Science.gov

Sample records for advanced hypersonic engines

  1. Diagnostics for Hypersonic Engine Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    hypersonic engine control are changes in isolator margin, inlet mass capture, and performance (thrust, combustion efficiency, etc.). 15. SUBJECT TERMS...Most interesting for hypersonic engine control are changes in isolator margin, inlet mass capture, and performance (thrust, combustion efficiency, etc...AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2015-0037 DIAGNOSTICS FOR HYPERSONIC ENGINE CONTROL Michael S. Brown and Jeffrey M. Donbar Hypersonic Sciences Branch

  2. Numerical Research of Airframe/Engine Integrative Hypersonic Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    paper, an engineering method and a finite volume method based on the center of grid are developed for preliminary research of interested integrative...development of hypersonic technology, advanced experimental, analytical and computational methods are being exploited in the design of hypersonic...configurations to obtain excellent aerodynamic characteristics[5]. Due to the limitation of test capabilities to model all the impossible flight conditions

  3. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  4. Advances in Computational Capabilities for Hypersonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Moss, James N.; Drummond, J. Philip

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews the growth and advances in computational capabilities for hypersonic applications over the period from the mid-1980's to the present day. The current status of the code development issues such as surface and field grid generation, algorithms, physical and chemical modeling, and validation is provided. A brief description of some of the major codes being used at NASA Langley Research Center for hypersonic continuum and rarefied flows is provided, along with their capabilities and deficiencies. A number of application examples are presented, and future areas of research to enhance accuracy, reliability, efficiency, and robustness of computational codes are discussed.

  5. Advanced optical diagnostics in hypersonic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattolica, Robert J.

    1988-10-01

    The renewed emphasis on hypersonic research has stimulated a resurgence of interest in experimental methods for the study of high-speed flows. Improvement in the physical and chemical models used in computational fluid dynamic simulation of hypersonic flows requires a modern experimental data base. Optical diagnostics provide the capability to make nonintrusive measurements of density, temperature, velocity, and species concentration in hypersonic flows. The short test time available in hypersonic wind tunnels or flight experiments necessitates spectroscopic methods capable of producing high signal levels. Fluorescence methods based on laser or electron-beam excitation satisfy this requirement. For flight experiments, electron-beam excitation offers a number of advantages over laser excitation that include small device size, high electrical efficiency, and multiple-state and species-selective excitation. Disadvantages of the electron beam fluorescence (EBF) technique included a complex excitation mechanism and some limitations in high-density applications. Laser fluorescence methods (LIF) have been developed extensively in recent years for combustion research, but need further advances in miniaturization of lasers for application to in-flight hypersonic combustion and aerodynamic experiments. Both techniques require a fundamental understanding of the complications introduced by physical effects such as energy transfer and quenching of the fluorescence signal. With modern electro-optic instrumentation it is now possible to examine in detail the influence of these phenomena on EBF and LIF fluorescence spectra in the laboratory and to extend these measurement techniques for use in flight research. To illustrate some of the research required to develop these methods to address issues relevent to hypersonic flight, examples of experiments on the use of EBF and LIF spectroscopy for the measurement of nitric oxide concentration are presented.

  6. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Hypersonic Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; McClinton, Charles; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. NASA's third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational in approximately 25 years. The goals for third generation launch systems are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop third generation space transportation technologies. The Hypersonics Investment Area, part of ASTP, is developing the third generation launch vehicle technologies in two main areas, propulsion and airframes. The program's major investment is in hypersonic airbreathing propulsion since it offers the greatest potential for meeting the third generation launch vehicles. The program will mature the technologies in three key propulsion areas, scramjets, rocket-based combined cycle and turbine-based combination cycle. Ground and flight propulsion tests are being planned for the propulsion technologies. Airframe technologies will be matured primarily through ground testing. This paper describes NASA's activities in hypersonics. Current programs, accomplishments, future plans and technologies that are being pursued by the Hypersonics Investment Area under the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office will be discussed.

  7. Hypersonic propulsion. [supersonic combustion ramjet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, H. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Research on hydrogen fueled scramjet engines for hypersonic flight is reviewed. Component developments, computational methods, and preliminary ground tests of subscale scramjet engine modules at Mach 4 and 7 are emphasized. Airframe integration, structures, and flow diagnostics are also discussed. It is shown that mixed-mode perpendicular and parallel fuel injection controls heat release over a wide Mach range and the fixed geometry inlet gives good performance over a wide range of Mach numbers.

  8. NASA's Hypersonic Research Engine Project: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Earl H.; Mackley, Ernest A.

    1994-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE) Project, which began in 1964, were to design, develop, and construct a high-performance hypersonic research ramjet/scramjet engine for flight tests of the developed concept over the speed range of Mach 4 to 8. The project was planned to be accomplished in three phases: project definition, research engine development, and flight test using the X-15A-2 research airplane, which was modified to carry hydrogen fuel for the research engine. The project goal of an engine flight test was eliminated when the X-15 program was canceled in 1968. Ground tests of full-scale engine models then became the focus of the project. Two axisymmetric full-scale engine models, having 18-inch-diameter cowls, were fabricated and tested: a structural model and combustion/propulsion model. A brief historical review of the project, with salient features, typical data results, and lessons learned, is presented. An extensive number of documents were generated during the HRE Project and are listed.

  9. Hypersonic research engine/aerothermodynamic integration model, experimental results. Volume 1: Mach 6 component integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. H., Jr.; Mackley, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE) Project was initiated for the purpose of advancing the technology of airbreathing propulsion for hypersonic flight. A large component (inlet, combustor, and nozzle) and structures development program was encompassed by the project. The tests of a full-scale (18 in. diameter cowl and 87 in. long) HRE concept, designated the Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM), at Mach numbers of 5, 6, and 7. Computer program results for Mach 6 component integration tests are presented.

  10. Diagnostics for Hypersonic Engine Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    and combustor exit to follow changes in flow and heat release and accurately identify the engine state. Technical Summary: The scientific...combusting flow is whether or not a transient in heat release (that eventually pushes the attendant shock train farther forward in the isolator) manifests...The port was fed with the effluent from a small pulse detonation device. Repetitive firing of the detonation device introduced transient plumes of

  11. Heat pipe radiation cooling of advanced hypersonic propulsion system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. A.; Keddy, M.; Merrigan, M. A.; Silverstein, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    Heat transfer, heat pipe, and system studies were performed to assess the newly proposed heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) concept. With an HPRC system, heat is removed from the ramburner and nozzle of a hypersonic aircraft engine by a surrounding, high-temperature, heat pipe nacelle structure, transported to nearby external surfaces, and rejected to the environment by thermal radiation. With HPRC, the Mach number range available for using hydrocarbon fuels for aircraft operation extends into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 range, up from the current limit of about Mach 4. Heat transfer studies using a newly developed HPRC computer code determine cooling system and ramburner and nozzle temperatures, heat loads, and weights for a representative combined-cycle engine cruising at Mach 5 at 80,000 ft altitude. Heat pipe heat transport calculations, using the Los Alamos code HTPIPE, reveal that adequate heat trasport capability is available using molybdenum-lithium heat pipe technology. Results show that the HPRC system radiator area is limited in size to the ramburner-nozzle region of the engine nacelle; reasonable system weights are expected; hot section temperatures are consistent with advanced structural materials development goals; and system impact on engine performance is minimal.

  12. Engine panel seals for hypersonic engine applications: High temperature leakage assessments and flow modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Du, Guang-Wu; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Ko, Frank

    1992-01-01

    A critical mechanical system in advanced hypersonic engines is the panel-edge seal system that seals gaps between the articulating horizontal engine panels and the adjacent engine splitter walls. Significant advancements in seal technology are required to meet the extreme demands placed on the seals, including the simultaneous requirements of low leakage, conformable, high temperature, high pressure, sliding operation. In this investigation, the seal concept design and development of two new seal classes that show promise of meeting these demands will be presented. These seals include the ceramic wafer seal and the braided ceramic rope seal. Presented are key elements of leakage flow models for each of these seal types. Flow models such as these help designers to predict performance-robbing parasitic losses past the seals, and estimate purge coolant flow rates. Comparisons are made between measured and predicted leakage rates over a wide range of engine simulated temperatures and pressures, showing good agreement.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH). Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughman, Jack A.; Micheletti, David A.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Simmons, Gloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the activities, results, conclusions and recommendations of the Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH) Project in which the use of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is investigated for its applicability to augment hypersonic wind tunnels. The long range objective of this investigation is to advance the development of ground test facilities to support the development of hypervelocity flight vehicles. The MHD accelerator adds kinetic energy directly to the wind tunnel working fluid, thereby increasing its Mach number to hypervelocity levels. Several techniques for MHD augmentation, as well as other physical characteristics of the process are studied to enhance the overall performance of hypersonic wind tunnel design. Specific recommendations are presented to improve the effectiveness of ground test facilities. The work contained herein builds on nearly four decades of research and experimentation by the aeronautics ground test and evaluation community, both foreign and domestic.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH). Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micheletti, David A.; Baughman, Jack A.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Simmons, Gloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the activities, results, conclusions and recommendations of the Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH) Project in which the use of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is investigated for its applicability to augment hypersonic wind tunnels. The long range objective of this investigation is to advance the development of ground test facilities to support the development of hypervelocity flight vehicles. The MHD accelerator adds kinetic energy directly to the wind tunnel working fluid, thereby increasing its Mach number to hypervelocity levels. Several techniques for MHD augmentation, as well as other physical characteristics of the process are studied to enhance the overall performance of hypersonic wind tunnel design. Specific recommendations are presented to improve the effectiveness of ground test facilities. The work contained herein builds on nearly four decades of research and experimentation by the aeronautics ground test and evaluation community, both foreign and domestic.

  15. Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Ueno, Atsushi; Imamura, Shunsuke; Hongoh, Motoyuki; Harada, Kenya

    2012-04-01

    Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in 2 h. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through hypersonic wind tunnel tests. A thermal management system based on the data of the wind tunnel tests is proposed. A pre-cooled turbojet engine is adopted as the propulsion system for the hypersonic aircraft. The engine can be operated continuously from take-off to Mach 5. This engine uses a pre-cooling cycle using cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The high temperature inlet air of hypersonic flight would be cooled by the same liquid hydrogen used as fuel. The engine is tested under sea level static conditions. The engine is installed on a flight test vehicle. Both liquid hydrogen fuel and gaseous hydrogen fuel are supplied to the engine from a tank and cylinders installed within the vehicle. The designed operation of major components of the engine is confirmed. A large amount of liquid hydrogen is supplied to the pre-cooler in order to make its performance sufficient for Mach 5 flight. Thus, fuel rich combustion is adopted at the afterburner. The experiments are carried out under the conditions that the engine is mounted upon an experimental airframe with both set up either horizontally or vertically. As a result, the operating procedure of the pre-cooled turbojet engine is demonstrated.

  16. Toward an Improved Hypersonic Engine Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; DeMange,Jeffrey J.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2003-01-01

    High temperature, dynamic seals are required in advanced engines to seal the perimeters of movable engine ramps for efficient, safe operation in high heat flux environments at temperatures from 2000 to 2500 F. Current seal designs do not meet the demanding requirements for future engines, so NASA s Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing advanced seals to overcome these shortfalls. Two seal designs and two types of seal preloading devices were evaluated in a series of compression tests at room temperature and 2000 F and flow tests at room temperature. Both seals lost resiliency with repeated load cycling at room temperature and 2000 F, but seals with braided cores were significantly more flexible than those with cores composed of uniaxial ceramic fibers. Flow rates for the seals with cores of uniaxial fibers were lower than those for the seals with braided cores. Canted coil springs and silicon nitride compression springs showed promise conceptually as potential seal preloading devices to help maintain seal resiliency.

  17. Advanced aeroservoelastic stabilization techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Samuel Y.; Cheng, Peter Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Magdaleno, Raymond E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced high performance vehicles, including Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) hypersonic flight vehicles, that are statically unstable, require higher bandwidth flight control systems to compensate for the instability resulting in interactions between the flight control system, the engine/propulsion dynamics, and the low frequency structural modes. Military specifications, such as MIL-F-9490D and MIL-F-87242, tend to limit treatment of structural modes to conventional gain stabilization techniques. The conventional gain stabilization techniques, however, introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from a flying qualities standpoint. These time delays can be alleviated by appropriate blending of gain and phase stabilization techniques (referred to as Hybrid Phase Stabilization or HPS) for the low frequency structural modes. The potential of using HPS for compensating structural mode interaction was previously explored. It was shown that effective time delay was significantly reduced with the use of HPS; however, the HPS design was seen to have greater residual response than a conventional gain stablized design. Additional work performed to advance and refine the HPS design procedure, to further develop residual response metrics as a basis for alternative structural stability specifications, and to develop strategies for validating HPS design and specification concepts in manned simulation is presented. Stabilization design sensitivity to structural uncertainties and aircraft-centered requirements are also assessed.

  18. Overview of an Advanced Hypersonic Structural Concept Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hudson, Larry D.; Piazza, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of hypersonics M&S advanced structural concepts development and experimental methods. The discussion on concepts development includes the background, task objectives, test plan, and current status of the C/SiC Ruddervator Subcomponent Test Article (RSTA). The discussion of experimental methods examines instrumentation needs, sensors of interest, and examples of ongoing efforts in the development of extreme environment sensors.

  19. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  20. An engineering code to analyze hypersonic thermal management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangriethuysen, Valerie J.; Wallace, Clark E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal loads on current and future aircraft are increasing and as a result are stressing the energy collection, control, and dissipation capabilities of current thermal management systems and technology. The thermal loads for hypersonic vehicles will be no exception. In fact, with their projected high heat loads and fluxes, hypersonic vehicles are a prime example of systems that will require thermal management systems (TMS) that have been optimized and integrated with the entire vehicle to the maximum extent possible during the initial design stages. This will not only be to meet operational requirements, but also to fulfill weight and performance constraints in order for the vehicle to takeoff and complete its mission successfully. To meet this challenge, the TMS can no longer be two or more entirely independent systems, nor can thermal management be an after thought in the design process, the typical pervasive approach in the past. Instead, a TMS that was integrated throughout the entire vehicle and subsequently optimized will be required. To accomplish this, a method that iteratively optimizes the TMS throughout the vehicle will not only be highly desirable, but advantageous in order to reduce the manhours normally required to conduct the necessary tradeoff studies and comparisons. A thermal management engineering computer code that is under development and being managed at Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, is discussed. The primary goal of the code is to aid in the development of a hypersonic vehicle TMS that has been optimized and integrated on a total vehicle basis.

  1. Developing Conceptual Hypersonic Airbreathing Engines Using Design of Experiments Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlemann, Shelly M.; Robinson, Jeffrey S.; Martin, John G.; Leonard, Charles P.; Taylor, Lawrence W.; Kamhawi, Hilmi

    2000-01-01

    Designing a hypersonic vehicle is a complicated process due to the multi-disciplinary synergy that is required. The greatest challenge involves propulsion-airframe integration. In the past, a two-dimensional flowpath was generated based on the engine performance required for a proposed mission. A three-dimensional CAD geometry was produced from the two-dimensional flowpath for aerodynamic analysis, structural design, and packaging. The aerodynamics, engine performance, and mass properties arc inputs to the vehicle performance tool to determine if the mission goals were met. If the mission goals were not met, then a flowpath and vehicle redesign would begin. This design process might have to be performed several times to produce a "closed" vehicle. This paper will describe an attempt to design a hypersonic cruise vehicle propulsion flowpath using a Design of' Experiments method to reduce the resources necessary to produce a conceptual design with fewer iterations of the design cycle. These methods also allow for more flexible mission analysis and incorporation of additional design constraints at any point. A design system was developed using an object-based software package that would quickly generate each flowpath in the study given the values of the geometric independent variables. These flowpath geometries were put into a hypersonic propulsion code and the engine performance was generated. The propulsion results were loaded into statistical software to produce regression equations that were combined with an aerodynamic database to optimize the flowpath at the vehicle performance level. For this example, the design process was executed twice. The first pass was a cursory look at the independent variables selected to determine which variables are the most important and to test all of the inputs to the optimization process. The second cycle is a more in-depth study with more cases and higher order equations representing the design space.

  2. Hot dynamic test rig for measuring hypersonic engine seal flow and durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jeffrey H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Sirocky, Paul J.; Kren, Lawrence A.

    1994-01-01

    A test fixture for measuring the dynamic performance of candidate high-temperature engine seal concepts was developed. The test fixture was developed to evaluate seal concepts under development for advanced hypersonic engines, such as those being considered for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The fixture can measure dynamic seal leakage performance from room temperature up to 840 C and air pressure differentials of to 0.7 MPa. Performance of the seals can be measured while sealing against flat or engine-simulated distorted walls. In the fixture, two seals are preloaded against the sides of a 0.3 m long saber that slides transverse to the axis of the seals, simulating the scrubbing motion anticipated in these engines. The capabilities of this text fixture along with preliminary data showing the dependence of seal leakage performance on high temperature cycling are covered.

  3. Instrumentation requirements from the user's view. [For airbreathing hypersonic engines

    SciTech Connect

    Harsha, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of combustor diagnostics is considered from the point of view of demonstration of performance of an airbreathing hypersonic engine. The basic need is seen to be that of providing the data necessary to verify performance predictions for the engine as installed in the airplane. This necessitates the use of a diagnostics capability that can provide the inputs required by the computational analyses that will be used to assess this performance. Because of the cost of ground test facilities, a premium is placed on measurement technique reliability and redundancy of instrumentation. A mix of nonintrusive optical techniques and probe-based measurements is seen to be the best approach using current diagnostics capability; one such instrument mix is outlined for a ramjet/scramjet test program. 11 references.

  4. A Hot Dynamic Seal Rig for Measuring Hypersonic Engine Seal Durability and Flow Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jeffrey H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Sirocky, Paul J.; Kren, Lawrence A.

    1993-01-01

    A test fixture for measuring the dynamic performance of candidate high-temperature engine seal concepts was installed at NASA Lewis Research Center. The test fixture was designed to evaluate seal concepts under development for advanced hypersonic engines, such as those being considered for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The fixture can measure dynamic seal leakage performance from room temperature up to 840 C (1550 F) and air pressure differentials up to 690 kPa (100 psi). Performance of the seals can be measured while sealing against flat or distorted walls. In the fixture two seals are preloaded against the sides of a 30 cm (1 ft) long saber that slides transverse to the axis of the seals, simulating the scrubbing motion anticipated in these engines. The capabilities of this test fixture along with preliminary data showing the dependence of seal leakage performance on high temperature cycling are addressed.

  5. A hot dynamic seal rig for measuring hypersonic engine seal durability and flow performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jeffrey H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Sirocky, Paul J.; Kren, Lawrence A.

    1993-01-01

    A test fixture for measuring the dynamic performance of candidate high-temperature engine seal concepts has been installed at NASA Lewis Research Center. The test fixture has been designed to evaluate seal concepts under development for advanced hypersonic engines, such as those being considered for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The fixture can measure dynamic seal leakage performance from room temperature up to 840 C (1550 F) and air pressure differentials up to 690 kPa (100 psi). Performance of the seals can be measured while sealing against flat or distorted walls. In the fixture two seals are preloaded against the sides of a 30 cm (1 ft) long saber that slides transverse to the axis of the seals, simulating the scrubbing motion anticipated in these engines. This report covers the capabilities of this test fixture along with preliminary data showing the dependence of seal leakage performance on high temperature cycling.

  6. Application of advanced laser diagnostics to hypersonic wind tunnels and combustion systems.

    SciTech Connect

    North, Simon W.; Hsu, Andrea G.; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2009-09-01

    This LDRD was a Sandia Fellowship that supported Andrea Hsu's PhD research at Texas A&M University and her work as a visitor at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility. The research project at Texas A&M University is concerned with the experimental characterization of hypersonic (Mach>5) flowfields using experimental diagnostics. This effort is part of a Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) and is a collaboration between the Chemistry and Aerospace Engineering departments. Hypersonic flight conditions often lead to a non-thermochemical equilibrium (NTE) state of air, where the timescale of reaching a single (equilibrium) Boltzmann temperature is much longer than the timescale of the flow. Certain molecular modes, such as vibrational modes, may be much more excited than the translational or rotational modes of the molecule, leading to thermal-nonequilibrium. A nontrivial amount of energy is therefore contained within the vibrational mode, and this energy cascades into the flow as thermal energy, affecting flow properties through vibrational-vibrational (V-V) and vibrational-translational (V-T) energy exchanges between the flow species. The research is a fundamental experimental study of these NTE systems and involves the application of advanced laser and optical diagnostics towards hypersonic flowfields. The research is broken down into two main categories: the application and adaptation of existing laser and optical techniques towards characterization of NTE, and the development of new molecular tagging velocimetry techniques which have been demonstrated in an underexpanded jet flowfield, but may be extended towards a variety of flowfields. In addition, Andrea's work at Sandia National Labs involved the application of advanced laser diagnostics to flames and turbulent non-reacting jets. These studies included quench-free planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide (NO) and mixture fraction measurements via Rayleigh scattering.

  7. Engineering the hypersonic phononic band gap of hybrid Bragg stacks.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Dirk; Liaqat, Faroha; El Boudouti, El Houssaine; El Hassouani, Youssef; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Tremel, Wolfgang; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Fytas, George

    2012-06-13

    We report on the full control of phononic band diagrams for periodic stacks of alternating layers of poly(methyl methacrylate) and porous silica combining Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. These structures exhibit large and robust on-axis band gaps determined by the longitudinal sound velocities, densities, and spacing ratio. A facile tuning of the gap width is realized at oblique incidence utilizing the vector nature of the elastic wave propagation. Off-axis propagation involves sagittal waves in the individual layers, allowing access to shear moduli at nanoscale. The full theoretical description discerns the most important features of the hypersonic one-dimensional crystals forward to a detailed understanding, a precondition to engineer dispersion relations in such structures.

  8. Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-28

    nonequilibrium. For example, the plasma transport may transition between rarefied and continuum flow , requiring appropriate models for each case through...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2011-0023 Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics 5a

  9. Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic-Bypass Airbreathing Hypersonic Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Bityurin, Valentine A.; Lineberry, John T.

    1999-01-01

    Established analyses of conventional ramjet/scramjet performance characteristics indicate that a considerable decrease in efficiency can be expected at off-design flight conditions. This can be explained, in large part, by the deterioration of intake mass flow and limited inlet compression at low flight speeds and by the onset of thrust degradation effects associated with increased burner entry temperature at high flight speeds. In combination, these effects tend to impose lower and upper Mach number limits for practical flight. It has been noted, however, that Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy management techniques represent a possible means for extending the flight Mach number envelope of conventional engines. By transferring enthalpy between different stages of the engine cycle, it appears that the onset of thrust degradation may be delayed to higher flight speeds. Obviously, the introduction of additional process inefficiencies is inevitable with this approach, but it is believed that these losses are more than compensated through optimization of the combustion process. The fundamental idea is to use MHD energy conversion processes to extract and bypass a portion of the intake kinetic energy around the burner. We refer to this general class of propulsion system as an MHD-bypass engine. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the performance potential and scientific feasibility of MHD-bypass airbreathing hypersonic engines using ideal gasdynamics and fundamental thermodynamic principles.

  10. Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic-Bypass Hypersonic Airbreathing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Cole, J. W.; Bityurin, V. A.; Lineberry, J. T.

    2000-01-01

    The prospects for realizing a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) bypass hypersonic airbreathing engine are examined from the standpoint of fundamental thermodynamic feasibility. The MHD-bypass engine, first proposed as part of the Russian AJAX vehicle concept, is based on the idea of redistributing energy between various stages of the propulsion system flow train. The system uses an MHD generator to extract a portion of the aerodynamic heating energy from the inlet and an MHD accelerator to reintroduce this power as kinetic energy in the exhaust stream. In this way, the combustor entrance Mach number can be limited to a specified value even as the flight Mach number increases. Thus, the fuel and air can be efficiently mixed and burned within a practical combustor length, and the flight Mach number operating envelope can be extended. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the performance potential and scientific feasibility of MHD-bypass engines using a simplified thermodynamic analysis. This cycle analysis, based on a thermally and calorically perfect gas, incorporates a coupled MHD generator-accelerator system and accounts for aerodynamic losses and thermodynamic process efficiencies in the various engin components. It is found that the flight Mach number range can be significantly extended; however, overall performance is hampered by non-isentropic losses in the MHD devices.

  11. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM) test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, W. L.; Kado, L.

    1975-01-01

    The Hypersonic Research Engine-Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (HRE-AIM) was designed, fabricated, and tested in the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility. The HRE-AIM is described along with its installation in the wind tunnel facility. Test conditions to which the HRE-AIM was subjected and observations made during the tests are discussed. The overall engine performance, component interaction, and ignition limits for the design are evaluated.

  12. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Some combustor test results of NASA aerothermodynamic integration model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Y. H.; Gaede, A. E.; Sainio, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test results of the NASA Aerothermodynamic Integration Model are presented of a ramjet engine developed for operation between Mach 3 and 8. Ground-based and flight experiments which provide the data required to advance the technology of hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems as well as to evaluate facility and testing techniques are described. The engine was tested with synthetic air at Mach 5, 6, and 7. The hydrogen fuel was heated to 1500 R prior to injection to simulate a regeneratively cooled system. Combustor efficiencies up to 95 percent at Mach 6 were achieved. Combustor process in terms of effectiveness, pressure integral factor, total pressure recovery and Crocco's pressure-area relationship are presented and discussed. Interactions between inlet-combustor, combustor stages, combustor-nozzle, and the effects of altitude, combustor step, and struts are observed and analyzed.

  13. High temperature performance evaluation of a hypersonic engine ceramic wafer seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1991-01-01

    Leakage rates of an innovative hypersonic engine seal were measured using a specially developed static high temperature seal test fixture at NASA Lewis Research Center. The three foot long structural panel-edge seal is designed to minimize leakage of high temperature, high pressure gases past the movable panels of advanced ramjet/scramjet engines. The seal is made of a stack of precision machined ceramic wafer pieces that are inserted into a closely conforming seal channel in the movable engine panel. The wafer seal accommodates the significant distortions in the adjacent engine walls through relative sliding between adjacent wafers. Seal leakage rates are presented for engine simulated air temperatures up to 1350 F and for engine pressures up to 100 psi. Leakage rates are also presented for the seal, sealing both a flat wall condition, and an engine simulated distorted wall condition in which the distortion was 0.15 in. in only an 18 in. span. Seal leakage rates were low, meeting an industry-established tentative leakage limit for all combinations of temperature, pressure, and wall conditions considered. Comparisons are made between the measured leakage rates and leakage rates predicted using a seal leakage model developed from externally-pressurized gas film bearing theory.

  14. High temperature performance evaluation of a hypersonic engine ceramic wafer seal

    SciTech Connect

    Steinetz, B.M.

    1991-04-01

    Leakage rates of an innovative hypersonic engine seal were measured using a specially developed static high temperature seal test fixture at NASA Lewis Research Center. The three foot long structural panel-edge seal is designed to minimize leakage of high temperature, high pressure gases past the movable panels of advanced ramjet/scramjet engines. The seal is made of a stack of precision machined ceramic wafer pieces that are inserted into a closely conforming seal channel in the movable engine panel. The wafer seal accommodates the significant distortions in the adjacent engine walls through relative sliding between adjacent wafers. Seal leakage rates are presented for engine simulated air temperatures up to 1350F and for engine pressures up to 100 psi. Leakage rates are also presented for the seal, sealing both a flat wall condition, and an engine simulated distorted wall condition in which the distortion was 0.15 in. in only an 18 in. span. Seal leakage rates were low, meeting an industry-established tentative leakage limit for all combinations of temperature, pressure, and wall conditions considered. Comparisons are made between the measured leakage rates and leakage rates predicted using a seal leakage model developed from externally-pressurized gas film bearing theory.

  15. Development of braided rope seals for hypersonic engine applications: Flow modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Tao, Xiaoming; Du, Guang-Wu; Ko, Frank

    1992-01-01

    A new type of engine seal is being developed to meet the needs of advanced hypersonic engines. A seal braided of emerging high temperature ceramic fibers comprised of a sheath-core construction was selected for study based on its low leakage rates. Flexible, low-leakage, high temperature seals are required to seal the movable engine panels of advanced ramjet-scramjet engines either preventing potentially dangerous leakage into backside engine cavities or limiting the purge coolant flow rates through the seals. To predict the leakage through these flexible, porous seal structures new analytical flow models are required. Two such models based on the Kozeny-Carman equations are developed herein and are compared to experimental leakage measurements for simulated pressure and seal gap conditions. The models developed allow prediction of the gas leakage rate as a function of fiber diameter, fiber packing density, gas properties, and pressure drop across the seal. The first model treats the seal as a homogeneous fiber bed. The second model divides the seal into two homogeneous fiber beds identified as the core and the sheath of the seal. Flow resistances of each of the main seal elements are combined to determine the total flow resistance. Comparisons between measured leakage rates and model predictions for seal structures covering a wide range of braid architectures show good agreement. Within the experimental range, the second model provides a prediction within 6 to 13 percent of the flow for many of the cases examined. Areas where future model refinements are required are identified.

  16. Frost Formation Problem in the Development of a Hypersonic Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukiba, Katsuyoshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ohkubo, Hidetoshi

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a hypersonic aircraft flying at Mach 5. A precooled turbojet engine is the candidate of the engine for the hypersonic aircraft. The precooled turbojet engine has a heat exchanger(precooler) which cools the breathed air by using cryogenic propellant, such as liquid hydrogen. The precooler has a problem that frost forms on the cooling tubes of the precooler, and the frost decrease the engine performance. Some approaches to deal with the frost formation problem have employed in the development. In this paper, those approaches are introduced and the results of some fundamental studies about frost are also shown.

  17. Hypersonic Engine Leading Edge Experiments in a High Heat Flux, Supersonic Flow Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.; Melis, Matthew E.

    1994-01-01

    A major concern in advancing the state-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of withstanding the sustained high thermal loads expected during hypersonic flight. Three aerothermal load related concerns are the boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow, articulating panel seals in high temperature environments, and strut (or cowl) leading edges with shock-on-shock interactions. A multidisciplinary approach is required to address these technical concerns. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine heat source has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as one element in a series of facilities at national laboratories designed to experimentally evaluate the heat transfer and structural response of the strut (or cowl) leading edge. A recent experimental program conducted in this facility is discussed and related to cooling technology capability. The specific objective of the experiment discussed is to evaluate the erosion and oxidation characteristics of a coating on a cowl leading edge (or strut leading edge) in a supersonic, high heat flux environment. Heat transfer analyses of a similar leading edge concept cooled with gaseous hydrogen is included to demonstrate the complexity of the problem resulting from plastic deformation of the structures. Macro-photographic data from a coated leading edge model show progressive degradation over several thermal cycles at aerothermal conditions representative of high Mach number flight.

  18. A unique high heat flux facility for testing hypersonic engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1990-01-01

    A major concern in advancing the state-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of withstanding high thermal loads expected during hypersonic flights. Consequently, there is a need for experimental facilities capable of providing a high heat flux environment for testing compound concepts and verifying analyses. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine was developed to provide a high enthalpy/high heat flux environment for component evaluation. This Hot Gas Facility is capable of providing heat fluxes ranging from 200 (on flat surfaces) up to 8000 Btu per sq ft per sec (at a leading edge stagnation point). Gas temperatures up to 5500 R can be attained as well as Reynolds numbers up to 360,000 per ft. Test articles such as cowl leading edges, transpiration-cooled seals, fuel injectors, and cooled panel concepts can be evaluated with gaseous hydrogen as coolant. This facility and its configuration and test capabilities are discussed. Results from flow characterization experiments are also shown and their implications considered.

  19. Hypersonic engine seal development at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is developing advanced seal concepts and sealing technology for advanced combined cycle ramjet/scramjet engines being designed for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Technologies are being developed for both the dynamic seals that seal the sliding interfaces between articulating engine panels and sidewalls, and for the static seals that seal the heat exchanger to back-up structure interfaces. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the candidate engine seal concepts, seal material assessments, and unique test facilities used to assess the leakage and thermal performance of the seal concepts.

  20. Advanced Guidance and Control for Hypersonics and Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Hall, Charles E.; Mulqueen, John A.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety, reliability, and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV), whether it is fully rocket-powered or has air- breathing components. This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies could have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where t h i s technology applies, and the costs and time associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is the point where we can look to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AWC, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality. There are a number of approaches to AG&C that have the potential for achieving the desired goals. For some of these methods, we compare the results of tests designed to demonstrate the achievement of the goals. Tests up to now have been focused on rocket-powered vehicles; application to hypersonic air-breathers is planned. We list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, briefly describe an automated test scoring method, and display results of the tests. Some of the technology components have reached the maturity level where they are ready for application to a new vehicle concept, while others are not far along in development.

  1. A test fixture for measuring high-temperature hypersonic-engine seal performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1990-01-01

    A test fixture for measuring the performance of several high temperature engine seal concepts was installed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The test fixture was developed to evaluate seal concepts under development for advanced hypersonic engines such as those being considered for the National Aerospace Plane. The fixture can measure static seal leakage performance from room temperature up to 1500 F and air pressure differentials up to 100 psi. Performance of the seals can be measured while sealing against flat or engine simulated distorted walls, where distortions can be as large as 0.150 in. in only an 18 in. span. The fixture is designed to evaluate seals 3 feet long, a typical engine panel length. The seal channel can be configured to test square, circular, or rectangular seals that are nominally 0.5 in. high. The sensitivity of leakage performance to lateral or axial loading can also be measured using specially designed high temperature lateral and axial bellows preload systems. Leakage data for a candidate ceramic wafer engine seal is provided by way of example to demonstrate the test fixture's capabilities.

  2. Hypersonic research engine/aerothermodynamic integration model: Experimental results. Volume 3: Mach 7 component integration and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. H., Jr.; Mackley, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Hypersonic Research Engine Project was undertaken to design, develop, and construct a hypersonic research ramjet engine for high performance and to flight test the developed concept on the X-15-2A airplane over the speed range from Mach 3 to 8. Computer program results are presented here for the Mach 7 component integration and performance tests.

  3. Advances in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Vacanti, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, we reported on a concept now known as Tissue Engineering. Here, we report on some of the advances in this now thriving area of research. In particular, significant advances in tissue engineering of skin, liver, spinal cord, blood vessels, and other areas are discussed. PMID:26711689

  4. Hypersonic research engine/aerothermodynamic integration model, experimental results. Volume 2: Mach 6 performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. H., Jr.; Mackley, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Computer program performance results of a Mach 6 hypersonic research engine during supersonic and subsonic combustion modes were presented. The combustion mode transition was successfully performed, exit surveys made, and effects of altitude, angle of attack, and inlet spike position were determined during these tests.

  5. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  6. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  7. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Aerothermodynamic integration model development, data item no. 55-4-21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jilly, L. F. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The design and development of the Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM) of the Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE) is described. The feasibility of integrating the various analytical and experimental data available for the design of the hypersonic ramjet engine was verified and the operational characteristic and the overall performance of the selected design was determined. The HRE-AIM was designed for operation at speeds of Mach 3 through Mach 8.

  8. Research and educational initiatives at the Syracuse University Center for Hypersonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spina, E.; Lagraff, J.; Davidson, B.; Bogucz, E.; Dang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Manufacturing Engineering and the Northeast Parallel Architectures Center of Syracuse University have been funded by NASA to establish a program to educate young engineers in the hypersonic disciplines. This goal is being achieved through a comprehensive five-year program that includes elements of undergraduate instruction, advanced graduate coursework, undergraduate research, and leading-edge hypersonics research. The research foci of the Syracuse Center for Hypersonics are three-fold; high-temperature composite materials, measurements in turbulent hypersonic flows, and the application of high-performance computing to hypersonic fluid dynamics.

  9. eLaunch Hypersonics: An Advanced Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes a new space launch system that NASA can and should develop. This approach can significantly reduce ground processing and launch costs, improve reliability, and broaden the scope of what we do in near earth orbit. The concept (not new) is to launch a re-usable air-breathing hypersonic vehicle from a ground based electric track. This vehicle launches a final rocket stage at high altitude/velocity for the final leg to orbit. The proposal here differs from past studies in that we will launch above Mach 1.5 (above transonic pinch point) which further improves the efficiency of air breathing, horizontal take-off launch systems. The approach described here significantly reduces cost per kilogram to orbit, increases safety and reliability of the boost systems, and reduces ground costs due to horizontal-processing. Finally, this approach provides significant technology transfer benefits for our national infrastructure.

  10. 2-D Air-Breathing Lightcraft Engine Experiments in Hypersonic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Myrabo, Leik N.; Minucci, Marco A. S.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Toro, Paulo G. P.; Chanes, José B.; Rego, Israel S.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments were performed with a 2-D, repetitively-pulsed (RP) laser Lightcraft model in hypersonic flow conditions. The main objective was the feasibility analysis for impulse generation with repetitively-pulsed air-breathing laser Lightcraft engines at hypersonic speeds. The future application of interest for this basic research endeavor is the laser launch of pico-, nano-, and micro-satellites (i.e., 0.1-100 kg payloads) into Low-Earth-Orbit, at low-cost and on-demand. The laser propulsion experiments employed a Hypersonic Shock Tunnel integrated with twin gigawatt pulsed Lumonics 620-TEA CO2 lasers (˜ 1 μs pulses), to produce the required test conditions. This hypersonic campaign was carried out at nominal Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 10. Time-dependent surface pressure distributions were recorded together with Schlieren movies of the flow field structure resulting from laser energy deposition. Results indicated laser-induced pressure increases of 0.7-0.9 bar with laser pulse energies of ˜ 170 J, on off-shroud induced breakdown condition, and Mach number of 7.

  11. The Syracuse University Center for Training and Research in Hypersonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaGraff, John; Blankson, Isaiah (Technical Monitor); Robinson, Stephen K. (Technical Monitor); Walsh, Michael J. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, Griffin Y. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In Fall 1993, NASA Headquarters established Centers for Hypersonics at the University of Maryland, the University of Texas-Arlington, and Syracuse University. These centers are dedicated to research and education in hypersonic technologies and have the objective of educating the next generation of engineers in this critical field. At the Syracuse University Center for Hypersonics this goal is being realized by focusing resources to: Provide an environment in which promising undergraduate students can learn the fundamental engineering principles of hypersonics so that they may make a seamless transition to graduate study and research in this field; Provide graduate students with advanced training in hypersonics and an opportunity to interact with leading authorities in the field in both research and instructional capacities; and Perform fundamental research in areas that will impact hypersonic vehicle design and development.

  12. Development study of precooled-cycle hypersonic turbojet engine for flight demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tetsuya; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Okai, Keiichi; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Masaki, Daisaku; Hongo, Motoyuki; Ohta, Toyohiko

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes a development study of a precooled-cycle hypersonic turbojet engine for the first stage of TSTO space plane and hypersonic airplane. With reflecting the key technologies accumulated from ATREX (expander cycle ATR engine) ground tests, the next flyable subscale engine "S-engine" is now developed. S-engine has 23cm×23cm of rectangular cross-section, 2.2 m of the overall length and about 100 kg of the weight employing a variable-geometry rectangular inlet and nozzle. It produces 1.2 kN of thrust at SLS, which corresponds to {1}/{4} of the ATREX engine. Design of the hypersonic components such as the inlet, precooler and nozzle has been finished and their aerodynamic performances were verified by wind tunnel tests and CFD analyses. A prototype model of the diagonal-flow compressor whose pressure ratio is 6 was manufactured. Its rotating tests under the very-low pressure conditions are now in progress. The reverse-flow annular combustion chamber was successfully tested. The first flight test of the S-engine is to be conducted in 2008 by the balloon-based operation vehicle (BOV) which is about 5 m in length, 0.55 m in diameter and 500 kg in weight. The vehicle is dropped from an altitude of 40 km by a high altitude balloon. After 40-s free-fall, the vehicle pulls up and S-engine operates for 30 s at about Mach 2. High altitude tests of the engine components corresponding to the BOV's flight condition have been conducted.

  13. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  14. Thermal and structural assessments of a ceramic wafer seal in hypersonic engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Mike; Steinetz, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    The thermal and structural performances of a ceramic wafer seal in a simulated hypersonic engine environment are numerically assessed. The effects of aerodynamic heating, surface contact conductance between the seal and its adjacent surfaces, flow of purge coolant gases, and leakage of hot engine flow path gases on the seal temperature were investigated from the engine inlet back to the entrance region of the combustion chamber. Finite element structural analyses, coupled with Weibull failure analyses, were performed to determine the structural reliability of the wafer seal.

  15. Thermal and structural assessments of a ceramic wafer seal in hypersonic engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Mike T.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal and structural performances of a ceramic wafer seal in a simulated hypersonic engine environment are numerically assessed. The effects of aerodynamic heating, surface contact conductance between the seal and its adjacent surfaces, flow of purge coolant gases, and leakage of hot engine flow path gases on the seal temperature were investigated from the engine inlet back to the entrance region of the combustion chamber. Finite element structural analyses, coupled with Weibull failure analyses, were performed to determine the structural reliability of the wafer seal.

  16. Recent Advances in Structures for Hypersonic Flight, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The papers at this symposium were presented by 24 speakers representing airframe, missile, and engine manufacturers, the U.S. Air Force, and two NASA Research Centers. The papers cover a variety of topics including engine structures, cooled airframe structures, hot structures, thermal protection systems, cryogenic tankage structures, cryogenic insulations, and analysis methods for thermal/structures.

  17. A unique high heat flux facility for testing hypersonic engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Hot Gas Facility, a unique, reliable, and cost-effective high-heat-flux facility for testing hypersonic engine components developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Hot Gas Facility is capable of providing heat fluxes ranging from 200 Btu/sq ft per sec on flat surfaces up to 8000 Btu/sq ft per sec at a leading edge stagnation point. The usefulness of the Hot Gas Facility for the NASP community was demonstrated by testing hydrogen-cooled structures over a range of temperatures and pressures. Ranges of the Reynolds numbers, Prandtl numbers, enthalpy, and heat fluxes similar to those expected during hypersonic flights were achieved.

  18. Roles of Engineering Correlations in Hypersonic Entry Boundary Layer Transition Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Anderson, Brian P.; King, Rudolph A.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to design and operate hypersonic entry vehicles are constrained by many considerations that involve all aspects of an entry vehicle system. One of the more significant physical phenomenon that affect entry trajectory and thermal protection system design is the occurrence of boundary layer transition from a laminar to turbulent state. During the Space Shuttle Return To Flight activity following the loss of Columbia and her crew of seven, NASA's entry aerothermodynamics community implemented an engineering correlation based framework for the prediction of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter. The methodology for this implementation relies upon similar correlation techniques that have been is use for several decades. What makes the Orbiter boundary layer transition correlation implementation unique is that a statistically significant data set was acquired in multiple ground test facilities, flight data exists to assist in establishing a better correlation and the framework was founded upon state of the art chemical nonequilibrium Navier Stokes flow field simulations. Recent entry flight testing performed with the Orbiter Discovery now provides a means to validate this engineering correlation approach to higher confidence. These results only serve to reinforce the essential role that engineering correlations currently exercise in the design and operation of entry vehicles. The framework of information related to the Orbiter empirical boundary layer transition prediction capability will be utilized to establish a fresh perspective on this role, and to discuss the characteristics which are desirable in a next generation advancement. The details of the paper will review the experimental facilities and techniques that were utilized to perform the implementation of the Orbiter RTF BLT Vsn 2 prediction capability. Statistically significant results for multiple engineering correlations from a ground testing campaign will be reviewed in order to describe why only

  19. Advances in thermal engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kitto, J.B.; Fiveland, W.A.; Latham, C.E.; Peterson, G.P.

    1995-03-01

    Heat transfer--more broadly, thermal engineering--is playing an increasingly critical role in the development and successful application of advanced technology in virtually all fields. From space stations to hazardous-waste destruction to high-speed transport, from ozone-protecting refrigerants to ``night vision`` goggles, a vast range of technologies depend on energy management, heat-flow control, and temperature control to successfully meet their design objectives and attain commercial success. Meeting the continually escalating demand for electricity and ``cheap`` process that will remain a challenge. Environmental protection can depend not only on using energy more efficiently, but on changing the energy conversion process to reduce initial pollutant formation. Further advances in electronics, materials processing, and manufacturing will depend in part on more precise energy management and temperature control. The scale of thermal engineering is quite broad, extending from the very large to the near-molecular level, and from very high temperatures of thousands of degrees to very low ones approaching absolute zero. This breadth of application is illustrated by a review of three specific areas: application of advanced numerical modeling to large boiler furnaces (approaching 100 m in height) in order to improve environmental performance; application of microscale ({approximately}100 {micro}) heat pipes to cool high-performance electronic circuits; and a look at some of the manufacturing processes where heat transfer and thermal analysis improve quality, performance and cost.

  20. System controls challenges of hypersonic combined-cycle engine powered vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Ianculescu, George D.

    1992-01-01

    Hypersonic aircraft with air-breathing engines have been described as the most complex and challenging air/space vehicle designs ever attempted. This is particularly true for aircraft designed to accelerate to orbital velocities. The propulsion system for the National Aerospace Plane will be an active factor in maintaining the aircraft on course. Typically addressed are the difficulties with the aerodynamic vehicle design and development, materials limitations and propulsion performance. The propulsion control system requires equal materials limitations and propulsion performance. The propulsion control system requires equal concern. Far more important than merely a subset of propulsion performance, the propulsion control system resides at the crossroads of trajectory optimization, engine static performance, and vehicle-engine configuration optimization. To date, solutions at these crossroads are multidisciplinary and generally lag behind the broader performance issues. Just how daunting these demands will be is suggested. A somewhat simplified treatment of the behavioral characteristics of hypersonic aircraft and the issues associated with their air-breathing propulsion control system design are presented.

  1. Uncertainty Quantification and Statistical Engineering for Hypersonic Entry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cozmuta, Ioana

    2011-01-01

    NASA has invested significant resources in developing and validating a mathematical construct for TPS margin management: a) Tailorable for low/high reliability missions; b) Tailorable for ablative/reusable TPS; c) Uncertainty Quantification and Statistical Engineering are valuable tools not exploited enough; and d) Need to define strategies combining both Theoretical Tools and Experimental Methods. The main reason for this lecture is to give a flavor of where UQ and SE could contribute and hope that the broader community will work with us to improve in these areas.

  2. An engineering aerodynamic heating method for hypersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Christopher J.; Dejarnette, Fred R.

    1992-01-01

    A capability to calculate surface heating rates has been incorporated in an approximate three-dimensional inviscid technique. Surface streamlines are calculated from the inviscid solution, and the axisymmetric analog is then used along with a set of approximate convective-heating equations to compute the surface heat transfer. The method is applied to blunted axisymmetric and three-dimensional ellipsoidal cones at angle of attack for the laminar flow of a perfect gas. The method is also applicable to turbulent and equilibrium-air conditions. The present technique predicts surface heating rates that compare favorably with experimental (ground-test and flight) data and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes (NS) and viscous shock-layer (VSL) equations. The new technique represents a significant improvement over current engineering aerothermal methods with only a modest increase in computational effort.

  3. An Engineering Aerodynamic Heating Method for Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Christopher J.; DeJarnette, Fred R.

    1992-01-01

    A capability to calculate surface heating rates has been incorporated in an approximate three-dimensional inviscid technique. Surface streamlines are calculated from the inviscid solution, and the axisymmetric analog is then used along with a set of approximate convective-heating equations to compute the surface heat transfer. The method is applied to blunted axisymmetric and three-dimensional ellipsoidal cones at angle of attack for the laminar flow of a perfect gas. The method is also applicable to turbulent and equilibrium-air conditions. The present technique predicts surface heating rates that compare favorably with experimental (ground-test and flight) data and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes (NS) and viscous shock-layer (VSL) equations. The new technique represents a significant improvement over current engineering aerothermal methods with only a modest increase in computational effort.

  4. An Evaluation of High Temperature Airframe Seals for Advanced Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Drlik, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    High temperature seals are required for advanced hypersonic airframe applications. In this study, both spring tube thermal barriers and innovative wafer seal systems were evaluated under relevant hypersonic test conditions (temperatures, pressures, etc.) via high temperature compression testing and room temperature flow assessments. Thermal barriers composed of a Rene 41 spring tube filled with Saffil insulation and overbraided with a Nextel 312 sheath showed acceptable performance at 1500 F in both short term and longer term compression testing. Nextel 440 thermal barriers with Rene 41 spring tubes and Saffil insulation demonstrated good compression performance up to 1750 F. A silicon nitride wafer seal/compression spring system displayed excellent load performance at temperatures as high as 2200 F and exhibited room temperature leakage values that were only 1/3 those for the spring tube rope seals. For all seal candidates evaluated, no significant degradation in leakage resistance was noted after high temperature compression testing. In addition to these tests, a superalloy seal suitable for dynamic seal applications was optimized through finite element techniques.

  5. Advanced expander test bed engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, study system interactions, and conduct studies of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  6. Hypersonic Aerodynamics Fellowships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-11

    J.D. and Capriotti , D., "Viscous Optimized Hypersonic Waveriders," AIAA Paper No. 87-0272. Appendix B: Corpening, G. and Anderson,J., "Numerical...Hypersonic Waveriders K. G. Bowcutt, J. D. Anderson and D. Capriotti , Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD AIAA 25th Aerospace Sciences Meeting January...OPTIMIZED HYPERSONIC WAVERIDERS by Kevin G. Rowcutt,* John D. Anderson, Jr.," and Diego Capriotti "** Department of Aerospace Engineering University of

  7. Dynamic Testing of the NASA Hypersonic Project Combined Cycle Engine Testbed for Mode Transition Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in developing technology that leads to more routine, safe, and affordable access to space. Access to space using airbreathing propulsion systems has potential to meet these objectives based on Airbreathing Access to Space (AAS) system studies. To this end, the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) Hypersonic Project is conducting fundamental research on a Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion system. The TBCC being studied considers a dual flow-path inlet system. One flow-path includes variable geometry to regulate airflow to a turbine engine cycle. The turbine cycle provides propulsion from take-off to supersonic flight. The second flow-path supports a dual-mode scramjet (DMSJ) cycle which would be initiated at supersonic speed to further accelerate the vehicle to hypersonic speed. For a TBCC propulsion system to accelerate a vehicle from supersonic to hypersonic speed, a critical enabling technology is the ability to safely and effectively transition from the turbine to the DMSJ-referred to as mode transition. To experimentally test methods of mode transition, a Combined Cycle Engine (CCE) Large-scale Inlet testbed was designed with two flow paths-a low speed flow-path sized for a turbine cycle and a high speed flow-path designed for a DMSJ. This testbed system is identified as the CCE Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition studies (CCE-LIMX). The test plan for the CCE-LIMX in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 10- by 10-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10 SWT) is segmented into multiple phases. The first phase is a matrix of inlet characterization (IC) tests to evaluate the inlet performance and establish the mode transition schedule. The second phase is a matrix of dynamic system identification (SysID) experiments designed to support closed-loop control development at mode transition schedule operating points for the CCE-LIMX. The third phase includes a direct demonstration of controlled mode transition using a closed loop control

  8. Trajectory Optimization and Conceptual Study of Small Test Vehicles for Hypersonic Engine Using High-Altitude Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic air-breathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in future. For combustion test in real flight condition of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan with a small test vehicle falling from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory that can achieve the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge when we design prototype vehicles.

  9. Trajectory Optimization and Conceptual Study of Small Test Vehicles for a Hypersonic Engine Using a High-Altitude Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic airbreathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in the future. For combustion test in the real flight conditions of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan where a small test vehicle is released from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory for the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge for designing prototype vehicles.

  10. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  11. Advanced engine technology

    SciTech Connect

    Heisler, H.

    1995-12-31

    This book provides a comprehensive reference for anyone wanting to study the way in which modern vehicle engines work, and why they are designed as they are. The book covers virtually all configurations of commercially-produced engines, and features the latest engine technology including up-to-date coverage of electronic engine management and exhaust emission control. Chapters cover valves and camshafts; camshaft chain belt and gear train drives; engine balance and vibration; combustion chamber design and engine performance; induction and exhaust systems; supercharging systems; carburetted fuel systems; fuel injection systems; ignition systems; engine testing equipment; diesel in-line fuel injection pump systems; diesel rotary and unit injector fuel injection pump systems; emission control; cooling and lubrication systems; and alternative power units.

  12. TBCC Discipline Overview. Hypersonics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Aeronautics Research and Development Policy" document, issued by the National Science and Technology Council in December 2006, stated that one (among several) of the guiding objectives of the federal aeronautics research and development endeavors shall be stable and long-term foundational research efforts. Nearly concurrently, the National Academies issued a more technically focused aeronautics blueprint, entitled: the "Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics - Foundations for the Future." Taken together these documents outline the principles of an aeronautics maturation plan. Thus, in response to these overarching inputs (and others), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) organized the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), a program within the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The FAP initiated foundational research and technology development tasks to enable the capability of future vehicles that operate across a broad range of Mach numbers, inclusive of the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight regimes. The FAP Hypersonics Project concentrates on two hypersonic missions: (1) Air-breathing Access to Space (AAS) and (2) the (Planetary Atmospheric) Entry, Decent, and Landing (EDL). The AAS mission focuses on Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) systems using air-breathing combined-cycle-engine propulsion; whereas, the EDL mission focuses on the challenges associated with delivering large payloads to (and from) Mars. So, the FAP Hypersonic Project investments are aligned to achieve mastery and intellectual stewardship of the core competencies in the hypersonic-flight regime, which ultimately will be required for practical systems with highly integrated aerodynamic/vehicle and propulsion/engine technologies. Within the FAP Hypersonics, the technology management is further divided into disciplines including one targeting Turbine-Based Combine-Cycle (TBCC) propulsion. Additionally, to obtain expertise and support from outside

  13. Evaluation of an innovative high temperature ceramic wafer seal for hypersonic engine applications. Ph.D. Thesis, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1992-01-01

    A critical mechanical system in advanced hypersonic engines is the panel-edge seal system that seals gaps between the articulating engine panels and the adjacent engine splitter walls. Significant advancements in seal technology are required to meet the extreme demands placed on the seals, including the simultaneous requirements of low leakage, conformable, high temperature, high pressure, sliding operation. In this investigation, the design, development, analytical and experimental evaluation of a new ceramic wafer seal that shows promise of meeting these demands will be addressed. A high temperature seal test fixture was designed and fabricated to measure static seal leakage performance under engine simulated conditions. Ceramic wafer seal leakage rates are presented for engine-simulated air pressure differentials (up to 100 psi), and temperature (up to 1350 F), sealing both flat and distorted wall conditions, where distortions can be as large as 0.15 inches in only an 18 inch span. Seal leakage rates are low, meeting an industry-established tentative leakage limit for all combinations of temperature, pressure and wall conditions considered. A seal leakage model developed from externally-pressurized gas film bearing theory is also presented. Predicted leakage rates agree favorably with the measured data for nearly all conditions of temperature and pressure. Discrepancies noted at high engine pressure and temperature are attributed to thermally-induced, non-uniform changes in the size and shape of the leakage gap condition. The challenging thermal environment the seal must operate in places considerable demands on the seal concept and material selection. Of the many high temperature materials considered in the design, ceramics were the only materials that met the many challenging seal material design requirements. Of the aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride ceramics considered in the material ranking scheme developed herein, the silicon nitride

  14. Development Study on a Precooler for the HypersonicAir-Breathing Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tetsuya; Tanatsugu, Nobuhiro; Harada, Kenya; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Tomike, Jun'Ichiro

    Here is presented an experimental and analytical study on a precooler for hypersonic air-breathing engines. Precooling of the incoming air breathed by an air-inlet gives extension of the flight envelope and improvement of the thrust and specific impulse. Three precooler models were installed into an air-turbo ramjet engine and tested under the sea level static condition. When the fan inlet temperature was down to 180K, the engine thrust and specific impulse increased by 2.0 and 1.2 times respectively. Thick frost formed on the tube surfaces at the entrance part of the precooler blocked the air-flow passage. On the other hand, very thin frost formed at the exit part because the water vapor included in the air was changed to mist particles due to the low temperature of the air in this part. Parametric studies on the precooler design values and a sizing analysis were also performed. Decrease of tube outer diameters on the precooler is only way to increase heat exchange rates without increase of its weight and pressure loss.

  15. Hypersonic missile propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmar, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Pratt and Whitney is developing the technology for hypersonic components and engines. A supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) database was developed using hydrogen fueled propulsion systems for space access vehicles and serves as a point of departure for the current development of hydrocarbon scramjets. The Air Force Hypersonic Technology (HyTech) Program has put programs in place to develop the technologies necessary to demonstrate the operability, performance and structural durability of an expendable, liquid hydrocarbon fueled scramjet system that operates from Mach 4 to 8. This program will culminate in a flight type engine test at representative flight conditions. The hypersonic technology base that will be developed and demonstrated under HyTech will establish the foundation to enable hypersonic propulsion systems for a broad range of air vehicle applications from missiles to space access vehicles. A hypersonic missile flight demonstration is planned in the DARPA Affordable Rapid Response Missile Demonstrator (ARRMD) program in 2001.

  16. Advances in yeast genome engineering.

    PubMed

    David, Florian; Siewers, Verena

    2015-02-01

    Genome engineering based on homologous recombination has been applied to yeast for many years. However, the growing importance of yeast as a cell factory in metabolic engineering and chassis in synthetic biology demands methods for fast and efficient introduction of multiple targeted changes such as gene knockouts and introduction of multistep metabolic pathways. In this review, we summarize recent improvements of existing genome engineering methods, the development of novel techniques, for example for advanced genome redesign and evolution, and the importance of endonucleases as genome engineering tools.

  17. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Preliminary report on the performance of the HRE/AIM at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Y. H.; Sainio, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Test results of the Aerothermodynamic Integration Model are presented. A program was initiated to develop a hydrogen-fueled research-oriented scramjet for operation between Mach 3 and 8. The primary objectives were to investigate the internal aerothermodynamic characteristics of the engine, to provide realistic design parameters for future hypersonic engine development as well as to evaluate the ground test facility and testing techniques. The engine was tested at the NASA hypersonic tunnel facility with synthetic air at Mach 5, 6, and 7. The hydrogen fuel was heated up to 1500 R prior to injection to simulate a regeneratively cooled system. The engine and component performance at Mach 6 is reported. Inlet performance compared very well both with theory and with subscale model tests. Combustor efficiencies up to 95 percent were attained at an equivalence ratio of unity. Nozzle performance was lower than expected. The overall engine performance was computed using two different methods. The performance was also compared with test data from other sources.

  18. Advanced Technology for Engineering Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Technology for Engineering Education, held at the Peninsula Graduate Engineering Center, Hampton, Virginia, February 24-25, 1998. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced technologies for engineering education and to explore the possibility of forming a consortium of interested individuals/universities for curriculum reform and development using advanced technologies. The presentations covered novel delivery systems and several implementations of new technologies for engineering education. Certain materials and products are identified in this publication in order to specify adequately the materials and products that were investigated in the research effort. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement of products by NASA, nor does it imply that the materials and products are the only ones or the best ones available for this purpose. In many cases equivalent materials and products are available and would probably produce equivalent results.

  19. Results of the NASP Ames Integrated Mixing Hypersonic Engine (AIMHYE) Scramjet Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Loomis, Mark P.; Deiwert, George S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the test techniques and results from the National Aerospace Plane Government Work Package 53, the Ames Integrated Mixing Hypersonic Engine (AIMHYE) Scramjet Test program conducted in the NASA Ames 16-Inch Combustion Driven Shock Tunnel. This was a series of near full-scale scramjet combustor tests with the objective to obtain high speed combustor and nozzle data from an engine with injector configurations similar to the NASP E21 and E22a designs. The experimental test approach was to use a large combustor model (80-100% throat height) designed and fabricated for testing in the semi-free jet mode. The conditions tested were similar to the "blue book" conditions at Mach 12, 14, and 16. GWP 53 validated use of large, long test time impulse facilities, specifically the Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel, for high Mach number scramjet propulsion testing an integrated test rig (inlet, combustor, and nozzle). Discussion of key features of the test program will include: effects of the 2-D combustor inlet pressure profile; performance of large injectors' fueling system that included nozzlettes, base injection, and film cooling; and heat transfer measurements to the combustor. Significant instrumentation development and application efforts include the following: combustor force balance application for measurement of combustor drag for comparison with integrated point measurements of skin friction; nozzle metric strip for measuring thrust with comparison to integrated pressure measurements; and nonintrusive optical fiber-based diode laser absorption measurements of combustion products for determination of combustor performance. Direct measurements will be reported for specific test article configurations and compared with CFD solutions.

  20. Roles of Engineering Correlations in Hypersonic Entry Boundary Layer Transition Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; King, Rudolph A.; Kergerise, Michael A.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to design and operate hypersonic entry vehicles are constrained by many considerations that involve all aspects of an entry vehicle system. One of the more significant physical phenomenon that affect entry trajectory and thermal protection system design is the occurrence of boundary layer transition from a laminar to turbulent state. During the Space Shuttle Return To Flight activity following the loss of Columbia and her crew of seven, NASA's entry aerothermodynamics community implemented an engineering correlation based framework for the prediction of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter. The methodology for this implementation relies upon the framework of correlation techniques that have been in use for several decades. What makes the Orbiter boundary layer transition correlation implementation unique is that a statistically significant data set was acquired in multiple ground test facilities, flight data exists to assist in establishing a better correlation and the framework was founded upon state of the art chemical nonequilibrium Navier Stokes flow field simulations. The basic tenets that guided the formulation and implementation of the Orbiter Return To Flight boundary layer transition prediction capability will be reviewed as a recommended format for future empirical correlation efforts. The validity of this approach has since been demonstrated by very favorable comparison of recent entry flight testing performed with the Orbiter Discovery, which will be graphically summarized. These flight data can provide a means to validate discrete protuberance engineering correlation approaches as well as high fidelity prediction methods to higher confidence. The results of these Orbiter engineering and flight test activities only serve to reinforce the essential role that engineering correlations currently exercise in the design and operation of entry vehicles. The framework of information-related to the Orbiter empirical boundary layer transition

  1. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  2. Advanced engineering environment pilot project.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwegel, Jill; Pomplun, Alan R.; Abernathy, Rusty

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a concurrent engineering concept that enables real-time process tooling design and analysis, collaborative process flow development, automated document creation, and full process traceability throughout a product's life cycle. The AEE will enable NNSA's Design and Production Agencies to collaborate through a singular integrated process. Sandia National Laboratories and Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) are working together on a prototype AEE pilot project to evaluate PTC's product collaboration tools relative to the needs of the NWC. The primary deliverable for the project is a set of validated criteria for defining a complete commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solution to deploy the AEE across the NWC.

  3. Hypersonic drone vehicle design: A multidisciplinary experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    UCLA's Advanced Aeronautic Design group focussed their efforts on design problems of an unmanned hypersonic vehicle. It is felt that a scaled hypersonic drone is necesary to bridge the gap between present theory on hypersonics and the future reality of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) for two reasons: (1) to fulfill a need for experimental data in the hypersonic regime, and (2) to provide a testbed for the scramjet engine which is to be the primary mode of propulsion for the NASP. The group concentrated on three areas of great concern to NASP design: propulsion, thermal management, and flight systems. Problem solving in these areas was directed toward design of the drone with the idea that the same design techniques could be applied to the NASP. A 70 deg swept double-delta wing configuration, developed in the 70's at the NASA Langley, was chosen as the aerodynamic and geometric model for the drone. This vehicle would be air launched from a B-1 at Mach 0.8 and 48,000 feet, rocket boosted by two internal engines to Mach 10 and 100,000 feet, and allowed to cruise under power of the scramjet engine until burnout. It would then return to base for an unpowered landing. Preliminary energy calculations based on flight requirements give the drone a gross launch weight of 134,000 pounds and an overall length of 85 feet.

  4. Testing of the NASA Hypersonics Project Combined Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LlMX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, J. D.; Stueber, T. J.; Thomas, S. R.; Suder, K. L.; Weir, L. J.; Sanders, B. W.

    2012-01-01

    Status on an effort to develop Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion is described. This propulsion technology can enable reliable and reusable space launch systems. TBCC propulsion offers improved performance and safety over rocket propulsion. The potential to realize aircraft-like operations and reduced maintenance are additional benefits. Among most the critical TBCC enabling technologies are: 1) mode transition from turbine to scramjet propulsion, 2) high Mach turbine engines and 3) TBCC integration. To address these TBCC challenges, the effort is centered on a propulsion mode transition experiment and includes analytical research. The test program, the Combined-Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LIMX), was conceived to integrate TBCC propulsion with proposed hypersonic vehicles. The goals address: (1) dual inlet operability and performance, (2) mode-transition sequences enabling a switch between turbine and scramjet flow paths, and (3) turbine engine transients during transition. Four test phases are planned from which a database can be used to both validate design and analysis codes and characterize operability and integration issues for TBCC propulsion. In this paper we discuss the research objectives, features of the CCE hardware and test plans, and status of the parametric inlet characterization testing which began in 2011. This effort is sponsored by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Hypersonics project

  5. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  6. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K. E.; Saus, L. S.; Regenhardt, P. A.

    1992-02-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.

  7. Polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix composites for advanced aircraft engine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Daniels, D.L.; Serafini, T.T.; Di Carlo, J.A.

    1986-06-01

    Advanced aircraft engine research within NASA Lewis focuses on propulsion systems for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. Each of these flight regimes requires different types of engines, but all require advanced materials to meet their goals of performance, thrust-to-weight ratio, and fuel efficiency. The high strength/weight and stiffness/weight properties of resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites will play an increasingly key role in meeting these performance requirements. At NASA Lewis, research is ongoing to apply graphite/polyimide composites to engine components and to develop polymer matrices with higher operating temperature capabilities. Metal matrix composites, using magnesium, aluminum, titanium, and superalloy matrices, are being developed for application to static and rotating engine components, as well as for space applications, over a broad temperature range. Ceramic matrix composites are also being examined to increase the toughness and reliability of ceramics for application to high-temperature engine structures and components.

  8. The Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel engine evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehne, J. L.; Werner, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. The individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements are presented.

  9. Advanced engineering environment collaboration project.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamph, Jane Ann; Pomplun, Alan R.; Kiba, Grant W.; Dutra, Edward G.; Dankiewicz, Robert J.; Marburger, Scot J.

    2008-12-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a model for an engineering design and communications system that will enhance project collaboration throughout the nuclear weapons complex (NWC). Sandia National Laboratories and Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) worked together on a prototype project to evaluate the suitability of a portion of PTC's Windchill 9.0 suite of data management, design and collaboration tools as the basis for an AEE. The AEE project team implemented Windchill 9.0 development servers in both classified and unclassified domains and used them to test and evaluate the Windchill tool suite relative to the needs of the NWC using weapons project use cases. A primary deliverable was the development of a new real time collaborative desktop design and engineering process using PDMLink (data management tool), Pro/Engineer (mechanical computer aided design tool) and ProductView Lite (visualization tool). Additional project activities included evaluations of PTC's electrical computer aided design, visualization, and engineering calculations applications. This report documents the AEE project work to share information and lessons learned with other NWC sites. It also provides PTC with recommendations for improving their products for NWC applications.

  10. Validation of engineering methods for predicting hypersonic vehicle controls forces and moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughmer, M.; Straussfogel, D.; Long, L.; Ozoroski, L.

    1991-01-01

    This work examines the ability of the aerodynamic analysis methods contained in an industry standard conceptual design code, the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS II), to estimate the forces and moments generated through control surface deflections from low subsonic to high hypersonic speeds. Predicted control forces and moments generated by various control effectors are compared with previously published wind-tunnel and flight-test data for three vehicles: the North American X-15, a hypersonic research airplane concept, and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Qualitative summaries of the results are given for each force and moment coefficient and each control derivative in the various speed ranges. Results show that all predictions of longitudinal stability and control derivatives are acceptable for use at the conceptual design stage.

  11. Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.; Benstein, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    The small engine technology requirements suitable for general aviation service in the 1987 to 1988 time frame were defined. The market analysis showed potential United States engines sales of 31,500 per year providing that the turbine engine sales price approaches current reciprocating engine prices. An optimum engine design was prepared for four categories of fixed wing aircraft and for rotary wing applications. A common core approach was derived from the optimum engines that maximizes engine commonality over the power spectrum with a projected price competitive with reciprocating piston engines. The advanced technology features reduced engine cost, approximately 50 percent compared with current technology.

  12. Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer them to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will be multiplied and infused into the patient to fight the cancer

  13. New engine and advanced component design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on new engine and advance component design. Topics covered include: development of low emission high performance four valve engines, the effect of engine build options on powerplant inertias, silicon nitride turbocharger rotor for high performance automotive engines and development of Toyota reflex Burn (TRB) system in DI diesel.

  14. Airbreathing Hypersonic Technology Vision Vehicles and Development Dreams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClinton, C. R.; Hunt, J. L.; Ricketts, R. H.; Reukauf, P.; Peddie, C. L.

    1999-01-01

    Significant advancements in hypersonic airbreathing vehicle technology have been made in the country's research centers and industry over the past 40 years. Some of that technology is being validated with the X-43 flight tests. This paper presents an overview of hypersonic airbreathing technology status within the US, and a hypersonic technology development plan. This plan builds on the nation's large investment in hypersonics. This affordable, incremental plan focuses technology development on hypersonic systems, which could be operating by the 2020's.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics Technology for Hypersonic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    Several current challenges in computational fluid dynamics and aerothermodynamics for hypersonic vehicle applications are discussed. Example simulations are presented from code validation and code benchmarking efforts to illustrate capabilities and limitations. Opportunities to advance the state-of-art in algorithms, grid generation and adaptation, and code validation are identified. Highlights of diverse efforts to address these challenges are then discussed. One such effort to re-engineer and synthesize the existing analysis capability in LAURA, VULCAN, and FUN3D will provide context for these discussions. The critical (and evolving) role of agile software engineering practice in the capability enhancement process is also noted.

  16. A new cascade-less engine operated from subsonic to hypersonic conditions: designed by computational fluid dynamics of compressible turbulence with chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitoh, Ken; Nakamura, Kazushi; Emoto, Takehiro

    2010-12-01

    By using our computational fluid dynamic models, a new type of single engine capable of operating over a wide range of Mach numbers from subsonic to hypersonic regimes is proposed for airplanes, whereas traditional piston engines, turbojet engines, and scram engines work only under a narrower range of operating conditions. The new engine has no compressors or turbines such as those used in conventional turbojet engines. An important point is its system of super multijets that collide to compress gas for the transonic regime. Computational fluid dynamics is applied to clarify the potential of this engine. The peak pressure at the combustion center is over 2.5 MPa, while that just before ignition is over 1.0 MPa. The maximum power of this engine will be sufficient for actual use. Under the conditions of higher Mach numbers, the main intake passage located in front of the super multijet nozzles, takes in air more. That results in a ram or scramjet engine for supersonic and hypersonic conditions.

  17. Tip-to-tail numerical simulation of a hypersonic air-breathing engine with ethylene fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharavath, Malsur; Manna, P.; Chakraborty, Debasis

    2016-11-01

    End to end CFD simulations of external and internal flow paths of an ethylene fueled hypersonic airbreathing vehicle with including forebody, horizontal fins, vertical fins, intake, combustor, single expansion ramp nozzle are carried out. The performance of the scramjet combustor and vehicle net thrust-drag is calculated for hypersonic cruise condition. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with SST-k-ω turbulence model using the commercial CFD software CFX-14. Single step chemical reaction based on fast chemistry assumption is used for combustion of gaseous ethylene fuel. Simulations captured complex shock structures including the shocks generated from the vehicle nose and compression ramps, impingement of cowl-shock on vehicle undersurface and its reflection in the intake and combustor etc. Various thermochemical parameters are analyzed and performance parameters are evaluated for nonreacting and reacting cases. Very good mixing ( 98%) of fuel with incoming air stream is observed. Positive thrust-drag margins are obtained for fuel equivalence ratio of 0.6 and computed combustion efficiency is observed to be 94 %. Effect of equivalence ratio on the vehicle performance is studied parametrically. Though the combustion efficiency has come down by 8% for fuel equivalence ratio of 0.8, net vehicle thrust is increased by 44%. Heat flux distribution on the various walls of the whole vehicle including combustor is estimated for the isothermal wall condition of 1000 K in reacting flow. Higher local heat flux values are observed at all the leading edges of the vehicle (i.e., nose, wing, fin and cowl leading edges) and strut regions of the combustor.

  18. Optimum cylinder cooling for advanced diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F.; Rodman, S.; Skerget, L.; Delic, M.

    1998-07-01

    Continuous demand for higher specific engine output simultaneously introduces problems of higher mechanical and thermal stresses of the engine components. Uneven temperature distribution in the cylinder wall of a diesel engine, especially when air-cooled, is well known. Peak local temperatures, large circumferential and longitudinal temperature gradients provoke deformations that, in turn, affect the reliability of the engine. As the result of intensive numerical and experimental investigations, a horizontal, curved channel fed with engine lubrication oil was introduced in the upper part of the air-cooled cylinder. Optimization of the channel design, its position, and determination of suitable asymmetrical split oil flow have led to more favorable cylinder temperature distribution, similar to that obtained by advanced water-cooled engines. Analyses of the local laminar oil-flow phenomena and local heat transfer distribution is curved channels are discussed in the paper and can be successfully applied to advanced liquid-cooled engines.

  19. Optimum cylinder cooling for advanced diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F.; Rodman, S.; Skerget, L.; Delic, M.

    1996-12-31

    Continuous demand for higher specific engine output simultaneously introduces problems of higher mechanical and thermal stresses of the engine components. Uneven temperature distribution in the cylinder wall of a Diesel engine, especially when air-cooled, is well known. Peak local temperatures, large circumferential and longitudinal temperature gradients provoke deformations that in turn affect the reliability of the engine. As the result of intensive numerical and experimental investigations a horizontal, curved channel fed with engine lubrication oil was introduced in the upper part of the air-cooled cylinder. Optimization of the channel design, its position, and determination of suitable asymmetrical split oil-flow have led to more favorable cylinder temperature distribution, similar to that obtained by advanced water-cooled engines. Analyses of the local laminar oil-flow phenomena and local heat transfer distribution in curved channels can be successfully and effectively applied to advanced liquid-cooled engines.

  20. Carbon-carbon composites: Emerging materials for hypersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, Howard G.

    1989-01-01

    An emerging class of high temperature materials called carbon-carbon composites are being developed to help make advanced aerospace flight become a reality. Because of the high temperature strength and low density of carbon-carbon composites, aerospace engineers would like to use these materials in even more advanced applications. One application of considerable interest is as the structure of the aerospace vehicle itself rather than simply as a protective heat shield as on Space Shuttle. But suitable forms of these materials have yet to be developed. If this development can be successfully accomplished, advanced aerospace vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) and other hypersonic vehicles will be closer to becoming a reality. A brief definition is given of C-C composites. Fabrication problems and oxidation protection concepts are examined. Applications of C-C composites in the Space Shuttle and in advanced hypersonic vehicles as well as other applications are briefly discussed.

  1. Engineering visualization utilizing advanced animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabionski, Gunter R.; Robinson, Thomas L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Engineering visualization is the use of computer graphics to depict engineering analysis and simulation in visual form from project planning through documentation. Graphics displays let engineers see data represented dynamically which permits the quick evaluation of results. The current state of graphics hardware and software generally allows the creation of two types of 3D graphics. The use of animated video as an engineering visualization tool is presented. The engineering, animation, and videography aspects of animated video production are each discussed. Specific issues include the integration of staffing expertise, hardware, software, and the various production processes. A detailed explanation of the animation process reveals the capabilities of this unique engineering visualization method. Automation of animation and video production processes are covered and future directions are proposed.

  2. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic hearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  3. The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES) package is a tool to help school designers assess the potential financial payback and indoor humidity control benefits of Energy Recovery Ventilation (ERV) systems for school applications.

  4. Advances in engineering science, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Proceedings from a conference on engineering advances are presented, including materials science, fracture mechanics, and impact and vibration testing. The tensile strength and moisture transport of laminates are also discussed.

  5. Design study of a dual-cycle turbofan-ramjet engine for a hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Suwanprasert, S.

    1983-01-01

    Computer modelling was used with two different designs of an advanced turbofan-ramjet in order to derive performance predictions. The engine would enable an aircraft to take-off, accelerate to Mach 5.0, and climb to 90,000 ft. The two concepts included a turbofan with a ramjet annularly wrapped around it and a side-by-side configuration with the ramjet having a rectangular shape and mounted alongside the turbofan. The studies were performed to model weight, length, fuel efficiency, and the requirements of the thrust/drag ratio to exceed unity over the entire flight path. LH2 would be used for fuel and to regeneratively cool the combustion chamber. Turbofan operation with and without afterburner and with and without the ramjet inlet open were examined, as were variable areas for the burners. A side-by-side configuration displayed the best performance predictions, with a ramjet mass flow being 75 percent that of the turbofan and maximum temperatures being equal.

  6. Advanced space engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuffe, J. P. B.; Bradie, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for an O2/H2, 89 kN (20,000 lb) thrust staged combustion rocket engine that has a single-bell nozzle with an overall expansion ratio of 400:1. The engine has a best estimate vacuum specific impulse of 4623.8 N-s/kg (471.5 sec) at full thrust and mixture ratio = 6.0. The engine employs gear-driven, low pressure pumps to provide low NPSH capability while individual turbine-driven, high-speed main pumps provide the system pressures required for high-chamber pressure operation. The engine design dry weight for the fixed-nozzle configuration is 206.9 kg (456.3 lb). Engine overall length is 234 cm (92.1 in.). The extendible nozzle version has a stowed length of 141.5 cm (55.7 in.). Critical technology items in the development of the engine were defined. Development program plans and their costs for development, production, operation, and flight support of the ASE were established for minimum cost and minimum time programs.

  7. Engine health monitoring: An advanced system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, R. J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The advanced propulsion monitoring system is described. The system was developed in order to fulfill a growing need for effective engine health monitoring. This need is generated by military requirements for increased performance and efficiency in more complex propulsion systems, while maintaining or improving the cost to operate. This program represents a vital technological step in the advancement of the state of the art for monitoring systems in terms of reliability, flexibility, accuracy, and provision of user oriented results. It draws heavily on the technology and control theory developed for modern, complex, electronically controlled engines and utilizes engine information which is a by-product of such a system.

  8. Advanced Control Considerations for Turbofan Engine Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Chicatelli, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the application of a model-based engine control (MBEC) methodology featuring a self tuning on-board model for an aircraft turbofan engine simulation. The nonlinear engine model is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the advanced control methodology over a wide range of operating points and life cycle conditions. The on-board model is a piece-wise linear model derived from the nonlinear engine model and updated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. MBEC is used here to show how advanced control architectures can improve efficiency during the design phase of a turbofan engine by reducing conservative operability margins. The operability margins that can be reduced, such as stall margin, can expand the engine design space and offer potential for efficiency improvements. Application of MBEC architecture to a nonlinear engine simulation is shown to reduce the thrust specific fuel consumption by approximately 1% over the baseline design, while maintaining safe operation of the engine across the flight envelope.

  9. Hypersonic Airbreathing Missile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Lawing, P. L.; Marcum, D. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A hypersonic airbreathing missile using dual mode scramjet engines for propulsion is described. The fuselage is constructed of a material with a high heat sink capacity and is covered with a thermal protective shield and lined with an internal insulating blanket. The engine airframe integration uses the flat lower portion of the lower fuselage to precompress the air entering the scramjet engines. The precompression of air entering the scramjet inlets increases as the angles of attack. This feature results in a highly maneuverable missile which can accelerate as it banks into a turn.

  10. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  11. Advanced Expander Test Bed Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    performance data will be provided to NASA -LeRC for verifying the ROCETS computer model and evaluating various RLI0 modifications. 22 SECTION IV CURRENT...RL10 modeling data for the ROCETS computer program. 23 NASA Report Documentation Page Nafi~aj AfWflWuIC Wd Sow@ Ad-lvhlsto, 1 eport No. 2. Government... NASA have identified the need for a new Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Propulsion System. The new system will be an oxygen/hydrogen expander cycle engine

  12. Hypersonic airbreathing propulsion/airframe integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidner, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent interest in airbreathing hypersonic flight has centered around the need to develop advanced space launch systems which can reduce the cost of inserting payloads in orbit and make space more accessible. An effect of the thermal environment is to require the vehicle to operate at high altitudes, in very thin air, to maintain aircraft structural load limits. The high altitudes at which the hypersonic vehicle must operate give rise to the concept of an airframe integrated propulsion system to provide a much larger inlet and nozzle to process the required volume of air at low density, atmospheric conditions. In the integrated system, the forward portion of the vehicle compresses the air flow and serves as the external portion of the inlet; the aftbody completes the expansion process for the nozzle. In addition, the engine, which is contained between the body and the forebody shock wave, lends itself to a modular integration of a number of separate engines. In this manner, a relatively small engine can be defined to allow engine development in existing ground facilities.

  13. Emerging hypersonic propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, E. T.; Beach, H. L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Currently there is a renewal of interest in the utilization of air breathing engines for hypersonic flight. The use of such engines in accelerative missions is discussed, and the nature of the trade-off between engine thrust-to-weight ratio and specific impulse is highlighted. It is also pointed out that the use of a cryogenic fuel such as liquid hydrogen offers the opportunity to develop both precooled derivatives of turboaccelerator engines and new cryogenic engine cycles, where the heat exchange process plays a significant role in the engine concept. The continuing challenges of developing high speed supersonic combustion ramjet engines are discussed. The paper concludes with a brief review of the difficult discipline of vehicle integration, and the challenges of both ground and flight testing.

  14. Advanced aircraft engine materials trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Gray, H. R.; Levine, S. R.; Signorelli, R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent activities of the Lewis Research Center are reviewed which are directed toward developing materials for rotating hot section components for aircraft gas turbines. Turbine blade materials activities are directed at increasing metal temperatures approximately 100 C compared to current directionally solidified alloys by use of oxide dispersion strengthening or tungsten alloy wire reinforcement of nickel or iron base superalloys. The application of thermal barrier coatings offers a promise of increasing gas temperatures an additional 100 C with current cooling technology. For turbine disk alloys, activities are directed toward reducing the cost of turbine disks by 50 percent through near net shape fabrication of prealloyed powders as well as towards improved performance. In addition, advanced alloy concepts and fabrication methods for dual alloy disks are being studied as having potential for improving the life of future high performance disks and reducing the amount of strategic materials required in these components.

  15. Conceptual Design of a Mach 8 Hypersonic Cruiser with Dorsal Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, N.; Steelant, J.; Mack, A.

    2009-01-01

    A Mach 8 cruise concept vehicle is defined within the LAPCAT I program to explore the feasibility of antipodal travel. Different engine configurations including Rocket Ejector, Air Turbo Rocket, Ramjet and Scramjet are integrated into a waverider type vehicle and flown as part of a numerical trajectory.

  16. Engineered polymers for advanced drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Jong-Ho; Jeon, Oju; Kwon, Ick Chan; Park, Kinam

    2009-03-01

    Engineered polymers have been utilized for developing advanced drug delivery systems. The development of such polymers has caused advances in polymer chemistry, which, in turn, has resulted in smart polymers that can respond to changes in environmental condition such as temperature, pH, and biomolecules. The responses vary widely from swelling/deswelling to degradation. Drug-polymer conjugates and drug-containing nano/micro-particles have been used for drug targeting. Engineered polymers and polymeric systems have also been used in new areas, such as molecular imaging as well as in nanotechnology. This review examines the engineered polymers that have been used as traditional drug delivery systems and as more recent applications in nanotechnology.

  17. Engineered Polymers for Advanced Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Jong-Ho; Jeon, Oju; Kwon, Ick Chan; Park, Kinam

    2009-01-01

    Engineered polymers have been utilized for developing advanced drug delivery systems. The development of such polymers has caused advances in polymer chemistry, which, in turn, has resulted in smart polymers that can respond to changes in environmental condition, such as temperature, pH, and biomolecules. The responses vary widely from swelling/deswelling to degradation. Drug-polymer conjugates and drug-containing nano/micro-particles have been used for drug targeting. Engineered polymers and polymeric systems have also been used in new areas, such as molecular imaging as well as in nanotechnology. This review examines the engineered polymers that have been used as traditional drug delivery and as more recent applications in nanotechnology. PMID:18977434

  18. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    In Task D.6 of the Advanced Engine Study, three primary subtasks were accomplished: (1) design of parametric data; (2) engine requirement variation studies; and (3) vehicle study/engine study coordination. Parametric data were generated for vacuum thrusts ranging from 7500 lbf to 50,000 lbf, nozzle expansion ratios from 600 to 1200, and engine mixture ratios from 5:1 to 7:1. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was used as a departure point for these parametric analyses. These data are intended to assist in definition and trade studies. In the Engine Requirements Variation Studies, the individual effects of increasing the throttling ratio from 10:1 to 20:1 and requiring the engine to operate at a maximum mixture ratio of 12:1 were determined. Off design engine balances were generated at these extreme conditions and individual component operating requirements analyzed in detail. Potential problems were identified and possible solutions generated. In the Vehicle Study/Engine Study coordination subtask, vehicle contractor support was provided as needed, addressing a variety of issues uncovered during vehicle trade studies. This support was primarily provided during Technical Interchange Meetings (TIM) in which Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) studies were addressed.

  19. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  20. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  1. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents.

    PubMed

    Vojcic, Ljubica; Pitzler, Christian; Körfer, Georgette; Jakob, Felix; Ronny Martinez; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-12-25

    Proteases are essential ingredients in modern laundry detergents. Over the past 30 years, subtilisin proteases employed in the laundry detergent industry have been engineered by directed evolution and rational design to tailor their properties towards industrial demands. This comprehensive review discusses recent success stories in subtilisin protease engineering. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents comprise simultaneous improvement of thermal resistance and activity at low temperatures, a rational strategy to modulate pH profiles, and a general hypothesis for how to increase promiscuous activity towards the production of peroxycarboxylic acids as mild bleaching agents. The three protease engineering campaigns presented provide in-depth analysis of protease properties and have identified principles that can be applied to improve or generate enzyme variants for industrial applications beyond laundry detergents.

  2. Advancing tissue engineering by using electrospun nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Ndreu, A; Nikkola, L; Wimpenny, I; Yang, Y

    2008-07-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique that enables the development of nanofiber-based scaffolds, from a variety of polymers that may have drug-release properties. Using nanofibers, it is now possible to produce biomimetic scaffolds that can mimic the extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. Interestingly, nanofibers can guide cell growth along their direction. Combining factors like fiber diameter, alignment and chemicals offers new ways to control tissue engineering. In vivo evaluation of nanomats included their degradation, tissue reactions and engineering of specific tissues. New advances made in electrospinning, especially in drug delivery, support the massive potential of these nanobiomaterials. Nevertheless, there is already at least one product based on electrospun nanofibers with drug-release properties in a Phase III clinical trial, for wound dressing. Hopefully, clinical applications in tissue engineering will follow to enhance the success of regenerative therapies.

  3. Advanced Engineering Environments: Implications for Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D.

    2001-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's aerospace industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker all face the developer of aerospace systems. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments (AEEs) to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. These advances will enable modeling and simulation of manufacturing methods, which will in turn allow manufacturing considerations to be included much earlier in the system development cycle. Significant cost savings, increased quality, and decreased manufacturing cycle time are expected to result. This paper will give an overview of the NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment, the agency initiative to develop an AEE, with a focus on the anticipated benefits in aerospace manufacturing.

  4. Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

    1987-12-01

    The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

  5. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Schulz, R.B.

    1994-10-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was initiated in 1983 for the purpose of developing highly reliable structural ceramics for applications in advanced heat engines, such as automotive gas turbines and advanced heavy duty diesel engines. The reliability problem was determined to be a result of uncontrolled populations of processing flaws in the brittle, flaw-sensitive materials, along with microstructural features, such as grain boundary phases, that contribute to time dependent strength reduction in service at high temperatures. The approaches taken to develop high reliability ceramics included the development of tougher materials with greater tolerance to microstructural flaws, the development of advanced processing technology to minimize the size and number of flaws, and the development of mechanical testing methodology and the characterization of time dependent mechanical behavior, leading to a life prediction methodology for structural ceramics. The reliability goals of the program were largely met by 1993, but commercial implementation of ceramic engine components has been delayed by the high cost of the components. A new effort in Cost Effective Ceramics for Heat Engines was initiated in 1993 and is expected to develop the manufacturing technology leading to an order of magnitude cost reduction. The program has been planned for a five year period.

  6. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.; Ewen, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study identifies and evaluates promising LO2/HC rocket engine cycles, produces a consistent and reliable data base for vehicle optimization and design studies, demonstrates the significance of propulsion system improvements, and selects the critical technology areas necessary to realize an improved surface to orbit transportation system. Parametric LO2/HC engine data were generated over a range of thrust levels from 890 to 6672 kN (200K to 1.5M 1bF) and chamber pressures from 6890 to 34500 kN (1000 to 5000 psia). Engine coolants included RP-1, refined RP-1, LCH4, LC3H8, LO2, and LH2. LO2/RP-1 G.G. cycles were found to be not acceptable for advanced engines. The highest performing LO2/RP-1 staged combustion engine cycle utilizes LO2 as the coolant and incorporates an oxidizer rich preburner. The highest performing cycle for LO2/LCH4 and LO2/LC3H8 utilizes fuel cooling and incorporates both fuel and oxidizer rich preburners. LO2/HC engine cycles permitting the use of a third fluid LH2 coolant and an LH2 rich gas generator provide higher performance at significantly lower pump discharge pressures. The LO2/HC dual throat engine, because of its high altitude performance, delivers the highest payload for the vehicle configuration that was investigated.

  7. Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sapru, Krishna; Tan, Zhaosheng; Chao, Ben

    2010-09-30

    The main objective of the project is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (< 25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the same performance and durability. This final technical report summarizes the results of i) the details of the conversion of several small gasoline ICEs to run on hydrogen, ii) the durability test of a converted hydrogen engine and iii) the demonstration of a prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system. Peak power of the hydrogen engine achieves 60% of the power output of the gasoline counterpart. The efforts to boost the engine power with various options including installing the over-sized turbocharger, retrofit of custom-made pistons with high compression ratio, an advanced ignition system, and various types of fuel injection systems are not realized. A converted Honda GC160 engine with ACS system to run with hydrogen fuel is successful. Total accumulative runtime is 785 hours. A prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system having nominal capacity of 1.2 kg is designed, constructed and demonstrated. It is capable of supporting a wide range of output load of a hydrogen generator.

  8. Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering : LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-08-01

    Constitutive modeling is an important aspect of computational solid mechanics. Sandia National Laboratories has always had a considerable effort in the development of constitutive models for complex material behavior. However, for this development to be of use the models need to be implemented in our solid mechanics application codes. In support of this important role, the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) has been developed in Engineering Sciences. The library allows for simple implementation of constitutive models by model developers and access to these models by application codes. The library is written in C++ and has a very simple object oriented programming structure. This report summarizes the current status of LAME.

  9. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Warren R.

    1992-01-01

    An advanced LOX/LH2 engine study for the use of NASA and vehicle prime contractors in developing concepts for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and Phobos is documented. Parametric design data was obtained at five engine thrusts from 7.5K lbf to 50K lbf. Also, a separate task evaluated engine throttling over a 20:1 range and operation at a mixture ratio of 12 plus or minus 1 versus the 6 plus or minus 1 nominal. Cost data was also generated for DDT&E, first unit production, and factors in other life cycle costs. The major limitation of the study was lack of contact with vehicle prime contractors to resolve the issues in vehicle/engine interfaces. The baseline Aerojet dual propellant expander cycle was shown capable of meeting all performance requirements with an expected long operational life due to the high thermal margins. The basic engine design readily accommodated the 20:1 throttling requirement and operation up to a mixture ratio of 10 without change. By using platinum for baffled injector construction the increased thermal margin allowed operation up to mixture ratio 13. An initial engine modeling with an Aerojet transient simulation code (named MLETS) indicates stable engine operation with the baseline control system. A throttle ratio of 4 to 5 seconds from 10 percent to 100 percent thrust is also predicted. Performance predictions are 483.1 sec at 7.5K lbf, 487.3 sec at 20K lbf, and 485.2 sec at 50K lbf with a mixture ratio of 6 and an area ratio of 1200. Engine envelopes varied from 120 in. length/53 in. exit diameter at 7.5K lbf to 305 in. length/136 in. exit diameter at 50 K lbf. Packaging will be an important consideration. Continued work is recommended to include more vehicle prime contractor/engine contractor joint assessment of the interface issues.

  10. Ignition angle advancer for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, T.

    1986-08-19

    This patent describes a throttle and spark advance control system for an internal combustion engine having a spark advance mechanism and a throttle valve comprising an operator controlled element, a throttle control lever supported for pivotal movement about an axis and directly connected to the operator controlled element for rotation under operator control. It also includes means for positively connecting the throttle control lever to the throttle valve for positioning the throttle valve in response to movement of the throttle control lever. A spark advance control lever supported for pivotal movement about an axis is included as well as motion transmitting means for operatively connecting the spark advance control lever to the throttle control lever for pivotal movement of the spark advance control lever about its axis in response to pivotal movement of the throttle control lever about its axis and the spark control lever to the spark advance mechanism for controlling the position of the spark advance mechanism in response to the position of the throttle control lever.

  11. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered

  12. Systems Engineering Building Advances Power Grid Research

    SciTech Connect

    Virden, Jud; Huang, Henry; Skare, Paul; Dagle, Jeff; Imhoff, Carl; Stoustrup, Jakob; Melton, Ron; Stiles, Dennis; Pratt, Rob

    2015-08-19

    Researchers and industry are now better equipped to tackle the nation’s most pressing energy challenges through PNNL’s new Systems Engineering Building – including challenges in grid modernization, buildings efficiency and renewable energy integration. This lab links real-time grid data, software platforms, specialized laboratories and advanced computing resources for the design and demonstration of new tools to modernize the grid and increase buildings energy efficiency.

  13. Advancing Sustainable Surface Engineering: Challenges & Future Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    2013 Noblis , Inc. Advancing Sustainable Surface Engineering: Challenges & Future Opportunities Dr. Jeffrey Marqusee Chief Scientist...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Noblis Inc,3150 Fairview Park Drive,Falls Church,VA...unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 © 2013 Noblis , Inc

  14. Systems Engineering Building Advances Power Grid Research

    ScienceCinema

    Virden, Jud; Huang, Henry; Skare, Paul; Dagle, Jeff; Imhoff, Carl; Stoustrup, Jakob; Melton, Ron; Stiles, Dennis; Pratt, Rob

    2016-07-12

    Researchers and industry are now better equipped to tackle the nation’s most pressing energy challenges through PNNL’s new Systems Engineering Building – including challenges in grid modernization, buildings efficiency and renewable energy integration. This lab links real-time grid data, software platforms, specialized laboratories and advanced computing resources for the design and demonstration of new tools to modernize the grid and increase buildings energy efficiency.

  15. Bone Tissue Engineering: Recent Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Ami R.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has trended steeply upward and is expected to double by 2020, especially in populations where aging is coupled with increased obesity and poor physical activity. Engineered bone tissue has been viewed as a potential alternative to the conventional use of bone grafts, due to their limitless supply and no disease transmission. However, bone tissue engineering practices have not proceeded to clinical practice due to several limitations or challenges. Bone tissue engineering aims to induce new functional bone regeneration via the synergistic combination of biomaterials, cells, and factor therapy. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering, highlighting the current state of this field. Further, we review the recent advances of biomaterial and cell-based research, as well as approaches used to enhance bone regeneration. Specifically, we discuss widely investigated biomaterial scaffolds, micro- and nano-structural properties of these scaffolds, and the incorporation of biomimetic properties and/or growth factors. In addition, we examine various cellular approaches, including the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and their clinical application strengths and limitations. We conclude by overviewing the challenges that face the bone tissue engineering field, such as the lack of sufficient vascularization at the defect site, and the research aimed at functional bone tissue engineering. These challenges will drive future research in the field. PMID:23339648

  16. Plasma Diagnostics Development for Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Timothy; Kittrell, Carter; Chan, Anthony; Chang-Diaz, Franklin

    2000-10-01

    The VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) engine is a next-generation rocket engine under development at the Johnson Space Center's Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory. With an exhaust velocity up to 50 times that of chemical rocket engines such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine, the VASIMR concept promises fast, efficient interplanetary flight. Rice University has participated in VASIMR research since 1996 and at present is developing two new diagnostic probes: a retarding potential analyzer to measure the velocity of ions in the rocket's exhaust, and a moveable optical probe to examine the spectrum of the rocket's helicon plasma source. In support of the probe development, a test facility is under construction at Rice, consisting of a small electric rocket engine firing into a 2-m vacuum chamber. This engine, the MPD (magnetoplasmadynamic) thruster, dates from the 1960's and provides a well-characterized source plasma for testing of the probes under development. We present details of the ion energy analyzer and the facility under construction at Rice.

  17. Advanced general aviation engine/airframe integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmroczek, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of the in-airframe performance and efficiency of the advanced engine concepts is presented. The results indicate that the proposed advanced engines can significantly improve the performance and economy of general aviation airplanes. The engine found to be most promising is the highly advanced version of a rotary combustion (Wankel) engine. The low weight and fuel consumption of this engine, as well as its small size, make it suited for aircraft use.

  18. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  19. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, W.R.; Fusaro, R.L.

    1992-08-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  20. ASPEN. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.

    1985-10-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.

  1. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  2. An Overview of the NASA FAP Hypersonics Project Airbreathing Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auslender, A. H.; Suder, Kenneth L.; Thomas, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    The propulsion research portfolio of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Fundamental Aeronautics Program Hypersonics Project encompasses a significant number of technical tasks that are aligned to achieve mastery and intellectual stewardship of the core competencies in the hypersonic-flight regime. An overall coordinated programmatic and technical effort has been structured to advance the state-of-the-art, via both experimental and analytical efforts. A subset of the entire hypersonics propulsion research portfolio is presented in this overview paper. To this end, two programmatic research disciplines are discussed; namely, (1) the Propulsion Discipline, including three associated research elements: the X-51A partnership, the HIFiRE-2 partnership, and the Durable Combustor Rig, and (2) the Turbine-Based Combine Cycle Discipline, including three associated research elements: the Combined Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment, the small-scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment, and the High-Mach Fan Rig.

  3. Hypersonic Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will enter the Martian atmosphere at hypersonic speeds. Friction will heat the forward-facing surface of the heat shield to a peak of about 1,420 degrees Celsius (2,600 degrees Fahrenheit) at an altitude of 41 kilometers (25.5 miles).

    This illustration is part of the animation featured above.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Hypersonic transports: Economics and environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Waters, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of hypersonic transports is presented to show projected operating costs (direct and indirect) and return on investment. Important assumptions are varied to determine the probable range of values for operating costs and return on investment. The environmental effects of hypersonic transports are discussed and compared to current supersonic transports. Estimates of sideline and fly-over noise are made for a typical hypersonic transport, and the sonic boom problem is analyzed and discussed. Since the exhaust products from liquid hydrogen-fueled engines differ from those of kerosene-fueled aircraft, a qualitative assessment of air pollution effects is made.

  5. Hypersonic transports - Economics and environmental effects.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Waters, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of hypersonic transports is presented to show projected operating costs (direct and indirect) and return on investment. Important assumptions are varied to determine the probable range of values for operating costs and return on investment. The environmental effects of hypersonic transports are discussed and compared to current supersonic transports. Estimates of sideline and flyover noise are made for a typical hypersonic transport, and the sonic boom problem is analyzed and discussed. Since the exhaust products from liquid hydrogen-fueled engines differ from those of kerosene-fueled aircraft, a qualitative assessment of air pollution effects is made.

  6. Hypersonic transports - Economics and environmental effects.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Waters, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    An economic analysis of hypersonic transports is presented to show projected operating costs (direct and indirect) and return on investment. Important assumptions are varied to determine the probable range of values for operating costs and return on investment. The environmental effects of hypersonic transports are discussed and compared to current supersonic transports. Estimates of sideline and flyover noise are made for a typical hypersonic transport, and the sonic boom problem is analyzed and discussed. Since the exhaust products from liquid hydrogen-fueled engines differ from those of kerosene-fueled aircraft, a qualitative assessment of air pollution effects is made.

  7. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. Then there is a transition to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scramjet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance. To adequately determine the performance of the engine/vehicle, the Hypersonic Flight Inlet Model (HYFIM) module was designed to interface with the RBCC

  8. [Advances in gene engineering of microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Debabov, V G

    1987-10-01

    A novel branch of national economy--biotechnology is being developed, based on genetic engineering. The construction of strains using the methods of molecular cloning has led to-date to creation of new biotechnological processes. Further advance in biotechnology would be mainly promoted by the possibilities of application of gene engineering to reorganization of industrially important microorganisms. These are bacilli employed for production of vitamins, enzymes, insecticides; streptomycetes--the producers of antibiotics; yeasts applied in bakery industry, in production of fodder proteins; pseudomonads which will be helpful in development of effective biological means for protection of environment, etc. So, vector molecules based on plasmids and phages have been constructed for best-studied representatives of industrial microorganisms, the methods of introduction into the cell of hybrid DNA molecules worked out, the problems of optimization of foreign gene expression being currently solved.

  9. Recent Advances in Engineering Polyvalent Biological Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polyvalent interactions, where multiple ligands and receptors interact simultaneously, are ubiquitous in nature. Synthetic polyvalent molecules, therefore, have the ability to affect biological processes ranging from protein–ligand binding to cellular signaling. In this review, we discuss recent advances in polyvalent scaffold design and applications. First, we will describe recent developments in the engineering of polyvalent scaffolds based on biomolecules and novel materials. Then, we will illustrate how polyvalent molecules are finding applications as toxin and pathogen inhibitors, targeting molecules, immune response modulators, and cellular effectors. PMID:25426695

  10. Advanced concurrent engineering environment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia demonstrated large-scale visualization in a conference room environment. Project focused on the installation of hardware for visualization and display, and the integration of software tools for design and animation of 3-dimensional parts. Using a high-end visualization server, 3-dimensional modeling and animation software, and leading edge World Wide Web technology, and advanced concurrent engineering environment was simulated where a design team was able to work collectively, rather than as solely disjoint individual efforts. Finally, a successful animation of a Sandia part was demonstrated, and a computer video generated. This video is now accessible on a Sandia internal web server.

  11. Advanced concurrent-engineering environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    Sandia demonstrated large-scale visualization in a conference room environment. Project focused in the installation of hardware for visualization and display, and the integration of software tools for design and animation of 3-dimensional parts. Using a high-end visualization server, 3-dimensional modeling and animation software, and leading edge World Wide Web technology, an advanced concurrent engineering environment was simulated where a design team was able to work collectively, rather than as solely disjoint individual efforts. Finally, a successful animation of a Sandia part was demonstrated, and a computer video generated. This video is now accessible on a Sandia internal web server.

  12. Recent advances in engineering polyvalent biological interactions.

    PubMed

    Varner, Chad T; Rosen, Tania; Martin, Jacob T; Kane, Ravi S

    2015-01-12

    Polyvalent interactions, where multiple ligands and receptors interact simultaneously, are ubiquitous in nature. Synthetic polyvalent molecules, therefore, have the ability to affect biological processes ranging from protein-ligand binding to cellular signaling. In this review, we discuss recent advances in polyvalent scaffold design and applications. First, we will describe recent developments in the engineering of polyvalent scaffolds based on biomolecules and novel materials. Then, we will illustrate how polyvalent molecules are finding applications as toxin and pathogen inhibitors, targeting molecules, immune response modulators, and cellular effectors.

  13. Distilling complexity to advance cardiac tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Brenda M.; Bursac, Nenad; Domian, Ibrahim; Huang, Ngan F; Menasché, Philippe; Murry, Charles; Pruitt, Beth; Radisic, Milica; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M; Zhang, Jianyi; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The promise of cardiac tissue engineering is in the ability to recapitulate in vitro the functional aspects of healthy heart and disease pathology as well as to design replacement muscle for clinical therapy. Parts of this promise have been realized; others have not. In a meeting of scientists in this field, five central challenges or “big questions” were articulated that, if addressed, could substantially advance the current state-of-the-art in modeling heart disease and realizing heart repair. PMID:27280684

  14. A methodology for hypersonic transport technology planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repic, E. M.; Olson, G. A.; Milliken, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A systematic procedure by which the relative economic value of technology factors affecting design, configuration, and operation of a hypersonic cruise transport can be evaluated is discussed. Use of the methodology results in identification of first-order economic gains potentially achievable by projected advances in each of the definable, hypersonic technologies. Starting with a baseline vehicle, the formulas, procedures and forms which are integral parts of this methodology are developed. A demonstration of the methodology is presented for one specific hypersonic vehicle system.

  15. Conceptual Study on Hypersonic Turbojet Experimental Vehicle (HYTEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Hideyuki; Murakami, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya; Tsuchiya, Takeshi

    Pre-cooled turbojet engines have been investigated aiming at realization of reusable space transportation systems and hypersonic airplanes. Evaluation methods of these engine performances have been established based on ground tests. There are some plans on the demonstration of hypersonic propulsion systems. JAXA focused on hypersonic propulsion systems as a key technology of hypersonic transport airplane. Demonstrations of Mach 5 class hypersonic technologies are stated as a development target at 2025 in the long term vision. In this study, systems analyses of hypersonic turbojet experiment (HYTEX) with Mach 5 flight capability is performed. Aerodynamic coefficients are obtained by CFD analyses and wind tunnel tests. Small Pre-cooled turbojet is fabricated and tested using liquid hydrogen as fuel. As a result, characteristics of the baseline vehicle shape is clarified, . and effects of pre-cooling are confirmed at the firing test.

  16. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    The 2-D and 3-D advance computer codes being developed for use in the design of such hypersonic aircraft as the National Aero-Space Plane require comparison of the computational results with a broad spectrum of experimental data to fully assess the validity of the codes. This is particularly true for complex flow fields with control surfaces present and for flows with separation, such as leeside flow. Therefore, the objective is to provide a hypersonic experimental data base required for validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes and for development of more thorough understanding of the flow physics necessary for these codes. This is being done by implementing a comprehensive test program for a generic all-body hypersonic aircraft model in the NASA/Ames 3.5 foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel over a broad range of test conditions to obtain pertinent surface and flowfield data. Results from the flow visualization portion of the investigation are presented.

  17. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  18. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second annual technical report entitled, Improved Silicon Carbide for Advanced Heat Engines, and includes work performed during the period February 16, 1986 to February 15, 1987. The program is conducted for NASA under contract NAS3-24384. The objective is the development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines. The fabrication methods used are to be adaptable for mass production of such parts on an economically sound basis. Injection molding is the forming method selected. This objective is to be accomplished in a two-phase program: (1) to achieve a 20 percent improvement in strength and a 100 percent increase in Weibull modulus of the baseline material; and (2) to produce a complex shaped part, a gas turbine rotor, for example, with the improved mechanical properties attained in the first phase. Eight tasks are included in the first phase covering the characterization of the properties of a baseline material, the improvement of those properties and the fabrication of complex shaped parts. Activities during the first contract year concentrated on two of these areas: fabrication and characterization of the baseline material (Task 1) and improvement of material and processes (Task 7). Activities during the second contract year included an MOR bar matrix study to improve mechanical properties (Task 2), materials and process improvements (Task 7), and a Ford-funded task to mold a turbocharger rotor with an improved material (Task 8).

  19. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    This is the third annual technical report for the program entitled, Improved Silicon Carbide for Advanced Heat Engines, for the period February 16, 1987 to February 15, 1988. The objective of the original program was the development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines. Injection molding is the forming method selected for the program because it is capable of forming complex parts adaptable for mass production on an economically sound basis. The goals of the revised program are to reach a Weibull characteristic strength of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and a Weibull modulus of 16 for bars tested in 4-point loading. Two tasks are discussed: Task 1 which involves materials and process improvements, and Task 2 which is a MOR bar matrix to improve strength and reliability. Many statistically designed experiments were completed under task 1 which improved the composition of the batches, the mixing of the powders, the sinter and anneal cycles. The best results were obtained by an attritor mixing process which yielded strengths in excess of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and an individual Weibull modulus of 16.8 for a 9-sample group. Strengths measured at 1200 and 1400 C were equal to the room temperature strength. Annealing of machined test bars significantly improved the strength. Molding yields were measured and flaw distributions were observed to follow a Poisson process. The second iteration of the Task 2 matrix experiment is described.

  20. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    PubMed

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  1. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Control Model Development Roadmap and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Le, Dzu K.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Hypersonic project is directed towards fundamental research for two classes of hypersonic vehicles: highly reliable reusable launch systems (HRRLS) and high-mass Mars entry systems (HMMES). The objective of the hypersonic guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) discipline team is to develop advanced guidance and control algorithms to enable efficient and effective operation of these challenging vehicles. The ongoing work at the NASA Glenn Research Center supports the hypersonic GN&C effort in developing tools to aid the design of advanced control algorithms that specifically address the propulsion system of the HRRLSclass vehicles. These tools are being developed in conjunction with complementary research and development activities in hypersonic propulsion at Glenn and elsewhere. This report is focused on obtaining control-relevant dynamic models of an HRRLS-type hypersonic vehicle propulsion system.

  2. Advanced bristle seals for gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabe, Jerry L.

    1993-01-01

    A seven month proof-of-concept program was conducted for an advanced bristle seal, called a bush seal, for use in gas turbine engines. This program was performed as a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 project. Bush seal specimen and a full ring bush seal were designed, evaluated, and manufactured for testing. An analytical study of the potential of the bush seal relative to a labyrinth seal was conducted. Static and dynamic testing of the bush seal was performed to determine the behavior of the bristles under pressurization and during contact with a rotating labyrinth tooth. Stable behavior of the bristle elements was observed during static pressurization of a full ring bush seal. The dynamic testing of various configurations of bush seal against a rotating labyrinth tooth showed minimal wear of the bristles relative to a conventional labyrinth seal. The development and application of the bush seal concept to gas turbine engines has the potential of improving the engine's performance while decreasing the degradation of the seal performance over time.

  3. Recent advances in engineering proteins for biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Cirino, Patrick C

    2014-07-01

    Protein engineers are increasingly able to rely on structure-function insights, computational methods, and deeper understanding of natural biosynthesis processes, to streamline the design and applications of enzymes. This review highlights recent successes in applying new or improved protein engineering strategies toward the design of improved enzymes and enzymes with new activities. We focus on three approaches: structure-guided protein design, computational design, and the use of novel scaffolding and compartmentalization techniques to improve performance of multienzyme systems. Examples described address problems relating to enzyme specificity, stability, and/or activity, or aim to balance sequential reactions and route intermediates by co-localizing multiple enzymes. Specific applications include improving production of biofuels using enzymes with altered cofactor specificity, production of high-value chiral compounds by enzymes with tailored substrate specificities, and accelerated cellulose degradation via multi-enzyme scaffold assemblies. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a growing variety of computational and molecular biology tools. Continued advances on these fronts coupled with better mindfulness of how to apply proteins in unique ways offer exciting prospects for future protein engineering and biocatalysis research.

  4. X-43 Hypersonic Vehicle Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voland, Randall T.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McClinton, Charles R.

    2005-01-01

    NASA recently completed two major programs in Hypersonics: Hyper-X, with the record-breaking flights of the X-43A, and the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program. The X-43A flights, the culmination of the Hyper-X Program, were the first-ever examples of a scramjet engine propelling a hypersonic vehicle and provided unique, convincing, detailed flight data required to validate the design tools needed for design and development of future operational hypersonic airbreathing vehicles. Concurrent with Hyper-X, NASA's NGLT Program focused on technologies needed for future revolutionary launch vehicles. The NGLT was "competed" by NASA in response to the President s redirection of the agency to space exploration, after making significant progress towards maturing technologies required to enable airbreathing hypersonic launch vehicles. NGLT quantified the benefits, identified technology needs, developed airframe and propulsion technology, chartered a broad University base, and developed detailed plans to mature and validate hypersonic airbreathing technology for space access. NASA is currently in the process of defining plans for a new Hypersonic Technology Program. Details of that plan are not currently available. This paper highlights results from the successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the X-43A, and the current state of hypersonic technology.

  5. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTT's automotive technology programs. This project is managed by ORNL and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DoD, and industry. Research is discussed under the following topics; Turbomilling of SiC Whiskers; microwave sintering of silicon nitride; and milling characterization; processing of monolithics; silicon nitride matrix; oxide matrix; silicate matrix; thermal and wear coatings; joining; design; contact interfaces; time-dependent behavior; environmental effects; fracture mechanics; nondestructive evaluation; and technology transfer. References, figures, and tables are included with each topic.

  6. Various advanced design projects promoting engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) program promotes engineering education in the field of design by presenting students with challenging design projects drawn from actual NASA interests. In doing so, the program yields two very positive results. Firstly, the students gain a valuable experience that will prepare them for design problems with which they will be faced in their professional careers. Secondly, NASA is able to use the work done by students as an additional resource in meeting its own design objectives. The 1994 projects include: Universal Test Facility; Automated Protein Crystal Growth Facility; Stiffening of the ACES Deployable Space Boom; Launch System Design for Access to Space; LH2 Fuel Tank Design for SSTO Vehicle; and Feed System Design for a Reduced Pressure Tank.

  7. Analytical and computational investigations of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) energy-bypass system for supersonic gas turbine engines to enable hypersonic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyo, Theresa Louise

    Historically, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used rocket-powered vehicles as launch vehicles for access to space. A familiar example is the Space Shuttle launch system. These vehicles carry both fuel and oxidizer onboard. If an external oxidizer (such as the Earth's atmosphere) is utilized, the need to carry an onboard oxidizer is eliminated, and future launch vehicles could carry a larger payload into orbit at a fraction of the total fuel expenditure. For this reason, NASA is currently researching the use of air-breathing engines to power the first stage of two-stage-to-orbit hypersonic launch systems. Removing the need to carry an onboard oxidizer leads also to reductions in total vehicle weight at liftoff. This in turn reduces the total mass of propellant required, and thus decreases the cost of carrying a specific payload into orbit or beyond. However, achieving hypersonic flight with air-breathing jet engines has several technical challenges. These challenges, such as the mode transition from supersonic to hypersonic engine operation, are under study in NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program. One propulsion concept that is being explored is a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy- bypass generator coupled with an off-the-shelf turbojet/turbofan. It is anticipated that this engine will be capable of operation from takeoff to Mach 7 in a single flowpath without mode transition. The MHD energy bypass consists of an MHD generator placed directly upstream of the engine, and converts a portion of the enthalpy of the inlet flow through the engine into electrical current. This reduction in flow enthalpy corresponds to a reduced Mach number at the turbojet inlet so that the engine stays within its design constraints. Furthermore, the generated electrical current may then be used to power aircraft systems or an MHD accelerator positioned downstream of the turbojet. The MHD accelerator operates in reverse of the MHD generator, re-accelerating the

  8. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  9. Advanced fabrication techniques for hydrogen-cooled engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, O. A.; Arefian, V. V.; Warren, H. A.; Vuigner, A. A.; Pohlman, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Described is a program for development of coolant passage geometries, material systems, and joining processes that will produce long-life hydrogen-cooled structures for scramjet applications. Tests were performed to establish basic material properties, and samples constructed and evaluated to substantiate fabrication processes and inspection techniques. Results of the study show that the basic goal of increasing the life of hydrogen-cooled structures two orders of magnitude relative to that of the Hypersonic Research Engine can be reached with available means. Estimated life is 19000 cycles for the channels and 16000 cycles for pin-fin coolant passage configurations using Nickel 201. Additional research is required to establish the fatigue characteristics of dissimilar-metal coolant passages (Nickel 201/Inconel 718) and to investigate the embrittling effects of the hydrogen coolant.

  10. Advanced interdisciplinary undergraduate program: light engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakholdin, Alexey; Bougrov, Vladislav; Voznesenskaya, Anna; Ezhova, Kseniia

    2016-09-01

    The undergraduate educational program "Light Engineering" of an advanced level of studies is focused on development of scientific learning outcomes and training of professionals, whose activities are in the interdisciplinary fields of Optical engineering and Technical physics. The program gives practical experience in transmission, reception, storage, processing and displaying information using opto-electronic devices, automation of optical systems design, computer image modeling, automated quality control and characterization of optical devices. The program is implemented in accordance with Educational standards of the ITMO University. The specific features of the Program is practice- and problem-based learning implemented by engaging students to perform research and projects, internships at the enterprises and in leading Russian and international research educational centers. The modular structure of the Program and a significant proportion of variable disciplines provide the concept of individual learning for each student. Learning outcomes of the program's graduates include theoretical knowledge and skills in natural science and core professional disciplines, deep knowledge of modern computer technologies, research expertise, design skills, optical and optoelectronic systems and devices.

  11. Hypersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A hypersonic transport aircraft design project was selected as a result of interactions with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel and fits the Presidential concept of the Orient Express. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) and an undergraduate student worked at the NASA Lewis Research Center during the 1986 summer conducting a literature survey, and relevant literature and useful software were collected. The computer software was implemented in the Computer Aided Design Laboratory of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. In addition to the lectures by the three instructors, a series of guest lectures was conducted. The first of these lectures 'Anywhere in the World in Two Hours' was delivered by R. Luidens of NASA Lewis Center. In addition, videotaped copies of relevant seminars obtained from NASA Lewis were also featured. The first assignment was to individually research and develop the mission requirements and to discuss the findings with the class. The class in consultation with the instructors then developed a set of unified mission requirements. Then the class was divided into three design groups (1) Aerodynamics Group, (2) Propulsion Group, and (3) Structures and Thermal Analyses Group. The groups worked on their respective design areas and interacted with each other to finally come up with an integrated conceptual design. The three faculty members and the GTA acted as the resource persons for the three groups and aided in the integration of the individual group designs into the final design of a hypersonic aircraft.

  12. SAPLE: Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Procopio, Michael J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine (SAPLE) web application, a directory search application for use by Sandia National Laboratories personnel. SAPLE's purpose is to return Sandia personnel 'results' as a function of user search queries, with its mission to make it easier and faster to find people at Sandia. To accomplish this, SAPLE breaks from more traditional directory application approaches by aiming to return the correct set of results while placing minimal constraints on the user's query. Two key features form the core of SAPLE: advanced search query interpretation and inexact string matching. SAPLE's query interpretation permits the user to perform compound queries when typing into a single search field; where able, SAPLE infers the type of field that the user intends to search on based on the value of the search term. SAPLE's inexact string matching feature yields a high-quality ranking of personnel search results even when there are no exact matches to the user's query. This paper explores these two key features, describing in detail the architecture and operation of SAPLE. Finally, an extensive analysis on logged search query data taken from an 11-week sample period is presented.

  13. Introduction to Advanced Engine Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjay, Garg

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This presentation describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  14. Ceramic applications in the advanced Stirling automotive engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.; Cairelli, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The ideal cycle, its application to a practical machine, and the specific advantages of high efficiency, low emissions, multi-fuel capability, and low noise of the stirling engine are discussed. Certain portions of the Stirling engine must operate continuously at high temperature. Ceramics offer the potential of cost reduction and efficiency improvement for advanced engine applications. Potential applications for ceramics in Stirling engines, and some of the special problems pertinent to using ceramics in the Stirling engine are described. The research and technology program in ceramics which is planned to support the development of advanced Stirling engines is outlined.

  15. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. Then there is a transition to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scramjet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance. To adequately determine the performance of the engine/vehicle, the Hypersonic Flight Inlet Model (HYFIM) module was designed to interface with the RBCC

  16. Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASE (trademark)) Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASETM...Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASETM) Guidelines 5a

  17. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  18. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.; Salkeld, R.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages, system performance and operating limits, engine parametric data, and technology requirements for candidate high pressure LO2/Hydrocarbon engine systems are summarized. These summaries of parametric analysis and design provide a consistent engine system data base. Power balance data were generated for the eleven engine cycles. Engine cycle rating parameters were established and the desired condition and the effect of the parameter on the engine and/or vehicle are described.

  19. Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

  20. FY2015 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Gurpreet; Gravel, Roland M.; Howden, Kenneth C.; Breton, Leo

    2016-03-25

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  1. FY2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  2. NASA's hypersonic propulsion program: History and direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wander, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Research into hypersonic propulsion; i.e., supersonic combustion, was seriously initiated at the Langley Research Center in the 1960's with the Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE) project. This project was designed to demonstrate supersonic combustion within the context of an engine module consisting of an inlet, combustor, and nozzle. In addition, the HRE utilized both subsonic and supersonic combustion (dual-mode) to demonstrate smooth operation over a Mach 4 to 7 speed range. The propulsion program thus concentrated on fundamental supersonic combustion studies and free jet propulsion tests for the three dimensional fixed geometry engine design to demonstrate inlet and combustor integration and installed performance potential. The developmental history of the program is presented. Additionally, the HRE program's effect on the current state of hypersonic propulsion is discussed.

  3. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 1: Engine design study assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial tranport engine are presented. The results of the phase 1 study effort cover the following areas: (1) statement of an airline's major objectives for future transport engines, (2) airline's method of evaluating engine proposals, (3) description of an optimum engine for a long range subsonic commercial transport including installation and critical design features, (4) discussion of engine performance problems and experience with performance degradation, (5) trends in engine and pod prices with increasing technology and objectives for the future, (6) discussion of the research objectives for composites, reversers, advanced components, engine control systems, and devices to reduce the impact of engine stall, and (7) discussion of the airline objectives for noise and pollution reduction.

  4. Advanced component technologies for energy-efficient turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA's Energy Efficient Engine Project which was initiated to provide the advanced technology base for a new generation of fuel-conservative engines for introduction into airline service by the late 1980s. Efforts in this project are directed at advancing engine component and systems technologies to a point of demonstrating technology-readiness by 1984. Early results indicate high promise in achieving most of the goals established in the project.

  5. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines is studied. Injection molding was the forming method selected for the program because it is capable of forming complex parts adaptable for mass production on an economically sound basis. The goals were to reach a Weibull characteristic strength of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and a Weibull modulus of 16 for bars tested in four-point loading. Statistically designed experiments were performed throughout the program and a fluid mixing process employing an attritor mixer was developed. Compositional improvements in the amounts and sources of boron and carbon used and a pressureless sintering cycle were developed which provided samples of about 99 percent of theoretical density. Strengths were found to improve significantly by annealing in air. Strengths in excess of 550 MPa (80 ksi) with Weibull modulus of about 9 were obtained. Further improvements in Weibull modulus to about 16 were realized by proof testing. This is an increase of 86 percent in strength and 100 percent in Weibull modulus over the baseline data generated at the beginning of the program. Molding yields were improved and flaw distributions were observed to follow a Poisson process. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were found to be useful in characterizing the SiC powder and the sintered samples. Turbocharger rotors were molded and examined as an indication of the moldability of the mixes which were developed in this program.

  6. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hun C.; Fang, Ho T.

    1987-01-01

    The technology base required to fabricate silicon nitride components with the strength, reliability, and reproducibility necessary for actual heat engine applications is presented. Task 2 was set up to develop test bars with high Weibull slope and greater high temperature strength, and to conduct an initial net shape component fabrication evaluation. Screening experiments were performed in Task 7 on advanced materials and processing for input to Task 2. The technical efforts performed in the second year of a 5-yr program are covered. The first iteration of Task 2 was completed as planned. Two half-replicated, fractional factorial (2 sup 5), statistically designed matrix experiments were conducted. These experiments have identified Denka 9FW Si3N4 as an alternate raw material to GTE SN502 Si3N4 for subsequent process evaluation. A detailed statistical analysis was conducted to correlate processing conditions with as-processed test bar properties. One processing condition produced a material with a 97 ksi average room temperature MOR (100 percent of goal) with 13.2 Weibull slope (83 percent of goal); another condition produced 86 ksi (6 percent over baseline) room temperature strength with a Weibull slope of 20 (125 percent of goal).

  7. NASA's Hypersonic Investment Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Hutt, John; McClinton, Charles

    2002-01-01

    NASA has established long term goals for access to space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goal for third-generation launch systems represents significant reduction in cost and improved safety over the current first generation system. The Advanced Space Transportation Office (ASTP) at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Hypersonic Investment Area (HIA), third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframe, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations and system analysis. These technologies are being matured through research and both ground and flight-testing. This paper provides an overview of the HIA program plans and recent accomplishments.

  8. Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lays, E. J.; Murray, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    Concepts are discussed that project turbine engine cost savings through use of geometrically constrained components designed for low rotational speeds and low stress to permit manufacturing economies. Aerodynamic development of geometrically constrained components is recommended to maximize component efficiency. Conceptual engines, airplane applications, airplane performance, engine cost, and engine-related life cycle costs are presented. The powerplants proposed offer encouragement with respect to fuel efficiency and life cycle costs, and make possible remarkable airplane performance gains.

  9. FY 2007 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    Advanced combustion engines have great potential for achieving dramatic energy efficiency improvements in light-duty vehicle applications, where it is suited to both conventional and hybrid- electric powertrain configurations. Light-duty vehicles with advanced combustion engines can compete directly with gasoline engine hybrid vehicles in terms of fuel economy and consumer-friendly driving characteristics; also, they are projected to have energy efficiencies that are competitive with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles when used in hybrid applications.Advanced engine technologies being researched and developed by the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program will also allow the use of hydrogen as a fuel in ICEs and will provide an energy-efficient interim hydrogen-based powertrain technology during the transition to hydrogen/fuelcell-powered transportation vehicles.

  10. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Task 7: Engine data summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    A performance optimized engine system design for a man-rated advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle engine was investigated. The data are presented in tables, figures, and drawings. The following categories of data for the advanced expander cycle engine are presented: engine operating specification and pressure schedule; engine system layout drawing; major component layout drawings, including thrust chamber and nozzle, extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal, LOX turbopump, LOX boost pump, hydrogen turbopump, hydrogen boost pump, and propellant control valves; engine performance and service life prediction; engine weight; and engine envelope. The data represent updates based upon current results from the design and analyses tasks performed under contract. Futher iterations in the designs and data can be expected as the advanced expander cycle engine design matures.

  11. Smart Engines Via Advanced Model Based Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Marc

    2000-08-20

    A ''new'' process for developing control systems - Less engine testing - More robust control system - Shorter development cycle time - ''Smarter'' approach to engine control - On-board models describe engine behavior - Shorter, systematic calibration process - Customer and legislative requirements designed-in.

  12. The TARDEC Advanced Systems Engineering Capability (ASEC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Systems Engineering ( MBSE ) information. The ASEC enables decision makers to make informed decisions with confidence based on a mix of qualitative and...to support Model Based Engineering (MBE) and Model Based Systems Engineering ( MBSE ) information. The ASEC enables decision makers to make informed

  13. Nanoscale pillar hypersonic surface phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudistira, D.; Boes, A.; Graczykowski, B.; Alzina, F.; Yeo, L. Y.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.; Mitchell, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on nanoscale pillar-based hypersonic phononic crystals in single crystal Z-cut lithium niobate. The phononic crystal is formed by a two-dimensional periodic array of nearly cylindrical nanopillars 240 nm in diameter and 225 nm in height, arranged in a triangular lattice with a 300-nm lattice constant. The nanopillars are fabricated by the recently introduced nanodomain engineering via laser irradiation of patterned chrome followed by wet etching. Numerical simulations and direct measurements using Brillouin light scattering confirm the simultaneous existence of nonradiative complete surface phononic band gaps. The band gaps are found below the sound line at hypersonic frequencies in the range 2-7 GHz, formed from local resonances and Bragg scattering. These hypersonic structures are realized directly in the piezoelectric material lithium niobate enabling phonon manipulation at significantly higher frequencies than previously possible with this platform, opening new opportunities for many applications in plasmonic, optomechanic, microfluidic, and thermal engineering.

  14. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 1: Pratt and Whitney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 1 of these reports describes the studies performed by Pratt & Whitney.

  15. Advanced controls for airbreathing engines, volume 3: Allison gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bough, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two-phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 3 of these reports describes the studies performed by the Allison Gas Turbine Division.

  16. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H., III; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2004-01-01

    In this project on the first stage (2000-Ol), we continued to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). At the second stage (2001-03), FM&AL team concentrated its efforts on solving of problems of interest to Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC), especially in the field of propulsion system enhancement. The NASA GRC R&D Directorate and LaRC Hyper-X Program specialists in a hypersonic technology jointly with the FM&AL staff conducted research on a wide region of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The last year the Hampton University School of Engineering & Technology was awarded the NASA grant, for creation of the Aeropropulsion Center, and the FM&AL is a key team of the project fulfillment responsible for research in Aeropropulsion and Acoustics (Pillar I). This work is supported by joint research between the NASA GRC/ FM&AL and the Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University (IMMSU) in Russia under a CRDF grant. The main areas of current scientific interest of the FM&AL include an investigation of the proposed and patented advanced methods for aircraft engine thrust and noise benefits. This is the main subject of our other projects, of which one is presented. The last year we concentrated our efforts to analyze three main problems: (a) new effective methods fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines; (b) new re-circulation method for mixing, heat transfer and combustion enhancement in propulsion systems and domestic industry application; (c) covexity flow The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines (see, for

  17. Molecular engineering of industrial enzymes: recent advances and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiquan; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Many enzymes are efficiently produced by microbes. However, the use of natural enzymes as biocatalysts has limitations such as low catalytic efficiency, low activity, and low stability, especially under industrial conditions. Many protein engineering technologies have been developed to modify natural enzymes and eliminate these limitations. Commonly used protein engineering strategies include directed evolution, site-directed mutagenesis, truncation, and terminal fusion. This review summarizes recent advances in the molecular engineering of industrial enzymes and discusses future prospects in this field. We expect this review to increase interest in and advance the molecular engineering of industrial enzymes.

  18. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  19. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  20. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  1. New Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at the Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, P. G. P.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Chanes, J. B.; Oliveira, A. C.; Gomes, F. A. A.; Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, Henry T.

    2008-04-01

    The new 0.60-m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel was designed to study advanced air-breathing propulsion system such as supersonic combustion and/or laser technologies. In addition, it may be used for hypersonic flow studies and investigations of the electromagnetic (laser) energy addition for flow control. This new hypersonic shock tunnel was designed and installed at the Laboratory for of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu, IEAv-CTA, Brazil. The design of the tunnel enables relatively long test times, 2-10 milliseconds, suitable for the experiments performed at the laboratory. Free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25 can be produced and stagnation pressures and temperatures up to 360 atm. and up to 9,000 K, respectively, can be generated. Shadowgraph and schlieren optical techniques will be used for flow visualization.

  2. Systems Engineering Leadership Development: Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phil; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, with particular emphasis on the work being done in the development of systems engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center. There exists a lack of individuals with systems engineering expertise, in particular those with strong leadership capabilities, to meet the needs of the Agency's exploration agenda. Therefore there is a emphasis on developing these programs to identify and train systems engineers. The presentation reviews the proposed MSFC program that includes course work, and developmental assignments. The formal developmental programs at the other centers are briefly reviewed, including the Point of Contact (POC)

  3. Advancing Intercultural Competency: Canadian Engineering Employers' Experiences with Immigrant Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally…

  4. Advanced optical condition monitoring. [of rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, G.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1991-01-01

    The application of Advanced Optical Condition Monitoring to optical leak detection and plume spectrometry is discussed. The development of these selected sensors for propulsion system monitoring is addressed.

  5. Feasibility of magnetic bearings for advanced gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, David; Rosado, Lewis

    1992-01-01

    The application of active magnetic bearings to advanced gas turbine engines will provide a product with major improvements compared to current oil lubricated bearing designs. A rethinking of the engine rotating and static structure design is necessary and will provide the designer with significantly more freedom to meet the demanding goals of improved performance, increased durability, higher reliability, and increased thrust to weight ratio via engine weight reduction. The product specific technology necessary for this high speed, high temperature, dynamically complex application has been defined. The resulting benefits from this approach to aircraft engine rotor support and the complementary engine changes and improvements have been assessed.

  6. Feasibility of magnetic bearings for advanced gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibner, David; Rosado, Lewis

    1992-05-01

    The application of active magnetic bearings to advanced gas turbine engines will provide a product with major improvements compared to current oil lubricated bearing designs. A rethinking of the engine rotating and static structure design is necessary and will provide the designer with significantly more freedom to meet the demanding goals of improved performance, increased durability, higher reliability, and increased thrust to weight ratio via engine weight reduction. The product specific technology necessary for this high speed, high temperature, dynamically complex application has been defined. The resulting benefits from this approach to aircraft engine rotor support and the complementary engine changes and improvements have been assessed.

  7. EGR Distribution in Engine Cylinders Using Advanced Virtual Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Xuetong

    2000-08-20

    Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is a well-known technology for reduction of NOx in diesel engines. With the demand for extremely low engine out NOx emissions, it is important to have a consistently balanced EGR flow to individual engine cylinders. Otherwise, the variation in the cylinders' NOx contribution to the overall engine emissions will produce unacceptable variability. This presentation will demonstrate the effective use of advanced virtual simulation in the development of a balanced EGR distribution in engine cylinders. An initial design is analyzed reflecting the variance in the EGR distribution, quantitatively and visually. Iterative virtual lab tests result in an optimized system.

  8. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  9. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Terrance

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  10. Stability of Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    College of Engineering and Applied Science Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 Ms. Janice D. Bennett Office of Research and Creative ... Activities (602) 965-8239 (HI Redacted] Reed: Hypersonics (AFOSR) page 2 ABSTRACT This Final Report describes our program in studies of (laminar

  11. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  12. Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, William J.; Mehl, Marco; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2014-10-22

    The objectives for this project are as follows: Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for compression ignition (CI), homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engines; and Combine component models into surrogate fuel models to represent real transportation fuels. Use them to model low-temperature combustion strategies in HCCI, RCCI, and CI engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency.

  13. NASP - Waveriders in a hypersonic sky. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, David

    1993-02-01

    A development status and technology readiness evaluation is presented for the X-30, in whose design aggressive use of CFD for investigation of hypersonic aerothermodynamics, and experimental searches for high specific strength refractory materials, have been of central importance. Manufacturing, handling, and assembly factors figure vitally in structural material selection for both airframe and propulsion system components. Attention is given to prospective propulsion cycles capable of efficient operation in several (acceleration, supersonic, hypersonic, exoatmospheric) regimes, such as the rocket/scramjet/ramjet/air-augmented system and the liquid air-cycle engine.

  14. Flight testing of airbreathing hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Using the scramjet engine as the prime example of a hypersonic airbreathing concept, this paper reviews the history of and addresses the need for hypersonic flight tests. It also describes how such tests can contribute to the development of airbreathing technology. Aspects of captive-carry and free-flight concepts are compared. An incremental flight envelope expansion technique for manned flight vehicles is also described. Such critical issues as required instrumentation technology and proper scaling of experimental devices are addressed. Lastly, examples of international flight test approaches, existing programs, or concepts currently under study, development, or both, are given.

  15. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  16. Advanced Human Factors Engineering Tool Technologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-20

    identified the types of tools they would like to see V developed to fill the existing technology gaps. The advanced tools were catego- rized using an...the prototype phase of development were considered candidates for inclusion. The advanced tools were next categorized using an eight point...role, application, status and cost. Decision criteria were then developed as the basis for the tradeoff process to aid in tool selection. To

  17. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 2: General Electric aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Indar

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 2 of these reports describes the studies performed by GE Aircraft Engines.

  18. Advanced technology programs for small turboshaft engines; Past, present, future

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.T. ); Lindsay, H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses approximately 15 years of advanced technology programs sponsored by the United States Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate and its predecessor organizations and conducted by GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE). Included in these programs is the accomplishment of (1) the 1500 shp demonstrator (GE12), which led to the 1700, and (2) the 5000 shp Modern Technology Demonstrator Engine (MTDE/GE27). Also included are several advanced technology component programs that have been completed or are ongoing through the early 1990s. The goals for the next generation of tri-service small advanced gas generator demonstration programs are shown. A prediction is thus made of the advancements required to fulfill the aircraft propulsion system established by the DoD/NASA Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative through the year 2000.

  19. Advanced general aviation comparative engine/airframe integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, G. L.; Ellis, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Aviation Comparative Engine/Airframe Integration Study was initiated to help determine which of four promising concepts for new general aviation engines for the 1990's should be considered for further research funding. The engine concepts included rotary, diesel, spark ignition, and turboprop powerplants; a conventional state-of-the-art piston engine was used as a baseline for the comparison. Computer simulations of the performance of single and twin engine pressurized aircraft designs were used to determine how the various characteristics of each engine interacted in the design process. Comparisons were made of how each engine performed relative to the others when integrated into an airframe and required to fly a transportation mission.

  20. Rocket Engine Innovations Advance Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    During launch countdown, at approximately T-7 seconds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) roar to life. When the controllers indicate normal operation, the solid rocket boosters ignite and the shuttle blasts off. Initially, the SSMEs throttle down to reduce stress during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, but soon after, they throttle up to propel the orbiter to 17,500 miles per hour. In just under 9 minutes, the three SSMEs burn over 1.6 million pounds of propellant, and temperatures inside the main combustion chamber reach 6,000 F. To cool the engines, liquid hydrogen circulates through miles of tubing at -423 F. From 1981to 2011, the Space Shuttle fleet carried crew and cargo into orbit to perform a myriad of unprecedented tasks. After 30 years and 135 missions, the feat of engineering known as the SSME boasted a 100-percent flight success rate.

  1. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM) data reduction computer program, data item no. 54.16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaede, A. E.; Platte, W. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The data reduction program used to analyze the performance of the Aerothermodynamic Integration Model is described. Routines to acquire, calibrate, and interpolate the test data, to calculate the axial components of the pressure area integrals and the skin function coefficients, and to report the raw data in engineering units are included along with routines to calculate flow conditions in the wind tunnel, inlet, combustor, and nozzle, and the overall engine performance. Various subroutines were modified and used to obtain species concentrations and transport properties in chemical equilibrium at each of the internal and external engine stations. It is recommended that future test plans include the configuration, calibration, and channel assignment data on a magnetic tape generated at the test site immediately before or after a test, and that the data reduction program be designed to operate in a batch environment.

  2. Hypersonic drone design: A multidisciplinary experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Efforts were focused on design problems of an unmanned hypersonic vehicle. It is felt that a scaled hypersonic drone is necessary to bridge the gap between present theory on hypersonics and the future reality of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) for two reasons: to fulfill a need for experimental data in the hypersonic regime, and to provide a testbed for the scramjet engine which is to be the primary mode of propulsion for the NASP. Three areas of great concern to NASP design were examined: propulsion, thermal management, and flight systems. Problem solving in these areas was directed towards design of the drone with the idea that the same design techniques could be applied to the NASP. A seventy degree swept double delta wing configuration, developed in the 70's at NASA Langley, was chosen as the aerodynamic and geometric model for the drone. This vehicle would be air-launched from a B-1 at Mach 0.8 and 48,000 feet, rocket boosted by two internal engines to Mach 10 and 100,000 feet, and allowed to cruise under power of the scramjet engine until burnout. It would then return to base for an unpowered landing. Preliminary energy calculations based upon the flight requirements give the drone a gross launch weight of 134,000 lb. and an overall length of 85 feet.

  3. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 2: Engine preliminary design assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 2 study effort cover the following areas: (1) general review of preliminary engine designs suggested for a future aircraft, (2) presentation of a long range view of airline propulsion system objectives and the research programs in noise, pollution, and design which must be undertaken to achieve the goals presented, (3) review of the impact of propulsion system unreliability and unscheduled maintenance on cost of operation, (4) discussion of the reliability and maintainability requirements and guarantees for future engines.

  4. Advanced Human Factors Engineering Tool Technologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    representing the government, the military, academe, and private industry were surveyed to identify those tools that are most frequently used or viewed...tools by HFE researchers and practitioners within the academic, industrial , and military settings. % .. J. &@ossion For XTIS GR&&I DTIC TAS 0...267 E. Human Factors Engineering Tools Questionnaire .. ......... . 279 F. Listing of Industry , Government, and Academe

  5. Advances In Engineering Science, Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    MACRO-MOLECULES .............. ....................... .. 27 K. L. DeVries STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS IN BLOCK COPOLYMERS ... .......... 37 James ...ADVANCES IN SHELL THEORY .............. ..................... .. 617 James G. Simmonds FLUID-PLASTICITY OF THIN CYLINDRICAL SHELLS...1009 W. James Hadden, Jr., and Allan D. Pierce THE LEAKING MODE PROBLEM IN ATMOSPHERIC ACOUSTIC-GRAVITY WAVE PROPAGATION

  6. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  7. Advances in knowledge-based software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt

    1991-01-01

    The underlying hypothesis of this work is that a rigorous and comprehensive software reuse methodology can bring about a more effective and efficient utilization of constrained resources in the development of large-scale software systems by both government and industry. It is also believed that correct use of this type of software engineering methodology can significantly contribute to the higher levels of reliability that will be required of future operational systems. An overview and discussion of current research in the development and application of two systems that support a rigorous reuse paradigm are presented: the Knowledge-Based Software Engineering Environment (KBSEE) and the Knowledge Acquisition fo the Preservation of Tradeoffs and Underlying Rationales (KAPTUR) systems. Emphasis is on a presentation of operational scenarios which highlight the major functional capabilities of the two systems.

  8. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Engineering Design Handbook. Joining of Advanced Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    347 A0-830 291 350 AD·881 357 355 A0830 268 356 AD-817 023 357 AD-873 103 3591 ADA-035 445 360 A0-783 697 361 AOA-013 769 4101 AOA- 038 803...A0·873 103 3581 ADA·035 445 360 AD·7B3 697 361 ADA·013 769 4101 AOA· 038 803 411 lSI AOC·008 827 412 ICI ADC·OOB 828 413iS) ADC·OOB 829 414...t17. 50 Helicopter Engineering. Part Two, Detail Design

  10. Achieving Helicopter Modernization with Advanced Technology Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    computer modeling of compressor and turbine aerody- digital engine control ( FADEC ) with manual backup. namics. Modern directionally solidified and single...controlled by a dual RAH.66A M channel FADEC , and features a very simple installation "" Improved Gross Weight and significantly reduced pilot...air separation efficiencies as an "advanced technology" engine. Technological meas- high as 97.5%. The FADEC improves acceleration, ures include but

  11. Performance and Weight Estimates for an Advanced Open Rotor Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and Subsonic Fixed Wing Project are focused on developing concepts and technologies which may enable dramatic reductions to the environmental impact of future generation subsonic aircraft. The open rotor concept (also historically referred to an unducted fan or advanced turboprop) may allow for the achievement of this objective by reducing engine fuel consumption. To evaluate the potential impact of open rotor engines, cycle modeling and engine weight estimation capabilities have been developed. The initial development of the cycle modeling capabilities in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) tool was presented in a previous paper. Following that initial development, further advancements have been made to the cycle modeling and weight estimation capabilities for open rotor engines and are presented in this paper. The developed modeling capabilities are used to predict the performance of an advanced open rotor concept using modern counter-rotating propeller designs. Finally, performance and weight estimates for this engine are presented and compared to results from a previous NASA study of advanced geared and direct-drive turbofans.

  12. Microbial engineering for the production of advanced biofuels.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P; Zhang, Fuzhong; del Cardayre, Stephen B; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-08-16

    Advanced biofuels produced by microorganisms have similar properties to petroleum-based fuels, and can 'drop in' to the existing transportation infrastructure. However, producing these biofuels in yields high enough to be useful requires the engineering of the microorganism's metabolism. Such engineering is not based on just one specific feedstock or host organism. Data-driven and synthetic-biology approaches can be used to optimize both the host and pathways to maximize fuel production. Despite some success, challenges still need to be met to move advanced biofuels towards commercialization, and to compete with more conventional fuels.

  13. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Zurlo, James

    2012-04-05

    The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs

  14. Study of an advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, J. C.; Short, F. R.; Staton, D. V.; Zolezzi, B. A.; Curry, C. E.; Orelup, M. J.; Vaught, J. M.; Humphrey, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The best technology program for a small, economically viable gas turbine engine applicable to the general aviation helicopter and aircraft market for 1985-1990 was studied. Turboshaft and turboprop engines in the 112 to 746 kW (150 to 1000 hp) range and turbofan engines up to 6672 N (1500 lbf) thrust were considered. A good market for new turbine engines was predicted for 1988 providing aircraft are designed to capitalize on the advantages of the turbine engine. Parametric engine families were defined in terms of design and off-design performance, mass, and cost. These were evaluated in aircraft design missions selected to represent important market segments for fixed and rotary-wing applications. Payoff parameters influenced by engine cycle and configuration changes were aircraft gross mass, acquisition cost, total cost of ownership, and cash flow. Significant advantage over a current technology, small gas turbine engines was found especially in cost of ownership and fuel economy for airframes incorporating an air-cooled high-pressure ratio engine. A power class of 373 kW (500 hp) was recommended as the next frontier for technology advance where large improvements in fuel economy and engine mass appear possible through component research and development.

  15. Cofactor engineering for advancing chemical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yipeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2013-12-01

    Cofactors provide redox carriers for biosynthetic reactions, catabolic reactions and act as important agents in transfer of energy for the cell. Recent advances in manipulating cofactors include culture conditions or additive alterations, genetic modification of host pathways for increased availability of desired cofactor, changes in enzyme cofactor specificity, and introduction of novel redox partners to form effective circuits for biochemical processes and biocatalysts. Genetic strategies to employ ferredoxin, NADH and NADPH most effectively in natural or novel pathways have improved yield and efficiency of large-scale processes for fuels and chemicals and have been demonstrated with a variety of microbial organisms.

  16. Evaluation of advanced displays for engine monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.

    1993-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of two advanced display concepts for monitoring engine performance for commercial transport aircraft was studied. The concepts were the Engine Monitoring and Control System (EMACS) display developed by NASA Langley and a display by exception design. Both of these concepts were based on the philosophy of providing information that is directly related to the pilot's task. Both concepts used a normalized thrust display. In addition, EMACS used column deviation indicators; i.e., the difference between the actual parameter value and the value predicted by an engine model, for engine health monitoring; while the Display by Exception displayed the engine parameters if the automated system detected a difference between the actual and the predicted values. The results showed that the advanced display concepts had shorter detection and response times. There were no differences in any of the results between manual and auto throttles. There were no effects upon perceived workload or performance on the primary flight task. The majority of pilots preferred the advanced displays and thought they were operationally acceptable. Certification of these concepts depends on the validation of the engine model. Recommendations are made to improve both the EMACS and the display by exception display formats.

  17. Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology Program: Advanced engine study, task D.1/D.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, A.; Erickson, C.; Hines, B.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts for space maintainability of OTV engines were examined. An engine design was developed which was driven by space maintenance requirements and by a failure mode and effects (FME) analysis. Modularity within the engine was shown to offer cost benefits and improved space maintenance capabilities. Space operable disconnects were conceptualized for both engine change-out and for module replacement. Through FME mitigation the modules were conceptualized to contain the least reliable and most often replaced engine components. A preliminary space maintenance plan was developed around a controls and condition monitoring system using advanced sensors, controls, and condition monitoring concepts. A complete engine layout was prepared satisfying current vehicle requirements and utilizing projected component advanced technologies. A technology plan for developing the required technology was assembled.

  18. Bioreactors Drive Advances in Tissue Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    It was an unlikely moment for inspiration. Engineers David Wolf and Ray Schwarz stopped by their lab around midday. Wolf, of Johnson Space Center, and Schwarz, with NASA contractor Krug Life Sciences (now Wyle Laboratories Inc.), were part of a team tasked with developing a unique technology with the potential to enhance medical research. But that wasn t the focus at the moment: The pair was rounding up colleagues interested in grabbing some lunch. One of the lab s other Krug engineers, Tinh Trinh, was doing something that made Wolf forget about food. Trinh was toying with an electric drill. He had stuck the barrel of a syringe on the bit; it spun with a high-pitched whirr when he squeezed the drill s trigger. At the time, a multidisciplinary team of engineers and biologists including Wolf, Schwarz, Trinh, and project manager Charles D. Anderson, who formerly led the recovery of the Apollo capsules after splashdown and now worked for Krug was pursuing the development of a technology called a bioreactor, a cylindrical device used to culture human cells. The team s immediate goal was to grow human kidney cells to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that regulates red blood cell production and can be used to treat anemia. But there was a major barrier to the technology s success: Moving the liquid growth media to keep it from stagnating resulted in turbulent conditions that damaged the delicate cells, causing them to quickly die. The team was looking forward to testing the bioreactor in space, hoping the device would perform more effectively in microgravity. But on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart shortly after launch, killing its seven crewmembers. The subsequent grounding of the shuttle fleet had left researchers with no access to space, and thus no way to study the effects of microgravity on human cells. As Wolf looked from Trinh s syringe-capped drill to where the bioreactor sat on a workbench, he suddenly saw a possible solution to both

  19. Advances in genetic engineering of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Qin, Song; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Algae are a component of bait sources for animal aquaculture, and they produce abundant valuable compounds for the chemical industry and human health. With today's fast growing demand for algae biofuels and the profitable market for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals made from algal natural products, the genetic engineering of marine algae has been attracting increasing attention as a crucial systemic technology to address the challenge of the biomass feedstock supply for sustainable industrial applications and to modify the metabolic pathway for the more efficient production of high-value products. Nevertheless, to date, only a few marine algae species can be genetically manipulated. In this article, an updated account of the research progress in marine algal genomics is presented along with methods for transformation. In addition, vector construction and gene selection strategies are reviewed. Meanwhile, a review on the progress of bioreactor technologies for marine algae culture is also revisited.

  20. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  1. Advanced systems engineering and network planning support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, David H.; Barrett, Larry K.; Boyd, Ronald; Bazaj, Suresh; Mitchell, Lionel; Brosi, Fred

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this task was to take a fresh look at the NASA Space Network Control (SNC) element for the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) such that it can be made more efficient and responsive to the user by introducing new concepts and technologies appropriate for the 1997 timeframe. In particular, it was desired to investigate the technologies and concepts employed in similar systems that may be applicable to the SNC. The recommendations resulting from this study include resource partitioning, on-line access to subsets of the SN schedule, fluid scheduling, increased use of demand access on the MA service, automating Inter-System Control functions using monitor by exception, increase automation for distributed data management and distributed work management, viewing SN operational control in terms of the OSI Management framework, and the introduction of automated interface management.

  2. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-05-13

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been themore » most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).« less

  3. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-05-13

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been the most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).

  4. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 29

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of superconductivity are discussed, taking into account the thermal performance of the MFTF magnets, the design and testing of a large bore superconducting magnet test facility, the development of a 12-tesla multifilamentary Nb3Sn magnet, a superconducting magnet for solid NMR studies, advanced applications of superconductors, transition and recovery of a cryogenically stable superconductor, and finite-difference modeling of the cryostability of helium II cooled conductor packs. Other topics explored are related to resource availability, heat exchangers, heat transfer to He I, liquid nitrogen, heat transfer in He II, refrigeration for superconducting and cryopump systems, refrigeration of cryogenic systems, refrigeration and liquefaction, dilution and magnetic refrigeration, cryocoolers, refrigeration for space applications, cryogenic applications, cryogenic instrumentation and data acquisition, and properties of fluids. Attention is given to biomedical applications of cryogenics in China, long-term cryogen storage in space, and a passive orbital disconnect strut.

  5. Phase 1 Development Testing of the Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Nicholas L.; Eddleman, David E.; Calvert, Marty R.; Bullard, David B.; Martin, Michael A.; Wall, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Development Breadboard Engine (BBE) is a pressure-fed liquid oxygen/pump-fed liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) expander cycle engine that was built and operated by NASA at Marshall Space Flight Center's East Test Area. The breadboard engine was conceived as a technology demonstrator for the additive manufacturing technologies for an advanced upper stage prototype engine. The components tested on the breadboard engine included an ablative chamber, injector, main fuel valve, turbine bypass valve, a main oxidizer valve, a mixer and the fuel turbopump. All parts minus the ablative chamber were additively manufactured. The BBE was successfully hot fire tested seven times. Data collected from the test series will be used for follow on demonstration tests with a liquid oxygen turbopump and a regeneratively cooled chamber and nozzle.

  6. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  7. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John

    2004-01-01

    Boeing-Canoga Park (BCP) and NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) are developing an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will improve Shuttle safety by reducing the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the powered ascent phase of a Shuttle mission. This is a phased approach that consists of an upgrade to the current Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) to add turbomachinery synchronous vibration protection and addition of a separate Health Management Computer (HMC) that will utilize advanced algorithms to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. The purpose of the Shuttle AHMS is twofold; one is to increase the probability of successfully placing the Orbiter into the intended orbit, and the other is to increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort of a Space Transportation System (STS) launch. Both objectives are achieved by increasing the useful work envelope of a Space Shuttle Main Engine after it has developed anomalous performance during launch and the ascent phase of the mission. This increase in work envelope will be the result of two new anomaly mitigation options, in addition to existing engine shutdown, that were previously unavailable. The added anomaly mitigation options include engine throttle-down and performance correction (adjustment of engine oxidizer to fuel ratio), as well as enhanced sensor disqualification capability. The HMC is intended to provide the computing power necessary to diagnose selected anomalous engine behaviors and for making recommendations to the engine controller for anomaly mitigation. Independent auditors have assessed the reduction in Shuttle ascent risk to be on the order of 40% with the combined system and a three times improvement in mission success.

  8. Advanced fabrication techniques for cooled engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, O. A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved design for regeneratively cooled engine structures was identified. This design uses photochemically machined (PCM) coolant passages. It permits the braze joint to be placed in a relatively cool area, remote from the critical hot face sheet. The geometry of the passages at the face sheet also minimizes stress concentration and, therefore, enhances the low cycle fatigue performance. The two most promising alloys identified for this application are Inconel 617 and Nickel 201. Inconel 617 was selected because it has excellent creep rupture properties, while Nickel 201 was selected because of its predicted good performance under low cycle fatigue loading. The fabrication of the PCM coolant passages in both Inconel 617 and Nickel 201 was successfully developed. During fabrication of Inconel 617, undesirable characteristics were observed in the braze joints. A development program to resolve this condition was undertaken and led to definition of an isothermal solidification process for joining Inconel 617 panels. This process produced joints which approach parent metal strength and homogeneity.

  9. TMF design considerations in turbine airfoils of advanced turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, C. G.; Zamrik, S. Y.; Adams, J. H.; Frani, N. E.

    A review of thermal-mechanicalfatigue (TMF) in advanced turbine engines is presented. The review includes examples of typical thermal-mechnical loadings encountered in the design of hot section blades and vanes. Specific issues related to TMF behavior are presented and the associated impact on component life analysis and design is discussed.

  10. Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

  11. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  12. Experiment-Based Teaching in Advanced Control Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Precup, R.-E.; Preitl, S.; Radac, M.-B.; Petriu, E. M.; Dragos, C.-A.; Tar, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment-based approach to teaching an advanced control engineering syllabus involving controlled plant analysis and modeling, control structures and algorithms, real-time laboratory experiments, and their assessment. These experiments are structured around the representative case of the longitudinal slip control of an…

  13. Recombination Catalysts for Hypersonic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinitz, W.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of commercially-viable access to space will require technologies that reduce propulsion system weight and complexity, while extracting maximum energy from the products of combustion. This work is directed toward developing effective nozzle recombination catalysts for the supersonic and hypersonic aeropropulsion engines used to provide such access to space. Effective nozzle recombination will significantly reduce rk=le length (hence, propulsion system weight) and reduce fuel requirements, further decreasing the vehicle's gross lift-off weight. Two such catalysts have been identified in this work, barium and antimony compounds, by developing chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for these materials and determining the engine performance enhancement for a typical flight trajectory. Significant performance improvements are indicated, using only 2% (mole or mass) of these compounds in the combustor product gas.

  14. Energy Efficient Engine program advanced turbofan nacelle definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, David C.; Wynosky, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced, low drag, nacelle configurations were defined for some of the more promising propulsion systems identified in the earlier Benefit/Cost Study, to assess the benefits associated with these advanced technology nacelles and formulate programs for developing these nacelles and low volume thrust reversers/spoilers to a state of technology readiness in the early 1990's. The study results established the design feasibility of advanced technology, slim line nacelles applicable to advanced technology, high bypass ratio turbofan engines. Design feasibility was also established for two low volume thrust reverse/spoiler concepts that meet or exceed the required effectiveness for these engines. These nacelle and thrust reverse/spoiler designs were shown to be applicable in engines with takeoff thrust sizes ranging from 24,000 to 60,000 pounds. The reduced weight, drag, and cost of the advanced technology nacelle installations relative to current technology nacelles offer a mission fuel burn savings ranging from 3.0 to 4.5 percent and direct operating cost plus interest improvements from 1.6 to 2.2 percent.

  15. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  16. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  17. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  18. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  19. Advancing the practice of systems engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansma, Patti A.; Jones, Ross M.

    2006-01-01

    In FY 2004, JPL launched an initiative to improve the way it practices systems engineering. The Lab's senior management formed the Systems Engineering Advancement (SEA) Project in order to "significantly advance the practice and organizational capabilities of systems engineering at JPL on flight projects and ground support tasks." The scope of the SEA Project includes the systems engineering work performed in all three dimensions of a program, project, or task: 1. the full life-cycle, i.e., concept through end of operations 2. the full depth, i.e., Program, Project, System, Subsystem, Element (SE Levels 1 to 5) 3. the full technical scope, e.g., the flight, ground and launch systems, avionics, power, propulsion, telecommunications, thermal, etc. The initial focus of their efforts defined the following basic systems engineering functions at JPL: systems architecture, requirements management, interface definition, technical resource management, system design and analysis, system verification and validation, risk management, technical peer reviews, design process management and systems engineering task management, They also developed a list of highly valued personal behaviors of systems engineers, and are working to inculcate those behaviors into members of their systems engineering community. The SEA Project is developing products, services, and training to support managers and practitioners throughout the entire system lifecycle. As these are developed, each one needs to be systematically deployed. Hence, the SEA Project developed a deployment process that includes four aspects: infrastructure and operations, communication and outreach, education and training, and consulting support. In addition, the SEA Project has taken a proactive approach to organizational change management and customer relationship management - both concepts and approaches not usually invoked in an engineering environment. This paper'3 describes JPL's approach to advancing the practice of

  20. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  1. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further.

  2. Seal Technology for Hypersonic Vehicle and Propulsion: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicles and propulsion systems pose an extraordinary challenge for structures and materials. Airframes and engines require lightweight, high-temperature materials and structural configurations that can withstand the extreme environment of hypersonic flight. Some of the challenges posed include very high temperatures, heating of the whole vehicle, steady-state and transient localized heating from shock waves, high aerodynamic loads, high fluctuating pressure loads, potential for severe flutter, vibration, and acoustic loads and erosion. Correspondingly high temperature seals are required to meet these aggressive requirements. This presentation reviews relevant seal technology for both heritage (e.g. Space Shuttle, X-15, and X-38) vehicles and presents several seal case studies aimed at providing lessons learned for future hypersonic vehicle seal development. This presentation also reviews seal technology developed for the National Aerospace Plane propulsion systems and presents several seal case studies aimed at providing lessons learned for future hypersonic propulsion seal development.

  3. Supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamic methods for aircraft design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Abel O.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology employed in engineering codes to predict aerodynamic characteristics over arbitrary supersonic/hypersonic configurations is considered. Engineering codes use a combination of simplified methods, based on geometrical impact angle and freestream conditions, to compute pressure distribution over the vehicle's surface in an efficient and timely manner. These approximate methods are valid for both hypersonic (Mach greater than 4) and lower speeds (Mach down to 2). It is concluded that the proposed methodology enables the user to obtain reasonable estimates of vehicle performance and engineering methods are valuable in the design process of these type of vehicles.

  4. Inspiring engineering minds to advance human health: the Henry Samueli School of Engineering's Department of BME.

    PubMed

    Lee, Abraham; Wirtanen, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The growth of biomedical engineering at The Henry Samueli School of Engineering at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) has been rapid since the Center for Biomedical Engineering was first formed in 1998 [and was later renamed as the Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME) in 2002]. Our current mission statement, “Inspiring Engineering Minds to Advance Human Health,” serves as a reminder of why we exist, what we do, and the core principles that we value and by which we abide. BME exists to advance the state of human health via engineering innovation and practices. To attain our goal, we are empowering our faculty to inspire and mobilize our students to address health problems. We treasure the human being, particularly the human mind and health. We believe that BME is where minds are nurtured, challenged, and disciplined, and it is also where the health of the human is held as a core mission value that deserves our utmost priority (Figure 1). Advancing human health is not a theoretical practice; it requires bridging between disciplines (engineering and medicine) and between communities (academic and industry).

  5. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Turbine Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus help achieve engine low emission and high efficiency goals. Advanced T/EBCs are being developed for the low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water vapor containing combustion environments. Low conductivity thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are also being developed for metallic turbine airfoil and combustor applications, providing the component temperature capability up to 1650 C (3000 F). In this paper, ceramic coating development considerations and requirements for both the ceramic and metallic components will be described for engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. The underlying coating failure mechanisms and life prediction approaches will be discussed based on the simulated engine tests and fracture mechanics modeling results.

  6. Advances in Thin Film Sensor Technologies for Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Martin, Lisa C.; Will, Herbert A.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced thin film sensor techniques that can provide accurate surface strain and temperature measurements are being developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. These sensors are needed to provide minimally intrusive characterization of advanced materials (such as ceramics and composites) and structures (such as components for Space Shuttle Main Engine, High Speed Civil Transport, Advanced Subsonic Transports and General Aviation Aircraft) in hostile, high-temperature environments and for validation of design codes. This paper presents two advanced thin film sensor technologies: strain gauges and thermocouples. These sensors are sputter deposited directly onto the test articles and are only a few micrometers thick; the surface of the test article is not structurally altered and there is minimal disturbance of the gas flow over the surface. The strain gauges are palladium-13% chromium based and the thermocouples are platinum-13% rhodium vs. platinum. The fabrication techniques of these thin film sensors in a class 1000 cleanroom at the NASA Lewis Research Center are described. Their demonstration on a variety of engine materials, including superalloys, ceramics and advanced ceramic matrix composites, in several hostile, high-temperature test environments are discussed.

  7. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program. Phase 2: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, C.; Martinez, A.; Hines, B.

    1987-01-01

    In Phase 2 of the Advanced Engine Study, the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) maintenance-driven engine design, preliminary maintenance plan, and concept for space operable disconnects generated in Phase 1 were further developed. Based on the results of the vehicle contractors Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) Concept Definition and System Analysis Phase A studies, minor revisions to the engine design were made. Additional refinements in the engine design were identified through further engine concept studies. These included an updated engine balance incorporating experimental heat transfer data from the Enhanced Heat Load Thrust Chamber Study and a Rao optimum nozzle contour. The preliminary maintenance plan of Phase 1 was further developed through additional studies. These included a compilation of critical component lives and life limiters and a review of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) operations and maintenance manual in order to begin outlining the overall maintenance procedures for the Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine and identifying technology requirements for streamlining space-based operations. Phase 2 efforts also provided further definition to the advanced fluid coupling devices including the selection and preliminary design of a preferred concept and a preliminary test plan for its further development.

  8. Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine hot sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Daniel E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference on durability improvement methods for advanced aircraft gas turbine hot-section components discussed NASA's Hot Section Technology (HOST) project, advanced high-temperature instrumentation for hot-section research, the development and application of combustor aerothermal models, and the evaluation of a data base and numerical model for turbine heat transfer. Also discussed are structural analysis methods for gas turbine hot section components, fatigue life-prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials, and the service life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines.

  9. Orbital Transfer Rocket Engine Technology. Advanced Engine Study, Task D.6 Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Pieper. The work was continued through the Design and Parametric Subtask under the direction of Judy Schneider. Completion of the study and... studies while NASA Lewis Research Center has di- rected main engine development. The work reported herein was completed under a contract with NASA LeRC...set is established. Work on the Advanced Engine Study began in November 1988 and concluded in the Spring of 1990 with this final report. I 3n/Drrn 47

  10. Hypersonic Global Strike Feasibility and Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-15

    materials for one-time use vehicles,123 and breakthroughs in in Low Energy Nuclear Reaction ( LENR ) research could revolutionize high-speed materials for air...breathing vehicles in the next 15 to 20 years.124 More research on possible LENR advances will accelerate hypersonic technology. Defense Industry...Revolution is not materials, is Energetics. LENR is being worked, some 1,000 to 1,000,000 times Chemical Energy Density, Fuel fraction/ weight goes away

  11. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation, Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes'' is a research and development project for the reduction of pyritic sulfur in coal. Project goals are to remove 80 to 90% of the ash and pyritic sulfur while retaining 80 to 90% of the parent coal's heating value. A number of media and media separator options are to be evaluated and tested, culminating with the implementation of the preferred combination in a 1,000 lb/hr bench-scale process optimization circuit.

  12. Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Vrieling, P. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    SNL/CA proposes the Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) facility to support customer-driven national security mission requirements while demonstrating a fiscally responsible approach to cost-control. SNL/CA realizes that due to the current backlog of capital projects in NNSA that following the normal Line Item process to procure capital funding is unlikely and therefore SNL/CA will be looking at all options including Alternative Financing.

  13. Recent advances of nanotechnology in medicine and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Lucio; Nobile, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of some advances of nanotechnology in medicine and engineering, exploring typical applications of these emerging technologies. The mechanical properties of such small structures determine their utility and are therefore of considerable interest. Based on nanometer scale tests, a theoretical model to predict the bending strength of a nanobeam is proposed. A fracture approach which takes into account imperfections on the beam surface and crack growth is employed.

  14. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are investigated. Constructions of special elements which containing traction-free circular boundaries are investigated. New versions of mixed variational principle and version of hybrid stress elements are formulated. A method is established for suppression of kinematic deformation modes. semiLoof plate and shell elements are constructed by assumed stress hybrid method. An elastic-plastic analysis is conducted by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  15. Advances in polymeric systems for tissue engineering and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-03-01

    The characteristics of tissue engineered scaffolds are major concerns in the quest to fabricate ideal scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The polymer scaffolds employed for tissue engineering applications should possess multifunctional properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and favorable mechanical properties as it comes in direct contact with the body fluids in vivo. Additionally, the polymer system should also possess biomimetic architecture and should support stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. As the progress in polymer technology continues, polymeric biomaterials have taken characteristics more closely related to that desired for tissue engineering and clinical needs. Stimuli responsive polymers also termed as smart biomaterials respond to stimuli such as pH, temperature, enzyme, antigen, glucose and electrical stimuli that are inherently present in living systems. This review highlights the exciting advancements in these polymeric systems that relate to biological and tissue engineering applications. Additionally, several aspects of technology namely scaffold fabrication methods and surface modifications to confer biological functionality to the polymers have also been discussed. The ultimate objective is to emphasize on these underutilized adaptive behaviors of the polymers so that novel applications and new generations of smart polymeric materials can be realized for biomedical and tissue engineering applications.

  16. FY2013 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-12-01

    Annual progress report on the work of the the Advanced Combustion Engine Program. The Advanced Combustion Engine Program supports the Vehicle Technologies Office mission by addressing critical technical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions, advanced combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  17. FY2012 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-02-01

    Annual report on the work of the the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the Vehicle Technologies Office mission by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  18. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to provide turbine-cooling technologies to meet Propulsion 21 goals related to engine fuel burn, emissions, safety, and reliability. Specifically, the GE Aviation (GEA) Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program seeks to develop advanced cooling and flow distribution methods for HP turbines, while achieving a substantial reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. Enhanced cooling techniques, such as fluidic devices, controlled-vortex cooling, and directed impingement jets, offer the opportunity to incorporate both active and passive schemes. Coolant heat transfer enhancement also can be achieved from advanced designs that incorporate multi-disciplinary optimization of external film and internal cooling passage geometry.

  19. Hypersonic Materials and Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are required for a range of hypersonic vehicles ranging from ballistic reentry to hypersonic cruise vehicles, both within Earth's atmosphere and non-Earth atmospheres. The focus of this presentation is on air breathing hypersonic vehicles in the Earth's atmosphere. This includes single-stage to orbit (SSTO), two-stage to orbit (TSTO) accelerators, access to space vehicles, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. This paper will start out with a brief discussion of aerodynamic heating and thermal management techniques to address the high heating, followed by an overview of TPS for rocket-launched and air-breathing vehicles. The argument is presented that as we move from rocket-based vehicles to air-breathing vehicles, we need to move away from the insulated airplane approach used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter to a wide range of TPS and hot structure approaches. The primary portion of the paper will discuss issues and design options for CMC TPS and hot structure components, including leading edges, acreage TPS, and control surfaces. The current state-of-the-art will be briefly discussed for some of the components.

  20. Transition at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morkovin, Mark V.

    1987-01-01

    Certain conjectures on the physics of instabilities in high-speed flows are discussed and the state of knowledge of hypersonic transition summarized. The case is made for an unpressured systematic research program in this area consisting of controlled microscopic experiments, theory, and numerical simulations.

  1. Improved Hypersonic Inlet Performance Using Validated Strut Compression Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulman, M. J.; Stout, P. W.; Fernandez, R.

    1997-01-01

    Aerojet is currently executing two Strutjet propulsion contracts: one a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine for a NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Reusable Transportation Technology (ARTT) program, the second a Dual Mode Ram/Scramjet engine for a USAF Wright Laboratories Storable Fuel Scramjet Flow Path Concepts program. The engines employed in both programs operate at supersonic and low hypersonic speeds and use inlets employing forebody external and sidewall compression. Aerojet has developed and validated a successful design methodology applicable to these inlet types. Design features include an integrated vehicle forebody, external side compression struts, strut sidewall and throat bleed, a throat shock trap, and variable geometry internal contraction. Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) predictions and test data show these inlets allow substantially increased flow turning angles over other designs. These increased flow turning angles allow shorter and lighter engines than current designs, which in turn enables higher performing vehicles with broad operating characteristics. This paper describes the designs of two different inlets evaluated by the NASA-MSFC and USAF programs, discusses the results of wind tunnel tests performed by NASA-Lewis Research Center, and provides correlations of test data with CFD predictions. Parameters of interest include low Mach number starting capability, start sensitivity as a function of back pressure at various contraction ratios, flow turning angles, strut and throat bleed effects, and pressure recovery at various Mach numbers.

  2. Emission calculations for a scramjet powered hypersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lezberg, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Calculations of exhaust emissions from a scramjet powered hypersonic transport burning hydrogen fuel were performed over a range of Mach numbers of 5 to 12 to provide input data for wake mixing calculations and forecasts of future levels of pollutants in the stratosphere. The calculations were performed utilizing a one-dimensional chemical kinetics computer program for the combustor and exhaust nozzle of a fixed geometry dual-mode scramjet engine. Inlet conditions to the combustor and engine size was based on a vehicle of 227,000 kg (500,000 lb) gross take of weight with engines sized for Mach 8 cruise. Nitric oxide emissions were very high for stoichiometric engine operation but for Mach 6 cruise at reduced equivalence ratio are in the range predicted for an advanced supersonic transport. Combustor designs which utilize fuel staging and rapid expansion to minimize residence time at high combustion temperatures were found to be effective in preventing nitric oxide formation from reaching equilibrium concentrations.

  3. Unstart Coupling Mechanism Analysis of Multiple-Modules Hypersonic Inlet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Cao, Shibin

    2013-01-01

    The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by center module II and side module III were, conducted respectively. The results indicate that the other two hypersonic inlets are forced into unstarted flow when unstarted phenomenon appears on a single-module hypersonic inlet due to high backpressure, and the reversed flow in the isolator dominates the formation, expansion, shrinkage, and disappearance of the vortexes, and thus, it is the major factor of unstart coupling of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet. The coupling effect among multiple modules makes hypersonic inlet be more likely unstarted. PMID:24348146

  4. Nonequilibrium radiative hypersonic flow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, J. S.; Surzhikov, S. T.

    2012-08-01

    Nearly all the required scientific disciplines for computational hypersonic flow simulation have been developed on the framework of gas kinetic theory. However when high-temperature physical phenomena occur beneath the molecular and atomic scales, the knowledge of quantum physics and quantum chemical-physics becomes essential. Therefore the most challenging topics in computational simulation probably can be identified as the chemical-physical models for a high-temperature gaseous medium. The thermal radiation is also associated with quantum transitions of molecular and electronic states. The radiative energy exchange is characterized by the mechanisms of emission, absorption, and scattering. In developing a simulation capability for nonequilibrium radiation, an efficient numerical procedure is equally important both for solving the radiative transfer equation and for generating the required optical data via the ab-initio approach. In computational simulation, the initial values and boundary conditions are paramount for physical fidelity. Precise information at the material interface of ablating environment requires more than just a balance of the fluxes across the interface but must also consider the boundary deformation. The foundation of this theoretic development shall be built on the eigenvalue structure of the governing equations which can be described by Reynolds' transport theorem. Recent innovations for possible aerospace vehicle performance enhancement via an electromagnetic effect appear to be very attractive. The effectiveness of this mechanism is dependent strongly on the degree of ionization of the flow medium, the consecutive interactions of fluid dynamics and electrodynamics, as well as an externally applied magnetic field. Some verified research results in this area will be highlighted. An assessment of all these most recent advancements in nonequilibrium modeling of chemical kinetics, chemical-physics kinetics, ablation, radiative exchange

  5. Hypersonic cruise aircraft propulsion integration study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. E.; Brewer, G. D.

    1979-01-01

    A hypersonic cruise transport conceptual design is described. The integration of the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic propulsion systems with the aerodynamic design of the airframe is emphasized. An evaluation of various configurations of aircraft and propulsion integration concepts, and selection and refinement of a final design are given. This configuration was used as a baseline to compare two propulsion concepts - one using a fixed geometry dual combustion mode scramjet and the other a variable geometry ramjet engine. Both concepts used turbojet engines for takeoff, landing and acceleration to supersonic speed.

  6. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John; Rodela, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., in cooperation with NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), has developed a new Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) controller for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will increase the probability of successfully placing the shuttle into the intended orbit and increase the safety of the Space Transportation System (STS) launches. The AHMS is an upgrade o the current Block II engine controller whose primary component is an improved vibration monitoring system called the Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) that can effectively and reliably monitor the state of the high pressure turbomachinery and provide engine protection through a new synchronous vibration redline which enables engine shutdown if the vibration exceeds predetermined thresholds. The introduction of this system required improvements and modification to the Block II controller such as redesigning the Digital Computer Unit (DCU) memory and the Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS) circuitry, eliminating the existing memory retention batteries, installation of the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology, and installation of a High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) with accompanying outside world connectors. Test stand hot-fire testing along with lab testing have verified successful implementation and is expected to reduce the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the shuttle ascent phase and improve safely by about 23% according to the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS), leading to a safer and more reliable SSME.

  7. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites--PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites--MMC's and IMC's) and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites--CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed by in-house researchers and on grants and contracts. NASA considers this program to be a focused materials and structures research effort that builds on our base research programs and supports component-development projects. HITEMP is coordinated with the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program and the Department of Defense/NASA Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program. Advanced materials and structures technologies from HITEMP may be used in these future applications. Recent technical accomplishments have not only improved the state-of-the-art but have wideranging applications to industry. A high-temperature thin-film strain gage was developed to measure both dynamic and static strain up to 1100 C (2000 F). The gage's unique feature is that it is minimally intrusive. This technology, which received a 1995 R&D 100 Award, has been transferred to AlliedSignal Engines, General Electric Company, and Ford Motor Company. Analytical models developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center were used to study Textron Specialty Materials' manufacturing process for titanium-matrix composite rings. Implementation of our recommendations on tooling and processing conditions resulted in the production of defect free rings. In the Lincoln Composites/AlliedSignal/Lewis cooperative program, a composite compressor case is being manufactured with a Lewis

  8. Engine Concept Study for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which mission fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. The results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  9. Advanced Engineering Environment FY09/10 pilot project.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamph, Jane Ann; Kiba, Grant W.; Pomplun, Alan R.; Dutra, Edward G.; Sego, Abraham L.

    2010-06-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) project identifies emerging engineering environment tools and assesses their value to Sandia National Laboratories and our partners in the Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) by testing them in our design environment. This project accomplished several pilot activities, including: the preliminary definition of an engineering bill of materials (BOM) based product structure in the Windchill PDMLink 9.0 application; an evaluation of Mentor Graphics Data Management System (DMS) application for electrical computer-aided design (ECAD) library administration; and implementation and documentation of a Windchill 9.1 application upgrade. The project also supported the migration of legacy data from existing corporate product lifecycle management systems into new classified and unclassified Windchill PDMLink 9.0 systems. The project included two infrastructure modernization efforts: the replacement of two aging AEE development servers for reliable platforms for ongoing AEE project work; and the replacement of four critical application and license servers that support design and engineering work at the Sandia National Laboratories/California site.

  10. Recent advances in targeted genome engineering in mammalian systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning; Abil, Zhanar; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-09-01

    Targeted genome engineering enables researchers to disrupt, insert, or replace a genomic sequence precisely at a predetermined locus. One well-established technology to edit a mammalian genome is known as gene targeting, which is based on the homologous recombination (HR) mechanism. However, the low HR frequency in mammalian cells (except for mice) prevents its wide application. To address this limitation, a custom-designed nuclease is used to introduce a site-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) on the chromosome and the subsequent repair of the DSB by the HR mechanism or the non-homologous end joining mechanism results in efficient targeted genome modifications. Engineered homing endonucleases (also called meganucleases), zinc finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases represent the three major classes of custom-designed nucleases that have been successfully applied in many different organisms for targeted genome engineering. This article reviews the recent developments of these genome engineering tools and highlights a few representative applications in mammalian systems. Recent advances in gene delivery strategies of these custom-designed nucleases are also briefly discussed.

  11. Requirements Development for the NASA Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Eric; Hale, Joseph P.; Zook, Keith; Gowda, Sanjay; Salas, Andrea O.

    2003-01-01

    The requirements development process for the Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is presented. This environment has been developed to allow NASA to perform independent analysis and design of space transportation architectures and technologies. Given the highly collaborative and distributed nature of AEE, a variety of organizations are involved in the development, operations and management of the system. Furthermore, there are additional organizations involved representing external customers and stakeholders. Thorough coordination and effective communication is essential to translate desired expectations of the system into requirements. Functional, verifiable requirements for this (and indeed any) system are necessary to fulfill several roles. Requirements serve as a contractual tool, configuration management tool, and as an engineering tool, sometimes simultaneously. The role of requirements as an engineering tool is particularly important because a stable set of requirements for a system provides a common framework of system scope and characterization among team members. Furthermore, the requirements provide the basis for checking completion of system elements and form the basis for system verification. Requirements are at the core of systems engineering. The AEE Project has undertaken a thorough process to translate the desires and expectations of external customers and stakeholders into functional system-level requirements that are captured with sufficient rigor to allow development planning, resource allocation and system-level design, development, implementation and verification. These requirements are maintained in an integrated, relational database that provides traceability to governing Program requirements and also to verification methods and subsystem-level requirements.

  12. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley

    2003-08-28

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. A detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and concepts have been explored, and engine experiments will validate these concepts. An iterative process of experimentation, simulation and analysis, will be followed with the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. As planned, MIT has developed guidelines for an initial set of low-friction piston-ring-pack designs. Current recommendations focus on subtle top-piston-ring and oil-control-ring characteristics. A full-scale Waukesha F18 engine has been installed at Colorado State University and testing of the baseline configuration is in progress. Components for the first design iteration are being procured. Subsequent work includes examining the friction and engine performance data and extending the analyses to other areas to evaluate opportunities for further friction improvement and the impact on oil consumption/emission and wear, towards demonstrating an optimized reduced-friction engine system.

  13. Materials for advanced rocket engine turbopump turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    A study program was conducted to identify those materials that will provide the greatest benefits as turbine blades for advanced liquid propellant rocket engine turbines and to prepare technology plans for the development of those materials for use in the 1990 through 1995 period. The candidate materials were selected from six classes of materials: single-crystal (SC) superalloys, oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloys, rapid solidification processed (RSP) superalloys, directionally solidified eutectic (DSE) superalloys, fiber-reinforced superalloy (FRS) composites, and ceramics. Properties of materials from the six classes were compiled and evaluated and property improvements were projected approximately 5 years into the future for advanced versions of materials in each of the six classes.

  14. Application of advanced coating techniques to rocket engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The materials problem in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) is reviewed. Potential coatings and the method of their application for improved life of SSME components are discussed. A number of advanced coatings for turbine blade components and disks are being developed and tested in a multispecimen thermal fatigue fluidized bed facility at IIT Research Institute. This facility is capable of producing severe strains of the degree present in blades and disk components of the SSME. The potential coating systems and current efforts at IITRI being taken for life extension of the SSME components are summarized.

  15. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, Theodore H. H.

    1991-01-01

    The following tasks on the study of advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are described: (1) constructions of special elements which contain traction-free circular boundaries; (2) formulation of new version of mixed variational principles and new version of hybrid stress elements; (3) establishment of methods for suppression of kinematic deformation modes; (4) construction of semiLoof plate and shell elements by assumed stress hybrid method; and (5) elastic-plastic analysis by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  16. Hypersonic Vehicle Trajectory Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    number) The purpose of this task is to assemble a computer code for solving the maximum croserange and maximum plane change problems for hypersonic...nodal points and linear interpolation. An existing code for solving the nonlinear programming problem with the augmented-Lagrangian method is used to...Date EnleveEd) geCUmiTY CLAWPICATION OF Tw1ig PAGIi(naem DNA hata9* 4 20.\\ Abstract (cont’d.) numerically by central differences. The code works well in

  17. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2005-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

  18. NASA hypersonic flight demonstrators—overview, status, and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L. Moses, Paul; L. Rausch, Vincent; T. Nguyen, Luat; R. Hill, Jeryl

    2004-08-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program is developing and maturing advanced propulsion and vehicle systems technologies and flight vehicle concepts to enable future development of safer and more economical launch systems. Within NGLT, NASA is developing advanced air breathing propulsion systems and demonstrating these systems in hypersonic flight vehicles. The flight demonstrations are necessary to fully validate these technologies for application to future space launch vehicles and other flight systems. NASA's Hyper-X Program (X-43A) began the effort to flight demonstrate hypersonic air breathing propulsion systems to provide technologies that will enable development of safer and more economic space access vehicles in the future. Following X-43A, NASA, in collaboration with the United States (US) Department of Defense (DoD), is developing additional, progressively more complex hypersonic X-vehicles that will demonstrate new air breathing propulsion systems, propulsion-airframe integration, and other vehicle systems technologies required for high speed flight up to Mach 15. These technologies will contribute to safer, more reliable and more economic future launch systems and hypersonic aircraft/missiles. This paper describes NASA's current hypersonic flight demonstration projects, status of the efforts, and plans for future vehicles.

  19. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  20. Applying Technology Ranking and Systems Engineering in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    According to the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program Plan, the Systems Modeling and Analysis Project (SMAP) has two important tasks: 1) prioritizing investments in ALS Research and Technology Development (R&TD), and 2) guiding the evolution of ALS systems. Investments could be prioritized simply by independently ranking different technologies, but we should also consider a technology's impact on system design. Guiding future ALS systems will require SMAP to consider many aspects of systems engineering. R&TD investments can be prioritized using familiar methods for ranking technology. The first step is gathering data on technology performance, safety, readiness level, and cost. Then the technologies are ranked using metrics or by decision analysis using net present economic value. The R&TD portfolio can be optimized to provide the maximum expected payoff in the face of uncertain future events. But more is needed. The optimum ALS system can not be designed simply by selecting the best technology for each predefined subsystem. Incorporating a new technology, such as food plants, can change the specifications of other subsystems, such as air regeneration. Systems must be designed top-down starting from system objectives, not bottom-up from selected technologies. The familiar top-down systems engineering process includes defining mission objectives, mission design, system specification, technology analysis, preliminary design, and detail design. Technology selection is only one part of systems analysis and engineering, and it is strongly related to the subsystem definitions. ALS systems should be designed using top-down systems engineering. R&TD technology selection should consider how the technology affects ALS system design. Technology ranking is useful but it is only a small part of systems engineering.

  1. High temperature NASP engine seals: A technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Tong, Mike

    1991-01-01

    Progress in developing advanced high temperature engine seal concepts and related sealing technologies for advanced hypersonic engines are reviewed. Design attributes and issues requiring further development for both the ceramic wafer seal and the braided ceramic rope seal are examined. Leakage data are presented for these seals for engine simulated pressure and temperature conditions and compared to a target leakage limit. Basic elements of leakage flow models to predict leakage rates for each of these seals over the wide range of pressure and temperature conditions anticipated in the engine are also presented.

  2. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  3. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  4. A Virtual Engineering Framework for Simulating Advanced Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Stanislav Borodai

    2008-06-18

    In this report is described the work effort performed to provide NETL with VE-Suite based Virtual Engineering software and enhanced equipment models to support NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power generation systems. Enhancements to the software framework facilitated an important link between APECS and the virtual engineering capabilities provided by VE-Suite (e.g., equipment and process visualization, information assimilation). Model enhancements focused on improving predictions for the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers and important auxiliary equipment (e.g., Air Separation Units) used in coal gasification systems. In addition, a Reduced Order Model generation tool and software to provide a coupling between APECS/AspenPlus and the GE GateCycle simulation system were developed. CAPE-Open model interfaces were employed where needed. The improved simulation capability is demonstrated on selected test problems. As part of the project an Advisory Panel was formed to provide guidance on the issues on which to focus the work effort. The Advisory Panel included experts from industry and academics in gasification, CO2 capture issues, process simulation and representatives from technology developers and the electric utility industry. To optimize the benefit to NETL, REI coordinated its efforts with NETL and NETL funded projects at Iowa State University, Carnegie Mellon University and ANSYS/Fluent, Inc. The improved simulation capabilities incorporated into APECS will enable researchers and engineers to better understand the interactions of different equipment components, identify weaknesses and processes needing improvement and thereby allow more efficient, less expensive plants to be developed and brought on-line faster and in a more cost-effective manner. These enhancements to APECS represent an important step toward having a fully integrated environment for performing plant simulation and engineering

  5. Recent Advances in Application of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Arghya; Lee, Yong-kyu; Jaffa, Ayad A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25165697

  6. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  7. Hypersonic Shock/Boundary-Layer Interaction Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, G. S.; Dodson, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    Turbulence modeling is generally recognized as the major problem obstructing further advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A closed solution of the governing Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flows of practical consequence is still far beyond grasp. At the same time, the simplified models of turbulence which are used to achieve closure of the Navier-Stokes equations are known to be rigorously incorrect. While these models serve a definite purpose, they are inadequate for the general prediction of hypersonic viscous/inviscid interactions, mixing problems, chemical nonequilibria, and a range of other phenomena which must be predicted in order to design a hypersonic vehicle computationally. Due to the complexity of turbulence, useful new turbulence models are synthesized only when great expertise is brought to bear and considerable intellectual energy is expended. Although this process is fundamentally theoretical, crucial guidance may be gained from carefully-executed basic experiments. Following the birth of a new model, its testing and validation once again demand comparisons with data of unimpeachable quality. This report concerns these issues which arise from the experimental aspects of hypersonic modeling and represents the results of the first phase of an effort to develop compressible turbulence models.

  8. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction

  9. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES): Raising the Bar on Engine Technology with Increased Efficiency and Reduced Emissions, at Attractive Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This is a fact sheet on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems program (ARES), which is designed to promote separate, but parallel engine development between the major stationary, gaseous fueled engine manufacturers in the United States.

  10. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2004-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis, are being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and ring-design concepts have been explored, and engine experiments have been done on a full-scale Waukesha VGF F18 in-line 6 cylinder power generation engine rated at 370 kW at 1800 rpm. Current accomplishments include designing and testing ring-packs using a subtle top-compression-ring profile (skewed barrel design), lowering the tension of the oil-control ring, employing a negative twist to the scraper ring to control oil consumption. Initial test data indicate that piston ring-pack friction was reduced by 35% by lowering the oil-control ring tension alone, which corresponds to a 1.5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Although small in magnitude, this improvement represents a first step towards anticipated aggregate improvements from other strategies. Other ring-pack design strategies to lower friction have been identified, including reduced axial distance between the top two rings, tilted top-ring groove. Some of these configurations have been tested and some await further evaluation. Colorado State University performed the tests and Waukesha Engine Dresser, Inc. provided technical support. Key elements of the continuing work include optimizing the engine piston design, application of surface and material developments in conjunction with improved lubricant properties, system modeling and analysis, and continued technology

  11. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program is to develop intelligent control and distribution methods for turbine cooling, while achieving a reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. The program also will develop embedded sensor technologies and cooling system models for real-time engine diagnostics and health management. Both active and passive control strategies will be investigated that include the capability of intelligent modulation of flow quantities, pressures, and temperatures both within the supply system and at the turbine component level. Thermal management system concepts were studied, with a goal of reducing HPT blade cooling air supply temperature. An assessment will be made of the use of this air by the active clearance control system as well. Turbine component cooling designs incorporating advanced, high-effectiveness cooling features, will be evaluated. Turbine cooling flow control concepts will be studied at the cooling system level and the component level. Specific cooling features or sub-elements of an advanced HPT blade cooling design will be downselected for core fabrication and casting demonstrations.

  12. Recent Advances In Optimization Of Aerospace Structures And Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao*, J. S.

    Optimization theories have been well advanced during the last few decades; however when it came to handle real life engineering structures it has been always time consuming and approximate when the structure geometry is highly complex. Design of Experiments has helped in understanding the influence of size and shape parameters on achieving a specified objective function with required constraints and a suitable analysis platform, but has its limitations in arriving at the final optimal solution. There are several commercial codes that addressed this need to handle large size structures subjected to dynamic loads. Most advanced tools in this category are Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy available in Altair HyperWorks suite. Application of these tools in achieving optimum solutions for linear advanced aircraft structures for minimization of weight are first explained. The application of these tools for globally elastic and locally plastic nonlinear structures to reduce local plastic strains and achieve higher life under dynamic loads will then be discussed.

  13. Science and Technology Text Mining: Hypersonic and Supersonic Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    human analyst. DT was used to derive technical intelligence from a hypersonic/ supersonic flow ( HSF ) database derived from the Science Citation Index and...the Engineering Compendex. Phrase frequency analysis by the technical domain expert provided the pervasive technical themes of the HSF database, and...the phrase proximity analysis provided the relationships among the pervasive technical themes. Bibliometric analysis of the HSF literature

  14. Analysis of the Effects of Vitiates on Surface Heat Flux in Ground Tests of Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuda, Vincent; Gaffney, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the high enthalpy conditions associated with hypersonic flight, many ground test facilities burn fuel in the air upstream of the test chamber. Unfortunately, the products of combustion contaminate the test gas and alter gas properties and the heat fluxes associated with aerodynamic heating. The difference in the heating rates between clean air and a vitiated test medium needs to be understood so that the thermal management system for hypersonic vehicles can be properly designed. This is particularly important for advanced hypersonic vehicle concepts powered by air-breathing propulsion systems that couple cooling requirements, fuel flow rates, and combustor performance by flowing fuel through sub-surface cooling passages to cool engine components and preheat the fuel prior to combustion. An analytical investigation was performed comparing clean air to a gas vitiated with methane/oxygen combustion products to determine if variations in gas properties contributed to changes in predicted heat flux. This investigation started with simple relationships, evolved into writing an engineering-level code, and ended with running a series of CFD cases. It was noted that it is not possible to simultaneously match all of the gas properties between clean and vitiated test gases. A study was then conducted selecting various combinations of freestream properties for a vitiated test gas that matched clean air values to determine which combination of parameters affected the computed heat transfer the least. The best combination of properties to match was the free-stream total sensible enthalpy, dynamic pressure, and either the velocity or Mach number. This combination yielded only a 2% difference in heating. Other combinations showed departures of up to 10% in the heat flux estimate.

  15. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Morgan, Morris H.; Povitsky, Alex; Schkolnikov, Natalia; Njoroge, Norman; Coston, Calvin; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory at Hampton University (HU/FM&AL) jointly with the NASA Glenn Research Center has conducted four connected subprojects under the reporting project. Basically, the HU/FM&AL Team has been involved in joint research with the purpose of theoretical explanation of experimental facts and creation of accurate numerical simulation techniques and prediction theory for solution of current problems in propulsion systems of interest to the NAVY and NASA agencies. This work is also supported by joint research between the NASA GRC and the Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University (IM/MSU) in Russia under a CRDF grant. The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The FM&AL Team uses analytical methods, numerical simulations and possible experimental tests at the Hampton University campus. The fundamental idea uniting these subprojects is to use nontraditional 3D corrugated and composite nozzle and inlet designs and additional methods for exhaust jet noise reduction without essential thrust loss and even with thrust augmentation. These subprojects are: (1) Aeroperformance and acoustics of Bluebell-shaped and Telescope-shaped designs; (2) An analysis of sharp-edged nozzle exit designs for effective fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines: triangular-round, diamond-round and other nozzles; (3) Measurement technique improvement for the HU Low Speed Wind Tunnel; a new course in the field of aerodynamics, teaching and training of HU students; experimental tests of Mobius-shaped screws: research and training; (4) Supersonic inlet shape optimization. The main outcomes during this reporting period are: (l) Publications: The AIAA Paper #00-3170 was presented at the 36th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 17-19 June, 2000, Huntsville, AL. The AIAA

  16. Orbit transfer vehicle advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design characteristics of the baseline engine configuration of the advanced expander cycle engine are described. Several aspects of engine optimization are considered which directly impact the design of the baseline thrust chamber. Four major areas of the power cycle optimization are emphasized: main turbine arrangement; cycle engine source; high pressure pump design; and boost pump drive.

  17. Effects of hypersonic vehicle's optical dome on infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenjun; Cao, Zhiguo; Wang, Wenwu

    2011-09-01

    When an optically guided hypersonic vehicle flies in the atmosphere, the scene is viewed through an optical dome. Because of hypersonic friction with the atmosphere, the optical dome is inevitably covered by a serious shock wave, which threatens to alter the dome's physical parameters and further induce wavefront distortion and degradation of images. By studying the physical phenomena occurring within the optical dome in such an adverse environment, this paper identifies the relationship between the variation of the dome's optical characteristics and the infrared image degradation. The research indicates that the image quality degrades sharply as the vehicle's Mach number increases. Simulations also show that while the thermo-optic effect, elastic-optic effect, thermal deformation, and variation of transmittance have little effect on the optical system, the thermal radiation severely degrades images when vehicles fly at hypersonic speeds. Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  18. Wind Tunnel Test of Mach 5 Class Hypersonic Airplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Hiroki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Shindo, Shigemi; Honami, Shinji

    JAXA is currently performing studies on a Hypersonic Turbojet Experimental Vehicle, which involve a hypersonic flight test of a Small Pre-cooled Turbojet Engine. The aerodynamic performance of this airplane was examined at the JAXA hypersonic, supersonic, and transonic wind tunnel facilities. The 6-degrees-of-freedom forces and pressure distribution around the model were measured and evaluated. This airplane satisfies the lift-to-drag ratio requirement for a flight test at Mach 5. In addition, the results indicate that this airplane has longitudinal and directional static stability if the moment reference point is x/l smaller than 0.35. A separation occurs at the external expanding nozzle. Therefore, a redesign is necessary to solve these problems.

  19. Materials for advanced turbine engines. Volume 1: Advanced blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.; Fairbanks, N. P.

    1982-01-01

    Project 3, the subject of this technical report, was structured toward the successful engine demonstration of an improved-efficiency, long-life, tip-seal system for turbine blades. The advanced tip-seal system was designed to maintain close operating clearances between turbine blade tips and turbine shrouds and, at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling. The turbine blade tip comprised an environmentally resistant, activated-diffussion-bonded, monocrystal superalloy combined with a thin layer of aluminium oxide abrasive particles entrapped in an electroplated NiCr matrix. The project established the tip design and joint location, characterized the single-crystal tip alloy and abrasive tip treatment, and established the manufacturing and quality-control plans required to fully process the blades. A total of 171 blades were fully manufactured, and 100 were endurance and performance engine-tested.

  20. The Rocket Engine Advancement Program 2 (REAP2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Brent (Technical Monitor); Hawk, Clark W.

    2004-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Advancement Program (REAP) 2 program is being conducted by a university propulsion consortium consisting of the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Penn State University, Purdue University, Tuskegee University and Auburn University. It has been created to bring their combined skills to bear on liquid rocket combustion stability and thrust chamber cooling. The research team involves well established and known researchers in the propulsion community. The cure team provides the knowledge base, research skills, and commitment to achieve an immediate and continuing impact on present and future propulsion issues. through integrated research teams composed of analysts, diagnosticians, and experimentalists working together in an integrated multi-disciplinary program. This paper provides an overview of the program, its objectives and technical approaches. Research on combustion instability and thrust chamber cooling are being accomplished

  1. Advancement of online systems in engineering by Expert TA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Jeremy

    This dissertation introduces a new online system called Expert TA. The system was developed based on the hypothesis that expressions are key elements in engineering problems and that the treatment of expressions is critical to the advancement of online systems. This dissertation identifies ergonomic problems with expression entry that Expert TA overcomes through the use of a problem-customize integrated expression editor, called a palate. Then the dissertation shows, using an expression analyzer that operates in the background of Expert TA, that specific mathematical mistakes within an entered expression can now be located. Emulating standard instructional practices, detailed feedback pertaining to specific mistakes and grading on the basis of specific mistakes is now possible.

  2. Radial inflow gas turbine engine with advanced transition duct

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J

    2015-03-17

    A gas turbine engine (10), including: a turbine having radial inflow impellor blades (38); and an array of advanced transition combustor assemblies arranged circumferentially about the radial inflow impellor blades (38) and having inner surfaces (34) that are adjacent to combustion gases (40). The inner surfaces (34) of the array are configured to accelerate and orient, for delivery directly onto the radial inflow impellor blades (38), a plurality of discrete flows of the combustion gases (40). The array inner surfaces (34) define respective combustion gas flow axes (20). Each combustion gas flow axis (20) is straight from a point of ignition until no longer bound by the array inner surfaces (34), and each combustion gas flow axis (20) intersects a unique location on a circumference defined by a sweep of the radial inflow impellor blades (38).

  3. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  4. Testing to Characterize the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward; Schreiber, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a high efficiency generator, is being considered for space missions. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated an engineering unit (EU), the ASRG EU, under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently undergoing extended operation testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. It has also undergone performance tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs. This paper summarizes and explains test results in the context of designing operating strategies for the generator during a space mission and notes expected differences between the EU performance and future generators.

  5. Toward metabolic engineering in the context of system biology and synthetic biology: advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Long

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic engineering facilitates the rational development of recombinant bacterial strains for metabolite overproduction. Building on enormous advances in system biology and synthetic biology, novel strategies have been established for multivariate optimization of metabolic networks in ensemble, spatial, and dynamic manners such as modular pathway engineering, compartmentalization metabolic engineering, and metabolic engineering guided by genome-scale metabolic models, in vitro reconstitution, and systems and synthetic biology. Herein, we summarize recent advances in novel metabolic engineering strategies. Combined with advancing kinetic models and synthetic biology tools, more efficient new strategies for improving cellular properties can be established and applied for industrially important biochemical production.

  6. Advanced fabrication techniques for hydrogen-cooled engine structures. Final report, October 1975-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmann, O.A.; Arefian, V.V.; Warren, H.A.; Vuigner, A.A.; Pohlman, M.J.

    1985-11-01

    Described is a program for development of coolant passage geometries, material systems, and joining processes that will produce long-life hydrogen-cooled structures for scramjet applications. Tests were performed to establish basic material properties, and samples constructed and evaluated to substantiate fabrication processes and inspection techniques. Results of the study show that the basic goal of increasing the life of hydrogen-cooled structures two orders of magnitude relative to that of the Hypersonic Research Engine can be reached with available means. Estimated life is 19000 cycles for the channels and 16000 cycles for pin-fin coolant passage configurations using Nickel 201. Additional research is required to establish the fatigue characteristics of dissimilar-metal coolant passages (Nickel 201/Inconel 718) and to investigate the embrittling effects of the hydrogen coolant.

  7. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, N.S.

    1992-07-17

    The objective of this task is to perform a technical assessment of turbine blading for advanced second generation PFBC conditions, identify specific problems/issues, and recommend an approach for solving any problems identified. A literature search was conducted, problems associated with hot corrosion defined and limited experiments performed. Sulfidation corrosion occurs in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines and is due to the presence of condensed alkali (sodium) sulfates. The principle source of the alkali in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines is sea salt crystals. The principle source of the sulfur is not the liquid fuels, but the same ocean born crystals. Moreover deposition of the corrosive salt occurs primarily by a non-equilibrium process. Sodium will be present in the cleaned combusted gases that enter the PFBC turbine. Although equilibrium condensation is not favored, deposition via impaction is probable. Marine gas turbines operate in sodium chloride rich environments without experiencing the accelerated attack noted in coal fired boilers where condensed chlorides contact metallic surfaces. The sulfates of calcium and magnesium are the products of the reactions used to control sulfur. Based upon industrial gas turbine experience and laboratory tests, calcium and magnesium sulfates are, at temperatures up to 1500[degrees]F (815[degrees]C), relatively innocuous salts. In this study it is found that at 1650[degrees]F (900[degrees]C) and above, calcium sulfate becomes an aggressive corrodent.

  8. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, N. S.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this task is to perform a technical assessment of turbine blading for advanced second generation PFBC conditions, identify specific problems/issues, and recommend an approach for solving any problems identified. A literature search was conducted, problems associated with hot corrosion defined and limited experiments performed. Sulfidation corrosion occurs in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines and is due to the presence of condensed alkali (sodium) sulfates. The principle source of the alkali in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines is sea salt crystals. The principle source of the sulfur is not the liquid fuels, but the same ocean born crystals. Moreover deposition of the corrosive salt occurs primarily by a non-equilibrium process. Sodium will be present in the cleaned combusted gases that enter the PFBC turbine. Although equilibrium condensation is not favored, deposition via impaction is probable. Marine gas turbines operate in sodium chloride rich environments without experiencing the accelerated attack noted in coal fired boilers where condensed chlorides contact metallic surfaces. The sulfates of calcium and magnesium are the products of the reactions used to control sulfur. Based upon industrial gas turbine experience and laboratory tests, calcium and magnesium sulfates are, at temperatures up to 1500 F (815 C), relatively innocuous salts. In this study it is found that at 1650 F (900 C) and above, calcium sulfate becomes an aggressive corrodent.

  9. Advanced tendencies in development of photovoltaic cells for power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strebkov, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Development of solar power engineering must be based on original innovative Russian and world technologies. It is necessary to develop promising Russian technologies of manufacturing of photovoltaic cells and semiconductor materials: chlorine-free technology for obtaining solar silicon; matrix solar cell technology with an efficiency of 25-30% upon the conversion of concentrated solar, thermal, and laser radiation; encapsulation technology for high-voltage silicon solar modules with a voltage up to 1000 V and a service life up to 50 years; new methods of concentration of solar radiation with the balancing illumination of photovoltaic cells at 50-100-fold concentration; and solar power systems with round-the-clock production of electrical energy that do not require energy storage devices and reserve sources of energy. The advanced tendency in silicon power engineering is the use of high-temperature reactions in heterogeneous modular silicate solutions for long-term (over one year) production of heat and electricity in the autonomous mode.

  10. Lincoln Advanced Science and Engineering Reinforcement (LASER) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Willie E.

    1989-01-01

    Lincoln University, under the Lincoln Advanced Science and Engineering Reinforcement (LASER) Program, has identified and successfully recruited over 100 students for majors in technical fields. To date, over 70 percent of these students have completed or will complete technical degrees in engineering, physics, chemistry, and computer science. Of those completing the undergraduate degree, over 40 percent have gone on to graduate and professional schools. This success is attributable to well planned approaches to student recruitment, training, personal motivation, retention, and program staff. Very closely coupled to the above factors is a focus designed to achieve excellence in program services and student performance. Future contributions by the LASER Program to the pool of technical minority graduates will have a significant impact. This is already evident from the success of the students that began the first year of the program. With program plans to refine many of the already successful techniques, follow-on activities are expected to make even greater contributions to the availability of technically trained minorities. For example, undergraduate research exposure, broadened summer, and co-op work experiences will be enhanced.

  11. Engineering derivatives from biological systems for advanced aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfield, Daniel L.; Hering, Dean H.; Cole, David

    1991-01-01

    The present study consisted of a literature survey, a survey of researchers, and a workshop on bionics. These tasks produced an extensive annotated bibliography of bionics research (282 citations), a directory of bionics researchers, and a workshop report on specific bionics research topics applicable to space technology. These deliverables are included as Appendix A, Appendix B, and Section 5.0, respectively. To provide organization to this highly interdisciplinary field and to serve as a guide for interested researchers, we have also prepared a taxonomy or classification of the various subelements of natural engineering systems. Finally, we have synthesized the results of the various components of this study into a discussion of the most promising opportunities for accelerated research, seeking solutions which apply engineering principles from natural systems to advanced aerospace problems. A discussion of opportunities within the areas of materials, structures, sensors, information processing, robotics, autonomous systems, life support systems, and aeronautics is given. Following the conclusions are six discipline summaries that highlight the potential benefits of research in these areas for NASA's space technology programs.

  12. Hypersonic rarefied wake characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, E. B.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a numerical study using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method are presented for hypersonic rarefied flow over an aeroassisted space transfer vehicle (ASTV). The emphasis of the study is the characterization of the near wake region which includes the ASTV payload. The study covered the transitional flow regime from near continuum to free molecular. Calculations show that the character of the near wake is significantly affected by the presence of the payload. Flow separation occurs when an afterbody is present throughout the transitional flow regime. In contrast, when no afterbody is present, no separation is observed until the flow approaches continuum.

  13. Studies in hypersonic aeroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nydick, Ira Harvey

    2000-11-01

    This dissertation describes the aeroelastic analysis of a generic hypersonic vehicle, focusing on two specific problems: (1) hypersonic panel flutter, and (2) aeroelastic behavior of a complete unrestrained generic hypersonic vehicle operating at very high Mach numbers. The panels are modeled as shallow shells using Marguerre nonlinear shallow shell theory for orthotropic panels and the aerodynamic loads are obtained from third order piston theory. Two models of curvature, several applied temperature distributions, and the presence of a shock are also included in the model. Results indicate that the flutter speed of the panel is significantly reduced by temperature variations comparable to the buckling temperature and by the presence of a shock. A panel with initial curvature can be more stable than the flat panel but the increase in stability depends in a complex way on the material properties of the panel and the amount of curvature. At values of dynamic pressure above critical, aperiodic motion was observed. The value of dynamic pressure for which this occurs in both heated panels and curved panels is much closer to the critical dynamic pressure than for the flat, unheated panel. A comparison of piston theory aerodynamics and Euler and Navier-Stokes aerodynamics was performed for a two dimensional panel with prescribed motion and the results indicate that while 2nd or higher order piston theory agrees very well with the Euler solution for the frequencies seen in hypersonic panel flutter, it differs substantially from the Navier-Stokes solution. The aeroelastic behavior of the complete vehicle was simulated using the unrestrained equations of motion, utilizing the method of quasi-coordinates. The unrestrained mode shapes of the vehicle were obtained from an equivalent plate analysis using an available code (ELAPS). The effects of flexible trim and rigid body degrees of freedom are carefully incorporated in the mathematical model. This model was applied to a

  14. Space Launch System NASA Research Announcement Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Craig, Kellie D.

    2011-01-01

    The intent of the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort is to: (1) Reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS (2) Enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Key Concepts (1) Offerors must propose an Advanced Booster concept that meets SLS Program requirements (2) Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction must relate to the Offeror s Advanced Booster concept (3) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) will not be prescriptive in defining Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction

  15. Materials and structures for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, D. R.; Lisagor, W. B.; Dixon, S. C.

    1988-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicles are envisioned to require, in addition to carbon-carbon and ceramic-matrix composites for leading edges heated to above 2000 F, such 600-1800 F operating temperature materials as advanced Ti alloys, nickel aluminides, and metal-matrix composites; these possess the necessary low density and high strength and stiffness. The primary design drivers are maximum vehicle heating rate, total heat load, flight envelope, propulsion system type, mission life requirements, and liquid hydrogen containment system. Attention is presently given to aspects of these materials and structures requiring more intensive development.

  16. Materials and structures for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Dixon, Sidney C.

    1988-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicles are envisioned to require, in addition to carbon-carbon and ceramic-matrix composities for leading edges heated to above 2000 F, such 600 to 1800 F operating temperature materials as advanced Ti alloys, nickel aluminides, and metal-matrix composited; These possess the necessary low density and high strength and stiffness. The primary design drivers are maximum vehicle heating rate, total heat load, flight envelope, propulsion system type, mission life requirements and liquid hydrogen containment systems. Attention is presently given to aspects of these materials and structures requiring more intensive development.

  17. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking inspiration from the role and multi-component construction of native extracellular matrices (ECMs) for cell accommodation, the synthetic biomaterials produced today routinely incorporate biologically active components to define an artificial in vivo milieu with complex and dynamic interactions that foster and regulate stem cells, similar to the events occurring in a natural cellular microenvironment. The range and degree of biomaterial sophistication have also dramatically increased as more knowledge has accumulated through materials science, matrix biology and tissue engineering. However, achieving clinical translation and commercial success requires regenerative biomaterials to be not only efficacious and safe but also cost-effective and convenient for use and production. Utilizing biomaterials of human origin as building blocks for therapeutic purposes has provided a facilitated approach that closely mimics the critical aspects of natural tissue with regard to its physical and chemical properties for the orchestration of wound healing and tissue regeneration. In addition to directly using tissue transfers and transplants for repair, new applications of human-derived biomaterials are now focusing on the use of naturally occurring biomacromolecules, decellularized ECM scaffolds and autologous preparations rich in growth factors/non-expanded stem cells to either target acceleration/magnification of the body's own repair capacity or use nature's paradigms to create new tissues for

  18. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  19. Materials and structural aspects of advanced gas-turbine helicopter engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Acurio, J.

    1979-01-01

    The key to improved helicopter gas turbine engine performance lies in the development of advanced materials and advanced structural and design concepts. The modification of the low temperature components of helicopter engines (such as the inlet particle separator), the introduction of composites for use in the engine front frame, the development of advanced materials with increased use-temperature capability for the engine hot section, can result in improved performance and/or decreased engine maintenance cost. A major emphasis in helicopter engine design is the ability to design to meet a required lifetime. This, in turn, requires that the interrelated aspects of higher operating temperatures and pressures, cooling concepts, and environmental protection schemes be integrated into component design. The major material advances, coatings, and design life-prediction techniques pertinent to helicopter engines are reviewed; the current state-of-the-art is identified; and when appropriate, progress, problems, and future directions are assessed.

  20. Low-Engine-Friction Technology for Advanced Natural-Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; G. Smedley; L. Moughon; Rosalind Takata; J. Jocsak

    2006-11-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis has been followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. In this program, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been adapted and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed ring-pack friction reduction of 30-40%, which translates to total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. The study on surface textures, including roughness characteristics, cross hatch patterns, dimples and grooves have shown that even relatively small-scale changes can have a large effect on ring/liner friction, in some cases reducing FMEP by as much as 30% from a smooth surface case. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Testing of low-friction lubricants showed that total engine FMEP reduced by up to {approx}16.5% from the commercial reference oil without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. Piston friction studies

  1. Airframe-integrated propulsion system for hypersonic cruise vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Huber, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Research on a new, hydrogen burning, airbreathing engine concept which offers good potential for efficient hypersonic cruise vehicles is considered. Features of the engine which lead to good performance include; extensive engine-airframe integration, fixed geometry, low cooling, and the control of heat release in the supersonic combustor by mixed-modes of fuel injection from the combustor entrance. The engine concept is described along with results from inlet tests, direct-connect combustor tests, and tests of two subscale boiler-plate research engines presently underway at conditions which simulate flight at Mach 4 and 7.

  2. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram supporting the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  3. Technical Seminar: Exploring Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Aeronautics is developing a method for 2D and 3D imaging of hypersonic flows, called Nitric Oxide Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (NO-PLIF). NO-PLIF has been used to study basic transition f...

  4. Implementation of magnetohydrodynamic energy bypass process for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ying Ming; Czysz, Paul A.; Bruno, Claudio

    2004-08-01

    The global political structure has changed dramatically since the breakup of the former Soviet Union, and world changes have caused the United States to reprioritize its national hypersonic needs. The US Government has looked at the needs of the future, and the hypersonic aerospace plane is one of the systems included in alternative force structures. One hypersonic aerospace plane concept would involve magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) technology (i.e., the AJAX hypersonic flight vehicle concept) originally proposed by Russian scientist Vladimir Fraishtadt. This paper reports on the current progress and findings of an air-breathing horizontal takeoff and landing design concept using an MHD energy bypass injector ramjet engine being studied at MSE Technology Applications, Inc., HyperTech Concepts, and several universities for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center under a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research project. The areas that are addressed in this paper include: (1) ionization required to achieve the required energy bypass, (2) utilization of a nonequilibrium model to calculate nonequilibrium engine ionization conditions, (3) hydrocarbon fuel reforming, and (4) vehicle performance and sizing. A quasi-onedimensional electromagnetic code combined with a new scramjet model, as well as other tools, were used to examine total system performance.

  5. Small Engine Technology (SET) - Task 4, Regional Turboprop/Turbofan Engine Advanced Combustor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Robert; Srinivasan, Ram; Myers, Geoffrey; Cardenas, Manuel; Penko, Paul F. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Under the SET Program Task 4 - Regional Turboprop/Turbofan Engine Advanced Combustor Study, a total of ten low-emissions combustion system concepts were evaluated analytically for three different gas turbine engine geometries and three different levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) reduction technology, using an existing AlliedSignal three-dimensional (3-D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code to predict Landing and Takeoff (LTO) engine cycle emission values. A list of potential Barrier Technologies to the successful implementation of these low-NOx combustor designs was created and assessed. A trade study was performed that ranked each of the ten study configurations on the basis of a number of manufacturing and durability factors, in addition to emissions levels. The results of the trade study identified three basic NOx-emissions reduction concepts that could be incorporated in proposed follow-on combustor technology development programs aimed at demonstrating low-NOx combustor hardware. These concepts are: high-flow swirlers and primary orifices, fuel-preparation cans, and double-dome swirlers.

  6. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial engines. 3: Propulsion system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 3 effort cover the requirements and objectives for future aircraft propulsion systems. These requirements reflect the results of the Task 1 and 2 efforts and serve as a baseline for future evaluations, specification development efforts, contract/purchase agreements, and operational plans for future subsonic commercial engines. This report is divided into five major sections: (1) management objectives for commercial propulsion systems, (2) performance requirements for commercial transport propulsion systems, (3) design criteria for future transport engines, (4) design requirements for powerplant packages, and (5) testing.

  7. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phases 3 and 4. [variable cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, R. D.; Joy, W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of various advanced propulsion concepts for supersonic cruise aircraft resulted in the identification of the double-bypass variable cycle engine as the most promising concept. This engine design utilizes special variable geometry components and an annular exhaust nozzle to provide high take-off thrust and low jet noise. The engine also provides good performance at both supersonic cruise and subsonic cruise. Emission characteristics are excellent. The advanced technology double-bypass variable cycle engine offers an improvement in aircraft range performance relative to earlier supersonic jet engine designs and yet at a lower level of engine noise. Research and technology programs required in certain design areas for this engine concept to realize its potential benefits include refined parametric analysis of selected variable cycle engines, screening of additional unconventional concepts, and engine preliminary design studies. Required critical technology programs are summarized.

  8. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Materials for Heavy Duty and Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Wood, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature Stirling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines, and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. This paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis on heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  9. Materials advances required to reduce energy consumption through the application of heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.W.

    1984-09-01

    Several key materials advances are required to reduce energy consumption through application of heavy duty diesel engines. Heavy duty diesel engines are viewed as effecting energy use both directly through fuel consumption, and indirectly through their durability with large energy expenditures required to replace worn-out engines. Materials advances that would improve fuel consumption include materials related to hot gas-path insulation, and materials related to design advances (other than insulation). Most design advances that are focused on fuel consumption or other performance factors also directly influence durability through materials properties. Several major engine components and many conventional (and advanced) materials are examined. If materials development is integrated with design and manufacturing advances, then fuel economy higher than 0.28 BSFC (50 pct thermal efficiency), and durability beyond 750,000 miles may be achievable.

  10. Development of Kinetic Mechanisms for Next-Generation Fuels and CFD Simulation of Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, William J.; McNenly, Matt J.; Whitesides, Russell; Mehl, Marco; Killingsworth, Nick J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2015-12-17

    Predictive chemical kinetic models are needed to represent next-generation fuel components and their mixtures with conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. These kinetic models will allow the prediction of the effect of alternative fuel blends in CFD simulations of advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. Enabled by kinetic models, CFD simulations can be used to optimize fuel formulations for advanced combustion engines so that maximum engine efficiency, fossil fuel displacement goals, and low pollutant emission goals can be achieved.

  11. Progress toward an advanced condition monitoring system for reusable rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maram, J.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1987-01-01

    A new generation of advanced sensor technologies will allow the direct measurement of critical/degradable rocket engine components' health and the detection of degraded conditions before component deterioration affects engine performance, leading to substantial improvements in reusable engines' operation and maintenance. When combined with a computer-based engine condition-monitoring system, these sensors can furnish a continuously updated data base for the prediction of engine availability and advanced warning of emergent maintenance requirements. Attention is given to the case of a practical turbopump and combustion device diagnostic/prognostic health-monitoring system.

  12. A study of rapid engine response systems for an advanced high subsonic, long range commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, J. H.; Bennett, G. W.; Derosier, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    A dynamic model representing the characteristics of an advanced technology study engine (1985 certification time period) was constructed and programmed on an analogue/digital computer. This model was then exercised to study and evaluate a large number of techniques, singly and in combination, to improve engine response. Several effective methods to reduce engine accelerating time are identified.

  13. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  14. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  15. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  16. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  17. Test Method Designed to Evaluate Cylinder Liner-Piston Ring Coatings for Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    Research on advanced heat engine concepts, such as the low-heat-rejection engine, have shown the potential for increased thermal efficiency, reduced emissions, lighter weight, simpler design, and longer life in comparison to current diesel engine designs. A major obstacle in the development of a functional advanced heat engine is overcoming the problems caused by the high combustion temperatures at the piston ring/cylinder liner interface, specifically at top ring reversal (TRR). Therefore, advanced cylinder liner and piston ring materials are needed that can survive under these extreme conditions. To address this need, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have designed a tribological test method to help evaluate candidate piston ring and cylinder liner materials for advanced diesel engines.

  18. Transport advances in disposable bioreactors for liver tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Catapano, Gerardo; Patzer, John F; Gerlach, Jörg Christian

    2009-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a devastating diagnosis with an overall survival of approximately 60%. Liver transplantation is the therapy of choice for ALF patients but is limited by the scarce availability of donor organs. The prognosis of ALF patients may improve if essential liver functions are restored during liver failure by means of auxiliary methods because liver tissue has the capability to regenerate and heal. Bioartificial liver (BAL) approaches use liver tissue or cells to provide ALF patients with liver-specific metabolism and synthesis products necessary to relieve some of the symptoms and to promote liver tissue regeneration. The most promising BAL treatments are based on the culture of tissue engineered (TE) liver constructs, with mature liver cells or cells that may differentiate into hepatocytes to perform liver-specific functions, in disposable continuous-flow bioreactors. In fact, adult hepatocytes perform all essential liver functions. Clinical evaluations of the proposed BALs show that they are safe but have not clearly proven the efficacy of treatment as compared to standard supportive treatments. Ambiguous clinical results, the time loss of cellular activity during treatment, and the presence of a necrotic core in the cell compartment of many bioreactors suggest that improvement of transport of nutrients, and metabolic wastes and products to or from the cells in the bioreactor is critical for the development of therapeutically effective BALs. In this chapter, advanced strategies that have been proposed over to improve mass transport in the bioreactors at the core of a BAL for the treatment of ALF patients are reviewed.

  19. Transport Advances in Disposable Bioreactors for Liver Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Gerardo; Patzer, John F.; Gerlach, Jörg Christian

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a devastating diagnosis with an overall survival of approximately 60%. Liver transplantation is the therapy of choice for ALF patients but is limited by the scarce availability of donor organs. The prognosis of ALF patients may improve if essential liver functions are restored during liver failure by means of auxiliary methods because liver tissue has the capability to regenerate and heal. Bioartificial liver (BAL) approaches use liver tissue or cells to provide ALF patients with liver-specific metabolism and synthesis products necessary to relieve some of the symptoms and to promote liver tissue regeneration. The most promising BAL treatments are based on the culture of tissue engineered (TE) liver constructs, with mature liver cells or cells that may differentiate into hepatocytes to perform liver-specific functions, in disposable continuous-flow bioreactors. In fact, adult hepatocytes perform all essential liver functions. Clinical evaluations of the proposed BALs show that they are safe but have not clearly proven the efficacy of treatment as compared to standard supportive treatments. Ambiguous clinical results, the time loss of cellular activity during treatment, and the presence of a necrotic core in the cell compartment of many bioreactors suggest that improvement of transport of nutrients, and metabolic wastes and products to or from the cells in the bioreactor is critical for the development of therapeutically effective BALs. In this chapter, advanced strategies that have been proposed over to improve mass transport in the bioreactors at the core of a BAL for the treatment of ALF patients are reviewed.

  20. CMC Technology Advancements for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    CMC research at NASA Glenn is focused on aircraft propulsion applications. The objective is to enable reduced engine emissions and fuel consumption for more environmentally friendly aircraft. Engine system studies show that incorporation of ceramic composites into turbine engines will enable significant reductions in emissions and fuel burn due to increased engine efficiency resulting from reduced cooling requirements for hot section components. This presentation will describe recent progress and challenges in developing fiber and matrix constituents for 2700 F CMC turbine applications. In addition, ongoing research in the development of durable environmental barrier coatings, ceramic joining integration technologies and life prediction methods for CMC engine components will be reviewed.

  1. Structural weight analysis of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    The weights of major structural components of hypersonic, liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft are estimated and discussed. The major components are the body structure, body thermal protection system tankage and wing structure. The method of estimating body structure weight is presented in detail while the weights of the other components are estimated by methods given in referenced papers. Two nominal vehicle concepts are considered. The advanced concept employs a wing-body configuration and hot structure with a nonintegral tank, while the potential concept employs an all body configuration and cold, integral pillow tankage structure. Characteristics of these two concepts are discussed and parametric data relating their weight fractions to variations in vehicle shape and size design criteria and mission requirements, and structural arrangement are presented. Although the potential concept is shown to have a weight advantage over the advanced, it involves more design uncertainties since it is farther removed in design from existing aircraft.

  2. Engine Seal Technology Requirements to Meet NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology Program Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Cycle studies have shown the benefits of increasing engine pressure ratios and cycle temperatures to decrease engine weight and improve performance of commercial turbine engines. NASA is working with industry to define technology requirements of advanced engines and engine technology to meet the goals of NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology Initiative. As engine operating conditions become more severe and customers demand lower operating costs, NASA and engine manufacturers are investigating methods of improving engine efficiency and reducing operating costs. A number of new technologies are being examined that will allow next generation engines to operate at higher pressures and temperatures. Improving seal performance - reducing leakage and increasing service life while operating under more demanding conditions - will play an important role in meeting overall program goals of reducing specific fuel consumption and ultimately reducing direct operating costs. This paper provides an overview of the Advanced Subsonic Technology program goals, discusses the motivation for advanced seal development, and highlights seal technology requirements to meet future engine performance goals.

  3. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-12-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the VTP program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  4. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Waverider-Derived Hypersonic Cruise Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; Finley, Dennis B.

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation was made on the effects of integrating the required aircraft components with hypersonic high-lift configurations known as waveriders to create hypersonic cruise vehicles. Previous studies suggest that waveriders offer advantages in aerodynamic performance and propulsion/airframe integration (PAI) characteristics over conventional non-waverider hypersonic shapes. A wind-tunnel model was developed that integrates vehicle components, including canopies, engine components, and control surfaces, with two pure waverider shapes, both conical-flow-derived waveriders for a design Mach number of 4.0. Experimental data and limited computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions were obtained over a Mach number range of 1.6 to 4.63. The experimental data show the component build-up effects and the aerodynamic characteristics of the fully integrated configurations, including control surface effectiveness. The aerodynamic performance of the fully integrated configurations is not comparable to that of the pure waverider shapes, but is comparable to previously tested hypersonic models. Both configurations exhibit good lateral-directional stability characteristics.

  5. Homogeneous catalysts in hypersonic combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Harradine, D.M.; Lyman, J.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Pack, R.T.; Schott, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Density and residence time both become unfavorably small for efficient combustion of hydrogen fuel in ramjet propulsion in air at high altitude and hypersonic speed. Raising the density and increasing the transit time of the air through the engine necessitates stronger contraction of the air flow area. This enhances the kinetic and thermodynamic tendency of H/sub 2/O to form completely, accompanied only by N/sub 2/ and any excess H/sub 2/(or O/sub 2/). The by-products to be avoided are the energetically expensive fragment species H and/or O atoms and OH radicals, and residual (2H/sub 2/ plus O/sub 2/). However, excessive area contraction raises air temperature and consequent combustion-product temperature by adiabatic compression. This counteracts and ultimately overwhelms the thermodynamic benefit by which higher density favors the triatomic product, H/sub 2/O, over its monatomic and diatomic alternatives. For static pressures in the neighborhood of 1 atm, static temperature must be kept or brought below ca. 2400 K for acceptable stability of H/sub 2/O. Another measure, whose requisite chemistry we address here, is to extract propulsive work from the combustion products early in the expansion. The objective is to lower the static temperature of the combustion stream enough for H/sub 2/O to become adequately stable before the exhaust flow is massively expanded and its composition ''frozen.'' We proceed to address this mechanism and its kinetics, and then examine prospects for enhancing its rate by homogeneous catalysts. 9 refs.

  6. High-Throughput Screening in Protein Engineering: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik, Magdalena; Telzerow, Aline; Quax, Wim J.; Boersma, Ykelien L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades, protein engineering has established itself as an important tool for the development of enzymes and (therapeutic) proteins with improved characteristics. New mutagenesis techniques and computational design tools have greatly aided in the advancement of protein engineering. Yet, one of the pivotal components to further advance protein engineering strategies is the high-throughput screening of variants. Compartmentalization is one of the key features allowing miniaturization and acceleration of screening. This review focuses on novel screening technologies applied in protein engineering, highlighting flow cytometry- and microfluidics-based platforms. PMID:26492240

  7. Advances in Metabolic Engineering of Cyanobacteria for Photosynthetic Biochemical Production

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Martin C.; Lan, Ethan I.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering cyanobacteria into photosynthetic microbial cell factories for the production of biochemicals and biofuels is a promising approach toward sustainability. Cyanobacteria naturally grow on light and carbon dioxide, bypassing the need of fermentable plant biomass and arable land. By tapping into the central metabolism and rerouting carbon flux towards desirable compound production, cyanobacteria are engineered to directly convert CO2 into various chemicals. This review discusses the diversity of bioproducts synthesized by engineered cyanobacteria, the metabolic pathways used, and the current engineering strategies used for increasing their titers. PMID:26516923

  8. Proceedings of the 1987 coatings for advanced heat engines workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This Workshop was conducted to enhance communication among those involved in coating development for improved heat engine performance and durability. We were fortunate to have Bill Goward review the steady progress and problems encountered along the way in the use of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in aircraft gas turbine engines. Navy contractors discussed their work toward the elusive goal of qualifying TBC for turbine airfoil applications. In the diesel community, Caterpillar and Cummins are developing TBC for combustion chamber components as part of the low heat rejection diesel engine concept. The diesel engine TBC work is based on gas turbine technology with a goal of more than twice the thickness used on gas turbine engine components. Adoption of TBC in production for diesel engines could justify a new generation of plasma spray coating equipment. Increasing interests in tribology were evident in this Workshop. Coatings have a significant role in reducing friction and wear under greater mechanical loadings at higher temperatures. The emergence of a high temperature synthetic lubricant could have an enormous impact on diesel engine design and operating conditions. The proven coating processes such as plasma spray, electron-beam physical vapor deposition, sputtering, and chemical vapor deposition have shown enhanced capabilities, particularly with microprocessor controls. Also, the newer coating schemes such as ion implantation and cathodic arc are demonstrating intriguing potential for engine applications. Coatings will play an expanding role in higher efficiency, more durable heat engines.

  9. Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASE(TM)) Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    AND SUBTITLE Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASETM...Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASETM) Guidelines Abstract The Body...develop new systems engineering graduate programs . One method is to develop the program within an existing department by combining new curriculum into a

  10. Advanced Seal Technology Role in Meeting Next Generation Turbine Engine Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Munson, John

    1999-01-01

    Cycle studies have shown the benefits of increasing engine pressure ratios and cycle temperatures to decrease engine weight and improve performance in next generation turbine engines. Advanced seals have been identified as critical in meeting engine goals for specific fuel consumption, thrust-to-weight, emissions, durability and operating costs. NASA and the industry are identifying and developing engine and sealing technologies that will result in dramatic improvements and address the goals for engines entering service in the 2005-2007 time frame. This paper provides an overview of advanced seal technology requirements and highlights the results of a preliminary design effort to implement advanced seals into a regional aircraft turbine engine. This study examines in great detail the benefits of applying advanced seals in the high pressure turbine region of the engine. Low leakage film-riding seals can cut in half the estimated 4% cycle air currently used to purge the high pressure turbine cavities. These savings can be applied in one of several ways. Holding rotor inlet temperature (RIT) constant the engine specific fuel consumption can be reduced 0.9%, or thrust could be increased 2.5%, or mission fuel burn could be reduced 1.3%. Alternatively, RIT could be lowered 20 'F resulting in a 50% increase in turbine blade life reducing overall regional aircraft maintenance and fuel bum direct operating costs by nearly 1%. Thermal, structural, secondary-air systems, safety (seal failure and effect), and emissions analyses have shown the proposed design is feasible.

  11. Permanent-Change Thermal Paints for Hypersonic Flight-Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-24

    initial test case for post recovery handling and analysis of the painted surfaces. • Investigate the bonding of the paints to a range of materials and...heating during flight and can quickly reach elevated temperature. All engineering materials degrade in mechanical performance at elevated temperature...and this can be severe for the candidate materials and conditions for the airframes of hypersonic flight-test vehicles. To maintain structural mass

  12. Hypersonic airframe structures: Technology needs and flight test requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. E.; Koch, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicles, that may be produced by the year 2000, were identified. Candidate thermal/structural concepts that merit consideration for these vehicles were described. The current status of analytical methods, materials, manufacturing techniques, and conceptual developments pertaining to these concepts were reviewed. Guidelines establishing meaningful technology goals were defined and twenty-eight specific technology needs were identified. The extent to which these technology needs can be satisfied, using existing capabilities and facilities without the benefit of a hypersonic research aircraft, was assessed. The role that a research aircraft can fill in advancing this technology was discussed and a flight test program was outlined. Research aircraft thermal/structural design philosophy was also discussed. Programs, integrating technology advancements with the projected vehicle needs, were presented. Program options were provided to reflect various scheduling and cost possibilities.

  13. Comparison of advanced engines for parabolic dish solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Bowyer, J. M.; Gajanana, B. C.

    1980-01-01

    A paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plant produces electrical energy by a two-step conversion process. The collector subsystem is composed of a two-axis tracking paraboloidal concentrator and a cavity receiver. The concentrator focuses intercepted sunlight (direct, normal insolation) into a cavity receiver whose aperture encircles the focal point of the concentrator. At the internal wall of the receiver the electromagnetic radiation is converted to thermal energy. A heat engine/generator assembly then converts the thermal energy captured by the receiver to electricity. Developmental activity has been concentrated on small power modules which employ 11- to 12-meter diameter dishes to generate nominal power levels of approximately 20 kWe. A comparison of advanced heat engines for the dish power module is presented in terms of the performance potential of each engine with its requirements for advanced technology development. Three advanced engine possibilities are the Brayton (gas turbine), Brayton/Rankine combined cycle, and Stirling engines.

  14. Bearings and gears for advanced turbine engines and transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The improved technology is discussed of engine main-shaft ball bearings, and spur gears in power transmission drive trains. Much of the technology can be applied to other ball and roller bearings, and to other spur and bevel gears throughout the engine, drive train, and accessory systems.

  15. Thermo-acoustic fatigue design for hypersonic vehicle skin panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, Kenneth R.; Blevins, Robert D.; Holehouse, Ian

    1994-09-01

    Thermo-vibro-acoustic analysis and test of skin panels for airbreathing hypersonic vehicles is made for a generic vehicle and trajectory. Aerothermal analysis shows that impingement of the bow shock wave on the vehicle and engine noise produce high fluctuating pressures and local heat fluxes. Maximum temperatures will exceed 2700 F (1480 C) at the top of the ascent trajectory and engine sound levels will exceed 170 dB at takeoff. As a result, loads due to engine acoustics and shock impingement dominate the design of many transatmospheric vehicle skin panels.

  16. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Gurpreet

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  17. Multigrid for hypersonic inviscid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Naomi H.; Turkel, Eli

    1990-01-01

    The use of multigrid methods to solve the Euler equations for hypersonic flow is discussed. The steady state equations are considered with a Runge-Kutta smoother based on the time accurate equations together with local time stepping and residual smoothing. The effect of the Runge-Kutta coefficients on the convergence rate was examined considering both damping characteristics and convection properties. The importance of boundary conditions on the convergence rate for hypersonic flow is discussed. Also of importance are the switch between the second and fourth difference viscosity. Solutions are given for flow around the bump in a channel and flow around a biconic section.

  18. Airbreathing Hypersonic Systems Focus at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Rausch, Vincent L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vehicle design matrix, reflects on the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix and to focus/advance systems technology maturation. Priority is given to the design of the vision operational vehicles followed by flow-down requirements to flight demonstrator vehicles and their design for eventual consideration in the Future-X Program.

  19. Molecular-Based Optical Diagnostics for Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul; Bathel, Brett; Johansen, Craig; Winter, Michael; O'Byrne, Sean; Cutler, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This presentation package consists of seven different talks rolled up into one. These talks are all invited orals presentations in a special session at the Aviation 2015 conference and represent contributions that were made to a recent AIAA book that will be published entitled 'Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows: Fundamentals and Recent Advances'. Slide 5 lists the individual presentations that will be given during the special session.

  20. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  1. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Although more women than men participate in higher education in the United States, the same is not true when it comes to pursuing careers in science and engineering. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering identifies and discusses better practices for recruitment, retention, and promotion for women scientists…

  2. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  3. RECENT ADVANCES IN COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applied Mechanics Committee, Computational Mechanics Subcommittee,

    In order to clarify mechanical phenomena in civil engineering, it is necessary to improve computational theory and technique in consideration of the particularity of objects to be analyzed and to update computational mechanics focusing on practical use. In addition to the analysis of infrastructure, for damage prediction of natural disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and flood, since it is essential to reflect broad ranges in space and time inherent to fields of civil engineering as well as material properties, it is important to newly develop computational method in view of the particularity of fields of civil engineering. In this context, research trend of methods of computational mechanics which is noteworthy for resolving the complex mechanics problems in civil engineering is reviewed in this paper.

  4. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  5. Cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, A.; Pennec, Y.; Yanagishita, T.; Masuda, H.; Knoll, W.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Fytas, G.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the engineering of the phonon dispersion diagram in monodomain anodic porous alumina (APA) films through the porosity and physical state of the material residing in the nanopores. Lattice symmetry and inclusion materials are theoretically identified to be the main factors which control the hypersonic acoustic wave propagation. This involves the interaction between the longitudinal and the transverse modes in the effective medium and a flat band characteristic of the material residing in the cavities. Air and filled nanopores, therefore, display markedly different dispersion relations and the inclusion materials lead to a locally resonant structural behavior uniquely determining their properties under confinement. APA films emerge as a new platform to investigate the rich acoustic phenomena of structured composite matter.

  6. CORONA DISCHARGE IGNITION FOR ADVANCED STATIONARY NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul D. Ronney

    2003-09-12

    An ignition source was constructed that is capable of producing a pulsed corona discharge for the purpose of igniting mixtures in a test chamber. This corona generator is adaptable for use as the ignition source for one cylinder on a test engine. The first tests were performed in a cylindrical shaped chamber to study the characteristics of the corona and analyze various electrode geometries. Next a test chamber was constructed that closely represented the dimensions of the combustion chamber of the test engine at USC. Combustion tests were performed in this chamber and various electrode diameters and geometries were tested. The data acquisition and control system hardware for the USC engine lab was updated with new equipment. New software was also developed to perform the engine control and data acquisition functions. Work is underway to design a corona electrode that will fit in the new test engine and be capable igniting the mixture in one cylinder at first and eventually in all four cylinders. A test engine was purchased for the project that has two spark plug ports per cylinder. With this configuration it will be possible to switch between corona ignition and conventional spark plug ignition without making any mechanical modifications.

  7. Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

  8. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Physics of Hypersonic Flow and TPS Considerations. Destinations, Missions and Requirements. State of the Art Thermal Protection Systems Capabilities. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS. Entry Systems Concepts. Flexible TPS for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators. Conformal TPS for Rigid Aeroshell. 3-D Woven TPS for Extreme Entry Environment. Multi-functional Carbon Fabric for Mechanically Deployable.

  9. Development of Supersonic Vehicle for Demonstration of a Precooled Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Shujiro; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shin'ichiro; Bando, Nobutaka; Kadooka, Shouhei; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Miyaji, Koji; Uchiyama, Taku; Hashimoto, Tatsuaki

    JAXA is developing Mach 5 hypersonic turbojet engine technology that can be applied in a future hypersonic transport. Now, Jet Engine Technology Research Center of JAXA conducts the experimental study using a 1 / 10 scale-model engine. In parallel to engine development activities, a new supersonic flight-testing vehicle for the hypersonic turbojet engine is under development since 2004. In this paper, the system configuration of the flight-testing vehicle is outlined and development status is reported.

  10. Advanced Engineering Materials: Products from Super Stuff. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the development of "smart" or advanced materials such as ceramics, metals, composites, and polymers. Provides a design brief, a student learning activity with outcomes, quiz, and resources. (SK)

  11. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will design, build, and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604BOO02G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate the aerodynamic flight database for the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. Al these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  12. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  13. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  14. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime, The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  15. NASA Glenn Research Center's Hypersonic Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), as NASA's lead center for aeropropulsion, is responding to the challenge of reducing the cost of space transportation through the integration of air-breathing propulsion into launch vehicles. Air- breathing launch vehicle (ABLV) propulsion requires a marked departure from traditional propulsion applications. and stretches the technology of both rocket and air-breathing propulsion. In addition, the demands of the space launch mission require an unprecedented level of integration of propulsion and vehicle systems. GRC is responding with a program with rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion technology as its main focus. RBCC offers the potential for simplicity, robustness, and performance that may enable low-cost single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) transportation. Other technologies, notably turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion, offer benefits such as increased robustness and greater mission flexibility, and are being advanced, at a slower pace, as part of GRC's program in hypersonics.

  16. Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence: The Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    As NASA undertakes increasingly complex projects, the need for expert systems engineers and leaders in systems engineering is becoming more pronounced. As a result of this issue, the Agency has undertaken an initiative to develop more systems engineering leaders through its Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program; however, the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer has also called on the field Centers to develop mechanisms to strengthen their expertise in systems engineering locally. In response to this call, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a comprehensive development program for aspiring systems engineers and systems engineering leaders. This presentation will summarize the two-level program, which consists of a combination of training courses and on-the-job, developmental training assignments at the Center to help develop stronger expertise in systems engineering and technical leadership. In addition, it will focus on the success the program has had in its pilot year. The program hosted a formal kickoff event for Level I on October 13, 2009. The first class includes 42 participants from across MSFC and Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). A formal call for Level II is forthcoming. With the new Agency focus on research and development of new technologies, having a strong pool of well-trained systems engineers is becoming increasingly more critical. Programs such as the Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, as well as those developed at other Centers, help ensure that there is an upcoming generation of trained systems engineers and systems engineering leaders to meet future design challenges.

  17. Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development Program, final report - tasks 4-14

    SciTech Connect

    Kaushal, T.S.; Weber, K.E.

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program is a multi-year, multi-phase effort to develop and demonstrate the critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection (LHR) engine concept for the long-haul, heavy-duty truck market. The ADECD Program has been partitioned into two phases. The first phase, Phase 1, was completed in 1986, resulting in definition of the Advanced Diesel Reference Engine (ADRE)III. The second phase, Phase 11/111, examines the feasibility of the ADRE concepts for application to the on-highway diesel engine. Phase 11/111 is currently underway. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies. The work has been performed by the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) under Contract DEN3-329 with the NASA Lewis Research Center, who provide project management and technical direction.

  18. Process Systems Engineering R&D for Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-09-11

    This presentation will examine process systems engineering R&D needs for application to advanced fossil energy (FE) systems and highlight ongoing research activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the auspices of a recently launched Collaboratory for Process & Dynamic Systems Research. The three current technology focus areas include: 1) High-fidelity systems with NETL's award-winning Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) technology for integrating process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and virtual engineering concepts, 2) Dynamic systems with R&D on plant-wide IGCC dynamic simulation, control, and real-time training applications, and 3) Systems optimization including large-scale process optimization, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and cost estimation. Continued R&D aimed at these and other key process systems engineering models, methods, and tools will accelerate the development of advanced gasification-based FE systems and produce increasingly valuable outcomes for DOE and the Nation.

  19. CRISPR/Cas9 advances engineering of microbial cell factories.

    PubMed

    Jakočiūnas, Tadas; Jensen, Michael K; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-01

    One of the key drivers for successful metabolic engineering in microbes is the efficacy by which genomes can be edited. As such there are many methods to choose from when aiming to modify genomes, especially those of model organisms like yeast and bacteria. In recent years, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated proteins (Cas) have become the method of choice for precision genome engineering in many organisms due to their orthogonality, versatility and efficacy. Here we review the strategies adopted for implementation of RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing with special emphasis on their application for metabolic engineering of yeast and bacteria. Also, examples of how nuclease-deficient Cas9 has been applied for RNA-guided transcriptional regulation of target genes will be reviewed, as well as tools available for computer-aided design of guide-RNAs will be highlighted. Finally, this review will provide a perspective on the immediate challenges and opportunities foreseen by the use of CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering and regulation in the context of metabolic engineering.

  20. The Center of Excellence for Hypersonics Training and Research at the University of Texas at Austin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolling, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Over the period of this grant (1986-92), 23 graduate students were supported by the Center and received education and training in hypersonics through MS and Ph.D. programs. An additional 8 Ph.D. candidates and 2 MS candidates, with their own fellowship support, were attracted to The University of Texas and were recruited into the hypersonics program because of the Center. Their research, supervised by the 10 faculty involved in the Center, resulted in approximately 50 publications and presentations in journals and at national and international technical conferences. To provide broad-based training, a new hypersonics curriculum was created, enabling students to take 8 core classes in theoretical, computational, and experimental hypersonics, and other option classes over a two to four semester period. The Center also developed an active continuing education program. The Hypersonics Short Course was taught 3 times, twice in the USA and once in Europe. Approximately 300 persons were attracted to hear lectures by more than 25 of the leading experts in the field. In addition, a hypersonic aerodynamics short course was offered through AIAA, as well as short courses on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and advanced CFD. The existence of the Center also enabled faculty to leverage a substantial volume of additional funds from other agencies, for research and graduate student training. Overall, this was a highly successful and highly visible program.

  1. Applications and advances of metabolite biosensors for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Evans, Trent; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2015-09-01

    Quantification and regulation of pathway metabolites is crucial for optimization of microbial production bioprocesses. Genetically encoded biosensors provide the means to couple metabolite sensing to several outputs invaluable for metabolic engineering. These include semi-quantification of metabolite concentrations to screen or select strains with desirable metabolite characteristics, and construction of dynamic metabolite-regulated pathways to enhance production. Taking inspiration from naturally occurring systems, biosensor functions are based on highly diverse mechanisms including metabolite responsive transcription factors, two component systems, cellular stress responses, regulatory RNAs, and protein activities. We review recent developments in biosensors in each of these mechanistic classes, with considerations towards how these sensors are engineered, how new sensing mechanisms have led to improved function, and the advantages and disadvantages of each of these sensing mechanisms in relevant applications. We particularly highlight recent examples directly using biosensors to improve microbial production, and the great potential for biosensors to further inform metabolic engineering practices.

  2. Performance improvements of single-engine business airplanes by the integration of advanced technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    An assessment is presented of the performance gains and economic impact of the integration in general aviation aircraft of advanced technologies, relating to such aspects of design as propulsion, natural laminar flow, lift augmentation, unconventional configurations, and advanced aluminum and composite structures. All considerations are with reference to a baseline mission of 1300 nm range and 300-knot cruise speed with a 1300-lb payload, and a baseline aircraft with a 40 lb/sq ft wing loading and an aspect ratio of 8. Extensive analytical results are presented from the NASA-sponsored General Aviation Synthesis Program. Attention is given to the relative performance gains to be expected from the single-engined baseline aircraft's use of a low cost general aviation turbine engine, a spark-ignited reciprocating engine, a diesel engine, and a Wankel rotary engine.

  3. Hypersonic flight performance improvements by overfueled ramjet combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, G.; Bayer, R.; Lederer, R.; Schaber, R.

    1991-12-01

    The performance characteristics of hypersonic airbreathing engines are examined with emphasis on the effect of overfueled combustion on thrust and specific fuel-consumption, as well as on the combustion temperature, real gas effects, and pollution due to exhaust gas. It is shown that overfueled ramjet combustion can provide a means for improving flight performance at hypersonic speed and, consequently, reduce the mission fuel burn and the propulsion system weight. It is also shown that, in the separation flight maneuver, the separation condition for the upper stage can be improved by overfueled ramjet combustion of the first stage, making it possible to increase the payload which the upper stage can deliver into orbit. The flight mechanics modeling considerations are presented.

  4. Advanced degrees in astronautical engineering for the space industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, Mike

    2014-10-01

    Ten years ago in the summer of 2004, the University of Southern California established a new unique academic unit focused on space engineering. Initially known as the Astronautics and Space Technology Division, the unit operated from day one as an independent academic department, successfully introduced the full set of degrees in Astronautical Engineering, and was formally renamed the Department of Astronautical Engineering in 2010. The largest component of Department's educational programs has been and continues to be its flagship Master of Science program, specifically focused on meeting engineering workforce development needs of the space industry and government space research and development centers. The program successfully grew from a specialization in astronautics developed in mid-1990s and expanded into a large nationally-visible program. In addition to on-campus full-time students, it reaches many working students on-line through distance education. This article reviews the origins of the Master's degree program and its current status and accomplishments; outlines the program structure, academic focus, student composition, and enrollment dynamics; and discusses lessons learned and future challenges.

  5. Using Advanced Search Operators on Web Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bernard J.

    Studies show that the majority of Web searchers enter extremely simple queries, so a reasonable system design approach would be to build search engines to compensate for this user characteristic. One hundred representative queries were selected from the transaction log of a major Web search service. These 100 queries were then modified using the…

  6. Advancements in electrospinning of polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ingavle, Ganesh C; Leach, J Kent

    2014-08-01

    Polymeric nanofibers have potential as tissue engineering scaffolds, as they mimic the nanoscale properties and structural characteristics of native extracellular matrix (ECM). Nanofibers composed of natural and synthetic polymers, biomimetic composites, ceramics, and metals have been fabricated by electrospinning for various tissue engineering applications. The inherent advantages of electrospinning nanofibers include the generation of substrata with high surface area-to-volume ratios, the capacity to precisely control material and mechanical properties, and a tendency for cellular in-growth due to interconnectivity within the pores. Furthermore, the electrospinning process affords the opportunity to engineer scaffolds with micro- to nanoscale topography similar to the natural ECM. This review describes the fundamental aspects of the electrospinning process when applied to spinnable natural and synthetic polymers; particularly, those parameters that influence fiber geometry, morphology, mesh porosity, and scaffold mechanical properties. We describe cellular responses to fiber morphology achieved by varying processing parameters and highlight successful applications of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds when used to tissue engineer bone, skin, and vascular grafts.

  7. Seal Technology Development for Advanced Component for Airbreathing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Key aspects of the design of sealing systems for On Rotor Combustion/Wave Rotor (ORC/WR) systems were addressed. ORC/WR systems generally fit within a broad class of pressure gain Constant Volume Combustors (CVCs) or Pulse Detonation Combustors (PDCs) which are currently being considered for use in many classes of turbine engines for dramatic efficiency improvement. Technology readiness level of this ORC/WR approaches are presently at 2.0. The results of detailed modeling of an ORC/WR system as applied to a regional jet engine application were shown to capture a high degree of pressure gain capabilities. The results of engine cycle analysis indicated the level of specific fuel consumption (SFC) benefits to be 17 percent. The potential losses in pressure gain due to leakage were found to be closely coupled to the wave processes at the rotor endpoints of the ORC/WR system. Extensive investigation into the sealing approaches is reported. Sensitivity studies show that SFC gains of 10 percent remain available even when pressure gain levels are highly penalized. This indicates ORC/WR systems to have a high degree of tolerance to rotor leakage effects but also emphasizes their importance. An engine demonstration of an ORC/WR system is seen as key to progressing the TRL of this technology. An industrial engine was judged to be a highly advantageous platform for demonstration of a first generation ORC/WR system. Prior to such a demonstration, the existing NASA pressure exchanger wave rotor rig was identified as an opportunity to apply both expanded analytical modeling capabilities developed within this program and to identify and fix identified leakage issues existing within this rig. Extensive leakage analysis of the rig was performed and a detailed design of additional sealing strategies for this rig was generated.

  8. Modeling, Measurements, and Fundamental Database Development for Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above

  9. Vorticity interaction effects on blunt bodies. [hypersonic viscous shock layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, E. C.; Wilcox, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the viscous shock layer equations governing laminar and turbulent flows of a perfect gas and radiating and nonradiating mixtures of perfect gases in chemical equilibrium are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically blunted cones and hyperboloids. Turbulent properties are described in terms of the classical mixing length. Results are compared with boundary layer and inviscid flowfield solutions; agreement with inviscid flowfield data is satisfactory. Agreement with boundary layer solutions is good except in regions of strong vorticity interaction; in these flow regions, the viscous shock layer solutions appear to be more satisfactory than the boundary layer solutions. Boundary conditions suitable for hypersonic viscous shock layers are devised for an advanced turbulence theory.

  10. Hypersonic Flight: Time To Go Operational

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HYPERSONIC FLIGHT: TIME TO GO OPERATIONAL by Robert A. Dietrick, Lt Col, USAF A Research Report...threats are increasing and could jeopardize the ability of the US Air Force to effectively conduct global strike by 2032. Scramjet powered hypersonic ...flight could be a key capability by reducing time to strike and increasing survivability. Historically, the key challenges preventing hypersonic

  11. Engineering industrial yeast for renewable advanced biofuels applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a candidate for the next-generation biocatalyst development due to its unique genomic background and robust performance in fermentation-based production. In order to meet challenges of renewable and sustainable advanced biofuels conversion including ...

  12. HIAD-2 (Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) project is a disruptive technology that will accommodate the atmospheric entry of heavy payloads to planetary bodies such as Mars. HIAD over...

  13. Mathematical Models Of Turbulence In Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, J. G.; Coakley, T. J.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses mathematical models of turbulence used in numerical simulations of complicated viscous, hypersonic flows. Includes survey of essential features of models and their statuses in applications.

  14. Recent Advances in Engineering Microbial Rhodopsins for Optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Frances H.

    2015-01-01

    Protein engineering of microbial rhodopsins has been successful in generating variants with improved properties for applications in optogenetics. Members of this membrane protein family can act as both actuators and sensors of neuronal activity. Chimeragenesis, structure-guided mutagenesis, and directed evolution have proven effective strategies for tuning absorption wavelength, altering ion specificity and increasing fluorescence. These approaches facilitate the development of useful optogenetic tools and, in some cases, have yielded insights into rhodopsin structure-function relationships. PMID:26038227

  15. [Advances in genetic engineering of plant virus resistance].

    PubMed

    Haxim, Yakupjan; Ismayil, Asigul; Wang, Yunjing; Liu, Yule

    2015-06-01

    Plant virus is one of the most economical devastating microorganisms for global agriculture. Although several strategies are useful for controlling viral infection, such as resistant breeds cultivation, chemical bactericides treatment, blocking the infection source, tissue detoxification and field sanitation, viral disease is still a problem in agricultural production. Genetic engineering approach offers various options for introducing virus resistance into crop plants. This paper reviews the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants.

  16. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    itself is a conductor of electricity, the motion of this fluid through a magnetic field gives rise to electromotive force (drag) and flow current in...the system resulting in an electromotive force (thrust). In the AJAX system, energy is diverted from the inlet flow via MHD generation, it is then re...engine configurations explored and reviewed in this dis- sertation utilize electromotive forces (Lorentz forces) generated by a moving charge to augment

  17. Advances and Computational Tools towards Predictable Design in Biological Engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The design process of complex systems in all the fields of engineering requires a set of quantitatively characterized components and a method to predict the output of systems composed by such elements. This strategy relies on the modularity of the used components or the prediction of their context-dependent behaviour, when parts functioning depends on the specific context. Mathematical models usually support the whole process by guiding the selection of parts and by predicting the output of interconnected systems. Such bottom-up design process cannot be trivially adopted for biological systems engineering, since parts function is hard to predict when components are reused in different contexts. This issue and the intrinsic complexity of living systems limit the capability of synthetic biologists to predict the quantitative behaviour of biological systems. The high potential of synthetic biology strongly depends on the capability of mastering this issue. This review discusses the predictability issues of basic biological parts (promoters, ribosome binding sites, coding sequences, transcriptional terminators, and plasmids) when used to engineer simple and complex gene expression systems in Escherichia coli. A comparison between bottom-up and trial-and-error approaches is performed for all the discussed elements and mathematical models supporting the prediction of parts behaviour are illustrated. PMID:25161694

  18. Advanced Vibration Analysis Tool Developed for Robust Engine Rotor Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo- Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using natural-frequency curve veerings to identify ranges of operating conditions (rotational speeds and engine orders) in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued.

  19. Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Pihl, J.; West, B.; Toops, T.; Adelman, B.; Derybowski, E.

    2011-09-30

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT, also known as NOx adsorber catalyst) regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  20. Main Chamber Injectors for Advanced Hydrocarbon Booster Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Matthew R.; Bazarov, Vladimir G.; Anderson, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Achieving the highest possible specific impulse has long been a key driver for space launch systems. Recently, more importance has been placed on the need for increased reliability and streamlined launch operations. These general factors along with more specific mission requirements have provided a new focus that is centered on the oxidizer rich staged combustion (ORSC) cycle. Despite a history of use in Russia that extends back to the 1960's, a proven design methodology for ORSC cycle engines does not exist in the West. This lack of design expertise extends to the main chamber injector, a critical subcomponent that largely determines the engine performance and main chamber life. The goals of the effort described here are to establish an empirical knowledge base to provide a fundamental understanding of main chamber injectors and for verification of an injector design methodology for the ORSC cycle. The design of a baseline injector element, derived from information on Russian engines in the open literature, is presented. The baseline injector comprises a gaseous oxidizer core flow and an annular swirling fuel flow. Sets of equations describing the steady-state and the dynamic characteristics of the injector are presented; these equations, which form the basis of the design analysis methodology, will be verified in tests later this year. On-going cold flow studies, using nitrogen and water as simulants, are described which indicate highly atomized and symmetric sprays.

  1. NASA Engineering and Technology Advancement Office: A proposal to the administrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1993-01-01

    NASA has continually had problems with cost, schedule, performance, reliability, quality, and safety aspects in programs. Past solutions have not provided the answers needed, and a major change is needed in the way of doing business. A new approach is presented for consideration. These problems are all engineering matters, and therefore, require engineering solutions. Proper engineering tools are needed to fix engineering problems. Headquarters is responsible for providing the management structure to support programs with appropriate engineering tools. A guide to define those tools and an approach for putting them into place is provided. Recommendations include establishing a new Engineering and Technology Advancement Office, requesting a review of this proposal by the Administrator since this subject requires a top level decision. There has been a wide peer review conducted by technical staff at Headquarters, the Field Installations, and others in industry as discussed.

  2. (Development of advanced models of the MCC full expansion (quiet) engine): First quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report to the Department of Energy on the progress associated with the development of advanced models of the MCC full expansion (quiet) engine. These models will be evaluated in successive steps and eventually incorporated into a lawn mower for the purpose of commercializing the engine for small wheeled lawn and garden applications. During the first three months of the program (July 1 thru Sept 30), the Phase I design was basically completed with the exception of some engine/lawn mower interface hardware which will be completed during the final stages of the development program after we have selected a lawn mower deck. Rick Erickson, the design engineer for the program, completed the initial parts drawings utilizing the computer drafting system together with guidance from Fredrick Erickson, the program principal engineer and Jeff Erickson, who is in charge of manufacturing the engines. A miniature copy of these drawings is included in the appendix for your review.

  3. Overview of advanced Stirling and gas turbine engine development programs and implications for solar thermal electrical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, D.

    1984-03-01

    The DOE automotive advanced engine development projects managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center were described. These included one Stirling cycle engine development and two air Brayton cycle development. Other engine research activities included: (1) an air Brayton engine development sponsored by the Gas Research Institute, and (2) plans for development of a Stirling cycle engine for space use. Current and potential use of these various engines with solar parabolic dishes were discussed.

  4. Overview of Advanced Stirling and Gas Turbine Engine Development Programs and Implications for Solar Thermal Electrical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D.

    1984-01-01

    The DOE automotive advanced engine development projects managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center were described. These included one Stirling cycle engine development and two air Brayton cycle development. Other engine research activities included: (1) an air Brayton engine development sponsored by the Gas Research Institute, and (2) plans for development of a Stirling cycle engine for space use. Current and potential use of these various engines with solar parabolic dishes were discussed.

  5. Recent trends in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of advanced biofuels.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Seungwoo; Kim, Hye Mi; Gustavsson, Martin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-12-01

    As climate change has become one of the major global risks, our heavy dependence on petroleum-derived fuels has received much public attention. To solve such problems, production of sustainable fuels has been intensively studied over the past years. Thanks to recent advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering technologies, bio-based platforms for advanced biofuels production have been developed using various microorganisms. The strategies for production of advanced biofuels have converged upon four major metabolic routes: the 2-ketoacid pathway, the fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway, the isoprenoid pathway, and the reverse β-oxidation pathway. Additionally, the polyketide synthesis pathway has recently been attracting interest as a promising alternative biofuel production route. In this article, recent trends in advanced biofuels production are reviewed by categorizing them into three types of advanced biofuels: alcohols, biodiesel and jet fuel, and gasoline. Focus is given on the strategies of employing synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for the development of microbial strains producing advanced fuels. Finally, the prospects for future advances needed to achieve much more efficient bio-based production of advanced biofuels are discussed, focusing on designing advanced biofuel production pathways coupled with screening, modifying, and creating novel enzymes.

  6. Cell Microenvironment Engineering and Monitoring for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: The Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Barthes, Julien; Özçelik, Hayriye; Hindié, Mathilde; Ndreu-Halili, Albana; Hasan, Anwarul

    2014-01-01

    In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, the conditions in the immediate vicinity of the cells have a direct effect on cells' behaviour and subsequently on clinical outcomes. Physical, chemical, and biological control of cell microenvironment are of crucial importance for the ability to direct and control cell behaviour in 3-dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds spatially and temporally. In this review, we will focus on the different aspects of cell microenvironment such as surface micro-, nanotopography, extracellular matrix composition and distribution, controlled release of soluble factors, and mechanical stress/strain conditions and how these aspects and their interactions can be used to achieve a higher degree of control over cellular activities. The effect of these parameters on the cellular behaviour within tissue engineering context is discussed and how these parameters are used to develop engineered tissues is elaborated. Also, recent techniques developed for the monitoring of the cell microenvironment in vitro and in vivo are reviewed, together with recent tissue engineering applications where the control of cell microenvironment has been exploited. Cell microenvironment engineering and monitoring are crucial parts of tissue engineering efforts and systems which utilize different components of the cell microenvironment simultaneously can provide more functional engineered tissues in the near future. PMID:25143954

  7. Assessment of advanced technologies for high performance single-engine business airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Holmes, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    The prospects for significantly increasing the fuel efficiency and mission capability of single engine business aircraft through the incorporation of advanced propulsion, aerodynamics and materials technologies are explored. It is found that turbine engines cannot match the fuel economy of the heavier rotary, diesel and advanced spark reciprocating engines. The rotary engine yields the lightest and smallest aircraft for a given mission requirement, and also offers greater simplicity and a multifuel capability. Great promise is also seen in the use of composite material primary structures in conjunction with laminar flow wing surfaces, a pusher propeller and conventional wing-tail configuration. This study was conducted with the General Aviation Synthesis Program, which can furnish the most accurate mission performance calculations yet obtained.

  8. ADVANCED DIESEL ENGINE AND AFTERTREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR TIER 2 EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aneja, R.; Bolton, B; Oladipo, A; Pavlova-MacKinnon, Z; Radwan, A

    2003-08-24

    Advanced diesel engine and aftertreatment technologies have been developed for multiple engine and vehicle platforms. Tier 2 (2007 and beyond) emissions levels have been demonstrated for a light truck vehicle over a FTP-75 test cycle on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. These low emissions levels are obtained while retaining the fuel economy advantage characteristic of diesel engines. The performance and emissions results were achieved by integrating advanced combustion strategies (CLEAN Combustion{copyright}) with prototype aftertreatment systems. CLEAN Combustion{copyright} allows partial control of exhaust species for aftertreatment integration in addition to simultaneous NOx and PM reduction. Analytical tools enabled the engine and aftertreatment sub-systems development and system integration. The experimental technology development methodology utilized a range of facilities to streamline development of the eventual solution including utilization of steady state and transient dynamometer test-beds to simulate chassis dynamometer test cycles.

  9. Analytical design of an advanced radial turbine. [automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Large, G. D.; Finger, D. G.; Linder, C. G.

    1981-01-01

    The aerodynamic and mechanical potential of a single stage ceramic radial inflow turbine was evaluated for a high temperature single stage automotive engine. The aerodynamic analysis utilizes a turbine system optimization technique to evaluate both radial and nonradial rotor blading. Selected turbine rotor configurations were evaluated mechanically with three dimensional finite element techniques. Results indicate that exceptionally high rotor tip speeds (2300 ft/sec) and performance potential are feasible with radial bladed rotors if the projected ceramic material properties are realized. Nonradial rotors reduced tip speed requirements (at constant turbine efficiency) but resulted in a lower cumulative probability of success due to higher blade and disk stresses.

  10. Advanced space engine powerhead breadboard assembly system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a preliminary design of a Powerhead Breadboard Assembly (PBA) for an 88 964-Newton (20,000-pound) thrust oxygen/hydrogen staged combustion cycle engine for use in orbital transfer vehicle propulsion. Existing turbopump, preburner, and thrust chamber components were integrated with interconnecting ducting, a heat exchanger, and a control system to complete the PBA design. Cycle studies were conducted to define starting transients and steady-state balances for the completed design. Specifications were developed for all valve applications and the conditions required for the control system integration with the facility for system test were defined.

  11. Novel Engineered Refractory Materials for Advanced Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, Steven; Eapen, Jacob; Maria, Jon-Paul; Weber, William

    2016-03-14

    This report summarizes the results of DOE-NEUP grant 10-853. The project spanned 48 months (36 months under the original grant plus a 12 month no cost extension). The overarching goal of this work was to fabricate and characterize refractory materials engineered at the atomic scale with emphasis on their tolerance to accumulated radiation damage. With an emphasis on nano-scale structure, this work included atomic scale simulation to study the underlying mechanisms for modified radiation tolerance at these atomic scales.

  12. An extended supersonic combustion model for the dynamic analysis of hypersonic vehicles. Interim Task Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bossard, J.A.; Peck, R.E.; Schmidt, D.K.

    1993-03-01

    The development of an advanced dynamic model for aeroelastic hypersonic vehicles powered by air breathing engines requires an adequate engine model. This report provides a discussion of some of the more important features of supersonic combustion and their relevance to the analysis and design of supersonic ramjet engines. Of particular interest are those aspects of combustion that impact the control of the process. Furthermore, the report summarizes efforts to enhance the aeropropulsive/aeroelastic dynamic model developed at the Aerospace Research Center of Arizona State University by focusing on combustion and improved modeling of this flow. The expanded supersonic combustor model described here has the capability to model the effects of friction, area change, and mass addition, in addition to the heat addition process. A comparison is made of the results from four cases: (1) heat addition only; (2) heat addition plus friction; (3) heat addition, friction, and area reduction, and (4) heat addition, friction, area reduction, and mass addition. The relative impact of these effects on the Mach number, static temperature, and static pressure distributions within the combustor are then shown. Finally, the effects of frozen versus equilibrium flow conditions within the exhaust plume is discussed.

  13. Computation of Hypersonic Flow about Maneuvering Vehicles with Changing Shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferencz, R M; Felker, F F; Castillo, V M

    2004-02-23

    Vehicles moving at hypersonic speeds have great importance to the National Security. Ballistic missile re-entry vehicles (RV's) travel at hypersonic speeds, as do missile defense intercept vehicles. Despite the importance of the problem, no computational analysis method is available to predict the aerodynamic environment of maneuvering hypersonic vehicles, and no analysis is available to predict the transient effects of their shape changes. The present state-of-the-art for hypersonic flow calculations typically still considers steady flow about fixed shapes. Additionally, with present computational methods, it is not possible to compute the entire transient structural and thermal loads for a re-entry vehicle. The objective of this research is to provide the required theoretical development and a computational analysis tool for calculating the hypersonic flow about maneuvering, deforming RV's. This key enabling technology will allow the development of a complete multi-mechanics simulation of the entire RV flight sequence, including important transient effects such as complex flight dynamics. This will allow the computation of the as-delivered state of the payload in both normal and unusual operational environments. This new analysis capability could also provide the ability to predict the nonlinear, transient behavior of endo-atmospheric missile interceptor vehicles to the input of advanced control systems. Due to the computational intensity of fluid dynamics for hypersonics, the usual approach for calculating the flow about a vehicle that is changing shape is to complete a series of steady calculations, each with a fixed shape. However, this quasi-steady approach is not adequate to resolve the frequencies characteristic of a vehicle's structural dynamics. Our approach is to include the effects of the unsteady body shape changes in the finite-volume method by allowing for arbitrary translation and deformation of the control volumes. Furthermore, because the Eulerian

  14. Advancing Tissue Engineering: A Tale of Nano-, Micro-, and Macroscale Integration.

    PubMed

    Leijten, Jeroen; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Nasajpour, Amir; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-27

    Tissue engineering has the potential to revolutionize the health care industry. Delivering on this promise requires the generation of efficient, controllable and predictable implants. The integration of nano- and microtechnologies into macroscale regenerative biomaterials plays an essential role in the generation of such implants, by enabling spatiotemporal control of the cellular microenvironment. Here we review the role, function and progress of a wide range of nano- and microtechnologies that are driving the advancements in the field of tissue engineering.

  15. ECUT energy data reference series: high-temperature materials for advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Abarcar, R.B.; Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    Information that describes the use of high-temperature materials in advanced heat engines for ground transportation applications is summarized. Applications discussed are: automobiles, light trucks, and medium and heavy trucks. The information provided on each of these modes includes descriptions of the average conversion efficiency of the engine, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the activity level as measured in ton-miles.

  16. Advancing Tissue Engineering: a Tale of Nano, Micro and Macro Scale Integration

    PubMed Central

    Leijten, Jeroen; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Nasajpour, Amir; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering has the potential to revolutionize the health care industry. Delivering on this promise requires the generation of efficient, controllable and predictable implants. The integration of nano- and microtechnologies into macroscale regenerative biomaterials is playing an essential role in the generation of such implants, by enabling spatiotemporal control of the cellular microenvironment. Here we review the role, function and progress of a wide range of nano- and microtechnologies that are driving the advancements in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:27101419

  17. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology and the advances in yeast strain engineering will stimulate development of novel yeast-based processes for chemicals production.

  18. The optimum hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimmer, L. L.; Cary, A., Jr.; Voisinet, R. L. P.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of existing hypersonic wind tunnels in the U.S. are assessed to form a basis for recommendations for a new, costly facility which would provide data for modeling the hypervelocity aerodynamics envisioned for the new generation of aerospace vehicles now undergoing early studies. Attention is given to the regimes, both entry and aerodynamic, which the new vehicles will encounter, and the shortcomings of data generated for the Orbiter before flight are discussed. The features of foreign-gas, impulse, aeroballistic range, arc-heated and combustion-heated facilities are examined, noting that in any hypersonic wind tunnel the flow must be preheated to prevent liquefaction upon expansion in the test channel. The limitations of the existing facilities and the identification of the regimes which must be studied lead to a description of the characteristics of an optimum hypersonic wind tunnel, including the operations and productivity, the instrumentation, the nozzle design and the flow quality. Three different design approaches are described, each costing at least $100 million to achieve workability.

  19. Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bokinsky, Gregory; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P; George, Anthe; Holmes, Bradley M; Steen, Eric J; Dietrich, Jeffrey; Lee, Taek Soon; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle; Voigt, Christopher A; Simmons, Blake A; Keasling, Jay D

    2011-12-13

    One approach to reducing the costs of advanced biofuel production from cellulosic biomass is to engineer a single microorganism to both digest plant biomass and produce hydrocarbons that have the properties of petrochemical fuels. Such an organism would require pathways for hydrocarbon production and the capacity to secrete sufficient enzymes to efficiently hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose. To demonstrate how one might engineer and coordinate all of the necessary components for a biomass-degrading, hydrocarbon-producing microorganism, we engineered a microorganism naïve to both processes, Escherichia coli, to grow using both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of several types of plant biomass pretreated with ionic liquids. Our engineered strains express cellulase, xylanase, beta-glucosidase, and xylobiosidase enzymes under control of native E. coli promoters selected to optimize growth on model cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates. Furthermore, our strains grow using either the cellulose or hemicellulose components of ionic liquid-pretreated biomass or on both components when combined as a coculture. Both cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains were further engineered with three biofuel synthesis pathways to demonstrate the production of fuel substitutes or precursors suitable for gasoline, diesel, and jet engines directly from ionic liquid-treated switchgrass without externally supplied hydrolase enzymes. This demonstration represents a major advance toward realizing a consolidated bioprocess. With improvements in both biofuel synthesis pathways and biomass digestion capabilities, our approach could provide an economical route to production of advanced biofuels.

  20. Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bokinsky, Gregory; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; George, Anthe; Holmes, Bradley M.; Steen, Eric J.; Dietrich, Jeffrey; Soon Lee, Taek; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle; Voigt, Christopher A.; Simmons, Blake A.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2011-01-01

    One approach to reducing the costs of advanced biofuel production from cellulosic biomass is to engineer a single microorganism to both digest plant biomass and produce hydrocarbons that have the properties of petrochemical fuels. Such an organism would require pathways for hydrocarbon production and the capacity to secrete sufficient enzymes to efficiently hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose. To demonstrate how one might engineer and coordinate all of the necessary components for a biomass-degrading, hydrocarbon-producing microorganism, we engineered a microorganism naïve to both processes, Escherichia coli, to grow using both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of several types of plant biomass pretreated with ionic liquids. Our engineered strains express cellulase, xylanase, beta-glucosidase, and xylobiosidase enzymes under control of native E. coli promoters selected to optimize growth on model cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates. Furthermore, our strains grow using either the cellulose or hemicellulose components of ionic liquid-pretreated biomass or on both components when combined as a coculture. Both cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains were further engineered with three biofuel synthesis pathways to demonstrate the production of fuel substitutes or precursors suitable for gasoline, diesel, and jet engines directly from ionic liquid-treated switchgrass without externally supplied hydrolase enzymes. This demonstration represents a major advance toward realizing a consolidated bioprocess. With improvements in both biofuel synthesis pathways and biomass digestion capabilities, our approach could provide an economical route to production of advanced biofuels. PMID:22123987

  1. Studies of dynamic contact of ceramics and alloys for advanced heat engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaydos, P.A.; Dufrane, K.F.

    1993-06-01

    Advanced materials and coatings for low heat rejection engines have been investigated for almost a decade. Much of the work has concentrated on the critical wear interface between the piston ring and cylinder liner. Simplified bench tests have identified families of coatings with high temperature wear performance that could meet or exceed that of conventional engine materials at today`s operating temperatures. More recently, engine manufacturers have begun to optimize material combinations and manufacturing processes so that the materials not only have promising friction and wear performance but are practical replacements for current materials from a materials and manufacturing cost standpoint. In this study, the advanced materials supplied by major diesel engine manufacturers were evaluated in an experimental apparatus that simulates many of the in-cylinder conditions of a low heat rejection diesel engine. Results include ring wear factors and average dynamic friction coefficients measured at intervals during the test. These results are compared with other advanced materials tested in the past as well as the baseline wear of current engines. Both fabricated specimens and sections of actual ring and cylinder liners were used in the testing. Observations and relative friction and wear performance of the individual materials are provided.

  2. Molecular Engineering of Vector-Based Oncolytic and Imaging Approaches for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Oncolytic and Imaging Approaches for Advanced Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lily Wu, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...SUBTITLE Molecular Engineering of Vector-based Oncolytic and Imaging Approaches for 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Advanced Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT...reproductions will be in black and white. 14. ABSTRACT Hormone refractory and metastatic prostate cancer are not well understood. Better animal models

  3. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  4. Status of Turbulence Modeling for Hypersonic Propulsion Flowpaths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Vyas, Manan A.; Engblom, William A.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of current turbulent flow calculation methods for hypersonic propulsion flowpaths, particularly the scramjet engine. Emphasis is placed on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods, but some discussion of newer meth- ods such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is also provided. The report is organized by considering technical issues throughout the scramjet-powered vehicle flowpath including laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition, shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions, scalar transport modeling (specifically the significance of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers) and compressible mixing. Unit problems are primarily used to conduct the assessment. In the combustor, results from calculations of a direct connect supersonic combustion experiment are also used to address the effects of turbulence model selection and in particular settings for the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. It is concluded that RANS turbulence modeling shortfalls are still a major limitation to the accuracy of hypersonic propulsion simulations, whether considering individual components or an overall system. Newer methods such as LES-based techniques may be promising, but are not yet at a maturity to be used routinely by the hypersonic propulsion community. The need for fundamental experiments to provide data for turbulence model development and validation is discussed.

  5. Experiments on hypersonic ramjet propulsion cycles using a ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, G.; Knowlen, C.; Burnham, E. A.; Hertzberg, A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Work on hypersonic propulsion research using a ram accelerator is presented. Several different ram accelerator propulsive cycles have been experimentally demonstrated over the Mach number range of 3 to 8.5. The subsonic, thermally choked combustion mode has accelerated projectiles to near the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) detonation velocity within many different propellant mixtures. In the transdetonative velocity regime (85 to 115 percent of C-J speed), projectiles have established a propulsive cycle which allows them to transition smoothly from subdetonative to superdetonative velocities. Luminosity data indicate that the combustion process moves forward onto the projectile body as it approaches the C-J speed. In the superdetonative velocity range, the projectiles accelerate while always traveling faster than the C-J velocity. Ram accelerator projectiles operating continuously through these velocity regimes generate distinctive hypersonic phenomena which can be studied very effectively in the laboratory. These results would be very useful for validating sophisticated CFD computer codes and in collecting engineering data for potential airbreathing hypersonic propulsive systems.

  6. Materials for Advanced Turbine Engines. Volume 1; Power Metallurgy Rene 95 Rotating Turbine Engine Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfouts, W. R.; Shamblen, C. E.; Mosier, J. S.; Peebles, R. E.; Gorsler, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve methods for producing powder metallurgy aircraft gas turbine engine parts from the nickel base superalloy known as Rene 95. The parts produced were the high pressure turbine aft shaft for the CF6-50 engine and the stages 5 through 9 compressor disk forgings for the CFM56/F101 engines. A 50% cost reduction was achieved as compared to conventional cast and wrought processing practices. An integrated effort involving several powder producers and a major forging source were included.

  7. Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine Study. Phase A, extension 1: Advanced expander cycle engine optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The performance optimization of expander cycle engines at vacuum thrust levels of 10K, 15K, and 20K lb is discussed. The optimization is conducted for a maximum engine length with an extendible nozzle in the retracted position of 60 inches and an engine mixture ratio of 6.0:1. The thrust chamber geometry and cycle analyses are documented. In addition, the sensitivity of a recommended baseline expander cycle to component performance variations is determined and chilldown/start propellant consumptions are estimated.

  8. Advanced propulsion engine assessment based on a cermet reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsley, Randy C.

    1993-01-01

    A preferred Pratt & Whitney conceptual Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine (NTRE) has been designed based on the fundamental NASA priorities of safety, reliability, cost, and performance. The basic philosophy underlying the design of the XNR2000 is the utilization of the most reliable form of ultrahigh temperature nuclear fuel and development of a core configuration which is optimized for uniform power distribution, operational flexibility, power maneuverability, weight, and robustness. The P&W NTRE system employs a fast spectrum, cermet fueled reactor configured in an expander cycle to ensure maximum operational safety. The cermet fuel form provides retention of fuel and fission products as well as high strength. A high level of confidence is provided by benchmark analysis and independent evaluations.

  9. Swirling midframe flow for gas turbine engine having advanced transitions

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Charron, Richard C.; Rodriguez, Jose L.; Kusters, Bernhard W.; Morrison, Jay A.; Beeck, Alexander R.

    2016-12-27

    A gas turbine engine can-annular combustion arrangement (10), including: an axial compressor (82) operable to rotate in a rotation direction (60); a diffuser (100, 110) configured to receive compressed air (16) from the axial compressor; a plenum (22) configured to receive the compressed air from the diffuser; a plurality of combustor cans (12) each having a combustor inlet (38) in fluid communication with the plenum, wherein each combustor can is tangentially oriented so that a respective combustor inlet is circumferentially offset from a respective combustor outlet in a direction opposite the rotation direction; and an airflow guiding arrangement (80) configured to impart circumferential motion to the compressed air in the plenum in the direction opposite the rotation direction.

  10. Advanced Material Developments with Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn A.; Cooper, Ken; McGill, Preston; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS(Trademark)) process is a new technology to fabricate three-dimensional metallic components directly from CAD solid models. It directly fabricates metal hardware by injecting the metal powder of choice into the focal point of a 700W Nd:Yag laser as it traces the perimeter and fills of a part. The Rapid Prototype Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center is currently operating a OPTOMEC 750 LENS machine in evaluation experiments involving integration of this technology into various manufacturing processes associated with aerospace applications. This paper will cover our research finding about properties of samples created from Inconel 718 & SS316 using this process versus the same materials in cast & wrought conditions.

  11. Advances in process intensification through multifunctional reactor engineering.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Marcia A.; Miller, James Edward; O'Hern, Timothy John; Gill, Walter; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2011-02-01

    A multifunctional reactor is a chemical engineering device that exploits enhanced heat and mass transfer to promote production of a desired chemical, combining more than one unit operation in a single system. The main component of the reactor system under study here is a vertical column containing packing material through which liquid(s) and gas flow cocurrently downward. Under certain conditions, a range of hydrodynamic regimes can be achieved within the column that can either enhance or inhibit a desired chemical reaction. To study such reactors in a controlled laboratory environment, two experimental facilities were constructed at Sandia National Laboratories. One experiment, referred to as the Two-Phase Experiment, operates with two phases (air and water). The second experiment, referred to as the Three-Phase Experiment, operates with three phases (immiscible organic liquid and aqueous liquid, and nitrogen). This report describes the motivation, design, construction, operational hazards, and operation of the both of these experiments. Data and conclusions are included.

  12. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J. ); Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R. )

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model's rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  13. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Higgins, J.; Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R.

    1993-05-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model`s rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  14. Novel engineered compound semiconductor heterostructures for advanced electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, Gregory E.; Holonyak, Nick, Jr.; Coleman, James J.

    1992-06-01

    To provide the technology base that will enable SDIO capitalization on the performance advantages offered through novel engineered multiple-lavered compound semiconductor structures, this project has focussed on three specific areas: (1) carbon doping of AlGaAs/GaAs and InP/InGaAs materials for reliable high frequency heterojunction bipolar transistors; (2) impurity induced layer disordering and the environmental degradation of AlxGal-xAs-GaAs quantum-well heterostructures and the native oxide stabilization of AlxGal-xAs-GaAs quantum well heterostructure lasers; and (3) non-planar and strained-layer quantum well heterostructure lasers and laser arrays. The accomplishments in this three year research are reported in fifty-six publications and the abstracts included in this report.

  15. Recent advances to obtain real - Time displacements for engineering applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments and approaches (using GPS technology and real-time double-integration) to obtain displacements and, in turn, drift ratios, in real-time or near real-time to meet the needs of the engineering and user community in seismic monitoring and assessing the functionality and damage condition of structures. Drift ratios computed in near real-time allow technical assessment of the damage condition of a building. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and story structural characteristics (including geometry) are used in computing drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Thus, drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can be compared to pre-computed threshold drift ratios. The approaches described herein can be used for performance evaluation of structures and can be considered as building health-monitoring applications.

  16. Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.; Li, H.; Neill, S.

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this report is to develop a pathway to use easily measured ignition properties as metrics for characterizing fuels in advanced combustion engine research--correlate IQT{trademark} measured parameters with engine data. In HCCL engines, ignition timing depends on the reaction rates throughout compression stroke: need to understand sensitivity to T, P, and [O{sub 2}]; need to rank fuels based on more than one set of conditions; and need to understand how fuel composition (molecular species) affect ignition properties.

  17. Enabling Engineering Student Success: The Final Report for the Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education. CAEE-TR-10-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atman, Cynthia J.; Sheppard, Sheri D.; Turns, Jennifer; Adams, Robin S.; Fleming, Lorraine N.; Stevens, Reed; Streveler, Ruth A.; Smith, Karl A.; Miller, Ronald L.; Leifer, Larry J.; Yasuhara, Ken; Lund, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Today's engineering graduates will solve tomorrow's problems in a world that is advancing faster and facing more critical challenges than ever before. This situation creates significant demand for engineering education to evolve in order to effectively prepare a diverse community of engineers for these challenges. Such concerns have led to the…

  18. Advanced software development workstation project: Engineering scripting language. Graphical editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Software development is widely considered to be a bottleneck in the development of complex systems, both in terms of development and in terms of maintenance of deployed systems. Cost of software development and maintenance can also be very high. One approach to reducing costs and relieving this bottleneck is increasing the reuse of software designs and software components. A method for achieving such reuse is a software parts composition system. Such a system consists of a language for modeling software parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, an editor for combining parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates code for that application in the target language. The Advanced Software Development Workstation is intended to be an expert system shell designed to provide the capabilities of a software part composition system.

  19. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    SciTech Connect

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A.; Ferris, D.D.

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  20. Advances in process intensification through multifunctional reactor engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes critical to process intensification and implementation in commercial applications. Physics of the heat and mass transfer and chemical kinetics and how these processes are ultimately scaled were investigated. Specifically, we progressed the knowledge and tools required to scale a multifunctional reactor for acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation to industrial dimensions. Understanding such process intensification strategies is crucial to improving the energy efficiency and profitability of multifunctional reactors, resulting in a projected energy savings of 100 trillion BTU/yr by 2020 and a substantial reduction in the accompanying emissions.

  1. Challenges in microstructural metrology for advanced engineered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingard, K. P.; Roebuck, B.; Quested, P.; Bennett, E. G.

    2010-04-01

    Measurement of microstructural parameters is essential for both controlling and modelling properties of and production processes for advanced materials. In the past decade new techniques such as electron backscatter diffraction have enabled a considerable increase in the amount of data and degree of detail in microstructural measurements of, for example, the extent of recrystallization in a metal deformed at high temperatures. However, the many parameters involved and automated nature of the methods can lead to artefacts and bias in calculated values, and increased resolution will lead to disagreement with more conventional methods. Examples are given of the range of microstructural measurements possible by new techniques and how different results can be obtained from the same underlying data. The need is stressed for interlaboratory comparisons to enable underpinning data to be derived on the validity, repeatability and reproducibility of measurements of key microstructural parameters.

  2. On Stability and Control of Hypersonic Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    stability and control issues relating to hypersonic vehicles that are deemed to be significantly different from those of the conventional (subsonic or...supersonic) air vehicles. In particular we have addressed issues that are relevant to stability and control of hypersonic vehicles. This report should

  3. Advanced nanobiomaterial strategies for the development of organized tissue engineering constructs.

    PubMed

    An, Jia; Chua, Chee Kai; Yu, Ting; Li, Huaqiong; Tan, Lay Poh

    2013-04-01

    Nanobiomaterials, a field at the interface of biomaterials and nanotechnologies, when applied to tissue engineering applications, are usually perceived to resemble the cell microenvironment components or as a material strategy to instruct cells and alter cell behaviors. Therefore, they provide a clear understanding of the relationship between nanotechnologies and resulting cellular responses. This review will cover recent advances in nanobiomaterial research for applications in tissue engineering. In particular, recent developments in nanofibrous scaffolds, nanobiomaterial composites, hydrogel systems, laser-fabricated nanostructures and cell-based bioprinting methods to produce scaffolds with nanofeatures for tissue engineering are discussed. As in native niches of cells, where nanofeatures are constantly interacting and influencing cellular behavior, new generations of scaffolds will need to have these features to enable more desirable engineered tissues. Moving forward, tissue engineering will also have to address the issues of complexity and organization in tissues and organs.

  4. NASA Hypersonic Propulsion: Overview of Progress from 1995 to 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cikanek, Harry A., III; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Klem, Mark D.; Rausch, Vince L.

    2007-01-01

    Hypersonic propulsion work supported by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration had a primary focus on Space Transportation during the period from 1995 to 2005. The framework for these advances was established by policy and pursued with substantial funding. Many noteworthy advances were made, highlighted by the pinnacle flights of the X-43. This paper reviews and summarizes the programs and accomplishments of this era. The accomplishments are compared to the goals and objectives to lend an overarching perspective to what was achieved. At least dating back to the early days of the Space Shuttle program, NASA has had the objective of reducing the cost of access to space and concurrently improving safety and reliability. National Space Transportation Policy in 1994 coupled with a base of prior programs such as the National Aerospace Plane and the need to look beyond the Space Shuttle program set the stage for NASA to pursue Space Transportation Advances. Programs defined to pursue the advances represented a broad approach addressing classical rocket propulsion as well as airbreathing propulsion in various combinations and forms. The resulting portfolio of activities included systems analysis and design studies, discipline research and technology, component technology development, propulsion system ground test demonstration and flight demonstration. The types of propulsion systems that were pursued by these programs included classical rocket engines, "aerospike" rocket engines, high performance rocket engines, scram jets, rocket based combined cycles, and turbine based combined cycles. Vehicle architectures included single and two stage vehicles. Either single types of propulsion systems or combinations of the basic propulsion types were applied to both single and two stage vehicle design concepts. Some of the propulsion system design concepts were built and tested at full scale, large scale and small scale. Many flight demonstrators were

  5. PREFACE: Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference (CEC) 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Peter; Sumption, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 joint Cryogenic Engineering and International Cryogenic Materials Conferences were held from June 28 through July 2 at the JW Marriott Starr Pass Resort & Spa in Tucson, Arizona. As at past conferences, the international scope of these meetings was strongly maintained with 26 countries being represented by 561 attendees who gathered to enjoy the joint technical programs, industrial exhibits, special events, and natural beauty of the surrounding Sonoran Desert. The program for the joint conferences included a total of 363 presentations in the plenary, oral, and poster sessions. Four plenary talks gave in-depth discussions of the readiness of bulk superconductors for applications, the role of cryogenics in the development of the hydrogen bomb and vice versa, superconducting turboelectric aircraft propulsion and UPS's uses and plans for LNG fuel. Contributed papers covered a wide range of topics including large-scale and small-scale cryogenics, advances in superconductors and their applications. In total, 234 papers were submitted for publication of which 224 are published in these proceedings. The CEC/ICMC Cryo Industrial Expo displayed the products and services of 38 industrial exhibitors and provided a congenial venue for a reception and refreshments throughout the week as well as the conference poster sessions. Spectacular panoramic views of Saguaro National Park, the Sonoran Desert and the night time lights of Tucson set the stage for a memorable week in the American Southwest. Conference participants enjoyed scenic hikes and bike rides, exploring Old Town Tucson, hot and spicy southwestern cuisine, a nighttime lightning display and a hailstorm. Conference Chairs for 2015 were Peter Kittel, Consultant, for CEC and Michael Sumption from The Ohio State University, Materials Science Department for ICMC. Program Chairs were Jonathan Demko from the LeTourneau University for CEC and Timothy Haugan from AFRL/RQQM for ICMC, assisted by the CEC Program Vice Chair

  6. Reusable Rocket Engine Advanced Health Management System. Architecture and Technology Evaluation: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, C. D.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Daumann, A. G., Jr.; Provan, G. M.; ElFattah, Y. M.; Glover, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we proposed an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) functional architecture and conducted a technology assessment for liquid propellant rocket engine lifecycle health management. The purpose of the AHMS is to improve reusable rocket engine safety and to reduce between-flight maintenance. During the study, past and current reusable rocket engine health management-related projects were reviewed, data structures and health management processes of current rocket engine programs were assessed, and in-depth interviews with rocket engine lifecycle and system experts were conducted. A generic AHMS functional architecture, with primary focus on real-time health monitoring, was developed. Fourteen categories of technology tasks and development needs for implementation of the AHMS were identified, based on the functional architecture and our assessment of current rocket engine programs. Five key technology areas were recommended for immediate development, which (1) would provide immediate benefits to current engine programs, and (2) could be implemented with minimal impact on the current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) engine controllers.

  7. Perspectives on hypersonic viscous and nonequilibrium flow research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to reflect on current focuses in certain areas of hypersonic flow research by examining recent works and their issues. Aspects of viscous interaction, flow instability, and nonequilibrium aerothermodynamics pertaining to theoretical interest are focused upon. The field is a diverse one, and many exciting works may have either escaped the writer's notice or been abandoned for the sake of space. Students of hypersonic viscous flow must face the transition problems towards the two opposite ends of the Reynolds or Knudsen number range, which represents two regimes where unresolved fluid/gas dynamic problems abound. Central to the hypersonic flow studies is high-temperature physical gas dynamics; here, a number of issues on modelling the intermolecular potentials and inelastic collisions remain the obstacles to quantitative predictions. Research in combustion and scramjet propulsion will certainly be benefitted by advances in turbulent mixing and new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) strategies on multi-scaled complex reactions. Even for the sake of theoretical development, the lack of pertinent experimental data in the right energy and density ranges is believed to be among the major obstacles to progress in aerothermodynamic research for hypersonic flight. To enable laboratory simulation of nonequilibrium effects anticipated for transatmospheric flight, facilities capable of generating high enthalpy flow at density levels higher than in existing laboratories are needed (Hornung 1988). A new free-piston shock tunnel capable of realizing a test-section stagnation temperature of 10(exp 5) at Reynolds number 50 x 10(exp 6)/cm is being completed and preliminary tests has begun (H. Hornung et al. 1992). Another laboratory study worthy of note as well as theoretical support is the nonequilibrium flow experiment of iodine vapor which has low activation energies for vibrational excitation and dissociation, and can be studied in a laboratory with modest

  8. Graphene and its nanostructure derivatives for use in bone tissue engineering: Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Shadjou, Nasrin; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine represent areas of increasing interest because of the major progress in cell and organ transplantation, as well as advances in materials science and engineering. Tissue-engineered bone constructs have the potential to alleviate the demand arising from the shortage of suitable autograft and allograft materials for augmenting bone healing. Graphene and its derivatives have attracted much interest for applications in bone tissue engineering. For this purpose, this review focuses on more recent advances in tissue engineering based on graphene-biomaterials from 2013 to May 2015. The purpose of this article was to give a general description of studies of nanostructured graphene derivatives for bone tissue engineering. In this review, we highlight how graphene family nanomaterials are being exploited for bone tissue engineering. Firstly, the main requirements for bone tissue engineering were discussed. Then, the mechanism by which graphene based materials promote new bone formation was explained, following which the current research status of main types of nanostructured scaffolds for bone tissue engineering was reviewed and discussed. In addition, graphene-based bioactive glass, as a potential drug/growth factor carrier, was reviewed which includes the composition-structure-drug delivery relationship and the functional effect on the tissue-stimulation properties. Also, the effect of structural and textural properties of graphene based materials on development of new biomaterials for production of bone implants and bone cements were discussed. Finally, the present review intends to provide the reader an overview of the current state of the graphene based biomaterials in bone tissue engineering, its limitations and hopes as well as the future research trends for this exciting field of science.

  9. Scaled Rocket Testing in Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Aaron; MacLean, Matthew; Carr, Zakary; Parker, Ron; Holden, Michael; Mehta, Manish

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was strongly based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Detailed base heating results are outside of the scope of the current work, rather test methodology and techniques are presented along with broader applicability toward scaled rocket testing in supersonic and hypersonic flow.

  10. Advancing oleaginous microorganisms to produce lipid via metabolic engineering technology.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ming-Hua; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2013-10-01

    With the depletion of global petroleum and its increasing price, biodiesel has been becoming one of the most promising biofuels for global fuels market. Researchers exploit oleaginous microorganisms for biodiesel production due to their short life cycle, less labor required, less affection by venue, and easier to scale up. Many oleaginous microorganisms can accumulate lipids, especially triacylglycerols (TAGs), which are the main materials for biodiesel production. This review is covering the related researches on different oleaginous microorganisms, such as yeast, mold, bacteria and microalgae, which might become the potential oil feedstocks for biodiesel production in the future, showing that biodiesel from oleaginous microorganisms has a great prospect in the development of biomass energy. Microbial oils biosynthesis process includes fatty acid synthesis approach and TAG synthesis approach. In addition, the strategies to increase lipids accumulation via metabolic engineering technology, involving the enhancement of fatty acid synthesis approach, the enhancement of TAG synthesis approach, the regulation of related TAG biosynthesis bypass approaches, the blocking of competing pathways and the multi-gene approach, are discussed in detail. It is suggested that DGAT and ME are the most promising targets for gene transformation, and reducing PEPC activity is observed to be beneficial for lipid production.

  11. Recent advances in engineering topography mediated antibacterial surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Jafar; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-09-01

    The tendency of bacterial cells to adhere and colonize a material surface leading to biofilm formation is a fundamental challenge underlying many different applications including microbial infections associated with biomedical devices and products. Although, bacterial attachment to surfaces has been extensively studied in the past, the effect of surface topography on bacteria-material interactions has received little attention until more recently. We review the recent progress in surface topography based approaches for engineering antibacterial surfaces. Biomimicry of antibacterial surfaces in nature is a popular strategy. Whereas earlier endeavors in the field aimed at minimizing cell attachment, more recent efforts have focused on developing bactericidal surfaces. However, not all such topography mediated bactericidal surfaces are necessarily cytocompatible thus underscoring the need for continued efforts for research in this area for developing antibacterial and yet cytocompatible surfaces for use in implantable biomedical applications. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the current strategies and challenges in the emerging field of topography mediated antibacterial surfaces.

  12. Innovative tissue engineering structures through advanced manufacturing technologies.

    PubMed

    Ciardelli, Gianluca; Chiono, Valeria; Cristallini, Caterina; Barbani, Niccoletta; Ahluwalia, Arti; Vozzi, Giovanni; Previti, Antonino; Tantussi, Giovanni; Giusti, Paolo

    2004-04-01

    Awide range of rapid prototyping (RP) techniques for the construction of three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds for tissue engineering has been recently developed. In this study, we report and compare two methods for the fabrication of poly-(epsilon-caprolactone) and poly-(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly-(oxyethylene)-poly-(epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer scaffolds. The first technique is based on the use of a microsyringe and a computer-controlled three-axis micropositioner, which regulates motor speed and position. Polymer solutions are extruded through the needle of the microsyringe by the application of a constant pressure of 10-300 mm Hg, resulting in controlled polymer deposition of 5-600 microm lateral dimensions. The second method utilises the heating energy of a laser beam to sinter polymer microparticles according to computer-guided geometries. Materials may be fed either as dry powder or slurry of microparticles. Both powder granulometry and laser working parameters influence resolution (generally 300 microm x 700 microm), accuracy of sintering and surface and bulk properties of the final structures. The two RP methods allow the fabrication of 3-D scaffolds with a controlled architecture, providing a powerful means to study cell response to an environment similar to that found

  13. Recent advances in engineering topography mediated antibacterial surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    The tendency of bacterial cells to adhere and colonize a material surface leading to biofilm formation is a fundamental challenge underlying many different applications including microbial infections associated with biomedical devices and products. Although, bacterial attachment to surfaces has been extensively studied in the past, the effect of surface topography on bacteria–material interactions has received little attention until more recently. We review the recent progress in surface topography based approaches for engineering antibacterial surfaces. Biomimicry of antibacterial surfaces in nature is a popular strategy. Whereas earlier endeavors in the field aimed at minimizing cell attachment, more recent efforts have focused on developing bactericidal surfaces. However, not all such topography mediated bactericidal surfaces are necessarily cytocompatible thus underscoring the need for continued efforts for research in this area for developing antibacterial and yet cytocompatible surfaces for use in implantable biomedical applications. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the current strategies and challenges in the emerging field of topography mediated antibacterial surfaces. PMID:26372264

  14. Advanced bearing materials for cryogenic aerospace engine turbopump requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, G.; Bhat, B. N.

    1986-01-01

    The properties of eleven alloys were investigated to select an improved bearing material for the High Pressure Oxygen Turbo Pump which delivers liquid oxygen to the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The alloys, selected through detailed literature analysis, X 405, MRC-2001, T440V, 14-4/6V, D-5, V-M Pyromet 350, Stellite 3, FerroTic CS-40, Tribaloy 800, WD-65, and CBS-600. The alloys were tested in hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness tests, and their performance was compared with the baseline 440C test alloy. As a result, five alloys were eliminated, leaving the remaining six (X 405, MRC-2001, T440V, 14-4/6V, D-5, and WD-65 to be evaluated in the next phase of NASA tests which will include fracture toughness, rolling contact fatigue, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance. From these, three alloys will be selected, which will be made into ninety bearings for subsequent testing.

  15. Cam Design Projects in an Advanced CAD Course for Mechanical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present applications of solid modeling aimed at modeling of complex geometries such as splines and blended surfaces in advanced CAD courses. These projects, in CAD-based Mechanical Engineering courses, are focused on the use of the CAD system to solve design problems for applications in machine design, namely the…

  16. Advanced very high resolution radiometer, Mod 2 engineering report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Advanced High Resolution Radiometer, Mod 2 (AVHRR/2) is a modification of the original AVHRR (AVHRR/1) to expand the number of channels from four to five and provide additional sensing in the infrared region. A comparison of the spectral regions employed in the two instruments is given. Three of the channels are the same on both instruments. The difference in instruments is in the long wave IR region where a single channel was replaced by two channels. The modification from AVHRR/1 to AVHRR/2 was done with a minimum of changes. The areas of change are highlighted and the modifications by module are summarized. It is seen that the primary changes are in the relay optics and in the cooler. In this development program only two models are involved. The first model, the Optical Test Model was constructed and tested to prove the performance and structural integrity of the optical system and the modified cooler. The second model constructed is the Protoflight. Only the areas of the AVHRR/2 which were modified from the AVHRR/1 design are discussed.

  17. Emerging advances in nanomedicine with engineered gold nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Joseph A.; Bardhan, Rizia

    2014-02-01

    Gold nanostructures possess unique characteristics that enable their use as contrast agents, as therapeutic entities, and as scaffolds to adhere functional molecules, therapeutic cargo, and targeting ligands. Due to their ease of synthesis, straightforward surface functionalization, and non-toxicity, gold nanostructures have emerged as powerful nanoagents for cancer detection and treatment. This comprehensive review summarizes the progress made in nanomedicine with gold nanostructures (1) as probes for various bioimaging techniques including dark-field, one-photon and two-photon fluorescence, photothermal optical coherence tomography, photoacoustic tomography, positron emission tomography, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering based imaging, (2) as therapeutic components for photothermal therapy, gene and drug delivery, and radiofrequency ablation, and (3) as a theranostic platform to simultaneously achieve both cancer detection and treatment. Distinct from other published reviews, this article also discusses the recent advances of gold nanostructures as contrast agents and therapeutic actuators for inflammatory diseases including atherosclerotic plaque and arthritis. For each of the topics discussed above, the fundamental principles and progress made in the past five years are discussed. The review concludes with a detailed future outlook discussing the challenges in using gold nanostructures, cellular trafficking, and translational considerations that are imperative for rapid clinical viability of plasmonic nanostructures, as well as the significance of emerging technologies such as Fano resonant gold nanostructures in nanomedicine.

  18. Aerospace Engineering Systems and the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: 1) Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; 2) Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; 3) Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and 4) Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. The Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) activity at NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities are reported.

  19. The Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Capability Roadmap Vision for Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas; Lieber, Mike; Norton, Charles; Fucik, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes a subset of the Advanced Modeling Simulation and Analysis (AMSA) Capability Roadmap that was developed for NASA in 2005. The AMSA Capability Roadmap Team was chartered to "To identify what is needed to enhance NASA's capabilities to produce leading-edge exploration and science missions by improving engineering system development, operations, and science understanding through broad application of advanced modeling, simulation and analysis techniques." The AMSA roadmap stressed the need for integration, not just within the science, engineering and operations domains themselves, but also across these domains. Here we discuss the roadmap element pertaining to integration within the engineering domain, with a particular focus on implications for future observatory missions. The AMSA products supporting the system engineering function are mission information, bounds on information quality, and system validation guidance. The Engineering roadmap element contains 5 sub-elements: (1) Large-Scale Systems Models, (2) Anomalous Behavior Models, (3) advanced Uncertainty Models, (4) Virtual Testing Models, and (5) space-based Robotics Manufacture and Servicing Models.

  20. Extracellular matrices as advanced scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Piterina, A V; Callanan, A; Davis, L; Meaney, C; Walsh, M; McGloughlin, T M

    2009-01-01

    An alternative non-vascular extracellular material was obtained by decellularisation of porcine urinary bladder and examined for its potential as scaffold for vascular tissue engineering. Analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSCM) showed a porous interconnective microarchitecture, an abundance of well preserved fibers on the abluminal side and a micropatterned flat luminal surface. Uniaxial tensile testing revealed a strength of 1.9+/-0.3 MPa for the rehydrated material in a phosphate buffered saline medium for the ECM-UBM sheet and these results comparable to those of native artery of a middle aged human. Multilamination of the UBM increases the tensile properties in general (9+/-0.45 MPa for 2 layer, 30+/-0.6 MPa for 4 layers construct), with no effect on elongation capacities (38-40%) of the material. Contact-angle measurements indicated that the ECM-UBM surface exhibited a hydrophylic characteristic and better wettability than any vascular synthetic materials. Comparison of the initial adhesion in the multiplayer ECM constructs was evaluated and was found not to be altered by the preparation. The HAECs and HSMC shown an excellent adherence, spread and proliferation on the ECM-UBM material with the preservation of the cell phenotype. The level of MMP-1 and MMP-9 produced by endothelial cells was evaluated in this study and provides some data on the remodelling capacity of the scaffold. Vascular cell seeded-UBM constructs may also provide a suitable and affordable in vitro model for cell-physiology and drug development studies, which may elucidate to the mechanisms of vascular disease formation, and its prevention and treatment.

  1. Advanced optical smoke meters for jet engine exhaust measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitz, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Smoke meters with increased sensitivity, improved accuracy, and rapid response are needed to measure the smoke levels emitted by modern jet engines. The standard soiled tape meter in current use is based on filtering, which yields long term averages and is insensitive to low smoke levels. Two new optical smoke meter techniques that promise to overcome these difficulties have been experimentally evaluated: modulated transmission (MODTRAN) and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS). Both techniques are based on light absorption by smoke, which is closely related to smoke density. They are variations on direct transmission measurements which produce a modulated signal that can be easily measured with phase sensitive detection. The MODTRAN and PDS techniques were tested on low levels of smoke and diluted samples of NO2 in nitrogen, simulating light adsorption due to smoke. The results are evaluated against a set of ideal smoke meter criteria that include a desired smoke measurement range of 0.1 to 12 mg cu.m. (smoke numbers of 1 to 50) and a frequency response of 1 per second. The MODTRAN instrument is found to be inaccurate for smoke levels below 3 mg/cu.m. and is able to make a only about once every 20 seconds because of its large sample cell. The PDS instrument meets nearly all the characteristics of an ideal smoke meter: it has excellent sensitivity over a range of smoke levels from 0.1 to 20 mg/cu.m. (smoke numbers of 1 to 60) and good frequency response (1 per second).

  2. Advanced numerical analyses for complex thermal-hydraulics in nuclear engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Seiichi Koshizuka; Yoshiaki Oka

    2002-07-01

    Complex thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the nuclear engineering have been solved by advanced numerical analyses based on fundamental governing equations excluding experimental correlations. A new method, called Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, is developed as one of the advanced methods. Governing equations are discretized to particle dynamics using particle interaction models. Grids are not necessary. Therefore, complex motion of interfaces can be calculated without grid tangling or numerical diffusion. This is advantageous to multi-fluid and multi-phase thermal-hydraulic problems which emerge in the nuclear engineering. The analyzed problems are vapor explosions, molten core-concrete interaction, fluid-structure interaction, nucleate boiling, transient boiling at reactivity initiated accidents, and the critical Weber number for droplet breakup. These examples show that the MPS method is being useful for direct simulation of complex thermal-hydraulics, particularly multi-phase flows, in the nuclear engineering. (authors)

  3. Design of a prototype Advanced Main Combustion Chamber for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, J. D.; Myers, W. N.

    1992-07-01

    Development of a prototype advanced main combustion chamber is underway at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Advanced Main Combustion Chamber (AMCC) project is being approached utilizing a 'concurrent engineering' concept where groups from materials, manufacturing, stress, quality, and design are involved from the initiation of the project. The AMCC design has been tailored to be compatible with the investment casting process. Jacket, inlet/outlet manifolds, inlet/outlet neck coolant flow splitters, support ribs, actuator lugs, and engine controller mounting bracket will all be a part of the one-piece AMCC casting. Casting of the AMCC in a one-piece configuration necessitated a method of forming a liner in its structural jacket. A method of vacuum plasma spraying the liner is being developed. In 1994, the AMCC will be hot-fired on the Technology Test Bed Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  4. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy; Evans, Lindsay; Miller, Jim; Cooper, Marcia; Torczynski, John; Pena, Donovan; Gill, Walt

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  5. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy; Evans, Lindsay; Miller, Jim; Cooper, Marcia; Torczynski, John; Pena, Donovan; Gill, Walt; Groten, Will; Judzis, Arvids; Foley, Richard; Smith, Larry; Cross, Will; Vogt, T.

    2011-06-27

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  6. High temperature dynamic engine seal technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Machinchick, Michael; Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Du, Guang-Wu; Ko, Frank; Sirocky, Paul J.; Miller, Jeffrey H.

    1992-01-01

    Combined cycle ramjet/scramjet engines being designed for advanced hypersonic vehicles, including the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), require innovative high temperature dynamic seals to seal the sliding interfaces of the articulated engine panels. New seals are required that will operate hot (1200 to 2000 F), seal pressures ranging from 0 to 100 psi, remain flexible to accommodate significant sidewall distortions, and resist abrasion over the engine's operational life. This report reviews the recent high temperature durability screening assessments of a new braided rope seal concept, braided of emerging high temperature materials, that shows promise of meeting many of the seal demands of hypersonic engines. The paper presents durability data for: (1) the fundamental seal building blocks, a range of candidate ceramic fiber tows; and for (2) braided rope seal subelements scrubbed under engine simulated sliding, temperature, and preload conditions. Seal material/architecture attributes and limitations are identified through the investigations performed. The paper summarizes the current seal technology development status and presents areas in which future work will be performed.

  7. HASA: Hypersonic Aerospace Sizing Analysis for the Preliminary Design of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, Gary J.; Berkowitz, Brian M.

    1988-01-01

    A review of the hypersonic literature indicated that a general weight and sizing analysis was not available for hypersonic orbital, transport, and fighter vehicles. The objective here is to develop such a method for the preliminary design of aerospace vehicles. This report describes the developed methodology and provides examples to illustrate the model, entitled the Hypersonic Aerospace Sizing Analysis (HASA). It can be used to predict the size and weight of hypersonic single-stage and two-stage-to-orbit vehicles and transports, and is also relevant for supersonic transports. HASA is a sizing analysis that determines vehicle length and volume, consistent with body, fuel, structural, and payload weights. The vehicle component weights are obtained from statistical equations for the body, wing, tail, thermal protection system, landing gear, thrust structure, engine, fuel tank, hydraulic system, avionics, electral system, equipment payload, and propellant. Sample size and weight predictions are given for the Space Shuttle orbiter and other proposed vehicles, including four hypersonic transports, a Mach 6 fighter, a supersonic transport (SST), a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle, a two-stage Space Shuttle with a booster and an orbiter, and two methane-fueled vehicles.

  8. Evaluation of on-board hydrogen storage methods for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, J. F.; Adeyiga, A. A.; Perdue, Samara; Northam, G. B.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen is the foremost candidate as a fuel for use in high speed transport. Since any aircraft moving at hypersonic speeds must have a very slender body, means of decreasing the storage volume requirements below that for liquid hydrogen are needed. The total performance of the hypersonic plane needs to be considered for the evaluation of candidate fuel and storage systems. To accomplish this, a simple model for the performance of a hypersonic plane is presented. To allow for the use of different engines and fuels during different phases of flight, the total trajectory is divided into three phases: subsonic-supersonic, hypersonic and rocket propulsion phase. The fuel fraction for the first phase is found be a simple energy balance using an average thrust to drag ratio for this phase. The hypersonic flight phase is investigated in more detail by taking small altitude increments. This approach allowed the use of flight profiles other than the constant dynamic pressure flight. The effect of fuel volume on drag, structural mass and tankage mass was introduced through simplified equations involving the characteristic dimension of the plane. The propellant requirement for the last phase is found by employing the basic rocket equations. The candidate fuel systems such as the cryogenic fuel combinations and solid and liquid endothermic hydrogen generators are first screened thermodynamically with respect to their energy densities and cooling capacities and then evaluated using the above model.

  9. Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Aerothermostructural Model Applicable to Hypersonic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostyk, Chris; Risch, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The harsh and complex hypersonic flight environment has driven design and analysis improvements for many years. One of the defining characteristics of hypersonic flight is the coupled, multi-disciplinary nature of the dominant physics. In an effect to examine some of the multi-disciplinary problems associated with hypersonic flight engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center developed a non-linear 6 degrees-of-freedom, full vehicle simulation that includes the necessary model capabilities: aerothermal heating, ablation, and thermal stress solutions. Development of the tool and results for some investigations will be presented. Requirements and improvements for future work will also be reviewed. The results of the work emphasize the need for a coupled, multi-disciplinary analysis to provide accurate

  10. Overview of X-38 Hypersonic Aerothermodynamic Wind Tunnel Data and Comparison with Numerical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C.; Caram, J.; Berry, S.; Horvath, T.; Merski, N.; Loomis, M.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2004-01-01

    A NASA team of engineers has been organized to design a crew return vehicle for returning International Space Station crew members from orbit. The hypersonic aerothermodynamic characteristics of the X-23/X-24A derived X-38 crew return vehicle are being evaluated in various wind tunnels in support of this effort. Aerothermodynamic data from two NASA hypersonic tunnels at Mach 6 and Mach 10 has been obtained with cast ceramic models and a thermographic phosphorus digital imaging system. General windward surface heating features are described based on experimental surface heating images and surface oil flow patterns for the nominal hypersonic aerodynamic orientation. Body flap reattachment heating levels are examined. Computational Fluid Dynamics tools have been applied at the appropriate wind tunnel conditions to make comparisons with this data.

  11. Simultaneous Global Pressure and Temperature Measurement Technique for Hypersonic Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature luminescent coatings are being developed and applied for simultaneous pressure and temperature mapping in conventional-type hypersonic wind tunnels, providing global pressure as well as Global aeroheating measurements. Together, with advanced model fabrication and analysis methods, these techniques will provide a more rapid and complete experimental aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic database for future aerospace vehicles. The current status in development of simultaneous pressure- and temperature-sensitive coatings and measurement techniques for hypersonic wind tunnels at Langley Research Center is described. and initial results from a feasibility study in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel are presented.

  12. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    A number of promising alternative rocket propulsion concepts have been developed over the past two decades that take advantage of unsteady combustion waves in order to produce thrust. These concepts include the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE), in which repetitive ignition, propagation, and reflection of detonations and shocks can create a high pressure chamber from which gases may be exhausted in a controlled manner. The Pulse Detonation Rocket Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector (PDRIME) is a modification of the basic PDRE concept, developed by Cambier (1998), which has the potential for performance improvements based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrust augmentation. The PDRIME has the advantage of both low combustion chamber seeding pressure, per the PDRE concept, and efficient energy distribution in the system, per the rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) concept of Cole, et al. (1995). In the initial part of this thesis, we explore flow and performance characteristics of different configurations of the PDRIME, assuming quasi-one-dimensional transient flow and global representations of the effects of MHD phenomena on the gas dynamics. By utilizing high-order accurate solvers, we thus are able to investigate the fundamental physical processes associated with the PDRIME and PDRE concepts and identify potentially promising operating regimes. In the second part of this investigation, the detailed coupling of detonations and electric and magnetic fields are explored. First, a one-dimensional spark-ignited detonation with complex reaction kinetics is fully evaluated and the mechanisms for the different instabilities are analyzed. It is found that complex kinetics in addition to sufficient spatial resolution are required to be able to quantify high frequency as well as low frequency detonation instability modes. Armed with this quantitative understanding, we then examine the interaction of a propagating detonation and the applied MHD, both in one-dimensional and two

  13. Study of the costs and benefits of composite materials in advanced turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinhagen, C. A.; Stotler, C. L.; Neitzel, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Composite component designs were developed for a number of applicable engine parts and functions. The cost and weight of each detail component was determined and its effect on the total engine cost to the aircraft manufacturer was ascertained. The economic benefits of engine or nacelle composite or eutectic turbine alloy substitutions was then calculated. Two time periods of engine certification were considered for this investigation, namely 1979 and 1985. Two methods of applying composites to these engines were employed. The first method just considered replacing an existing metal part with a composite part with no other change to the engine. The other method involved major engine redesign so that more efficient composite designs could be employed. Utilization of polymeric composites wherever payoffs were available indicated that a total improvement in Direct Operating Cost (DOC) of 2.82 to 4.64 percent, depending on the engine considered, could be attained. In addition, the percent fuel saving ranged from 1.91 to 3.53 percent. The advantages of using advanced materials in the turbine are more difficult to quantify but could go as high as an improvement in DOC of 2.33 percent and a fuel savings of 2.62 percent. Typically, based on a fleet of one hundred aircraft, a percent savings in DOC represents a savings of four million dollars per year and a percent of fuel savings equals 23,000 cu m (7,000,000 gallons) per year.

  14. Study of hypersonic propulsion/airframe integration technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartill, W. R.; Goebel, T. P.; Vancamp, V. V.

    1978-01-01

    An assessment is done of current and potential ground facilities, and analysis and flight test techniques for establishing a hypersonic propulsion/airframe integration technology base. A mach 6 cruise prototype aircraft incorporating integrated Scramjet engines was considered the baseline configuration, and the assessment focused on the aerodynamic and configuration aspects of the integration technology. The study describes the key technology milestones that must be met to permit a decision on development of a prototype vehicle, and defines risk levels for these milestones. Capabilities and limitations of analysis techniques, current and potential ground test facilities, and flight test techniques are described in terms of the milestones and risk levels.

  15. Variable centroid control scheme over hypersonic tactical missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yan; Zhou, Fengqi

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a brand-new tactical missile control scheme—variable centroid vector control according to the international highlight in the field of missile control and the research status of hypersonic missile control in China. Four critical problems related with the new control method are included: improving phase control in the spinning missile single-channel control; establishing variable centroid controlled spinning missile attitude dynamics equations; analyzing variable centroid control strategies and analyzing the stability of the controlled missile and implementing robust control. The achievements and results obtained are valuable and helpful to the theoretical explorations and engineering applications.

  16. A study of the factors affecting advancement and graduation for engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, John Thomas

    The purpose of this study was, first, to determine whether a set of predictor variables could be identified from pre-enrollment and post-enrollment data that would differentiate students who advance to a major in engineering from non-advancers and, further, to determine if the predictor variables would differentiate students who graduate from the College of Engineering from non-graduates and graduates of other colleges at Auburn University. A second purpose was to determine if the predictor variables would correctly identify male and female students with the same degree of accuracy. The third purpose was to determine if there were significant relationships between the predictor variables studied and grades earned in a set of 15 courses that have enrollments over 100 students and are part of the pre-engineering curriculum. The population for this study was the 868 students who entered the pre-engineering program at Auburn University as freshmen during the Summer and Fall Quarters of 1991. The variables selected to differentiate the different groups were ACT scores, high school grade indices, and first quarter college grade point average. Two sets of classification matrices were developed using analysis and holdout samples that were divided based on sex. With respect to the question about advancement to the professional engineering program, structure coefficients derived from discriminant analysis procedures performed on all the cases combined indicated that first quarter college grade point average, high school math index, ACT math score, and high school science grade index were important predictor variables in classifying students who advanced to the professional engineering program and those who did not. Further, important structure coefficients with respect to graduation with a degree from the College of Engineering were first quarter college grade point average, high school math index, ACT math score, and high school science grade index. The results of this

  17. Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. Subba

    1993-01-01

    Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic space vehicles is an important factor to be considered in their design. Therefore the designers of such vehicles need reliable heat transfer data in this respect for a successful design. Such data is usually produced by testing the models of hypersonic surfaces in wind tunnels. Most of the hypersonic test facilities at present are conventional blow-down tunnels whose run times are of the order of several seconds. The surface temperatures on such models are obtained using standard techniques such as thin-film resistance gages, thin-skin transient calorimeter gages and coaxial thermocouple or video acquisition systems such as phosphor thermography and infrared thermography. The data are usually reduced assuming that the model behaves like a semi-infinite solid (SIS) with constant properties and that heat transfer is by one-dimensional conduction only. This simplifying assumption may be valid in cases where models are thick, run-times short, and thermal diffusivities small. In many instances, however, when these conditions are not met, the assumption may lead to significant errors in the heat transfer results. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate this aspect. Specifically, the objectives are as follows: (1) to determine the limiting conditions under which a model can be considered a semi-infinite body; (2) to estimate the extent of errors involved in the reduction of the data if the models violate the assumption; and (3) to come up with correlation factors which when multiplied by the results obtained under the SIS assumption will provide the results under the actual conditions.

  18. New Frontiers AO: Advanced Materials Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) Engine Information Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry C.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Material Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) engine is a high performance (I(sub sp)), higher thrust, radiation cooled, storable bi-propellant space engine of the same physical envelope as the High Performance Apogee Thruster (HiPAT(TradeMark)). To provide further information about the AMBR engine, this document provides details on performance, development, mission implementation, key spacecraft integration considerations, project participants and approach, contact information, system specifications, and a list of references. The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) leads the technology development of the AMBR engine. Their NASA partners were Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Aerojet leads the industrial partners selected competitively for the technology development via the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process.

  19. Advanced Engine Health Management Applications of the SSME Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorucci, Tony R.; Lakin, David R., II; Reynolds, Tracy D.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is a 32-channel high speed vibration data acquisition and processing system developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It Delivers sample rates as high as 51,200 samples/second per channel and performs Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processing via on-board digital signal processing (DSP) chips in a real-time format. Advanced engine health assessment is achieved by utilizing the vibration spectra to provide accurate sensor validation and enhanced engine vibration redlines. Discrete spectral signatures (such as synchronous) that are indicators of imminent failure can be assessed and utilized to mitigate catastrophic engine failures- a first in rocket engine health assessment. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  20. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.