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Sample records for advanced hybrid filter

  1. Advanced configuration of hybrid passive filter for reactive power and harmonic compensation.

    PubMed

    Kececioglu, O Fatih; Acikgoz, Hakan; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Harmonics is one of the major power quality problems for power systems. The harmonics can be eliminated by power filters such as passive, active, and hybrid. In this study, a new passive filter configuration has been improved in addition to the existing passive filter configurations. Conventional hybrid passive filters are not successful to compensate rapidly changing reactive power demand. The proposed configure are capable of compensating both harmonics and reactive power at the same time. Simulation results show that performance of reactive power and harmonic compensation with advanced hybrid passive filter is better than conventional hybrid passive filters. PMID:27536512

  2. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  3. An IIR median hybrid filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Peter H.; Sartori, Michael A.; Bryden, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of nonlinear filters, the so-called class of multidirectional infinite impulse response median hybrid filters, is presented and analyzed. The input signal is processed twice using a linear shift-invariant infinite impulse response filtering module: once with normal causality and a second time with inverted causality. The final output of the MIMH filter is the median of the two-directional outputs and the original input signal. Thus, the MIMH filter is a concatenation of linear filtering and nonlinear filtering (a median filtering module). Because of this unique scheme, the MIMH filter possesses many desirable properties which are both proven and analyzed (including impulse removal, step preservation, and noise suppression). A comparison to other existing median type filters is also provided.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based

  5. Impact of supplemental firing of tire-derived fuel (TDF) on mercury species and mercury capture with the advanced hybrid filter in a western subbituminous coal flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2006-05-15

    Pilot-scale experimental studies were carried out to evaluate the impacts of cofiring tire-derived fuel and a western subbituminous coal on mercury species in flue gas. Mercury samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of the Advanced Hybrid filter to determine mercury concentrations in the flue gas with and without TDF cofiring, respectively. Cofiring of TDF with a subbituminous coal had a significant effect on mercury speciation in the flue gas. With 100% coal firing, there was only 16.8% oxidized mercury in the flue gas compared to 47.7% when 5% TDF (mass basis) was fired and 84.8% when 10% TDF was cofired. The significantly enhanced mercury oxidation may be the result of additional homogeneous gas reactions between Hg{sup 0} and the reactive chlorine generated in the TDF-cofiring flue gas and the in situ improved reactivity of unburned carbon in ash by the reactive chlorine species. Although the cofiring of TDF demonstrated limited improvement on mercury-emission control with the Advanced Hybrid filter, it proved to be a very cost-effective mercury control approach for power plants equipped with wet or dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems because of the enhanced mercury oxidation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Advanced PFBC (APFB) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC, PFBC and APFB in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of these advanced, solid fuel power generation cycles.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; M.A. Alvin; G.J. Bruck; T.E. Lippert; E.E. Smeltzer; M.E. Stampahar

    2002-06-30

    Two advanced, hot gas, barrier filter system concepts have been proposed by the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation to improve the reliability and availability of barrier filter systems in applications such as PFBC and IGCC power generation. The two hot gas, barrier filter system concepts, the inverted candle filter system and the sheet filter system, were the focus of bench-scale testing, data evaluations, and commercial cost evaluations to assess their feasibility as viable barrier filter systems. The program results show that the inverted candle filter system has high potential to be a highly reliable, commercially successful, hot gas, barrier filter system. Some types of thin-walled, standard candle filter elements can be used directly as inverted candle filter elements, and the development of a new type of filter element is not a requirement of this technology. Six types of inverted candle filter elements were procured and assessed in the program in cold flow and high-temperature test campaigns. The thin-walled McDermott 610 CFCC inverted candle filter elements, and the thin-walled Pall iron aluminide inverted candle filter elements are the best candidates for demonstration of the technology. Although the capital cost of the inverted candle filter system is estimated to range from about 0 to 15% greater than the capital cost of the standard candle filter system, the operating cost and life-cycle cost of the inverted candle filter system is expected to be superior to that of the standard candle filter system. Improved hot gas, barrier filter system availability will result in improved overall power plant economics. The inverted candle filter system is recommended for continued development through larger-scale testing in a coal-fueled test facility, and inverted candle containment equipment has been fabricated and shipped to a gasifier development site for potential future testing. Two types of sheet filter elements were procured and assessed in the program

  8. Advances in Collaborative Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert

    The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.

  9. Advanced simulation of digital filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, G. S.

    1980-09-01

    An Advanced Simulation of Digital Filters has been implemented on the IBM 360/67 computer utilizing Tektronix hardware and software. The program package is appropriate for use by persons beginning their study of digital signal processing or for filter analysis. The ASDF programs provide the user with an interactive method by which filter pole and zero locations can be manipulated. Graphical output on both the Tektronix graphics screen and the Versatec plotter are provided to observe the effects of pole-zero movement.

  10. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  11. Hybrid Data Assimilation without Ensemble Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office is preparing to upgrade its three-dimensional variational system to a hybrid approach in which the ensemble is generated using a square-root ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the variational problem is solved using the Grid-point Statistical Interpolation system. As in most EnKF applications, we found it necessary to employ a combination of multiplicative and additive inflations, to compensate for sampling and modeling errors, respectively and, to maintain the small-member ensemble solution close to the variational solution; we also found it necessary to re-center the members of the ensemble about the variational analysis. During tuning of the filter we have found re-centering and additive inflation to play a considerably larger role than expected, particularly in a dual-resolution context when the variational analysis is ran at larger resolution than the ensemble. This led us to consider a hybrid strategy in which the members of the ensemble are generated by simply converting the variational analysis to the resolution of the ensemble and applying additive inflation, thus bypassing the EnKF. Comparisons of this, so-called, filter-free hybrid procedure with an EnKF-based hybrid procedure and a control non-hybrid, traditional, scheme show both hybrid strategies to provide equally significant improvement over the control; more interestingly, the filter-free procedure was found to give qualitatively similar results to the EnKF-based procedure.

  12. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  13. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  14. Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filter System

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial, power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC and PFBC in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PFBC and IGCC systems. This paper reports on the development and status of testing of the Westinghouse Advanced Hot Gas Particle Filter (W-APF) including: W-APF integrated operation with the American Electric Power, 70 MW PFBC clean coal facility--approximately 6000 test hours completed; approximately 2500 hours of testing at the Hans Ahlstrom 10 MW PCFB facility located in Karhula, Finland; over 700 hours of operation at the Foster Wheeler 2 MW 2nd generation PFBC facility located in Livingston, New Jersey; status of Westinghouse HGF supply for the DOE Southern Company Services Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama; the status of the Westinghouse development and testing of HGF`s for Biomass Power Generation; and the status of the design and supply of the HGF unit for the 95 MW Pinon Pine IGCC Clean Coal Demonstration.

  15. Filtering in Hybrid Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Rasmus Orum; Wheeler, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    We implement a 2-time slice dynamic Bayesian network (2T-DBN) framework and make a 1-D state estimation simulation, an extension of the experiment in (v.d. Merwe et al., 2000) and compare different filtering techniques. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimentally that inference in a complex hybrid DBN is possible by simulating fault detection in a watertank system, an extension of the experiment in (Koller & Lerner, 2000) using a hybrid 2T-DBN. In both experiments, we perform approximate inference using standard filtering techniques, Monte Carlo methods and combinations of these. In the watertank simulation, we also demonstrate the use of 'non-strict' Rao-Blackwellisation. We show that the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and UKF in a particle filtering framework outperform the generic particle filter, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and EKF in a particle filtering framework with respect to accuracy in terms of estimation RMSE and sensitivity with respect to choice of network structure. Especially we demonstrate the superiority of UKF in a PF framework when our beliefs of how data was generated are wrong. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of data noise in the watertank simulation using UKF and PFUKD and show that the algorithms are more sensitive to changes in the measurement noise level that the process noise level. Theory and implementation is based on (v.d. Merwe et al., 2000).

  16. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  17. Hybrid Filtering in Semantic Query Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hanjo

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents a hybrid filtering method and a case-based reasoning framework for enhancing the effectiveness of Web search. Web search may not reflect user needs, intent, context, and preferences, because today's keyword-based search is lacking semantic information to capture the user's context and intent in posing the search query.…

  18. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  19. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  20. Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial, power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC and PFBC in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PFBC and IGCC systems. This paper updates the assessment of the Westinghouse hot gas filter design based on ongoing testing and analysis. Results are summarized from recent computational fluid dynamics modeling of the plenum flow during back pulse, analysis of candle stressing under cleaning and process transient conditions and testing and analysis to evaluate potential flow induced candle vibration.

  1. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    RICHARD A. WAGNER

    1998-09-04

    This report describes the fabrication and testing of continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) based hot gas filters. The fabrication approach utilized a modified filament winding method that combined both continuous and chopped fibers into a novel microstructure. The work was divided into five primary tasks. In the first task, a preliminary set of compositions was fabricated in the form of open end tubes and characterized. The results of this task were used to identify the most promising compositions for sub-scale filter element fabrication and testing. In addition to laboratory measurements of permeability and strength, exposure testing in a coal combustion environment was performed to asses the thermo-chemical stability of the CFCC materials. Four candidate compositions were fabricated into sub-scale filter elements with integral flange and a closed end. Following the 250 hour exposure test in a circulating fluid bed combustor, the retained strength ranged from 70 t 145 percent of the as-fabricated strength. The post-test samples exhibited non-catastrophic failure behavior in contrast to the brittle failure exhibited by monolithic materials. Filter fabrication development continued in a filter improvement and cost reduction task that resulted in an improved fiber architecture, the production of a net shape flange, and an improved low cost bond. These modifications were incorporated into the process and used to fabricate 50 full-sized filter elements for testing in demonstration facilities in Karhula, Finland and at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. After 581 hours of testing in the Karhula facility, the elements retained approximately 87 percent of their as-fabricated strength. In addition, mechanical response testing at Virginia Tech provided a further demonstration of the high level of strain tolerance of the vacuum wound filter elements. Additional testing in the M. W. Kellogg unit at the PSDF has accumulated over 1800 hours of

  2. Filtering in Hybrid Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Rasmus Orum; Wheeler, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that inference in a complex hybrid Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) is possible using the 2 - T i e Slice DBN (2T-DBN) from [Koller & Lerner, 20001 to model fault detection in a watertank system. In [Koller & Lerner, 20001 a generic Particle Filter (PF) is used for inference. We extend the experiment and perform approximate inference using The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). Furthermore, we combine these techniques in a 'non-strict' Rao-Blackwellisation framework and apply it to the watertank system. We show that UKF and UKF in a PF framework outperfom the generic PF, EKF and EKF in a PF framework with respect to accuracy and robustness in terms of estimation RMSE. Especially we demonstrate the superiority of UKF in a PF framework when our beliefs of how data was generated are wrong. We also show that the choice of network structure is very important for the performance of the generic PF and the EKF algorithms, but not for the UKF algorithms. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of data noise in the water[ank simulation. Theory and implementation is based on the theory presented.

  3. Advanced hybrid gasification facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Dixit, V.B.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this procurement is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology for electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may react with aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their concentration in the hot raw coal gas passing through the system to the gas turbine. This paper describes a novel, staged, airblown, fixed-bed gasifier designed to solve both through the incorporation of pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification. It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration which occurs in a fixed-bed process when coal is gradually heated through the 400{degrees}F to 900{degrees}F range. In a pyrolyzer, the coal is rapidly heated such that coal tar is immediately vaporized. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can be chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NOx from fuel home nitrogen, moisture is minimized to control ammonia generation, and HCN in the upper gasifier region is partially oxidized to NO which reacts with NH3/HCN to form N2.

  4. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew R. June; John L. Hurley; Mark W. Johnson

    1999-04-01

    Iron aluminide hot gas filters have been developed using powder metallurgy techniques to form seamless cylinders. Three alloys were short-term corrosion tested in simulated IGCC atmospheres with temperatures between 925 F and 1200 F with hydrogen sulfide concentrations ranging from 783 ppm{sub v} to 78,300 ppm{sub v}. Long-term testing was conducted for 1500 hours at 925 F with 78,300 ppm{sub v}. The FAS and FAL alloys were found to be corrosion resistant in the simulated environments. The FAS alloy has been commercialized.

  5. ADVANCED SECOND GENERATION CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Alvin

    2002-01-31

    Through sponsorship from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), development and manufacture of advanced second generation candle filters was undertaken in the early 1990's. Efforts were primarily focused on the manufacture of fracture toughened, 1.5 m, continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) and filament wound candle filters by 3M, McDermott, DuPont Lanxide Composites, and Techniweave. In order to demonstrate long-term thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of the advanced second generation candle filter materials, Siemens Westinghouse initiated high temperature, bench-scale, corrosion testing of 3M's CVI-SiC and DuPont's PRD-66 mini-candles, and DuPont's CFCC SiC-SiC and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} coupons under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions. This effort was followed by an evaluation of the mechanical and filtration performance of the advanced second generation filter elements in Siemens Westinghouse's bench-scale PFBC test facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Arrays of 1.4-1.5 m 3M CVI-SiC, DuPont PRD-66, DuPont SiC-SiC, and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} candles were subjected to steady state process operating conditions, increased severity thermal transients, and accelerated pulse cycling test campaigns which represented {approx}1760 hours of equivalent filter operating life. Siemens Westinghouse subsequently participated in early material surveillance programs which marked entry of the 3M CVI-SiC and DuPont PRD-66 candle filters in Siemens Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. Siemens Westinghouse then conducted an extended, accelerated life, qualification program, evaluating the performance of the 3M, McDermott, and Techniweave oxide-based CFCC filter elements, modified DuPont PRD-66 elements, and the Blasch, Scapa Cerafil{sup TM}, and Specific Surface monolithic candles for use in the APF

  6. Filter design for hybrid spin gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Plenio, Martin B.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of control sequences on the environmental coupling of a quantum system can be described in terms of a filter. Here we analyze how the coherent evolution of two interacting spins subject to periodic control pulses, using the example of a nitrogen vacancy center coupled to a nuclear spin, can be described in the filter framework in both the weak- and the strong-coupling limit. A universal functional dependence around the filter resonances then allows for tuning the coupling type and strength. We show how the validity range of the filter description, originally limited to small rotation angles, can be extended to the long time limit by time-sliced evolution sequences. Based on that insight, the construction of tunable, noise decoupled, conditional gates composed of alternating pulse sequences is proposed. In particular such an approach can lead to a significant improvement in fidelity as compared to a strictly periodic control sequence. Moreover we analyze the decoherence impact, the relation to the filter for classical noise known from dynamical decoupling sequences, and we outline how an alternating sequence can improve spin sensing protocols.

  7. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  8. Subtask 2.13 - Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector-Fundamental Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller

    2007-07-01

    Under the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, a full-scale Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter was installed at the Big Stone Plant, with start-up in October 2002. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter was retrofitted into Fields 2-4 of the old Big Stone electrostatic precipitator (ESP). While many aspects of the operation were satisfactory, pressure drop was higher than expected. To achieve acceptable pressure drop and successfully demonstrate the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter technology, the first fields of the ESP were also converted into an Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter in 2005. However, since start-up in June 2005, the first fields have been inoperable for multiple reasons. The fundamental cause of the dysfunctional performance of the first fields was attributed to spacing and alignment problems, which led to excessive sparking and shutdown of the high-voltage power. In spite of attempts to correct the problems, satisfactory performance of the first fields was never achieved. Because of the uncertainties of how to achieve acceptable performance with a new technology, the Big Stone Plant made the decision to convert the entire Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter housing into a pulse-jet fabric filter.

  9. Hybrid magnetic tunnel junction/spin filter device

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B.; Wong, F.; Chopdekar, R.; Arenholz, E.; Chi, Miaofang; Browning, Nigel

    2008-07-10

    Surfaces and interfaces of complex oxides materials provide a rich playground for the exploration of novel magnetic properties not found in the bulk but also the development of functional interfaces to be incorporated into applications. We have recently been able to demonstrate a new type of hybrid spin filter/ magnetic tunnel junction. Our hybrid spin-filter/magnetic-tunnel junction devices are epitaxial oxide junctions of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} electrodes with magnetic NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} barrier layers. Depending on whether the barrier is in a paramagnetic or ferromagnetic state, the junction exhibits magnetic tunnel junction behavior where the spin polarized conduction is dominated by the electrode-barrier interface or spin filter behavior where conduction is dominated by barrier layer magnetism.

  10. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  11. Nucleic acid hybridization with RNA immobilized on filter paper.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxinger, W. C.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Gillespie, D.

    1972-01-01

    RNA has been immobilized in a manner suitable for use in molecular hybridization experiments with dissolved RNA or DNA by a nonaqueous solid-phase reaction with carbonyldiimidazole and RNA 'dry coated' on cellulose or, preferably, on previously activated phosphocellulose filters. Immobilization of RNA does not appear to alter its chemical character or cause it to acquire affinity for unspecific RNA or DNA. The versatility and efficiency of this method make it potentially attractive for use in routine analytical or preparative hybridization experiments, among other applications.

  12. Advanced astronomical interference filters from SCHOTT technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Reichel, Steffen; Brauneck, Ulf; Bourquin, Sebastien; Marin-Franch, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Developing precision interference filters for astronomical radiometry often requires simultaneous solutions to very difficult requirements. SCHOTT's 80-year legacy methods with interference filters and 9,200-m2 facility dedicated to filters and optical fabrication bring multiple disciplines together to simultaneously solve requirements that include: narrow-band high-transmission, steep-edge bandpasses, extremely high out-of-band rejection across Si response, sizes accommodating large fields-of-view, precision mechanical filter assemblies and both spectral uniformity and excellent transmitted wavefront across the field. We discuss solutions as satisfied for Spain's state-of-the-art new fast LOCAL UNIVERSE 3° wide-field survey telescope.

  13. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  14. Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Gary B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Frye, J. G.; Riley, Brian J.; Rappe, Kenneth G.

    2011-04-06

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed an assessment of a Hybrid Plasma/Filter system as an alternative to conventional methods for collective protection. The key premise of the hybrid system is to couple a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor with reactive adsorption to provide a broader envelope of protection than can be provided through a single-solution approach. The first step uses highly reactive species (e.g. oxygen radicals, hydroxyl radicals, etc.) created in a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor to destroy the majority (~75% - 90%) of an incoming threat. Following the NTP reactor an O3 reactor/filter uses the O3 created in the NTP reactor to further destroy the remaining organic materials. This report summarizes the laboratory development of the Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter to protect against a ‘worst-case’ simulant, methyl bromide (CH3Br), and presents a preliminary engineering assessment of the technology to Joint Expeditionary Collective Protection performance specifications for chemical vapor air purification technologies.

  15. Hybrid mesh generation using advancing reduction technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents an extension of the application of the advancing reduction technique to the hybrid mesh generation. The proposed algorithm is based on a pre-generated rectangle mesh (RM) with a certain orientation. The intersection points between the two sets of perpendicular mesh lines in RM an...

  16. Advanced optical interference filters based on metal and dielectric layers.

    PubMed

    Begou, Thomas; Lemarchand, Fabien; Lumeau, Julien

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the design and the fabrication of an advanced optical interference filter based on metal and dielectric layers. This filter respects the specifications of the 2016 OIC manufacturing problem contest. We study and present all the challenges and solutions that allowed achieving a low deviation between the fabricated prototype and the target. PMID:27607695

  17. Cross flow filter development for advanced fossil power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Haldipur, G.B.; Newby, R.A.; Smeltzer, E.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The porous ceramic cross flow filter has been under development at Westinghouse in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) for advanced fossil power generation. The ceramic cross flow filter is capable of high temperature operation, and is basically an absolute filter on ash. The cross flow filter can be operated at high flow capacity, while simultaneously exhibiting relatively low pressure drop flow characteristics. This paper describes the cross flow filter development at Westinghouse, and reviews the results of many in-house and field test programs. Testing has included operation of the filter in subpilot pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification applications. Testing is also being conducted at Westinghouse to evaluate filter characteristics over long-term operation (3,000 hours) utilizing dedicated test facilities.

  18. Fracture behavior of advanced ceramic hot gas filters: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Majumdar, S.; Sutaria, M.; Bielke, W.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of mechanical/microstructural evaluation, thermal shock/fatigue testing, and stress analyses of advanced hot-gas filters obtained from different manufacturers. These filters were fabricated from both monolithic ceramics and composites. The composite filters, made of both oxide and nonoxide materials, were in both as-fabricated and exposed conditions, whereas the monolithic filters were made only of nonoxide materials. Mechanical property measurement of composite filters included diametral compression testing with O-ring specimens and burst-testing of short filter segments with rubber plugs. In-situ strength of fibers in the composite filters was evaluated by microscopic technique. Thermal shock/fatigue resistance was estimated by measuring the strengths of filter specimens before and after thermal cycling from an air environment at elevated temperatures to a room temperature oil bath. Filter performance during mechanical and thermal shock/fatigue loadings was correlated with microstructural observations. Micromechanical models were developed to derive properties of composite filter constituents on the basis of measured mechanical properties of the filters. Subsequently, these properties were used to analytically predict the performance of composite filters during thermal shock loading.

  19. Improved hybrid information filtering based on limited time window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wen-Jun; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-12-01

    Adopting the entire collecting information of users, the hybrid information filtering of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM) (Zhou et al., 2010) was successfully proposed to solve the apparent diversity-accuracy dilemma. Since the recent behaviors are more effective to capture the users' potential interests, we present an improved hybrid information filtering of adopting the partial recent information. We expand the time window to generate a series of training sets, each of which is treated as known information to predict the future links proven by the testing set. The experimental results on one benchmark dataset Netflix indicate that by only using approximately 31% recent rating records, the accuracy could be improved by an average of 4.22% and the diversity could be improved by 13.74%. In addition, the performance on the dataset MovieLens could be preserved by considering approximately 60% recent records. Furthermore, we find that the improved algorithm is effective to solve the cold-start problem. This work could improve the information filtering performance and shorten the computational time.

  20. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-10-12

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  1. Advanced Techniques for Removal of Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Iliescu, Bogdan; Haskal, Ziv J.

    2012-08-15

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have proven valuable for the prevention of primary or recurrent pulmonary embolism in selected patients with or at high risk for venous thromboembolic disease. Their use has become commonplace, and the numbers implanted increase annually. During the last 3 years, in the United States, the percentage of annually placed optional filters, i.e., filters than can remain as permanent filters or potentially be retrieved, has consistently exceeded that of permanent filters. In parallel, the complications of long- or short-term filtration have become increasingly evident to physicians, regulatory agencies, and the public. Most filter removals are uneventful, with a high degree of success. When routine filter-retrieval techniques prove unsuccessful, progressively more advanced tools and skill sets must be used to enhance filter-retrieval success. These techniques should be used with caution to avoid damage to the filter or cava during IVC retrieval. This review describes the complex techniques for filter retrieval, including use of additional snares, guidewires, angioplasty balloons, and mechanical and thermal approaches as well as illustrates their specific application.

  2. Advanced lightweight ceramic candle filter module

    SciTech Connect

    Zievers, J.F.; Eggerstedt, P.

    1992-01-01

    To determine the economic effect of light weight ceramics, several sizes of filters were cost estimated for operation at 217.5 psi (15 bar) based on the use of all light weight ceramics (Fibro/Fibro) vs. the use of cooled alloy (RA300) tubesheets and silicon carbide candles (Alloy/SiC). A jet pulse delivery system was included in both estimates. The Fibro/Fibro system was estimated with the plenum design while the Alloy/SiC system was based on header/nozzle design. Battery limits were the filters and jet pulse delivery systems, Ex-works, with no main valves or dust removal systems. It was found that the cost of Fibro/Fibro components were consistently lower than the cost of the Alloy/SiC components; this comparison is illustrated in Figure 8.

  3. Advanced lightweight ceramic candle filter module

    SciTech Connect

    Zievers, J.F.; Eggerstedt, P.

    1992-11-01

    To determine the economic effect of light weight ceramics, several sizes of filters were cost estimated for operation at 217.5 psi (15 bar) based on the use of all light weight ceramics (Fibro/Fibro) vs. the use of cooled alloy (RA300) tubesheets and silicon carbide candles (Alloy/SiC). A jet pulse delivery system was included in both estimates. The Fibro/Fibro system was estimated with the plenum design while the Alloy/SiC system was based on header/nozzle design. Battery limits were the filters and jet pulse delivery systems, Ex-works, with no main valves or dust removal systems. It was found that the cost of Fibro/Fibro components were consistently lower than the cost of the Alloy/SiC components; this comparison is illustrated in Figure 8.

  4. Applications of moving granular-bed filters to advanced systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.W.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1993-09-01

    The contract is arranged as a base contract with three options. The objective of the base contract is to develop conceptual design(s) of moving granular bed filter and ceramic candle filter technology for control of particles from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBC), and direct coal fueled turbine (DCFT) environments. The conceptual design(s) of these filter technologies are compared, primarily from an economic perspective. The granular bed filter was developed through low pressure, high temperature (1600{degree}F) testing in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Collection efficiencies over 99% were obtained. In 1988, high pressure, high temperature testing was completed at New York University, Westbury, N.Y., utilizing a two advanced power generating plants were chosen for developing conceptual designs and cost estimates of the commercial sized filters. One is the 450 MWe, second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant defined by Foster Wheeler. This plant originally included cross-flow filters for hot gas cleanup. The other plant under study is a 100 MWe, KRW air blown gasifier. A cross-flow filter was utilized for gas stream cleanup in this study also. Granular bed and ceramic candle filters were substituted for the cross-flow filters in both these plants, and the resulting costs were compared.

  5. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaying; Pan, Liumeng; Wu, Shenggan; Lu, Liping; Xu, Yiwen; Zhu, Yanye; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives. PMID:27527194

  6. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaying; Pan, Liumeng; Wu, Shenggan; Lu, Liping; Xu, Yiwen; Zhu, Yanye; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives. PMID:27527194

  7. Robust Tracking Using Particle Filter with a Hybrid Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinyue; Satoh, Yutaka; Takauji, Hidenori; Kaneko, Shun'ichi

    This paper presents a novel method for robust object tracking in video sequences using a hybrid feature-based observation model in a particle filtering framework. An ideal observation model should have both high ability to accurately distinguish objects from the background and high reliability to identify the detected objects. Traditional features are better at solving the former problem but weak in solving the latter one. To overcome that, we adopt a robust and dynamic feature called Grayscale Arranging Pairs (GAP), which has high discriminative ability even under conditions of severe illumination variation and dynamic background elements. Together with the GAP feature, we also adopt the color histogram feature in order to take advantage of traditional features in resolving the first problem. At the same time, an efficient and simple integration method is used to combine the GAP feature with color information. Comparative experiments demonstrate that object tracking with our integrated features performs well even when objects go across complex backgrounds.

  8. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  9. Single layer spectro-polarimetric filter for advanced LWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. M.; Kemme, S. A.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Norwood, R. A.

    2012-06-01

    We explore the spectral and angular selectivity of near surface normal transmission of grating modified metallic surfaces and their ultimate potential for application as narrow-band spectro-polarimetric planar filter components in the development of advanced infrared focal plane arrays. The developed photonic microstructures exhibit tailored spectral transmission characteristics in the long wavelength infrared, and can be fabricated to preferentially transmit a given linear polarization within the design band. Modification of the material and structural properties of the diffractive optical element enables sub-pixel tuning of the spectro-polarimetric response of the device allowing for intelligent engineering of planar filter components for development of advanced focal plane arrays in the long wavelength infrared. The planar nature of the developed components leaves them immune to fabrication issues that typically plague thin film interference filters used for similar applications in the infrared, namely, deposition of multiple low-stress quarter-wavelength films and modification of the film thicknesses for each pixel. The solution developed here presents the opportunity for subpixel modification of the spectral response leading to an efficient, versatile filter component suitable for direct integration with commercially available focal plane array technologies via standard fabrication techniques. We will discuss the theoretical development and analysis of the described components and compare the results to the current state-of-the-art.

  10. Deinterlacing algorithm with an advanced non-local means filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Jeon, Gwanggil; Jeong, Jechang

    2012-04-01

    The authors introduce an efficient intra-field deinterlacing algorithm using an advanced non-local means filter. The non-local means (NLM) method has received considerable attention due to its high performance and simplicity. The NLM method adaptively obtains the missing pixel by the weighted average of the gray values of all pixels within the image, and then automatically eliminates unrelated neighborhoods from the weighted average. However, spatial location distance is another important issue for the deinterlacing method. Therefore we introduce an advanced NLM (ANLM) filter while consider neighborhood similarity and patch distance. Moreover, the search region of the conventional NLM is the whole image, while, the ANLM can just utilize the limited search region and achieve good performance and high efficiency. When compared with existing deinterlacing algorithms, the proposed algorithm improves the peak signal-to-noise-ratio while maintaining high efficiency.

  11. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications. PMID:27268064

  12. Review of critical parameters in biomass combustion emissions control by means of hybrid filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, D.; Rojas, E.; Rodríguez-Maroto, J. J.; Ramos, R.; Borjabad, E.; Escalada, R.; García-Alonso, S.; Gutierrez-Canas, C.; Aragon, G.; Mugica, I.; Ibarra, I.; Celades, I.; Sanfelix, V.

    2015-12-01

    Control of particulate matter emissions by means of hybrid filter has been included in the experimental plan of a research project in the field of Mediterranean agro-forestry waste biomass combustion at medium scale. Application of hybrid filters to biomass combustion has not been thoroughly experimented so far. An identification of the most important parameters in particulate matter emissions control by means of a hybrid filter was undertaken. The filter involves two of the most significant technologies in fly ash emission control, electrostatic precipitation and fabric filtration A discussion of these parameters and principles of operation of said technologies is presented, as well as the final selection of parameters to be included in the experimental matrix of the project in regards to emissions control. A novel approach is proposed for testing of filtration velocity influence in fabric filter module without impacting on operation of electrostatic precipitation module.

  13. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2000-10-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power station. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power station is being conducted to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology.

  14. A hybrid method for optimization of the adaptive Goldstein filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Mi; Ding, Xiaoli; Tian, Xin; Malhotra, Rakesh; Kong, Weixue

    2014-12-01

    The Goldstein filter is a well-known filter for interferometric filtering in the frequency domain. The main parameter of this filter, alpha, is set as a power of the filtering function. Depending on it, considered areas are strongly or weakly filtered. Several variants have been developed to adaptively determine alpha using different indicators such as the coherence, and phase standard deviation. The common objective of these methods is to prevent areas with low noise from being over filtered while simultaneously allowing stronger filtering over areas with high noise. However, the estimators of these indicators are biased in the real world and the optimal model to accurately determine the functional relationship between the indicators and alpha is also not clear. As a result, the filter always under- or over-filters and is rarely correct. The study presented in this paper aims to achieve accurate alpha estimation by correcting the biased estimator using homogeneous pixel selection and bootstrapping algorithms, and by developing an optimal nonlinear model to determine alpha. In addition, an iteration is also merged into the filtering procedure to suppress the high noise over incoherent areas. The experimental results from synthetic and real data show that the new filter works well under a variety of conditions and offers better and more reliable performance when compared to existing approaches.

  15. Tribological performance of hybrid filtered arc-magnetron coatings - Part I: Coating deposition process and basic coating properties characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gorokhovsky, Vladimir; Bowman, C.; Gannon, Paul E.; VanVorous, D.; Voevodin, A. A.; Rutkowski, A.; Muratore, C.; Smith, Richard J.; Kayani, Asghar N.; Gelles, David S.; Shutthanandan, V.; Trusov, B. G.

    2006-12-04

    Aircraft propulsion applications require low-friction and wear resistant surfaces that operate under high contact loads in severe environments. Recent research on supertough and low friction nanocomposite coatings produced with hybrid plasma deposition processes was demonstrated to have a high potential for such demanding applications. However, industrially scalable hybrid plasma technologies are needed for their commercial realization. The Large area Filtered Arc Deposition (LAFAD) process provides atomically smooth coatings at high deposition rates over large surface areas. The LAFAD technology allows functionally graded, multilayer, super-lattice and nanocomposite architectures of multi-elemental coatings via electro-magnetic mixing of two plasma flows composed of different metal ion vapors. Further advancement can be realized through a combinatorial process using a hybrid filtered arc-magnetron deposition system. In the present study, multilayer and nanostructured TiCrCN/TiCr +TiBC composite cermet coatings were deposited by the hybrid filtered arc-magnetron process. Filtered plasma streams from arc evaporated Ti and Cr targets, and two unbalanced magnetron sputtered B4C targets, were directed to the substrates in the presence of reactive gases. A multiphase nanocomposite coating architecture was designed to provide the optimal combination of corrosion and wear resistance of advanced steels (Pyrowear 675) used in aerospace bearing and gear applications. Coatings were characterized using SEM/EDS, XPS and RBS for morphology and chemistry, XRD and TEM for structural analyses, wafer curvature and nanoindentation for stress and mechanical properties, and Rockwell and scratch indentions for adhesion. Coating properties were evaluated for a variety of coating architectures. Thermodynamic modeling was used for estimation of phase composition of the top TiBC coating segment. Correlations between coating chemistry, structure and mechanical properties are discussed.

  16. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  17. Tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating hybrid modulator to improve dispersive spectrometer resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Liang; Li, Guojun; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Chongxi

    2016-05-01

    We describe a tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating hybrid modulator to achieve a higher spectral resolution compared with that produced by a single grating with the same period. In the hybrid modulator, a tunable Fabry-Perot filter is designed with a long cavity to accommodate a multi-order narrowband pre-filter. A grating is then utilized to separate these multi-orders spatially. Scanning the air gap of the tunable Fabry-Perot filter within 1/2 wavelength, the entire spectrogram can be achieved by compositing each group of transmitted multi-orders. Light passes first through the Fabry-Perot cavity and then into the grating. Thus, all of the light is incident on the Fabry-Perot cavity at a given angle, which can reduce the requirement for incident beam alignment and simplify the operation of the hybrid modulator. The structural matching conditions of the tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating were presented based on the operating law of the hybrid modulator. In terms of the Rayleigh criterion, the practical spectral resolution of the hybrid modulator can be increased by at least twice that of the single grating. Experiments with a neon lamp revealed that the spectral resolution of the hybrid modulator was nearly double that of a single grating.

  18. International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasrullah, Mohammed K.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) provides the following three primary functions for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA): volume for concentrating/filtering pretreated urine, filtration of product distillate, and filtration of the Pressure Control and Pump Assembly (PCPA) effluent. The RFTAs, under nominal operations, are to be replaced every 30 days. This poses a significant logistical resupply problem, as well as cost in upmass and new tanks purchase. In addition, it requires significant amount of crew time. To address and resolve these challenges, NASA required Boeing to develop a design which eliminated the logistics and upmass issues and minimize recurring costs. Boeing developed the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) that allowed the tanks to be emptied on-orbit into disposable tanks that eliminated the need for bringing the fully loaded tanks to earth for refurbishment and relaunch, thereby eliminating several hundred pounds of upmass and its associated costs. The ARFTA will replace the RFTA by providing the same functionality, but with reduced resupply requirements

  19. Boron/aluminum graphite/resin advanced fiber composite hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Fabrication feasibility and potential of an adhesively bonded metal and resin matrix fiber-composite hybrid are determined as an advanced material for aerospace and other structural applications. The results show that using this hybrid concept makes possible a composite design which, when compared with nonhybrid composites, has greater transverse strength, transverse stiffness, and impact resistance with only a small penalty on density and longitudinal properties. The results also show that laminate theory is suitable for predicting the structural response of such hybrids. The sequence of fracture modes indicates that these types of hybrids can be readily designed to meet fail-safe requirements.

  20. Recent advances in the preparation of hybrid nanoparticles in miniemulsions.

    PubMed

    Qi, Dongming; Cao, Zhihai; Ziener, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of hybrid nanoparticles in miniemulsions since 2009. These hybrid nanoparticles include organic-inorganic, polymeric, and natural macromolecule/synthetic polymer hybrid nanoparticles. They may be prepared through encapsulation of inorganic components or natural macromolecules by miniemulsion (co)polymerization, simultaneous polymerization of vinyl monomers and vinyl-containing inorganic precursors, precipitation of preformed polymers in the presence of inorganic constituents through solvent displacement techniques, and grafting polymerization onto, from or through natural macromolecules. Characterization, properties, and applications of hybrid nanoparticles are also discussed. PMID:24951391

  1. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  2. Performance of a Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting filter/GaAs low noise amplifier hybrid circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Toncich, S. S.; Chorey, C. M.; Bonetti, R. R.; Williams, A. E.

    1992-01-01

    A superconducting 7.3 GHz two-pole microstrip bandpass filter and a GaAs low noise amplifier (LNA) were combined into a hybrid circuit and characterized at liquid nitrogen temperatures. This superconducting/seismology circuit's performance was compared to a gold filter/GaAs LNA hybrid circuit. The superconducting filter/GaAs LNA hybrid circuit showed higher gain and lower noise figure than its gold counterpart.

  3. Hybrid Kalman Filter: A New Approach for Aircraft Engine In-Flight Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a uniquely structured Kalman filter is developed for its application to in-flight diagnostics of aircraft gas turbine engines. The Kalman filter is a hybrid of a nonlinear on-board engine model (OBEM) and piecewise linear models. The utilization of the nonlinear OBEM allows the reference health baseline of the in-flight diagnostic system to be updated to the degraded health condition of the engines through a relatively simple process. Through this health baseline update, the effectiveness of the in-flight diagnostic algorithm can be maintained as the health of the engine degrades over time. Another significant aspect of the hybrid Kalman filter methodology is its capability to take advantage of conventional linear and nonlinear Kalman filter approaches. Based on the hybrid Kalman filter, an in-flight fault detection system is developed, and its diagnostic capability is evaluated in a simulation environment. Through the evaluation, the suitability of the hybrid Kalman filter technique for aircraft engine in-flight diagnostics is demonstrated.

  4. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-03-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  5. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Paticulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay Almlie

    2004-09-30

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task

  6. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Steven A. Benson; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ''Advanced Hybrid''{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  7. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ADVANCED HYBRID{trademark} Filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  8. Mercuty Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-03-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  9. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay C. Almlie

    2004-12-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-FC26-01NT41184 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the original five-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included benchscale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task was to

  10. HybridICE® filter: ice separation in freeze desalination of mine waste waters.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, A; Maree, J P; Mbaya, R K K; Popoola, A P I; Mtombeni, T; Zvinowanda, C M

    2014-01-01

    Freeze desalination is an alternative method for the treatment of mine waste waters. HybridICE(®) technology is a freeze desalination process which generates ice slurry in surface scraper heat exchangers that use R404a as the primary refrigerant. Ice separation from the slurry takes place in the HybridICE filter, a cylindrical unit with a centrally mounted filter element. Principally, the filter module achieves separation of the ice through buoyancy force in a continuous process. The HybridICE filter is a new and economical means of separating ice from the slurry and requires no washing of ice with water. The performance of the filter at a flow-rate of 25 L/min was evaluated over time and with varied evaporating temperature of the refrigerant. Behaviours of the ice fraction and residence time were also investigated. The objective was to find ways to improve the performance of the filter. Results showed that filter performance can be improved by controlling the refrigerant evaporating temperature and eliminating overflow. PMID:24804655

  11. Application of advanced filtering methods to the determination of the interplanetary orbit of Mariner '71.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rourke, K. H.; Jordan, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the applications of advanced filtering methods to the determination of the interplanetary orbit of the Mariner '71 spacecraft. The advanced techniques are specific extensions of the Kalman filter. The special problems associated with applying these techniques are discussed and the particular algorithmic implementations are outlined. The advanced methods are compared against the weighted least squares filters of conventional application. The results reveal that relatively simple advanced filter configurations yield solutions superior to those of the conventional methods when applied to the Mariner '71 radio measurements.

  12. Performance evaluation of the GA/SA hybrid heuristic optimum filter for optical pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeun, Jin S.; Kim, Nam; Pan, Jae Kyung; Kim, R. S.; Um, J. U.; Kim, Sang H.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, we newly apply a genetic and simulated annealing hybrid heuristic to encode optimal filter for optical pattern recognition. Simulated annealing as a stochastic computational technique allows for finding near globally-minimum-cost solutions with cooling schedule. Using the advantages of a parallelizable genetic algorithm (GA) and a simulated annealing algorithm (SA), the optimum filters are designed and implemented. The filter having 128 multiplied by 128 pixel size consists of the stepped phase that causes the discrete phase delay. The structure of this can be divided into rectangular cells such that each cell imparts a discrete phase delay of 0 approximately equals 2 pi[rad] to the incident wave front. Eight-phase stepped filters that we designed are compared with phase only matched filter and cosine-binary phase only filter. It is deeply focused on investigating the performance of the optimum filter in terms of recognition characteristics on the translation, scale and rotation variations of the image, and discrimination properties against similar images. By GA/SA hybrid heuristic, the optimum filter is realized for high efficiency optical reconstruction in spite of decreasing iteration number needed to encode it by respective algorithms.

  13. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Charlene R. Crocker; Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller

    2003-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  14. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-12-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes benchscale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at

  15. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2004-03-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes benchscale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at

  16. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2004-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  17. A Transformerless Hybrid Active Filter Capable of Complying with Harmonic Guidelines for Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Ryota; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents a transformerless hybrid active filter that is integrated into medium-voltage adjustable-speed motor drives for fans, pumps, and compressors without regenerative braking. The authors have designed and constructed a three-phase experimental system rated at 400V and 15kW, which is a downscaled model from a feasible 6.6-kV 1-MW motor drive system. This system consists of the hybrid filter connecting a passive filter tuned to the 7th harmonic filter in series with an active filter that is based on a three-level diode-clamped PWM converter, as well as an adjustable-speed motor drive in which a diode rectifier is used as the front end. The hybrid filter is installed on the ac side of the diode rectifier with no line-frequency transformer. The downscaled system has been exclusively tested so as to confirm the overall compensating performance of the hybrid filter and the filtering performance of a switching-ripple filter for mitigating switching-ripple voltages produced by the active filter. Experimental results verify that the hybrid filter achieves harmonic compensation of the source current in all the operating regions from no-load to the rated-load conditions, and that the switching-ripple filter reduces the switching-ripple voltages as expected.

  18. Advanced distortion-invariant minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filters.

    PubMed

    Casasent, D; Ravichandran, G

    1992-03-10

    The original minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter is addressed by using a new database (strategic relocatable objects, missile launchers) and including noise performance, depression angle, and resolution effects on the number of training set images that are required. Major attention is given to our new MACE filter algorithms for distortion-invariant pattern recognition: shifted-MACE filters (to suppress large false correlation peaks), minimum variance-MACE filters (for improved noise performance), multiple symbolic encoded filters (to reduce the effect of false correlation peaks), and Gaussian-MACE filters (to improve noise performance and intraclass recognition and reduce the training set size). PMID:20720728

  19. Advanced distortion-invariant minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David; Ravichandran, Gopalan

    1992-03-01

    The original minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter is addressed by using a new database (strategic relocatable objects and missile launchers) and including noise performance, depression angle, and resolution effects on the number of training set images that are required. Major attention is given to new MACE filter algorithms for distortion-invariant pattern recognition: shifted-MACE filters to suppress large false correlation peaks, minimum variance-MACE filters for improved noise performance, multiple symbolic encoded filters to reduce the effect of false correlation peaks, and Gaussian-MACE filters to improve noise performance and intraclass recognition and reduce the training set size.

  20. A hybrid filtering method based on a novel empirical mode decomposition for friction signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengwei; Zhan, Liwei

    2015-12-01

    During a measurement, the measured signal usually contains noise. To remove the noise and preserve the important feature of the signal, we introduce a hybrid filtering method that uses a new intrinsic mode function (NIMF) and a modified Hausdorff distance. The NIMF is defined as the difference between the noisy signal and each intrinsic mode function (IMF), which is obtained by empirical mode decomposition (EMD), ensemble EMD, complementary ensemble EMD, or complete ensemble EMD with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN). The relevant mode selecting is based on the similarity between the first NIMF and the rest of the NIMFs. With this filtering method, the EMD and improved versions are used to filter the simulation and friction signals. The friction signal between an airplane tire and the runaway is recorded during a simulated airplane touchdown and features spikes of various amplitudes and noise. The filtering effectiveness of the four hybrid filtering methods are compared and discussed. The results show that the filtering method based on CEEMDAN outperforms other signal filtering methods.

  1. Performance and stability of advanced monolithic and fiber reinforced composite candle filters during PCFBC operation

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    Advanced clay bonded silicon carbide, alumina/mullite and CVI-SiC fiber reinforced composite porous ceramic candle filters have been identified for use in pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion (PCFBC) systems where operating temperatures approach 870--900 C. In this paper the author will discuss the performance of these filter elements, and explore the response and stability of the advanced filter materials after 540 hours of operation in Foster Wheeler`s PCFBC system in Karhula, Finland. The potential use of the advanced filter materials for extended operating life in high temperature, pressurized, coal-fired process applications will also be addressed.

  2. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  3. Swarm Intelligence for Optimizing Hybridized Smoothing Filter in Image Edge Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, B. Tirumala; Dehuri, S.; Dileep, M.; Vindhya, A.

    In this modern era, image transmission and processing plays a major role. It would be impossible to retrieve information from satellite and medical images without the help of image processing techniques. Edge enhancement is an image processing step that enhances the edge contrast of an image or video in an attempt to improve its acutance. Edges are the representations of the discontinuities of image intensity functions. For processing these discontinuities in an image, a good edge enhancement technique is essential. The proposed work uses a new idea for edge enhancement using hybridized smoothening filters and we introduce a promising technique of obtaining best hybrid filter using swarm algorithms (Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)) to search for an optimal sequence of filters from among a set of rather simple, representative image processing filters. This paper deals with the analysis of the swarm intelligence techniques through the combination of hybrid filters generated by these algorithms for image edge enhancement.

  4. Performance of a Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting filter/GaAs low noise amplifier hybrid circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Toncich, S. S.; Chorey, C. M.; Bonetti, R. R.; Williams, A. E.

    1992-01-01

    A superconducting 7.3 GHz two-pole microstrip bandpass filter and a GaAs low noise amplifier (LNA) were combined into an active circuit and characterized at liquid nitrogen temperatures. This superconducting/semiconducting circuit's performance was compared to a gold filter/GaAs LNA hybrid circuit. The superconducting filter/GaAs LNA hybrid circuit showed higher gain and lower noise figure than its gold counterpart.

  5. Boron/aluminum-graphite/resin advanced fiber composite hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the fabrication feasibility and to assess the potential of adhesively-bonded metal and resin matrix fiber composite hybrids as an advanced material, for aerospace and other structural applications. The results of fabrication studies and of evaluation of physical and mechanical properties show that using this hybrid concept it is possible to design a composite which, when compared to nonhybrid composites, has improved transverse strength, transverse stiffness, and impact resistance with only a small penalty on density and longitudinal properties. The results also show that laminate theory is suitable for perdicting the structural response of such hybrids. The sequence of fracture modes indicates that these types of hybrids can be readily designed to meet fail-safe requirements.

  6. Boron/aluminum-graphite/resin advanced fiber composite hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the fabrication feasibility and to assess the potential of adhesively-bonded metal and resin matrix fiber composite hybrids as an advanced material, for aerospace and other structural applications. The results of fabrication studies and of evaluation of physical and mechanical properties show that using this hybrid concept it is possible to design a composite which, when compared to nonhybrid composites, has improved transverse strength, transverse stiffness, and impact resistance with only a small penalty on density and longitudinal properties. The results also show that laminate theory is suitable for predicting the structural response of such hybrids. The sequence of fracture modes indicates that these types of hybrids can be readily designed to meet fail-safe requirements.

  7. Hybrid registration of PET/CT in thoracic region with pre-filtering PET sinogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokri, S. S.; Saripan, M. I.; Marhaban, M. H.; Nordin, A. J.; Hashim, S.

    2015-11-01

    The integration of physiological (PET) and anatomical (CT) images in cancer delineation requires an accurate spatial registration technique. Although hybrid PET/CT scanner is used to co-register these images, significant misregistrations exist due to patient and respiratory/cardiac motions. This paper proposes a hybrid feature-intensity based registration technique for hybrid PET/CT scanner. First, simulated PET sinogram was filtered with a 3D hybrid mean-median before reconstructing the image. The features were then derived from the segmented structures (lung, heart and tumor) from both images. The registration was performed based on modified multi-modality demon registration with multiresolution scheme. Apart from visual observations improvements, the proposed registration technique increased the normalized mutual information index (NMI) between the PET/CT images after registration. All nine tested datasets show marked improvements in mutual information (MI) index than free form deformation (FFD) registration technique with the highest MI increase is 25%.

  8. Analysis of advanced solar hybrid desiccant cooling systems for buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Schlepp, D.; Schultz, K.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an assessment of the energy savings possible from developing hybrid desiccant/vapor-compression air conditioning systems. Recent advances in dehumidifier design for solar desiccant cooling systems have resulted in a dehumidifier with a low pressure drop and high efficiency in heat and mass transfer. A recent study on hybrid desiccant/vapor compression systems showed a 30%-80% savings in resource energy when compared with the best conventional systems with vapor compression. A system consisting of a dehumidifier with vapor compression subsystems in series was found to be the simplest and best overall performer.

  9. Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

    1995-08-01

    The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

  10. The Suitability of Hybrid Waveforms for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Ilana R.

    The existence of Gravitational Waves from binary black holes is one of the most interesting predictions of General Relativity. These ripples in space-time should be visible to ground-based gravitational wave detectors worldwide in the next few years. One such detector, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) is in the process of being upgraded to its Advanced sensitivity which should make gravitational wave detections routine. Even so, the signals that LIGO will detect will be faint compared to the detector noise, and so accurate waveform templates are crucial. In this thesis, we present a detailed analysis of the accuracy of hybrid gravitational waveforms. Hybrids are created by stitching a long post-Newtonian inspiral to the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown produced by numerical relativity simulations. We begin our investigation with a study of the systematic errors in the numerical waveform, and errors due to hybridization and choice of detector noise. For current NR waveforms, the largest source of error comes from the unknown high-order terms in the post-Newtonian waveform, which we first explore for equal-mass, non-spinning binaries, and also for unequal-mass, non-spinning binaries. We then consider the potential reduction in hybrid errors if these higher-order terms were known. Finally, we investigate the possibility of using hybrid waveforms as a detection template bank and integrating NR+PN hybrids into the LIGO detection pipeline.

  11. Fracture behavior of advanced ceramic hot-gas filters

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Majumdar, S.; Sutaria, M.; Bielke, W.

    1996-05-01

    We have evaluated the microstructural/mechanical, and thermal shock/fatigue behavior and have conducted stress analyses of hot-gas candle filters made by various manufacturers. These filters include both monolithic and composite ceramics. Mechanical-property measurement of the composite filters included diametral compression testing with O-ring specimens and burst testing of short filter segments using rubber plug. In general, strength values obtained by burst testing were lower than those obtained by O-ring compression testing. During single-cycle thermal-shock tests, the composite filters showed little or no strength degradation when quenched from temperatures between 900 and 1000{degrees}C. At higher quenching temperatures, slow strength degradation was observed. The monolithic SiC filters showed no strength degradation when quenched from temperatures of up to {approx}700-900{degrees}C, but displayed decreased strength at a relatively sharp rate when quenched from higher temperatures. On the other hand, a recrystallized monolithic SiC filter showed higher initial strength and retained this strength to higher quenching temperatures than did regular SiC filters. This may be related to the difference in strength of grain boundary phases in the two cases. In thermal cycles between room temperature and 800- 1000{degrees}C, both monolithic and composite filters show a small strength degradation up to three cycles, beyond which the strength remained unchanged. Results of rubber-plug burst testing on composite filters were analyzed to determine the anisotropic elastic constants of the composite in the hoop direction. When these results are combined with axial elastic constants determined from axial tensile tests, the composite can be analyzed for stress due to mechanical (e. g., internal pressure) or thermal loading (thermal shock during pulse cleaning). The stresses can be compared with the strength of the composite to predict filter performance.

  12. Three-dimensional hybrid grid generation using advancing front techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbrenner, John P.; Noack, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    A new 3-dimensional hybrid grid generation technique has been developed, based on ideas of advancing fronts for both structured and unstructured grids. In this approach, structured grids are first generate independently around individual components of the geometry. Fronts are initialized on these structure grids, and advanced outward so that new cells are extracted directly from the structured grids. Employing typical advancing front techniques, cells are rejected if they intersect the existing front or fail other criteria When no more viable structured cells exist further cells are advanced in an unstructured manner to close off the overall domain, resulting in a grid of 'hybrid' form. There are two primary advantages to the hybrid formulation. First, generating blocks with limited regard to topology eliminates the bottleneck encountered when a multiple block system is used to fully encapsulate a domain. Individual blocks may be generated free of external constraints, which will significantly reduce the generation time. Secondly, grid points near the body (presumably with high aspect ratio) will still maintain a structured (non-triangular or tetrahedral) character, thereby maximizing grid quality and solution accuracy near the surface.

  13. Application of wavelet filtering and Barker-coded pulse compression hybrid method to air-coupled ultrasonic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhenggan; Ma, Baoquan; Jiang, Jingtao; Yu, Guang; Liu, Kui; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Weiping

    2014-10-01

    Air-coupled ultrasonic testing (ACUT) technique has been viewed as a viable solution in defect detection of advanced composites used in aerospace and aviation industries. However, the giant mismatch of acoustic impedance in air-solid interface makes the transmission efficiency of ultrasound low, and leads to poor signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of received signal. The utilisation of signal-processing techniques in non-destructive testing is highly appreciated. This paper presents a wavelet filtering and phase-coded pulse compression hybrid method to improve the SNR and output power of received signal. The wavelet transform is utilised to filter insignificant components from noisy ultrasonic signal, and pulse compression process is used to improve the power of correlated signal based on cross-correction algorithm. For the purpose of reasonable parameter selection, different families of wavelets (Daubechies, Symlet and Coiflet) and decomposition level in discrete wavelet transform are analysed, different Barker codes (5-13 bits) are also analysed to acquire higher main-to-side lobe ratio. The performance of the hybrid method was verified in a honeycomb composite sample. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method is very efficient in improving the SNR and signal strength. The applicability of the proposed method seems to be a very promising tool to evaluate the integrity of high ultrasound attenuation composite materials using the ACUT.

  14. Hybrid three-dimensional variation and particle filtering for nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Hong-Ze; Song, Jun-Qiang

    2013-03-01

    This work addresses the problem of estimating the states of nonlinear dynamic systems with sparse observations. We present a hybrid three-dimensional variation (3DVar) and particle piltering (PF) method, which combines the advantages of 3DVar and particle-based filters. By minimizing the cost function, this approach will produce a better proposal distribution of the state. Afterwards the stochastic resampling step in standard PF can be avoided through a deterministic scheme. The simulation results show that the performance of the new method is superior to the traditional ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF) and the standard PF, especially in highly nonlinear systems.

  15. Combining Particle Filters and Consistency-Based Approaches for Monitoring and Diagnosis of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasimhan, Sriram; Dearden, Richard; Benazera, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation are critical tasks to ensure correct operation of systems. When we consider stochastic hybrid systems, diagnosis algorithms need to track both the discrete mode and the continuous state of the system in the presence of noise. Deterministic techniques like Livingstone cannot deal with the stochasticity in the system and models. Conversely Bayesian belief update techniques such as particle filters may require many computational resources to get a good approximation of the true belief state. In this paper we propose a fault detection and isolation architecture for stochastic hybrid systems that combines look-ahead Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters (RBPF) with the Livingstone 3 (L3) diagnosis engine. In this approach RBPF is used to track the nominal behavior, a novel n-step prediction scheme is used for fault detection and L3 is used to generate a set of candidates that are consistent with the discrepant observations which then continue to be tracked by the RBPF scheme.

  16. Hybrid method for designing digital FIR filters based on fractional derivative constraints.

    PubMed

    Baderia, Kuldeep; Kumar, Anil; Kumar Singh, Girish

    2015-09-01

    In this manuscript, a hybrid approach based on Lagrange multiplier method and cuckoo search (CS) optimization technique is proposed for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters using fractional derivative constraints. In the proposed method, FIR filter is designed by optimizing the integral squares in passband and stopband from ideal response such that the fractional derivatives of designed filter response become zero at a given frequency point. Lagrange multiplier method is exploited for finding the optimized filter coefficients. Optimal value of fractional derivative constraints for optimized filter coefficients are determined by minimizing the objective function constructed using a sum of maximum passband ripple and maximum stopband ripple in frequency domain using CS algorithm. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (ϕ(p)), stopband error (ϕ(s)), stopband attenuation (A(s)), maximum passband ripple (MPR), maximum stopband ripple (MSR) and CPU time. A comparative study of the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) for designing FIR filters using the proposed method is also made. PMID:26142984

  17. Post-hybridization recovery of membrane filter-bound DNA for enzymatic DNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Chong, K Y; Chen, C M; Choo, K B

    1993-04-01

    We describe here a simple and rapid method for enzymatic DNA amplification using DNA template recovered from membrane filters previously used in hybridization analysis. This is done by first solubilizing membrane pieces carrying DNA of interest in dimethyl sulfoxide, followed by isopropanol precipitation and polymerase chain reaction amplification. The source of membrane-bound DNA successfully tested includes plasmid and human leukocyte DNA and DNA immobilized on bacterial colony filters and plaque lifts. The sensitivity of the procedure is such that DNA recovered from 0.5 microgram of filter-bound total human DNA was enough for PCR amplification of a 0.3-kb fragment. Our protocol will be useful for recycling of scarce DNA samples for cloning and sequencing purposes. PMID:8476600

  18. A Hybrid Collaborative Filtering System for Contextual Recommendations in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalo-Alonso, Jorge; de Juan, Paloma; Garcí-A-Hortelano, Elena; Iglesias, Carlos Á.

    Recommender systems are based mainly on collaborative filtering algorithms, which only use the ratings given by the users to the products. When context is taken into account, there might be difficulties when it comes to making recommendations to users who are placed in a context other than the usual one, since their preferences will not correlate with the preferences of those in the new context. In this paper, a hybrid collaborative filtering model is proposed, which provides recommendations based on the context of the travelling users. A combination of a user-based collaborative filtering method and a semantic-based one has been used. Contextual recommendation may be applied in multiple social networks that are spreading world-wide. The resulting system has been tested over 11870.com, a good example of a social network where context is a primary concern.

  19. Assessment of the advanced clay bonded silicon carbide candle filter materials. Topical report, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    Advancements have been made during the past five years to not only increase the strength of the as-manufactured clay bonded silicon carbide candle filter materials, but also to improve their high temperature creep resistance properties. This report reviews these developments, and describes the results of preliminary qualification testing which has been conducted at Westinghouse prior to utilizing the advanced clay bonded silicon carbide filters in high temperature, pressurized, coal-fired combustion and/or gasification applications.

  20. Assessment of Metal Media Filters for Advanced Coal-Based Power Generation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    2002-09-19

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. This paper reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion conditions.

  1. A Sub-filter Scale Noise Equation far Hybrid LES Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid LES/subscale modeling approaches have an important advantage over the current noise prediction methods in that they only involve modeling of the relatively universal subscale motion and not the configuration dependent larger scale turbulence . Previous hybrid approaches use approximate statistical techniques or extrapolation methods to obtain the requisite information about the sub-filter scale motion. An alternative approach would be to adopt the modeling techniques used in the current noise prediction methods and determine the unknown stresses from experimental data. The present paper derives an equation for predicting the sub scale sound from information that can be obtained with currently available experimental procedures. The resulting prediction method would then be intermediate between the current noise prediction codes and previously proposed hybrid techniques.

  2. Fatigue Damage Mechanisms in Advanced Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Steven; Rhymer, Donald W.; St.Clair, Terry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates (HTCL) are a type of hybrid composite laminate with promise for high-speed aerospace applications, specifically designed for improved damage tolerance and strength at high-temperature (350 F, 177 C). However, in previous testing, HTCL demonstrated a propensity to excessive delamination at the titanium/PMC interface following titanium cracking. An advanced HTCL has been constructed with an emphasis on strengthening this interface, combining a PETI-5/IM7 PMC with Ti-15-3 foils prepared with an alkaline-perborate surface treatment. This paper discusses how the fatigue capabilities of the "advanced" HTCL compare to the first generation HTCL which was not modified for interface optimization, in both tension-tension (R = 0.1) and tension-compression (R=-0.2). The advanced HTCL under did not demonstrate a significant improvement in fatigue life, in either tension-tension or tension-compression loading. However, the advanced HTCL proved much more damage tolerant. The R = 0.1 tests revealed the advanced HTCL to increase the fatigue life following initial titanium ply damage up to 10X that of the initial HTCL at certain stress levels. The damage progression following the initial ply damage demonstrated the effect of the strengthened PMC/titanium interface. Acetate film replication of the advanced HTCL edges showed a propensity for some fibers in the adjacent PMC layers to fail at the point of titanium crack formation, suppressing delamination at the Ti/PMC interface. The inspection of failure surfaces validated these findings, revealing PMC fibers bonded to the majority of the titanium surfaces. Tension compression fatigue (R = -0.2) demonstrated the same trends in cycles between initial damage and failure, damage progression, and failure surfaces. Moreover, in possessing a higher resistance to delamination, the advanced HTCL did not exhibit buckling following initial titanium ply cracking under compression unlike the initial HTCL.

  3. Advanced Energy-Efficient Filtration: Fan Filter Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this project is to provide assistance in development of a standard test procedure for fan-filter units, which are gaining popularity for use in California cleanrooms. In particular, LBNL carried out collaboration with various stakeholders in the industry and took a lead in developing a draft standard method for testing the energy performance of fan-filter units, and provided assistance to California public utility companies by testing the draft method in PG&E's testing facility. Through testing more units in the future with a robust standard method, baseline performance information can be developed for use in possible energy incentive programs.

  4. Multispectral Filter Arrays: Recent Advances and Practical Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Wang, Xingbo; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Gouton, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to some technical progress in interferencefilter design based on different technologies, we can finally successfully implement the concept of multispectral filter array-based sensors. This article provides the relevant state-of-the-art for multispectral imaging systems and presents the characteristics of the elements of our multispectral sensor as a case study. The spectral characteristics are based on two different spatial arrangements that distribute eight different bandpass filters in the visible and near-infrared area of the spectrum. We demonstrate that the system is viable and evaluate its performance through sensor spectral simulation. PMID:25407904

  5. Advancing Scholarship, Team Building, and Collaboration in a Hybrid Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Barbara; Trimble, Meridee; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid programs are changing the landscape of doctoral programs at American universities and colleges. The increased demand for hybrid doctoral programs, particularly for educational and career advancement, serves as an innovative way to increase scholarship, advance service, and promote leadership. Hybrid programs serve as excellent venues for…

  6. Advanced Trickling Filters. Training Module 2.112.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Ronald F.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation and maintenance of a trickling filter wastewater treatment plant. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series and considers…

  7. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  8. An advanced pitch change mechanism incorporating a hybrid traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, B. M.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Sargisson, D. F.; White, G.

    1984-01-01

    A design of a propeller pitch control mechanism is described that meets the demanding requirements of a high-power, advanced turboprop. In this application, blade twisting moment torque can be comparable to that of the main reduction gearbox output: precise pitch control, reliability and compactness are all at a premium. A key element in the design is a compact, high-ratio hybrid traction drive which offers low torque ripple and high torsional stiffness. The traction drive couples a high speed electric motor/alternator unit to a ball screw that actuates the blade control links. The technical merits of this arrangement and the performance characteristics of the traction drive are discussed.

  9. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  10. Lifted linear phase filter banks and the polyphase-with-advance representation

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, C. M.; Wohlberg, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    A matrix theory is developed for the noncausal polyphase-with-advance representation that underlies the theory of lifted perfect reconstruction filter banks and wavelet transforms as developed by Sweldens and Daubechies. This theory provides the fundamental lifting methodology employed in the ISO/IEC JPEG-2000 still image coding standard, which the authors helped to develop. Lifting structures for polyphase-with-advance filter banks are depicted in Figure 1. In the analysis bank of Figure 1(a), the first lifting step updates x{sub 0} with a filtered version of x{sub 1} and the second step updates x{sub 1} with a filtered version of x{sub 0}; gain factors 1/K and K normalize the lowpass- and highpass-filtered output subbands. Each of these steps is inverted by the corresponding operations in the synthesis bank shown in Figure 1(b). Lifting steps correspond to upper- or lower-triangular matrices, S{sub i}(z), in a cascade-form decomposition of the polyphase analysis matrix, H{sub a}(z). Lifting structures can also be implemented reversibly (i.e., losslessly in fixed-precision arithmetic) by rounding the lifting updates to integer values. Our treatment of the polyphase-with-advance representation develops an extensive matrix algebra framework that goes far beyond the results of. Specifically, we focus on analyzing and implementing linear phase two-channel filter banks via linear phase lifting cascade schemes. Whole-sample symmetric (WS) and half-sample symmetric (HS) linear phase filter banks are characterized completely in terms of the polyphase-with-advance representation. The theory benefits significantly from a number of new group-theoretic structures arising in the polyphase-with-advance matrix algebra from the lifting factorization of linear phase filter banks.

  11. Pipelined digital SAR azimuth correlator using hybrid FFT-transversal filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.; Liu, K. Y. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic aperture radar system (SAR) having a range correlator is provided with a hybrid azimuth correlator which utilizes a block-pipe-lined fast Fourier transform (FFT). The correlator has a predetermined FFT transform size with delay elements for delaying SAR range correlated data so as to embed in the Fourier transform operation a corner-turning function as the range correlated SAR data is converted from the time domain to a frequency domain. The azimuth correlator is comprised of a transversal filter to receive the SAR data in the frequency domain, a generator for range migration compensation and azimuth reference functions, and an azimuth reference multiplier for correlation of the SAR data. Following the transversal filter is a block-pipelined inverse FFT used to restore azimuth correlated data in the frequency domain to the time domain for imaging.

  12. Atomic filtering for hybrid continuous-variable/discrete-variable quantum optics.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Joanna A; Beduini, Federica A; Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; Mitchell, Morgan W

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate atomic filtering of frequency-degenerate photon pairs from a sub-threshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The filter, a modified Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), achieves 70% peak transmission simultaneous with 57 dB out-of-band rejection and a 445 MHz transmission bandwidth. When applied to the OPO output, only the degenerate mode, containing one-mode squeezed vacuum, falls in the filter pass-band; all other modes are strongly suppressed. The high transmission preserves non-classical continuous-variable features, e.g. squeezing or non-gaussianity, while the high spectral purity allows reliable discrete-variable detection and heralding. Correlation and atomic absorption measurements indicate a spectral purity of 96% for the individual photons, and 98% for the photon pairs. These capabilities will enable generation of atom-resonant hybrid states, e.g. "Schrödinger kittens" obtained by photon subtraction from squeezed vacuum, making these exotic states available for quantum networking and atomic quantum metrology applications. PMID:25401564

  13. New hybrid active power filter for harmonic current suppression and reactive power compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biricik, Samet; Cemal Ozerdem, Ozgur; Redif, Soydan; Sezai Dincer, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    In the case of undistorted and balanced grid voltages, low ratio shunt active power filters (APFs) can give unity power factors and achieve current harmonic cancellation. However, this is not possible when source voltages are distorted and unbalanced. In this study, the cost-effective hybrid active power filter (HAPF) topology for satisfying the requirements of harmonic current suppression and non-active power compensation for industry is presented. An effective strategy is developed to observe the effect of the placement of power capacitors and LC filters with the shunt APF. A new method for alleviating the negative effects of a nonideal grid voltage is proposed that uses a self-tuning filter algorithm with instantaneous reactive power theory. The real-time control of the studied system was achieved with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture, which was developed using the OPAL-RT system. The performance result of the proposed HAPF system is tested and presented under nonideal supply voltage conditions.

  14. Hybrid extended particle filter (HEPF) for integrated inertial navigation and global positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Priyanka; Syed, Zainab; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2009-05-01

    Navigation includes the integration of methodologies and systems for estimating time-varying position, velocity and attitude of moving objects. Navigation incorporating the integrated inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) generally requires extensive evaluations of nonlinear equations involving double integration. Currently, integrated navigation systems are commonly implemented using the extended Kalman filter (EKF). The EKF assumes a linearized process, measurement models and Gaussian noise distributions. These assumptions are unrealistic for highly nonlinear systems like land vehicle navigation and may cause filter divergence. A particle filter (PF) is developed to enhance integrated INS/GPS system performance as it can easily deal with nonlinearity and non-Gaussian noises. In this paper, a hybrid extended particle filter (HEPF) is developed as an alternative to the well-known EKF to achieve better navigation data accuracy for low-cost microelectromechanical system sensors. The results show that the HEPF performs better than the EKF during GPS outages, especially when simulated outages are located in periods with high vehicle dynamics.

  15. Two-stage hybrid optimization of fiber Bragg gratings for design of linear phase filters.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Rui Tao; Ngo, Nam Quoc; Le Binh, Nguyen; Tjin, Swee Chuan

    2004-12-01

    We present a new hybrid optimization method for the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with complex characteristics. The hybrid optimization method is a two-tier search that employs a global optimization algorithm [i.e., the tabu search (TS) algorithm] and a local optimization method (i.e., the quasi-Netwon method). First the TS global optimization algorithm is used to find a "promising" FBG structure that has a spectral response as close as possible to the targeted spectral response. Then the quasi-Newton local optimization method is applied to further optimize the FBG structure obtained from the TS algorithm to arrive at a targeted spectral response. A dynamic mechanism for weighting of different requirements of the spectral response is employed to enhance the optimization efficiency. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the synthesis of three linear-phase optical filters based on FBGs with different grating lengths is described. PMID:15603077

  16. Advanced hot-gas filter development. Topical report, September 30, 1994--May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.E.; LeCostaouec, J.F.; Painter, C.J.; Sue, W.A.; Radford, K.C.

    1996-12-31

    The application of high-performance, high-temperature particulate control devices is considered to be beneficial to advanced fossil fuel processing technology, to selected high-temperature industrial processes, and to waste incineration concepts. Ceramic rigid filters represent the most attractive technology for these applications due to their capability to withstand high-temperature corrosive environments. However, current generation monolithic filters have demonstrated poor resistance to crack propagation and can experience catastrophic failure during use. To address this problem, ceramic fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) filter materials are needed for reliable damage tolerant candle filters. This program is focused on the development of an oxide-fiber reinforced oxide material composite filter material that is cost competitive with prototype next generation filters. This goal would be achieved through the development of a low cost sol-gel fabrication process and a three-dimensional fiber architecture optimized for high volume filter manufacturing. The 3D continuous fiber reinforcement provides a damage tolerant structure which is not subject to delamination-type failures. This report documents the Phase 1, Filter Material Development and Evaluation, results. Section 2 provides a program summary. Technical results, including experimental procedures, are presented and discussed in Section 3. Section 4 and 5 provide the Phase 1 conclusions and recommendations, respectively. The remaining sections cover acknowledgements and references.

  17. Tunable spin filter and molecular hybridization in a quantum dot molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, F.; Ulloa, S. E.

    2005-03-01

    Spin filtering using few electron semiconductor quantum dots formed in two-dimensional electron gas systems has attracted much recent attention in spintronics. Spin filtering has been achieved in a quantum dot via universal conductance fluctuations and electron magnetic focusing [1]. A bipolar spin filter (SF) has been realized recently using a semiconductor quantum dot which can operate practically as a perfect SF, provided there is a large enough Zeeman splitting [2]. In this work we present calculations showing that the tunable (molecular) hybridization between two quantum dots with few electrons and connected ``in parallel,'' produces a singlet-triplet transition in the ground state which can be used as a robust bipolar SF in both the linear and non-linear regimes of transport. The bipolar SF is found to be fully tunable by only electrical gating at low temperatures. We show that a singlet-triplet transition in the energy spectrum gives rise to the natural spin selectivity in the odd-to-even electron number transition in Coulomb blockade experiments. The competition between the Zeeman, Coulomb, and tunneling energies is studied in detail to determine the optimal conditions to achieve the singlet-triplet transition, so that it becomes broadly useful as a bipolar SF. [1] J. A. Folk et al., Science 299, 679 (2003). [2] R. Hanson et al., cond-mat/0311414 (2003). *Supported by DGAPA-UNAM project 1N114403, CONACYT, projects J40521F and 143673F, and NSF-IMC.

  18. Removal of nitrate and phosphorus from hydroponic wastewater using a hybrid denitrification filter (HDF).

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Sukias, J P S

    2009-07-01

    A laboratory-scale hybrid-denitrification filter (HDF) was designed by combining a plant material digester and a denitrification filter into a single unit for the removal of nitrate and phosphorus from glasshouse hydroponic wastewater. The carbon to nitrate (C:N) ratio for efficient operation of the HDF was calculated to be 1.93:1 and the COD/BOD(5) ratio was 1.2:1. When the HDF was continuously operated with the plant material replaced every 2 days and 100% internal recirculation of the effluent, a high level of nitrate removal (320-5 mg N/L, >95% removal) combined with a low effluent sBOD(5) concentration (<5mg/L) was consistently achieved. Moreover, phosphate concentrations in the effluent were maintained below 7.5 mg P/L (>81% reduction). This study demonstrates the potential to combine a digester and a denitrification filter in a single unit to efficiently remove nitrate and phosphate from hydroponic wastewater in a single unit. PMID:19303287

  19. Hybrid hill-climbing and knowledge-based methods for intelligent news filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, K.J.

    1996-12-31

    As the size of the Internet increases, the amount of data available to users has dramatically risen, resulting in an information overload for users. This work involved the creation of an intelligent information news filtering system named INFOS (Intelligent News Filtering Organizational System) to reduce the user`s search burden by automatically eliminating Usenet news articles predicted to be irrelevant. These predictions are learned automatically by adapting an internal user model that is based upon features taken from articles and collaborative features derived from other users. The features are manipulated through keyword-based techniques and knowledge-based techniques to perform the actual filtering. Knowledge-based systems have the advantage of analyzing input text in detail, but at the cost of computational complexity and the difficulty of scaling up to large domains. In contrast, statistical and keyword approaches scale up readily but result in a shallower understanding of the input. A hybrid system integrating both approaches improves accuracy over keyword approaches, supports domain knowledge, and retains scalability. The system would be enhanced by more robust word disambiguation.

  20. Recent advance in application of acousto-optic tunable filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khansuvarov, Ruslan A.; Shakin, Oleg V.; Vaganov, Mikhail A.; Zhdanov, Arseniy Y.; Prokashev, Vadim N.

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to inform those interested in the scientific work of a large group of scientists: workers of the Department of Electronics and Optical communications of St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation in collaboration with workers of the Department of Quantum Electronics of St. Petersburg State Technical University in the area of researches and development of acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF). Paper discusses the important features of the AOTF structure and their parameters that affect its work, such as: spectral range of optical radiation, spectral resolution, active aperture of the optical radiation, optical transmission of the working spectral range, optical radiation polarization (linear, circular or arbitrary) , diffraction efficiency, contrast, distortion of the optical radiation's front, frequency range of elastic waves, switching time, maximum electric control power, impedance. Also the AOTF using is considered: AOTF's implications for control of laser radiation, AOTF's application to determine the counterfeit money. The last part of the report focuses on materials that act as antireflection thin films. Spectral characteristics of "clean" and enlightened substrates of ZnSe and Ge are shown. As seen from the examples in the report, antireflection thin films increase transmittance of optical elements.

  1. An advanced pitch change mechanism incorporating a hybrid traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, B. M.; Sargisson, D. F.; White, G.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A design of a propeller pitch control mechanism is described that meets the demanding requirements of a high-power, advanced turboprop. In this application, blade twisting moment torque can be comparable to that of the main reduction gearbox output: precise pitch control, reliability and compactness are all at a premium. A key element in the design is a compact, high-ratio hybrid traction drive which offers low torque ripple and high torsional stiffness. The traction drive couples a high speed electric motor/alternator unit to a ball screw that actuates the blade control links. The technical merits of this arrangement and the performance characteristics of the traction drive are discussed. Comparisons are made to the more conventional pitch control mechanisms.

  2. ALOHA: an Advanced LOwer Hybrid Antenna coupling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, J.; Voyer, D.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Kazda, M.; Meneghini, O.; Milanesio, D.; Preynas, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced LOwer Hybrid Antenna (ALOHA) code, has been developed to improve the modelling of the coupling of lower hybrid (LH) waves from the antenna to a cold inhomogeneous plasma while keeping a fast tool. In contrast to the previous code Slow Wave ANtenna (SWAN) (that only described the interaction of the slow wave between the waveguides and the plasma in a 1D model), the equations are now solved in 2D including the contribution of both the slow and fast waves, with a low computational cost. This approach is completed either by a full-wave computation of the antenna that takes into account its detailed geometry or by a mode-matching code dedicated to multijunctions modelling, which is convenient in preliminary design phases. Moreover, ALOHA can treat more realistic scrape-off layers in front of the antenna, by using a two-layer electron density profile. The ALOHA code has been compared with experimental results from Tore Supra LH antennas of different geometries, as well as benchmarked against other LH coupling codes, with very good results. Once validated, ALOHA has been used as a support for the design of COMPASS and ITER LH antennas and has shown to be a fast and reliable tool for LH antenna design.

  3. Hybrid Nanomaterial Complexes for Advanced Phage-guided Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yata, Teerapong; Lee, Koon-Yang; Dharakul, Tararaj; Songsivilai, Sirirurg; Bismarck, Alexander; Mintz, Paul J; Hajitou, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Developing nanomaterials that are effective, safe, and selective for gene transfer applications is challenging. Bacteriophages (phage), viruses that infect bacteria only, have shown promise for targeted gene transfer applications. Unfortunately, limited progress has been achieved in improving their potential to overcome mammalian cellular barriers. We hypothesized that chemical modification of the bacteriophage capsid could be applied to improve targeted gene delivery by phage vectors into mammalian cells. Here, we introduce a novel hybrid system consisting of two classes of nanomaterial systems, cationic polymers and M13 bacteriophage virus particles genetically engineered to display a tumor-targeting ligand and carry a transgene cassette. We demonstrate that the phage complex with cationic polymers generates positively charged phage and large aggregates that show enhanced cell surface attachment, buffering capacity, and improved transgene expression while retaining cell type specificity. Moreover, phage/polymer complexes carrying a therapeutic gene achieve greater cancer cell killing than phage alone. This new class of hybrid nanomaterial platform can advance targeted gene delivery applications by bacteriophage. PMID:25118171

  4. A Hybrid Circuit for Spoof Surface Plasmons and Spatial Waveguide Modes to Reach Controllable Band-Pass Filters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hao Chi; Wu, Han; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a hybrid circuit for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and spatial waveguide modes to develop new microwave devices. The hybrid circuit includes a spoof SPP waveguide made of two anti-symmetric corrugated metallic strips and a traditional substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). From dispersion relations, we show that the electromagnetic waves only can propagate through the hybrid circuit when the operating frequency is less than the cut-off frequency of the SPP waveguide and greater than the cut-off frequency of SIW, generating efficient band-pass filters. We demonstrate that the pass band is controllable in a large range by designing the geometrical parameters of SPP waveguide and SIW. Full-wave simulations are provided to show the large adjustability of filters, including ultra wideband and narrowband filters. We fabricate a sample of the new hybrid device in the microwave frequencies, and measurement results have excellent agreements to numerical simulations, demonstrating excellent filtering characteristics such as low loss, high efficiency, and good square ratio. The proposed hybrid circuit gives important potential to accelerate the development of plasmonic integrated functional devices and circuits in both microwave and terahertz frequencies. PMID:26552584

  5. A Hybrid Circuit for Spoof Surface Plasmons and Spatial Waveguide Modes to Reach Controllable Band-Pass Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hao Chi; Wu, Han; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-11-01

    We propose a hybrid circuit for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and spatial waveguide modes to develop new microwave devices. The hybrid circuit includes a spoof SPP waveguide made of two anti-symmetric corrugated metallic strips and a traditional substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). From dispersion relations, we show that the electromagnetic waves only can propagate through the hybrid circuit when the operating frequency is less than the cut-off frequency of the SPP waveguide and greater than the cut-off frequency of SIW, generating efficient band-pass filters. We demonstrate that the pass band is controllable in a large range by designing the geometrical parameters of SPP waveguide and SIW. Full-wave simulations are provided to show the large adjustability of filters, including ultra wideband and narrowband filters. We fabricate a sample of the new hybrid device in the microwave frequencies, and measurement results have excellent agreements to numerical simulations, demonstrating excellent filtering characteristics such as low loss, high efficiency, and good square ratio. The proposed hybrid circuit gives important potential to accelerate the development of plasmonic integrated functional devices and circuits in both microwave and terahertz frequencies.

  6. A Hybrid Circuit for Spoof Surface Plasmons and Spatial Waveguide Modes to Reach Controllable Band-Pass Filters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hao Chi; Wu, Han; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a hybrid circuit for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and spatial waveguide modes to develop new microwave devices. The hybrid circuit includes a spoof SPP waveguide made of two anti-symmetric corrugated metallic strips and a traditional substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). From dispersion relations, we show that the electromagnetic waves only can propagate through the hybrid circuit when the operating frequency is less than the cut-off frequency of the SPP waveguide and greater than the cut-off frequency of SIW, generating efficient band-pass filters. We demonstrate that the pass band is controllable in a large range by designing the geometrical parameters of SPP waveguide and SIW. Full-wave simulations are provided to show the large adjustability of filters, including ultra wideband and narrowband filters. We fabricate a sample of the new hybrid device in the microwave frequencies, and measurement results have excellent agreements to numerical simulations, demonstrating excellent filtering characteristics such as low loss, high efficiency, and good square ratio. The proposed hybrid circuit gives important potential to accelerate the development of plasmonic integrated functional devices and circuits in both microwave and terahertz frequencies. PMID:26552584

  7. Phase Advance for Wideband Dampers With Notch Filters

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Dave; /Fermilab

    2000-02-01

    Consider a simple damper system shown in Figure 1. The phase advance between pickup and kicker is {phi}{sub k}. Assume a particle passes through the pickup at time t=0 with a complex betatron amplitude: {rvec A}{sub pu} = A{sub o}. When the particle passes through the kicker, the betatron amplitude of the particle will be: {rvec A}{sub kr} = A{sub o}e{sup j{phi}k}. Assume that the damper is timed so that the delay through the electronics matches the time of flight for the particle between pickup to kicker. The difference in phase between the kicker betatron amplitude and the pickup amplitude must be: arg({rvec A}{sub kr})-arg({rvec A}{sub pu}) = (2n + 1) {pi}/2 and {phi}{sub k} = (2n+1) {pi}/2 because the pickup measures the position and the kicker corrects an angle.

  8. Recent advances on distributed filtering for stochastic systems over sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Derui; Wang, Zidong; Shen, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Sensor networks comprising of tiny, power-constrained nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communication capabilities are gaining popularity due to their potential application in a wide variety of environments like monitoring of environmental attributes and various military and civilian applications. Considering the limited power and communication resources of the sensor nodes, the strategy of the distributed information processing is widely exploited. Therefore, it would be interesting to examine how the topology, network-induced phenomena, and power constraints influence the distributed filtering performance and to obtain some suitable schemes in order to solve the addressed distributed filter design problem. In this paper, we aim to survey some recent advances on the distributed filtering and distributed state estimation problems over the sensor networks with various performance requirements and/or randomly occurring network-induced phenomena. First, some practical filter structures are addressed in detail. Then, the developments of the distributed Kalman filtering, distributed state estimation based on the stability or mean-square error analysis, and distributed ? filtering are systematically reviewed. In addition, latest results on the distributed filtering or state estimation over sensor networks are discussed in great detail and some challenges are highlighted. Finally, some concluding remarks are given and some possible future research directions are pointed out.

  9. Design and Specification of Optical Bandpass Filters for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Tsevetanov, Zlatan; Woodruff, Bob; Mooney, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced optical bandpass filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have been developed on a filter-by-filter basis through detailed studies which take into account the instrument's science goals, available optical filter fabrication technology, and developments in ACS's charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector technology. These filters include a subset of filters for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are optimized for astronomical photometry using today's charge-coupled-devices (CCD's). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements for these filters include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, a high degree of parfocality, and immunity to environmental degradation. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The highly successful paradigm in which final specifications for flight filters were derived through interaction amongst the ACS Science Team, the instrument designer, the lead optical engineer, and the filter designer and vendor is described. Examples of iterative design trade studies carried out in the context of science needs and budgetary and schedule constraints are presented. An overview of the final design specifications for the ACS bandpass and ramp filters is also presented.

  10. SINET3: advanced optical and IP hybrid network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urushidani, Shigeo

    2007-11-01

    This paper introduces the new Japanese academic backbone network called SINET3, which has been in full-scale operation since June 2007. SINET3 provides a wide variety of network services, such as multi-layer transfer, enriched VPN, enhanced QoS, and layer-1 bandwidth on demand (BoD) services to create an innovative and prolific science infrastructure for more than 700 universities and research institutions. The network applies an advanced hybrid network architecture composed of 75 layer-1 switches and 12 high-performance IP routers to accommodate such diversified services in a single network platform, and provides sufficient bandwidth using Japan's first STM256 (40 Gbps) lines. The network adopts lots of the latest networking technologies, such as next-generation SDH (VCAT/GFP/LCAS), GMPLS, advanced MPLS, and logical-router technologies, for high network convergence, flexible resource assignment, and high service availability. This paper covers the network services, network design, and networking technologies of SINET3.

  11. The Suitability of Hybrid Waveforms for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Ilana; Nissanke, Samaya; Pfeiffer, Harald

    2012-03-01

    Detectors such as Advanced LIGO are expected to measure gravitational wave (GW) signals from compact binaries within the next few years. In order to be able to characterize this type of signal, these detectors require accurate waveform models, which can be constructed by fusing an analytical post-Newtonian (PN) inspiral waveform with a numerical relativity (NR) late-inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform. NR, though the most accurate model, is computationally expensive: the longest simulations to date taking several months to run. PN theory, an analytic approximation to General Relativity, is easy to compute but becomes increasingly inaccurate near merger. Because of this trade-off, it is important to determine the optimal length of the NR waveform, while maintaining the necessary accuracy for GW detectors. We present a study of the sufficient accuracy of PN and NR waveforms for the most demanding usage case: parameter estimation of strong sources in advanced gravitational wave detectors. We perform a comprehensive analysis of errors that enter such ``hybrid waveforms'' in the case of equal- and unequal-mass non-spinning binaries.

  12. Design and feasibility of high temperature nanoparticle fluid filter in hybrid thermal/photovoltaic concentrating solar power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJarnette, Drew; Brekke, Nick; Tunkara, Ebrima; Hari, Parameswar; Roberts, Kenneth; Otanicar, Todd

    2015-09-01

    A nanoparticle fluid filter used with concentrating hybrid solar/thermal collector design is presented. Nanoparticle fluid filters could be situated on any given concentrating system with appropriate customized engineering. This work shows the design in the context of a trough concentration system. Geometric design and physical placement in the optical path was modeled using SolTrace. It was found that a design can be made that blocks 0% of the traced rays. The nanoparticle fluid filter is tunable for different concentrating systems using various PV cells or operating at varying temperatures.

  13. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.

    1999-01-01

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between each row of filter elements is a grounded plate. Between the grounded plates and the filter elements are electrode grids for creating electrostatic precipitation zones between each row of filter elements. In this way, when the filter elements are cleaned by pulsing air in a reverse direction, the dust removed from the bags will collect in the electrostatic precipitation zones rather than on adjacent filter elements.

  14. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.J.

    1999-08-17

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between each row of filter elements is a grounded plate. Between the grounded plates and the filter elements are electrode grids for creating electrostatic precipitation zones between each row of filter elements. In this way, when the filter elements are cleaned by pulsing air in a reverse direction, the dust removed from the bags will collect in the electrostatic precipitation zones rather than on adjacent filter elements. 12 figs.

  15. The Effects of Hybrid Optical Pumping on the Electron Spin Filter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberry, Mark; Gay, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    Under the low pressure conditions of our spin filter experiment, optically pumping a single alkali species runs into the problem of radiation trapping. To polarize a significant electron current requires a moderate alkali density, but in the absence of quenching effects such a vapor is limited to modest polarization, and hence the resulting electron polarization is also low. One possible solution is to introduce a second alkali species, which can be polarized by spin exchange with the laser polarized species. Since this second species does not interact with the laser, it does not suffer from radiation trapping, even if it has a substantial density. We report progress in experimental and computational studies of potassium/rubidium hybrid pumping in this regime

  16. Use of adaptive hybrid filtering process in Crohn's disease lesion detection from real capsule endoscopy videos.

    PubMed

    Charisis, Vasileios S; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this Letter is to present a new capsule endoscopy (CE) image analysis scheme for the detection of small bowel ulcers that relate to Crohn's disease. More specifically, this scheme is based on: (i) a hybrid adaptive filtering (HAF) process, that utilises genetic algorithms to the curvelet-based representation of images for efficient extraction of the lesion-related morphological characteristics, (ii) differential lacunarity (DL) analysis for texture feature extraction from the HAF-filtered images and (iii) support vector machines for robust classification performance. For the training of the proposed scheme, namely HAF-DL, an 800-image database was used and the evaluation was based on ten 30-second long endoscopic videos. Experimental results, along with comparison with other related efforts, have shown that the HAF-DL approach evidently outperforms the latter in the field of CE image analysis for automated lesion detection, providing higher classification results. The promising performance of HAF-DL paves the way for a complete computer-aided diagnosis system that could support the physicians' clinical practice. PMID:27222730

  17. Advanced spatio-temporal filtering techniques for photogrammetric image sequence analysis in civil engineering material testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebold, F.; Maas, H.-G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper shows advanced spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal filtering techniques which may be used to reduce noise effects in photogrammetric image sequence analysis tasks and tools. As a practical example, the techniques are validated in a photogrammetric spatio-temporal crack detection and analysis tool applied in load tests in civil engineering material testing. The load test technique is based on monocular image sequences of a test object under varying load conditions. The first image of a sequence is defined as a reference image under zero load, wherein interest points are determined and connected in a triangular irregular network structure. For each epoch, these triangles are compared to the reference image triangles to search for deformations. The result of the feature point tracking and triangle comparison process is a spatio-temporally resolved strain value field, wherein cracks can be detected, located and measured via local discrepancies. The strains can be visualized as a color-coded map. In order to improve the measuring system and to reduce noise, the strain values of each triangle must be treated in a filtering process. The paper shows the results of various filter techniques in the spatial and in the temporal domain as well as spatio-temporal filtering techniques applied to these data. The best results were obtained by a bilateral filter in the spatial domain and by a spatio-temporal EOF (empirical orthogonal function) filtering technique.

  18. Characterizing the continuously acquired cardiovascular time series during hemodialysis, using median hybrid filter preprocessing noise reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Scott; Bowyer, Andrea; Harrap, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD) has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP) readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF) algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information. PMID:25678827

  19. Thermo-mechanical analysis of a user filter assembly for undulator/wiggler operations at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, H.L.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.; Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Dejus, R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a thermo-mechanical study of a beamline filter (user filter) for undulator/wiggler operations. It is deployed in conjunction with the current commissioning window assembly on the APS insertion device (ID) front ends. The beamline filter at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will eventually be used in windowless operations also. Hence survival and reasonable life expectancy of the filters under intense insertion device (ID) heat flu are crucial to the beamline operations. To accommodate various user requirements, the filter is configured to be a multi-choice type and smart to allow only those filter combinations that will be safe to operate with a given ring current and beamline insertion device gap. However, this paper addresses only the thermo-mechanical analysis of individual filter integrity and safety in all combinations possible. The current filter design is configured to have four filter frames in a cascade with each frame holding five filters. This allows a potential 625 total filter combinations. Thermal analysis for all of these combinations becomes a mammoth task considering the desired choices for filter materials (pyrolitic graphite and metallic filters), filter thicknesses, undulator gaps, and the beam currents. The paper addresses how this difficult task has been reduced to a reasonable effort and computational level. Results from thermo-mechanical analyses of the filter combinations are presented both in tabular and graphical format.

  20. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.

    2003-04-08

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between the rows of filter elements are rows of high voltage discharge electrodes. Between the rows of discharge electrodes and the rows of filter elements are grounded perforated plates for creating electrostatic precipitation zones.

  1. Design and fabrication of advanced hybrid circuits for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.M.; Moss, J.; Freytag, D.R.; Nelson, D.; Yim, A.; Lo, C.C.

    1987-10-01

    Current design and fabrication techniques of hybrid devices are explained for the Drift Chamber and the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC. Methods of developing layouts, ranging from hand-cut templates to advanced designs utilizing CAD tools with special hybrid design software were applied. Physical and electrical design rules for good yield and performance are discussed. Fabrication and assembly of the SLD hybrids are described. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Arsenic removal via ZVI in a hybrid spouted vessel/fixed bed filter system.

    PubMed

    Calo, Joseph M; Madhavan, Lakshmi; Kirchner, Johannes; Bain, Euan J

    2012-05-01

    The description and operation of a novel, hybrid spouted vessel/fixed bed filter system for the removal of arsenic from water are presented. The system utilizes zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles circulating in a spouted vessel that continuously generates active colloidal iron corrosion products via the "self-polishing" action between ZVI source particles rolling in the moving bed that forms on the conical bottom of the spouted vessel. This action also serves as a "surface renewal" mechanism for the particles that provides for maximum utilization of the ZVI material. (Results of batch experiments conducted to examine this mechanism are also presented.) The colloidal material produced in this fashion is continuously captured and concentrated in a fixed bed filter located within the spouted vessel reservoir wherein arsenic complexation occurs. It is demonstrated that this system is very effective for arsenic removal in the microgram per liter arsenic concentration (i.e., drinking water treatment) range, reducing 100 μg/L of arsenic to below detectable levels (≪10 μg/L) in less than an hour.A mechanistic analysis of arsenic behavior in the system is presented, identifying the principal components of the population of active colloidal material for arsenic removal that explains the experimental observations and working principles of the system. It is concluded that the apparent kinetic behavior of arsenic in systems where colloidal (i.e., micro/nano) iron corrosion products are dominant can be complex and may not be explained by simple first or zeroth order kinetics. PMID:22539917

  3. Arsenic removal via ZVI in a hybrid spouted vessel/fixed bed filter system

    PubMed Central

    Calo, Joseph M.; Madhavan, Lakshmi; Kirchner, Johannes; Bain, Euan J.

    2012-01-01

    The description and operation of a novel, hybrid spouted vessel/fixed bed filter system for the removal of arsenic from water are presented. The system utilizes zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles circulating in a spouted vessel that continuously generates active colloidal iron corrosion products via the “self-polishing” action between ZVI source particles rolling in the moving bed that forms on the conical bottom of the spouted vessel. This action also serves as a “surface renewal” mechanism for the particles that provides for maximum utilization of the ZVI material. (Results of batch experiments conducted to examine this mechanism are also presented.) The colloidal material produced in this fashion is continuously captured and concentrated in a fixed bed filter located within the spouted vessel reservoir wherein arsenic complexation occurs. It is demonstrated that this system is very effective for arsenic removal in the microgram per liter arsenic concentration (i.e., drinking water treatment) range, reducing 100 μg/L of arsenic to below detectable levels (≪10 μg/L) in less than an hour. A mechanistic analysis of arsenic behavior in the system is presented, identifying the principal components of the population of active colloidal material for arsenic removal that explains the experimental observations and working principles of the system. It is concluded that the apparent kinetic behavior of arsenic in systems where colloidal (i.e., micro/nano) iron corrosion products are dominant can be complex and may not be explained by simple first or zeroth order kinetics. PMID:22539917

  4. 40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies. 1037.615 Section 1037.615 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.615 Hybrid vehicles...

  5. 40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies. 1037.615 Section 1037.615 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.615 Hybrid vehicles...

  6. 40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies. 1037.615 Section 1037.615 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.615 Hybrid vehicles...

  7. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-02-01

    Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

  8. Subtractive Color Filters Based on a Silicon-Aluminum Hybrid-Nanodisk Metasurface Enabling Enhanced Color Purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Wenjing; Gao, Song; Lee, Sang-Shin; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Duk-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Highly efficient subtractive tri-color filters of cyan, magenta, and yellow with enhanced color purity and robustness have been proposed and realized, by exploiting a silicon-aluminum (Si-Al) hybrid-nanodisk (ND) metasurface atop a Si substrate. The aspect ratio of the Si-Al hybrid ND is much lower than that of the conventional Si nanowire, which is disadvantageous due to its fragility and low color purity. In response to incident light impinging upon the metasurface, the hybrid-NDs individually play the role in exciting a magnetic dipole (MD) resonance through the mediation of Mie-scattering between the hybrid ND and air. The light stored in the resonance is coupled to the substrate, giving rise to a suppressed reflection. By virtue of the top Al ND, the excited MD resonance is strongly confined by the Si ND. As a consequence, a near-zero resonant dip that exhibits high off-resonance reflection and narrow bandwidth is produced for embodying highly efficient tri-color filters with enhanced color purity. The spectral position can be tuned by a simple adjustment of the hybrid-ND diameter. A full-color palette was successfully created with a high color purity and large color gamut. The proposed devices may be applied for photorealistic high-resolution color printing and holographic displays.

  9. Subtractive Color Filters Based on a Silicon-Aluminum Hybrid-Nanodisk Metasurface Enabling Enhanced Color Purity

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Wenjing; Gao, Song; Lee, Sang-Shin; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Duk-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient subtractive tri-color filters of cyan, magenta, and yellow with enhanced color purity and robustness have been proposed and realized, by exploiting a silicon-aluminum (Si-Al) hybrid-nanodisk (ND) metasurface atop a Si substrate. The aspect ratio of the Si-Al hybrid ND is much lower than that of the conventional Si nanowire, which is disadvantageous due to its fragility and low color purity. In response to incident light impinging upon the metasurface, the hybrid-NDs individually play the role in exciting a magnetic dipole (MD) resonance through the mediation of Mie-scattering between the hybrid ND and air. The light stored in the resonance is coupled to the substrate, giving rise to a suppressed reflection. By virtue of the top Al ND, the excited MD resonance is strongly confined by the Si ND. As a consequence, a near-zero resonant dip that exhibits high off-resonance reflection and narrow bandwidth is produced for embodying highly efficient tri-color filters with enhanced color purity. The spectral position can be tuned by a simple adjustment of the hybrid-ND diameter. A full-color palette was successfully created with a high color purity and large color gamut. The proposed devices may be applied for photorealistic high-resolution color printing and holographic displays. PMID:27407024

  10. Subtractive Color Filters Based on a Silicon-Aluminum Hybrid-Nanodisk Metasurface Enabling Enhanced Color Purity.

    PubMed

    Yue, Wenjing; Gao, Song; Lee, Sang-Shin; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Duk-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient subtractive tri-color filters of cyan, magenta, and yellow with enhanced color purity and robustness have been proposed and realized, by exploiting a silicon-aluminum (Si-Al) hybrid-nanodisk (ND) metasurface atop a Si substrate. The aspect ratio of the Si-Al hybrid ND is much lower than that of the conventional Si nanowire, which is disadvantageous due to its fragility and low color purity. In response to incident light impinging upon the metasurface, the hybrid-NDs individually play the role in exciting a magnetic dipole (MD) resonance through the mediation of Mie-scattering between the hybrid ND and air. The light stored in the resonance is coupled to the substrate, giving rise to a suppressed reflection. By virtue of the top Al ND, the excited MD resonance is strongly confined by the Si ND. As a consequence, a near-zero resonant dip that exhibits high off-resonance reflection and narrow bandwidth is produced for embodying highly efficient tri-color filters with enhanced color purity. The spectral position can be tuned by a simple adjustment of the hybrid-ND diameter. A full-color palette was successfully created with a high color purity and large color gamut. The proposed devices may be applied for photorealistic high-resolution color printing and holographic displays. PMID:27407024

  11. Advancements in electric and hybrid electric vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Contents of this volume include: Influence of Battery Characteristics on Traction Drive Performance; Chassis Design for a Small Electric City Car; Thermal Comfort of Electric Vehicles; Power Quality Problems at Electric Vehicle`s Charging Station; The Development and Performance of the AMPhibian Hybrid Electric Vehicle; The Selection of Lead-Acid Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles; and more.

  12. Particle filter based hybrid prognostics for health monitoring of uncertain systems in bond graph framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Mayank Shekhar; Dauphin-Tanguy, G.; Ould-Bouamama, B.

    2016-06-01

    The paper's main objective is to address the problem of health monitoring of system parameters in Bond Graph (BG) modeling framework, by exploiting its structural and causal properties. The system in feedback control loop is considered uncertain globally. Parametric uncertainty is modeled in interval form. The system parameter is undergoing degradation (prognostic candidate) and its degradation model is assumed to be known a priori. The detection of degradation commencement is done in a passive manner which involves interval valued robust adaptive thresholds over the nominal part of the uncertain BG-derived interval valued analytical redundancy relations (I-ARRs). The latter forms an efficient diagnostic module. The prognostics problem is cast as joint state-parameter estimation problem, a hybrid prognostic approach, wherein the fault model is constructed by considering the statistical degradation model of the system parameter (prognostic candidate). The observation equation is constructed from nominal part of the I-ARR. Using particle filter (PF) algorithms; the estimation of state of health (state of prognostic candidate) and associated hidden time-varying degradation progression parameters is achieved in probabilistic terms. A simplified variance adaptation scheme is proposed. Associated uncertainties which arise out of noisy measurements, parametric degradation process, environmental conditions etc. are effectively managed by PF. This allows the production of effective predictions of the remaining useful life of the prognostic candidate with suitable confidence bounds. The effectiveness of the novel methodology is demonstrated through simulations and experiments on a mechatronic system.

  13. A hybrid fault diagnosis method using morphological filter-translation invariant wavelet and improved ensemble empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lingjie; Xiang, Jiawei; Wang, Yanxue; Jiang, Yongying; Gao, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Defective rolling bearing response is often characterized by the presence of periodic impulses, which are usually immersed in heavy noise. Therefore, a hybrid fault diagnosis approach is proposed. The morphological filter combining with translation invariant wavelet is taken as the pre-filter process unit to reduce the narrowband impulses and random noises in the original signal, then the purified signal will be decomposed by improved ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), in which a new selection method integrating autocorrelation analysis with the first two intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) having the maximum energies is put forward to eliminate the pseudo low-frequency components of IMFs. Applying the envelope analysis on those selected IMFs, the defect information is easily extracted. The proposed hybrid approach is evaluated by simulations and vibration signals of defective bearings with outer race fault, inner race fault, rolling element fault. Results show that the approach is feasible and effective for the fault detection of rolling bearing.

  14. Advances in the theory and practice of DNA-hybridization as a systematic method.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, F H

    1994-01-01

    DNA hybridization continues in the 1990s to provide insight into phylogeny and evolution. The resilience of this 30-year-old distance technique may be attributed to its fundamental power as a comparative method, as well as to advances in our understanding of its operation and improvements in experimental design and data analysis. These attributes and advances, along with the assumptions and limitations of DNA hybridization, are discussed in this paper. Examples are provided of recent DNA hybridization studies of molecular, morphological, and behavioral systematics and evolution. PMID:7994110

  15. XPM reduction in hybrid 10G/40G transmission using 10-Gb/s narrow-filtered DPSK modulation.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Marco; Serena, Paolo; Rossi, Nicola; Bononi, Alberto

    2009-04-13

    We propose a possible improvement for optical hybrid transmission systems, based on 40G differential quadrature shift Keying (DQPSK) and 10G differential phase shift keying (DPSK) received by means of a Gaussian narrow filter. We report a reduced cross phase modulation (XPM), at the cost of a slightly more complex setup. This technique is especially effective for systems with low inline dispersion and offers similar performances on different types of fiber. PMID:19365410

  16. Development of an Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly for the ISS Urine Processor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Carter, Donald Layne; Higbie, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Recovering water from urine is a process that is critical to supporting larger crews for extended missions aboard the International Space Station. Urine is collected, preserved, and stored for processing into water and a concentrated brine solution that is highly toxic and must be contained to avoid exposure to the crew. The brine solution is collected in an accumulator tank, called a Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) that must be replaced monthly and disposed in order to continue urine processing operations. In order to reduce resupply requirements, a new accumulator tank is being developed that can be emptied on orbit into existing ISS waste tanks. The new tank, called the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) is a metal bellows tank that is designed to collect concentrated brine solution and empty by applying pressure to the bellows. This paper discusses the requirements and design of the ARFTA as well as integration into the urine processor assembly.

  17. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot-Scale. The project team will include the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor, W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner, and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a

  18. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology

  19. Novel Hybrid of LS-SVM and Kalman Filter for GPS/INS Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhenkai; Li, Yong; Rizos, Chris; Xu, Xiaosu

    Integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) technologies can overcome the drawbacks of the individual systems. One of the advantages is that the integrated solution can provide continuous navigation capability even during GPS outages. However, bridging the GPS outages is still a challenge when Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensors are used. Methods being currently explored by the research community include applying vehicle motion constraints, optimal smoother, and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. In the research area of AI, the neural network (NN) approach has been extensively utilised up to the present. In an NN-based integrated system, a Kalman filter (KF) estimates position, velocity and attitude errors, as well as the inertial sensor errors, to output navigation solutions while GPS signals are available. At the same time, an NN is trained to map the vehicle dynamics with corresponding KF states, and to correct INS measurements when GPS measurements are unavailable. To achieve good performance it is critical to select suitable quality and an optimal number of samples for the NN. This is sometimes too rigorous a requirement which limits real world application of NN-based methods.The support vector machine (SVM) approach is based on the structural risk minimisation principle, instead of the minimised empirical error principle that is commonly implemented in an NN. The SVM can avoid local minimisation and over-fitting problems in an NN, and therefore potentially can achieve a higher level of global performance. This paper focuses on the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), which can solve highly nonlinear and noisy black-box modelling problems. This paper explores the application of the LS-SVM to aid the GPS/INS integrated system, especially during GPS outages. The paper describes the principles of the LS-SVM and of the KF hybrid method, and introduces the LS-SVM regression algorithm. Field

  20. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-09-30

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide >99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of the

  1. Optical Metrology for the Filter Set for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Boucarut, Rene A.; Content, David A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Krebs, Carolyn A.; Miner, Linda A.; Norton, Todd A.; Mehalick, Kimberly; Petrone, Peter; Bush, Frank D.; Puc, Bernard; Standley, Clive; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Kral, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) will employ a wide variety of spectral filtration components including narrow band, medium band, wide band, and far ultraviolet (FUV) long pass filters, spatially- variable filters (ramp filters), VIS/IR polarizers, NUV polarizers, FUV prisms, and a grism. These components are spread across ACS's Wide Field, High Resolution, and Solar Blind channels which provide diffraction-limited imaging of astronomical targets using aberration-correcting optics which remove most aberrations from HST's Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements which these filters must meet include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, and a high degree of parfocality. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The development of optical metrology stations used to demonstrate that each ACS filter will meet its design specifications is discussed. Of particular note are specially-designed spectral transmissometers and interferometers.

  2. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications. PMID:23339685

  3. Fabrication and characterization of high order filter based on resonance in hybrid multi-knots microfiber structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodehi, S.; Mohammed, W. S.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-04-01

    This work proposes a novel design of a hybrid microfiber resonator which can be used as a band-pass and band-stop filter in various applications such as fiber lasers. The structure comprises of two microfiber knot resonators with different sizes which are surrounded by a semi-loop structure with one input and two output ports. Utilization of the Vernier effect in the proposed structure showed an enhancement of the free spectral range (FSR). The finesse has increased by a factor of three compared to a single knot providing a sharper roll-off. The filter bandwidth is adjustable as a result of the manipulation of the coupling length and rings' radii. The performance of the device is explained theoretically using transfer matrix analysis.

  4. Simultaneous Estimation of Model State Variables and Observation and Forecast Biases Using a Two-Stage Hybrid Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauwels, V. R. N.; DeLannoy, G. J. M.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage hybrid Kalman filter to estimate both observation and forecast bias in hydrologic models, in addition to state variables. The biases are estimated using the discrete Kalman filter, and the state variables using the ensemble Kalman filter. A key issue in this multi-component assimilation scheme is the exact partitioning of the difference between observation and forecasts into state, forecast bias and observation bias updates. Here, the error covariances of the forecast bias and the unbiased states are calculated as constant fractions of the biased state error covariance, and the observation bias error covariance is a function of the observation prediction error covariance. In a series of synthetic experiments, focusing on the assimilation of discharge into a rainfall-runoff model, it is shown that both static and dynamic observation and forecast biases can be successfully estimated. The results indicate a strong improvement in the estimation of the state variables and resulting discharge as opposed to the use of a bias-unaware ensemble Kalman filter. Furthermore, minimal code modification in existing data assimilation software is needed to implement the method. The results suggest that a better performance of data assimilation methods should be possible if both forecast and observation biases are taken into account.

  5. Monolithic integration of common mode filters with electrostatic discharge protection on silicon/porous silicon hybrid substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelle, M.; Billoué, J.; Concord, J.; Poveda, P.; Gautier, G.

    2014-02-01

    This work presents the integration of a common mode filter with ElectroStatic Discharge protection on a silicon/porous silicon hybrid substrate. The porous silicon fabrication was performed after the integration of active components. Thus, a fluoropolymer hard mask was used to protect the active devices during anodization and can be easily removed without damaging the porous silicon. Electrical characterization results have shown fully operational components and an increase of performance with the hybrid substrate regarding to p+-type silicon. Indeed, the cutoff frequency was increased by 8.8 GHz when porous silicon was fabricated below the bump pads and the inductors. This improvement is a promising result to extend the application of RF components for future communication standards with silicon technology.

  6. Hybrid bearing technology for advanced turbomachinery: Rolling contact fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic structure and results to date of a major ARPA funded effort to provide a tribological performance database on ceramic bearing materials and their interaction with standard bearing steels. Program efforts include studies of material physical properties, machining characteristics, and tribological performance. The majority of the testing completed to date focuses on rolling contact fatigue testing of the ceramic materials, including efforts to arrive at optimum approaches to evaluating ceramic/steel hybrid combinations in rolling contact fatigue.

  7. Recent advances in hybrid/mixed finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1985-01-01

    In formulations of Hybrid/Mixed finite element methods respectively by the Hellinger-Reissner principle and the Hu-Washizu principle, the stress equilibrium equations are brought in as conditions of constraint through the introduction of additional internal displacement parameters. These two approaches are more flexible and have better computing efficiencies. A procedure for the choice of assumed stress terms for 3-D solids is suggested. Example solutions are given for plates and shells using the present formulations and the idea of semiloof elements.

  8. Advanced Kalman Filter for Real-Time Responsiveness in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Gregory Francis

    2014-06-10

    Complex engineering systems pose fundamental challenges in real-time operations and control because they are highly dynamic systems consisting of a large number of elements with severe nonlinearities and discontinuities. Today’s tools for real-time complex system operations are mostly based on steady state models, unable to capture the dynamic nature and too slow to prevent system failures. We developed advanced Kalman filtering techniques and the formulation of dynamic state estimation using Kalman filtering techniques to capture complex system dynamics in aiding real-time operations and control. In this work, we looked at complex system issues including severe nonlinearity of system equations, discontinuities caused by system controls and network switches, sparse measurements in space and time, and real-time requirements of power grid operations. We sought to bridge the disciplinary boundaries between Computer Science and Power Systems Engineering, by introducing methods that leverage both existing and new techniques. While our methods were developed in the context of electrical power systems, they should generalize to other large-scale scientific and engineering applications.

  9. Development of Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis Tool (SAE 2013-01-0808)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the Greenhouse gas emissions and fuel efficiency from light-duty vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator, which is cap...

  10. Development of Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network Control and Advanced Emissions Modeling for Parallel Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopalan, A.; Washington, G.; Rizzoni, G.; Guezennec, Y.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the development of new control strategies and models for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) by the Ohio State University. The report indicates results from models created in NREL's ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR 3.2), and results of a scalable IC Engine model, called in Willan's Line technique, implemented in ADVISOR 3.2.

  11. Analysis of quasi-hybrid solid rocket booster concepts for advanced earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of quasi-hybrid solid rocket boosters for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles. Thermochemical calculations were conducted to determine the effect of liquid hydrogen addition, solids composition change plus liquid hydrogen addition, and the addition of an aluminum/liquid hydrogen slurry on the theoretical performance of a PBAN solid propellant rocket. The space shuttle solid rocket booster was used as a reference point. All three quasi-hybrid systems theoretically offer higher specific impulse when compared with the space shuttle solid rocket boosters. However, based on operational and safety considerations, the quasi-hybrid rocket is not a practical choice for near-term Earth-to-orbit booster applications. Safety and technology issues pertinent to quasi-hybrid rocket systems are discussed.

  12. Advances in acrylic-alkyd hybrid synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziczkowski, Jamie

    2008-10-01

    In situ graft acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were formed by polymerizing acrylic and acrylic-mixed monomers in the presence of alkyds by introduction of a free radical initiator to promote graft formation. Two-dimensional NMR, specifically gradient heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (gHMQC), was used to clarify specific graft sites of the hybrid materials. Both individual and mixed-monomer systems were produced to determine any individual monomer preferences and to model current acrylic-alkyd systems. Different classes of initiators were used to determine any initiator effects on graft location. The 2D-NMR results confirm grafting at doubly allylic hydrogens located on the fatty acid chains and the polyol segment of the alkyd backbone. The gHMQC spectra show no evidence of grafting across double bonds on either pendant fatty acid groups or THPA unsaturation sites for any of the monomer or mixed monomer systems. It was also determined that choice of initiator has no effect on graft location. In addition, a design of experiments using response surface methodology was utilized to obtain a better understanding of this commercially available class of materials and relate both the chemical and physical properties to one another. A Box-Behnkin design was used, varying the oil length of the alkyd phase, the degree of unsaturation in the polyester backbone, and acrylic to alkyd ratio. Acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were reduced with an amine/water mixture. Hydrolytic stability was tested and viscoelastic properties were obtained to determine crosslink density. Cured films were prepared and basic coatings properties were evaluated. It was found that the oil length of the alkyd is the most dominant factor for final coatings properties of the resins. Acrylic to alkyd ratio mainly influences the resin properties such as acid number, average molecular weight, and hydrolytic stability. The degree of unsaturation in the alkyd backbone has minimal effects on resin and film

  13. Advanced high performance horizontal piezoelectric hybrid synthetic jet actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high performance, horizontal, zero-net mass-flux, synthetic jet actuator for active control of viscous, separated flow on subsonic and supersonic vehicles. The present invention is a horizontal piezoelectric hybrid zero-net mass-flux actuator, in which all the walls of the chamber are electrically controlled synergistically to reduce or enlarge the volume of the synthetic jet actuator chamber in three dimensions simultaneously and to reduce or enlarge the diameter of orifice of the synthetic jet actuator simultaneously with the reduction or enlargement of the volume of the chamber. The present invention is capable of installation in the wing surface as well as embedding in the wetted surfaces of a supersonic inlet. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the SJA-H will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  14. Advanced high performance vertical hybrid synthetic jet actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high performance, vertical, zero-net mass-flux, synthetic jet actuator for active control of viscous, separated flow on subsonic and supersonic vehicles. The present invention is a vertical piezoelectric hybrid zero-net mass-flux actuator, in which all the walls of the chamber are electrically controlled synergistically to reduce or enlarge the volume of the synthetic jet actuator chamber in three dimensions simultaneously and to reduce or enlarge the diameter of orifice of the synthetic jet actuator simultaneously with the reduction or enlargement of the volume of the chamber. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the present invention will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators.

  15. Recent advances in polarized 3 He based neutron spin filter development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wangchun; Gentile, Thomas; Erwin, Ross; Watson, Shannon; Krycka, Kathryn; Ye, Qiang; NCNR NIST Team; University of Maryland Team

    2015-04-01

    Polarized 3 He neutron spin filters (NSFs) are based on the strong spin-dependence of the neutron absorption cross section by 3 He. NSFs can polarize large area, widely divergent, and broadband neutron beams effectively and allow for combining a neutron polarizer and a spin flipper into a single polarizing device. The last capability utilizes 3 He spin inversion based on the adiabatic fast passage (AFP) nuclear magnetic resonance technique. Polarized 3 He NSFs are significantly expanding the polarized neutron measurement capabilities at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). Here we present an overview of 3 He NSF applications to small-angle neutron scattering, thermal triple axis spectrometry, and wide-angle polarization analysis. We discuss a recent upgrade of our spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) systems that utilize chirped volume holographic gratings for spectral narrowing. The new capability allows us to polarize rubidium/potassium hybrid SEOP cells over a liter in volume within a day, with 3 He polarizations up to 88%, Finally we discuss how we can achieve nearly lossless 3 He polarization inversion with AFP.

  16. Advancements of the Hybrid Method UF6 Container Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Emily K.; Orton, Christopher R.; Jordan, David V.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Smith, Leon E.

    2011-07-17

    Safeguards inspectors currently visit uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are performed with handheld high-resolution detectors on a limited number of cylinders taken to be representative of the plant’s cylinder inventory. These enrichment assay methods interrogate only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume, and are time-consuming and expensive to execute. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing an automated UF6 cylinder verification station concept based on the combined collection of traditional enrichment-meter data (186 keV photons from 235U) and non-traditional, neutron-induced, high-energy gamma-ray signatures (3-8 MeV) with an array of collimated, medium-resolution scintillators. Previous work at PNNL (2010) demonstrated proof-of-principle that this hybrid method yields accurate, full-volume assay of the cylinder enrichment, reduces systematic errors when compared to several other enrichment assay methods, and provides simplified instrumentation and algorithms suitable for long-term, unattended operations. This system aims to increase the number of inspected cylinders at higher accuracy and with lower cost than when compared to inspectors with hand-held instruments. Several measurement campaigns of 30B cylinder populations and a refined MCNP model will be reported. The MCNP model consists of per-gram basis vectors for the different uranium isotopes and several fill geometries, enabling fast generation of any UF6 enrichment level and multiple configurations. The refined model was used to optimize collimator design and detector configuration for the hybrid method. In addition, a new field prototype based on model results was utilized in a set of field measurements.

  17. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters. Topical report for part 1 of high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, K.E.; Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Tressler, R.E.

    1997-12-11

    This program consists of two separate research areas. Part 1, for which this report is written, studied the high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic hot gas filters, while Part 2 studied the long-term durability of ceramic heat exchangers to coal combustion environments. The objectives of Part 1 were to select two candidate ceramic filter materials for flow-through hot corrosion studies and subsequent corrosion and mechanical properties characterization. In addition, a thermodynamic database was developed so that thermochemical modeling studies could be performed to simulate operating conditions of laboratory reactors and existing coal combustion power plants, and to predict the reactions of new filter materials with coal combustion environments. The latter would make it possible to gain insight into problems that could develop during actual operation of filters in coal combustion power plants so that potential problems could be addressed before they arise.

  18. Recent advances in hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaodong

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures possess novel synergistic properties that arise from the integrated interaction between the disparate components, thereby showing promising potential for various important applications including solar cells, carbon monoxide oxidation, photocatalysts, field emission, sensors, templates and so on. With the rapid progress in nanomaterials science and nanotechnology, hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures with well-controlled compositions, shapes and sizes have been rationally designed and synthesized. This review attempts to summarize the important advances in the development of different types of hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures, such as hybrid Cu2O-metal nanostructures, hybrid Cu2O-metal oxide nanostructures and hybrid Cu2O-carbon nanostructures. The correlations between the improved performances and interfacial structures of the hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures are discussed based on some important and representative examples. Several key scientific issues and perspective research directions in this field are also given. PMID:26059894

  19. Recent advances in hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaodong

    2015-06-01

    Hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures possess novel synergistic properties that arise from the integrated interaction between the disparate components, thereby showing promising potential for various important applications including solar cells, carbon monoxide oxidation, photocatalysts, field emission, sensors, templates and so on. With the rapid progress in nanomaterials science and nanotechnology, hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures with well-controlled compositions, shapes and sizes have been rationally designed and synthesized. This review attempts to summarize the important advances in the development of different types of hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures, such as hybrid Cu2O-metal nanostructures, hybrid Cu2O-metal oxide nanostructures and hybrid Cu2O-carbon nanostructures. The correlations between the improved performances and interfacial structures of the hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures are discussed based on some important and representative examples. Several key scientific issues and perspective research directions in this field are also given.

  20. Advanced hybrid nuclear propulsion Mars mission performance enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, J.E.; Noffsinger, K.E.; Segna, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), can effectively deliver the same mass to Mars using much less propellant, consequently requiring less mass delivered to Earth orbit. The lower thrust of NEP requires a spiral trajectory near planetary bodies, which significantly increases the travel time. Although the total travel time is long, the portion of the flight time spent during interplanetary transfer is shorter, because the vehicle is thrusting for much longer periods of time. This has led to the supposition that NEP, although very attractive for cargo missions, is not suitable for piloted missions to Mars. However, with the application of a hybrid approach to propulsion, the benefits of NEP can be utilized while drastically reducing the overall travel time required. Development of a dual-mode system, which utilizes high-thrust NTP to propel the spacecraft from the planetary gravitational influence and low-thrust NEP to accelerate in interplanetary space, eliminates the spiral trajectory and results in a much faster transit time than could be obtained by either NEP or NTP alone. This results in a mission profile with a lower initial mass in low Earth orbit. In addition, the propulsion system would have the capability to provide electrical power for mission applications.

  1. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites with Multifunctional and Hybrid Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Morscher, Gregory N.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, and nuclear industries. Potential composite applications differ in their requirements for thickness. For example, many space applications such as "nozzle ramps" or "heat exchangers" require very thin (< 1 mm) structures whereas turbine blades would require very thick parts (> or = 1 cm). Little is known about the effect of thickness on stress-strain behavior or the elevated temperature tensile properties controlled by oxidation diffusion. In this study, composites consisting of woven Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers a carbon interphase and CVI SiC matrix were fabricated with different numbers of plies and thicknesses. The effect of thickness on matrix crack formation, matrix crack growth and diffusion kinetics will be discussed. In another approach, hybrid fiber-lay up concepts have been utilized to "alloy" desirable properties of different fiber types for mechanical properties, thermal stress management, and oxidation resistance. Such an approach has potential for the C(sub I)-SiC and SiC(sub f)-SiC composite systems. CVI SiC matrix composites with different stacking sequences of woven C fiber (T300) layers and woven SiC fiber (Hi-Nicalon (trademark)) layers were fabricated. The results will be compared to standard C fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix and Hi-Nicalon reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. In addition, shear properties of these composites at different temperatures will also be presented. Other design and implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.

  2. Polymer/Graphene Hybrids for Advanced Energy-Conversion and -Storage Materials.

    PubMed

    Cui, Linfan; Gao, Jian; Xu, Tong; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Liangti

    2016-04-20

    Polymer/graphene-based materials with interesting physical and chemical properties have been attracting considerable attention and have been shown to have great potential as active materials in the field of energy conversion and storage. In this review, we focus on recent significant advances in the fabrication and application of polymer/graphene hybrids as electrocatalysts and electrode materials. Synthetic strategies and application of these materials in energy conversion and storage are presented, particularly in devices such as fuel cells, actuators, and supercapacitors, accompanied with a discussion of the challenges and research directions necessary for the future development of polymer/graphene hybrids. PMID:26878997

  3. Advances in modeling of lower hybrid current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Nilsson, E.; Artaud, J.-F.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Ding, B.; Li, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Shiraiwa, S.; Madi, M.

    2016-04-01

    First principle modeling of the lower hybrid (LH) current drive in tokamak plasmas is a longstanding activity, which is gradually gaining in accuracy thanks to quantitative comparisons with experimental observations. The ability to reproduce simulatenously the plasma current and the non-thermal bremsstrahlung radial profiles in the hard x-ray (HXR) photon energy range represents in this context a significant achievement. Though subject to limitations, ray tracing calculations are commonly used for describing wave propagation in conjunction with Fokker-Planck codes, as it can capture prominent features of the LH wave dynamics in a tokamak plasma-like toroidal refraction. This tool has been validated on several machines when the full absorption of the LH wave requires the transfer of a small fraction of power from the main lobes of the launched power spectrum to a tail at a higher parallel refractive index. Conversely, standard modeling based on toroidal refraction only becomes more challenging when the spectral gap is large, except if other physical mechanisms may dominate to bridge it, like parametric instabilities, as suggested for JET LH discharges (Cesario et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 175002), or fast fluctuations of the launched power spectrum or ‘tail’ LH model, as shown for Tore Supra (Decker et al 2014 Phys. Plasma 21 092504). The applicability of the heuristic ‘tail’ LH model is investigated for a broader range of plasma parameters as compared to the Tore Supra study and with different LH wave characteristics. Discrepancies and agreements between simulations and experiments depending upon the different models used are discussed. The existence of a ‘tail’ in the launched power spectrum significantly improves the agreement between modeling and experiments in plasma conditions for which the spectral gap is large in EAST and Alcator C-Mod tokamaks. For the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, the experimental evolution of the HXR profiles with density suggests

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND PHYSICAL MAPPING OF MAIZE BAC LIBRARIES USING HIGH DENSITY BAC FILTER HYBRIDIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A HindIII and an EcoRI maize BAC library have been constructed from maize inbred line B73. Use of both libraries to make a physical map should minimize the under representation of certain genomic regions caused by the use of a particular restriction enzyme. High-density filter sets from the two libr...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION AND PHYSICAL MAPPING OF MAIZE BAC LIBRARIES USING HIGH DENSITY BAC FILTER HYBRIDIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-density filter sets from two maize B73 libraries containing 6X (HindIII) and 7X (EcoRI) haploid genome equivalents, respectively, were evaluated with a set of complex probes. The complex probes will provide information on chromosome architecture and organellar DNA content. A second set of pro...

  6. Hybrid Framework Using Multiple-Filters and an Embedded Approach for an Efficient Selection and Classification of Microarray Data.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Huerta, Edmundo; Hernandez-Montiel, Alberto; Caporal, Roberto-Morales; Lopez, Marco Arjona

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid framework composed of two stages for gene selection and classification of DNA microarray data is proposed. At the first stage, five traditional statistical methods are combined for preliminary gene selection (Multiple Fusion Filter). Then, different relevant gene subsets are selected by using an embedded Genetic Algorithm (GA), Tabu Search (TS), and Support Vector Machine (SVM). A gene subset, consisting of the most relevant genes, is obtained from this process, by analyzing the frequency of each gene in the different gene subsets. Finally, the most frequent genes are evaluated by the embedded approach to obtain a final relevant small gene subset with high performance. The proposed method is tested in four DNA microarray datasets. From simulation study, it is observed that the proposed approach works better than other methods reported in the literature. PMID:26336138

  7. Hybrid inverse lithography techniques for advanced hierarchical memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Guangming; Hooker, Kevin; Irby, Dave; Zhang, Yunqiang; Ward, Brian; Cecil, Tom; Hall, Brett; Lee, Mindy; Kim, Dave; Lucas, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    greatly improve the ability of ILT to optimize advanced embedded memory designs while retaining significant hierarchy and cell design symmetry, therefore, have good turnaround time and CD uniformity. This paper will explain the enhancements which have been developed in order to overcome the traditional difficulties listed above. These enhancements are in the categories of local CD control, global chip processing options, process window benefit, turn-around time and hierarchy retention.

  8. Advancements in large-format SiPIN hybrid focal plane technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcoyne, S.; Malone, N.; Kean, B.; Cantrell, J.; Fierro, J.; Meier, L.; DeWalt, S.; Hewitt, C.; Wyles, J.; Drab, J.; Grama, G.; Paloczi, G.; Vampola, J.; Brown, K.

    2014-09-01

    Raytheon has built hybrid focal planes based on Silicon P-I-N photo-sensors for the past three decades. The device has undergone a continuous improvement process during this period. The detector material has been improved and the thickness has been greatly reduced. Most recently, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) and the hybridization process, have undergone significant advancements1,2,3. This paper presents recent advancements in the latest generation 8μm pixelpitch 1k2 format and 5k2 format visible Si PIN focal-planes. The current family of devices has very low read-noise ROICs, low detector dark current, operate with a 25 volt bias and deliver 50% mean response operability greater than 99.995%.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of advanced durum wheat hybrids and addition lines with thinopyrum chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Jauhar, Prem P; Peterson, Terrance S

    2013-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a natural hybrid-an allotetraploid between 2 wild species, Triticum urartu Tumanian (AA genome) and Aegilops speltoides Tausch (BB genome). Even at the allotetraploid level, durum wheat can tolerate chromosomal imbalance, for example, addition of alien chromosome 1E of diploid wheatgrass, Lophopyrum elongatum. Therefore, one way to broaden its genetic base is to add a desirable chromosome(s) from diploid wild relatives. We attempted chromosomal engineering with chromosomes of a diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum bessarabicum-a source of resistance to some diseases including Fusarium head blight. Several advanced hybrids and alien addition lines were studied using traditional cytology, multicolor fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization, and molecular markers. Hybrid derivatives varied in chromosome number from F1 to F8 generations and in backcross generations. In advanced generations, we exercised selection against 28-chromosome plants and in favor of 30-chromosome plants that helped recover 14 addition lines in the F8 generation, as indicated by the absence of segregation for 29-chromosome plants. Disomic additions showed regular meiosis with 15 bivalents, 14 of durum wheat, and 1 of Th. bessarabicum. The addition lines will facilitate further chromosome engineering work on durum wheat for broadening its genetic base. PMID:23396879

  10. Application of an efficient hybrid scheme for aeroelastic analysis of advanced propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Sankar, N. L.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Huff, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    An efficient 3-D hybrid scheme is applied for solving Euler equations to analyze advanced propellers. The scheme treats the spanwise direction semi-explicitly and the other two directions implicitly, without affecting the accuracy, as compared to a fully implicit scheme. This leads to a reduction in computer time and memory requirement. The calculated power coefficients for two advanced propellers, SR3 and SR7L, and various advanced ratios showed good correlation with experiment. Spanwise distribution of elemental power coefficient and steady pressure coefficient differences also showed good agreement with experiment. A study of the effect of structural flexibility on the performance of the advanced propellers showed that structural deformation due to centrifugal and aero loading should be included for better correlation.

  11. Delta-doped hybrid advanced detector for low energy particle detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A delta-doped hybrid advanced detector (HAD) is provided which combines at least four types of technologies to create a detector for energetic particles ranging in energy from hundreds of electron volts (eV) to beyond several million eV. The detector is sensitive to photons from visible light to X-rays. The detector is highly energy-sensitive from approximately 10 keV down to hundreds of eV. The detector operates with milliwatt power dissipation, and allows non-sequential readout of the array, enabling various advanced readout schemes.

  12. Delta-doped hybrid advanced detector for low energy particle detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A delta-doped hybrid advanced detector (HAD) is provided which combines at least four types of technologies to create a detector for energetic particles ranging in energy from hundreds of electron volts (eV) to beyond several million eV. The detector is sensitive to photons from visible light to X-rays. The detector is highly energy-sensitive from approximately 10 keV down to hundreds of eV. The detector operates with milliwatt power dissipation, and allows non-sequential readout of the array, enabling various advanced readout schemes.

  13. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University

    SciTech Connect

    Nigle N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

  14. Combined processes of two-stage Fenton-biological anaerobic filter-biological aerated filter for advanced treatment of landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Jijun; Chen, Zhiwei; Jian, Lei; Gu, Xiaoyang; Lin, Che-Jen

    2012-12-01

    There are numerous non-biodegradable organic materials in the mature landfill leachate. To meet the new discharge standard of China, additional advanced treatment is needed for the effluent from the biological treatment processes of leachate. In this study, a combined process including two stages of "Fenton-biological anaerobic filter (BANF)-biological aerated filter (BAF)" was evaluated to address the advanced treatment need. The Fenton oxidation was applied to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and enhance biodegradability of refractory organics, and the BANF-BAF process was then applied to remove the total nitrogen (TN). The treatment achieved effluent concentrations of COD<70 mg/L, TN<40 mg/L and NH(3)-N<10 mg/L. The removal efficiency of COD and TN were 96.1% and 95.9%, respectively. The effluent quality met the new discharge standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid of PR China (GB16889-2008). The operation cost of these processes was about 36.1CHY/t (5.70USD/t). PMID:22841597

  15. New ion-assisted filtered cathodic arc deposition (IFCAD) technology for producing advanced thin films on temperature-sensitive substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Michael L.

    1999-10-01

    An innovative Ion-Assisted Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition (IFCAD) system has been developed for low temperature production of thin-film coatings. The IFCAD system employs electro-magnetic and mechanical filtering techniques to remove unwanted macroparticles and neutral atoms from the plasma stream. Therefore, only ions within a defined energy range arrive at the substrate surface, depositing thin-films with excellent mechanical and optical properties. Ion- Assisted-Deposition is coupled with Filtered Cathodic Arc technology to enhance and modify the arc deposited thin- films. Using an advanced computer controlled plasma beam scanning system, high quality, large area, uniform IFCAD multi-layer film structures are attained. Amorphous Diamond- Like-Carbon films (up to 85% sp3 bonded carbon; and micro- hardness greater than 50 GPa) have been deposited in multi- layer thin-film combinations with other IFCAD source materials (such as: Al2O3) for optical and tribological applications. Rutile TiO2 (refractive index of 2.8 at 500 nm) has been deposited with this technology for advanced optical filter applications. The new IFCAD technology has been included in development programs, such as: plastic and glass lens coatings for optical systems; wear resistant coatings on various metal substrates, ultra smooth, durable, surface hydrophobic coatings for aircraft windows; EUV coatings for space instrumentation; transparent conductive coatings; and UV protective coatings for solar cell concentrator plastic Fresnel lens elements for space power.

  16. Multi-frequency aluminum nitride micro-filters for advanced RF communications.

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Stevens, James E.; Olsson, Roy H., III; Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Tuck, Melanie R.

    2010-03-01

    An AlN MEMS resonator technology has been developed, enabling massively parallel filter arrays on a single chip. Low-loss filter banks covering the 10 MHz--10-GHz frequency range have been demonstrated, as has monolithic integration with inductors and CMOS circuitry. The high level of integration enables miniature multi-bandm spectrally aware, and cognitive radios.

  17. Improved blood velocity measurements with a hybrid image filtering and iterative Radon transform algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chhatbar, Pratik Y.; Kara, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Neural activity leads to hemodynamic changes which can be detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The determination of blood flow changes in individual vessels is an important aspect of understanding these hemodynamic signals. Blood flow can be calculated from the measurements of vessel diameter and blood velocity. When using line-scan imaging, the movement of blood in the vessel leads to streaks in space-time images, where streak angle is a function of the blood velocity. A variety of methods have been proposed to determine blood velocity from such space-time image sequences. Of these, the Radon transform is relatively easy to implement and has fast data processing. However, the precision of the velocity measurements is dependent on the number of Radon transforms performed, which creates a trade-off between the processing speed and measurement precision. In addition, factors like image contrast, imaging depth, image acquisition speed, and movement artifacts especially in large mammals, can potentially lead to data acquisition that results in erroneous velocity measurements. Here we show that pre-processing the data with a Sobel filter and iterative application of Radon transforms address these issues and provide more accurate blood velocity measurements. Improved signal quality of the image as a result of Sobel filtering increases the accuracy and the iterative Radon transform offers both increased precision and an order of magnitude faster implementation of velocity measurements. This algorithm does not use a priori knowledge of angle information and therefore is sensitive to sudden changes in blood flow. It can be applied on any set of space-time images with red blood cell (RBC) streaks, commonly acquired through line-scan imaging or reconstructed from full-frame, time-lapse images of the vasculature. PMID:23807877

  18. Highly conductive stretchable and biocompatible electrode-hydrogel hybrids for advanced tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Masato; Karikkineth, Bijoy Chandapillai; Nagamine, Kuniaki; Kaji, Hirokazu; Torimitsu, Keiichi; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogel-based, molecular permeable electronic devices are considered to be promising for electrical stimulation and recording of living tissues, either in vivo or in vitro. This study reports the fabrication of the first hydrogel-based devices that remain highly electrically conductive under substantial stretch and bending. Using a simple technique involving a combination of chemical polymerization and electropolymerization of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a tight bonding of a conductive composite of PEDOT and polyurethane (PU) to an elastic double-network hydrogel is achieved to make fully organic PEDOT/PU-hydrogel hybrids. Their response to repeated bending, mechanical stretching, hydration-dessication cycles, storage in aqueous condition for up to 6 months, and autoclaving is assessed, demonstrating excellent stability, without any mechanical or electrical damage. The hybrids exhibit a high electrical conductivity of up to 120 S cm(-1) at 100% elongation. The adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of neural and muscle cells cultured on these hybrids are demonstrated, as well as the fabrication of 3D hybrids, advancing the field of tissue engineering with integrated electronics. PMID:24912988

  19. Advanced testing method to evaluate the performance of respirator filter media.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Golshahi, Laleh; Chen, Da-Ren

    2016-10-01

    Filter media for respirator applications are typically exposed to the cyclic flow condition, which is different from the constant flow condition adopted in filter testing standards. To understand the real performance of respirator filter media in the field it is required to investigate the penetration of particles through respirator filters under cyclic flow conditions representing breathing flow patterns of human beings. This article reports a new testing method for studying the individual effect of breathing frequency (BF) and peak inhalation flow rate (PIFR) on the particle penetration through respirator filter media. The new method includes the use of DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer)-classified particles having the most penetrating particle size, MPPS (at the constant flowrate of equivalent mean inhalation flow rate, MIFR) as test aerosol. Two condensation particle counters (CPCs) are applied to measure the particle concentrations at the upstream and downstream of test filter media at the same time. Given the 10 Hz sampling time of CPCs, close-to-instantaneous particle penetration could be measured. A pilot study was performed to demonstrate the new testing method. It is found that the effect of BF on the particle penetration of test respirator filter media is of importance at all the tested peak inhalation flow rates (PIFRs), which is different from those reported in the previous work. PMID:27104915

  20. Development of a filter regeneration system for advanced spacecraft fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrend, A. F., Jr.; Descamp, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a filter regeneration system for efficiently cleaning fluid particulate filters is presented. Based on a backflush/jet impingement technique, the regeneration system demonstrated a cleaning efficiency of 98.7 to 100%. The operating principles and design features are discussed with emphasis on the primary system components that include a regenerable filter, vortex particle separator, and zero-g particle trap. Techniques and equipment used for ground and zero-g performance tests are described. Test results and conclusions, as well as possible areas for commercial application, are included.

  1. Optimization of an Advanced Hybrid Wing Body Concept Using HCDstruct Version 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Gern, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft concepts continue to be promising candidates for achieving the simultaneous fuel consumption and noise reduction goals set forth by NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. In order to evaluate the projected benefits, improvements in structural analysis at the conceptual design level were necessary; thus, NASA researchers developed the Hybrid wing body Conceptual Design and structural optimization (HCDstruct) tool to perform aeroservoelastic structural optimizations of advanced HWB concepts. In this paper, the authors present substantial updates to the HCDstruct tool and related analysis, including: the addition of four inboard and eight outboard control surfaces and two all-movable tail/rudder assemblies, providing a full aeroservoelastic analysis capability; the implementation of asymmetric load cases for structural sizing applications; and a methodology for minimizing control surface actuation power using NASTRAN SOL 200 and HCDstruct's aeroservoelastic finite-element model (FEM).

  2. Advanced Tokamak Regimes in Alcator C-Mod with Lower Hybrid Current Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R.; Bonoli, P.; Gwinn, D.; Hutchinson, I.; Porkolab, M.; Ramos, J.; Bernabei, S.; Hosea, J.; Wilson, R.

    1999-11-01

    Alcator C-Mod has been proposed as a test-bed for developing advanced tokamak scenarios owing to its strong shaping, relatively long pulse length capability at moderate field, e.g. t ~ L/R at B = 5T and T_eo ~ 7keV, and the availability of strong ICRF heating. We plan to exploit this capability by installing up to 4 MW RF power at 4.6 GHz for efficient off-axis current drive by lower hybrid waves. By launching LH waves with a grill whose n_xx spectrum can be dynamically controlled over the range 2 < n_xx < 3.5, the driven current profile can be modified so that, when combined with bootstrap current in high ɛβ_pol regimes, q_min > 2. Such reversed or nearly zero shear regimes have already been proposed as the basis of an advanced tokamak burning-plasma experiment-ATBX (M. Porkolab et al, IAEA-CN-69/FTP/13, IAEA,Yokohama 1998.), and could provide the basis for a demonstration power reactor. Theoretical and experimental basis for this advanced tokamak research program on C-Mod, including design of the lower hybrid coupler, its spectrum and current drive capabilities will be presented.

  3. Impacts of backwashing on granular activated carbon filters for advanced wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joshua; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Jekel, Martin

    2015-12-15

    The use of granular activated carbon (GAC) in fixed bed filters is a promising option for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) from wastewater treatment plant effluents. Frequent backwashing of the filter bed is inevitable, but its effect on potential filter stratification is not well understood yet and thus has been evaluated in the present study for two commercial GAC products. Backwashing of GAC filters was simulated with 10 or 100 filter bed expansions of 20 or 100% at backwash velocities of 12 and 40 m/h, respectively. Five vertical fractions were extracted and revealed a vertical stratification according to grain sizes and material densities. Sieve analyses indicated increasing grain sizes towards the bottom for one GAC while grain sizes of the other GAC were more homogeneously distributed throughout the filter bed. The apparent densities of the top sections were significantly lower than that of the bottom sections of both products. Comparative long term fixed bed adsorption experiments with the top and bottom sections of the stratified GAC showed remarkable differences in breakthrough curves of dissolved organic carbon, UV light absorption at 254 nm wavelength (UVA254) and OMP. GAC from the upper section showed constantly better removal efficiencies than GAC from the bottom section, especially for weakly adsorbing OMP such as sulfamethoxazole. Furthermore correlations between UVA254 reductions and OMP removals were found. PMID:26405842

  4. Damage Detection in Flexible Plates through Reduced-Order Modeling and Hybrid Particle-Kalman Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Capellari, Giovanni; Eftekhar Azam, Saeed; Mariani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation), whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated. PMID:26703615

  5. The effect of a vertical flow filter bed on a hybrid constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Noorvee, A; Põldvere, E; Mander, U

    2005-01-01

    Data from 18 sampling wells in Kodijärve horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetland (CW) (South Estonia) is presented and differences in purification efficiencies inside the HSSF CW are calculated. Temporarily anaerobic conditions in the Kodijärve HSSF system did not allow efficient removal of BOD7, NH4-N, Ntot and Ptot. In 2002 a vertical subsurface flow filter was constructed to enhance aeration. The design of the system was based simply on the oxygen demand of the wastewater and on the aeration potential of vertical flow wetlands. The vertical flow system has shown satisfactory results. The purification efficiency of BOD7 in the Kodijärve CW has improved significantly and there has been a slight increase in purification efficiencies of NH4-N and Ntot. On the ohther hand, the removal efficiency of Ptot has decreased significantly. Although, the mass loading rates have increased, mass removal rates of all four parameters have improved significantly. Nevertheless, optimization of the constructed wetland system is essential in order to meet effluent standards during wintertime. PMID:16042252

  6. Damage Detection in Flexible Plates through Reduced-Order Modeling and Hybrid Particle-Kalman Filtering.

    PubMed

    Capellari, Giovanni; Azam, Saeed Eftekhar; Mariani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation), whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated. PMID:26703615

  7. Flexible Riser Monitoring Using Hybrid Magnetic/Optical Strain Gage Techniques through RLS Adaptive Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipa, Daniel; Morikawa, Sérgio; Pires, Gustavo; Camerini, Claudio; Santos, JoãoMárcio

    2010-12-01

    Flexible riser is a class of flexible pipes which is used to connect subsea pipelines to floating offshore installations, such as FPSOs (floating production/storage/off-loading unit) and SS (semisubmersible) platforms, in oil and gas production. Flexible risers are multilayered pipes typically comprising an inner flexible metal carcass surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also referred to as armor wires. Since these armor wires are made of steel, their magnetic properties are sensitive to the stress they are subjected to. By measuring their magnetic properties in a nonintrusive manner, it is possible to compare the stress in the armor wires, thus allowing the identification of damaged ones. However, one encounters several sources of noise when measuring electromagnetic properties contactlessly, such as movement between specimen and probe, and magnetic noise. This paper describes the development of a new technique for automatic monitoring of armor layers of flexible risers. The proposed approach aims to minimize these current uncertainties by combining electromagnetic measurements with optical strain gage data through a recursive least squares (RLSs) adaptive filter.

  8. A hybrid feedback linearizing-Kalman filtering control algorithm for a distillation column.

    PubMed

    Jana, Amiya Kumar; Samanta, Amar Nath

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the design of a discrete-time multivariable feedback linearizing control (FLC) structure. The control scheme included (i) a transformer [also called the input/output (I/O) linearizing state feedback law] that transformed the nonlinear u-y to a linearized v-y system, (ii) a closed-loop observer [extended Kalman filter (EKF)], which estimated the unmeasured states, and (iii) a conventional proportional integral (PI) controller that was employed around the v-y system as an external controller. To avoid the estimator design complexity, the design of EKF for a binary distillation column has been performed based on a reduced-order compartmental distillation model. Consequently, there is a significant process/predictor mismatch, and despite this discrepancy, the EKF estimated the required states of the simulated distillation column precisely. The FLC in conjunction with EKF (FLC-EKF) and that coupled with a measured composition-based reduced-order open-loop observer (FLC-MCROOLO) have been synthesized. The FLC structures showed better performance than the traditional proportional integral derivative controller. In practice, the presence of uncertainties and unknown disturbances are common, and in such situations, the proposed FLC-EKF control scheme ensured the superiority over the FLC-MCROOLO law. PMID:16480113

  9. Far Ultraviolet Refractive Index of Optical Materials for Solar Blind Channel (SBC) Filters for HST Advanced Camera for Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Madison, Timothy J.; Petrone, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Refractive index measurements using the minimum deviation method have been carried out for prisms of a variety of far ultraviolet optical materials used in the manufacture of Solar Blind Channel (SBC) filters for the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Some of the materials measured are gaining popularity in a variety of high technology applications including high power excimer lasers and advanced microlithography optics operating in a wavelength region where high quality knowledge of optical material properties is sparse. Our measurements are of unusually high accuracy and precision for this wavelength region owing to advanced instrumentation in the large vacuum chamber of the Diffraction Grating Evaluation Facility (DGEF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Index values for CaF2, BaF2, LiF, and far ultraviolet grades of synthetic sapphire and synthetic fused silica are reported and compared with values from the literature.

  10. Hybrid nuclear light bulb-nuclear-pumped laser propulsion for advanced missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid ``nuclear light bulb'' gaseous core reactor that can radiantly transfer energy to a propellant or alternately activate laser action is proposed for advanced space missions. The propellant mode would be employed in the phases of the mission requiring a higher thrust. However, for the bulk of the travel, the propellant would be turned off and the ultrahigh specific impulse laser mode of operation would be employed. The concept is reviewed, research and development issues are identified, and steps necessary for a feasibility demonstration are discussed.

  11. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuaprakone, T.; Wongphaet, N.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.

    2011-04-01

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 °C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 °C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m2/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  12. Advanced fluorescence imaging endoscopy using an acousto-optic tuneable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Maurice P.; Bouhifd, Mounir; Aprahamian, Marc

    2004-07-01

    Two novel prototype instruments for in vivo fluorescence-based medical diagnostics are described. The devices are based on an acousto-optic tuneable filter (AOTF) and can be easily attached to the eyepiece of most commercially available endoscopes. The instruments developed offer significant advantages over typical fixed-filter or filter-wheel fluorescence imaging systems in terms of flexibility, performance and diagnostic potential. Any filtering center-wavelength in the range from 450 to 700 nm can be rapidly selected either by random access or sequential tuning using simple commands delivered over a PC serial interface. In addition, both filtered and unfiltered light can be imaged to facilitate the direct association of fluorescence signals with specific anatomical sites. To demonstrate the system in vivo, a study of the diagnostic potential of fluorescence imaging for pancreatitis was conducted on rats. The aim was to detect extremely low-levels of endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) that has been shown to accumulate in early-stage diseased tissue undergoing an inflammatory response. Results show clearly that the device is effective in diagnosing mild pancreatitis in rats without the necessity of administering PpIX promoting agents such as ALA. Planning of human clinical trials is currently underway to demonstrate its potential as a tool for non-invasive early diagnosis of gastroenterological diseases.

  13. Technical note: Improving the AWAT filter with interpolation schemes for advanced processing of high resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andre; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Weighing lysimeters with appropriate data filtering yield the most precise and unbiased information for precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). A recently introduced filter scheme for such data is the AWAT (Adaptive Window and Adaptive Threshold) filter (Peters et al., 2014). The filter applies an adaptive threshold to separate significant from insignificant mass changes, guaranteeing that P and ET are not overestimated, and uses a step interpolation between the significant mass changes. In this contribution we show that the step interpolation scheme, which reflects the resolution of the measuring system, can lead to unrealistic prediction of P and ET, especially if they are required in high temporal resolution. We introduce linear and spline interpolation schemes to overcome these problems. To guarantee that medium to strong precipitation events abruptly following low or zero fluxes are not smoothed in an unfavourable way, a simple heuristic selection criterion is used, which attributes such precipitations to the step interpolation. The three interpolation schemes (step, linear and spline) are tested and compared using a data set from a grass-reference lysimeter with 1 min resolution, ranging from 1 January to 5 August 2014. The selected output resolutions for P and ET prediction are 1 day, 1 h and 10 min. As expected, the step scheme yielded reasonable flux rates only for a resolution of 1 day, whereas the other two schemes are well able to yield reasonable results for any resolution. The spline scheme returned slightly better results than the linear scheme concerning the differences between filtered values and raw data. Moreover, this scheme allows continuous differentiability of filtered data so that any output resolution for the fluxes is sound. Since computational burden is not problematic for any of the interpolation schemes, we suggest always using the spline scheme.

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

  15. Experimental characterization, evaluation, and diagnosis of advanced hybrid infrared focal plane array electro-optical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomheim, Terrence S.; Schumann, Lee W.; Kohn, Stanley E.

    1998-07-01

    High performance scanning time-delay-and-integration and staring hybrid focal plane devices with very large formats, small pixel sizes, formidable frame and line rates, on-chip digital programmability, and high dynamic ranges, are being developed for a myriad of defense, civil, and commercial applications that span the spectral range from shortwave infrared (SWIR) to longwave infrared (LWIR). An essential part in the development of such new advanced hybrid infrared focal planes is empirical validation of their electro-optical (EO) performance. Many high-reliability, high-performance applications demand stringent and near flawless EO performance over a wide variety of operating conditions and environments. Verification of focal plane performance compliance over this wide range of parametric conditions requires the development and use of accurate, flexible, and statistically complete test methods and associated equipment. In this paper we review typical focal plane requirements, the ensuing measurement requirements (quantity, accuracy, repeatability, etc.), test methodologies, test equipment requirements, electronics and computer-based data acquisition requirements, statistical data analysis and display requirements, and associated issues. We also discuss special test requirements for verifying the performance of panchromatic thermal and multispectral imaging focal planes where characterization of dynamic modulation transfer function (MTF), and point-image response and optical overload is generally required. We briefly overview focal plane radiation testing. We conclude with a discussion of the technical challenges of characterizing future advanced hybrid focal plane testing where it is anticipated that analog-to- digital conversion will be included directly on focal plane devices, thus creating the scenario of 'photons-in-to-bits- out' within the focal plane itself.

  16. An advanced static var compensator based on a three level IGBT inverter modelling analysis and active power filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draou, Azeddine

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the dynamic performance analysis of an Advanced Static Var Compensator (ASVC) using three-level neutral point-clamped voltage source inverter. The paper presents the principles of operating and the method of reference currents generation. The dynamic behaviour of the system is further analysed using Matlab/Simulink with SimPower Systems toolbox through a set of simulation tests. The results obtained have been applied to an active power filter which might lead to the design of a robust controller for current harmonics and reactive power applications

  17. Advanced analysis of auditory evoked potentials in hyperthyroid patients: the effect of filtering.

    PubMed

    Güven, Ayşegül; Altınkaynak, Miray; Dolu, Nazan; Ünlühızarcı, Kürşat

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) in patients with hyperthyroidism and to compare their frequency components with those of healthy subjects. In this study the AEPs in hyperthyroidism were studied both in time and frequency domains rather than studying just in the time domain by peak scoring. This paper presents a method for filtering auditory oddball standard and target AEPs by using singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and feature extraction in the frequency domain via spectral analysis. AEPs were recorded during an auditory oddball paradigm in 25 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 15 healthy subjects. The signals are captured in the presence of ongoing background EEG activity so they are often contaminated by artifacts. This paper presents a method for filtering auditory odd-ball standard and target AEPs by using Singular spectrum analysis and feature extraction in frequency domain via spectral analysis. Information about the frequency composition of the signal is then used to compare normal and hyperthyroid states. While there was no significant difference either in the target or standard unfiltered signals between the hyperthyroid patients and the control group (p > 0.05), there was a significant difference in the filtered signals between the two groups (p < 0.01). In conclusion, our results revealed that SSA is an effective filtering method for AEPs. Thus, a much more objective and specific examination method was developed. PMID:25637540

  18. Advanced development of the Nested Fiber Filter: Phase 1, Evaluation of cleaning methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, R.D.; Conkle, H.N.; Glover, R.C.; Jordan, H.

    1990-08-01

    Battelle has completed Phase I of the DOE program to evaluate cleaning methods for the Nested Fiber Filter (NFF). The results of the investigations into fly ash bonding mechanisms, and mechanical vibration and acoustic vibration techniques led to the conclusion that acoustic cleaning with a pulse combustor is the preferred integrated system for high-temperature, high-pressure applications.

  19. Advanced development of the Nested Fiber Filter: Phase 1, Evaluation of cleaning methods

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, R.D.; Conkle, H.N.; Glover, R.C.; Jordan, H.

    1990-08-01

    Battelle has completed Phase I of the DOE program to evaluate cleaning methods for the Nested Fiber Filter (NFF). The results of the investigations into fly ash bonding mechanisms, and mechanical vibration and acoustic vibration techniques led to the conclusion that acoustic cleaning with a pulse combustor is the preferred integrated system for high-temperature, high-pressure applications.

  20. Hybrid optical fiber add-drop filter based on wavelength dependent light coupling between micro/nano fiber ring and side-polished fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jianhui; Jin, Shaoshen; Wei, Qingsong; Zang, Zhigang; Lu, Huihui; He, Xiaoli; Luo, Yunhan; Tang, Jieyuan; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report our experimental study on directly coupling a micro/nano fiber (MNOF) ring with a side-polished fiber(SPF). As a result of the study, the behavior of an add-drop filter was observed. The demonstrated add-drop filter explored the wavelength dependence of light coupling between a MNOF ring and a SPF. The characteristics of the filter and its performance dependence on the MNOF ring diameter were investigated experimentally. The investigation resulted in an empirically obtained ring diameter that showed relatively good filter performance. Since light coupling between a (MNOF) and a conventional single mode fiber has remained a challenge in the photonic integration community, the present study may provide an alternative way to couple light between a MNOF device and a conventional single mode fiber based device or system. The hybridization approach that uses a SPF as a platform to integrate a MNOF device may enable the realization of other all-fiber optical hybrid devices.

  1. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. PMID:23664475

  2. Characterizing the performances of an advanced acousto-optical filter exploiting the collinear calcium molybdate crystalline cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Maximov, Je.; Sanchez Lucero, Daniel; Sanchez Perez, Karla J.

    2011-03-01

    In 1970 - 80s, novel optical spectral devices, electronically tunable acousto-optical filters (AOFs) had been proposed and developed. During the years gone AOFs have been remarkably progressed, and now they are widely exploited, for instance, in astrophysical observations. Schematically, AOFs can be separated on collinear and non-collinear filters, depending on the relative directions of passing the waves through crystalline cell, as well as on sequential and parallel ones, depending on the algorithm of spectrum analysis. Their features are characterized by the amplitude and spectral parameters. Here, we consider a few estimations of an advanced collinear AOF based on calcium molybdate single-crystal. In principle, this new AOF with a 15-microsecond time-aperture operates over all the visible range exhibiting 60%-efficiency at the electric power 1.0 W. Direct square-law dependence for crystal's length and inverse square-law dependence for its bandwidth on this minimal size make possible optimizing this advanced collinear AOF.

  3. Advanced texture filtering: a versatile framework for reconstructing multi-dimensional image data on heterogeneous architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellmann, Stefan; Percan, Yvonne; Lang, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of 2-d image primitives or of 3-d volumetric primitives is one of the most common operations performed by the rendering components of modern visualization systems. Because this operation is often aided by GPUs, reconstruction is typically restricted to first-order interpolation. With the advent of in situ visualization, the assumption that rendering algorithms are in general executed on GPUs is however no longer adequate. We thus propose a framework that provides versatile texture filtering capabilities: up to third-order reconstruction using various types of cubic filtering and interpolation primitives; cache-optimized algorithms that integrate seamlessly with GPGPU rendering or with software rendering that was optimized for cache-friendly "Structure of Array" (SoA) access patterns; a memory management layer (MML) that gracefully hides the complexities of extra data copies necessary for memory access optimizations such as swizzling, for rendering on GPGPUs, or for reconstruction schemes that rely on pre-filtered data arrays. We prove the effectiveness of our software architecture by integrating it into and validating it using the open source direct volume rendering (DVR) software DeskVOX.

  4. Integrating Actionable User-defined Faceted Rules into the Hybrid Science Data System for Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manipon, G. J. M.; Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Sacco, G. F.; Agram, P. S.; Moore, A. W.; Yun, S. H.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Rosen, P. A.; Webb, F.; Liu, Z.; Smith, A. T.; Wilson, B. D.; Simons, M.; Poland, M. P.; Cervelli, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Hybrid Science Data System (HySDS) scalably powers the ingestion, metadata extraction, cataloging, high-volume data processing, and publication of the geodetic data products for the Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis for Monitoring Hazard (ARIA-MH) project at JPL. HySDS uses a heterogeneous set of worker nodes from private & public clouds as well as virtual & bare-metal machines to perform every aspect of the traditional science data system. For our science data users, the forefront of HySDS is the facet search interface, FacetView, which allows them to browse, filter, and access the published products. Users are able to explore the collection of product metadata information and apply multiple filters to constrain the result set down to their particular interests. It allows them to download these faceted products for further analysis and generation of derived products. However, we have also employed a novel approach to faceting where it is also used to apply constraints for custom monitoring of products, system resources, and triggers for automated data processing. The power of the facet search interface is well documented across various domains and its usefulness is rooted in the current state of existence of metadata. However, user needs usually extend beyond what is currently present in the data system. A user interested in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data over Kilauea will download them from FacetView but would also want email notification of future incoming scenes. The user may even want that data pushed to a remote workstation for automated processing. Better still, these future products could trigger HySDS to run the user's analysis on its array of worker nodes, on behalf of the user, and ingest the resulting derived products. We will present our findings in integrating an ancillary, user-defined, system-driven processing system for HySDS that allows users to define faceted rules based on facet constraints and triggers actions when new SAR data

  5. High-speed and low-power silicon-organic hybrid modulators for advanced modulation formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauermann, M.; Wolf, S.; Palmer, R.; Koeber, S.; Schindler, P. C.; Wahlbrink, T.; Bolten, J.; Giesecke, A. L.; Koenigsmann, M.; Kohler, M.; Malsam, D.; Elder, D. L.; Dalton, L. R.; Leuthold, J.; Freude, W.; Koos, C.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for generating advanced modulation formats at high data rates and with low energy consumption. SOH integration combines slot waveguides on conventional silicon-on-insulator substrates with highly efficient electro-optic materials. With this approach we generate 16QAM signals at symbol rates of 28 GBd and 40 GBd leading to gross data rates (net data rates) of up to 160 Gbit/s (133 Gbit/s) for a single polarization. This is the highest value achieved by a silicon-based modulator up to now. With a maximum symbol rate of 28 GBd, low drive voltages of only 0.6 Vpp are sufficient and result in a record-low energy consumption of only 19 fJ/bit. This is the lowest energy consumption that has so far been reported for a 16QAM modulator at 28 GBd.

  6. Advancing Plug-In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler Minivan

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzi, Abdullah; Barnhart, Steven

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed this DOE funding as a historic opportunity to begin the process of achieving required economies of scale on technologies for electric vehicles. The funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies to future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components, and common modules, as well as first-responder training and battery recycling. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also used this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original project proposal was submitted in December 2009 and selected in January 2010. The project ended in December 2014.

  7. Recent advances on multi-component hybrid nanostructures for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Pan; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2015-10-01

    With the continuously growing energy demand and ever-escalating environmental problems, the great energy transition from conventional fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy is under way, and requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices, such as electrochemical capacitors (also called as supercapacitors). In order to achieve high energy and power densities of supercapacitors, numerous efforts are devoted to the development of advanced multi-component hybrid electrode materials for realizing high-performance. This review summarizes the most recent progress in the development of nanostructured electrode materials for energy storage, with a particular focus on these nanostructures that integrate carbon materials, metal oxides/hydroxides and conducting polymers for enhancing energy storage performances via taking advantage of each component's unique functionality and their synergetic effects. Finally, we give some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this intriguing field.

  8. Feasibility of a Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface for Advanced Functional Electrical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Savić, Andrej M.; Malešević, Nebojša M.; Popović, Mirjana B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a feasibility study of a novel hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) system for advanced functional electrical therapy (FET) of grasp. FET procedure is improved with both automated stimulation pattern selection and stimulation triggering. The proposed hybrid BCI comprises the two BCI control signals: steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) and event-related desynchronization (ERD). The sequence of the two stages, SSVEP-BCI and ERD-BCI, runs in a closed-loop architecture. The first stage, SSVEP-BCI, acts as a selector of electrical stimulation pattern that corresponds to one of the three basic types of grasp: palmar, lateral, or precision. In the second stage, ERD-BCI operates as a brain switch which activates the stimulation pattern selected in the previous stage. The system was tested in 6 healthy subjects who were all able to control the device with accuracy in a range of 0.64–0.96. The results provided the reference data needed for the planned clinical study. This novel BCI may promote further restoration of the impaired motor function by closing the loop between the “will to move” and contingent temporally synchronized sensory feedback. PMID:24616644

  9. A hybrid numerical technique for predicting the aerodynamic and acoustic fields of advanced turboprops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homicz, G. F.; Moselle, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    A hybrid numerical procedure is presented for the prediction of the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of advanced turboprops. A hybrid scheme is proposed which in principle leads to a consistent simultaneous prediction of both fields. In the inner flow a finite difference method, the Approximate-Factorization Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) scheme, is used to solve the nonlinear Euler equations. In the outer flow the linearized acoustic equations are solved via a Boundary-Integral Equation (BIE) method. The two solutions are iteratively matched across a fictitious interface in the flow so as to maintain continuity. At convergence the resulting aerodynamic load prediction will automatically satisfy the appropriate free-field boundary conditions at the edge of the finite difference grid, while the acoustic predictions will reflect the back-reaction of the radiated field on the magnitude of the loading source terms, as well as refractive effects in the inner flow. The equations and logic needed to match the two solutions are developed and the computer program implementing the procedure is described. Unfortunately, no converged solutions were obtained, due to unexpectedly large running times. The reasons for this are discussed and several means to alleviate the situation are suggested.

  10. Advanced numerical modeling and hybridization techniques for third-generation infrared detector pixel arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Jonathan

    Infrared (IR) detectors are well established as a vital sensor technology for military, defense and commercial applications. Due to the expense and effort required to fabricate pixel arrays, it is imperative to develop numerical simulation models to perform predictive device simulations which assess device characteristics and design considerations. Towards this end, we have developed a robust three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation model for IR detector pixel arrays. We used the finite-difference time-domain technique to compute the optical characteristics including the reflectance and the carrier generation rate in the device. Subsequently, we employ the finite element method to solve the drift-diffusion equations to compute the electrical characteristics including the I(V) characteristics, quantum efficiency, crosstalk and modulation transfer function. We use our 3D numerical model to study a new class of detector based on the nBn-architecture. This detector is a unipolar unity-gain barrier device consisting of a narrow-gap absorber layer, a wide-gap barrier layer, and a narrow-gap collector layer. We use our model to study the underlying physics of these devices and to explain the anomalously long lateral collection lengths for photocarriers measured experimentally. Next, we investigate the crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic pixel arrays employing a photon-trapping (PT) structure realized with a periodic array of pillars intended to provide broadband operation. The PT region drastically reduces the crosstalk; making the use of the PT structures not only useful to obtain broadband operation, but also desirable for reducing crosstalk, especially in small pitch detector arrays. Then, the power and flexibility of the nBn architecture is coupled with a PT structure to engineer spectrally filtering detectors. Last, we developed a technique to reduce the cost of large-format, high performance HgCdTe detectors by nondestructively screen-testing detector arrays prior

  11. Recovering bioactive compounds from olive oil filter cake by advanced extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. PMID:25226536

  12. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A.; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. PMID:25226536

  13. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kupp, E.R.; Trubelja, K.E.; Spear, K.E.; Tressler, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    Experimental corrosion studies of hot gas filter materials and heat exchanger materials in oxidizing combustion environments have been initiated. Filter materials from 3M Co. and DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc. are being tested over a range of temperatures, times and gas flows. It has been demonstrated that morphological and phase changes due to corrosive effects occur after exposure of these materials to a simulated coal combustion environment for relatively short periods of time (10-50 hours). Heat exchanger tubes from DuPont Lanxide Composite Inc. were cut and infiltrated with Cr by heating in a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder bed. This resulted in continuous Cr-rich layers with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 250 {mu}m. The Cr-free and the Cr-infiltrated specimens were reacted with the molten Illinois No. 6 slag for 2 and 20 h at 1260{degrees}C, and the reaction layers examined with SEM and EDX. In the Cr-free specimens, the segregation of Fe and the precipitation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were detected near the liquid/gas interface, but no evidence of corrosion was present. In the Cr-infiltrate specimens, corrosion was evident, since a rearrangement and segregation of the Cr-rich grains occurred toward the surface of the molten slag. In addition, evidence of the diffusion of major quantities of Fe was observed from the liquid slag into the Cr-rich layer formed by infiltration.

  14. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot-gas filters and heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kupp, E.R.; Trubelja, M.F.; Spear, K.E.; Tressler, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    Experimental corrosion studies of hot gas filter materials and heat exchanger materials in oxidizing combustion environments have been initiated. Filter materials from 3M Co. and DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc. are being tested over a range of temperatures, times and gas flows. It has been demonstrated that morphological and phase changes due to corrosive effects occur after exposure of the 3M material to a combustion environment for as little as 25 hours at 800{degrees}C. The study of heat exchanger materials has focused on enhancing the corrosion resistance of DuPont Lanxide Dimox{trademark} composite tubes by adding chromium to its surfaces by (1) heat treatments in a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder bed, or (2) infiltrating surface porosity with molten chromium nitrate. Each process is followed by a surface homogenization at 1500{degrees}C. The powder bed method has been most successful, producing continuous Cr-rich layers with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 250 {mu}m. As-received and Cr-modified DuPont Lanxide Dimox{trademark} samples will be reacted with commonly encountered coal-ash slags to determine the Cr effects on corrosion resistance.

  15. Advanced hot gas filter development. Topical report, May 1995--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.L.; June, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    Porous iron aluminide was evaluated for use as a particulate filter in pressurized fluid-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) with a short term test. Three alloy compositions were tested: Fe{sub 3}Al 5% chromium (FAL), Fe{sub 3}Al 2% chromium (FAS) and FeAl 0% chromium. The test conditions simulated air blown (Tampa Electric) and oxygen blown (Sierra Pacific) gasifiers with one test gas composition. Four test conditions were used with hydrogen sulfide levels varying from 783 ppm to 78,3000 ppm at 1 atmosphere along with temperatures ranging between 925 F and 1200 F. The iron aluminide was found capable of withstanding the proposed operating conditions and capable of giving years of service. The production method and preferred composition were established as seamless cylinders of Fe{sub 3}Al 2% chromium with a preoxidation of seven hours at 1472 F.

  16. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Spear, K.E.

    1996-08-01

    A vertical flow-through furnace has been built to study the effect of corrosion on the morphology and mechanical properties of ceramic hot gas filters. Sections of 3M Type 203 and DuPont Lanxide SiC-SiC filter tubes were sealed at one end and suspended in the furnace while being subjected to a simulated coal combustion environment at 870{degrees}C. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy is used to identify phase and morphology changes due to corrosion while burst testing determines the loss of mechanical strength after exposure to the combustion gases. Additionally, a thermodynamic database of gaseous silicon compounds is currently being established so that calculations can be made to predict important products of the reaction of the environment with the ceramics. These thermodynamic calculations provide useful information concerning the regimes where the ceramic may be degraded by material vaporization. To verify the durability and predict lifetime performance of ceramic heat exchangers in coal combustion environments, long-term exposure testing of stressed (internally pressurized) tubes must be performed in actual coal combustion environments. The authors have designed a system that will internally pressurize 2 inch OD by 48 inch long ceramic heat exchanger tubes to a maximum pressure of 200 psi while exposing the outer surface of the tubes to coal combustion gas at the Combustion and Environmental Research Facility (CERF) at the Pittsburgh Energy and Technology Center. Water-cooled, internal o-ring pressure seals were designed to accommodate the existing 6 inch by 6 inch access panels of the CERF. Tubes will be exposed for up to a maximum of 500 hours at temperatures of 2500 and 2600{degrees}F with an internal pressure of 200 psi. If the tubes survive, their retained strength will be measured using the high temperature tube burst test facility at Penn State University. Fractographic analysis will be performed to identify the failure source(s) for the tubes.

  17. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMICS OF THE ADVANCED CO2 HYBRID POWER CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    A. Nehrozoglu

    2004-12-01

    Research has been conducted under United States Department of Energy Contract DEFC26-02NT41621 to analyze the feasibility of a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called the Advanced CO{sub 2} Hybrid Power Plant, offers the promise of efficiencies nearing 36 percent, while concentrating CO{sub 2} for 100% sequestration. Other pollutants, such as SO{sub 2} and NOx, are sequestered along with the CO{sub 2} yielding a zero emissions coal plant. The CO{sub 2} Hybrid is a gas turbine-steam turbine combined cycle plant that uses CO{sub 2} as its working fluid to facilitate carbon sequestration. The key components of the plant are a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), a pressurized circulating fluidized bed gasifier, a CO{sub 2} powered gas turbine, a circulating fluidized bed boiler, and a super-critical pressure steam turbine. The gasifier generates a syngas that fuels the gas turbine and a char residue that, together with coal, fuels a CFB boiler to power the supercritical pressure steam turbine. Both the gasifier and the CFB boiler use a mix of ASU oxygen and recycled boiler flue gas as their oxidant. The resulting CFB boiler flue gas is essentially a mixture of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. Cooling the CFB flue gas to 80 deg. F condenses most of the moisture and leaves a CO{sub 2} rich stream containing 3%v oxygen. Approximately 30% of this flue gas stream is further cooled, dried, and compressed for pipeline transport to the sequestration site (the small amount of oxygen in this stream is released and recycled to the system when the CO{sub 2} is condensed after final compression and cooling). The remaining 70% of the flue gas stream is mixed with oxygen from the ASU and is ducted to the gas turbine compressor inlet. As a result, the gas turbine compresses a mixture of carbon dioxide (ca. 64%v) and oxygen (ca. 32.5%v) rather than air. This carbon dioxide rich mixture then becomes the gas turbine working fluid and

  19. Combination of ozonation, activated carbon, and biological aerated filter for advanced treatment of dyeing wastewater for reuse.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were performed to investigate and evaluate the performance and removal characteristics of organics, color, and genotoxicity by an integrated process including ozonation, activated carbon (AC), and biological aerated filter (BAF) for recycling biotreated dyeing wastewater (BTDW) collected from a cotton textile factory. Influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the range of 156 - 252 mg/L, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 13.5 - 21.7 mg/L, and color of 58 - 76° were observed during the 20-day continuous operation. Outflows with average COD of 43 mg/L, BOD5 of 6.6 mg/L, and color of 5.6° were obtained after being decontaminated by the hybrid system with ozone dosage of 0.25 mg O3applied/mg COD0, 40 min ozonation contact time, 30 min hydraulic retention time (HRT) for AC treatment, and 2.5 h HRT for BAF treatment. More than 82 % of the genotoxicity of BTDW was eliminated in the ozonation unit. The genotoxicity of the BAF effluent was less than 1.33 μg 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide/L. Ozonation could change the organics molecular structures, destroy chromophores, increase the biodegradability, and obviously reduce the genotoxicity of BTDW. Results showed that the combined process could guarantee water reuse with high quality. PMID:25843826

  20. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, María S.

    2012-10-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical-digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption-decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical-digital solutions.

  1. Incorporating advanced language models into the P300 speller using particle filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Deshpande, A.; Knall, J.; Pouratian, N.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The P300 speller is a common brain-computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram models. While more sophisticated language models are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach. Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the model. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language model. Main result. This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov model (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance. These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance.

  2. Incorporating advanced language models into the P300 speller using particle filtering

    PubMed Central

    Speier, W; Arnold, CW; Deshpande, A; Knall, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective The P300 speller is a common brain–computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram models. While more sophisticated language models are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the model. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language model. Main Result This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov model (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance. PMID:26061188

  3. Advanced Hybrid Spacesuit Concept Featuring Integrated Open Loop and Closed Loop Ventilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, Brian A.; Fitzpatrick, Garret R.; Gohmert, Dustin M.; Ybarra, Rick M.; Dub, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses the design and prototype of an advanced spacesuit concept that integrates the capability to function seamlessly with multiple ventilation system approaches. Traditionally, spacesuits are designed to operate both dependently and independently of a host vehicle environment control and life support system (ECLSS). Spacesuits that operate independent of vehicle-provided ECLSS services must do so with equipment selfcontained within or on the spacesuit. Suits that are dependent on vehicle-provided consumables must remain physically connected to and integrated with the vehicle to operate properly. This innovation is the design and prototype of a hybrid spacesuit approach that configures the spacesuit to seamlessly interface and integrate with either type of vehicular systems, while still maintaining the ability to function completely independent of the vehicle. An existing Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) was utilized as the platform from which to develop the innovation. The ACES was retrofitted with selected components and one-off items to achieve the objective. The ventilation system concept was developed and prototyped/retrofitted to an existing ACES. Components were selected to provide suit connectors, hoses/umbilicals, internal breathing system ducting/ conduits, etc. The concept utilizes a lowpressure- drop, high-flow ventilation system that serves as a conduit from the vehicle supply into the suit, up through a neck seal, into the breathing helmet cavity, back down through the neck seal, out of the suit, and returned to the vehicle. The concept also utilizes a modified demand-based breathing system configured to function seamlessly with the low-pressure-drop closed-loop ventilation system.

  4. Advanced hybrid supercapacitor based on a mesoporous niobium pentoxide/carbon as high-performance anode.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eunho; Kim, Haegyeom; Jo, Changshin; Chun, Jinyoung; Ku, Kyojin; Kim, Seongseop; Lee, Hyung Ik; Nam, In-Sik; Yoon, Songhun; Kang, Kisuk; Lee, Jinwoo

    2014-09-23

    Recently, hybrid supercapacitors (HSCs), which combine the use of battery and supercapacitor, have been extensively studied in order to satisfy increasing demands for large energy density and high power capability in energy-storage devices. For this purpose, the requirement for anode materials that provide enhanced charge storage sites (high capacity) and accommodate fast charge transport (high rate capability) has increased. Herein, therefore, a preparation of nanocomposite as anode material is presented and an advanced HSC using it is thoroughly analyzed. The HSC comprises a mesoporous Nb2O5/carbon (m-Nb2O5-C) nanocomposite anode synthesized by a simple one-pot method using a block copolymer assisted self-assembly and commercial activated carbon (MSP-20) cathode under organic electrolyte. The m-Nb2O5-C anode provides high specific capacity with outstanding rate performance and cyclability, mainly stemming from its enhanced pseudocapacitive behavior through introduction of a carbon-coated mesostructure within a voltage range from 3.0 to 1.1 V (vs Li/Li(+)). The HSC using the m-Nb2O5-C anode and MSP-20 cathode exhibits excellent energy and power densities (74 W h kg(-1) and 18,510 W kg(-1)), with advanced cycle life (capacity retention: ∼90% at 1000 mA g(-1) after 1000 cycles) within potential range from 1.0 to 3.5 V. In particular, we note that the highest power density (18,510 W kg(-1)) of HSC is achieved at 15 W h kg(-1), which is the highest level among similar HSC systems previously reported. With further study, the HSCs developed in this work could be a next-generation energy-storage device, bridging the performance gap between conventional batteries and supercapacitors. PMID:25137384

  5. Improvement of hybrid yield by advanced backcross QTL analysis in elite maize.

    PubMed

    Ho, C.; McCouch, R.; Smith, E.

    2002-08-01

    We applied an advanced backcross breeding strategy to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of agronomic importance in a cross between two elite inbreds of maize, RD6502 (Mo17-type recurrent parent) and RD3013 (Iodent donor parent). Two hundred and four BC(2) families were scored at 106 SSR, 15 AFLP, and 38 Heartbreaker (MITE) loci. BC(2) testcrosses (TC) with B73 were phenotyped at six locations in the Midwest and N.Y. We detected four grain yield, six grain moisture, and three plant height QTLs at which the RD3013 allele had a favorable effect ( p < 0.05). All four yield QTLs were selected as target introgressions in the development of BC(3)TC families. As predicted by BC(2)TC analysis, BC(3)TC entries containing introgressions at yld3.1 and yld10.1 significantly outperformed non-carrier entries by 11.1% (15.6 bu/A at one location) and 6.7% (7.1 bu/A averaged across two locations), respectively, in replicated Midwestern trials ( p < 0.05). Detection of yld10.1 effects in the BC(2)TC by spatial analysis (i.e., incomplete block, response surface, autoregressive, moving average or autoregressive moving average), but not by conventional single point analysis or interval mapping, indicated the utility of local environmental control for QTL mapping in unreplicated maize progeny. This work demonstrated that the advanced backcross QTL method can be applied to identify and manipulate useful QTLs in heterotic inbreds of elite maize. Genetic gains by this approach can be coupled with the maintenance and selection of favorable epistatic gene complexes by traditional hybrid breeding for maize improvement. PMID:12582549

  6. Final LDRD report human interaction with complex systems: advances in hybrid reachability and control.

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, Meeko M.

    2006-08-01

    This document describes new advances in hybrid reachability techniques accomplished during the course of a one-year Truman Postdoctoral Fellowship. These techniques provide guarantees of safety in complex systems, which is especially important in high-risk, expensive, or safety-critical systems. My work focused on new approaches to two specific problems motivated by real-world issues in complex systems: (1) multi-objective controller synthesis, and (2) control for recovery from error. Regarding the first problem, a novel application of reachability analysis allowed controller synthesis in a single step to achieve (a) safety, (b) stability, and (c) prevent input saturation. By extending the state to include the input parameters, constraints for stability, saturation, and envelope protection are incorporated into a single reachability analysis. Regarding the second problem, a new approach to the problem of recovery provides (a) states from which recovery is possible, and (b) controllers to guide the system during a recovery maneuver from an error state to a safe state in minimal time. Results are computed in both problems on nonlinear models of single longitudinal aircraft dynamics and two-aircraft lateral collision avoidance dynamics.

  7. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles. PMID:23651993

  8. HYDROTHERMALLY SELF-ADVANCING HYBRID COATINGS FOR MITIGATING CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA, T.

    2006-11-22

    Hydrothermally self-advancing hybrid coatings were prepared by blending two starting materials, water-borne styrene acrylic latex (SAL) as the matrix and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) as the hydraulic filler, and then their usefulness was evaluated as the room temperature curable anti-corrosion coatings for carbon steel in CO{sub 2}-laden geothermal environments at 250 C. The following two major factors supported the self-improving mechanisms of the coating during its exposure in an autoclave: First was the formation of a high temperature stable polymer structure of Ca-complexed carboxylate groups containing SAL (Ca-CCG-SAL) due to hydrothermal reactions between SAL and CAC; second was the growth with continuing exposure time of crystalline calcite and boehmite phases coexisting with Ca-CCG-SAL. These two factors promoted the conversion of the porous microstructure in the non-autoclaved coating into a densified one after 7 days exposure. The densified microstructure not only considerably reduced the conductivity of corrosive ionic electrolytes through the coatings' layers, but also contributed to the excellent adherence of the coating to underlying steel' s surface that, in turn, retarded the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction at the corrosion site of steel. Such characteristics including the minimum uptake of corrosive electrolytes by the coating and the retardation of the cathodic corrosion reaction played an important role in inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel in geothermal environments.

  9. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  10. Advanced hybrid particulate collector. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.; Schelkoph, G.L.

    1996-10-01

    The objective for this quarter was to test the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) in real flue gas conditions. The initial tests were performed on the particulate test combustor (PTC) firing Absoloka subbituminous using two types of bags: PTFE and graphite-impregnated PTFE. Both bag types were evaluated in the on-line and off-line cleaning modes. Findings showed only a small difference in performance between the PTFE and graphite-impregnated PTFE. In the on-line cleaning mode, both the PTFE and graphite-impregnated PTFE bags maintained pressure drop across the bags of between 8.0 and 6.0 in. W.C. In the off-line mode, the pressure drop across both bag types ranged from 8.0 to 5.5 in. W.C. Dust-loading efficiencies averaged 99.986% over all the tests. The objective of the project is to develop a highly reliable AHPC that can provide > 99.99% particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m, is applicable for use with all US coals, and is cost-comparative with existing technologies.

  11. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jason; Yu, Wensong; Sun, Pengwei; Leslie, Scott; Prusia, Duane; Arnet, Beat; Smith, Chris; Cogan, Art

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  12. Nonlinear optimal semirecursive filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Frederick E.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a new hybrid approach to filtering, in which part of the filter is recursive but another part in non-recursive. The practical utility of this notion is to reduce computational complexity. In particular, if the non- recursive part of the filter is sufficiently small, then such a filter might be cost-effective to run in real-time with computer technology available now or in the future.

  13. Fabrication of Hybrid Nanostructures via Nanoscale Laser-Induced Reshaping for Advanced Light Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Zuev, Dmitry A; Makarov, Sergey V; Mukhin, Ivan S; Milichko, Valentin A; Starikov, Sergey V; Morozov, Ivan A; Shishkin, Ivan I; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A

    2016-04-01

    Ordered hybrid nanostructures for nanophotonics applications are fabricated by a novel approach via femtosecond laser melting of asymmetric metal-dielectric (Au/Si) nanoparticles created by lithographical methods. The approach allows selective reshaping of the metal components of the hybrid nanoparticles without affecting the dielectric ones and is applied for tuning of the scattering properties of the hybrid nanostructures in the visible range. PMID:26901635

  14. Recent advances in multifunctional silica-based hybrid nanocarriers for bioimaging and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Qi; Phua, Soo Zeng Fiona; Xu, Hesheng Victor; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a considerable research focus on integrating cancer cell imaging and therapeutic functions into single nanoscale platforms for better treatment of cancer. This task could often be achieved by incorporating multiple components into a hybrid nanosystem. In this minireview, we highlight different types of silica-based hybrid nanosystems and their recent applications as integrated multifunctional platforms for cancer imaging and treatment. The discussions are divided into several sections focusing on various types of materials employed to integrate with silica, which include silica-metallic nanoparticle based hybrid nanocarriers, silica-gold nanoparticle based hybrid nanocarriers, silica-quantum dot based hybrid nanocarriers, silica-upconversion nanoparticle based hybrid nanocarriers, silica-carbon based hybrid nanocarriers, and organosilica nanocarriers. Therapeutic agents loaded in such hybrids include chemodrugs, proteins, DNA/RNA and photosensitizers. For targeted delivery into tumor sites, targeting ligands such as antibodies, peptides, aptamers, and other small molecules are grafted on the surface of the nanocarriers. At the end of the review, a brief summary and research outlook are presented. This minireview aims to provide a quick update of recent research achievements in the field. PMID:26750573

  15. Recent advances in multifunctional silica-based hybrid nanocarriers for bioimaging and cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wei Qi; Phua, Soo Zeng Fiona; Xu, Hesheng Victor; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a considerable research focus on integrating cancer cell imaging and therapeutic functions into single nanoscale platforms for better treatment of cancer. This task could often be achieved by incorporating multiple components into a hybrid nanosystem. In this minireview, we highlight different types of silica-based hybrid nanosystems and their recent applications as integrated multifunctional platforms for cancer imaging and treatment. The discussions are divided into several sections focusing on various types of materials employed to integrate with silica, which include silica-metallic nanoparticle based hybrid nanocarriers, silica-gold nanoparticle based hybrid nanocarriers, silica-quantum dot based hybrid nanocarriers, silica-upconversion nanoparticle based hybrid nanocarriers, silica-carbon based hybrid nanocarriers, and organosilica nanocarriers. Therapeutic agents loaded in such hybrids include chemodrugs, proteins, DNA/RNA and photosensitizers. For targeted delivery into tumor sites, targeting ligands such as antibodies, peptides, aptamers, and other small molecules are grafted on the surface of the nanocarriers. At the end of the review, a brief summary and research outlook are presented. This minireview aims to provide a quick update of recent research achievements in the field.

  16. Advanced Generation Progeny from Hybrids of Hydrangea macrophylla and Dichroa febrifuga

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dichroa febrifuga is an evergreen shrub that is a member of the Hydrangeaceae. Molecular marker and hybridization data have shown D. febrifuga to be closely related to H. macrophylla. Reciprocal hybrids between H. macrophylla and D. febrifuga were previously obtained and characterized. F2 and BC1...

  17. Advances in the Physics Basis of the Hybrid Scenario on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, C; West, W; DeBoo, J; Doyle, E; Evans, T; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Ferron, J; McKee, G; Politzer, P; Schmitz, L; Allen, S; Austin, M; Brooks, N; Casper, T; Chu, M; Greenfield, C; Holcomb, C; Hyatt, A; Jackson, G; Kinsey, J; La Haye, R; Luce, T; Makowski, M; Moyer, R; Murakami, M; Osborne, T; Rhodes, T; Wade, M; Wang, G

    2008-10-14

    Recent experiments on DIII-D have extended the hybrid scenario towards the burning plasma regime by incorporating strong electron heating, low torque injection, and edge localized mode (ELM) suppression. Hybrid performance projecting to Q {ge} 10 on ITER at q{sub 95}=3.1 has been achieved in plasmas with reduced ion/electron temperature ratio or Mach number. Confinement is decreased relative to previous hybrid results, consistent with measurements of increased turbulence at low and intermediate wavenumbers. For the first time, large type-I ELMs have been completely suppressed in a hybrid plasma at q{sub 95}=3.6 by applying edge resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with toroidal mode number n=3. Additionally, high performance hybrid and steady-state scenario operation has been demonstrated with reduced frequency of wall conditioning with a >95% graphite plasma-facing wall.

  18. Estimation method of state-of-charge for lithium-ion battery used in hybrid electric vehicles based on variable structure extended kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong; Ma, Zilin; Tang, Gongyou; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Nong

    2016-03-01

    Since the main power source of hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) is supplied by the power battery, the predicted performance of power battery, especially the state-of-charge(SOC) estimation has attracted great attention in the area of HEV. However, the value of SOC estimation could not be greatly precise so that the running performance of HEV is greatly affected. A variable structure extended kalman filter(VSEKF)-based estimation method, which could be used to analyze the SOC of lithium-ion battery in the fixed driving condition, is presented. First, the general lower-order battery equivalent circuit model(GLM), which includes column accumulation model, open circuit voltage model and the SOC output model, is established, and the off-line and online model parameters are calculated with hybrid pulse power characteristics(HPPC) test data. Next, a VSEKF estimation method of SOC, which integrates the ampere-hour(Ah) integration method and the extended Kalman filter(EKF) method, is executed with different adaptive weighting coefficients, which are determined according to the different values of open-circuit voltage obtained in the corresponding charging or discharging processes. According to the experimental analysis, the faster convergence speed and more accurate simulating results could be obtained using the VSEKF method in the running performance of HEV. The error rate of SOC estimation with the VSEKF method is focused in the range of 5% to 10% comparing with the range of 20% to 30% using the EKF method and the Ah integration method. In Summary, the accuracy of the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion battery cell and the pack of lithium-ion battery system, which is obtained utilizing the VSEKF method has been significantly improved comparing with the Ah integration method and the EKF method. The VSEKF method utilizing in the SOC estimation in the lithium-ion pack of HEV can be widely used in practical driving conditions.

  19. All-optical NRZ wavelength conversion based on a single hybrid III-V/Si SOA and optical filtering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingchen; Huang, Qiangsheng; Keyvaninia, Shahram; Katumba, Andrew; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Weiqiang; Morthier, Geert; He, Jian-Jun; Roelkens, Gunther

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate all-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) of non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signal based on cross-gain modulation in a single heterogeneously integrated III-V-on-silicon semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with an optical bandpass filter. The SOA is 500 μm long and consumes less than 250 mW electrical power. We experimentally demonstrate 12.5 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s AOWC for both wavelength up and down conversion. PMID:27607638

  20. Hybrid multinary modulation using a phase modulating spatial light modulator and a low-pass spatial filter.

    PubMed

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Erdei, Gábor; Sarkadi, Tamás; Ujhelyi, Ferenc; Reményi, Judit; Koppa, Pál; Lorincz, Emoke

    2007-08-15

    We propose a method for performing binary intensity and continuous phase modulation of beams with a spatial light modulator (SLM) and a low-pass spatial filtering 4-f system. With our method it is possible to avoid the use of phase masks in holographic data storage systems or to enhance the phase encoding of the SLM by making it capable of binary amplitude modulation. The data storage capabilities and the limitations of the method are studied. PMID:17700777

  1. Launch Vehicles Based on Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motors: An Enabling Technology for the Commercial Small and Micro Satellite Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabeyoglu, Arif; Tuncer, Onur; Inalhan, Gokhan

    2016-07-01

    Mankind is relient on chemical propulsion systems for space access. Nevertheless, this has been a stagnant area in terms of technological development and the technology base has not changed much almost for the past forty years. This poses a vicious circle for launch applications such that high launch costs constrain the demand and low launch freqencies drive costs higher. This also has been a key limiting factor for small and micro satellites that are geared towards planetary science. Rather this be because of the launch frequencies or the costs, the access of small and micro satellites to orbit has been limited. With today's technology it is not possible to escape this circle. However the emergence of cost effective and high performance propulsion systems such as advanced hybrid rockets can decrease launch costs by almost an order or magnitude. This paper briefly introduces the timeline and research challenges that were overcome during the development of advanced hybrid LOX/paraffin based rockets. Experimental studies demonstrated effectiveness of these advanced hybrid rockets which incorporate fast burning parafin based fuels, advanced yet simple internal balistic design and carbon composite winding/fuel casting technology that enables the rocket motor to be built from inside out. A feasibility scenario is studied using these rocket motors as building blocks for a modular launch vehicle capable of delivering micro satellites into low earth orbit. In addition, the building block rocket motor can be used further solar system missions providing the ability to do standalone small and micro satellite missions to planets within the solar system. This enabling technology therefore offers a viable alternative in order to escape the viscous that has plagued the space launch industry and that has limited the small and micro satellite delivery for planetary science.

  2. A study on effect of point-of-use filters on defect reduction for advanced 193nm processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, Nelson; Wolfer, Elizabeth; Cao, Yi; Lee, DongKwan; Wu, Aiwen

    2009-03-01

    Bottom Anti-Reflective Coatings (BARCs) have been widely used in the lithography process for decades. BARCs play important roles in controlling reflections and therefore improving swing ratios, CD variations, reflective notching, and standing waves. The implementation of BARC processes in 193nm dry and immersion lithography has been accompanied by defect reduction challenges on fine patterns. Point-of-Use filters are well known among the most critical components on a track tool ensuring low wafer defects by providing particle-free coatings on wafers. The filters must have very good particle retention to remove defect-causing particulate and gels while not altering the delicate chemical formulation of photochemical materials. This paper describes a comparative study of the efficiency and performance of various Point-of-Use filters in reducing defects observed in BARC materials. Multiple filter types with a variety of pore sizes, membrane materials, and filter designs were installed on an Entegris Intelligent(R) Mini dispense pump which is integrated in the coating module of a clean track. An AZ(R) 193nm organic BARC material was spin-coated on wafers through various filter media. Lithographic performance of filtered BARCs was examined and wafer defect analysis was performed. By this study, the effect of filter properties on BARC process related defects can be learned and optimum filter media and design can be selected for BARC material to yield the lowest defects on a coated wafer.

  3. A hybrid interval-parameter fuzzy robust programming method and its application to filter management strategy in fluid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, S. L.; Ji, H.; Huang, Y. Q.; Li, Y. P.; Huang, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    An interval-parameter fuzzy robust programming (IFRP) method is developed for the assessment of filter allocation and replacement strategies in a fluid power system (FPS) under uncertainty. The developed IFRP can effectively handle the uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets, interval values, and their combinations, which exist in contaminant ingression/generation of the system and contaminant-holding capacity of filter without making assumptions on their probabilistic distributions. The fuzzy decision space can be delimited into a more robust one with the uncertainties being specified through dimensional enlargement of the original fuzzy constraints, leading to enhanced robustness for the optimization process. Results indicate that the developed IFRP can not only help decision-maker to identify optimal filter allocation and replacement strategies to control the contamination level of FPS with a minimized system-cost and system-failure risk under multiple uncertainties, but also mitigate uncertainties through abating interval widths of the replacement periods and service life under different contamination ingression/generation rates.

  4. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Jokstad, Håkon; Boring, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    recently assisted INL in establishing the technical infrastructure for implementation of HSI prototypes from HAMMLAB into the HSSL to demonstrate relevant control room replacement systems in support of the LWRS program. In March, 2014, IFE delivered the first HSI prototype utilizing this infrastructure — a large screen overview display for INL's simulator. The co-operation now continues by developing Procedure Support Displays targeted for operators in hybrid control room settings. These prototypes are being validated with U.S. reactor operators in the HSSL and optimized to enhance their performance. This research serves as a crucial stepping stone toward incorporation of advanced display technologies into conventional main control rooms.

  5. Recent advances in the fabrication and structure-specific applications of graphene-based inorganic hybrid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinne; Zhang, Panpan; Chen, Yuting; Su, Zhiqiang; Wei, Gang

    2015-03-01

    The preparation and applications of graphene (G)-based materials are attracting increasing interests due to their unique electronic, optical, magnetic, thermal, and mechanical properties. Compared to G-based hybrid and composite materials, G-based inorganic hybrid membrane (GIHM) offers enormous advantages ascribed to their facile synthesis, planar two-dimensional multilayer structure, high specific surface area, and mechanical stability, as well as their unique optical and mechanical properties. In this review, we report the recent advances in the technical fabrication and structure-specific applications of GIHMs with desirable thickness and compositions. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the methods utilized for creating GIHMs are discussed in detail. Finally, the potential applications and key challenges of GIHMs for future technical applications are mentioned.

  6. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and "through-the-ground" parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains.

  7. Analyzing Intra-person Variation: Hybridizing the ACE Model with P-Technique Factor Analysis and the Idiographic Filter

    PubMed Central

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Integrating idiographic and nomothetic approaches to the study of behavior has met with success via the idiographic filter (IF) which separates irrelevant inter-individual differences from relevant inter-individual similarities at the level of construct measurement in order to facilitate drawing conclusions regarding nomothetic relationships among the constructs. We propose an integration of the IF and the ACE behavior genetics models through the use of P-technique factor analysis and its dynamic factor analysis extensions and examine how it can strengthen the modeling of genetic and environmental effects in behavioral data representing intra-person variation, change, and process. PMID:20549326

  8. Annual Report for Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems—Phase 1B

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Gary B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Rappe, Kenneth G.; Frye, John G.

    2009-06-01

    Annual report covering the development of a hybrid nonthermal plasma single-pass filtration system for collective protection. This report covers NTP destruction testing on a high priority Toxic Industrial Material and an surrogate for a sulfur containing chemical agent (e.g. mustard), Effects of catalysts in the nonthermal plasma and catalyst poisoning by the sulfur are presented. Also presented are proof-of-principle data for utilizing ozone created in the NTP as a beneficial reactant to destroy adsorbed contaminants in-situ. Catalysts to decompose the ozone within the adsorbent bed are necessary to convert the adsorber into an ozone reactor.

  9. Start-up of an anaerobic hybrid (UASB/filter) reactor treating wastewater from a coffee processing plant.

    PubMed

    Bello-Mendoza, R; Castillo-Rivera, M F

    1998-10-01

    The ability of an anaerobic hybrid reactor, treating coffee wastewater, to achieve a quick start-up was tested at pilot scale. The unacclimatized seed sludge used showed a low specific methanogenic activity of 26.47 g CH4 as chemical oxygen demand (COD)/kg volatile suspended solids (VSS) x day. This strongly limited the reactor performance. After a few days of operation, a COD removal of 77.2% was obtained at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.89 kg COD/m3 x day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 22 h. However, suddenly increasing OLR above 2.4 kg COD/m3 x day resulted in a deterioration in treatment efficiency. The reactor recovered from shock loads after shutdowns of 1 week. The hybrid design of the anaerobic reactor prevented the biomass from washing-out but gas clogging in the packing material was also observed. Wide variations in wastewater strength and flow rates prevented stable reactor operation in the short period of the study. PMID:16887646

  10. Bulk-Flow Analysis of Hybrid Thrust Bearings for Advanced Cryogenic Turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanAndres, Luis

    1998-01-01

    on a Windows 95/NT personal computer. The program, help files and examples are licensed by Texas A&M University Technology License Office. The study of the static and dynamic performance of two hydrostatic/hydrodynamic bearings demonstrates the importance of centrifugal and advection fluid inertia effects for operation at high rotational speeds. The first example considers a conceptual hydrostatic thrust bearing for an advanced liquid hydrogen turbopump operating at 170,000 rpm. The large axial stiffness and damping coefficients of the bearing should provide accurate control and axial positioning of the turbopump and also allow for unshrouded impellers, therefore increasing the overall pump efficiency. The second bearing uses a refrigerant R134a, and its application in oil-free air conditioning compressors is of great technological importance and commercial value. The computed predictions reveal that the LH2 bearing load capacity and flow rate increase with the recess pressure (i.e. increasing orifice diameters). The bearing axial stiffness has a maximum for a recess pressure rati of approx. 0.55. while the axial damping coefficient decreases as the recess pressure ratio increases. The computer results from three flow models are compared. These models are a) inertialess, b) fluid inertia at recess edges only, and c) full fluid inertia at both recess edges and film lands. The full inertia model shows the lowest flow rates, axial load capacity and stiffness coefficient but on the other hand renders the largest damping coefficients and inertia coefficients. The most important findings are related to the reduction of the outflow through the inner radius and the appearance of subambient pressures. The performance of the refrigerant hybrid thrust bearing is evaluated at two operating speeds and pressure drops. The computed results are presented in dimensionless form to evidence consistent trends in the bearing performance characteristics. As the applied axial load

  11. Illumination-tolerant face verification of low-bit-rate JPEG2000 wavelet images with advanced correlation filters for handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaya, Surya Li; Savvides, Marios; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    2005-02-01

    Face recognition on mobile devices, such as personal digital assistants and cell phones, is a big challenge owing to the limited computational resources available to run verifications on the devices themselves. One approach is to transmit the captured face images by use of the cell-phone connection and to run the verification on a remote station. However, owing to limitations in communication bandwidth, it may be necessary to transmit a compressed version of the image. We propose using the image compression standard JPEG2000, which is a wavelet-based compression engine used to compress the face images to low bit rates suitable for transmission over low-bandwidth communication channels. At the receiver end, the face images are reconstructed with a JPEG2000 decoder and are fed into the verification engine. We explore how advanced correlation filters, such as the minimum average correlation energy filter [Appl. Opt. 26, 3633 (1987)] and its variants, perform by using face images captured under different illumination conditions and encoded with different bit rates under the JPEG2000 wavelet-encoding standard. We evaluate the performance of these filters by using illumination variations from the Carnegie Mellon University's Pose, Illumination, and Expression (PIE) face database. We also demonstrate the tolerance of these filters to noisy versions of images with illumination variations.

  12. Advanced collinear LiNbO3 acousto-optical filter for astrophysical spectroscopy in the near-ultraviolet: exploring high-spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Arellanes, Adán Omar; Bertone, Emanuele

    2015-10-01

    We explore the potentiality of using an advanced collinear LiNbO3 acousto-optical filter as a dispersive element for a high-resolution optical spectrograph. Our analysis is focused on weak optical signals in the blue to near-ultraviolet range accessible to ground-based facilities. We examine the phenomenon affecting the filter transmission efficiency and its spectral resolution, namely, the light-induced absorption and photorefraction. A new nonlinear approach is used to determine the performance of this collinear LiNbO3 filter governed by acoustic waves of finite amplitude. The highest available spectral resolution attains δλ=0.15 Å at λ=370 nm (the resolving power R˜25,000), with an efficiency of 11%, or δλ=0.18 Å at λ=532 nm (R˜30,000), with an efficiency of 33%. A slight decrease in the spectral resolution would imply a significant increase in transmission efficiency. Then, we carried out proof of principle experiments with the collinear filter based on the congruent LiNbO3 crystal of 6.3-cm length at λ=405 and 440 nm to verify our analysis and estimations. Potential applications are tackling many issues in astronomy, from detailed abundance analysis in a variety of targets to precise radial velocity measurement.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of advanced durum wheat hybrids and addition lines with thinopyrum chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a natural hybrid – an allotetraploid between two wild species, Triticum urartu Tumanian (AA genome) and Aegilops speltoides Tausch (BB genome). As shown earlier, even at the allotetraploid level, durum wheat can tolerate chromosomal ...

  14. Recent advances in graphene and its metal-oxide hybrid nanostructures for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Manish; Singh, Jay; Kuila, Tapas; Layek, Rama K.; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2015-03-01

    Today, one of the major challenges is to provide green and powerful energy sources for a cleaner environment. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are promising candidates for energy storage devices, and have attracted considerable attention due to their high energy density, rapid response, and relatively low self-discharge rate. The performance of LIBs greatly depends on the electrode materials; therefore, attention has been focused on designing a variety of electrode materials. Graphene is a two-dimensional carbon nanostructure, which has a high specific surface area and high electrical conductivity. Thus, various studies have been performed to design graphene-based electrode materials by exploiting these properties. Metal-oxide nanoparticles anchored on graphene surfaces in a hybrid form have been used to increase the efficiency of electrode materials. This review highlights the recent progress in graphene and graphene-based metal-oxide hybrids for use as electrode materials in LIBs. In particular, emphasis has been placed on the synthesis methods, structural properties, and synergetic effects of metal-oxide/graphene hybrids towards producing enhanced electrochemical response. The use of hybrid materials has shown significant improvement in the performance of electrodes.

  15. Handbook of Research on Hybrid Learning Models: Advanced Tools, Technologies, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fu Lee, Ed.; Fong, Joseph, Ed.; Kwan, Reggie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid learning is now the single-greatest trend in education today due to the numerous educational advantages when both traditional classroom learning and e-learning are implemented collectively. This handbook collects emerging research and pedagogies related to the convergence of teaching and learning methods. This significant "Handbook of…

  16. Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Solar Cells with Advanced Antireflection and Back Surface Field Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiling; Yang, Zhenhai; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Yang, Xi; Sheng, Jiang; Wu, Sudong; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO3) is one of most suitable antireflection (AR) layers for silicon/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Si/PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cells due to its well-matched refractive index (2.1). A simulation model was employed to predict the optical characteristics of Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with the MoO3 layers as antireflection coatings (ARCs), as well as to analyze the loss in current density. By adding an optimum thickness of a 34-nm-thick ARC of MoO3 on the front side and an effective rear back surface field (BSF) of phosphorus-diffused N + layer at the rear side, the hybrid cells displayed higher light response in the visible and near infrared regions, boosting a short-circuit current density ( J sc) up to 28.7 mA/cm2. The average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells was thus increased up to 11.90 %, greater than the value of 9.23 % for the reference devices.

  17. A hybrid-Vlasov model based on the current advance method for the simulation of collisionless magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, F. . E-mail: valentin@fis.unical.it; Travnicek, P.; Califano, F.; Hellinger, P.; Mangeney, A.

    2007-07-01

    We present a numerical scheme for the integration of the Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations for a non-relativistic plasma, in the hybrid approximation, where the Vlasov equation is solved for the ion distribution function and the electrons are treated as a fluid. In the Ohm equation for the electric field, effects of electron inertia have been retained, in order to include the small scale dynamics up to characteristic lengths of the order of the electron skin depth. The low frequency approximation is used by neglecting the time derivative of the electric field, i.e. the displacement current in the Ampere equation. The numerical algorithm consists in coupling the splitting method proposed by Cheng and Knorr in 1976 [C.Z. Cheng, G. Knorr, J. Comput. Phys. 22 (1976) 330-351.] and the current advance method (CAM) introduced by Matthews in 1994 [A.P. Matthews, J. Comput. Phys. 112 (1994) 102-116.] In its present version, the code solves the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in a five-dimensional phase space (2-D in the physical space and 3-D in the velocity space) and it is implemented in a parallel version to exploit the computational power of the modern massively parallel supercomputers. The structure of the algorithm and the coupling between the splitting method and the CAM method (extended to the hybrid case) is discussed in detail. Furthermore, in order to test the hybrid-Vlasov code, the numerical results on propagation and damping of linear ion-acoustic modes and time evolution of linear elliptically polarized Alfven waves (including the so-called whistler regime) are compared to the analytical solutions. Finally, the numerical results of the hybrid-Vlasov code on the parametric instability of Alfven waves are compared with those obtained using a two-fluid approach.

  18. Dispersing perylene diimide/SWCNT hybrids: structural insights at the molecular level and fabricating advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Tsarfati, Yael; Strauss, Volker; Kuhri, Susanne; Krieg, Elisha; Weissman, Haim; Shimoni, Eyal; Baram, Jonathan; Guldi, Dirk M; Rybtchinski, Boris

    2015-06-17

    The unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are advantageous for emerging applications. Yet, the CNT insolubility hampers their potential. Approaches based on covalent and noncovalent methodologies have been tested to realize stable dispersions of CNTs. Noncovalent approaches are of particular interest as they preserve the CNT's structures and properties. We report on hybrids, in which perylene diimide (PDI) amphiphiles are noncovalently immobilized onto single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The resulting hybrids were dispersed and exfoliated both in water and organic solvents in the presence of two different PDI derivatives, PP2b and PP3a. The dispersions were investigated using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), providing unique structural insights into the exfoliation. A helical arrangement of PP2b assemblies on SWCNTs dominates in aqueous dispersions, while a single layer of PP2b and PP3a was found on SWCNTs in organic dispersions. The dispersions were probed by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopies, revealing appreciable charge redistribution in the ground state, and an efficient electron transfer from SWCNTs to PDIs in the excited state. We also fabricated hybrid materials from the PP2b/SWCNT dispersions. A supramolecular membrane was prepared from aqueous dispersions and used for size-selective separation of gold nanoparticles. Hybrid buckypaper films were prepared from the organic dispersions. In the latter, high conductivity results from enhanced electronic communication and favorable morphology within the hybrid material. Our findings shed light onto SWCNT/dispersant molecular interactions, and introduce a versatile approach toward universal solution processing of SWCNT-based materials. PMID:25977989

  19. Investigating the role of co-substrate-substrate ratio and filter media on the performance of anammox hybrid reactor treating nitrogen rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Swati; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using the anammox hybrid reactor (AHR), which combines suspended and attached growth media, for the biodegradation of ammonical nitrogen in wastewater. The study was performed in four laboratory-scale AHRs, inoculated with mixed seed culture (1:1). The anammox process was established by feeding the AHR with synthetic wastewater, containing NH(4)-N and NO(2)-N (1:1), at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. The reactors were gradually acclimated to a higher ammonium concentration (1200 mg/l) until the pseudo-steady state was attained. Subsequently, the reactors were operated at various HRTs (0.25-3.0 days) to optimize the HRT and nitrogen loading rate (NLR). The study demonstrated that HRT of 1 day, corresponding to 95.1% of nitrogen removal was optimal. Pearson correlation analysis indicated the strong and positive correlation of HRT and sludge retention time (SRT), whereas the NLR and biomass yield correlated negatively with the nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE). The mass balance of nitrogen showed that a major fraction (79.1%) of the input nitrogen was converted into N2 gas, and 11.25% was utilized in synthesizing the biomass. The filter media in the AHR contributed to an additional 15.4% of ammonium removal and a reduction of 29% in the sludge washout rate. The nitrogen removal kinetics in the AHR followed the modified Stover-Kincannon model, whereas the Lawrence-McCarty model best described the bacterial growth kinetics. The study concludes that the hybrid configuration of the reactor demonstrated promising results and could be suitably applied for industrial applications. PMID:26277220

  20. Advances in analytical methods and occurrence of organic UV-filters in the environment--A review.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sara; Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2015-09-01

    UV-filters are a group of compounds designed mainly to protect skin against UVA and UVB radiation, but they are also included in plastics, furniture, etc., to protect products from light damage. Their massive use in sunscreens for skin protection has been increasing due to the awareness of the chronic and acute effects of UV radiation. Some organic UV-filters have raised significant concerns in the past few years for their continuous usage, persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. UV-filters end up in wastewater and because wastewater treatment plants are not efficient in removing them, lipophilic compounds tend to sorb onto sludge and hydrophilics end up in river water, contaminating the existing biota. To better understand the risk associated with UV-filters in the environment a thorough review regarding their physicochemical properties, toxicity and environmental degradation, analytical methods and their occurrence was conducted. Higher UV-filter concentrations were found in rivers, reaching 0.3mg/L for the most studied family, the benzophenone derivatives. Concentrations in the ng to μg/L range were also detected for the p-aminobenzoic acid, cinnamate, crylene and benzoyl methane derivatives in lake and sea water. Although at lower levels (few ng/L), UV-filters were also found in tap and groundwater. Swimming pool water is also a sink for UV-filters and its chlorine by-products, at the μg/L range, highlighting the benzophenone and benzimidazole derivatives. Soils and sediments are not frequently studied, but concentrations in the μg/L range have already been found especially for the benzophenone and crylene derivatives. Aquatic biota is frequently studied and UV-filters are found in the ng/g-dw range with higher values for fish and mussels. It has been concluded that more information regarding UV-filter degradation studies both in water and sediments is necessary and environmental occurrences should be monitored more

  1. Advanced 3D electromagnetic and particle-in-cell modeling on structured/unstructured hybrid grids

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, D.B.; Pasik, M.F.; Kiefer, M.L.; Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    New techniques have been recently developed that allow unstructured, free meshes to be embedded into standard 3-dimensional, rectilinear, finite-difference time-domain grids. The resulting hybrid-grid modeling capability allows the higher resolution and fidelity of modeling afforded by free meshes to be combined with the simplicity and efficiency of rectilinear techniques. Integration of these new methods into the full-featured, general-purpose QUICKSILVER electromagnetic, Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code provides new modeling capability for a wide variety of electromagnetic and plasma physics problems. To completely exploit the integration of this technology into QUICKSILVER for applications requiring the self-consistent treatment of charged particles, this project has extended existing PIC methods for operation on these hybrid unstructured/rectilinear meshes. Several technical issues had to be addressed in order to accomplish this goal, including the location of particles on the unstructured mesh, adequate conservation of charge, and the proper handling of particles in the transition region between structured and unstructured portions of the hybrid grid.

  2. Hybrid quadrupole mass filter/quadrupole ion trap/time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gulyuz, Kerim; Stedwell, Corey N.; Wang Da; Polfer, Nick C.

    2011-05-15

    We present a laboratory-constructed mass spectrometer optimized for recording infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of mass-selected ions using a benchtop tunable infrared optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/A). The instrument is equipped with two ionization sources, an electrospray ionization source, as well as an electron ionization source for troubleshooting. This hybrid mass spectrometer is composed of a quadrupole mass filter for mass selection, a reduced pressure ({approx}10{sup -5} Torr) quadrupole ion trap (QIT) for OPO irradiation, and a reflectron time-of-flight drift tube for detecting the remaining precursor and photofragment ions. A helium gas pulse is introduced into the QIT to temporarily increase the pressure and hence enhance the trapping efficiency of axially injected ions. After a brief pump-down delay, the compact ion cloud is subjected to the focused output from the continuous wave OPO. In a recent study, we implemented this setup in the study of protonated tryptophan, TrpH{sup +}, as well as collision-induced dissociation products of this protonated amino acid [W. K. Mino, Jr., K. Gulyuz, D. Wang, C. N. Stedwell, and N. C. Polfer, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 299 (2011)]. Here, we give a more detailed account on the figures of merit of such IRMPD experiments. The appreciable photodissociation yields in these measurements demonstrate that IRMPD spectroscopy of covalently bound ions can be routinely carried out using benchtop OPO setups.

  3. Hybrid Modeling for Scenario-Based Evaluation of Failure Effects in Advanced Hardware-Software Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an incremental scenario-based simulation approach to evaluation of intelligent software for control and management of hardware systems. A hybrid continuous/discrete event simulation of the hardware dynamically interacts with the intelligent software in operations scenarios. Embedded anomalous conditions and failures in simulated hardware can lead to emergent software behavior and identification of missing or faulty software or hardware requirements. An approach is described for extending simulation-based automated incremental failure modes and effects analysis, to support concurrent evaluation of intelligent software and the hardware controlled by the software

  4. Advances in hybrid MR-PET at 3 T and 9.4 T in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jon Shah, N.; Mauler, Jörg; Neuner, Irene; Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Romanzetti, Sandro; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Felder, Jörg; Celik, Avdo; Iida, Hidehiro; Langen, Karl-Josef; Herzog, Hans

    2013-02-01

    Hybrid MR-PET data acquisition in simultaneous mode confers a number of advantages at 3 T and 9.4 T. From an MR perspective, the potential for ultra-high resolution structural imaging is discussed and example images of the cerebellum with an isotropic resolution of 320 μm are presented. Further, metabolic imaging is discussed and high-resolution images of the sodium distribution are demonstrated. Examples of tumour imaging on a 3 T MR-PET system are included and discussed.

  5. Effect of gas puffing from different side on lower hybrid wave-plasma coupling in experimental advanced superconductive tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, B. J.; Kong, E. H.; Li, M. H.; Zhang, L.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Wu, J. H.; Xu, G. S.; Wang, M.; Gong, X. Z.; Shan, J. F.; Liu, F. K.; Zhang, T.; Ekedahl, A.; Zhao, H. L.; Collaboration: EAST Team

    2013-10-15

    Effect of gas puffing from electron-side and ion-side on lower hybrid wave (LHW)-plasma is investigated in experimental advanced superconductive tokamak for the first time. Experimental results with different gas flow rates show that electron density at the grill is higher in the case of gas puffing from electron-side; consequently, a lower reflection coefficient is observed, suggesting better effect of puffing from electron-side on LHW-plasma. The difference in edge density between electron- and ion-side cases suggests that local ionization of puffed gas plays a dominant role in affecting the density at the grill due to different movement direction of ionized electrons and that part of gas has been locally ionized near the gas pipe before diffusing into the grill region. Such difference could be enlarged and important in ITER due to the improvement of plasma parameters and LHW power.

  6. Experimental investigation of density behaviors in front of the lower hybrid launcher in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.; Kong, E. H.; Wei, W.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.; Wu, Z. G.; Zhu, L.; Ma, W. D.; Tong, Y. Y.; Li, Y. C.; Wang, M.; Zhao, L. M.; Hu, H. C.; Liu, L.; Collaboration: EAST Team

    2013-06-15

    A triple Langmuir probe is mounted on the top of the Lower Hybrid (LH) antenna to measure the electron density near the LH grills in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. In this work, the LH power density ranges from 2.3 MWm{sup −2} to 10.3 MWm{sup −2} and the rate of puffing gas varies from 1.7 × 10{sup 20} el/s to 14 × 10{sup 20} el/s. The relation between the edge density (from 0.3 × n{sub e-cutoff} to 20 × n{sub e-cutoff}, where n{sub e-cutoff} is the cutoff density, n{sub e-cutoff} = 0.74 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3} for 2.45 GHz lower hybrid current drive) near the LH grill and the LH power reflection coefficients is investigated. The factors, including the gap between the LH grills and the last closed magnetic flux surface, line-averaged density, LH power, edge safety factor, and gas puffing, are analyzed. The experiments show that injection of LH power is beneficial for increasing edge density. Gas puffing is beneficial for increasing grill density but excess gas puffing is unfavorable for coupling and current drive.

  7. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  8. Evaluating Multiplexed Quantitative Phosphopeptide Analysis on a Hybrid Quadrupole Mass Filter/Linear Ion Trap/Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As a driver for many biological processes, phosphorylation remains an area of intense research interest. Advances in multiplexed quantitation utilizing isobaric tags (e.g., TMT and iTRAQ) have the potential to create a new paradigm in quantitative proteomics. New instrumentation and software are propelling these multiplexed workflows forward, which results in more accurate, sensitive, and reproducible quantitation across tens of thousands of phosphopeptides. This study assesses the performance of multiplexed quantitative phosphoproteomics on the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer. Utilizing a two-phosphoproteome model of precursor ion interference, we assessed the accuracy of phosphopeptide quantitation across a variety of experimental approaches. These methods included the use of synchronous precursor selection (SPS) to enhance TMT reporter ion intensity and accuracy. We found that (i) ratio distortion remained a problem for phosphopeptide analysis in multiplexed quantitative workflows, (ii) ratio distortion can be overcome by the use of an SPS-MS3 scan, (iii) interfering ions generally possessed a different charge state than the target precursor, and (iv) selecting only the phosphate neutral loss peak (single notch) for the MS3 scan still provided accurate ratio measurements. Remarkably, these data suggest that the underlying cause of interference may not be due to coeluting and cofragmented peptides but instead from consistent, low level background fragmentation. Finally, as a proof-of-concept 10-plex experiment, we compared phosphopeptide levels from five murine brains to five livers. In total, the SPS-MS3 method quantified 38 247 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 11 000 phosphorylation sites. With 10 measurements recorded for each phosphopeptide, this equates to more than 628 000 binary comparisons collected in less than 48 h. PMID:25521595

  9. Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-30

    Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

  10. Hybrid ZnO NR/graphene structures as advanced optoelectronic devices with high transmittance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid structure (HS) made of one-dimensional ZnO nanorods (NRs) and a two-dimensional synthesized graphene sheet was successfully constructed in this study. The uniform ZnO NRs were obtained by hydrothermal method and grown on a graphene surface that had been transferred to a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The HS exhibited high transmittance (approximately 75%) over the visible wavelength range, even after cyclic bending with a small radius of curvature. Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurement were carried out to verify the chemical composition and electrical properties of the structure. Stable electrical conductance of the ZnO NR/graphene HS was achieved, and increase in carrier mobility decreased the resistance of the ZnO-with-graphene sheet in comparison with bare ZnO NRs. PMID:23937804

  11. Evaluation of advanced microelectronic fluxless solder-bump contacts for hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandal, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    Technology for interconnecting monolithic integrated circuit chips with other components is investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of the current flip-chip approach as compared to other interconnection methods are outlined. A fluxless solder-bump contact technology is evaluated. Multiple solder-bump contacts were formed on silicon integrated circuit chips. The solder-bumps, comprised of a rigid nickel under layer and a compliant solder overlayer, were electroformed onto gold device pads with the aid of thick dry film photomasks. Different solder alloys and the use of conductive epoxy for bonding were explored. Fluxless solder-bump bond quality and reliability were evaluated by measuring the effects of centrifuge, thermal cycling, and high temperature storage on bond visual characteristics, bond electrical continuity, and bond shear tests. The applicability and suitability of this technology for hybrid microelectronic packaging is discussed.

  12. Advanced design of valve-regulated lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Newnham, R. H.; Ozgun, H.; Fleming, F. A.

    A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge (PSoC)/fast-charge, electric-vehicle operation. The improvements in performance are attributed to more uniform utilization of the plate active-materials. The battery, combined with an internal-combustion engine and a new type of supercapacitor, will be used to power an HEV, which is being designed and constructed by an Australian industry-government consortium.

  13. Advanced Power Conversion Efficiency in Inventive Plasma for Hybrid Toroidal Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hançerlioğullari, Aybaba; Cini, Mesut; Güdal, Murat

    2013-08-01

    Apex hybrid reactor has a good potential to utilize uranium and thorium fuels in the future. This toroidal reactor is a type of system that facilitates the occurrence of the nuclear fusion and fission events together. The most important feature of hybrid reactor is that the first wall surrounding the plasma is liquid. The advantages of utilizing a liquid wall are high power density capacity good power transformation productivity, the magnitude of the reactor's operational duration, low failure percentage, short maintenance time and the inclusion of the system's simple technology and material. The analysis has been made using the MCNP Monte Carlo code and ENDF/B-V-VI nuclear data. Around the fusion chamber, molten salts Flibe (LI2BeF4), lead-lithium (PbLi), Li-Sn, thin-lityum (Li20Sn80) have used as cooling materials. APEX reactor has modeled in the torus form by adding nuclear materials of low significance in the specified percentages between 0 and 12 % to the molten salts. In this study, the neutronic performance of the APEX fusion reactor using various molten salts has been investigated. The nuclear parameters of Apex reactor has been searched for Flibe (LI2BeF4) and Li-Sn, for blanket layers. In case of usage of the Flibe (LI2BeF4), PbLi, and thin-lityum (Li20Sn80) salt solutions at APEX toroidal reactors, fissile material production per source neutron, tritium production speed, total fission rate, energy reproduction factor has been calculated, the results obtained for both salt solutions are compared.

  14. Development of Computational Approaches for Simulation and Advanced Controls for Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Abhinaya; Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl; Chaudry, Majid; Quinn, Joseph

    2012-07-31

    This document provides the results of the project through September 2009. The Phase I project has recently been extended from September 2009 to March 2011. The project extension will begin work on Chemical Looping (CL) Prototype modeling and advanced control design exploration in preparation for a scale-up phase. The results to date include: successful development of dual loop chemical looping process models and dynamic simulation software tools, development and test of several advanced control concepts and applications for Chemical Looping transport control and investigation of several sensor concepts and establishment of two feasible sensor candidates recommended for further prototype development and controls integration. There are three sections in this summary and conclusions. Section 1 presents the project scope and objectives. Section 2 highlights the detailed accomplishments by project task area. Section 3 provides conclusions to date and recommendations for future work.

  15. Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  16. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  17. Recent advances in the US Department of Energy's energy storage technology research and development programs for hybrid electric and electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstock, Irwin B.

    This paper provides an overview of recent advances in battery technology resulting from the Department of Energy's (DOE's) energy storage research and development (R&D) programs for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electrical vehicles (EVs). The DOE's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) is working with industry, national laboratories, universities, and other government agencies to develop technologies that will lead to a reduction in the petroleum used and the emissions generated by the transportation sector. The programs reviewed in this paper are focused on accelerating the development of energy storage technologies that are critical for the commercialization of HEVs and EV. These include the research conducted at DOE's national laboratories to develop the high-power batteries needed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and the collaborative research with the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to develop the high-energy batteries needed for EVs.

  18. Pilot study on the advanced treatment of landfill leachate using a combined coagulation, fenton oxidation and biological aerated filter process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Sili; Gu, Xiaoyang; Wang, Kaiyan

    2009-04-01

    Mature landfill leachate is typically non-biodegradable. A combination process was developed that includes coagulation, Fenton oxidation, and biological aerated filtering to treat biologically-produced effluent. In this process, coagulation and Fenton oxidation were applied in order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) organic load, and enhance biodegradability. Poly-ferric sulfate (PFS) at 600 mgl(-1) was found to be a suitable dosage for coagulation. For Fenton oxidation, an initial pH of 5, a total reaction time of 3h, and an H(2)O(2) dosage of 5.4mmoll(-1), with a (H(2)O(2))/n(Fe(2+)) ratio of 1.2 and two-step dosing were selected to achieve optimal oxidation. Under these optimal coagulation and Fenton oxidation conditions, the COD removal ratios were found to be 66.67% and 56%, respectively. Following pretreatment with coagulation and Fenton oxidation, the landfill leachate was further treated using a biological aerated filter (BAF). Our results show that COD was reduced to 75mgl(-1), and the color was less than 10 degrees. PMID:19081237

  19. Advances in Ovonic nickel metal hydride batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, P.R.; Fetcenko, M.A.; Venkatesan, S.; Corrigan, D.A.; Holland, A.; Dhar, S.K.; Ovshinsky, S.R.

    1994-12-31

    Electric vehicle (EV) technology has been limited by the availability of suitable battery technology to provide the required vehicle range and performance at acceptable cost. Ovonic Battery Co. has developed a proprietary nickel metal hydride battery that provides the required advances in battery technology. This technology is based on the application of multi-element, multi-phase hydride alloys developed for use as negative electrode materials. Ovonic batteries have demonstrated high energy and power density, long cycle life, excellent overcharge and overdischarge tolerance, and wide operating temperature range. An overview of cell and battery performance is presented as well as results discussed for EVs powered by Ovonic batteries. 20 refs.

  20. Simulation of the hybrid Tunka Advanced International Gamma-ray and Cosmic ray Astrophysics (TAIGA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunnas, M.; Astapov, I.; Barbashina, N.; Beregnev, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Bogorodskii, D.; Boreyko, V.; Brückner, M.; Budnev, N.; Chiavassa, A.; Chvalaev, O.; Dyachok, A.; Epimakhov, S.; Eremin, T.; Gafarov, A.; Gorbunov, N.; Grebenyuk, V.; Gress, O.; Gress, T.; Grinyuk, A.; Grishin, O.; Horns, D.; Ivanova, A.; Karpov, N.; Kalmykov, N.; Kazarina, Y.; Kindin, V.; Kirichkov, N.; Kiryuhin, S.; Kokoulin, R.; Kompaniets, K.; Konstantinov, E.; Korobchenko, A.; Korosteleva, E.; Kozhin, V.; Kuzmichev, L.; Lenok, V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lubsandorzhiev, N.; Mirgazov, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Monkhoev, R.; Nachtigall, R.; Pakhorukov, A.; Panasyuk, M.; Pankov, L.; Perevalov, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Platonov, V.; Poleschuk, V.; Popescu, M.; Popova, E.; Porelli, A.; Porokhovoy, S.; Prosin, V.; Ptuskin, V.; Romanov, V.; Rubtsov, G. I.; Müger; Rybov, E.; Samoliga, V.; Satunin, P.; Saunkin, A.; Savinov, V.; Semeney, Yu; Shaibonov (junior, B.; Silaev, A.; Silaev (junior, A.; Skurikhin, A.; Slunecka, M.; Spiering, C.; Sveshnikova, L.; Tabolenko, V.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Tluczykont, M.; Veslopopov, A.; Veslopopova, E.; Voronov, D.; Wischnewski, R.; Yashin, I.; Yurin, K.; Zagorodnikov, A.; Zirakashvili, V.; Zurbanov, V.

    2015-08-01

    Up to several 10s of TeV, Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) have proven to be the instruments of choice for GeV/TeV gamma-ray astronomy due to their good reconstrucion quality and gamma-hadron separation power. However, sensitive observations at and above 100 TeV require very large effective areas (10 km2 and more), which is difficult and expensive to achieve. The alternative to IACTs are shower front sampling arrays (non-imaging technique or timing-arrays) with a large area and a wide field of view. Such experiments provide good core position, energy and angular resolution, but only poor gamma-hadron separation. Combining both experimental approaches, using the strengths of both techniques, could optimize the sensitivity to the highest energies. The TAIGA project plans to combine the non-imaging HiSCORE [8] array with small (∼10m2) imaging telescopes. This paper covers simulation results of this hybrid approach.

  1. Development and operation of a hybrid acid-alkaline advanced water electrolysis cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschke, O.; Zwanziger, M.

    A hybrid acid-alkaline water electrolysis cell has been developed for hydrogen production. The cell is based on the use of an acidic solution at the cathode and a basic solution at the anode to reduce the minimum theoretical voltage for water decomposition from the thermoneutral potential of 1.47 V to close to 1.4 V at 25 C and 1 atm. The pH differential is maintained by the removal of OH ions from the cathode section and water removal from the anode section, which can be driven by heat energy. A practical cell has been built using a solid polymer electrolyte in which, however, the cathodic compartment is not acidic but neutral. Tests with a platinum black cathode catalyst and a platinum-iridium anode catalyst have resulted in steady-state water hydrolysis at an applied voltage of 0.9 V, and a V-I diagram with a considerably lower slope than that of a conventional cell has been obtained at 90 C.

  2. Investigation of lower hybrid wave coupling and current drive experiments at different configurations in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, B. J.; Qin, Y. L.; Li, W. K.; Li, M. H.; Kong, E. H.; Zhang, L.; Wang, M.; Xu, H. D.; Hu, H. C.; Xu, G. S.; Shan, J. F.; Liu, F. K.; Zhao, Y. P.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Group, EAST; Ekedahl, A.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.

    2011-08-15

    Using a 2 MW 2.45 GHz lower hybrid wave (LHW) system installed in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak, we have systematically carried out LHW-plasma coupling and lower hybrid current drive experiments in both divertor (double null and lower single null) and limiter plasma configuration with plasma current (I{sub p}) {approx} 250 kA and central line averaged density (n{sub e}) {approx} 1.0-1.3 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} recently. Results show that the reflection coefficient (RC) first is flat up to some distance between plasma and LHW grill, and then increases with the distance. Studies indicate that with the same plasma parameters, the best coupling is obtained in the limiter case (with plasma leaning on the inner wall), followed by the lower single null, and the one with the worst coupling is the double null configuration, explained by different magnetic connection length. The RCs in the different poloidal rows show that they have different coupling characteristics, possibly due to local magnetic connection length. Current drive efficiency has been investigated by a least squares fit with N{sub //}{sup peak}=2.1, where N{sub //}{sup peak} is the peak value of parallel refractive index of the launched wave. Results show that there is no obvious difference in the current drive efficiency between double null and lower single null cases, whereas the efficiency is somewhat small in the limiter configuration. This is in agreement with the ray tracing/Fokker-Planck code simulation by LUKE/C3PO and can be interpreted by the power spectrum up-shift factor in different plasma configurations. A transformer recharge is realized with {approx}0.8 MW LHW power and the energy conversion efficiency from LHW to poloidal field energy is about 2%.

  3. Investigation of lower hybrid wave coupling and current drive experiments at different configurations in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B. J.; Qin, Y. L.; Li, W. K.; Li, M. H.; Kong, E. H.; Zhang, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Wang, M.; Xu, H. D.; Hu, H. C.; Xu, G. S.; Shan, J. F.; Liu, F. K.; Zhao, Y. P.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Group, EAST

    2011-08-01

    Using a 2 MW 2.45 GHz lower hybrid wave (LHW) system installed in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak, we have systematically carried out LHW-plasma coupling and lower hybrid current drive experiments in both divertor (double null and lower single null) and limiter plasma configuration with plasma current (Ip) ˜ 250 kA and central line averaged density (ne) ˜ 1.0-1.3 × 1019 m-3 recently. Results show that the reflection coefficient (RC) first is flat up to some distance between plasma and LHW grill, and then increases with the distance. Studies indicate that with the same plasma parameters, the best coupling is obtained in the limiter case (with plasma leaning on the inner wall), followed by the lower single null, and the one with the worst coupling is the double null configuration, explained by different magnetic connection length. The RCs in the different poloidal rows show that they have different coupling characteristics, possibly due to local magnetic connection length. Current drive efficiency has been investigated by a least squares fit with N//peak=2.1, where N//peak is the peak value of parallel refractive index of the launched wave. Results show that there is no obvious difference in the current drive efficiency between double null and lower single null cases, whereas the efficiency is somewhat small in the limiter configuration. This is in agreement with the ray tracing/Fokker-Planck code simulation by LUKE/C3PO and can be interpreted by the power spectrum up-shift factor in different plasma configurations. A transformer recharge is realized with ˜0.8 MW LHW power and the energy conversion efficiency from LHW to poloidal field energy is about 2%.

  4. Design, analysis, operation, and advanced control of hybrid renewable energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, Zachary S.

    Because using non-renewable energy systems (e.g., coal-powered co-generation power plants) to generate electricity is an unsustainable, environmentally hazardous practice, it is important to develop cost-effective and reliable renewable energy systems, such as photovoltaics (PVs), wind turbines (WTs), and fuel cells (FCs). Non-renewable energy systems, however, are currently less expensive than individual renewable energy systems (IRESs). Furthermore, IRESs based on intermittent natural resources (e.g., solar irradiance and wind) are incapable of meeting continuous energy demands. Such shortcomings can be mitigated by judiciously combining two or more complementary IRESs to form a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES). Although previous research efforts focused on the design, operation, and control of HRESs has proven useful, no prior HRES research endeavor has taken a systematic and comprehensive approach towards establishing guidelines by which HRESs should be designed, operated, and controlled. The overall goal of this dissertation, therefore, is to establish the principles governing the design, operation, and control of HRESs resulting in cost-effective and reliable energy solutions for stationary and mobile applications. To achieve this goal, we developed and demonstrated four separate HRES principles. Rational selection of HRES type: HRES components and their sizes should be rationally selected using knowledge of component costs, availability of renewable energy resources, and expected power demands of the application. HRES design: by default, the components of a HRES should be arranged in parallel for increased efficiency and reliability. However, a series HRES design may be preferred depending on the operational considerations of the HRES components. HRES control strategy selection: the choice of HRES control strategy depends on the dynamics of HRES components, their operational considerations, and the practical limitations of the HRES end-use. HRES data

  5. Parabolic Flight Investigation for Advanced Exercise Concept Hardware Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, A. S.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Sheehan, C. C.; Humphreys, B. T.; Perusek, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Long-duration space flight poses many hazards to the health of the crew. Among those hazards is the physiological deconditioning of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems due to prolonged exposure to microgravity. To combat this erosion of physical condition space flight may take on the crew, the Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with developing Advanced Exercise Concepts to maintain astronaut health and fitness during long-term missions, while keeping device mass, power, and volume to a minimum. The goal of this effort is to preserve the physical capability of the crew to perform mission critical tasks in transit and during planetary surface operations. The HULK is a pneumatic-based exercise system, which provides both resistive and aerobic modes to protect against human deconditioning in microgravity. Its design targeted the International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) high level performance characteristics and provides up to 600 foot pounds resitive loading with the capability to allow for eccentric to concentric (E:C) ratios of higher than 1:1 through a DC motor assist component. The device's rowing mode allows for high cadence aerobic activity. The HULK parabolic flight campaign, conducted through the NASA Flight Opportunities Program at Ellington Field, resulted in the creation of device specific data sets including low fidelity motion capture, accelerometry and both inline and ground reaction forces. These data provide a critical link in understanding how to vibration isolate the device in both ISS and space transit applications. Secondarily, the study of human exercise and associated body kinematics in microgravity allows for more complete understanding of human to machine interface designs to allow for maximum functionality of the device in microgravity.

  6. Westinghouse filter update

    SciTech Connect

    Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC), with Westinghouse are developing high temperature particulate filters for application in integrated, coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power generation systems. Development of these IGCC and PFBC advanced power cycles using subpilot and pilot scale facilities include the integrated operation of a high temperature particulate filter. This testing provides the basis for evaluating filter design, performance and operation characteristics in the actual process gas environment. This operating data is essential for the specification of components and materials and successful scaleup of the filter systems for demonstration and commercial application.

  7. Advances in multi-megawatt lower hybrid technology in support of steady-state tokamak operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpech, L.; Achard, J.; Armitano, A.; Artaud, J. F.; Bae, Y. S.; Belo, J. H.; Berger-By, G.; Bouquey, F.; Cho, M. H.; Corbel, E.; Decker, J.; Do, H.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Garibaldi, P.; Goniche, M.; Guilhem, D.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, G. T.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, H.; Kwak, J. G.; Magne, R.; Mollard, P.; Na, Y. S.; Namkung, W.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, S.; Park, H.; Peysson, Y.; Poli, S.; Prou, M.; Samaille, F.; Yang, H. L.; The Tore Supra Team

    2014-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) systems play a crucial role for steady-state tokamak operation, owing to their high current drive (CD) efficiency and hence their capability to reduce flux consumption. This paper describes the extensive technology programmes developed for the Tore Supra (France) and the KSTAR (Korea) tokamaks in order to bring continuous wave (CW) LHCD systems into operation. The Tore Supra LHCD generator at 3.7 GHz is fully CW compatible, with RF power PRF = 9.2 MW available at the generator to feed two actively water-cooled launchers. On Tore Supra, the most recent and novel passive active multijunction (PAM) launcher has sustained 2.7 MW (corresponding to its design value of 25 MW m-2 at the launcher mouth) for a 78 s flat-top discharge, with low reflected power even at large plasma-launcher gaps. The fully active multijunction (FAM) launcher has reached 3.8 MW of coupled power (24 MW m-2 at the launcher mouth) with the new TH2103C klystrons. By combining both the PAM and FAM launchers, 950 MJ of energy, using 5.2 MW of LHCD and 1 MW of ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating), was injected for 160 s in 2011. The 3.7 GHz CW LHCD system will be a key element within the W (for tungsten) environment in steady-state Tokamak (WEST) project, where the aim is to test ITER technologies for high heat flux components in relevant heat flux density and particle fluence conditions. On KSTAR, a 2 MW LHCD system operating at 5 GHz is under development. Recently the 5 GHz prototype klystron has reached 500 kW/600 s on a matched load, and studies are ongoing to design a PAM launcher. In addition to the studies of technology, a combination of ray-tracing and Fokker-Planck calculations have been performed to evaluate the driven current and the power deposition due to LH waves, and to optimize the N∥ spectrum for the future launcher design. Furthermore, an LHCD system at 5 GHz is being considered for a future upgrade of the ITER

  8. SpaceCube 2.0: An Advanced Hybrid Onboard Data Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Michael; Flatley, Thomas; Godfrey, John; Geist, Alessandro; Espinosa, Daniel; Petrick, David

    2011-01-01

    The SpaceCube 2.0 is a compact, high performance, low-power onboard processing system that takes advantage of cutting-edge hybrid (CPU/FPGA/DSP) processing elements. The SpaceCube 2.0 design concept includes two commercial Virtex-5 field-programmable gate array (FPGA) parts protected by gradiation hardened by software" technology, and possesses exceptional size, weight, and power characteristics [5x5x7 in., 3.5 lb (approximately equal to 12.7 x 12.7 x 17.8 cm, 1.6 kg) 5-25 W, depending on the application fs required clock rate]. The two Virtex-5 FPGA parts are implemented in a unique back-toback configuration to maximize data transfer and computing performance. Draft computing power specifications for the SpaceCube 2.0 unit include four PowerPC 440s (1100 DMIPS each), 500+ DSP48Es (2x580 GMACS), 100+ LVDS high-speed serial I/Os (1.25 Gbps each), and 2x190 GFLOPS single-precision (65 GFLOPS double-precision) floating point performance. The SpaceCube 2.0 includes PROM memory for CPU boot, health and safety, and basic command and telemetry functionality; RAM memory for program execution; and FLASH/EEPROM memory to store algorithms and application code for the CPU, FPGA, and DSP processing elements. Program execution can be reconfigured in real time and algorithms can be updated, modified, and/or replaced at any point during the mission. Gigabit Ethernet, Spacewire, SATA and highspeed LVDS serial/parallel I/O channels are available for instrument/sensor data ingest, and mission-unique instrument interfaces can be accommodated using a compact PCI (cPCI) expansion card interface. The SpaceCube 2.0 can be utilized in NASA Earth Science, Helio/Astrophysics and Exploration missions, and Department of Defense satellites for onboard data processing. It can also be used in commercial communication and mapping satellites.

  9. Stack filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, P. D.; Coyle, E. J.; Gallagher, N. C., Jr.

    1986-08-01

    A large class of easily implemented nonlinear filters called stack filters are discussed which includes the rank order operators in addition to the compositions of morphological operators. Techniques similar to those used to determine the root signal behavior of median filters are employed to study the convergence properties of the filters, and necessary conditions for a stack filter to preserve monotone regions or edges in signals, and the output distribution of the filters, are obtained. Among the stack filters of window width three are found asymmetric median filters in which one removes only positive going edges, the other removes only negative going edges, while the median filter removes impulses of both signs.

  10. U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper

  11. Bayesian inference of decomposition rate of soil organic carbon using a turnover model and a hybrid method of particle filter and MH algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, G.; Jomura, M.; Yonemura, S.; Iizumi, T.; Shirato, Y.; Yokozawa, M.

    2010-12-01

    The soils of terrestrial ecosystems accumulate large amounts of carbon and the response of soil organic carbon (SOC) to global warming is of great concern in projections of future carbon cycling. While many theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that the decomposition rates of soil organic matters depend upon the physical and chemical conditions, land managements and so on, there has not yet been consensus in the dependencies. Most of the soil carbon turnover models for describing the SOC dynamics do not assume the differences in decomposition rates. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the decomposition rates of SOC based on a soil carbon turnover model, RothC, which describes SOC dynamics dividing it into compartments with different decomposition rates. In this study, reflecting that decomposition rate could change with time due to the fertility management in arable land, we used time-dependent Bayesian inference methods to allow time-change variation of the parameters. Thus, we used a hybrid method of particle filtering methods and MH algorithm. We applied this method to datasets obtained from three long-term experiments on time changes in total SOC at five sites over the Japan mainland. For each dataset, three treatments were examined: no N applied, chemical fertilizer applied, and chemical fertilizer and farmyard manure applied. We estimated parameters on the temperature and water dependent functions as well as the intrinsic decomposition rate for each compartment of RothC and for each treatment. As a result, it was shown that the temperature dependencies tended to decreased with the decomposability of the compartment, i.e. lower temperature dependency for more recalcitrant compartment of the model. On the other hand, the water dependencies were not determined with the SOC turnover rates of the compartments. Additionally, the intrinsic decomposition rates tended to increase with time especially in no N applied treatment. This result reflects

  12. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2015-09-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of an innovative two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, the beam is compressed with an advanced velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a conventional magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch to a notable factor of 100 while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  13. A hybrid method for damage detection and quantification in advanced X-COR composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neerukatti, Rajesh Kumar; Rajadas, Abhishek; Borkowski, Luke; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Huff, Daniel W.

    2016-04-01

    Advanced composite structures, such as foam core carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites, are increasingly being used in applications which require high strength, high in-plane and flexural stiffness, and low weight. However, the presence of in situ damage due to manufacturing defects and/or service conditions can complicate the failure mechanisms and compromise their strength and reliability. In this paper, the capability of detecting damages such as delaminations and foam-core separations in X-COR composite structures using non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques is investigated. Two NDE techniques, flash thermography and low frequency ultrasonics, were used to detect and quantify the damage size and locations. Macro fiber composites (MFCs) were used as actuators and sensors to study the interaction of Lamb waves with delaminations and foam-core separations. The results indicate that both flash thermography and low frequency ultrasonics were capable of detecting damage in X-COR sandwich structures, although low frequency ultrasonic methods were capable of detecting through thickness damages more accurately than flash thermography. It was also observed that the presence of foam-core separations significantly changes the wave behavior when compared to delamination, which complicates the use of wave based SHM techniques. Further, a wave propagation model was developed to model the wave interaction with damages at different locations on the X-COR sandwich plate.

  14. A Hybrid-Cloud Science Data System Enabling Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis for Monitoring Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Yun, S.; Lundgren, P.; Moore, A. W.; Fielding, E. J.; Radulescu, C.; Sacco, G.; Stough, T. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Cervelli, P. F.; Poland, M. P.; Cruz, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions, landslides, and levee failures are some examples of hazards that can be more accurately forecasted with sufficient monitoring of precursory ground deformation, such as the high-resolution measurements from GPS and InSAR. In addition, coherence and reflectivity change maps can be used to detect surface change due to lava flows, mudslides, tornadoes, floods, and other natural and man-made disasters. However, it is difficult for many volcano observatories and other monitoring agencies to process GPS and InSAR products in an automated scenario needed for continual monitoring of events. Additionally, numerous interoperability barriers exist in multi-sensor observation data access, preparation, and fusion to create actionable products. Combining high spatial resolution InSAR products with high temporal resolution GPS products--and automating this data preparation & processing across global-scale areas of interests--present an untapped science and monitoring opportunity. The global coverage offered by satellite-based SAR observations, and the rapidly expanding GPS networks, can provide orders of magnitude more data on these hazardous events if we have a data system that can efficiently and effectively analyze the voluminous raw data, and provide users the tools to access data from their regions of interest. Currently, combined GPS & InSAR time series are primarily generated for specific research applications, and are not implemented to run on large-scale continuous data sets and delivered to decision-making communities. We are developing an advanced service-oriented architecture for hazard monitoring leveraging NASA-funded algorithms and data management to enable both science and decision-making communities to monitor areas of interests via seamless data preparation, processing, and distribution. Our objectives: * Enable high-volume and low-latency automatic generation of NASA Solid Earth science data products (InSAR and GPS) to support hazards

  15. Realisation and advanced engineering of true optical rugate filters based on nanoporous anodic alumina by sinusoidal pulse anodisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Abel; Yoo, Jeong Ha; Rohatgi, Charu Vashisth; Kumeria, Tushar; Wang, Ye; Losic, Dusan

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic mode is used with the aim of engineering the effective medium of NAA in a sinusoidal fashion. A precise control over the different anodisation parameters (i.e. anodisation period, anodisation amplitude, anodisation offset, number of pulses, anodisation temperature and pore widening time) makes it possible to engineer the characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours of NAA-RFs, which can be finely tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. The effect of the aforementioned anodisation parameters on the photonic properties of NAA-RFs (i.e. characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours) is systematically assessed in order to establish for the first time a comprehensive rationale towards NAA-RFs with fully controllable photonic properties. The experimental results are correlated with a theoretical model (Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz - LLL), demonstrating that the effective medium of these photonic nanostructures can be precisely described by the effective medium approximation. NAA-RFs are also demonstrated as chemically selective photonic platforms combined with reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS). The resulting optical sensing system is used to assess the reversible binding affinity between a model drug (i.e. indomethacin) and human serum albumin (HSA) in real-time. Our results demonstrate that this system can be used to determine the overall pharmacokinetic profile of drugs, which is a critical aspect to be considered for the implementation of efficient medical therapies.This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic

  16. Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

    2002-09-18

    The currently preferred means of particulate removal from process or combustion gas generated by advanced coal-based power production processes is filtration with candle filters. However, candle filters have not shown the requisite reliability to be commercially viable for hot gas clean up for either integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) or pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) processes. Even a single candle failure can lead to unacceptable ash breakthrough, which can result in (a) damage to highly sensitive and expensive downstream equipment, (b) unacceptably low system on-stream factor, and (c) unplanned outages. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need to have fail-safe devices installed within or downstream from candle filters. In addition to CeraMem, DOE has contracted with Siemens-Westinghouse, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, and the Southern Research Institute (SRI) to develop novel fail-safe devices. Siemens-Westinghouse is evaluating honeycomb-based filter devices on the clean-side of the candle filter that can operate up to 870 C. The EERC is developing a highly porous ceramic disk with a sticky yet temperature-stable coating that will trap dust in the event of filter failure. SRI is developing the Full-Flow Mechanical Safeguard Device that provides a positive seal for the candle filter. Operation of the SRI device is triggered by the higher-than-normal gas flow from a broken candle. The CeraMem approach is similar to that of Siemens-Westinghouse and involves the development of honeycomb-based filters that operate on the clean-side of a candle filter. The overall objective of this project is to fabricate and test silicon carbide-based honeycomb failsafe filters for protection of downstream equipment in advanced coal conversion processes. The fail-safe filter, installed directly downstream of a candle filter, should have the capability for stopping essentially all particulate

  17. A recursive solution for a fading memory filter derived from Kalman filter theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.

    1986-01-01

    A simple recursive solution for a class of fading memory tracking filters is presented. A fading memory filter provides estimates of filter states based on past measurements, similar to a traditional Kalman filter. Unlike a Kalman filter, an exponentially decaying weight is applied to older measurements, discounting their effect on present state estimates. It is shown that Kalman filters and fading memory filters are closely related solutions to a general least squares estimator problem. Closed form filter transfer functions are derived for a time invariant, steady state, fading memory filter. These can be applied in loop filter implementation of the Deep Space Network (DSN) Advanced Receiver carrier phase locked loop (PLL).

  18. Integrating Remote Sensing Data, Hybrid-Cloud Computing, and Event Notifications for Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Yun, S.; Lundgren, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Agram, P.; Manipon, G.; Stough, T. M.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Wilson, B. D.; Poland, M. P.; Cervelli, P. F.; Cruz, J.

    2013-12-01

    Space-based geodetic measurement techniques such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) are now important elements in our toolset for monitoring earthquake-generating faults, volcanic eruptions, hurricane damage, landslides, reservoir subsidence, and other natural and man-made hazards. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation with high spatial and temporal resolution has revolutionized both earthquake science and volcanology. Continuous monitoring of surface deformation and surface change before, during, and after natural hazards improves decision-making from better forecasts, increased situational awareness, and more informed recovery. However, analyses of InSAR and GPS data sets are currently handcrafted following events and are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for use in operational response to natural disasters. Additionally, the sheer data volumes needed to handle a continuous stream of InSAR data sets also presents a bottleneck. It has been estimated that continuous processing of InSAR coverage of California alone over 3-years would reach PB-scale data volumes. Our Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis for Monitoring Hazards (ARIA-MH) science data system enables both science and decision-making communities to monitor areas of interest with derived geodetic data products via seamless data preparation, processing, discovery, and access. We will present our findings on the use of hybrid-cloud computing to improve the timely processing and delivery of geodetic data products, integrating event notifications from USGS to improve the timely processing for response, as well as providing browse results for quick looks with other tools for integrative analysis.

  19. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  20. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  1. Implementation of an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control system using PAT tools into a direct compaction continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravendra; Sahay, Abhishek; Karry, Krizia M; Muzzio, Fernando; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2014-10-01

    It is desirable for a pharmaceutical final dosage form to be manufactured through a quality by design (QbD)-based approach rather than a quality by testing (QbT) approach. An automatic feedback control system coupled with PAT tools that is part of the QbD paradigm shift, has the potential to ensure that the pre-defined end product quality attributes are met in a time and cost efficient manner. In this work, an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control architecture coupled with real time inline/online monitoring tools and principal components analysis (PCA) based additional supervisory control layer has been proposed for a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process. The advantages of both MPC and PID have been utilized in a hybrid scheme. The control hardware and software integration and implementation of the control system has been demonstrated using feeders and blending unit operation of a continuous tablet manufacturing pilot plant and an NIR based PAT tool. The advanced hybrid MPC-PID control scheme leads to enhanced control loop performance of the critical quality attributes in comparison to a regulatory (e.g. PID) control scheme indicating its potential to improve pharmaceutical product quality. PMID:24974987

  2. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  3. Advanced PV/PC HgCdTe hybrid IRFPA for satellite-based high-resolution multispectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, James H., Jr.; Jungkman, Dave; Stobie, James A.; Krueger, Eric E.; Krueger, M.; Garnett, James D.; Reine, Marion B.; Denley, Brian; Kleinmann, Douglas E.; Gurnee, Mark N.

    1995-09-01

    AIRS is a key facility instrument on the first post meridian platform as part of NASA'a Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder measurement technique is based on passive IR remote sensing using a high spectral resolution grating spectrometer. The structure of the infrared focal plane for the AIRS instrument has been defined and is presented in this paper. The optical footprint of 8.1 mm by 36.3 mm along with the necessary support and interface components leads to a focal plane assembly of 53 mm by 66 mm, the largest ever built at LIRIS. With 4208 diodes and 274 photoconductors in the same focal plane to achieve the wide spectral coverage from 3.7 to 15.4 micrometers , a modular approach is required. Ten PV modules utilize silicon readout integrated circuits (ROICs) joined to the detector arrays as either direct or indirect hybrids while two PC modules cover the 13.7 to 15.4 mm range, optically chopped and led out to uncooled preamplifiers. The simultaneous operation of PV and PC devices in the same focal plane has required unique approaches to shielding, ROIC output design and lead routing. High D*'s of 7E14 and 3E11 cm- Hz1/2/W are needed to meet the sensitivity requirements of the 4.2 and 15.0 micrometers regions respectively. The 35 micrometers by 800 micrometers PC detectors on a 50 micrometers pitch have necessitated modifications to standard delineation techniques, while the MW performance is nearly D* BLIP for PV devices. Dispersed energy is presented to the modules through 17 narrow band filters packaged into a single precision assembly mounted within 0.18-0.25 mm of the focal plane surface. The more than 50 components comprising the focal plane in conjunction with the tightly spaced optical pattern presented by the grating add a high degree of complexity to the assembly process. This paper focuses on the architectural constraints derived from performance, interface, and reliability requirements. Key aspects of these

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE MAIZE BAC LIBRARIES AND ANCHORING OF THE PHYSICAL MAP TO THE GENETIC MAP USING HIGH-DENSITY BAC FILTER HYBRIDIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three maize (Zea mays L.) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, HindIII, EcoRI and MboI, were constructed from inbred line B73 to minimize under-representation of certain genomic regions caused by the use of a single restriction enzyme library. High-density filter sets from all three lib...

  5. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Metallic Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Filtration technology originated in a mid 1960's NASA study. The results were distributed to the filter industry, an HR Textron responded, using the study as a departure for the development of 421 Filter Media. The HR system is composed of ultrafine steel fibers metallurgically bonded and compressed so that the pore structure is locked in place. The filters are used to filter polyesters, plastics, to remove hydrocarbon streams, etc. Several major companies use the product in chemical applications, pollution control, etc.

  7. Filter Component Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Diaz, E.S.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1996-12-31

    Advanced particulate filtration systems are currently being developed at Westinghouse for use in both coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems. To date, Westinghouse has demonstrated 5855 hours of successful operation of first generation monolithic filter elements in PFBC applications when ash bridging or process thermal transient excursions are avoided. Alternate advanced monolithic and second generation fiber reinforced, filament wound and vacuum infiltrated filters are also being developed which are considered to have enhanced high temperature creep resistance, improved fracture toughness, or enhanced thermal shock characteristics, respectively. Mechanical and component fabrication improvements, as well as degradation mechanisms for each filter element have been identified by Westinghouse during exposure to simulated PFBC operating conditions and alkali-containing steam/air environments. Additional effort is currently being focused on determining the stability of the advanced monolithic high temperature creep resistant clay bonded silicon carbide (SiC) materials, alumina/mullite, and chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC materials during operation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (W-APF) system at Foster Wheeler`s pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion (PCFBC) test facility in Karhula, Finland. Select advanced filter materials are being defined for additional long-term exposure in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gas streams. The results of these efforts are summarized in this paper. 6 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  9. FILTER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, J.B.; Torrey, J.V.P.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for reconditioning fused alumina filters which have become clogged by the accretion of bismuth phosphate in the filter pores, The method consists in contacting such filters with faming sulfuric acid, and maintaining such contact for a substantial period of time.

  10. A multireader diagnostic performance study of low-contrast detectability on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner: filtered back projection versus advanced modeled iterative reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Justin; Mileto, Achille; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare CT low-contrast detectability between two reconstruction algorithms, filtered back-projection (FBP) and advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE). A phantom was designed with a range of low-contrast circular inserts representing 5 contrast levels and 3 sizes. The phantom was imaged on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Force, Siemens Healthcare) under various dose levels (0.74 - 5.8 mGy CTDIVol). Images were reconstructed using different settings of slice thickness (0.6 - 5 mm) and reconstruction algorithms (FBP and ADMIRE with strength of 3-5) and were assessed by eleven blinded and independent readers using a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) detection experiment. A second observer experiment was further performed in which observers scored the images based on the total number of visible object groups. Detection performance increased with increasing contrast, size, dose, with accuracy ranging from 50% (i.e., guessing) to 87% with an average inter-observer variability of ±7%. The use of ADMIRE-3 increased performance by 5.2% resulting in an estimated dose reduction potential of 56-60%. The results from the second experiment also showed increased number of visible object groups for increasing dose, slice thickness, and ADMIRE strength. The score difference between FBP and ADMIRE was 0.9, 1.3, and 2.1 for ADMIRE strengths of 3, 4, and 5, respectively, resulting in estimated dose reduction potentials between 4-80%. Overall, the data indicated potential to image at reduced doses while maintaining comparable image quality when using ADMIRE compared to FBP.

  11. Analysis of bending wave transmission using beam tracing with advanced statistical energy analysis for periodic box-like structures affected by spatial filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D.; Hopkins, C.

    2015-04-01

    For bending wave transmission across periodic box-like arrangements of plates, the effects of spatial filtering can be significant and this needs to be considered in the choice of prediction model. This paper investigates the errors that can occur with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and the potential of using Advanced SEA (ASEA) to improve predictions. The focus is on the low- and mid-frequency range where plates only support local modes with low mode counts and the in situ modal overlap is relatively high. To increase the computational efficiency when using ASEA on large systems, a beam tracing method is introduced which groups together all rays with the same heading into a single beam. Based on a diffuse field on the source plate, numerical experiments are used to determine the angular distribution of incident power on receiver plate edges on linear and cuboid box-like structures. These show that on receiver plates which do not share a boundary with the source plate, the angular distribution on the receiver plate boundaries differs significantly from a diffuse field. SEA and ASEA predictions are assessed through comparison with finite element models. With rain-on-the-roof excitation on the source plate, the results show that compared to SEA, ASEA provides significantly better estimates of the receiver plate energy, but only where there are at least one or two bending modes in each one-third octave band. Whilst ASEA provides better accuracy than SEA, discrepancies still exist which become more apparent when the direct propagation path crosses more than three nominally identical structural junctions.

  12. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  13. Advanced Hybrid Propulsion and Energy Management System for High Efficiency, Off Highway, 240 Ton Class, Diesel Electric Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Tim; Slezak, Lee; Johnson, Chris; Young, Henry; Funcannon, Dan

    2008-12-31

    The objective of this project is to reduce the fuel consumption of off-highway vehicles, specifically large tonnage mine haul trucks. A hybrid energy storage and management system will be added to a conventional diesel-electric truck that will allow capture of braking energy normally dissipated in grid resistors as heat. The captured energy will be used during acceleration and motoring, reducing the diesel engine load, thus conserving fuel. The project will work towards a system validation of the hybrid system by first selecting an energy storage subsystem and energy management subsystem. Laboratory testing at a subscale level will evaluate these selections and then a full-scale laboratory test will be performed. After the subsystems have been proven at the full-scale lab, equipment will be mounted on a mine haul truck and integrated with the vehicle systems. The integrated hybrid components will be exercised to show functionality, capability, and fuel economy impacts in a mine setting.

  14. Westinghouse filter update

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1993-09-01

    Hot gas filters have been implemented and operated in four different test facilities: Subpilot scale entrained gasifier, located at the Texaco Montebello Research facilities in California, Foster Wheeler Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion pilot plant facilities, located in Livingston, New Jersey, Slipstream of the American Electric Power (AEP) 70 MW (electric) Tidd-PFBC, located in Brilliant, Ohio, and in the Ahlstrom 10 MW (thermal) Circulating PFBC facility, located in Karhula, Finland. Candle filter testing has occurred at all four facilities; cross flow filter testing has occurred at the Texaco and Foster Wheeler facilities. Table 1 identifies and summarizes the key operating characteristics of these facilities and the type and scale of filter unit tested. A brief description of each project is given.

  15. Properties of Ceramic Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of advanced power systems, the filter components sustain thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down, and of process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, the elements must also survive operating temperature of 1650{degrees}F for three years. Objectives of the testing conducted were as follows: (1) measure basic physical, mechanical and thermal properties of candle filter materials and relate these properties to in-service performance, (2) perform post-exposure testing of candle-filter materials after service at Tidd and Karhula and compare post-exposure results to as-manufactured results to evaluate property degradation, (3) based on measured properties and in-service performance, develop an understanding of material requirements for candle-filter materials and help establish property goals, and (4) establish a test protocol for evaluation of candle filter materials.

  16. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    DOEpatents

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  17. Genomics and Bioinformatics in Undergraduate Curricula: Contexts for Hybrid Laboratory/Lecture Courses for Entering and Advanced Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Louise; Cresawn, Steven G.; Monroe, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging interest in genomics in the scientific community prompted biologists at James Madison University to create two courses at different levels to modernize the biology curriculum. The courses are hybrids of classroom and laboratory experiences. An upper level class uses raw sequence of a genome (plasmid or virus) as the subject on which to…

  18. Volumetric Modulation Arc Radiotherapy With Flattening Filter-Free Beams Compared With Static Gantry IMRT and 3D Conformal Radiotherapy for Advanced Esophageal Cancer: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolini, Giorgia; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore; Banerjee, Sushovan; Chaudhary, Suresh; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Munshi, Anusheel; Clivio, Alessandro; Fogliata, Antonella; Mancosu, Pietro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: A feasibility study was performed to evaluate RapidArc (RA), and the potential benefit of flattening filter-free beams, on advanced esophageal cancer against intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: The plans for 3D-CRT and IMRT with three to seven and five to seven fixed beams were compared against double-modulated arcs with avoidance sectors to spare the lungs for 10 patients. All plans were optimized for 6-MV photon beams. The RA plans were studied for conventional and flattening filter-free (FFF) beams. The objectives for the planning target volume were the volume receiving {>=}95% or at most 107% of the prescribed dose of <1% with a dose prescription of 59.4 Gy. For the organs at risk, the lung volume (minus the planning target volume) receiving {>=}5 Gy was <60%, that receiving 20 Gy was <20%-30%, and the mean lung dose was <15.0 Gy. The heart volume receiving 45 Gy was <20%, volume receiving 30 Gy was <50%. The spinal dose received by 1% was <45 Gy. The technical delivery parameters for RA were assessed to compare the normal and FFF beam characteristics. Results: RA and IMRT provided equivalent coverage and homogeneity, slightly superior to 3D-CRT. The conformity index was 1.2 {+-} 0.1 for RA and IMRT and 1.5 {+-} 0.2 for 3D-CRT. The mean lung dose was 12.2 {+-} 4.5 for IMRT, 11.3 {+-} 4.6 for RA, and 10.8 {+-} 4.4 for RA with FFF beams, 18.2 {+-} 8.5 for 3D-CRT. The percentage of volume receiving {>=}20 Gy ranged from 23.6% {+-} 9.1% to 21.1% {+-} 9.7% for IMRT and RA (FFF beams) and 39.2% {+-} 17.0% for 3D-CRT. The heart and spine objectives were met by all techniques. The monitor units for IMRT and RA were 457 {+-} 139, 322 {+-} 20, and 387 {+-} 40, respectively. RA with FFF beams showed, compared with RA with normal beams, a {approx}20% increase in monitor units per Gray, a 90% increase in the average dose rate, and 20% reduction in beam on time (owing to different

  19. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Dilmore, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

  20. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

    1992-09-01

    A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

  1. Filter component assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Diaz, E.S.; Smeltzer, E.W.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide a more ruggedized filter system that utilizes porous ceramic filters which have improved resistance to damage resulting from crack propagation, thermal fatigue and/or thermal excursions during plant or process transient conditions, and/or mechanical ash bridging events within the candle filter array. As part of the current Phase 1, Task 1, effort of this program, Westinghouse is evaluating the filtration characteristics, mechanical integrity, and corrosion resistance of the following advanced or second generation candle filters for use in advanced coal-fired process applications: 3M CVI-SiC composite--chemical vapor infiltration of silicon carbide into an aluminosilicate Nextel{trademark} 312 fiber preform; DuPont PRD-66--filament wound candle filter structure containing corundum, cordierite, cristobalite, and mullite; DuPont SiC-SiC--chemical infiltration of silicon carbide into a silicon carbide Nicalon{trademark} fiber mat or felt preform; and IF and P Fibrosic{trademark}--vacuum infiltrated oxide-based chopped fibrous matrix. Results to date are presented.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-LOOP FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER FACILITY FOR ADVANCED NUCLEAR REACTOR THERMAL HYDRAULIC AND HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; SuJong Yoon

    2001-09-01

    A new high-temperature multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility for advanced nuclear applications is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory. The facility will include three flow loops: high-temperature helium, molten salt, and steam/water. Molten salts have been identified as excellent candidate heat transport fluids for primary or secondary coolant loops, supporting advanced high temperature and small modular reactors (SMRs). Details of some of the design aspects and challenges of this facility, which is currently in the conceptual design phase, are discussed. A preliminary design configuration will be presented, with the required characteristics of the various components. The loop will utilize advanced high-temperature compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) operating at prototypic intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) conditions. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750°C), high-pressure (7 MPa) helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF4) flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa) at a temperature of ~450°C. Experiment design challenges include identification of suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. Corrosion and high temperature creep behavior are major considerations. The facility will include a thermal energy storage capability designed to support scaled process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will also provide important data for code ve

  3. Synergistically Enhanced Polysulfide Chemisorption Using a Flexible Hybrid Separator with N and S Dual-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Coating for Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balach, Juan; Singh, Harish K; Gomoll, Selina; Jaumann, Tony; Klose, Markus; Oswald, Steffen; Richter, Manuel; Eckert, Jürgen; Giebeler, Lars

    2016-06-15

    Because of the outstanding high theoretical specific energy density of 2600 Wh kg(-1), the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as a promising candidate for post lithium-ion battery systems eligible to meet the forthcoming market requirements. However, its commercialization on large scale is thwarted by fast capacity fading caused by the Achilles' heel of Li-S systems: the polysulfide shuttle. Here, we merge the physical features of carbon-coated separators and the unique chemical properties of N and S codoped mesoporous carbon to create a functional hybrid separator with superior polysulfide affinity and electrochemical benefits. DFT calculations revealed that carbon materials with N and S codoping possess a strong binding energy to high-order polysulfide species, which is essential to keep the active material in the cathode side. As a result of the synergistic effect of N, S dual-doping, an advanced Li-S cell with high specific capacity and ultralow capacity degradation of 0.041% per cycle is achieved. Pushing our simple-designed and scalable cathode to a highly increased sulfur loading of 5.4 mg cm(-2), the Li-S cell with the functional hybrid separator can deliver a remarkable areal capacity of 5.9 mAh cm(-2), which is highly favorable for practical applications. PMID:27225061

  4. Comparison of advanced DSP techniques for spectrally efficient Nyquist-WDM signal generation using digital FIR filters at transmitters based on higher-order modulation formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; Pan, Zhongqi

    2016-02-01

    To support the ever-increasing demand for high-speed optical communications, Nyquist spectral shaping serves as a promising technique to improve spectral efficiency (SE) by generating near-rectangular spectra with negligible crosstalk and inter-symbol interference in wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems. Compared with specially-designed optical methods, DSP-based electrical filters are more flexible as they can generate different filter shapes and modulation formats. However, such transmitter-side pre-filtering approach is sensitive to the limited taps of finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter, for the complexity of the required DSP and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is limited by the cost and power consumption of optical transponder. In this paper, we investigate the performance and complexity of transmitter-side FIR-based DSP with polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) high-order quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) formats. Our results show that Nyquist 64-QAM, 16-QAM and QPSK WDM signals can be sufficiently generated by digital FIR filters with 57, 37, and 17 taps respectively. Then we explore the effects of the required spectral pre-emphasis, bandwidth and resolution on the performance of Nyquist-WDM systems. To obtain negligible OSNR penalty with a roll-off factor of 0.1, two-channel-interleaved DAC requires a Gaussian electrical filter with the bandwidth of 0.4-0.6 times of the symbol rate for PDM-64QAM, 0.35-0.65 times for PDM-16QAM, and 0.3-0.8 times for PDM-QPSK, with required DAC resolutions as 8, 7, 6 bits correspondingly. As a tradeoff, PDM-64QAM can be a promising candidate for SE improvement in next-generation optical metro networks.

  5. Electromagnetic self-consistent field initialization and fluid advance techniques for hybrid-kinetic PWFA code Architect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimo, F.; Marocchino, A.; Rossi, A. R.

    2016-09-01

    The realization of Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments with high quality of the accelerated bunches requires an increasing number of numerical simulations to perform first-order assessments for the experimental design and online-analysis of the experimental results. Particle in Cell codes are the state-of-the-art tools to study the beam-plasma interaction mechanism, but due to their requirements in terms of number of cores and computational time makes them unsuitable for quick parametric scans. Considerable interest has been shown thus in methods which reduce the computational time needed for the simulation of plasma acceleration. Such methods include the use of hybrid kinetic-fluid models, which treat the relativistic bunches as in a PIC code and the background plasma electrons as a fluid. A technique to properly initialize the bunch electromagnetic fields in the time explicit hybrid kinetic-fluid code Architect is presented, as well the implementation of the Flux Corrected Transport scheme for the fluid equations integrated in the code.

  6. A new organic-inorganic hybrid oxyfluorotitanate [Hgua]2·(Ti5O5F12) as a transparent UV filter.

    PubMed

    Lhoste, J; Rocquefelte, X; Adil, K; Dessapt, R; Jobic, S; Leblanc, M; Maisonneuve, V; Bujoli-Doeuff, M

    2011-06-20

    A new generation UV absorber is obtained by microwave-heating-assisted hydrothermal synthesis: [Hgua](2)·(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)). The structure of this hybrid titanium(IV) oxyfluoride is ab initio determined from powder X-ray data by combining a direct space method, Rietveld refinement [orthorhombic, Cmm2, a = 22.410(1) Å, b = 11.191(1) Å, c = 3.802(1) Å], and density functional theory geometry optimization. The three-dimensional network is built up from infinite inorganic layers (∞)(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)) separated by guanidinium cations. The theoretical optical gap (3.2 eV) estimated from density of state calculations is in good agreement with the experimental gap (3.3 eV) obtained by UV-vis diffuse reflectivity. The optical absorption is mainly due to O(2p) → Ti(3d) and F(2p) → Ti(3d) transitions at higher energies. The refraction index is low in the visible range (n ≈ 1.9) compared to that of TiO(2) and, consequently, [Hgua](2)·(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)) shows a good transparency adapted to UV shielding. Under UV irradiation at 254 nm for 40 h, the white microcrystalline powder turns to light purple-gray. This color change is caused by the reduction of Ti(IV) to Ti(III), confirmed by magnetic measurements. PMID:21545091

  7. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1983-09-20

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched there between. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants. 4 figs.

  8. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  9. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.

    1982-02-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream. The apparatus includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  10. High temperature filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Tressler, R.E.

    1992-12-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify the potential long-term thermal/chemical effects that advanced coal-based power generating system environments have on the stability of porous ceramic filter materials, as well as to assess the influence of these effects on filter operating performance and life. We have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100{degrees}C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. Testing has typically been performed in two continuous flow-through, high temperature test facilities at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, using 7 cm diameter {times} 6.4 mm thick discs. (Alvin, 1992) Each disc of ceramic filter material is exposed for periods of 100 to 3,000 hours in duration. Additional efforts have been performed at Westinghouse to broaden our understanding of the stability of cordierite, cordierite-silicon nitride, reaction and sintered silicon nitride, and clay bonded silicon carbide under similar simulated advanced coal fired process conditions. The results of these efforts are presented in this paper.

  11. High temperature filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M. . Science and Technology Center); Tressler, R.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify the potential long-term thermal/chemical effects that advanced coal-based power generating system environments have on the stability of porous ceramic filter materials, as well as to assess the influence of these effects on filter operating performance and life. We have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100[degrees]C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. Testing has typically been performed in two continuous flow-through, high temperature test facilities at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, using 7 cm diameter [times] 6.4 mm thick discs. (Alvin, 1992) Each disc of ceramic filter material is exposed for periods of 100 to 3,000 hours in duration. Additional efforts have been performed at Westinghouse to broaden our understanding of the stability of cordierite, cordierite-silicon nitride, reaction and sintered silicon nitride, and clay bonded silicon carbide under similar simulated advanced coal fired process conditions. The results of these efforts are presented in this paper.

  12. Advanced hybrid battery with a magnesium metal anode and a spinel LiMn2O4 cathode.

    PubMed

    Pan, Baofei; Feng, Zhenxing; Sa, Niya; Han, Sang-Don; Ma, Qing; Fenter, Paul; Vaughey, John T; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-08-01

    Two Mg-Li dual salt hybrid electrolytes are developed, which exhibit excellent oxidative stability up to around 3.8 V (vs. Mg/Mg(2+)) on an aluminum current collector, enabling the successful coupling of several state-of-the-art lithium-ion intercalation cathodes (LiMn2O4, LiCoO2 and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2) with magnesium metal anodes. The Mg-LiMn2O4 battery delivers an initial discharge capacity of about 106 mA h g(-1) with a working voltage of around 2.8 V (vs. Mg/Mg(2+)), highlighting the highest working voltage of rechargeable batteries with magnesium metal anodes to date. PMID:27439946

  13. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  14. Initial Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Zhou, J.

    1996-12-31

    Effective high temperature ceramic filters are indispensable in the advanced, coal based power systems (IGCC and PFBC). To meet the environmental particulate emission requirements and improve thermal efficiency, ceramic filters are utilized to cleanup the hot gas particulate to protect downstream heat exchanger and gas turbine components from fouling and corrosion. The mechanical integrity of ceramic filters and an efficient dust cake removal system are the key issues for hot gas cleanup systems. The filters must survive combined stresses due to mechanical, thermal, chemical and steam attack throughout normal operations (cold back pulse cleaning jets), unexpected excessive ash accumulation, and the start up and shut down conditions. To evaluate the design and performance of ceramic filters, different long term filter testing programs were conducted. To fulfill this purpose, two Advanced Particle Filter (APF) systems were complete at Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio in late 1990 as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. However, many filter failures 1649 were reported prior to its desired life time. In Tidd APF vessel, 28 filters failed one time, The objectives of this program were to provide an understanding of the factors pertinent to the failures of ceramic filters by characterizing filter properties and the dust cake removal mechanism, Researches were emphasized on understanding of changes of filter properties and back pulse cleaning mechanism to resolve the issues relating to filter permeability variations, ash bridging and micro-thermal cracks induced during cold back pulse cleaning. To perform failure analysis of ceramic filters, thermal numerical simulation, material laboratory analysis on filter materials and dust cake, and measurements on filter properties and back pulse intensity along filter axis within a bench scale filter chamber were conducted.

  15. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Maigyte, Lina; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  16. Biometric verification with correlation filters.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Kumar, B V K; Savvides, Marios; Xie, Chunyan; Venkataramani, Krithika; Thornton, Jason; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2004-01-10

    Using biometrics for subject verification can significantly improve security over that of approaches based on passwords and personal identification numbers, both of which people tend to lose or forget. In biometric verification the system tries to match an input biometric (such as a fingerprint, face image, or iris image) to a stored biometric template. Thus correlation filter techniques are attractive candidates for the matching precision needed in biometric verification. In particular, advanced correlation filters, such as synthetic discriminant function filters, can offer very good matching performance in the presence of variability in these biometric images (e.g., facial expressions, illumination changes, etc.). We investigate the performance of advanced correlation filters for face, fingerprint, and iris biometric verification. PMID:14735958

  17. Biometric verification with correlation filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.; Savvides, Marios; Xie, Chunyan; Venkataramani, Krithika; Thornton, Jason; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2004-01-01

    Using biometrics for subject verification can significantly improve security over that of approaches based on passwords and personal identification numbers, both of which people tend to lose or forget. In biometric verification the system tries to match an input biometric (such as a fingerprint, face image, or iris image) to a stored biometric template. Thus correlation filter techniques are attractive candidates for the matching precision needed in biometric verification. In particular, advanced correlation filters, such as synthetic discriminant function filters, can offer very good matching performance in the presence of variability in these biometric images (e.g., facial expressions, illumination changes, etc.). We investigate the performance of advanced correlation filters for face, fingerprint, and iris biometric verification.

  18. Research on inverse, hybrid and optimization problems in engineering sciences with emphasis on turbomachine aerodynamics: Review of Chinese advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Gao-Lian

    1991-01-01

    Advances in inverse design and optimization theory in engineering fields in China are presented. Two original approaches, the image-space approach and the variational approach, are discussed in terms of turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design. Other areas of research in turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design include the improved mean-streamline (stream surface) method and optimization theory based on optimal control. Among the additional engineering fields discussed are the following: the inverse problem of heat conduction, free-surface flow, variational cogeneration of optimal grid and flow field, and optimal meshing theory of gears.

  19. Advanced Propulsion Power Distribution System for Next Generation Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Phase 1; Preliminary System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Bimal K.; Kim, Min-Huei

    1995-01-01

    The report essentially summarizes the work performed in order to satisfy the above project objective. In the beginning, different energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor are reviewed and compared, establishing the superiority of the battery. Then, the possible power sources, such as IC engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell are reviewed and compared, and the superiority of IC engine has been established. Different types of machines for drive motor/engine generator, such as induction machine, PM synchronous machine and switched reluctance machine are compared, and the induction machine is established as the superior candidate. Similar discussion was made for power converters and devices. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) appears to be the most superior device although Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) shows future promise. Different types of candidate distribution systems with the possible combinations of power and energy sources have been discussed and the most viable system consisting of battery, IC engine and induction machine has been identified. Then, HFAC system has been compared with the DC system establishing the superiority of the former. The detailed component sizing calculations of HFAC and DC systems reinforce the superiority of the former. A preliminary control strategy has been developed for the candidate HFAC system. Finally, modeling and simulation study have been made to validate the system performance. The study in the report demonstrates the superiority of HFAC distribution system for next generation electric/hybrid vehicle.

  20. Au-embedded ZnO/NiO hybrid with excellent electrochemical performance as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Yan, Xiaoqin; Sun, Yihui; Bai, Zhiming; Zhang, Guangjie; Shen, Yanwei; Liang, Qijie; Zhang, Yue

    2015-02-01

    Here we design a nanostructure by embedding Au nanoparticles into ZnO/NiO core-shell composites as supercapacitors electrodes materials. This optimized hybrid electrodes exhibited an excellent electrochemical performance including a long-term cycling stability and a maximum specific areal capacitance of 4.1 F/cm(2) at a current density of 5 mA/cm(2), which is much higher than that of ZnO/NiO hierarchical materials (0.5 F/cm(2)). Such an enhanced property is attributed to the increased electro-electrolyte interfaces, short electron diffusion pathways and good electrical conductivity. Apart from this, electrons can be temporarily trapped and accumulated at the Fermi level (EF') because of the localized schottky barrier at Au/NiO interface in charge process until fill the gap between ZnO and NiO, so that additional electrons can be released during discharge. These results demonstrate that suitable interface engineering may open up new opportunities in the development of high-performance supercapacitors. PMID:25584699

  1. Transgenes for insect resistance reduce herbivory and enhance fecundity in advanced generations of crop–weed hybrids of rice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Xia, Hui; Wang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Snow, Allison A; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Gene flow from transgenic crops allows novel traits to spread to sexually compatible weeds. Traits such as resistance to insects may enhance the fitness of weeds, but few studies have tested for these effects under natural field conditions. We created F2 and F3 crop–weed hybrid lineages of genetically engineered rice (Oryza sativa) using lines with two transgene constructs, cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) and a Bt transgene linked to CpTI (Bt/CpTI). Experiments conducted in Fuzhou, China, demonstrated that CpTI alone did not significantly affect fecundity, although it reduced herbivory. In contrast, under certain conditions, Bt/CpTI conferred up to 79% less insect damage and 47% greater fecundity relative to nontransgenic controls, and a 44% increase in fecundity relative to the weedy parent. A small fitness cost was detected in F3 progeny with Bt/CpTI when grown under low insect pressure and direct competition with transgene-negative controls. We conclude that Bt/CpTI transgenes may introgress into co-occurring weedy rice populations and contribute to greater seed production when target insects are abundant. However, the net fitness benefits that are associated with Bt/CpTI could be ephemeral if insect pressure is lacking, for example, because of widespread planting of Bt cultivars that suppress target insect populations. PMID:25568014

  2. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  3. Properties of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.

    1995-06-01

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of the advanced power systems, the filter components must sustain the thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down conditions, and of unanticipated process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive the various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, these elements must survive at operating temperatures of 1650{degrees}F for three years.

  4. Signal interference RF photonic bandstop filter.

    PubMed

    Aryanfar, Iman; Choudhary, Amol; Shahnia, Shayan; Pagani, Mattia; Liu, Yang; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2016-06-27

    In the microwave domain, signal interference bandstop filters with high extinction and wide stopbands are achieved through destructive interference of two signals. Implementation of this filtering concept using RF photonics will lead to unique filters with high performance, enhanced tuning range and reconfigurability. Here we demonstrate an RF photonic signal interference filter, achieved through the combination of precise synthesis of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) loss with advanced phase and amplitude tailoring of RF modulation sidebands. We achieve a square-shaped, 20-dB extinction RF photonic filter over a tunable bandwidth of up to 1 GHz with a central frequency tuning range of 16 GHz using a low SBS loss of ~3 dB. Wideband destructive interference in this novel filter leads to the decoupling of the filter suppression from its bandwidth and shape factor. This allows the creation of a filter with all-optimized qualities. PMID:27410650

  5. Fabrication of advanced C/C composites by a hybrid process of CVI/liquid precursor impregnation

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizaki, Masato; Shioda, Muneyoshi; Miyahara, Kaoru; Sasa, Tadashi

    1995-10-01

    Fabrication processing of advanced C/C composites was developed by combining the CVI and liquid impregnation-pyrolysis processes. Time-controlled temperature-gradient (TC-TG) CVI processing was developed to accelerate the carbon matrix deposition in the C-fiber preform within relatively short process-time. The temperature gradient in the perform was changed according to a controlled program. The present TC-TG-CVI process gave twice as much weight gain as that of the conventional steady TG-CVI process. The CVI process, however, showed a limitation to fill up the large pores between the bundles. Liquid impregnation-pyrolysis was, therefore, carried out after the TC-TG-CVI process to improve the infiltration of these pores. Polycarbosilane (PCS) with the yield of about 50 wt% was used as the liquid precursor to form a SiC-rich matrix to improve the oxidation-resistance. SiC matrix was observed in the pores between bundles after pyrolysis of PCS. The weight gain after pyrolysis was found to be nearly saturated after 10 cycles of the impregnation-pyrolysis process.

  6. Iron Aluminide Hot Gas Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.; Brosious, S.; Johnson, M.

    1996-12-31

    Currently, high temperature filter systems are in the demonstration phase with the first commercial scale hot filter systems being installed on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluid bed combustion cycle (PBFC) systems (70 MW). They are dependent on the development of durable and economic high temperature filter systems. These filters are mostly ceramic tubes or candles. Ceramic filter durability has not been high. Failure is usually attributed to mechanical or thermal shock: they can also undergo significant changes due to service conditions. The overall objective of this project is to commercialize weldable, crack resistant filters which will provide several years service in advanced power processes. The specific objectives of this project are to develop corrosion resistant alloys and manufacturing processes to make Iron Aluminide filter media, and to use a ``short term`` exposure apparatus supported by other tests to identify the most promising candidate (alloy plus sintering cycle). The objectives of the next phases are to demonstrate long term corrosion stability for the best candidate followed by the production of fifty filters (optional).

  7. Preliminary investigation of the effects of lower hybrid power on asymmetric behaviors in the scrape-off layer in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Ding, B. J. Li, M. H.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Yang, J. H.; Wu, Z. G.; Liu, L.; Wang, M.; Zhao, L. M.; Ma, W. D.; Xiu, H. D.; Wang, X. J.; Jia, H.; Yang, Y.; Cheng, M.; Wu, D. J.; Xu, L.; and others

    2014-02-15

    The striations in front of the lower hybrid (LH) launcher have been observed during LH injection by a visible video camera in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Edge density at the top of the LH launcher tends to be much larger in reversed magnetic field (B{sub t}) than that in the normal B{sub t}. To study the mechanisms of the observations, the diffusive-convective model is employed. Simulations show that the LH power makes the density in scrape-off layer asymmetric in poloidal direction with five density peaks. The locations of the striations are approximately in agreement with the locations of the density peaks in different directions of B{sub t}. Higher LH power strengths the asymmetry of the density and leads to a bad coupling which is in conflict with the experimental results showing a good coupling with a higher power. Furthermore, an ionization term is introduced into this model and the increase of edge density with LH power can be qualitatively explained. The simulations also show that the density peaks in front of the waveguides become clearer when taking into account gas puffing.

  8. Lower hybrid current drive and ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating experiments in H-mode plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokomak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. J.; Wan, B. N. Zhao, Y. P.; Ding, B. J.; Xu, G. S.; Gong, X. Z.; Li, J. G.; Lin, Y.; Wukitch, S.; Taylor, G.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Braun, F.; Magne, R.; Litaudon, X.; Kumazawa, R.; Kasahara, H.

    2014-06-15

    An ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) system with power up to 6.0 MW and a lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system up to 4 MW have been applied for heating and current drive experiments in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokomak (EAST). Significant progress has been made with ICRF heating and LHCD for realizing the H-mode plasma operation in EAST. During 2010 and 2012 experimental campaigns, ICRF heating experiments were carried out at the fixed frequency of 27MHz, achieving effective ions and electrons heating with the H minority heating (H-MH) mode. The H-MH mode produced good plasma performance, and realized H-mode using ICRF power alone in 2012. In 2010, H-modes were generated and sustained by LHCD alone, where lithium coating and gas puffing near the mouth of the LH launcher were applied to improve the LHCD power coupling and penetration into the core plasmas of H-modes. In 2012, the combination of LHCD and ICRH power extended the H-mode duration up to over 30 s. H-modes with various types of edge localized modes (ELMs) have been achieved with H{sub IPB98}(y, 2) ranging from 0.7 to over unity. A brief overview of LHCD and ICRF Heating experiment and their application in achieving H-mode operation during these two campaigns will be presented.

  9. Water Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  10. Eyeglass Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Biomedical Optical Company of America's suntiger lenses eliminate more than 99% of harmful light wavelengths. NASA derived lenses make scenes more vivid in color and also increase the wearer's visual acuity. Distant objects, even on hazy days, appear crisp and clear; mountains seem closer, glare is greatly reduced, clouds stand out. Daytime use protects the retina from bleaching in bright light, thus improving night vision. Filtering helps prevent a variety of eye disorders, in particular cataracts and age related macular degeneration.

  11. HYBRID FAST HANKEL TRANSFORM ALGORITHM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid fast Hankel transform algorithm has been developed that uses several complementary features of two existing algorithms: Anderson's digital filtering or fast Hankel transform (FHT) algorithm and Chave's quadrature and continued fraction algorithm. A hybrid FHT subprogram ...

  12. A statistical rain attenuation prediction model with application to the advanced communication technology satellite project. 3: A stochastic rain fade control algorithm for satellite link power via non linear Markow filtering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic and composite nature of propagation impairments that are incurred on Earth-space communications links at frequencies in and above 30/20 GHz Ka band, i.e., rain attenuation, cloud and/or clear air scintillation, etc., combined with the need to counter such degradations after the small link margins have been exceeded, necessitate the use of dynamic statistical identification and prediction processing of the fading signal in order to optimally estimate and predict the levels of each of the deleterious attenuation components. Such requirements are being met in NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project by the implementation of optimal processing schemes derived through the use of the Rain Attenuation Prediction Model and nonlinear Markov filtering theory.

  13. FILTER COMPONENT ASSESSMENT--CERAMIC CANDLES--

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-04-23

    Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on development of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation applications. SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report summarizes the results of SWPC's filter component assessment efforts, identifying the performance and stability of porous monolithic, fiber reinforced, and filament wound ceramic hot gas candle filters, potentially for {ge}3 years of viable pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) service operating life.

  14. Ceramic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Filters were formed from ceramic fibers, organic fibers, and a ceramic bond phase using a papermaking technique. The distribution of particulate ceramic bond phase was determined using a model silicon carbide system. As the ceramic fiber increased in length and diameter the distance between particles decreased. The calculated number of particles per area showed good agreement with the observed value. After firing, the papers were characterized using a biaxial load test. The strength of papers was proportional to the amount of bond phase included in the paper. All samples exhibited strain-tolerant behavior.

  15. Performance of ceramic membrane filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.; Geyer, H.K.; Shelleman, D.L.; Tressler, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    CeraMem Corp.`s ceramic-membrane coated, dead-end ceramic filters offer a promising alternative to ceramic candle filters providing long-term operational and reliability issues are resolved: regenerability of filter passages by back pulse cleaning, tolerance to alkali-containing combustion gas and thermal/chemical aging. ANL is responsible for analytical modeling of filtration and pulse cleaning operations, flow-through testing, and prediction of filter response to thermal cycling under realistic service conditions. A test apparatus was built to expose ceramic filter specimens to chemical environments simulating operation of pressurized fluidized bed and integrated gasification combined cycle plants. Four long-duration tests have been conducted in which 100-cpsi channel filters were exposed to ash collected downstream of the cyclone separator at the PFBC plant at Tidd. Results are discussed. Focus has now shifted to exposing the advanced candle filter specimens to reducing gas environments containing NaCl, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and gasification ash.

  16. Ceramic fiber ceramic matrix filter development

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Stinton, D.P.; Smith, R.G.; Fischer, E.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop a novel type of candle filter based on a ceramic fiber-ceramic matrix composite material, and to extend the development to full-size, 60-mm OD by 1-meter-long candle filters. The goal is to develop a ceramic filter suitable for use in a variety of fossil energy system environments such as integrated coal gasification combined cycles (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and other advanced coal combustion environments. Further, the ceramic fiber ceramic matrix composite filter, hereinafter referred to as the ceramic composite filter, was to be inherently crack resistant, a property not found in conventional monolithic ceramic candle filters, such as those fabricated from clay-bonded silicon carbide. Finally, the adequacy of the filters in the fossil energy system environments is to be proven through simulated and in-plant tests.

  17. Production of hybrid granitic magma at the advancing front of basaltic underplating: Inferences from the Sesia Magmatic System (south-western Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinigoi, Silvano; Quick, James E.; Demarchi, Gabriella; Klötzli, Urs S.

    2016-05-01

    The Permian Sesia Magmatic System of the southwestern Alps displays the plumbing system beneath a Permian caldera, including a deep crustal gabbroic complex, upper crustal granite plutons and a bimodal volcanic field dominated by rhyolitic tuff filling the caldera. Isotopic compositions of the deep crustal gabbro overlap those of coeval andesitic basalts, whereas granites define a distinct, more radiogenic cluster (Sri ≈ 0.708 and 0.710, respectively). AFC computations starting from the best mafic candidate for a starting melt show that Nd and Sr isotopic compositions and trace elements of andesitic basalts may be modeled by reactive bulk assimilation of ≈ 30% of partially depleted crust and ≈ 15%-30% gabbro fractionation. Trace elements of the deep crustal gabbro cumulates require a further ≈ 60% fractionation of the andesitic basalt and loss of ≈ 40% of silica-rich residual melt. The composition of the granite plutons is consistent with a mixture of relatively constant proportions of residual melt delivered from the gabbro and anatectic melt. Chemical and field evidence leads to a conceptual model which links the production of the two granitic components to the evolution of the Mafic Complex. During the growth of the Mafic Complex, progressive incorporation of packages of crustal rocks resulted in a roughly steady state rate of assimilation. Anatectic granite originates in the hot zone of melting crust located above the advancing mafic intrusion. Upward segregation of anatectic melts facilitates the assimilation of the partially depleted restite by stoping. At each cycle of mafic intrusion and incorporation, residual and anatectic melts are produced in roughly constant proportions, because the amount of anatectic melt produced at the roof is a function of volume and latent heat of crystallization of the underplated mafic melt which in turn produces proportional amounts of hybrid gabbro cumulates and residual melt. Such a process can explain the

  18. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  19. PIGC™ - A low cost fugitive emissions and methane detection system using advanced gas filter correlation techniques for local and wide area monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachance, R. L.; Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, B. T.; Fisher, J.; Paxton, G.; Gubeli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Currently there is no efficient and affordable way to monitor gas releases over small to large areas. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately measure key greenhouse and pollutant gasses with low cost solar observations using the breakthrough sensor technology called the "Pupil Imaging Gas Correlation", PIGC™, which provides size and complexity reduction while providing exceptional resolution and coverage for various gas sensing applications. It is a practical implementation of the well-known Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry (GFCR) technique used for the HALOE and MOPITT satellite instruments that were flown on successful NASA missions in the early 2000s. This strong space heritage brings performance and reliability to the ground instrument design. A methane (CH4) abundance sensitivity of 0.5% or better of ambient column with uncooled microbolometers has been demonstrated with 1 second direct solar observations. These under $10 k sensors can be deployed in precisely balanced autonomous grids to monitor the flow of chosen gasses, and infer their source locations. Measureable gases include CH4, 13CO2, N2O, NO, NH3, CO, H2S, HCN, HCl, HF, HDO and others. A single instrument operates in a dual operation mode, at no additional cost, for continuous (real-time 24/7) local area perimeter monitoring for the detection of leaks for safety & security needs, looking at an artificial light source (for example a simple 60 W light bulb placed 100 m away), while simultaneously allowing solar observation for quasi-continuous wide area total atmospheric column scanning (3-D) for environmental monitoring (fixed and mobile configurations). The second mode of operation continuously quantifies the concentration and flux of specific gases over different ground locations, determined the amount of targeted gas being released from the area or getting into the area from outside locations, allowing better tracking of plumes and identification of sources. This paper reviews the

  20. Generation of soluble microbial products by bio-activated carbon filter during drinking water advanced treatment and its influence on spectral characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve our understanding of bio-activated carbon (BAC) filter, the water quality of influent and effluent treated with BAC in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) of Shanghai during 2015 was valued. Combining the results from UV254, SUVA254, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM), it is found that performance of BAC treatment will be affected by characteristics of activated carbon (AC), which is relevant to the type of activated carbon (including shape and operating time) in this study. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) shows that the humification index (HIX) and index of recent autochthonous contribution (BIX) is a reliable indicator to descript the variation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during BAC process. The pattern of variation in BIX and HIX implies that soluble microbial products (SMPs) are formed and humic-like substances are removed during BAC treatment, which is also confirmed by the change of peaks of FEEM in BAC effluent. Large, positive correlations between SUVA254 and disinfection by-products formation potential yield (DBPFP yield) demonstrate that UV-absorbing DOM is directly related to the generation of DBPs. Poor correlations of HIX with DBPFP suggest that non-humic substances with UV-absorbing properties play an important role in the generation of DBPs in water with low SUVA254. Finally, strong but negative correlations between BIX and DBPFP suggest that vigorous microbial metabolism of BAC results in a decrease in DBPFP. However, the DBPFP yield will be enhanced for the generation of SMPs by BAC, especially in summer. PMID:27436775

  1. Cascaded Mach–Zehnder interferometer tunable filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovvyan, A. P.; Gruhler, N.; Ferrari, S.; Pernice, W. H. P.

    2016-06-01

    By cascading compact and low-loss Mach–Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) embedded within nanophotonic circuits we realize thermo-optically tunable optical filters for the visible wavelength range. Through phase tuning in either arm of the MZI, the filter response with maximum extinction can be shifted beyond one free-spectral range with low electrical power consumption. The working wavelength of our device is aligned with the emission wavelength of the silicon vacancy color center in diamond around 740 nm where we realize a filter depth beyond 36.5 dB. Our approach allows for efficient isolation of the emitted signal intensity in future hybrid nanodiamond-nanophotonic circuits.

  2. Research on improved mechanism for particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinxia; Xu, Jingmin; Tang, Yongli; Zhao, Qian

    2013-03-01

    Based on the analysis of particle filter algorithm, two improved mechanism are studied so as to improve the performance of particle filter. Firstly, hybrid proposal distribution with annealing parameter is studied in order to use current information of the latest observed measurement to optimize particle filter. Then, resampling step in particle filter is improved by two methods which are based on partial stratified resampling (PSR). One is that it uses the optimal idea to improve the weights after implementing PSR, and the other is that it uses the optimal idea to improve the weights before implementing PSR and uses adaptive mutation operation for all particles so as to assure the diversity of particle sets after PSR. At last, the simulations based on single object tracking are implemented, and the performances of the improved mechanism for particle filter are estimated.

  3. Production and characterization of interspecific somatic hybrids between Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and B. nigra and their progenies for the selection of advanced pre-breeding materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-xiang; Tang, Yu; Yan, Hong; Sheng, Xiao-guang; Hao, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Li; Lu, Kun; Liu, Fan

    2011-10-01

    Somatic hybridization is a potential method for gene transfer from wild relatives to cultivated crops that can overcome sexual incompatibilities of two distantly related species. In this study, interspecific asymmetric somatic hybrids of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower) and Brassica nigra (black mustard) were obtained by protoplast fusion and their backcrossed (BC(3)) and selfed (S(3)) offspring were analyzed. Cytological analysis showed that the B. nigra chromosomes were successively eliminated in the backcrosses with cauliflower. The fertility of the hybrid progenies was quite different due to the asynchronous and abnormal chromosome behavior of pollen mother cells (PMC) during meiosis. Analysis of sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) showed that all of these hybrids mainly had the DNA banding pattern from the two parents with some alterations. Genetically, the selfed generations were closer to B. nigra, while the backcrossed generations were closer to the cauliflower parent. Analysis of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) showed that all somatic hybrids in this study contained chloroplast (cp) DNA of the donor parent black mustard, while mitochondrial (mt) DNA showed evidence of recombination and variations in the regions analyzed. Furthermore, three BC(3) plants (originated from somatic hybrids 3, 4, 10) with 2-8 B. nigra-derived chromosomes shown by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) displayed a more cauliflower-like morphology and high resistance to black-rot. These plants were obtained as bridge materials for further analysis and breeding. PMID:21603996

  4. The Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.; Ohkawa, T.; Agnew, S. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Freeman, R. L.; Gilleland, J.; Putvinski, S.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group is developing a plasma technology, called the Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter, which can separate a waste mixture ion by ion into mass groups and as such represents a major advance in waste separations technology. The filter is a plasma device employing a magnetic and electric field configuration that acts as a low-mass-pass filter for ions. Ions with mass above a tunable “cutoff mass” are expelled from the plasma. The Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter satisfies all of the requirements of an economic mass separator system: good single-pass separation, acceptable energy cost per ion, and high material throughput. This technology could significantly reduce the volume of radioactive waste at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, which is storing sixty percent of the nation’s defense nuclear waste. The potential waste reduction is dramatic because 82 wtpresently scheduled to be vitrified (immobilized and stored in glass) at Hanford are below mass number 60 while 99.9the radioactivity comes from atoms above mass number 89. We will present the plasma physics basis for the filter effect, the fundamental parameter constraints, and modeling results of filter operation.

  5. Filter holder assembly having extended collar spacer ring

    DOEpatents

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald J.

    2002-01-01

    A filter holder assembly is provided that utilizes a fail-safe regenerator unit with an annular spacer ring having an extended metal collar for containment and positioning of a compliant ceramic gasket used in the assembly. The filter holder assembly is disclosed for use with advanced composite, filament wound, and metal candle filters.

  6. Comparison of Image Filters for Low Dose Neutron Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hungler, P. C.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Lewis, W. J.; Bevan, G.; Metzler, J.

    Neutron imaging using low flux sources, such as accelerators or low flux nuclear reactors, produces images which contain significant amounts of noise. The noise indications are a result of high energy gamma radiation and some neutron scattering which hit the CCD detector despite heavy shielding. The amount of noise in an image is a factor of the exposure time required to produce images with adequate dynamic ranges. Minimization of noise and maximization of the dynamic range are inversely proportional and the exposure time is often extended to increase incident neutrons at the expense of noise. The resultant noise can be reduced using image filters; however, these filters usually increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) at the expense of spatial resolution. Three filters were applied to low dose neutron images acquired at RMC; a median filter, a Z-projection filter and a hybrid PDE filter. The median filter and the hybrid PDE filter showed similar performance in 3D with regards to SNR and spatial resolution, however, the median filter created numerous artefacts in the resultant tomogram. The Z-projection filter using 5 projections had the best performance in 2D improving the SNR of the raw image from 10.2 ± 0.767 to 22.5 ± 1.52 and the spatial resolution from 331 ± 2.89 to 309 ± 0.846, respectively. The Z-projection filter was not evaluated in 3D due to facility induced constraints.

  7. Polarization Filtering of SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of polarization filtering of synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) returns provide hybrid method applied to either (1) maximize signal-to-noise ratio of return from given target or (2) enhance contrast between targets of two different types (that have different polarization properties). Method valid for both point and extended targets and for both monostatic and bistatic radars as well as SAR. Polarization information in return signals provides more complete description of radar-scattering properties of targets and used to obtain additional information about targets for use in classifying them, discriminating between them, or enhancing features of radar images.

  8. 3D Oxide/Oxide Composite Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.E.; LeCostaouec, J.; Painter, C.J.; Su, Wei-Fang A.; Radford, K.C.

    1996-12-31

    Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful commercialization of advanced coal-based power-generation systems such as Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion (PFBC), including second- generation PFBC, and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC). Current generation monolithic ceramic filters are subject to catastrophic failure because they have very low resistance to crack propagation. To overcome this problem, a damage -tolerant ceramic filter element is needed. Westinghouse, with Techniweave as a major subcontractor, is conducting a three-phase program aimed at providing advanced candle filters for a 1996 pilot scale demonstration in one of the two hot gas filter systems at Southern Company Service`s Wilsonville PSD Facility. The Base Program (Phases I and II) objective is to develop and demonstrate the suitability of the Westinghouse/Techniweave next generation composite candle filter for use PFBC and/or IGCC power generation systems. The optional Task (Phase III, Task 5) objective is to fabricate, inspect and ship to Wilsonville 50 advanced candle filters for pilot scale testing.

  9. A facile synthesis of Ag/AgCl hybrid nanostructures with tunable morphologies and compositions as advanced visible light plasmonic photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Aasim; Kim, Woo-Sik; Yu, Taekyung

    2016-05-31

    This paper describes a simple and fast aqueous-phase route to the synthesis of Ag/AgCl hybrid nanostructures. These hybrid nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of AgCl nanoparticles with controlled shapes prepared by reacting Ag(+) with Cl(-) in the presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI) in an aqueous-phase. We could easily control the morphology and composition of the nanostructures by varying the experimental conditions, including the reaction temperature and the amount of the reducing agent. The as-synthesized Ag/AgCl hybrid nanostructures exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability during the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation because of their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect. PMID:27169749

  10. HEPA filter dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  11. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  12. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, Ken N.; Murphy, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  13. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  14. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  15. Study of statistical properties of hybrid statistic in coherent multidetector compact binary coalescences search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, K.; Pai, Archana

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we revisit the coherent gravitational wave search problem of compact binary coalescences with multidetector network consisting of advanced interferometers like LIGO-Virgo. Based on the loss of the optimal multidetector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we construct a hybrid statistic as a best of maximum-likelihood-ratio (MLR) statistic tuned for face-on and face-off binaries. The statistical properties of the hybrid statistic is studied. The performance of this hybrid statistic is compared with that of the coherent MLR statistic for generic inclination angles. Owing to the single synthetic data stream, the hybrid statistic gives few false alarms compared to the multidetector MLR statistic and small fractional loss in the optimum SNR for a large range of binary inclinations. We demonstrate that, for a LIGO-Virgo network and binary inclination ɛ <7 0 ° and ɛ >11 0 ° , the hybrid statistic captures more than 98% of the network optimum matched filter SNR with a low false alarm rate. The Monte Carlo exercise with two distributions of incoming inclination angles—namely, U [cos ɛ ] and a more realistic distribution proposed by B. F. Schutz [Classical Quantum Gravity 28, 125023 (2011)]—are performed with the hybrid statistic and give approximately 5% and 7% higher detection probabilities, respectively, compared to the two stream multidetector MLR statistic for a fixed false alarm probability of 1 0-5.

  16. Properties of multilayer filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    New methods were investigated of using optical interference coatings to produce bandpass filters for the spectral region 110 nm to 200 nm. The types of filter are: triple cavity metal dielectric filters; all dielectric reflection filters; and all dielectric Fabry Perot type filters. The latter two types use thorium fluoride and either cryolite films or magnesium fluoride films in the stacks. The optical properties of the thorium fluoride were also measured.

  17. Global trends in hybrid imaging.

    PubMed

    Hricak, Hedvig; Choi, Byung Ihn; Scott, Andrew M; Sugimura, Kazuro; Muellner, Ada; von Schulthess, Gustav K; Reiser, Maximilian F; Graham, Michael M; Dunnick, N Reed; Larson, Steven M

    2010-11-01

    At the 2009 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, a special session was devoted to global trends in hybrid imaging. This article expands on the key points of the session, focusing primarily on positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Global trends in hybrid imaging equipment acquisition, usage, and image interpretation practices are reviewed, and emerging requirements for training and clinical privileging are discussed. Also considered are the current benefits of hybrid imaging for patient care and workflow and the potential of hybrid imaging for advancing drug development and personalized medicine. PMID:20829539

  18. Metal filter materials in combustion environments

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, I.G.

    1996-09-01

    Hot gas filtration in pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) systems has been proven below 750 C (1400 F). Advanced PFBC designs, focused on operational and efficiency improvements, will require filtration at higher temperatures. E.g., in first-generation advanced PFBCs, the filters will have to perform at 870 C (1600 F), while second-generation units, with both carbonizers for fuel-gas production and fluidized-bed combustors, will eventually require filters to operate up to 930 and 870 C (1700 and 1600 F). Results from the final test campaign at the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project showed that at these higher temperatures, ceramic filter reliability may be problematical, so it will be of interest to re-examine the possibility of using advanced metal hot-gas filters for these advanced PFBC applications in view of the exceptional corrosion resistance of Fe aluminides in high-temperature sulfur-bearing atmospheres. For the second-generation PFBCs, performance criteria for the carbonizer filters are essentially the same as those for integrated gasification combined cycle systems (reducing environments). For the combustor, issues are similar to those of advanced first-generation units (oxidizing) except that the fuel (byproduct char from carbonizer) should be somewhat clearer and filter performance requirements less demanding than for PFBC systems such as the Tidd plant. For the carbonizer system, the nearer term (market entry) goals are to develop filter materials that will perform at 650-760 C (1200-1400 F), with an increase to 800-930 C (1500-1700 F) for improved cycle efficiency.

  19. ARRANGEMENT FOR REPLACING FILTERS

    DOEpatents

    Blomgren, R.A.; Bohlin, N.J.C.

    1957-08-27

    An improved filtered air exhaust system which may be continually operated during the replacement of the filters without the escape of unfiltered air is described. This is accomplished by hermetically sealing the box like filter containers in a rectangular tunnel with neoprene covered sponge rubber sealing rings coated with a silicone impregnated pneumatic grease. The tunnel through which the filters are pushed is normal to the exhaust air duct. A number of unused filters are in line behind the filters in use, and are moved by a hydraulic ram so that a fresh filter is positioned in the air duct. The used filter is pushed into a waiting receptacle and is suitably disposed. This device permits a rapid and safe replacement of a radiation contaminated filter without interruption to the normal flow of exhaust air.

  20. Directional Joint Bilateral Filter for Depth Images

    PubMed Central

    Le, Anh Vu; Jung, Seung-Won; Won, Chee Sun

    2014-01-01

    Depth maps taken by the low cost Kinect sensor are often noisy and incomplete. Thus, post-processing for obtaining reliable depth maps is necessary for advanced image and video applications such as object recognition and multi-view rendering. In this paper, we propose adaptive directional filters that fill the holes and suppress the noise in depth maps. Specifically, novel filters whose window shapes are adaptively adjusted based on the edge direction of the color image are presented. Experimental results show that our method yields higher quality filtered depth maps than other existing methods, especially at the edge boundaries. PMID:24971470

  1. Directional joint bilateral filter for depth images.

    PubMed

    Le, Anh Vu; Jung, Seung-Won; Won, Chee Sun

    2014-01-01

    Depth maps taken by the low cost Kinect sensor are often noisy and incomplete. Thus, post-processing for obtaining reliable depth maps is necessary for advanced image and video applications such as object recognition and multi-view rendering. In this paper, we propose adaptive directional filters that fill the holes and suppress the noise in depth maps. Specifically, novel filters whose window shapes are adaptively adjusted based on the edge direction of the color image are presented. Experimental results show that our method yields higher quality filtered depth maps than other existing methods, especially at the edge boundaries. PMID:24971470

  2. Corrosion resistant filter unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, J.M.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a fluid filter assembly adapted for the filtration of corrosive fluid to be injected into a well bore at pressure levels which may exceed 10,000 pounds per square. It comprises: a frame assembly for the mounting of a portion of the fluid filter assembly therein, the frame assembly; filter pods, the plurality of filter pods forming at least two banks of filter pods, each bank having at least two filter pods therein, each bank of the filter pods being supported by one or more the supports of the plurality of supports secured to selected struts of the frame assembly; an inlet manifold to direct the corrosive fluid to the plurality of filter pods, the inlet manifold being interconnected to the banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods whereby flow of the corrosive fluid can be directed to each bank of the filter pods; an outlet manifold to direct the corrosive fluid from the filter pods, the outlet manifold being interconnected to the banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods; a first valve means to control the flow of the corrosive fluid between banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods whereby the flow of the corrosive fluid can be selectively directed to each bank of the filter pods; a second valve means to selectively control the flow of the corrosive fluid between the inlet manifold and the outlet manifold; and union means for interconnecting the filter pods, inlet manifold and outlet manifold, each of the union means including mechanical connection means and internal seal means for isolating the corrosive fluids from the mechanical connection means.

  3. Optical and hybrid computing; Proceedings of the Meeting, Leesburg, VA, Mar. 24-27, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.

    The design, operation, and applications of optical and hybrid computer systems are discussed in reviews and reports of recent theoretical and experimental investigations. Topics examined include algorithms for linear and nonlinear systems, architectures based on bistable and molecular devices, neural networks for computing, and application-driven devices and system developments. Consideration is given to optical-computing advances in Japan, one-dimensional signal processing using the optical transfer function, parallel logic by spatial filtering, molecular computing and chemical logic, and optical pattern recognition and AI for scene analysis.

  4. Rigid porous filter

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  5. Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Miley, Harry S.; Thompson, Robert C.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Perkins, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, whereafter the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant.

  6. Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Miley, H.S.; Thompson, R.C.; Hubbard, C.W.; Perkins, R.W.

    1997-03-25

    Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, where after the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant. 5 figs.

  7. Cordierite silicon nitride filters

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. ); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. ); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. )

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

  8. Bag filters for TPP

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Chekalov; Yu.I. Gromov; V.V. Chekalov

    2007-05-15

    Cleaning of TPP flue gases with bag filters capable of pulsed regeneration is examined. A new filtering element with a three-dimensional filtering material formed from a needle-broached cloth in which the filtration area, as compared with a conventional smooth bag, is increased by more than two times, is proposed. The design of a new FRMI type of modular filter is also proposed. A standard series of FRMI filters with a filtration area ranging from 800 to 16,000 m{sup 2} is designed for an output more than 1 million m{sub 3}/h of with respect to cleaned gas. The new bag filter permits dry collection of sulfur oxides from waste gases at TPP operating on high-sulfur coals. The design of the filter makes it possible to replace filter elements without taking the entire unit out of service.

  9. HEPA filter monitoring program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  10. MST Filterability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Burket, P. R.; Duignan, M. R.

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  11. Survey of digital filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, H. T., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A three part survey is made of the state-of-the-art in digital filtering. Part one presents background material including sampled data transformations and the discrete Fourier transform. Part two, digital filter theory, gives an in-depth coverage of filter categories, transfer function synthesis, quantization and other nonlinear errors, filter structures and computer aided design. Part three presents hardware mechanization techniques. Implementations by general purpose, mini-, and special-purpose computers are presented.

  12. The ribosome filter redux.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Vincent P; Edelman, Gerald M

    2007-09-15

    The ribosome filter hypothesis postulates that ribosomes are not simply translation machines but also function as regulatory elements that differentially affect or filter the translation of particular mRNAs. On the basis of new information, we take the opportunity here to review the ribosome filter hypothesis, suggest specific mechanisms of action, and discuss recent examples from the literature that support it. PMID:17890902

  13. Filter service system

    DOEpatents

    Sellers, Cheryl L.; Nordyke, Daniel S.; Crandell, Richard A.; Tomlins, Gregory; Fei, Dong; Panov, Alexander; Lane, William H.; Habeger, Craig F.

    2008-12-09

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, a system for removing matter from a filtering device includes a gas pressurization assembly. An element of the assembly is removably attachable to a first orifice of the filtering device. The system also includes a vacuum source fluidly connected to a second orifice of the filtering device.

  14. HEPA filter encapsulation

    DOEpatents

    Gates-Anderson, Dianne D.; Kidd, Scott D.; Bowers, John S.; Attebery, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

  15. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

  16. Practical Active Capacitor Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described that filters an electrical signal. The filtering uses a capacitor multiplier circuit where the capacitor multiplier circuit uses at least one amplifier circuit and at least one capacitor. A filtered electrical signal results from a direct connection from an output of the at least one amplifier circuit.

  17. Advances in multimodal neuroimaging: Hybrid MR-PET and MR-PET-EEG at 3 T and 9.4 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, N. Jon; Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Arrubla, Jorge; Zhang, Ke; Warbrick, Tracy; Mauler, Jörg; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Romanzetti, Sandro; Felder, Jörg; Celik, Avdo; Rota-Kops, Elena; Iida, Hidehiro; Langen, Karl-Josef; Herzog, Hans; Neuner, Irene

    2013-04-01

    Multi-modal MR-PET-EEG data acquisition in simultaneous mode confers a number of advantages at 3 T and 9.4 T. The three modalities complement each other well; structural-functional imaging being the domain of MRI, molecular imaging with specific tracers is the strength of PET, and EEG provides a temporal dimension where the other two modalities are weak. The utility of hybrid MR-PET at 3 T in a clinical setting is presented and critically discussed. The potential problems and the putative gains to be accrued from hybrid imaging at 9.4 T, with examples from the human brain, are outlined. Steps on the road to 9.4 T multi-modal MR-PET-EEG are also illustrated. From an MR perspective, the potential for ultra-high resolution structural imaging is discussed and example images of the cerebellum with an isotropic resolution of 320 μm are presented, setting the stage for hybrid imaging at ultra-high field. Further, metabolic imaging is discussed and high-resolution images of the sodium distribution are presented. Examples of tumour imaging on a 3 T MR-PET system are presented and discussed. Finally, the perspectives for multi-modal imaging are discussed based on two on-going studies, the first comparing MR and PET methods for the measurement of perfusion and the second which looks at tumour delineation based on MRI contrasts but the knowledge of tumour extent is based on simultaneously acquired PET data.

  18. Highly efficient spin filtering of ballistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmuller, S. J.; Trypiniotis, T.; Cho, W. S.; Hirohata, A.; Lew, W. S.; Vaz, C. A.; Bland, J. A.

    2004-04-01

    Spin dependent electron transport in hybrid Au/Co/Cu/NiFe/n-GaAs spin valve Schottky barrier structures was investigated using photoexcitation at various wavelengths. For excitation with the photon energy well above the Schottky barrier height we found a ˜2400% increase in helicity dependent photocurrent on switching the spin valve from parallel to antiparallel alignment. Our observations provide clear evidence for highly efficient spin filtering of spin polarized ballistic electrons.

  19. Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition

    DOEpatents

    Allebach, J.P.; Ochoa, E.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1987-10-09

    A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  20. Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition

    DOEpatents

    Allebach, Jan P.; Ochoa, Ellen; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed.

  1. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate became the fundamental cigarette filter material. By the mid-1960s, the meaning of the phrase ‘filter problem’ changed, such that the effort to develop effective filters became a campaign to market cigarette designs that would sustain the myth of cigarette filter efficacy. Conclusions This study indicates that cigarette designers at Philip Morris, British-American Tobacco, Lorillard and other companies believed for a time that they might be able to reduce some of the most dangerous substances in mainstream smoke through advanced engineering of filter tips. In their attempts to accomplish this, they developed the now ubiquitous cellulose acetate cigarette filter. By the mid-1960s cigarette designers realised that the intractability of the ‘filter problem’ derived from a simple fact: that which is harmful in mainstream smoke and that which provides the smoker with ‘satisfaction’ are essentially one and the same. Only in the wake of this realisation did the agenda of cigarette designers appear to transition away from mitigating the health hazards of smoking and towards the perpetuation of the notion that cigarette filters are effective in reducing these hazards. Filters became a marketing tool, designed to keep and recruit smokers as consumers of these hazardous products. PMID:21504917

  2. Regenerative particulate filter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descamp, V. A.; Boex, M. W.; Hussey, M. W.; Larson, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Development, design, and fabrication of a prototype filter regeneration unit for regenerating clean fluid particle filter elements by using a backflush/jet impingement technique are reported. Development tests were also conducted on a vortex particle separator designed for use in zero gravity environment. A maintainable filter was designed, fabricated and tested that allows filter element replacement without any leakage or spillage of system fluid. Also described are spacecraft fluid system design and filter maintenance techniques with respect to inflight maintenance for the space shuttle and space station.

  3. ELECTROSTATICALLY ENHANCED BARRIER FILTER COLLECTION

    SciTech Connect

    John Erjavec; Michael D. Mann; Ryan Z. Knutson; Michael L. Swanson; Michael E. Collings

    2003-06-01

    This work was performed through the University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department with assistance from UND's Energy & Environmental Research Center. This research was undertaken in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Technology Center Program Solicitation No. DE-PS26-99FT40479, Support of Advanced Coal Research at U.S. Universities and Colleges. Specifically, this research was in support of the UCR Core Program and addressees Topic 1, Improved Hot-Gas Contaminant and Particulate Removal Techniques, introducing an advanced design for particulate removal. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) offers the potential for very high efficiency and clean electric generation. In IGCC, the product gas from the gasifier needs to be cleaned of particulate matter to avoid erosion and high-temperature corrosion difficulties arising with the turbine blades. Current methods involve cooling the gases to {approx}100 C to condense alkalis and remove sulfur and particulates using conventional scrubber technology. This ''cool'' gas is then directed to a turbine for electric generation. While IGCC has the potential to reach efficiencies of over 50%, the current need to cool the product gas for cleaning prior to firing it in a turbine is keeping IGCC from reaching its full potential. The objective of the current project was to develop a highly reliable particulate collector system that can meet the most stringent turbine requirements and emission standards, can operate at temperatures above 1500 F, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, is compatible with various sorbent injection schemes for sulfur and alkali control, can be integrated into a variety of configurations for both pressurized gasification and combustion, increases allowable face velocity to reduce filter system capital cost, and is cost-competitive with existing technologies. The collector being developed is a new concept in particulate control called electrostatically enhanced

  4. 3-D woven, mullite matrix, composite filter

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.E.; Painter, C.J.; Radford, K.C. LeCostaouec, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    Westinghouse, with Techniweave as a major subcontractor, is conducting a three-phase program aimed at providing advanced candle filters for a 1996 pilot scale demonstration in one of the two hot gas filter systems at Southern Company Service`s Wilsonville PSD Facility. The Base Program (Phases I and II) objective is to develop and demonstrate the suitability of the Westinghouse/Techniweave next generation composite candle filter for use in Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and/or Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. The Optional Task (Phase M, Task 5) objective is to fabricate, inspect and ship to Wilsonville Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful commercializaion of advanced coal-based power-generation systems such as Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion (PFBC), including second-generation PFBC, and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC). Current generation monolithic ceramic filters are subject to catastrophic failure because they have very low resistance to crack propagation. To overcome this problem, a damage-tolerant ceramic filter element is needed.

  5. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  6. Filter system cost comparison for IGCC and PFBC power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.; McDaniel, H.M.; Buchanan, T.

    1995-12-01

    A cost comparison was conducted between the filter systems for two advanced coal-based power plants. The results from this study are presented. The filter system is based on a Westinghouse advanced particulate filter concept, which is designed to operate with ceramic candle filters. The Foster Wheeler second-generation 453 MWe (net) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) and the KRW 458 MWe (net) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants are used for the comparison. The comparison presents the general differences of the two power plants and the process-related filtration conditions for PFBC and IGCC systems. The results present the conceptual designs for the PFBC and IGCC filter systems as well as a cost summary comparison. The cost summary comparison includes the total plant cost, the fixed operating and maintenance cost, the variable operating and maintenance cost, and the effect on the cost of electricity (COE) for the two filter systems.

  7. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  8. METAL FILTERS FOR PRESSURIZED FLUID BED COMBUSTION (PFBC) APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-01-02

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. As part of the demonstration effort, SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field-tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous commercial metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions.

  9. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  10. Flare Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, M.; Dubieniecki, P.

    2015-12-01

    On the basis of the Solar Maximum Mission observations, Švestka ( Solar Phys. 121, 399, 1989) introduced a new class of flares, the so-called flare hybrids. When they start, they look like typical compact flares (phase 1), but later on, they look like flares with arcades of magnetic loops (phase 2). We summarize the characteristic features of flare hybrids in soft and hard X-rays as well as in the extreme ultraviolet; these features allow us to distinguish flare hybrids from other flares. In this article, additional energy release or long plasma cooling timescales are suggested as possible causes of phase 2. We estimate the frequency of flare hybrids, and study the magnetic configurations favorable for flare hybrid occurrence. Flare hybrids appear to be quite frequent, and the difference between the lengths of magnetic loops in the two interacting loop systems seem to be a crucial parameter for determining their characteristics.

  11. X-ray metal film filters at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A. M.

    1989-01-01

    Thin aluminum foil filters have been evaluated at cryogenic temperatures. The results of the test program, including cold cycling and vibration testing, indicate that these filters are fully successful at cryogenic temperatures and can provide the high X-ray transmittance and high background rejection required for the blocking filters which are being developed for the X-Ray Spectrometer, one of the focal plane instruments on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility.

  12. Desensitized Optimal Filtering and Sensor Fusion Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc., has developed a software toolkit that filters and processes navigational data from multiple sensor sources. A key component of the toolkit is a trajectory optimization technique that reduces the sensitivity of Kalman filters with respect to model parameter uncertainties. The sensor fusion toolkit also integrates recent advances in adaptive Kalman and sigma-point filters for non-Gaussian problems with error statistics. This Phase II effort provides new filtering and sensor fusion techniques in a convenient package that can be used as a stand-alone application for ground support and/or onboard use. Its modular architecture enables ready integration with existing tools. A suite of sensor models and noise distribution as well as Monte Carlo analysis capability are included to enable statistical performance evaluations.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  14. Nitride-bonded silicon carbide composite filter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.N.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate an advanced hot gas filter, using ceramic component technology, with enhanced durability to provide increased resistance to thermal fatigue and crack propagation. The material is silicon carbide fiber reinforced nitride bonded silicon carbide.

  15. Fabric filter blinding mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Notestein, J.E.; Shang, J.Y.

    1982-08-01

    This discussion of various bag/cloth filter degradation mechanisms is mostly common sense. However, this information is occasionally lost in the subtleties of real-system operation. Although this paper is written with reference to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) applications, the insights are generally applicable. For enumeration of particular filter fabric and baghouse experiences in FBC applications, the reader is referred to a report by Davy McKee Corporatin (no date). A fabric filter is a composite matrix of fibers oriented to retain the dust particles from dust-laden gas. The cleaned gas passes through the fabric filter; the retained dust particles are deposited on the surface of (and within) the fiber matrix. The retained dust can be later removed through mechanical means. The fabric may be made of any fibrous material, spun in yarn, and then woven, impacted, needled, or bonded into a felt. Deep penetration of aggregated fine particles, lack of dust removal during filter cleaning, and chars or condensed aerosols may contribute to the increase in pressure drop across the filter. This increases the filter operation power consumption and, consequently, reduces the filtration capacity. The phenomenon of building a high-pressure drop in spite of filter cleaning provisions is known as blinding. In order to maintain an acceptable gas throughput, blinding problems must be addressed. Recommendations are given: maintain temperature above dew point, use filter aids, by-pass filter during start-up or operational upsets, etc.

  16. Filtering separators having filter cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Margraf, A.

    1984-08-28

    This invention relates to filtering separators of the kind having a housing which is subdivided by a partition, provided with parallel rows of holes or slots, into a dust-laden gas space for receiving filter elements positioned in parallel rows and being impinged upon by dust-laden gas from the outside towards the inside, and a clean gas space. In addition, the housing is provided with a chamber for cleansing the filter element surfaces of a row by counterflow action while covering at the same time the partition holes or slots leading to the adjacent rows of filter elements. The chamber is arranged for the supply of compressed air to at least one injector arranged to feed compressed air and secondary air to the row of filter elements to be cleansed. The chamber is also reciprocatingly displaceable along the partition in periodic and intermittent manner. According to the invention, a surface of the chamber facing towards the partition covers at least two of the rows of holes or slots of the partition, and the chamber is closed upon itself with respect to the clean gas space, and is connected to a compressed air reservoir via a distributor pipe and a control valve. At least one of the rows of holes or slots of the partition and the respective row of filter elements in flow communication therewith are in flow communication with the discharge side of at least one injector acted upon with compressed air. At least one other row of the rows of holes or slots of the partition and the respective row of filter elements is in flow communication with the suction side of the injector.

  17. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  18. Moving granular-bed filter development program. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1994-04-01

    Advanced, coal-based, power plants, such as IGCC and Advanced-PFBC, are currently nearing commercial demonstration. These power plant technologies require hot gas filtration as part of their gas cleaning trains. Ceramic barrier filters are the major filter candidates being developed for these hot gas cleaning applications. While ceramic barrier filters achieve high levels of particle removal, concerns exist for their reliability and operability in these applications. An alternative hot gas filtration technology is the moving granular bed filter. An advanced, moving granular bed filter has been conceived, and early development activities performed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science and Technology Center. This document reports on the Base Contract tasks performed to resolve the barrier technical issues for this technology. The concept, the Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter (SMGBF) has a concurrent downward, gas and bed media flow configuration that results in simplified features and improved scaleup feasibility compared to alternative designs. Two modes of bed media operation were assessed in the program: once-through using pelletized power plant waste as bed media, and recycle of bed media via standleg and pneumatic transport techniques. Cold Model testing; high-temperature, high-pressure testing; and pelletization testing using advanced power plant wastes, have been conducted in the program. A commercial, economic assessment of the SMGBF technology was performed for IGCC and Advanced-PFBC applications. The evaluation shows that the barrier technical issues can be resolved, and that the technology is potentially competitive with ceramic barrier filters.

  19. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  20. Optically tunable optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Robert T. B.; Wah, Christopher; Iizuka, Keigo; Shimotahira, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically tunable optical filter that uses photorefractive barium titanate. With our filter we implement a spectrum analyzer at 632.8 nm with a resolution of 1.2 nm. We simulate a wavelength-division multiplexing system by separating two semiconductor laser diodes, at 1560 nm and 1578 nm, with the same filter. The filter has a bandwidth of 6.9 nm. We also use the same filter to take 2.5-nm-wide slices out of a 20-nm-wide superluminescent diode centered at 840 nm. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate a phenomenal tuning range from 632.8 to 1578 nm with a single filtering device.

  1. Contactor/filter improvements

    DOEpatents

    Stelman, D.

    1988-06-30

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream is described. The filter includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. A cover screen isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of porous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses. 6 figs.

  2. Filter vapor trap

    DOEpatents

    Guon, Jerold

    1976-04-13

    A sintered filter trap is adapted for insertion in a gas stream of sodium vapor to condense and deposit sodium thereon. The filter is heated and operated above the melting temperature of sodium, resulting in a more efficient means to remove sodium particulates from the effluent inert gas emanating from the surface of a liquid sodium pool. Preferably the filter leaves are precoated with a natrophobic coating such as tetracosane.

  3. Independent task Fourier filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2001-11-01

    Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.

  4. Filter construction and design.

    PubMed

    Jornitz, Maik W

    2006-01-01

    Sterilizing and pre-filters are manufactured in different formats and designs. The criteria for the specific designs are set by the application and the specifications of the filter user. The optimal filter unit or even system requires evaluation, such as flow rate, throughput, unspecific adsorption, steam sterilizability and chemical compatibility. These parameters are commonly tested within a qualification phase, which ensures that an optimal filter design and combination finds its use. If such design investigations are neglected it could be costly in the process scale. PMID:16570863

  5. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  6. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-06-06

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 2 figs.

  7. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line.

  8. Drug-like and non drug-like pattern classification based on simple topology descriptor using hybrid neural network.

    PubMed

    Wan-Mamat, Wan Mohd Fahmi; Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat; Wahab, Habibah A; Wan-Mamat, Wan Mohd Fairuz

    2009-01-01

    An intelligent prediction system has been developed to discriminate drug-like and non drug-like molecules pattern. The system is constructed by using the application of advanced version of standard multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network called Hybrid Multilayer Perceptron (HMLP) neural network and trained using Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) training algorithm. In this work, a well understood and easy excess Rule of Five + Veber filter properties are selected as the topological descriptor. The main idea behind the selection of this simple descriptor is to assure that the system could be used widely, beneficial and more advantageous regardless at all user level within a drug discovery organization. PMID:19964424

  9. Vehicle Data for Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Fuel Vehicles (HEVs) from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFCD)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AFDC provides search capabilities for many different models of both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Engine and transmission type, fuel and class, fuel economy and emission certification are some of the facts available. The search will also help users locate dealers in their areas and do cost analyses. Information on alternative fuel vehicles and on advanced technology vehicles, along with calculators, resale and conversion information, links to incentives and programs such as Clean Cities, and dozens of fact sheets and publications make this section of the AFDC a valuable resource for car buyers.

  10. Identification of potential sources and source regions of fine ambient particles measured at Gosan background site in Korea using advanced hybrid receptor model combined with positive matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. S.; Moon, K. J.; Kim, Y. J.

    2006-11-01

    The size- and time-resolved measurement of particulate trace elements was made using an eight-stage Davis Rotating Unit for Monitoring sampler and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence system from 29 March to 29 May in 2002 at Gosan, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in east Asia. As a result, continuous 3-hour average concentrations were obtained for 19 elements including S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Cl, Cu, Zn, Ti, K, Mn, Pb, Ni, V, Se, As, Rb, Cr, and Br. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to the size-resolved aerosol data sets in order to identify the possible sources and to estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass in each size range. Twelve sources were then resolved in the fine size range (0.07 ˜ 1.15 μm), including continental aerosol, biomass burning, coal combustion, oil heating furnace, residual oil fired boiler, municipal incineration, nonferrous metal source, ferrous metal source, gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter, and volcanic emission. A newly developed hybrid receptor model, concentration, retention time, and source emission weighted trajectory (CRSWT), was then applied to the source intensities derived from the PMF analysis by incorporating meteorological and source inventory information of the study region in order to suggest the regional information of long-range transported fine aerosol sources. The CRSWT model was able to resolve highly potential source areas and pathways for the fine ambient aerosol at the Gosan background site.

  11. Tunable light emission by exciplex state formation between hybrid halide perovskite and core/shell quantum dots: Implications in advanced LEDs and photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Rafael S; de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Suarez, Isaac; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of exciplex state electroluminescence due to carrier injection between the hybrid lead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) and quantum dots (core/shell PbS/CdS). Single layers of perovskite (PS) and quantum dots (QDs) have been produced by solution processing methods, and their photoluminescent properties are compared to those of bilayer samples in both PS/QD and QD/PS configurations. Exciplex emission at lower energies than the band gap of both PS and QD has been detected. The exciplex emission wavelength of this mixed system can be simply tuned by controlling the QD size. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using those configurations, which provide light emission with considerably low turn-on potential. The "color" of the LED can also be tuned by controlling the applied bias. The presence of the exciplex state PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications not only in tunable LEDs but also in the preparation of intermediate band gap photovoltaic devices with the potentiality of surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit. PMID:26844299

  12. Tunable light emission by exciplex state formation between hybrid halide perovskite and core/shell quantum dots: Implications in advanced LEDs and photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Rafael S.; de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Suarez, Isaac; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P.; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of exciplex state electroluminescence due to carrier injection between the hybrid lead halide perovskite (MAPbI3–xClx) and quantum dots (core/shell PbS/CdS). Single layers of perovskite (PS) and quantum dots (QDs) have been produced by solution processing methods, and their photoluminescent properties are compared to those of bilayer samples in both PS/QD and QD/PS configurations. Exciplex emission at lower energies than the band gap of both PS and QD has been detected. The exciplex emission wavelength of this mixed system can be simply tuned by controlling the QD size. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using those configurations, which provide light emission with considerably low turn-on potential. The “color” of the LED can also be tuned by controlling the applied bias. The presence of the exciplex state PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications not only in tunable LEDs but also in the preparation of intermediate band gap photovoltaic devices with the potentiality of surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit. PMID:26844299

  13. Designed synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes@Cu@MoS2 hybrid as advanced electrocatalyst for highly efficient hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Li, Jing; Lin, Xiaoqing; Li, Xinzhe; Fang, Yiyun; Jiao, Lixin; An, Xincai; Fu, Yan; Jin, Jun; Li, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Design and synthesis of non-precious-metal catalyst for efficient electrochemical transformation of water to molecular hydrogen in acid environments is of paramount importance in reducing energy losses during the water splitting process. Here, the hybrid material of MoS2-coated Cu loaded on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs@Cu@MoS2) was synthesized using chemical process and hydrothermal method. It was found that the participation of MWCNTs and Cu nanoparticles not only improved the electrical conductivity of the catalyst, but also further enhanced the catalytic activity by synergistic effect with edge-exposed MoS2-coating. Electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the catalyst exhibited excellent hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity with large cathode currents (small overpotential of 184 mV for 10 mA cm-2 current density) and a Tafel slope as small as 62 mV per decade. Furthermore, it was discovered that the current density of this composite catalyst had a little decrease after the continual 1000 cycling, which showed the catalyst had a high stability in the recycling process. These findings confirmed that this catalyst was a useful and earth-abundant material for water splitting.

  14. Uneven-order decentered Shapiro filters for boundary filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falissard, F.

    2015-07-01

    This paper addresses the use of Shapiro filters for boundary filtering. A new class of uneven-order decentered Shapiro filters is proposed and compared to classical Shapiro filters and even-order decentered Shapiro filters. The theoretical analysis shows that the proposed boundary filters are more accurate than the centered Shapiro filters and more robust than the even-order decentered boundary filters usable at the same distance to the boundary. The benefit of the new boundary filters is assessed for computations using the compressible Euler equations.

  15. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly are disclosed for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut. 9 figs.

  16. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut.

  17. Advanced Jet Noise Exhaust Concepts in NASA's N+2 Supersonics Validation Study and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Upcoming Hybrid Wing Body Acoustics Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Doty, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic and flow-field experiments were conducted on exhaust concepts for the next generation supersonic, commercial aircraft. The concepts were developed by Lockheed Martin (LM), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and General Electric Global Research (GEGR) as part of an N+2 (next generation forward) aircraft system study initiated by the Supersonics Project in NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The experiments were conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The exhaust concepts presented here utilized lobed-mixers and ejectors. A powered third-stream was implemented to improve ejector acoustic performance. One concept was found to produce stagnant flow within the ejector and the other produced discrete-frequency tones (due to flow separations within the model) that degraded the acoustic performance of the exhaust concept. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project has been investigating a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft as a possible configuration for meeting N+2 system level goals for noise, emissions, and fuel burn. A recently completed NRA led by Boeing Research and Technology resulted in a full-scale aircraft design and wind tunnel model. This model will be tested acoustically in NASA Langley's 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel and will include dual jet engine simulators and broadband engine noise simulators as part of the test campaign. The objectives of the test are to characterize the system level noise, quantify the effects of shielding, and generate a valuable database for prediction method development. Further details of the test and various component preparations are described.

  18. A Novel and Facile One-Pot Solvothermal Synthesis of PEDOT-PSS/Ni-Mn-Co-O Hybrid as an Advanced Supercapacitor Electrode Material.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chengjie; Yang, Chunming; Jiang, Min; Deng, Cuifen; Yang, Lishan; Li, Junhua; Qian, Dong

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a novel and facile one-pot method has been developed for the synthesis of a hybrid consisting of Ni-Mn-Co ternary oxide and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT-PSS/NMCO) with a hierarchical three-dimensional net structure via a solvothermal-coprecipitation coupled with oxidative polymerization route. Apart from the achievement of polymerization, coprecipitation, and solvothermal in one pot, the hydroxyl (OH(-)) ions generated from the oxidative polymerization of organic monomer by neutral KMnO4 solution were skillfully employed as precipitants for metal ions. As compared with the PEDOT-PSS/Ni-Mn binary oxide, PEDOT-PSS/Co-Mn binary oxide, and PEDOT-PSS/MnO2, PEDOT-PSS1.5/NMCO exhibits overwhelmingly superior supercapacitive performance, more specifically, a high specific capacitance of 1234.5 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), a good capacitance retention of 83.7% at a high current density of 5 A g(-1) after 1000 cycles, an energy density of 51.9 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 275 W kg(-1), and an energy density of 21.4 W h kg(-1) at an extremely elevated power density of 5500 W kg(-1). Noticeably, the energy density and power density of PEDOT-PSS/NMCO are by far higher than those of the existing analogues recently reported. The exceptional performance of PEDOT-PSS/NMCO benefits from its unique mesoporous architecture, which could provide a larger reaction surface area, faster ion and electron transfer ability, and good structural stability. The desirable integrated performance enables the multicomponent composite to be a promising electrode material for energy storage applications. PMID:26794146

  19. Downflow dust filter

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, K.L.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes an industrial dust filter apparatus comprising: a housing including upper, intermediate and lower sections, the upper section having a top opening inlet for particulate laden gases and the lower section tapering downwardly to a particulate outlet; a plurality of vertically arranged substantially cylindrical filters supported in substantially parallel relationship to each other in the intermediate section of the housing, the filters being closed at their upper ends and having their exterior filter surfaces exposed to particulate laden gases from the inlet; at least one horizontal duct extending across the housing beneath the filters, closed at one end and opening at its other end to a clean gas outlet through a side wall of the intermediate housing section; means communicating the lower open end of the filters through the upper walls of the duct so that the duct functions as a clean gas plenum; a plurality of verturis, vertically supported in the duct, on aligned with each filter; and means in the duct for pulse firing a jet of air upwardly through the venturis into the interior of the filters to remove particulates from the outer surfaces thereof.

  20. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-12-31

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  1. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  2. Active rejector filter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchinskii, A.G.; Pirogov, S.G.; Savchenko, V.M.; Yakushev, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes an active rejector filter for suppressing noise signals in the frequency range 50-100 Hz and for extracting a vlf information signal. The filter has the following characteristics: a high input impedance, a resonant frequency of 75 Hz, a Q of 1.25, and an attenuation factor of 53 dB at resonant frequency.

  3. Qualifications of Candle Filters for Combined Cycle Combustion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Wiltowski

    2008-08-31

    The direct firing of coal produces particulate matter that has to be removed for environmental and process reasons. In order to increase the current advanced coal combustion processes, under the U.S. Department of Energy's auspices, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) has developed ceramic candle filters that can operate at high temperatures. The Coal Research Center of Southern Illinois University (SIUC), in collaboration with SWPC, developed a program for long-term filter testing at the SIUC Steam Plant followed by experiments using a single-filter reactor unit. The objectives of this program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy were to identify and demonstrate the stability of porous candle filter elements for use in high temperature atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) process applications. These verifications were accomplished through extended time slipstream testing of a candle filter array under AFBC conditions using SIUC's existing AFBC boiler. Temperature, mass flow rate, and differential pressure across the filter array were monitored for a duration of 45 days. After test exposure at SIUC, the filter elements were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and BET surface area analyses. In addition, a single-filter reactor was built and utilized to study long term filter operation, the permeability exhibited by a filter element before and after the slipstream test, and the thermal shock resilience of a used filter by observing differential pressure changes upon rapid heating and cooling of the filter. The data acquired during the slipstream test and the post-test evaluations demonstrated the suitability of filter elements in advanced power generation applications.

  4. Sintered composite filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1986-05-02

    A particulate filter medium formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers is described. Preferred composition is about 40 vol.% quartz and about 60 vol.% stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100/sup 0/C to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550/sup 0/C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  5. Sub-micron filter

    DOEpatents

    Tepper, Frederick; Kaledin, Leonid

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  6. Implicit Kalman filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skliar, M.; Ramirez, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    For an implicitly defined discrete system, a new algorithm for Kalman filtering is developed and an efficient numerical implementation scheme is proposed. Unlike the traditional explicit approach, the implicit filter can be readily applied to ill-conditioned systems and allows for generalization to descriptor systems. The implementation of the implicit filter depends on the solution of the congruence matrix equation (A1)(Px)(AT1) = Py. We develop a general iterative method for the solution of this equation, and prove necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence. It is shown that when the system matrices of an implicit system are sparse, the implicit Kalman filter requires significantly less computer time and storage to implement as compared to the traditional explicit Kalman filter. Simulation results are presented to illustrate and substantiate the theoretical developments.

  7. Multidimensional synthetic estimation filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Stanley E., Jr.; Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The synthetic estimation filter (SEF) crafts an affine variation into its response to a changing parameter (e.g. scale or rotation). Sets of such filters are used in an estimation correlator to reduce the number of filters required for a given tracking accuracy. By overspecifying the system (one more SEF than parameters to be tracked), the ratio of correlation responses between filters forms a robust estimator into the spanned domain of the parameters. Previous results dealt with a laboratory correlator which could track a single parameter. This paper explores the SEF and the estimator's extension to more dimensions. A 2D example is given in which a reduction of filters from 25 to 3 is demonstrated to span a 4-degree square portion of pose space.

  8. Information geometric nonlinear filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Nigel J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper develops information geometric representations for nonlinear filters in continuous time. The posterior distribution associated with an abstract nonlinear filtering problem is shown to satisfy a stochastic differential equation on a Hilbert information manifold. This supports the Fisher metric as a pseudo-Riemannian metric. Flows of Shannon information are shown to be connected with the quadratic variation of the process of posterior distributions in this metric. Apart from providing a suitable setting in which to study such information-theoretic properties, the Hilbert manifold has an appropriate topology from the point of view of multi-objective filter approximations. A general class of finite-dimensional exponential filters is shown to fit within this framework, and an intrinsic evolution equation, involving Amari's -1-covariant derivative, is developed for such filters. Three example systems, one of infinite dimension, are developed in detail.

  9. Molecular circuits for dynamic noise filtering.

    PubMed

    Zechner, Christoph; Seelig, Georg; Rullan, Marc; Khammash, Mustafa

    2016-04-26

    The invention of the Kalman filter is a crowning achievement of filtering theory-one that has revolutionized technology in countless ways. By dealing effectively with noise, the Kalman filter has enabled various applications in positioning, navigation, control, and telecommunications. In the emerging field of synthetic biology, noise and context dependency are among the key challenges facing the successful implementation of reliable, complex, and scalable synthetic circuits. Although substantial further advancement in the field may very well rely on effectively addressing these issues, a principled protocol to deal with noise-as provided by the Kalman filter-remains completely missing. Here we develop an optimal filtering theory that is suitable for noisy biochemical networks. We show how the resulting filters can be implemented at the molecular level and provide various simulations related to estimation, system identification, and noise cancellation problems. We demonstrate our approach in vitro using DNA strand displacement cascades as well as in vivo using flow cytometry measurements of a light-inducible circuit in Escherichia coli. PMID:27078094

  10. Lossless compression of weight vectors from an adaptive filter

    SciTech Connect

    Bredemann, M.V.; Elliott, G.R.; Stearns, S.D.

    1994-08-01

    Techniques for lossless waveform compression can be applied to the transmission of weight vectors from an orbiting satellite. The vectors, which are a part of a hybrid analog/digital adaptive filter, are a representation of the radio frequency background seen by the satellite. An approach is used which treats each adaptive weight as a time-varying waveform.

  11. Development and Behavior of Metallic Filter Element and Numerical Simulation of Transport Phenomena during Filter Regeneration Process

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, C.; Zhang, J.; Wang, F.; Chen, J.

    2002-09-19

    Ceramic filters have revealed to have good thermal resistance and chemical corrosion resistance, but they are brittle and lack of toughness, and liable to rupture under large temperature swings. Metallic filters with their high strength and toughness and good heat conduction ability have showed good thermal shock resistance, 310S and FeAl intermetallic filter elements have exhibited additionally good chemical corrosion resistance in oxidizing and sulfidizing atmosphere( Sawada 1999 and Sunil et al. 1999). The behavior of metallic filter elements at high temperature was investigated and the filtration efficiency of the filter units for hot gas from a coal gasifier unit was tested. Pulse-jet cleaning of filter elements is a key component in the operation of the filtration unit. The pulse-jet is introduced into the filter element cavities from the clean side, and the dust cakes on the outer surfaces of the filter elements are detached and fall into the filter vessel. Sequential on-line cleaning of filter element groups yields a filter operation with no shutdown for filter regeneration. Development of advanced technologies in the design and operation of the pulse cleaning is one of the important tasks in order to increase the system reliability, to improve the filter life and to increase the filtering performance. The regeneration of filter element in gas filtration at high temperature plays a very important role for the operation of the process. Based on experimental observation and field operation, a numerical model is set up to numerically simulate the momentum and heat transport phenomena in the regeneration process, which is essential for understanding of the process, the optimization of process parameters and improvement of the design of the structure of venturi nozzle and the configuration of the apparatus.

  12. Stellarator hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Ludescher, C.

    1984-08-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the subject of tokamak-stellarator and pinch-stellarator hybrids, and points to two interesting new possibilities: compact-torus-stellarators and mirror-stellarators.

  13. Maximum yields might improve public health—if filter vents were banned: a lesson from the history of vented filters

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, L T; O'Connor, R J; Giovino, G A; Whetzel, C A; Pauly, J; Cummings, K M

    2006-01-01

    Filter ventilation is the dominant design feature of the modern cigarette that determines yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on smoking machine tests. The commercial use of filter ventilation was precipitated by the 1964 United States Surgeon‐General's report, further advanced by the adoption of an official Federal Trade Commission test in 1967, and still further advanced by the inclusion of a gas phase (carbon monoxide) measure in 1979. The first vented‐filter brand on the market in the United States (Carlton) in 1964 and the second major vented‐filter brand (True) in 1966 illustrate this. Ultimately, filter ventilation became a virtually required way to make very low tar cigarettes (less than 10 mg or, even more so, less than 5 mg tar). The key to the lower tar cigarette was not, in effect, the advanced selective filtration design characteristics or sophisticated tobacco selection or processing as envisioned by experts (although these techniques were and are used); the key to the very much lower tar cigarette was simply punching holes in the filter. We propose that the banning of filter vents, coupled with low maximum standard tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields, would contribute to making cigarettes much less palatable and foster smoking cessation or the use of clearly less hazardous nicotine delivery systems. It may be necessary to link low maximum yields with the banning of filter ventilation to achieve public health benefit from such maxima. PMID:16728759

  14. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  15. Method of filtering

    SciTech Connect

    White, H.R.

    1985-04-09

    This invention provides a non-fibrous combustible filter aid for vacuum pre-coat filter units which is effective to maintain a filter bed coating on rotary filter drums just sufficiently porous to pass the liquid of a slurry while retaining the slurry solids thereon and is capable of being scraped off the bed in thin film form with the slurry solids thereon. The filter aid comprises relatively non-compressible non-fibrous granular charcoal or nut shell particles having a dry bulk density from about 0.3 to about 0.6 grams per cubic centimeter, a particle density of about 1.4 to 1.7 grams per cubis centimeter and a particle size range of 30 to 125 microns. The filter aid of this invention is capable of being burned with the solids deposited thereon to recover the heat value thereof or to dispose of the solids, is free from silicates or other non-combustible ingredients, and is devoid of fibers which will interfere with the proper operation of the filter unit.

  16. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  17. Solc filter engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, W. J.; Title, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    A Solc (1965) filter configuration is presented which is both tunable and spectrally variable, since it possesses an adjustable bandwidth, and which although less efficient than a Lyot filter is attractive because of its spectral versatility. The lossless design, using only an entrance and exit polarizer, improves throughput generally and especially in the IR, where polarizers are less convenient than dichroic sheet polarizers. Attention is given to the transmission profiles of Solc filters with different numbers of elements and split elements, as well as their mechanical design features.

  18. Multilevel filtering elliptic preconditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. C. Jay; Chan, Tony F.; Tong, Charles

    1989-01-01

    A class of preconditioners is presented for elliptic problems built on ideas borrowed from the digital filtering theory and implemented on a multilevel grid structure. They are designed to be both rapidly convergent and highly parallelizable. The digital filtering viewpoint allows the use of filter design techniques for constructing elliptic preconditioners and also provides an alternative framework for understanding several other recently proposed multilevel preconditioners. Numerical results are presented to assess the convergence behavior of the new methods and to compare them with other preconditioners of multilevel type, including the usual multigrid method as preconditioner, the hierarchical basis method and a recent method proposed by Bramble-Pasciak-Xu.

  19. Material characterization of the clay bonded silicon carbide candle filters and ash formations in the W-APF system after 500 hours of hot gas filtration at AEP. Appendix to Advanced Particle Filter: Technical progress report No. 11, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    1993-04-05

    (1) After 500 hours of operation in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas environment, the fibrous outer membrane along the clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candles remained intact. The fibrous outer membrane did not permit penetration of fines through the filter wall. (2) An approximate 10-15% loss of material strength occurred within the intact candle clay bonded silicon carbide matrix after 500 hours of exposure to the PFBC gas environment. A relatively uniform strength change resulted within the intact candles throughout the vessel (i.e., top to bottom plenums), as well as within the various cluster ring positions (i.e., outer versus inner ring candle filters). A somewhat higher loss of material strength, i.e., 25% was detected in fractured candle segments removed from the W-APF ash hopper. (3) Sulfur which is present in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas system induced phase changes along the surface of the binder which coats the silicon carbide grains in the Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filter matrix.

  20. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    SciTech Connect

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  1. Lightweight ceramic filter components: Evaluation and application

    SciTech Connect

    Eggerstedt, P.M.

    1995-11-01

    Ceramic candle filtration is an attractive technology for particulate removal at high temperatures. The primary objective of this SBIR research program is to increase the performance, durability, and corrosion resistance of lightweight filter candles and filter tubesheet components (Fibrosic{trademark}), fabricated from vacuum formed chopped ceramic fiber (VFCCF), for use in advanced coal utilization applications. Phase 1 results proved that significant gains in material strength and particle retentivity are possible by treatment of VFCCF materials with colloidal ceramic oxides. Phase 2 effort will show how these treated materials tolerate high temperature and vapor-phase alkali species, on a long-term basis. With good durability and corrosion resistance, high temperature capability, and a low installed and replacement cost, these novel materials will help promote commercial acceptance of ceramic candle filter technology, as well as increase the efficiency and reliability of coal utilization processes in general.

  2. Characterization and Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters Utilized for Emission Control Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Mei; Jianren Zhou; Ziaul Huque

    1998-03-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power system requires both hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration to improve system thermal efficiency and overall performance. Therefore, effective high temperature ceramic filters are indispensable key component in both of the advanced IGCC and PFBC coal based power systems to perform hot gas cleanup work. To meet the environmental particulate emission requirements and improve thermal efficiency, ceramic filters are mainly utilized to cleanup the hot gas particulate to protect downstream heat exchanger and gas turbine components from fouling and corrosion. The mechanical integrity of ceramic filters and an efficient dust cake removal system are the key issues for hot gas cleanup systems. The filters must survive combined stresses due to mechanical, thermal, chemical and steam attack throughout normal operations (cold back pulse cleaning jets), unexpected excessive ash accumulation, and the start up and shut down conditions. To evaluate the design and performance of ceramic filters, different long term filter testing programs were conducted. To fulfill this purpose, two Advanced Particle Filter (APF) systems were complete at Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant, in Brilliant, Ohio in late 1990 as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. But the most undesirable thing ever happened was the sudden functional and physical failures of filters prior to its designed life time. In Tidd APF filter vessel, twenty eight (28) filters failed one time. Significant research effort has been carried out to find out the causes that led to the early failure of filters. In this work, the studies are emphasized on the possible failure causes analysis of rigid ceramic candle filters. The objectives of this program were to provide an systematic study on the characterization of filters, material laboratory analysis on filter micro-structure, the dust

  3. Parallel Subconvolution Filtering Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    These architectures are based on methods of vector processing and the discrete-Fourier-transform/inverse-discrete- Fourier-transform (DFT-IDFT) overlap-and-save method, combined with time-block separation of digital filters into frequency-domain subfilters implemented by use of sub-convolutions. The parallel-processing method implemented in these architectures enables the use of relatively small DFT-IDFT pairs, while filter tap lengths are theoretically unlimited. The size of a DFT-IDFT pair is determined by the desired reduction in processing rate, rather than on the order of the filter that one seeks to implement. The emphasis in this report is on those aspects of the underlying theory and design rules that promote computational efficiency, parallel processing at reduced data rates, and simplification of the designs of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits needed to implement high-order filters and correlators.

  4. Improved optical filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Filter includes partial polarizer between birefrigent elements. Plastic film on partial polarizer compensates for any polarization rotation by partial polarizer. Two quarter-wave plates change incident, linearly polarized light into elliptically polarized light.

  5. Active-R filter

    DOEpatents

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  6. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  7. Information filtering on coupled social networks.

    PubMed

    Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Kui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the coupled social networks (CSN), we propose a hybrid algorithm to nonlinearly integrate both social and behavior information of online users. Filtering algorithm, based on the coupled social networks, considers the effects of both social similarity and personalized preference. Experimental results based on two real datasets, Epinions and Friendfeed, show that the hybrid pattern can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also enlarge the recommendation coverage while adopting global metric. Further empirical analyses demonstrate that the mutual reinforcement and rich-club phenomenon can also be found in coupled social networks where the identical individuals occupy the core position of the online system. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of coupled social networks. PMID:25003525

  8. Information Filtering on Coupled Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Kui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the coupled social networks (CSN), we propose a hybrid algorithm to nonlinearly integrate both social and behavior information of online users. Filtering algorithm, based on the coupled social networks, considers the effects of both social similarity and personalized preference. Experimental results based on two real datasets, Epinions and Friendfeed, show that the hybrid pattern can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also enlarge the recommendation coverage while adopting global metric. Further empirical analyses demonstrate that the mutual reinforcement and rich-club phenomenon can also be found in coupled social networks where the identical individuals occupy the core position of the online system. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of coupled social networks. PMID:25003525

  9. Data Analysis for Sequencing by Hybridization (SBH) Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Salbego, David

    1995-11-28

    SCORES is user friendly software designed to analyze data from SBH (Sequencing By Hybridization) experiments. In these ANL experiments DNA samples are spotted on a nylon membrane and hybridized with radioactivity labeled oligonucleotide probes. An image analysis program (DOTS) calculates a raw value for each DNA dot from images generated by the Molecular Dynamics Phosphorimager. SCORES reads in the DOTS output for each hybridization done for a particular filter. The data for each probe is normalized against a mass probe and scaled properly. These values from 100 or more probes are then used to compute the distance (i.e., degree of similarity) between any two clones on the filter. These calculated distances define clusters of similar clones (cDNA)or contigs (genomic DNA). Histograms of the data at each stage of analysis to establish thresholds for further steps. SCORES generates various statistical tables to evaluate the quality of spotting, hybridization of filters, and of individual dots.

  10. Anti-Glare Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Glare from CRT screens has been blamed for blurred vision, eyestrain, headaches, etc. Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. (OCLI) manufactures a coating to reduce glare which was used to coat the windows on the Gemini and Apollo spacecraft. In addition, OCLI offers anti-glare filters (Glare Guard) utilizing the same thin film coating technology. The coating minimizes brightness, provides enhanced contrast and improves readability. The filters are OCLI's first consumer product.

  11. Switching power supply filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  12. Contactor/filter improvements

    DOEpatents

    Stelman, David

    1989-01-01

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. The housing further includes a gas inlet means, a gas outlet means, and means for moving a body of granular material through the zone. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. Disposed on the upstream face of the filter element is a cover screen which isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed and collects a portion of the particulates so as to form a dust cake having openings small enough to exclude the granular material, yet large enough to receive the dust particles. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of prous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses.

  13. Remotely serviced filter and housing

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Maurice J.; Zaladonis, Larry A.

    1988-09-27

    A filter system for a hot cell comprises a housing adapted for input of air or other gas to be filtered, flow of the air through a filter element, and exit of filtered air. The housing is tapered at the top to make it easy to insert a filter cartridge using an overhead crane. The filter cartridge holds the filter element while the air or other gas is passed through the filter element. Captive bolts in trunnion nuts are readily operated by electromechanical manipulators operating power wrenches to secure and release the filter cartridge. The filter cartridge is adapted to make it easy to change a filter element by using a master-slave manipulator at a shielded window station.

  14. Hybrid Multicomponent Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xinqiao; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial ECMs that not only closely mimic the hybrid nature of the natural ECM but also provide tunable material properties and enhanced biological functions are attractive candidates for tissue engineering applications. This review summarizes recent advances in developing multicomponent hybrid hydrogels by integrating modular and heterogeneous building blocks into well-defined, multifunctional hydrogel composites. The individual building blocks can be chemically, morphologically, and functionally diverse, and the hybridization can occur at molecular level or microscopic scale. The modular nature of the designs, combined with the potential synergistic effects of the hybrid systems, has resulted in novel hydrogel matrices with robust structure and defined functions. PMID:19107720

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF METALLIC HOT GAS FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.E.; Gleeson, B.; Terpstra, R.L.

    2003-04-23

    Successful development of metallic filters with high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance for fly ash capture is a key to enabling advanced coal combustion and power generation technologies. Compared to ceramic filters, metallic filters can offer increased resistance to impact and thermal fatigue, greatly improving filter reliability. A beneficial metallic filter structure, composed of a thin-wall (0.5mm) tube with uniform porosity (about 30%), is being developed using a unique spherical powder processing and partial sintering approach, combined with porous sheet rolling and resistance welding. Alloy choices based on modified superalloys, e.g., Ni-16Cr-4.5Al-3Fe (wt.%), are being tested in porous and bulk samples for oxide (typically alumina) scale stability in simulated oxidizing/sulfidizing atmospheres found in PFBC and IGCC systems at temperatures up to 850 C. Recent ''hanging o-ring'' exposure tests in actual combustion systems at a collaborating DOE site (EERC) have been initiated to study the combined corrosive effects from particulate deposits and hot exhaust gases. New studies are exploring the correlation between sintered microstructure, tensile strength, and permeability of porous sheet samples.

  16. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    PubMed

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations. PMID:25743879

  17. Properties and characterization of an oxide/oxide composite filter

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.E.; Painter, C.J.; Su, W.F.A.; Radford, K.C.; LeCostaouec, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Westinghouse, with Techniweave as a major subcontractor, is conducting a three-phase program aimed at providing advanced candle filters for a 1997 pilot scale demonstration in one of the two hot gas filter system at Southern Company Service`s Wilsonville PSD Facility. This program`s objective is to develop an oxide CFCC (continuous fiber ceramic composite) candle filter that is cost competitive with prototype next generation filters through the development of a low cost sol-gel fabrication process and a 3D fiber architecture optimized for high volume filter manufacturing. Phase 1, Filter Material Development and Evaluation, results will be presented. Phase 1 activities included laboratory-scale development, characterization, and testing of a mullite matrix 3D fiber-reinforced (Nextel 550) ceramic composite filter material. Eleven 3D architectures were designed, preforms and ceramic matrix composite (CMC) filter materials were made, tested and evaluated. The CMC fabrication process was optimized for reduced cost and acceptable filter performance. Permeability, 4-pt bend and microstructural evaluation results, previously presented, were used to downselect to one 3D architecture and CMC processing method. The downselected filter material was fabricated and tested via permeability and 4-pt bend; Weibull modulus was determined. High-temperature flow-through corrosion tests and thermal aging tests in static air up to 5,000 h were conducted. SEM and XRD have been used to characterize microstructural and phase changes, if any, from high temperature exposure testing. Weaving feasibility studies for the flange and the closed end of a candle filter have been conducted in order to develop a low cost weaving method to make a single piece candle filter fiber preform. Results and conclusions for the evaluation of the downselected filter material above will be presented and discussed.

  18. Filter and method of fabricating

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.

    2006-02-14

    A method of making a filter includes the steps of: providing a substrate having a porous surface; applying to the porous surface a coating of dry powder comprising particles to form a filter preform; and heating the filter preform to bind the substrate and the particles together to form a filter.

  19. Compact Micromachined Infrared Bandpass Filters for Planetary Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrell, Willie C., II; Aslam, Shahid; Brown, Ari D.; Chervenak, James A.; Huang, Wei-Chung; Quijada, Manuel; Wollack, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The future needs of space based observational planetary and astronomy missions include low mass and small volume radiometric instruments that can operate in high radiation and low temperature environments. Here we focus on a central spectroscopic component, the bandpass filter. We model the bandpass response of the filters to target the wavelength of the resonance peaks at 20, 40, and 60 micrometers and report good agreement between the modeled and measured response. We present a technique of using common micromachining processes for semiconductor fabrication to make compact, free standing resonant metal mesh filter arrays with silicon support frames. The process can accommodate multiple detector array architectures and the silicon frame provides lightweight mechanical support with low form factor. We also present a conceptual hybridization of the filters with a detector array.

  20. Kalman filter data assimilation: Targeting observations and parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Bellsky, Thomas Kostelich, Eric J.; Mahalov, Alex

    2014-06-15

    This paper studies the effect of targeted observations on state and parameter estimates determined with Kalman filter data assimilation (DA) techniques. We first provide an analytical result demonstrating that targeting observations within the Kalman filter for a linear model can significantly reduce state estimation error as opposed to fixed or randomly located observations. We next conduct observing system simulation experiments for a chaotic model of meteorological interest, where we demonstrate that the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with targeted observations based on largest ensemble variance is skillful in providing more accurate state estimates than the LETKF with randomly located observations. Additionally, we find that a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter parameter estimation method accurately updates model parameters within the targeted observation context to further improve state estimation.