; and call for the medical profession to do more to protect medicine's core values. PMID:25646255

  15. Epidemic neuropathy in Cuba: a plea to end the United States economic embargo on a humanitarian basis.

    PubMed

    Román, G C

    1994-10-01

    During 1992-1993, an epidemic of neurologic disease in Cuba affected 50,862 patients with optic neuropathy, sensorineural deafness, predominantly sensory peripheral neuropathy, and dorsolateral myelopathy. The clinical syndromes were identical to those of prisoners of war subjected to nutritional restriction in tropical prison camps during World War II (Strachan's disease). A dietary deficiency of group B vitamins and sulfur-containing amino acids appears to have been the primary cause of the epidemic. This was a consequence of economic and political events in Cuba linked to the collapse of the Soviet Union and socialist countries. The recently toughened 30-year-old US economic embargo on Cuba contributed to these problems and hampered the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the epidemic. A plea is made to the neurologic community to request the lifting of the trade blockade on a humanitarian basis. PMID:7936221

  16. Changing tracks as situations change: humanitarian and health response along the Liberia-Côte d'Ivoire border.

    PubMed

    Derderian, Katharine

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, protracted crises and fragile post-conflict settings have challenged the co-existence, and even the linear continuum, of relief and development aid. Forced migration has tested humanitarian and development paradigms where sudden-onset emergencies, violence and displacement arise alongside ongoing development work. Drawing on Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in the region from December 2010 to May 2011, this paper examines aid and healthcare responses to displacement in Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; it focuses on challenges to the maintenance of preparedness for such foreseeable emergencies and to adaptation in response to changing situations of displacement and insecurity. This 'backsliding' from development to emergency remains a substantial challenge to aid; yet, in exactly such cases, it also presents the opportunity to ensure access to medical care that is much more urgently needed in times of crisis, including the suspension of user fees for medical care. PMID:25196331

  17. Direct killing of patients in humanitarian situations and armed conflicts: the profession of medicine is losing its meaning.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin

    2015-04-01

    During armed conflicts over the past several years, attacks on humanitarian workers and patients have increased, including the most recent overt killing of patients in their hospital beds in South Sudan and Central African Republic, and bombardments of hospitals in Iraq, Syria, and other countries. Direct attacks on patients inside hospitals, as well as social structural dynamics that undermine patient safety and security, are met with apparent indifference by international and medical communities. How can the medical profession remain silent and stand by while these factors render its core mission futile? In this article, I aim to shed light on this issue, and its implications for the future of the neutral and impartial provision of medical care; provide an analysis of underlying and contributing factors; discuss current international strategies; reflect on the responsibility of health providers; explore ways to strengthen our roles as physician advocates; and call for the medical profession to do more to protect medicine's core values. PMID:25646255

  18. Effectiveness of Mechanisms and Models of Coordination between Organizations, Agencies and Bodies Providing or Financing Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Elie A.; El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou Karroum, Lama; El-Eid, Jamale; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; Itani, Mira; Farha, Aida; Pottie, Kevin; Oliver, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing health services in humanitarian crises is required to ensure efficiency of services, avoid duplication, and improve equity. The objective of this review was to assess how, during and after humanitarian crises, different mechanisms and models of coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing health services compare in terms of access to health services and health outcomes. Methods We registered a protocol for this review in PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews under number PROSPERO2014:CRD42014009267. Eligible studies included randomized and nonrandomized designs, process evaluations and qualitative methods. We electronically searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library and websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology for the selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Results Of 14,309 identified citations from databases and organizations' websites, we identified four eligible studies. Two studies used mixed-methods, one used quantitative methods, and one used qualitative methods. The available evidence suggests that information coordination between bodies providing health services in humanitarian crises settings may be effective in improving health systems inputs. There is additional evidence suggesting that management/directive coordination such as the cluster model may improve health system inputs in addition to access to health services. None of the included studies assessed coordination through common representation and framework coordination. The evidence was judged to be of very low quality. Conclusion This systematic review provides evidence of possible effectiveness of information coordination

  19. Evaluating the co-production of a near real time Earthquake Aftershock forecasting tool for humanitarian risk assessment and emergency planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; NicBhloscaidh, Mairead; Jimenez, Abigail; Dunlop, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Concern Worldwide and the University of Ulster Geophysics Research Group are engaged in a project to co-produce a suite of software and mapping tools to assess aftershock hazard in near real-time during the emergency response phase of earthquake disaster, and inform humanitarian emergency planning and response activities. This paper uses a social learning approach to evaluate this co-production process. Following Wenger (1999) we differentiate between the earthquake science and humanitarian communities of practice (CoP) along three dimensions: enterprise (the purpose of CoPs and the problems participants are working to address), repertoire (knowledge, skills, language), and identity (values and boundaries). We examine the effectiveness of learning between CoP, focusing on boundary work and objects, and various organisational structures and aspects of the wider political economy of learning that enable and hinder the co-production process. We conclude by identifying a number of ways to more effectively integrate earthquake science into humanitarian decision-making, policy development and programme design.

  20. Non-conventional humanitarian interventions on Ebola outbreak crisis in West Africa: health, ethics and legal implications.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of Ebola outbreak early warning alert, preparedness, surveillance and response systems, the most deadly, complex and largest ever seen Ebola war has been devastating West African communities. The unparalleled Ebola tsunami has prompted interrogations into, and uncertainties about, the effectiveness and efficiency of national, regional and international community's illed- responses using conventional humanitarian control and containment approaches and methods. The late humanitarian and local non-government organisations emergency responses and challenges to curb transmission dynamics and stop the ongoing spread in the Ebola outbreak in West Africa have led to an unprecedented toll of 14,413 reported Ebola cases in eight countries since the outbreak began, with 5,177 reported deaths including 571 health-care workers and 325 died as 14 November 2014. These indications the need of further evaluation of monitoring as substantial proportion of infections outside the context of Ebola epicentres, Ebola health centres treatment and care, infection prevention and control quality assurance checks in these countries. At the same time, exhaustive efforts should target ensuring an sufficient supply of optimal personal protective equipment (PPE) to all Ebola treatment facilities, along with the provision of training and relevant guidelines to limit to the minimum possible level of risk. The continent hosts a big proportion of the world's wealth, yet its people live in abject poverty, with governments unable to feed and govern them effectively, and who are condemned to endure even darker moments with the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Institutionalisation of practical and operational non-conventional emergency response models efficient health systems, and tailored programmes can clearly support to prevent, control and eventually stamp out Ebola geo-distribution in addition to population mental health services that are requisite to address the massive range of the

  1. Non-conventional humanitarian interventions on Ebola outbreak crisis in West Africa: health, ethics and legal implications.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of Ebola outbreak early warning alert, preparedness, surveillance and response systems, the most deadly, complex and largest ever seen Ebola war has been devastating West African communities. The unparalleled Ebola tsunami has prompted interrogations into, and uncertainties about, the effectiveness and efficiency of national, regional and international community's illed- responses using conventional humanitarian control and containment approaches and methods. The late humanitarian and local non-government organisations emergency responses and challenges to curb transmission dynamics and stop the ongoing spread in the Ebola outbreak in West Africa have led to an unprecedented toll of 14,413 reported Ebola cases in eight countries since the outbreak began, with 5,177 reported deaths including 571 health-care workers and 325 died as 14 November 2014. These indications the need of further evaluation of monitoring as substantial proportion of infections outside the context of Ebola epicentres, Ebola health centres treatment and care, infection prevention and control quality assurance checks in these countries. At the same time, exhaustive efforts should target ensuring an sufficient supply of optimal personal protective equipment (PPE) to all Ebola treatment facilities, along with the provision of training and relevant guidelines to limit to the minimum possible level of risk. The continent hosts a big proportion of the world's wealth, yet its people live in abject poverty, with governments unable to feed and govern them effectively, and who are condemned to endure even darker moments with the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Institutionalisation of practical and operational non-conventional emergency response models efficient health systems, and tailored programmes can clearly support to prevent, control and eventually stamp out Ebola geo-distribution in addition to population mental health services that are requisite to address the massive range of the

  2. Counselling in humanitarian settings: a retrospective analysis of 18 individual-focused non-specialised counselling programmes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) provides individual counselling interventions in medical humanitarian programmes in contexts affected by conflict and violence. Although mental health and psychosocial interventions are a common part of the humanitarian response, little is known about how the profile and outcomes for individuals seeking care differs across contexts. We did a retrospective analysis of routine programme data to determine who accessed MSF counselling services and why, and the individual and programmatic risk factors for poor outcomes. Methods We analysed data from 18 mental health projects run by MSF in 2009 in eight countries. Outcome measures were client-rating scores (1–10 scale; 1 worst) for complaint severity and functioning and counsellor assessment. The effect of client and programme factors on outcomes was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess binary outcome variables. Results 48704 counselling sessions were held with 14963 individuals. Excluding women-focused projects, 66.8% of patients were women. Mean (SD) age was 33.3 (14.1) years. Anxiety-related complaints were the most common (35.0%), followed by family-related problems (15.7%), mood-related problems (14.1%) and physical complaints (13.7%). Only 2.0% presented with a serious mental health condition. 27.2% did not identify a traumatic precipitating event. 24.6% identified domestic discord or violence and 17.5% psychological violence as the precipitating event. 6244 (43.9%) had only one session. For 91% of 7837 who returned, the counsellor reported the problem had decreased or resolved. The mean (SD) complaint rating improved by 4.7 (2.4) points (p < 0.001) and by 4.2 (2.3, p < 0.001) for functional rating. Risk factors for poorer outcomes were few sessions, non-conflict setting (stable or societal violence settings), serious mental health condition, or attending a large, recently opened project. Conclusions The majority of

  3. [Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among professionals during humanitarian aid in Haiti after the earthquake in 2010].

    PubMed

    Guimaro, Melissa Simon; Caiuby, Andrea Vannini Santesso; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Lacerda, Shirley Silva; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter

    2013-11-01

    The scope of this article is to screen the symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among the professionals who provided humanitarian aid for the Haitian population after the 2010 earthquake. It involvess a cross-sectional study. The Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R) was used for screening symptoms of PTSD. The participants included 32 Brazilians (mean age = 37.58 +/-7.01), 22 Americans (mean age =33.67 +/-8.03) and 12 Ecuadorians (mean age = 44.80 +/- 15.88). The professionals did not have PTSD symptoms. The relationship between prior experience variables in disaster situations and the total score of the IES-R (F (2) = 4.34, p = 0.017), as well as prior experience in disaster situations and the intrusion subscale (F (2) = 3.94, p = 0.024) were significant in linear regression models. The number of prior experiences was revealed as a significant predictor for the total score of IES (p < 0.05). The results showed that current experiences can be exacerbated by memories of prior experiences, increasing the likelihood of developing PTSD. Therefore the mental health care of the professionals should foster the early identification of prior experience risk factors, thereby not permitting voluntary initiative to transcend selective criteria and specific care.

  4. Perspectives from Ethiopia regarding U.S. military humanitarian assistance: how to build a better medical civil action project (MEDCAP).

    PubMed

    Miles, Shana; Malone, Joseph L

    2013-12-01

    Assuming that budgetary constraints continue over the next several years, the U.S. military's overseas medical activities including medical civic action projects (MEDCAPs) and humanitarian assistance projects could comprise an increasing proportion of the contributions of U.S. government (USG) to improving global health. We have identified several issues with MEDCAPs in Ethiopia since 2009 that resulted in delays or project cancellations. These were mostly related to lack of a plan to develop sustainable capacities. Although there are many obvious medical needs for civilian populations in Ethiopia, the provision of sustainable development assistance involving these Ethiopian populations on behalf of the USG is a complex undertaking involving coordination with many partners and coordination with several other USG agencies. Military medical professionals planning MEDCAPs and other cooperative global health projects would benefit from consultation and close coordination with U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Agency of International Development (USAID) experts who are involved in supporting medium- and long-term health projects in Ethiopia. The establishment of durable military medical academic relationships and involvement of overseas military medical research units could also help promote sustainable projects and build robust professional relationships in global health. PMID:24306018

  5. Using Airborne Remote Sensing to Increase Situational Awareness in Civil Protection and Humanitarian Relief - the Importance of User Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, H.; Kiefl, R.; Henkel, F.; Wenxi, C.; Nippold, R.; Kurz, F.; Kippnich, U.

    2016-06-01

    Enhancing situational awareness in real-time (RT) civil protection and emergency response scenarios requires the development of comprehensive monitoring concepts combining classical remote sensing disciplines with geospatial information science. In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) monitoring tools are being developed by which innovative data acquisition approaches are combined with information extraction as well as the generation and dissemination of information products to a specific user. DLR's 3K and 4k camera system which allow for a RT acquisition and pre-processing of high resolution aerial imagery are applied in two application examples conducted with end users: a civil protection exercise with humanitarian relief organisations and a large open-air music festival in cooperation with a festival organising company. This study discusses how airborne remote sensing can significantly contribute to both, situational assessment and awareness, focussing on the downstream processes required for extracting information from imagery and for visualising and disseminating imagery in combination with other geospatial information. Valuable user feedback and impetus for further developments has been obtained from both applications, referring to innovations in thematic image analysis (supporting festival site management) and product dissemination (editable web services). Thus, this study emphasises the important role of user involvement in application-related research, i.e. by aligning it closer to user's requirements.

  6. Faith-based aid, globalisation and the humanitarian frontline: an analysis of Western-based Muslim aid organisations.

    PubMed

    De Cordier, Bruno

    2009-10-01

    This paper focuses on the emergence and modus operandi of Muslim faith-based aid organisations from the West, particularly those from the United Kingdom. Through case studies of Islamic Relief Worldwide and Muslim Hands, it examines the actual and potential added value generated by these humanitarian players in Muslim-majority contexts at times when aid actors from or associated with the West are being perceived by some as instrumental to the political agendas of Western powers, or are being confronted with the consequences thereof. The study analyses Muslim faith-based aid organisations' transnational networks, their implementing partnerships with local faith-based non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and their security position within and their access to insecure contexts, drawing on field examples and opinion from Central Asia, Iraq and Pakistan. It thereby argues that there is ground for an expansion of the role of Muslim aid actors, because of the existence of social and political realities in the field that cannot be always effectively tackled by the dominant international development approaches.

  7. Prediction as a Humanitarian and Pragmatic Contribution from Human Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Gabrieli, John D.E.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging has greatly enhanced the cognitive neuroscience understanding of the human brain and its variation across individuals (neurodiversity) in both health and disease. Such progress has not yet, however, propelled changes in educational or medical practices that improve people’s lives. We review neuroimaging findings in which initial brain measures (neuromarkers) are correlated with or predict future (1) education, learning, and performance in children and adults; (2) criminality; (3) health-related behaviors; and (4) responses to pharmacological or behavioral treatments. Neuromarkers often provide better predictions (neuroprognosis), alone or in combination with other measures, than traditional behavioral measures. With further advances in study designs and analyses, neuromarkers may offer opportunities to personalize educational and clinical practices that lead to better outcomes for people. PMID:25569345

  8. Bounded agency in humanitarian settings: a qualitative study of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among refugees situated in Kenya and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Joshua B; Rhodes, Tim; Spiegel, Paul; Schilperoord, Marian; Burton, John Wagacha; Balasundaram, Susheela; Wong, Chunting; Ross, David A

    2014-11-01

    HIV-positive refugees confront a variety of challenges in accessing and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and attaining durable viral suppression; however, there is little understanding of what these challenges are, how they are navigated, or how they may differ across humanitarian settings. We sought to document and examine accounts of the threats, barriers and facilitators experienced in relation to HIV treatment and care and to conduct comparisons across settings. We conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of 14 refugees attending a public, urban HIV clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (July-September 2010), and 12 refugees attending a camp-based HIV clinic in Kakuma, Kenya (February-March 2011). We used framework methods and between-case comparison to analyze and interpret the data, identifying social and environmental factors that influenced adherence. The multiple issues that threatened adherence to antiretroviral therapy or precipitated actual adherence lapses clustered into three themes: "migration", "insecurity", and "resilience". The migration theme included issues related to crossing borders and integrating into treatment systems upon arrival in a host country. Challenges related to crossing borders were reported in both settings, but threats pertaining to integration into, and navigation of, a new health system were exclusive to the Malaysian setting. The insecurity theme included food insecurity, which was most commonly reported in the Kenyan setting; health systems insecurity, reported in both settings; and emotional insecurity, which was most common in the Kenyan setting. Resilient processes were reported in both settings. We drew on the concept of "bounded agency" to argue that, despite evidence of personal and community resilience, these processes were sometimes insufficient for overcoming social and environmental barriers to adherence. In general, interventions might aim to bolster individuals' range of action with

  9. A proposal for field-level medical assistance in an international humanitarian response to chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear events.

    PubMed

    Malich, Gregor; Coupland, Robin; Donnelly, Steve; Baker, David

    2013-10-01

    A capacity for field-level medical assistance for people exposed to chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) agents or medical support for people potentially exposed to these agents is intrinsically linked to the overall risk management approach adopted by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) for an international humanitarian response to a CBRN event. This medical assistance articulates: ▸the characteristics of the agent concerned (if known) ▸the need for immediate care particularly for people exposed to agents with high toxicity and short latency ▸the imperative for those responding to be protected from exposure to the same agents. This article proposes two distinct capacities for medical assistance--CBRN field medical care and CBRN first aid--that take the above into account and the realities of a CBRN event including the likelihood that qualified medical staff may not be present with the right equipment. These capacities are equally pertinent whether in support of ICRC staff or for assistance of victims of a CBRN event. Training of those who will undertake CBRN field medical care and CBRN first aid must include: ▸knowledge of CBRN agents, their impact on health and the corresponding toxidromes ▸skills to use appropriate equipment ▸use of appropriate means of self-protection ▸an understanding of the additional complexities brought by the need for and interaction of triage, transfer and decontamination. The development of CBRN field medical care and CBRN first aid continues within the ICRC while acknowledging that the opportunities for learning in real situations are extremely limited. Comments from others who work in this domain are welcome.

  10. Bounded agency in humanitarian settings: a qualitative study of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among refugees situated in Kenya and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Joshua B; Rhodes, Tim; Spiegel, Paul; Schilperoord, Marian; Burton, John Wagacha; Balasundaram, Susheela; Wong, Chunting; Ross, David A

    2014-11-01

    HIV-positive refugees confront a variety of challenges in accessing and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and attaining durable viral suppression; however, there is little understanding of what these challenges are, how they are navigated, or how they may differ across humanitarian settings. We sought to document and examine accounts of the threats, barriers and facilitators experienced in relation to HIV treatment and care and to conduct comparisons across settings. We conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of 14 refugees attending a public, urban HIV clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (July-September 2010), and 12 refugees attending a camp-based HIV clinic in Kakuma, Kenya (February-March 2011). We used framework methods and between-case comparison to analyze and interpret the data, identifying social and environmental factors that influenced adherence. The multiple issues that threatened adherence to antiretroviral therapy or precipitated actual adherence lapses clustered into three themes: "migration", "insecurity", and "resilience". The migration theme included issues related to crossing borders and integrating into treatment systems upon arrival in a host country. Challenges related to crossing borders were reported in both settings, but threats pertaining to integration into, and navigation of, a new health system were exclusive to the Malaysian setting. The insecurity theme included food insecurity, which was most commonly reported in the Kenyan setting; health systems insecurity, reported in both settings; and emotional insecurity, which was most common in the Kenyan setting. Resilient processes were reported in both settings. We drew on the concept of "bounded agency" to argue that, despite evidence of personal and community resilience, these processes were sometimes insufficient for overcoming social and environmental barriers to adherence. In general, interventions might aim to bolster individuals' range of action with

  11. What evidence exists for initiatives to reduce risk and incidence of sexual violence in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Steinacker, Léa; Zwi, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i) survivor care; ii) livelihood initiatives; iii) community mobilisation; iv) personnel initiatives; v) systems and security responses; vi) legal interventions and vii) multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms, settings

  12. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of “Humanitarian Parole”

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A.; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US–Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population. PMID:26157791

  13. Perceptions of oral cholera vaccine and reasons for full, partial and non-acceptance during a humanitarian crisis in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Peprah, Dorothy; Palmer, Jennifer J; Rubin, G James; Abubakar, Abdinasir; Costa, Alejandro; Martin, Stephen; Perea, William; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-07-19

    Oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaigns were conducted from February to April 2014 among internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the midst of a humanitarian crisis in Juba, South Sudan. IDPs were predominantly members of the Nuer ethnic group who had taken refuge in United Nations bases following the eruption of violence in December 2013. The OCV campaigns, which were conducted by United Nations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) at the request of the Ministry of Health, reached an estimated 85-96% of the target population. As no previous studies on OCV acceptance have been conducted in the context of an on-going humanitarian crisis, semi-structured interviews were completed with 49 IDPs in the months after the campaigns to better understand perceptions of cholera and reasons for full, partial or non-acceptance of the OCV. Heightened fears of disease and political danger contributed to camp residents' perception of cholera as a serious illness and increased trust in United Nations and NGOs providing the vaccine to IDPs. Reasons for partial and non-acceptance of the vaccination included lack of time and fear of side effects, similar to reasons found in OCV campaigns in non-crisis settings. In addition, distrust in national institutions in a context of fears of ethnic persecution was an important reason for hesitancy and refusal. Other reasons included fear of taking the vaccine alongside other medication or with alcohol. The findings highlight the importance of considering the target populations' perceptions of institutions in the delivery of OCV interventions in humanitarian contexts. They also suggest a need for better communication about the vaccine, its side effects and interactions with other substances. PMID:27265459

  14. Perceptions of oral cholera vaccine and reasons for full, partial and non-acceptance during a humanitarian crisis in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Peprah, Dorothy; Palmer, Jennifer J; Rubin, G James; Abubakar, Abdinasir; Costa, Alejandro; Martin, Stephen; Perea, William; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-07-19

    Oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaigns were conducted from February to April 2014 among internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the midst of a humanitarian crisis in Juba, South Sudan. IDPs were predominantly members of the Nuer ethnic group who had taken refuge in United Nations bases following the eruption of violence in December 2013. The OCV campaigns, which were conducted by United Nations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) at the request of the Ministry of Health, reached an estimated 85-96% of the target population. As no previous studies on OCV acceptance have been conducted in the context of an on-going humanitarian crisis, semi-structured interviews were completed with 49 IDPs in the months after the campaigns to better understand perceptions of cholera and reasons for full, partial or non-acceptance of the OCV. Heightened fears of disease and political danger contributed to camp residents' perception of cholera as a serious illness and increased trust in United Nations and NGOs providing the vaccine to IDPs. Reasons for partial and non-acceptance of the vaccination included lack of time and fear of side effects, similar to reasons found in OCV campaigns in non-crisis settings. In addition, distrust in national institutions in a context of fears of ethnic persecution was an important reason for hesitancy and refusal. Other reasons included fear of taking the vaccine alongside other medication or with alcohol. The findings highlight the importance of considering the target populations' perceptions of institutions in the delivery of OCV interventions in humanitarian contexts. They also suggest a need for better communication about the vaccine, its side effects and interactions with other substances.

  15. What Evidence Exists for Initiatives to Reduce Risk and Incidence of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict and Other Humanitarian Crises? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Steinacker, Léa; Zwi, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i) survivor care; ii) livelihood initiatives; iii) community mobilisation; iv) personnel initiatives; v) systems and security responses; vi) legal interventions and vii) multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms, settings

  16. Results of a humanitarian otologic and audiologic project performed outside of the United States: lessons learned from the "Oye, Amigos!" project.

    PubMed

    Barrs, D M; Muller, S P; Worrndell, D B; Weidmann, E W

    2000-12-01

    From 1989 to 1993, "Oye, Amigos!" a combined group of hearing health and other medical professionals performed 18 humanitarian medical and audiologic trips to Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico. The group saw 1500 patients, issued over 800 hearing aids, and performed 150 surgeries on 123 patients. Our tympanoplasty success rate, defined as an intact tympanic membrane, was 41% during the first 2 years of the project but increased to 74% during the last 3 years. Two hundred eighteen patients who were candidates for surgery did not return for care. We present the lessons learned from the surgical care and overall management of this project, and present suggestions to improve future projects.

  17. [Humanitarian action...and then? An interview of Jean-Christophe Rufin, ex vice president of Médecins sans Frontières, president of Action contre la faim, Goncourt prize 2001].

    PubMed

    Rufin, Jean-Christophe

    2004-06-01

    First dedicated to emergency situations, then more involved in long term duration development, humanitarian action is concerned by a crisis which appears absolutely necessary after 30 years of growing up. Many factors may contribute to that situation: structural professionalisation, official financial pressures, political influences, more ideology for less ideal behaviour, competition with rising of new ideas like alter mondialisation etc. It seems interesting in such a situation to get some advice about humanitarian future from a personality who has recognised responsibilities in both action and thoughts consideration.

  18. Incidence, Etiology and Risk Factors for Travelers’ Diarrhea during a Hospital Ship-Based Military Humanitarian Mission: Continuing Promise 2011

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Martin, Gregory J.; Scouten, William T.; Brooks, Krista; Putnam, Shannon D.; Riddle, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Travelers’ diarrhea (TD) is the most common ailment affecting travelers, including deployed U.S. military. Continuing Promise 2011 was a 5-month humanitarian assistance/disaster response (HA/DR) military and non-governmental organization training mission aboard the hospital ship USNS Comfort, which deployed to Central and South America and the Caribbean between April and September 2011. Enhanced TD surveillance was undertaken during this mission for public health purposes. Passive surveillance (clinic visits), active surveillance (self-reported questionnaires), and stool samples were collected weekly from shipboard personnel. Descriptive statistics and multivariate-logistic regression methods were used to estimate disease burden and risk factor identification. Two polymerase chain reaction methods on frozen stool were used for microbiological identification. TD was the primary complaint for all clinic visits (20%) and the leading cause of lost duties days due to bed rest confinement (62%), though underreported, as the active self-reported incidence was 3.5 times higher than the passive clinic-reported incidence. Vomiting (p = 0.002), feeling lightheaded or weak (p = 0.005), and being a food handler (p = 0.017) were associated with increased odds of lost duty days. Thirty-eight percent of self-reported cases reported some amount of performance impact. Based on the epidemiological curve, country of exercise and liberty appeared to be temporally associated with increased risk. From the weekly self-reported questionnaire risk factor analysis, eating off ship in the prior week was strongly associated (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.4, p<0.001). Consumption of seafood increased risk (aOR 1.7, p = 0.03), though consumption of ice appeared protective (aOR 0.3, p = 0.01). Etiology was bacterial (48%), with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (35%). Norovirus was identified as a sole pathogen in 12%, though found as a copathogen in an additional 6

  19. Incidence, Etiology and Risk Factors for Travelers' Diarrhea during a Hospital Ship-Based Military Humanitarian Mission: Continuing Promise 2011.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Jessica M; McCaffrey, Ramona L; McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Martin, Gregory J; Scouten, William T; Brooks, Krista; Putnam, Shannon D; Riddle, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is the most common ailment affecting travelers, including deployed U.S. military. Continuing Promise 2011 was a 5-month humanitarian assistance/disaster response (HA/DR) military and non-governmental organization training mission aboard the hospital ship USNS Comfort, which deployed to Central and South America and the Caribbean between April and September 2011. Enhanced TD surveillance was undertaken during this mission for public health purposes. Passive surveillance (clinic visits), active surveillance (self-reported questionnaires), and stool samples were collected weekly from shipboard personnel. Descriptive statistics and multivariate-logistic regression methods were used to estimate disease burden and risk factor identification. Two polymerase chain reaction methods on frozen stool were used for microbiological identification. TD was the primary complaint for all clinic visits (20%) and the leading cause of lost duties days due to bed rest confinement (62%), though underreported, as the active self-reported incidence was 3.5 times higher than the passive clinic-reported incidence. Vomiting (p = 0.002), feeling lightheaded or weak (p = 0.005), and being a food handler (p = 0.017) were associated with increased odds of lost duty days. Thirty-eight percent of self-reported cases reported some amount of performance impact. Based on the epidemiological curve, country of exercise and liberty appeared to be temporally associated with increased risk. From the weekly self-reported questionnaire risk factor analysis, eating off ship in the prior week was strongly associated (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.4, p<0.001). Consumption of seafood increased risk (aOR 1.7, p = 0.03), though consumption of ice appeared protective (aOR 0.3, p = 0.01). Etiology was bacterial (48%), with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (35%). Norovirus was identified as a sole pathogen in 12%, though found as a copathogen in an additional 6

  20. A humanitarian preparedness toolbox: estimating flood affected figures and exposure of livelihoods to future floods events, using freely available datasets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Paolo; von Hagen, Craig; Peppino Disperati, Stefano; Hermansyah, Budi; Shaheen, Imra; Jan, Qasim; Berloffa, Andrea; Khan, Ruby; Fakhre, Alam

    2013-04-01

    Pakistan is highly disaster-prone, with three major flood disasters occurred in the past three years, yet major losses are not inevitable. Farming-based families still struggling to recover from 2010 and 2011 floods have again faced another bad monsoon season in 2012. Meanwhile, the likelihood of yet more natural disasters in the future is high as the phenomenon of climate change is increasing the prevalence of extreme weather conditions. Even with less rainfall, the risk of flooding this year remains high, while many villages have not fully recovered from the 2011-2012 floods. It is of utmost importance to support the most vulnerable rural communities to recover their flood-affected livelihoods. In the meantime, prioritizing disaster preparedness through flood hazard and population mapping is crucial to ensure that realistic contingency plans are in place to deliver an effective and timely response and reduce the impact of floods before they strike. To increase preparedness in future floods, an integrated approach that builds the resilience of flood affected community and enhances emergency preparedness based on reliable data is critical. We present here the innovative methodology developed for estimating population and livelihood that could potentially be affected by a future flood scenario, as well as a methodology for knowing where these people are located, along with an overview of their livelihood pattern. This project has used only freely available dataset, due to the urgency of providing a toolbox to the humanitarian community and the absence of readily available detailed information on natural hazards and exposure in Pakistan. The estimated figures resulting from this project, would provide the Food Security stakeholders with adequate information and data for programming a tailored response in case of floods during future monsoon season. For the purpose of preparedness, understanding the risks, and its potential magnitude, is crucial to provide decision

  1. Advance care directives

    MedlinePlus

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  2. The role of physicians in conflicts and humanitarian crises. Case studies from the field missions of Physicians for Human Rights, 1988 to 1993.

    PubMed

    Geiger, H J; Cook-Deegan, R M

    1993-08-01

    Violations of human rights in wars, civil conflicts, and brutal repression mounted by governments against their own citizens often have profound consequences to individual and public health and may, in turn, produce humanitarian crises. The skills of physicians, medical and forensic scientists, and other health workers are uniquely valuable in human rights investigations and documentation, producing evidence of abuse more credible and less vulnerable to challenge than traditional methods of case reporting. Only in recent decades, however, have physicians organized specifically to meet this responsibility. This article presents case studies from the field missions of Physicians for Human Rights to illustrate the investigation and documentation of violations of medical neutrality, refugee health crises, the use of indiscriminate weapons, torture, deliberate injury and rape, and mass executions. Participation of health workers in the defense of human rights now includes investigation and documentation of health effects in threatened populations as well as individual victims.

  3. Sauvons les Bébés: child health and U.S. humanitarian aid in the First World War era.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Julia F

    2012-01-01

    From 1917 to 1923, the American Red Cross organized an array of long-term child health projects in Europe as part of its larger wartime and post-war humanitarian efforts. Across the continent, the organization established child health clinics, better baby shows, playgrounds, fresh air camps, and courses for women on infant and child hygiene. Hundreds of U.S. doctors, nurses, and other child welfare professionals traveled to Europe to administer these programs. These activities call attention to American efforts to reform the health of European youth and, in so doing, to reshape European medicine and European society more broadly. Moreover, they suggest the importance of child-centered medical relief-and the history of medicine more broadly-to the history of U.S. foreign relations.

  4. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  5. Advanced Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarantos, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    This is an excerpt from a course for advanced students, designed to teach proficiency in English composition by providing activities specifically geared to the elimination of native language interference. (LG)

  6. Moisès Broggi i Vallès (1908-2012): Military surgeon and Catalan humanitarian.

    PubMed

    Derby, Mark; Jorge, David

    2016-02-01

    Catalan surgeon Moisès Broggi entered medical practice in 1931 as Spain was modernizing rapidly. Five years later, however, an attempted military coup sparked a nationwide civil war. Broggi offered his services to the embattled Republic and joined the Medical Service of the International Brigades. He served alongside colleagues from many countries, helping to develop advances in military medicine and especially trauma surgery. Broggi chose to remain working in Barcelona as Franco's Nationalist forces entered the city, in spite of the risk of reprisal he faced as a former officer of the International Brigades. Although forced from his leading position in the public health service, he developed a distinguished private practice. In the year of Franco's death he became President of Barcelona's Royal Academy of Medicine and he received many other honours. Just months before his death at the remarkable age of 104, Dr Moisès Broggi continued to discuss and write about the concerns that had directed the course of his life--advances in medical science and the intellectual and political repression that had hindered delivery of those advances. In an article titled Exile and Silence he noted the groundbreaking work carried out under the auspices of the prestigious scientific institutions founded during Spain's Second Republic and the subsequent dark decades of exile suffered by many of their prominent scientists, some of them his close friends.

  7. Moisès Broggi i Vallès (1908-2012): Military surgeon and Catalan humanitarian.

    PubMed

    Derby, Mark; Jorge, David

    2016-02-01

    Catalan surgeon Moisès Broggi entered medical practice in 1931 as Spain was modernizing rapidly. Five years later, however, an attempted military coup sparked a nationwide civil war. Broggi offered his services to the embattled Republic and joined the Medical Service of the International Brigades. He served alongside colleagues from many countries, helping to develop advances in military medicine and especially trauma surgery. Broggi chose to remain working in Barcelona as Franco's Nationalist forces entered the city, in spite of the risk of reprisal he faced as a former officer of the International Brigades. Although forced from his leading position in the public health service, he developed a distinguished private practice. In the year of Franco's death he became President of Barcelona's Royal Academy of Medicine and he received many other honours. Just months before his death at the remarkable age of 104, Dr Moisès Broggi continued to discuss and write about the concerns that had directed the course of his life--advances in medical science and the intellectual and political repression that had hindered delivery of those advances. In an article titled Exile and Silence he noted the groundbreaking work carried out under the auspices of the prestigious scientific institutions founded during Spain's Second Republic and the subsequent dark decades of exile suffered by many of their prominent scientists, some of them his close friends. PMID:26873168

  8. Development of a screening tool to identify female survivors of gender-based violence in a humanitarian setting: qualitative evidence from research among refugees in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High levels of gender-based violence (GBV) persist among conflict-affected populations and within humanitarian settings and are paralleled by under-reporting and low service utilization. Novel and evidence-based approaches are necessary to change the current state of GBV amongst these populations. We present the findings of qualitative research, which were used to inform the development of a screening tool as one potential strategy to identify and respond to GBV for females in humanitarian settings. Methods Qualitative research methods were conducted from January-February 2011 to explore the range of experiences of GBV and barriers to reporting GBV among female refugees. Individual interview participants (n=37) included female refugees (≥15 years), who were survivors of GBV, living in urban or one of three camps settings in Ethiopia, and originating from six conflict countries. Focus group discussion participants (11 groups; 77 participants) included health, protection and community service staff working in the urban or camp settings. Interviews and discussions were conducted in the language of preference, with assistance by interpreters when needed, and transcribed for analysis by grounded-theory technique. Results Single and multiple counts of GBV were reported and ranged from psychological and social violence; rape, gang rape, sexual coercion, and other sexual violence; abduction; and physical violence. Domestic violence was predominantly reported to occur when participants were living in the host country. Opportunistic violence, often manifested by rape, occurred during transit when women depended on others to reach their destination. Abduction within the host country, and often across borders, highlighted the constant state of vulnerability of refugees. Barriers to reporting included perceived and experienced stigma in health settings and in the wider community, lack of awareness of services, and inability to protect children while mothers sought

  9. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  10. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  11. [A ''humanitarian duty and a matter of honour for German Jewry": "feeble-minded" Jewish children and the Institution in Beelitz].

    PubMed

    Prestel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    In 1908, in collaboration with the Bnei Briss, the German Association of Israelite Communities founded an institution for intellectually disabled Jewish children in Beelitz with the aim of educating 7-14-year-olds, using therapeutic pedagogy. The institution was part of the philanthropic efforts undertaken by German Jewry in that period. It was set up in the wake of the German Kaiser's call to found more philanthropic institutions, and its establishment is indicative of the efforts at integration being made by German Jewry. In their fund-raising material, the German Association of Israelite Communities stressed the "loyalty and patriotism" of German Jewry and described the establishment of the institution as "a humanitarian duty" and "a matter of honour for German Jewry". It was, therefore, demands from the non-Jewish world that led to the foundation of a Jewish institution; however, its establishment was also symbolic of the struggle against anti-Semitism and indicative both of German Jewry's dissimilation and their efforts at integration. The article investigates the struggle of Jewish parents to have their children admitted to the institution, the philosophy and teaching methods of the director Sally Bein (1881-1942) and his wife Friederike Rebeka Bein (1883-1942), the background of the students, the causes of intellectual disability, as well as the disagreements that occurred between parents, teachers and the director. The article also discusses the successes and failures of therapeutic pedagogy.

  12. [A ''humanitarian duty and a matter of honour for German Jewry": "feeble-minded" Jewish children and the Institution in Beelitz].

    PubMed

    Prestel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    In 1908, in collaboration with the Bnei Briss, the German Association of Israelite Communities founded an institution for intellectually disabled Jewish children in Beelitz with the aim of educating 7-14-year-olds, using therapeutic pedagogy. The institution was part of the philanthropic efforts undertaken by German Jewry in that period. It was set up in the wake of the German Kaiser's call to found more philanthropic institutions, and its establishment is indicative of the efforts at integration being made by German Jewry. In their fund-raising material, the German Association of Israelite Communities stressed the "loyalty and patriotism" of German Jewry and described the establishment of the institution as "a humanitarian duty" and "a matter of honour for German Jewry". It was, therefore, demands from the non-Jewish world that led to the foundation of a Jewish institution; however, its establishment was also symbolic of the struggle against anti-Semitism and indicative both of German Jewry's dissimilation and their efforts at integration. The article investigates the struggle of Jewish parents to have their children admitted to the institution, the philosophy and teaching methods of the director Sally Bein (1881-1942) and his wife Friederike Rebeka Bein (1883-1942), the background of the students, the causes of intellectual disability, as well as the disagreements that occurred between parents, teachers and the director. The article also discusses the successes and failures of therapeutic pedagogy. PMID:25134256

  13. Pre-Travel Preparation of US Travelers Going Abroad to Provide Humanitarian Service, Global TravEpiNet 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Stoney, Rhett J.; Jentes, Emily S.; Sotir, Mark J.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Rao, Sowmya R.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of humanitarian service workers (HSWs) seen pre-travel at Global TravEpiNet (GTEN) practices during 2009–2011. Of 23,264 travelers, 3,663 (16%) travelers were classified as HSWs. Among HSWs, 1,269 (35%) travelers were medical workers, 1,298 (35%) travelers were non-medical service workers, and 990 (27%) travelers were missionaries. Median age was 29 years, and 63% of travelers were female. Almost one-half (49%) traveled to 1 of 10 countries; the most frequent destinations were Haiti (14%), Honduras (8%), and Kenya (6%). Over 90% of travelers were vaccinated for or considered immune to hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever. However, for hepatitis B, 292 (29%) of 990 missionaries, 228 (18%) of 1,298 non-medical service workers, and 76 (6%) of 1,269 medical workers were not vaccinated or considered immune. Of HSWs traveling to Haiti during 2010, 5% of travelers did not receive malaria chemoprophylaxis. Coordinated efforts from HSWs, HSW agencies, and clinicians could reduce vaccine coverage gaps and improve use of malaria chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24445203

  14. Challenge of goodness: twelve humanitarian proposals based on the experience of 1991-1995 wars in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Lang, S

    1998-03-01

    Based on the 1991-1995 war experience of peoples of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, I made twelve proposals regarding the following aspects of health, humanitarian work, and human rights: 1. Broadening of the WHO definition of health by including spiritual well-being (absence of hatred) in it, 2. Inclusion of the term genocide into the Index Medicus (MeSH), 3. Establishment of concepts of prevention of hate, 4. Right to a home, 5. Right of civilians to participate in defense and renewal, 6. Right to deliberation from enslavement and right to find out the fate of missing persons, 7. Global hospital, 8. Monitoring of prisoner-of-war camps, 9. Refugee camps, 10. Providing of care for the abandoned - a new category of people suffering in war, 11. Introduction of the Helping Hand concept, 12. Organization of the Red Cross Forum after the cessation of hostilities. The fundamental objective was to establish the legitimacy of honesty in practice, regulative social mechanisms, and science.

  15. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  16. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  17. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  18. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  19. Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief mission by a tripartite medical team led by the Singapore Armed Forces after the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming Li Leonard; Lim, Jonathan Zhao Min; Tan, Mark Zhong Wei; Kok, Wai Leong; Zhang, Jun Ren; Tan, Mian Yi; Tan, Adrian Chong Beng

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to report the injury or disease patterns, challenges, key observations, and recommendations by the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) team that embarked on an Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) mission in the aftermath of the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. METHODS The SAF medical team that provided HADR assistance to Nepal consisted of personnel from the SAF, Singapore¢s Ministry of Health and the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. Upon arrival in Kathmandu, Nepal, the SAF medical team was assigned to the Gokarna district by the local health authorities. In addition to providing primary healthcare, the medical facility was equipped to perform resuscitation and minor procedures. We also assembled mobile medical teams (MMTs) that travelled to various remote areas of the country to deliver medical aid. RESULTS A total of 3,014 patients were managed by the SAF medical team. Of these patients, 1,286 (42.7%) were men. 574 (19.0%) patients sustained earthquake-related injuries or illnesses, while 2,440 (81.0%) sustained non-earthquake-related injuries or illnesses. The team treated a total of 447 (77.9%) adults and 127 (22.1%) paediatric patients with earthquake-related injuries or illnesses. A significant number of patients developed exacerbations of underlying medical conditions. 2,161 (71.7%) patients were treated in our main facility in Gokarna, while 853 patients (28.3%) were treated by our MMTs. CONCLUSION The ability to transport healthcare personnel and essential medical equipment within a short time allowed the SAF medical team to provide crucial medical care in the aftermath of the 2015 Nepal earthquake. PMID:27549187

  20. Advanced Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  1. A tribute to Dr. Robert C. Allen, an inspirational teacher, humanitarian, and friend (Nov. 18, 1950-Mar. 24, 2005).

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Greene, Jill A; Long, William B

    2006-01-01

    lens, you should go to the website for more information http://www.nike.com/nikevision/content.html. The website has a list of practitioners who can service the patients with the respective sunglasses. With their exciting technologic advances in sunglass products, as well as tinted soft contact lens, the authors would encourage Nike Vision to develop an expanded international marketing program that allows all individuals in the world to easily purchase its products.

  2. Advanced stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Arnulf

    1983-03-01

    Toroidal confinement of a plasma by an external magnetic field is not compatible with axisymmetry, in contrast to confinement by the pinch effect of induced electric currents as in a tokomak or by the reversed field pinch configuration. The existence of magnetic surfaces throughout the region in which grad p ≠ 0 is therefore not guaranteed in such configurations, though it is necessary for MHD-equilibrium when the lines of force possess a finite twist (or "rotational transform"). These twisted equilibria are called stellarators. The other type of external confinement requires all lines of force to be closed upon themselves and p to be function of the well defined quantity Q = φ d l/ B only. The resulting "bumpy" tori are sometimes also referred to as being M + S like. By discussing specific examples it is shown that stellarator configurations exist which retain as much as possible the properties of M + S like configurations, combine these with the magnetic well, and with an approximation to the isodynamic requirement of D. Palumbo. These so-called Advanced Stellarators shown an improvement in predicted particle confinement and beta-limit compared to the classical stellarators. They can also be viewed as forming a system of linked stabilized mirrors of small mirror ratio. These fields can be produced by modular coils. A prototype of such a configuration is being designed by the stellarator division of IPP under the name of Wendelstein VII-AS. Expected physical data and technical details of W VII-AS are given.

  3. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. D.; Buritz, R. S.; Taylor, A. R.; Bullwinkel, E. P.

    1982-11-01

    An experimental development program was conducted to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. High rep rate and low rate capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, and high frequency ac capacitors for series resonant inverters were considered. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film. Initially, low breakdown strength was thought to be related to inclusions of conductive particles. The effect of filtration of the casting solution was investigated. These experiments showed that more filtration was not the entire solution to low breakdown. The film samples were found to contain dissolved ionic impurities that move through the dielectric when voltage is applied and cause enhancement of the electric field. These contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and can be partially removed. However, these treatments did not significantly improve the breakdown characteristics. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films. this is the first step toward a replacement for kraft paper.

  4. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  5. Study of global operational needs for mine clearance equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagden, Paddy M.

    2003-09-01

    The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining studied the needs of landmine clearance groups for equipment to carry out specific functions of mine clearance. This was done on a global level, and useful results were obtained, which will provide the basis for further analysis.

  6. [Combination of Genetic and Humanitarian (Cross-Cultural) Methods for the Identification of Human Genes Involved in the Process of Adaptation to Evolutionary New Environmental Factors].

    PubMed

    Borinskaya, S A; Yankovsky, N K

    2015-04-01

    Human settlement from the African ancestral home was accompanied by cultural and genetic adaptation to new habitat conditions (climate, infections, diet, etc.). We previously suggested for the first time an approach to the identification of human genes presumably involved in adaptation to evolutionary new environmental factors based on a combination of genetic and humanitarian methods of study. In order to search for the genes involved in adaptation and for environmental factors (to which this adaptation occurs), we attempted to find correlations between the population allele frequencies of the studied gene and formalized descriptions of peculiarities of the habitat of ethnic groups given in "Ethnographic Atlas" by G. P. Murdock. In the presented review, we summarized our own data on an experimental determination of the allele frequencies for lactase (LCT*), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B) genes in populations of Russia. Based on these data and available materials of other investigators, we developed maps of worldwide allele frequency distribution for these genes. We detected a correlation of allele frequencies of these genes in populations with the presence of certain factors of the environment that these populations inhabit. It was also confirmed that the evolutionarily young LCT*-13910T allele, which determines lactase persistence and the possibility of milk consumption in adults, is distributed in populations for which dairy animal husbandry is typical. During the analysis of 68 populations, we for the first time demonstrated that the frequency of the APOE e4 allele (which is ancestral for humans and influences the lipid metabolism) is higher in groups with a high contribution of hunting and gathering. Our data are in favor of the hypothesis that it was exactly the e4 allele that was a subject for selection, while the e3 allele was less important for adaptation. We also for the first time demonstrated that the evolutionarily young ADH

  7. [Combination of Genetic and Humanitarian (Cross-Cultural) Methods for the Identification of Human Genes Involved in the Process of Adaptation to Evolutionary New Environmental Factors].

    PubMed

    Borinskaya, S A; Yankovsky, N K

    2015-04-01

    Human settlement from the African ancestral home was accompanied by cultural and genetic adaptation to new habitat conditions (climate, infections, diet, etc.). We previously suggested for the first time an approach to the identification of human genes presumably involved in adaptation to evolutionary new environmental factors based on a combination of genetic and humanitarian methods of study. In order to search for the genes involved in adaptation and for environmental factors (to which this adaptation occurs), we attempted to find correlations between the population allele frequencies of the studied gene and formalized descriptions of peculiarities of the habitat of ethnic groups given in "Ethnographic Atlas" by G. P. Murdock. In the presented review, we summarized our own data on an experimental determination of the allele frequencies for lactase (LCT*), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B) genes in populations of Russia. Based on these data and available materials of other investigators, we developed maps of worldwide allele frequency distribution for these genes. We detected a correlation of allele frequencies of these genes in populations with the presence of certain factors of the environment that these populations inhabit. It was also confirmed that the evolutionarily young LCT*-13910T allele, which determines lactase persistence and the possibility of milk consumption in adults, is distributed in populations for which dairy animal husbandry is typical. During the analysis of 68 populations, we for the first time demonstrated that the frequency of the APOE e4 allele (which is ancestral for humans and influences the lipid metabolism) is higher in groups with a high contribution of hunting and gathering. Our data are in favor of the hypothesis that it was exactly the e4 allele that was a subject for selection, while the e3 allele was less important for adaptation. We also for the first time demonstrated that the evolutionarily young ADH

  8. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    remain unaddressed in official assessments conducted in partnership with the SPDC. Private, community-based relief organizations like EAT are well positioned and able to independently assess human rights conditions in response to complex humanitarian emergencies such as Cyclone Nargis; efforts of this nature must be encouraged, particularly in settings where human rights abuses have been documented and censorship is widespread. PMID:20403200

  9. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  10. Advanced Technologies for Space Life Science Payloads on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) is a specialized, high-performance work group organized to provide advanced engineering and technology support for NASA's Life Sciences spaceflight and ground-based research and development programs. In support of these objectives, S2K! manages NASA's Advanced Technology Development Program for Biosensor and Biotelemetry Systems (ATD-B), with particular emphasis on technologies suitable for Gravitational Biology, Human Health and Performance, and Information Technology and Systems Management. A concurrent objective is to apply and transition ATD-B developed technologies to external, non-NASA humanitarian (medical, clinical, surgical, and emergency) situations and to stimulate partnering and leveraging with other government agencies, academia, and the commercial/industrial sectors. A phased long-term program has been implemented to support science disciplines and programs requiring specific biosensor (i.e., biopotential, biophysical, biochemical, and biological) measurements from humans, animals (mainly primates and rodents), and cells under controlled laboratory and simulated microgravity situations. In addition to the technology programs described above, NASA's Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Office has initiated a Technology Infusion process to identify and coordinate the utilization and integration of advanced technologies into its International Space Station Facilities. This project has recently identified a series of technologies, tasks, and products which, if implemented, would significantly increase the science return, decrease costs, and provide improved technological capability. This presentation will review the programs described above and discuss opportunities for collaboration, leveraging, and partnering with NASA.

  11. Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitch, Michael J.; Schauki, Dunja; Kelly, Craig A.; Osiander, Robert

    2004-04-01

    Pulsed THz (100 GHz - 30 THz) Imaging Spectroscopy combines three ways of mine detection in one system, high resolution radar, depth ranging, and infrared spectroscopy. It allows minefield detection, single mine imaging, and near-zero false alarm due to the capabilities of explosives / plastic identification using spectroscopy with working distances to 1000 feet. We have previously demonstrated imaging capabilities with 1 mm spatial resolution on a rubber O-ring embedded in sand. The estimated transmission depth in moist sand is 1 to 3 cm, which should be sufficient for imaging anti-personnel mines. In this work, we present initial results investigating the feasibility of THz spectroscopy in the frequency range from 1 to 10 THz to detect and identify explosives and related compounds (ERCs). A major component of this effort is chemical modeling to obtain spectroscopic information on ERCs and environmental background. A time-domain THz system using femtosecond laser pulses is also being developed.

  12. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  13. Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate.

  14. Advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Advance directives allow patients to have some control over decisions even when they are no longer able to make decisions themselves. All states authorize written advance directives, such as the appointment of a health care proxy, but commonly impose procedural requirements. Some states have restricted the use of oral advance directives, although they are frequently used in everyday practice. Advance directives are limited because they are infrequently used, may not be informed, and may conflict with the patient's current best interests. Moreover, surrogates often cannot state patients' preferences accurately. Furthermore, discussions among physicians and patients about advance directives are flawed. Physicians can improve discussions about advance directives by asking the patient who should serve as proxy and by ascertaining the patient's values and general preferences before discussing specific clinical situations. PMID:15538068

  15. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  16. Advancing the educational agenda.

    PubMed

    Baker, Cynthia

    2010-12-01

    This timely paper provides a thought-provoking analysis of current advanced practice nursing education in Canada. It comes at a critical juncture in the evolution of Canadian healthcare services and the redefinition of nursing roles. Increasingly, multiple sectors of society are calling for more nurses with advanced practice preparation and for a wider range of advanced practice nursing specialties. Advanced practice nurses (APNs) are being proposed as a solution to a financially overburdened national healthcare system, the increasing complexity of healthcare services, and a crisis in access to primary healthcare. Thus, governments seeking greater fiscal efficiency, medical specialists needing sophisticated collaborative support, and healthcare consumers see APNs as the way forward.

  17. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  18. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  19. ADVANCED PLACEMENT IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Council on Advanced Placement, Columbus.

    THE DOCUMENT PRESENTS A DESCRIPTION OF THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM IN OHIO. ANSWERS ARE GIVEN TO KEY QUESTIONS ON THE FUNCTION OF ADVANCED PLACEMENT, ACADEMIC AREAS COVERED, PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION, COSTS, BENEFITS, VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS, STUDENT PARTICIPANTS, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN OHIO AND REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS…

  20. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  1. Advanced cryo propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: (1) advanced space engine (ASE) chronology; (2) an ASE description; (3) a single expander; (4) a dual expander; (5) split expander; (6) launch vehicle start; (7) space start; (8) chemical transfer propulsion; and (9) an advanced expander test bed.

  2. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  3. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  4. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  5. Advanced electron microscopy for advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Bals, Sara; Van Aert, Sandra; Verbeeck, Jo; Van Dyck, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    The idea of this Review is to introduce newly developed possibilities of advanced electron microscopy to the materials science community. Over the last decade, electron microscopy has evolved into a full analytical tool, able to provide atomic scale information on the position, nature, and even the valency atoms. This information is classically obtained in two dimensions (2D), but can now also be obtained in 3D. We show examples of applications in the field of nanoparticles and interfaces.

  6. Advanced biostack experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Biostack Experiment is described. The objectives are: (1) to confirm, complement, and enlarge the information obtained from the previous experiments by applying improved and advanced methods of localization and physical and biological evaluation, performing advanced experiments based on these data, and including additional biological specimens and additional radiation detectors; (2) to determine the biological importance of nuclear disintegration stars; (3) to determine the interference of HZE particle induced effects with those of other space flight factors (e.g., weightlessness); and (4) to determine the distribution of HZE particles and of disintegration stars at different locations inside the module and on the pallet.

  7. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  8. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  9. Advances in cancer control

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.N. ); Engstrom, P.F. ); Mortenson, L.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the sixth annual meeting on Advances in Cancer Control. Included are the following articles: Barriers and facilitators to compliance with routine mammographic screening, Preliminary report of an intervention to improve mammography skills of radiologists.

  10. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem.

  11. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  12. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  13. Advanced Process Control Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshpande, Pradeep B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes laboratory experiments of a chemistry course on advanced process control. The equipment for the process around which these experiments were developed by the University of Louisville was constructed from data provided by Exxon Oil Company. (HM)

  14. Recent Advances in Vibroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Numerous vibroacoustics advances and impacts in the aerospace industry have occurred over the last 15 years. This article addresses some of these that developed from engineering programmatic task-work at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  15. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  16. Advanced General Dentistry Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Douglas M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A description of the University of Maryland at Baltimore's one-year postdoctoral program in advanced general dentistry focuses on its goals and objectives, curriculum design, patient population, faculty and staff, finances, and program evaluation measures. (MSE)

  17. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  18. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem. PMID:25743056

  19. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  20. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  1. [Advances in hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Villanueva Egan, Luis Alberto; Pichardo Cuevas, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    This review provides an update regarding newer options in hormonal contraception that include the progestin-releasing intrauterine system, the contraceptive patch and ring, the single rod progestin-releasing implant, extended and emergency oral contraception and recent advances in hormonal male contraception. These methods represent a major advancement in this field, allowing for the development of more acceptable, safety and effective birth control regimens.

  2. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  3. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  4. A direct advance on advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2012-06-01

    Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as 'living wills', are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to the doctrine of necessity. While patients can request particular treatments in an AD, only refusals are binding. This paper will examine whether ADs safeguard the autonomy and best interests of the incompetent patient, and whether legislating for the use of ADs is justified, using the specific context of the legal situation in the United Kingdom to illustrate the debate. The issue of whether the law should permit ADs is itself dependent on the issue of whether ADs are ethically justified; thus we must answer a normative question in order to answer the legislative one. It emerges that ADs suffer from two major problems, one related to autonomy and one to consent. First, ADs' emphasis on precedent autonomy effectively sentences some people who want to live to death. Second, many ADs might not meet the standard criteria for informed refusal of treatment, because they fail on the crucial criterion of sufficient information. Ultimately, it transpires that ADs are typically only appropriate for patients who temporarily lose physical or mental capacity.

  5. Recruit and ADVANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  6. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  7. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  8. Advances in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Sherard A; Losquadro, William D

    2008-01-01

    The past 10 years have witnessed many advances in craniofacial surgery. Advances in surgical techniques, such as distraction osteogenesis and endoscopic procedures, combined with refinements in surgical equipment, such as resorbable plating and distractors, have improved surgical outcomes, while minimizing morbidity. Technological advances in 3-dimensional imaging, computer simulation, and intraoperative navigation facilitate diagnosis, preoperative planning, and surgical execution. Rising cases of deformational plagiocephaly owing to increased supine infant sleep positioning necessitated the development of appropriate diagnosis and treatment and the avoidance of unnecessary surgery. A greater understanding of the genetic basis of craniofacial disorders has allowed better preoperative assessment and counseling. Finally, efforts to develop better bone graft substitutes with gene therapy and nanotechnology are ongoing. PMID:19018057

  9. Advanced thermionic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. D.; Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical and experimental exploration was conducted on several types of advanced thermionic energy converters, and preliminary analysis was performed on systems utilizing advanced converter performance. The Pt--Nb cylindrical diode which exhibited a suppressed arc drop, as described in the preceding report, was reassembled and the existence of the postulated hydrid mode of operation was tentatively confirmed. Initial data obtained on ignited and unignited triode operation in the demountable cesium vapor system essentially confirmed the design principles developed in earlier work, with a few exceptions. Three specific advanced converter concepts were selected as candidates for concentrated basic study and for practical evaluation in fixed-configuration converters. Test vehicles and test stands for these converters and a unique controlled-atmosphere station for converter assembly and processing were designed, and procurement was initiated.

  10. Advanced servomanipulator development

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) System consists of three major components: the ASM slave, the dual arm master controller (DAMC) or master, and the control system. The ASM is remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world.

  11. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  12. CONDOR Advanced Visionics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanahele, David L.; Buckanin, Robert M.

    1996-06-01

    The Covert Night/Day Operations for Rotorcraft (CONDOR) program is a collaborative research and development program between the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to develop and demonstrate an advanced visionics concept coupled with an advanced flight control system to improve rotorcraft mission effectiveness during day, night, and adverse weather conditions in the Nap- of-the-Earth environment. The Advanced Visionics System for CONDOR is the flight- ruggedized head mounted display and computer graphics generator with the intended use of exploring, developing, and evaluating proposed visionic concepts for rotorcraft including; the application of color displays, wide field-of-view, enhanced imagery, virtual displays, mission symbology, stereo imagery, and other graphical interfaces.

  13. Advanced quantum noise correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Ulrich; Glasser, Ryan T.; Clark, Jeremy B.; Glorieux, Quentin; Li, Tian; Corzo, Neil V.; Lett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We use the quantum correlations of twin beams of light to investigate the fundamental addition of noise when one of the beams propagates through a fast-light medium based on phase-insensitive gain. The experiment is based on two successive four-wave mixing processes in rubidium vapor, which allow for the generation of bright two-mode-squeezed twin beams followed by a controlled advancement while maintaining the shared quantum correlations between the beams. The demonstrated effect allows the study of irreversible decoherence in a medium exhibiting anomalous dispersion, and for the first time shows the advancement of a bright nonclassical state of light. The advancement and corresponding degradation of the quantum correlations are found to be operating near the fundamental quantum limit imposed by using a phase-insensitive amplifier.

  14. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  15. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  16. Advanced solar dynamic technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, James

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on Advanced Solar Dynamic Technology Program are presented. Topics covered include: advanced solar dynamic technology program; advanced concentrators; advanced heat receivers; power conversion systems; dished all metal honeycomb sandwich panels; Stirling cavity heat pipe receiver; Brayton solar receiver; and thermal energy storage technology.

  17. MR Neurography: Advances

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Zhao, Lianxin; Carrino, John A.; Trueblood, Eo; Koceski, Saso; Shteriev, Filip; Lenkinski, Lionel; Sinclair, Christopher D. J.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    High resolution and high field magnetic resonance neurography (MR neurography, MRN) is shown to have excellent anatomic capability. There have been considerable advances in the technology in the last few years leading to various feasibility studies using different structural and functional imaging approaches in both clinical and research settings. This paper is intended to be a useful seminar for readers who want to gain knowledge of the advancements in the MRN pulse sequences currently used in clinical practice as well as learn about the other techniques on the horizon aimed at better depiction of nerve anatomy, pathology, and potential noninvasive evaluation of nerve degeneration or regeneration. PMID:23589774

  18. Advances in attosecond science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Francesca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Nisoli, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond science offers formidable tools for the investigation of electronic processes at the heart of important physical processes in atomic, molecular and solid-state physics. In the last 15 years impressive advances have been obtained from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Attosecond pulses, in the form of isolated pulses or of trains of pulses, are now routinely available in various laboratories. In this review recent advances in attosecond science are reported and important applications are discussed. After a brief presentation of various techniques that can be employed for the generation and diagnosis of sub-femtosecond pulses, various applications are reported in atomic, molecular and condensed-matter physics.

  19. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  20. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-06-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.