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Sample records for advanced imaging applications

  1. Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.

    1993-06-07

    Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

  2. Modern transform design for advanced image/video coding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Trac D.; Topiwala, Pankaj N.

    2008-08-01

    This paper offers an overall review of recent advances in the design of modern transforms for image and video coding applications. Transforms have been an integral part of signal coding applications from the beginning, but emphasis had been on true floating-point transforms for most of that history. Recently, with the proliferation of low-power handheld multimedia devices, a new vision of integer-only transforms that provide high performance yet very low complexity has quickly gained ascendency. We explore two key design approaches to creating integer transforms, and focus on a systematic, universal method based on decomposition into lifting steps, and use of (dyadic) rational coefficients. This method provides a wealth of solutions, many of which are already in use in leading media codecs today, such as H.264, HD Photo/JPEG XR, and scalable audio. We give early indications in this paper, and more fully elsewhere.

  3. Clinical Application and Research Advances of CT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging.

    PubMed

    2016-06-10

    Computed tomography (CT)-based myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP)has been widely recognized as a one-station solution for the imaging of myocardial ischemia-related diseases. This article reviews the clinical scanning protocols,analytical methods,and research advances of CTP in recent years and briefly discusses its limitations and future development. PMID:27469926

  4. Advances in Clinical and Biomedical Applications of Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jimmy L.; Wang, Bo; Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bayer, Carolyn L.; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Kim, Seungsoo; Homan, Kimberly A.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Photoacoustic imaging is an imaging modality that derives image contrast from the optical absorption coefficient of the tissue being imaged. The imaging technique is able to differentiate between healthy and diseased tissue with either deeper penetration or higher resolution than other functional imaging modalities currently available. From a clinical standpoint, photoacoustic imaging has demonstrated safety and effectiveness in diagnosing diseased tissue regions using either endogenous tissue contrast or exogenous contrast agents. Furthermore, the potential of photoacoustic imaging has been demonstrated in various therapeutic interventions ranging from drug delivery and release to image-guided therapy and monitoring. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the current state of photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine from a technological perspective, highlights various biomedical and clinical applications of photoacoustic imaging, and gives insights on future directions. What the reader will gain Readers will learn about the various applications of photoacoustic imaging, as well as the various contrast agents that can be used to assist photoacoustic imaging. This review will highlight both pre-clinical and clinical uses for photoacoustic imaging, as well as discuss some of the challenges that must be addressed to move photoacoustic imaging into the clinical realm. Take home message Photoacoustic imaging offers unique advantages over existing imaging modalities. The imaging field is broad with many exciting applications for detecting and diagnosing diseased tissue or processes. Photoacoustics is also used in therapeutic applications to identify and characterize the pathology and then to monitor the treatment. Although the technology is still in its infancy, much work has been done in the pre-clinical arena, and photoacoustic imaging is fast approaching the clinical setting. PMID:21344060

  5. Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging: technology and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Bradford C

    2007-07-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a valuable method for use by clinical investigators to study task-related brain activation in patients with neurological or neuropsychiatric illness. Despite the relative infancy of the field, the rapid adoption of this functional neuroimaging technology has resulted from, among other factors, its ready availability, its relatively high spatial and temporal resolution, and its safety as a noninvasive imaging tool that enables multiple repeated scans over the course of a longitudinal study, and thus may lend itself well as a measure in clinical drug trials. Investigators have used fMRI to identify abnormal functional brain activity during task performance in a variety of patient populations, including those with neurodegenerative, demyelinating, cerebrovascular, and other neurological disorders that highlight the potential utility of fMRI in both basic and clinical spheres of research. In addition, fMRI studies reveal processes related to neuroplasticity, including compensatory hyperactivation, which may be a universally-occurring, adaptive neural response to insult. Functional MRI is being used to study the modulatory effects of genetic risk factors for neurological disease on brain activation; it is being applied to differential diagnosis, as a predictive biomarker of disease course, and as a means to identify neural correlates of neurotherapeutic interventions. Technological advances are rapidly occurring that should provide new applications for fMRI, including improved spatial resolution, which promises to reveal novel insights into the function of fine-scale neural circuitry of the human brain in health and disease.

  6. Digital Mammography Imaging: Breast Tomosynthesis and Advanced Applications

    PubMed Central

    Helvie, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis This article discusses recent developments in advanced derivative technologies associated with digital mammography. Digital breast tomosynthesis – its principles, development, and early clinical trials are reviewed. Contrast enhanced digital mammography and combined imaging systems with digital mammography and ultrasound are also discussed. Although all these methods are currently research programs, they hold promise for improving cancer detection and characterization if early results are confirmed by clinical trials. PMID:20868894

  7. Perspectives on Imaging: Advanced Applications. Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford A.; Lunin, Lois F.

    1991-01-01

    Provides an overview of six articles that address relationships between electronic imaging technology and information science. Articles discuss the areas of technology; applications in the fields of visual arts, medicine, and textile history; conceptual foundations; and future visions, including work in virtual reality and cyberspace. (LRW)

  8. Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology Advancements for Plasma Diagnostics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangyu

    To realize fusion plant, the very first step is to understand the fundamental physics of materials under fusion conditions, i.e. to understand fusion plasmas. Our research group, Plasma Diagnostics Group, focuses on developing advanced tools for physicists to extract as much information as possible from fusion plasmas at millions degrees. The Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostics is a very useful tool invented in this group to study fusion plasma electron temperature and it fluctuations. This dissertation presents millimeter wave imaging technology advances recently developed in this group to improve the ECEI system. New technologies made it more powerful to image and visualize magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) activities and micro-turbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis start from development of miniaturized elliptical substrate lens array. This novel substrate lens array replaces the previous generation substrate lens, hyper-hemispherical substrate lens, in terms of geometry. From the optical performance perspective, this substitution not only significantly simplifies the optical system with improved optical coupling, but also enhances the RF/LO coupling efficiency. By the benefit of the mini lens focusing properties, a wideband dual-dipole antenna array is carefully designed and developed. The new antenna array is optimized simultaneously for receiving both RF and LO, with sharp radiation patterns, low side-lobe levels, and less crosstalk between adjacent antennas. In addition, a high frequency antenna is also developed, which extends the frequency limit from 145 GHz to 220 GHz. This type of antenna will be used on high field operation tokamaks with toroidal fields in excess of 3 Tesla. Another important technology advance is so-called extended bandwidth double down-conversion electronics. This new electronics extends the instantaneous IF coverage from 2 to 9.2 GHz to 2 to 16.4 GHz. From the plasma point of view, it means that the

  9. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  10. Adaptation of commercial microscopes for advanced imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brideau, Craig; Poon, Kelvin; Stys, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Today's commercially available microscopes offer a wide array of options to accommodate common imaging experiments. Occasionally, an experimental goal will require an unusual light source, filter, or even irregular sample that is not compatible with existing equipment. In these situations the ability to modify an existing microscopy platform with custom accessories can greatly extend its utility and allow for experiments not possible with stock equipment. Light source conditioning/manipulation such as polarization, beam diameter or even custom source filtering can easily be added with bulk components. Custom and after-market detectors can be added to external ports using optical construction hardware and adapters. This paper will present various examples of modifications carried out on commercial microscopes to address both atypical imaging modalities and research needs. Violet and near-ultraviolet source adaptation, custom detection filtering, and laser beam conditioning and control modifications will be demonstrated. The availability of basic `building block' parts will be discussed with respect to user safety, construction strategies, and ease of use.

  11. Three-Dimensional Imaging and Image Displays: Surgical Application of Advanced Technologies.

    PubMed

    Satava

    1996-09-01

    One of the cornerstones of modern technology that was ushered in by laparoscopic surgery is the use of the video image. The importance of this "virtual representation" of the patient goes well beyond the application to laparoscopic surgery, and lies at the very heart of the revolution of surgery into the Information Age. Real objects, organs and patients can be represented as 2 and 3-dimensional computer generated images and viewed upon displays beyond the simple video monitor which permit a level of clinical practice not possible on the actual patients. These fundamental concepts that form the foundation of the revolution in surgery are placed in a framework for the future of surgery, and illustrate how their implementation can dramatically improve patient care.

  12. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  13. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    PubMed Central

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  14. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the preterm brain: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Tao, Joshua D; Neil, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    Brain development and brain injury in preterm infants are areas of active research. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a non-invasive tool applicable to both animal models and human infants, provides a wealth of information on this process by bridging the gap between histology (available from animal studies) and developmental outcome (available from clinical studies). Moreover, MRI also offers information regarding diagnosis and prognosis in the clinical setting. Recent advances in MR methods - diffusion tensor imaging, volumetric segmentation, surface based analysis, functional MRI, and quantitative metrics - further increase the sophistication of information available regarding both brain structure and function. In this review, we discuss the basics of these newer methods as well as their application to the study of premature infants.

  15. Important advances in technology and unique applications related to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghosn, Mohamad G; Shah, Dipan J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance has become a well-established imaging modality and is considered the gold standard for myocardial tissue viability assessment and ventricular volumes quantification. Recent technological hardware and software advancements in magnetic resonance imaging technology have allowed the development of new methods that can improve clinical cardiovascular diagnosis and prognosis. The advent of a new generation of higher magnetic field scanners can be beneficial to various clinical applications. Also, the development of faster acquisition techniques have allowed mapping of the magnetic relaxation properties T1, T2, and T2* in the myocardium that can be used to quantify myocardial diffuse fibrosis, determine the presence of edema or inflammation, and measure iron within the myocardium, respectively. Another recent major advancement in CMR has been the introduction of three-dimension (3D) phase contrast imaging, also known as 4D flow. The following review discusses key advances in cardiac magnetic resonance technology and their potential to improve clinical cardiovascular diagnosis and outcomes. PMID:25574343

  16. Important advances in technology and unique applications related to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghosn, Mohamad G; Shah, Dipan J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance has become a well-established imaging modality and is considered the gold standard for myocardial tissue viability assessment and ventricular volumes quantification. Recent technological hardware and software advancements in magnetic resonance imaging technology have allowed the development of new methods that can improve clinical cardiovascular diagnosis and prognosis. The advent of a new generation of higher magnetic field scanners can be beneficial to various clinical applications. Also, the development of faster acquisition techniques have allowed mapping of the magnetic relaxation properties T1, T2, and T2* in the myocardium that can be used to quantify myocardial diffuse fibrosis, determine the presence of edema or inflammation, and measure iron within the myocardium, respectively. Another recent major advancement in CMR has been the introduction of three-dimension (3D) phase contrast imaging, also known as 4D flow. The following review discusses key advances in cardiac magnetic resonance technology and their potential to improve clinical cardiovascular diagnosis and outcomes.

  17. Application of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of the Lower Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware. PMID:23622097

  18. Advanced prism-grating-prism imaging spectrograph in online industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaarala, Tapio; Aikio, Mauri; Keraenen, Heimo

    1997-08-01

    Imaging spectrographs have traditionally been utilized in aerial and remote sensing applications. A novel, compact and inexpensive imaging spectrograph developed by VTT Electronics is now available. It contains a multichannel fiber optic sensor head, a dispersive prism-grating-prism (PGP) component and digital CCD matrix camera capable of area integration. In rolled steel manufacturing, a protective oil film is applied on steel to resist corrosion while in transport and storage. The main problems in the oiling machine are film thickness control and jet failures. In this application, the spectrum of fluorescence of an oil film was measured simultaneously with parallel fibers. A relatively simple calibration and analysis procedure was used to calculate the oil film thickness. On-line color control for color reproduction is essential in both consumer and industrial products. The instrument was tested and analyzed for measuring differences in color by multivariate analysis of the spectra and by color space coordinate estimation. In general, a continuous spectrum is not absolute requirement. In these two examples, filter-based measurement would probably cost less thana PGP spectrograph solution. On the other hand, by measuring the spectrum and using an advanced signal processing algorithm one production version will cover all installations in both applications. In practice, only the fiber sensor mechanics need to be modified.

  19. Modern Imaging Technology: Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.

    2004-06-18

    This 2-day conference is designed to bring scientist working in nuclear medicine, as well as nuclear medicine practitioners together to discuss the advances in four selected areas of imaging: Biochemical Parameters using Small Animal Imaging, Developments in Small Animal PET Imaging, Cell Labeling, and Imaging Angiogenesis Using Multiple Modality. The presentations will be on molecular imaging applications at the forefront of research, up to date on the status of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as in related imaging areas. Experts will discuss the basic science of imaging techniques, and scheduled participants will engage in an exciting program that emphasizes the current status of molecular imaging as well as the role of DOE funded research in this area.

  20. Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications [Invited].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Javidi, Bahram; Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Stern, Adrian

    2013-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sensing and imaging technologies have been extensively researched for many applications in the fields of entertainment, medicine, robotics, manufacturing, industrial inspection, security, surveillance, and defense due to their diverse and significant benefits. Integral imaging is a passive multiperspective imaging technique, which records multiple two-dimensional images of a scene from different perspectives. Unlike holography, it can capture a scene such as outdoor events with incoherent or ambient light. Integral imaging can display a true 3D color image with full parallax and continuous viewing angles by incoherent light; thus it does not suffer from speckle degradation. Because of its unique properties, integral imaging has been revived over the past decade or so as a promising approach for massive 3D commercialization. A series of key articles on this topic have appeared in the OSA journals, including Applied Optics. Thus, it is fitting that this Commemorative Review presents an overview of literature on physical principles and applications of integral imaging. Several data capture configurations, reconstruction, and display methods are overviewed. In addition, applications including 3D underwater imaging, 3D imaging in photon-starved environments, 3D tracking of occluded objects, 3D optical microscopy, and 3D polarimetric imaging are reviewed. PMID:23385893

  1. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  2. Flexible camera applications of an advanced uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbaugh, Roy N.; Pongratz, Simon; Breen, Tom; Wickman, Heather; Klug, Ron; Gess, Aaron; Hays, John; Bastian, Jonathan; Hall, Greg; Arion, Tim; Owens, John; Siviter, David

    2004-04-01

    Since its introduction less than a year ago, many camera products and end-user applications have benefited from upgrading to the revolutionary BAE Systems MicroIRTM SCC500TM Standard Camera Core. This flexible, multi-resolution, uncooled, vanadium oxide (VOx) microbolometer based imaging engine is delivering higher performance at a lower price to diverse applications with more unique requirements than previous generations of engines. These applications include firefighting, surveillance, security, navigarion, weapon sight, missile, space, automotive and many others. This paper highlights several cameras, systems, and their applictiaons to illustrate some of the real-world uses and benefits of these products.

  3. Advances in biomedical imaging using THz technology with applications to burn-wound assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin; Sung, Jun; Maccabi, Ashkan; Bajwa, Neha; Singh, Rahul; Culjat, Martin; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2012-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) hydration sensing and image has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of applications where current hydration sensing techniques are insufficient. THz medical imaging is an expanding field of research and tissue hydration plays a key role in the contrast observed in THz tissue reflectance and absorbance maps. This paper outlines the most recent results in burn and corneal imaging where hydration maps were used to assess tissue status. A 3 day study was carried out in rat models where a THz imaging system was used to assess the severity and extent of burn throughout the first day of injury and at the 24, 48, and 72 hour time points. Marked difference in tissue reflectance were observed between the partial and full thickness burns and image features were identified that may be used as diagnostic markers for burn severity. Companion histological analysis performed on tissue excised on Day 3 confirms hypothesized burn severity. The results of these preliminary animal trials suggest that THz imaging may be useful in burn wound assessment where current clinical modalities have resolution and/or sensitivity insufficient for accurate diagnostics.

  4. Advances in feature selection methods for hyperspectral image processing in food industry applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qiong; Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased interest in the applications of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for assessing food quality, safety, and authenticity. HSI provides abundance of spatial and spectral information from foods by combining both spectroscopy and imaging, resulting in hundreds of contiguous wavebands for each spatial position of food samples, also known as the curse of dimensionality. It is desirable to employ feature selection algorithms for decreasing computation burden and increasing predicting accuracy, which are especially relevant in the development of online applications. Recently, a variety of feature selection algorithms have been proposed that can be categorized into three groups based on the searching strategy namely complete search, heuristic search and random search. This review mainly introduced the fundamental of each algorithm, illustrated its applications in hyperspectral data analysis in the food field, and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms. It is hoped that this review should provide a guideline for feature selections and data processing in the future development of hyperspectral imaging technique in foods.

  5. Applications of Gas Imaging Micro-Well Detectors to an Advanced Compton Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloser, P. F.; Hunter, S. D.; Ryan, J. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Miller, R. S.; Jackson, T. N.; Bai, B.; Jung, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a concept for an Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) based on the use of pixelized gas micro-well detectors to form a three-dimensional electron track imager. A micro-well detector consists of an array of individual micro-patterned proportional counters opposite a planar drift electrode. When combined with thin film transistor array readouts, large gas volumes may be imaged with very good spatial and energy resolution at reasonable cost. The third dimension is determined by timing the drift of the ionization electrons. The primary advantage of this approach is the excellent tracking of the Compton recoil electron that is possible in a gas volume. Such good electron tracking allows us to reduce the point spread function of a single incident photon dramatically, greatly improving the imaging capability and sensitivity. The polarization sensitivity, which relies on events with large Compton scattering angles, is particularly enhanced. We describe a possible ACT implementation of this technique, in which the gas tracking volume is surrounded by a CsI calorimeter, and present our plans to build and test a small prototype over the next three years.

  6. Advanced imaging as a novel approach to the characterization of membranes for microfiltration applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marroquin, Milagro

    The primary objectives of my dissertation were to design, develop and implement novel confocal microscopy imaging protocols for the characterization of membranes and highlight opportunities to obtain reliable and cutting-edge information of microfiltration membrane morphology and fouling processes. After a comprehensive introduction and review of confocal microscopy in membrane applications (Chapter 1), the first part of this dissertation (Chapter 2) details my work on membrane morphology characterization by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the implementation of my newly developed CLSM cross-sectional imaging protocol. Depth-of-penetration limits were identified to be approximately 24 microns and 7-8 microns for mixed cellulose ester and polyethersulfone membranes, respectively, making it impossible to image about 70% of the membrane bulk. The development and implementation of my cross-sectional CLSM method enabled the imaging of the entire membrane cross-section. Porosities of symmetric and asymmetric membranes with nominal pore sizes in the range 0.65-8.0 microns were quantified at different depths and yielded porosity values in the 50-60% range. It is my hope and expectation that the characterization strategy developed in this part of the work will enable future studies of different membrane materials and applications by confocal microscopy. After demonstrating how cross-sectional CLSM could be used to fully characterize membrane morphologies and porosities, I applied it to the characterization of fouling occurring in polyethersulfone microfiltration membranes during the processing of solutions containing proteins and polysaccharides (Chapter 3). Through CLSM imaging, it was determined where proteins and polysaccharides deposit throughout polymeric microfiltration membranes when a fluid containing these materials is filtered. CLSM enabled evaluation of the location and extent of fouling by individual components (protein: casein and polysaccharide

  7. Advanced laser image recorder.

    PubMed

    Gramenopoulos, N; Hartfield, E D

    1972-12-01

    A laser image recorder is described, which is unique because of its advanced design and the state-of-the-art components employed to achieve high performance and versatility. The critical components are the pyramidal mirror scanner and the beam focusing lens. The scanner has a six-facet, beryllium mirror accurate to 0.33 sec of arc and rotating at 0-50,000 rpm on air bearings. A rapid change in speed is an important feature of this scanner. The focusing lens is diffraction limited with a flat field of 54 degrees , allowing a 90% duty cycle and the use of photographic film transported by a cylindrical drum. The lens converts the constant angular velocity of the reflected beam to a constant scanning velocity of the focused spot with a linearity of 0.05%. Maximum number of picture elements per line is 36,800 over a format of 228.6 mm. PMID:20119408

  8. Advanced Photon Counting Imaging Detectors with 100ps Timing for Astronomical and Space Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, O.; Vallerga, J.; Welsh, B.; Rabin, M.; Bloch, J.

    In recent years EAG has implemented a variety of high-resolution, large format, photon-counting MCP detectors in space instrumentation for satellite FUSE, GALEX, IMAGE, SOHO, HST-COS, rocket, and shuttle payloads. Our scheme of choice has been delay line readouts encoding photon event position centroids, by determination of the difference in arrival time of the event charge at the two ends of a distributed resistive-capacitive (RC) delay line. Our most commonly used delay line configuration is the cross delay line (XDL). In its simplest form the delay-line encoding electronics consists of a fast amplifier for each end of the delay line, followed by time-to-digital converters (TDC's). We have achieved resolutions of < 25 μm in tests over 65 mm x 65 mm (3k x3k resolution elements) with excellent linearity. Using high speed TDC's, we have been able to encode event positions for random photon rates of ~1 MHz, while time tagging events using the MCP output signal to better than 100 ps. The unique ability to record photon X,Y,T high fidelity information has advantages over "frame driven" recording devices for some important applications. For example we have built open face and sealed tube cross delay line detectors used for biological fluorescence lifetime imaging, observation of flare stars, orbital satellites and space debris with the GALEX satellite, and time resolved imaging of the Crab Pulsar with a telescope as small as 1m. Although microchannel plate delay line detectors meet many of the imaging and timing demands of various applications, they have limitations. The relatively high gain (107) reduces lifetime and local counting rate, and the fixed delay (10's of ns) makes multiple simultaneous event recording problematic. To overcome these limitations we have begun development of cross strip readout anodes for microchannel plate detectors. The cross strip (XS) anode is a coarse (~0.5 mm) multi-layer metal and ceramic pattern of crossed fingers on an alumina

  9. Imaging of the pancreas: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of anomalies of pancreas and the pancreatic duct system are commonly encountered at radiological evaluation. Diagnosing pancreatic lesions generally requires a multimodality approach. This review highlights the new advances in pancreatic imaging and their applications in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic pathologies. The mainstay techniques include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), radionuclide imaging (RNI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). PMID:21847450

  10. Advancing biomedical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Imaging reveals complex structures and dynamic interactive processes, located deep inside the body, that are otherwise difficult to decipher. Numerous imaging modalities harness every last inch of the energy spectrum. Clinical modalities include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and light-based methods [endoscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT)]. Research modalities include various light microscopy techniques (confocal, multiphoton, total internal reflection, superresolution fluorescence microscopy), electron microscopy, mass spectrometry imaging, fluorescence tomography, bioluminescence, variations of OCT, and optoacoustic imaging, among a few others. Although clinical imaging and research microscopy are often isolated from one another, we argue that their combination and integration is not only informative but also essential to discovering new biology and interpreting clinical datasets in which signals invariably originate from hundreds to thousands of cells per voxel. PMID:26598657

  11. Advanced image memory architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercillo, Richard; McNeill, Kevin M.

    1994-05-01

    A workstation for radiographic images, known as the Arizona Viewing Console (AVC), was developed at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center in the Department of Radiology. This workstation has been in use as a research tool to aid us in investigating how a radiologist interacts with a workstation, to determine which image processing features are required to aid the radiologist, to develop user interfaces and to support psychophysical and clinical studies. Results from these studies have show a need to increase the current image memory's available storage in order to accommodate high resolution images. The current triple-ported image memory can be allocated to store any number of images up to a combined total of 4 million pixels. Over the past couple of years, higher resolution images have become easier to generate with the advent of laser digitizers and computed radiology systems. As part of our research, a larger 32 million pixel image memory for AVC has been designed to replace the existing image memory.

  12. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  13. Advancements in seismic tomography with application to tunnel detection and volcano imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clippard, James Doyle

    Practical geotomography is an inverse problem with no unique solution. A priori information must be imposed for a stable solution to exist. Commonly used types of a priori information smooth and attenuate anomalies, resulting in 'blurred' tomographic images. Small or discrete anomalies, such as tunnels, magma conduits, or buried channels are extremely difficult imaging objectives. Composite distribution inversion (CDI) is introduced as a theory seeking physically simple, rather than distributionally simple, solutions of non-unique problems. Parameters are assumed to be members of a composite population, including both well-known and anomalous components. Discrete and large amplitude anomalies are allowed, while a well-conditioned inverse is maintained. Tunnel detection is demonstrated using CDI tomography and data collected near the northern border of South Korea. Accurate source and receiver location information is necessary. Borehole deviation corrections are estimated by minimizing the difference between empirical distributions of apparent parameter values as a function of location correction. Improved images result. Traveltime computation and raytracing are the most computationally intensive components of seismic tomography when imaging structurally complex media. Efficient, accurate, and robust raytracing is possible by first recovering approximate raypaths from traveltime fields, and then refining the raypaths to a desired accuracy level. Dynamically binned queuing is introduced. The approach optimizes graph-theoretic traveltime computation costs. Pseudo-bending is modified to efficiently refine raypaths in general media. Hypocentral location density functions and relative phase arrival population analysis are used to investigate the Spring, 1996, earthquake swarm at Akutan Volcano, Alaska. The main swarm is postulated to have been associated with a 0.2 kmsp3 intrusion at a depth of less than four kilometers. Decay sequence seismicity is postulated to be a

  14. Advanced imaging communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Rice, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Key elements of system are imaging and nonimaging sensors, data compressor/decompressor, interleaved Reed-Solomon block coder, convolutional-encoded/Viterbi-decoded telemetry channel, and Reed-Solomon decoding. Data compression provides efficient representation of sensor data, and channel coding improves reliability of data transmission.

  15. Advances in optical imaging for pharmacological studies

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Alicia; Ripoll, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Imaging approaches are an essential tool for following up over time representative parameters of in vivo models, providing useful information in pharmacological studies. Main advantages of optical imaging approaches compared to other imaging methods are their safety, straight-forward use and cost-effectiveness. A main drawback, however, is having to deal with the presence of high scattering and high absorption in living tissues. Depending on how these issues are addressed, three different modalities can be differentiated: planar imaging (including fluorescence and bioluminescence in vivo imaging), optical tomography, and optoacoustic approaches. In this review we describe the latest advances in optical in vivo imaging with pharmacological applications, with special focus on the development of new optical imaging probes in order to overcome the strong absorption introduced by different tissue components, especially hemoglobin, and the development of multimodal imaging systems in order to overcome the resolution limitations imposed by scattering. PMID:26441646

  16. Bayesian uncertainty analysis for advanced seismic imaging - Application to the Mentelle Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelioudakis, Dimitrios G.; Hobbs, Richard W.; Caiado, Camila C. S.

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the depths of target horizons from seismic reflection data is among the most important aspects of exploration geophysics. In order to constrain these depths we need a reliable and accurate velocity model. Here, we apply Bayesian methods, such as Gaussian process emulators, to estimate the uncertainties of the depths of key horizons near the well DSDP-258 located in the Mentelle Basin, south west of Australia, and compared the results with the drilled core extracted from that well. Eventually, this method will be applied to identify the drilling targets for the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), leg 369. The Mentelle Basin is a sparsely explored, deep water sedimentary basin, located between the Naturaliste Plateau and the southern part of the Western Australian Shelf. Its main depocenter, is believed to contain sediments that span from Cretaceous to Holecene, but most importantly it hosts a continuous shale sequence that it is over a kilometer thick, the study of which, is crucial for the correlation between the paleoclimate conditions and the tectonic history of the region. Using two 2D multichannel seismic reflection profiles around the drill site, we generate detailed anisotropic velocity models for the well location in order to construct initially the optimum Pre -- stack time (PSTM) and eventually the Pre - stack depth migrated (PSDM) subsurface images. Moreover, in order to enhance the sub - basalt imaging of the region of interest with the goal to constrain the tectonic models of the area, we apply deterministic deconvolution filters using the source function extracted from our seismic data. The best velocity model created from the initial processing serves as the prior information to the Bayesian model. The final goal is to try to build a multi-layered model of n layers and estimate the zero offset two way time, t0, and the interval velocities,Vi, both for isotropic (Vxi ≈ Vzi) and anisotropic (Vxi ≠ Vzi) cases, in terms of a

  17. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  18. Advanced Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zuowei; Yang, Lu; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Domier, C. W.; Ito, N.; Kogi, Y.; Liang, Y.; Mase, A.; Park, H.; Sakata, E.; Tsai, W.; Xia, Z. G.; Zhang, P.

    Millimeter wave technology advances have made possible active and passive millimeter wave imaging for a variety of applications including advanced plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, atmospheric radiometry, concealed weapon detection, all-weather aircraft landing, contraband goods detection, harbor navigation/surveillance in fog, highway traffic monitoring in fog, helicopter and automotive collision avoidance in fog, and environmental remote sensing data associated with weather, pollution, soil moisture, oil spill detection, and monitoring of forest fires, to name but a few. The primary focus of this paper is on technology advances which have made possible advanced imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations and microturbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis include frequency selective surfaces, planar Schottky diode mixer arrays, electronically controlled beam shaping/steering arrays, and high power millimeter wave local oscillator and probe sources.

  19. Advances in endoscopic imaging in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Pastorelli, Luca; Ishaq, Sauid; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Modern strategies for the treatment of ulcerative colitis require more accurate tools for gastrointestinal imaging to better assess mucosal disease activity and long-term prognostic clinical outcomes. Recent advances in gastrointestinal luminal endoscopy are radically changing the role of endoscopy in every-day clinical practice and research trials. Advanced endoscopic imaging techniques including high-definition endoscopes, optical magnification endoscopy, and various chromoendoscopy techniques have remarkably improved endoscopic assessment of ulcerative colitis. More recently, optical biopsy techniques with either endocytoscopy or confocal laser endomicroscopy have shown great potential in predicting several histological changes in real time during ongoing endoscopy. Here, we review current applications of advanced endoscopic imaging techniques in ulcerative colitis and present the most promising upcoming headways in this field. PMID:26365308

  20. Beyond whole-body imaging: advanced imaging techniques of PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Barnwell, James; Raptis, Constantine A; McConathy, Jonathan E; Laforest, Richard; Siegel, Barry A; Woodard, Pamela K; Fowler, Kathryn

    2015-02-01

    PET/MRI is a hybrid imaging modality that is gaining clinical interest with the first Food and Drug Administration-approved simultaneous imaging system recently added to the clinical armamentarium. Several advanced PET/MRI applications, such as high-resolution anatomic imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, motion correction, and cardiac imaging, show great potential for clinical use. The purpose of this article is to highlight several advanced PET/MRI applications through case examples and review of the current literature.

  1. Advances in multimodality molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Habib; Prasad, Rameshwar

    2009-01-01

    Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT) and functional or metabolic (PET) information provided in a “one-stop shop” and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed. PMID:20098557

  2. Advanced electro-optical imaging techniques. [conference papers on sensor technology applicable to Large Space Telescope program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieski, S. (Editor); Wampler, E. J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The papers presented at the symposium are given which deal with the present state of sensors, as may be applicable to the Large Space Telescope (LST) program. Several aspects of sensors are covered including a discussion of the properties of photocathodes and the operational imaging camera tubes.

  3. Advanced laser systems for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosner, Marc; Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Gross, Daniel; Heller, Donald F.

    2015-03-01

    We describe the ongoing development of laser systems for advanced photoacoustic imaging (PAI). We discuss the characteristics of these laser systems and their particular benefits for soft tissue imaging and next-generation breast cancer diagnostics. We provide an overview of laser performance and compare this with other laser systems that have been used for early-stage development of PAI. These advanced systems feature higher pulse energy output at clinically relevant repetition rates, as well as a novel wavelength-cycling output pulse format. Wavelength cycling provides pulse sequences for which the output repeatedly alternates between two wavelengths that provide differential imaging. This capability improves co-registration of captured differential images. We present imaging results of phantoms obtained with a commercial ultrasound detector system and a wavelength-cycling laser source providing ~500 mJ/pulse at 755 and 797 nm, operating at 25 Hz. The results include photoacoustic images and corresponding pulse-echo data from a tissue mimicking phantom containing inclusions, simulating tumors in the breast. We discuss the application of these systems to the contrast-enhanced detection of various tissue types and tumors.

  4. Image stabilization for SWIR advanced optoelectronic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru; Granciu, Dana

    2015-02-01

    At long ranges and under low visibility conditions, Advanced Optoelectronic Device provides the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in the Short-wave Infra-red - SWIR (wavelengths between 1,1 ÷2,5 μm), significantly better than in the near wave infrared - NWIR and visible spectral bands [1,2]. The quality of image is nearly independent of the polarization in the incoming light, but it is influenced by the relative movement between the optical system and the observer (the operators' handshake), and the movement towards the support system (land and air vehicles). All these make it difficult to detect objectives observation in real time. This paper presents some systems enhance which the ability of observation and sighting through the optical systems without the use of the stands, tripods or other means. We have to eliminate the effect of "tremors of the hands" and the vibration in order to allow the use of optical devices by operators on the moving vehicles on land, on aircraft, or on boats, and to provide additional comfort for the user to track the moving object through the optical system, without losing the control in the process of detection and tracking. The practical applications of stabilization image process, in SWIR, are the most advanced part of the optical observation systems available worldwide [3,4,5]. This application has a didactic nature, because it ensures understanding by the students about image stabilization and their participation in research.

  5. Advanced spectral imaging for noninvasive microanalysis of cultural heritage materials: review of application to documents in the U.S. Library of Congress.

    PubMed

    France, Fenella G

    2011-06-01

    Hyperspectral imaging was originally developed for remote sensing and astronomical applications, but adaptations of this technology have been of great benefit to the preservation of cultural heritage. Developments in noninvasive analytical techniques have advanced the preservation of cultural heritage materials by enabling the identification and analysis of a range of materials, utilizing their unique spectral response to nondestructively determine chemical composition, and determining states of deterioration and change due to environmental conditions. When used as a tool for noninvasive characterization of cultural heritage, these spectral imaging systems allow the collection of chemical identification information about materials without sampling, which is a critical factor for cultural heritage materials. The United States Library of Congress has been developing the application of hyperspectral imaging to the preservation and analysis of cultural heritage materials as a powerful noncontact technique. It allows noninvasive characterization of materials, by identifying and characterizing colorants, inks, and substrates with narrow-band illumination to protect the object while also monitoring deterioration or changes due to exhibit and other environmental conditions. Contiguous illumination from the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectral regions allows the capture of lost, obscured, and deteriorated information. The resulting image cube allows greater capabilities for mapping and coordinating a range of complementary chemical and spectral analyses. The capabilities of this technique are illustrated by a review of results from analysis of the Waldseemüller World Map, the L'Enfant plan for Washington, D.C., and the first draft of the U.S. Declaration of Independence.

  6. Advances in computed tomography imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Gupta, Rajiv

    2014-07-11

    Computed tomography (CT) is an essential tool in diagnostic imaging for evaluating many clinical conditions. In recent years, there have been several notable advances in CT technology that already have had or are expected to have a significant clinical impact, including extreme multidetector CT, iterative reconstruction algorithms, dual-energy CT, cone-beam CT, portable CT, and phase-contrast CT. These techniques and their clinical applications are reviewed and illustrated in this article. In addition, emerging technologies that address deficiencies in these modalities are discussed.

  7. Advances and Applications for Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calais, Eric; Schwartz, Susan; Arrowsmith, Ramon

    2010-07-01

    2010 UNAVCO Science Workshop; Boulder, Colorado, 8-11 March 2010; Geodesy's reach has expanded rapidly in recent years as EarthScope and international data sets have grown and new disciplinary applications have emerged. To explore advances in geodesy and its applications in geoscience research and education, approximately 170 scientists (representing 11 countries: Colombia, Denmark, Ecuador, France, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, New Zealand, Russia, Spain, and the United States), including 15 students, gathered at the 2010 UNAVCO Science Workshop in Colorado. UNAVCO is a nonprofit membership-governed consortium that facilitates geoscience research and education using geodesy. Plenary sessions integrated discovery with broad impact and viewed geodesy through three lenses: (1) pixel-by-pixel geodetic imaging where various remote sensing methodologies are revealing fine-scale changes in the near-surface environment and the geologic processes responsible for them; (2) epoch-by-epoch deformation time series measured in seconds to millennia, which are uncovering ephemeral processes associated with the earthquake cycle and glacial and groundwater flow; and (3) emerging observational powers from advancing geodetic technologies. A fourth plenary session dealt with geodesy and water, a new strategic focus on the hydrosphere, cryosphere, and changing climate. Keynotes included a historical perspective by Bernard Minster (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) on space geodesy and its applications to geophysics, and a summary talk by Susan Eriksson (UNAVCO) on the successes of Research Experience in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS) and its 5-year follow-on with opportunities to mentor the next generation of geoscientists through cultivation of diversity.

  8. Recent advances in imaging technologies in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseem; Bansal, Nikhil; Logani, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools, specially imaging methods, have become mandatory. From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the process simpler and faster but also made image storage, manipulation (brightness/contrast, image cropping, etc.) and retrieval easier. The three-dimensional imaging has made the complex cranio-facial structures more accessible for examination and early and accurate diagnosis of deep seated lesions. This paper is to review current advances in imaging technology and their uses in different disciplines of dentistry. PMID:25349663

  9. Advance of Molecular Imaging Technology and Targeted Imaging Agent in Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Liao, Yang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an emerging field that integrates advanced imaging technology with cellular and molecular biology. It can realize noninvasive and real time visualization, measurement of physiological or pathological process in the living organism at the cellular and molecular level, providing an effective method of information acquiring for diagnosis, therapy, and drug development and evaluating treatment of efficacy. Molecular imaging requires high resolution and high sensitive instruments and specific imaging agents that link the imaging signal with molecular event. Recently, the application of new emerging chemical technology and nanotechnology has stimulated the development of imaging agents. Nanoparticles modified with small molecule, peptide, antibody, and aptamer have been extensively applied for preclinical studies. Therapeutic drug or gene is incorporated into nanoparticles to construct multifunctional imaging agents which allow for theranostic applications. In this review, we will discuss the characteristics of molecular imaging, the novel imaging agent including targeted imaging agent and multifunctional imaging agent, as well as cite some examples of their application in molecular imaging and therapy. PMID:24689058

  10. Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

  11. Electromagnetic imaging methods for nondestructive evaluation applications.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions.

  12. Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.; Jorgensen, J.; Jun, I.; Maki, J. N.; McEwen, A. S.; Riedel, E.; Walch, M.; Watkins, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) concept is envisioned as an integrated system, with optical bench and flight-proven components, designed for deep-space planetary missions with 2-DOF control capability.

  13. Hyperspectral image projector for advanced sensor characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. W.; Rice, J. P.; Neira, J. E.; Bousquet, R.; Johnson, B. C.

    2006-08-01

    In this work, we describe radiometric platforms able to produce realistic spectral distributions and spatial scenes for the development of application-specific metrics to quantify the performance of sensors and systems. Using these platforms, sensor and system performance may be quantified in terms of the accuracy of measurements of standardized sets of complex source distributions. The same platforms can also serve as a basis for algorithm testing and instrument comparison. The platforms consist of spectrally tunable light sources (STS's) coupled with spatially programmable projection systems. The resultant hyperspectral image projectors (HIP) can generate complex spectral distributions with high spectral fidelity; that is, scenes with realistic spectral content. Using the same fundamental technology, platforms can be developed for the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions. These radiometric platforms will facilitate advanced sensor characterization testing, enabling a pre-flight validation of the pre-flight calibration.

  14. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  15. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2015-11-24

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  16. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-10-25

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  17. Imaging Strategies for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seung Yun; Ricles, Laura M.; Suggs, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering has evolved with multifaceted research being conducted using advanced technologies, and it is progressing toward clinical applications. As tissue engineering technology significantly advances, it proceeds toward increasing sophistication, including nanoscale strategies for material construction and synergetic methods for combining with cells, growth factors, or other macromolecules. Therefore, to assess advanced tissue-engineered constructs, tissue engineers need versatile imaging methods capable of monitoring not only morphological but also functional and molecular information. However, there is no single imaging modality that is suitable for all tissue-engineered constructs. Each imaging method has its own range of applications and provides information based on the specific properties of the imaging technique. Therefore, according to the requirements of the tissue engineering studies, the most appropriate tool should be selected among a variety of imaging modalities. The goal of this review article is to describe available biomedical imaging methods to assess tissue engineering applications and to provide tissue engineers with criteria and insights for determining the best imaging strategies. Commonly used biomedical imaging modalities, including X-ray and computed tomography, positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, optical imaging, and emerging techniques and multimodal imaging, will be discussed, focusing on the latest trends of their applications in recent tissue engineering studies. PMID:25012069

  18. Desktop supercomputers. Advance medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Frisiello, R S

    1991-02-01

    Medical imaging tools that radiologists as well as a wide range of clinicians and healthcare professionals have come to depend upon are emerging into the next phase of functionality. The strides being made in supercomputing technologies--including reduction of size and price--are pushing medical imaging to a new level of accuracy and functionality.

  19. Advances in lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, Piotr Andrzej

    Quantitative laser remote sensing (lidar) measurements have always posed a challenge for the research community. The complexity of the data inversion and the instrumentation itself makes lidar results difficult to interpret. This dissertation presents a suite of 3 elastic lidar experiments. The goal of these studies was to quantitatively approach atmospheric physical phenomena such as rainfall (chapter 3), a distribution of concentration of particulates in Mexico City (chapter 4) and emission rates and emission factors from an agricultural facility in Iowa (chapter 5). The studies demonstrate that elastic lidar measurements are possible not only in a qualitative sense but also in a quantitative sense. The lidar study of rainfall was intended to provide rainfall data in small spatial and temporal scales (1.5m and 1s resolution). The two levels of lidar inversion algorithms allowed the calculation of rainfall rates in small scales. The problem of the distribution of particles over Mexico City required mobile lidar measurements. The elastic lidar data were successfully inverted to extinction coefficients which were then combined with aerosol size distribution. As a result, a spatial distribution of particulate concentration was created to illustrate the transport processes and intensity of Mexico City pollution. The measurements of particulate emission fluxes from a livestock facility involved a stationary scanning elastic lidar, in-situ aerosol size distribution measurements and wind measurements. The data from the 3 independent measurement platforms combined together resulted in emission rates and emission factors. The results from this experiment demonstrated that the new lidar approach is an adequate tool for measurement of aerosol emissions from livestock production facilities. The studies presented in the dissertation show quantitative lidar measurements in combination with other instruments measurements. This approach significantly extends the applications of

  20. Principles and clinical applications of image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1988-12-01

    Image processing has traveled to the lunar surface and back, finding its way into the clinical laboratory. Advances in digital computers have improved the technology of image analysis, resulting in a wide variety of medical applications. Offering improvements in turnaround time, standardized systems, increased precision, and walkaway automation, digital image analysis has likely found a permanent home as a diagnostic aid in the interpretation of microscopic as well as macroscopic laboratory images.

  1. Advanced Imaging Algorithms for Radiation Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The intent of the proposed work, in collaboration with University of Michigan, is to develop the algorithms that will bring the analysis from qualitative images to quantitative attributes of objects containing SNM. The first step to achieving this is to develop an indepth understanding of the intrinsic errors associated with the deconvolution and MLEM algorithms. A significant new effort will be undertaken to relate the image data to a posited three-dimensional model of geometric primitives that can be adjusted to get the best fit. In this way, parameters of the model such as sizes, shapes, and masses can be extracted for both radioactive and non-radioactive materials. This model-based algorithm will need the integrated response of a hypothesized configuration of material to be calculated many times. As such, both the MLEM and the model-based algorithm require significant increases in calculation speed in order to converge to solutions in practical amounts of time.

  2. Application of advanced seismic reflection imaging techniques to mapping permeable zones at Dixie Valley, Nevada. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-18

    Multifold seismic reflection data from the Dixie Valley geothermal field in Nevada were reprocessed using a nonlinear optimization scheme called simulated annealing to model subsurface acoustic velocities, followed by a pre-stack Kirchhoff migration to produce accurate and detailed depth-migrated images of subsurface structure. In contrast to conventional processing techniques, these methods account for significant lateral variations in velocity and thus have the potential ability to image steeply-dipping faults and fractures that may affect permeability within geothermal fields. The optimization scheme develops two-dimensional velocity models to within 6% of velocities obtained from well and surface geologic data. Only the seismic data (i.e., first arrival times of P waves) are used to construct the velocity models and pre-stack migration images, and no other a priori assumptions are invoked. Velocities obtained by processing individual seismic tracks were integrated to develop a block diagram of velocities to 2.3 km depth within the Dixie Valley geothermal field. Details of the tectonic and stratigraphic structure allowed three dimensional extension of the interpretations of two dimensional data. Interpretations of the processed seismic data are compared with well data, surface mapping, and other geophysical data. The Dixie Valley fault along the southeastern Stillwater Range Piedmont is associated with a pronounced lateral velocity gradient that is interpreted to represent the juxtaposition of relatively low velocity basin-fill strata in the hanging wall against higher velocity crystalline rocks in the footwall. The down-dip geometry of the fault was evaluated by inverting arrival times from a negative move-out event, which we associate with the dipping fault plane, on individual shot gathers for seismic line SRC-3 for the location and depth of the associated reflection points on the fault.

  3. Application development environment for advanced digital workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Daniel J.; Harreld, Michael R.; Liu, Brent J.; Brown, Matthew S.; Huang, Lu J.

    1998-06-01

    One remaining barrier to the clinical acceptance of electronic imaging and information systems is the difficulty in providing intuitive access to the information needed for a specific clinical task (such as reaching a diagnosis or tracking clinical progress). The purpose of this research was to create a development environment that enables the design and implementation of advanced digital imaging workstations. We used formal data and process modeling to identify the diagnostic and quantitative data that radiologists use and the tasks that they typically perform to make clinical decisions. We studied a diverse range of radiology applications, including diagnostic neuroradiology in an academic medical center, pediatric radiology in a children's hospital, screening mammography in a breast cancer center, and thoracic radiology consultation for an oncology clinic. We used object- oriented analysis to develop software toolkits that enable a programmer to rapidly implement applications that closely match clinical tasks. The toolkits support browsing patient information, integrating patient images and reports, manipulating images, and making quantitative measurements on images. Collectively, we refer to these toolkits as the UCLA Digital ViewBox toolkit (ViewBox/Tk). We used the ViewBox/Tk to rapidly prototype and develop a number of diverse medical imaging applications. Our task-based toolkit approach enabled rapid and iterative prototyping of workstations that matched clinical tasks. The toolkit functionality and performance provided a 'hands-on' feeling for manipulating images, and for accessing textual information and reports. The toolkits directly support a new concept for protocol based-reading of diagnostic studies. The design supports the implementation of network-based application services (e.g., prefetching, workflow management, and post-processing) that will facilitate the development of future clinical applications.

  4. Thermosonic imaging of cracks: applications to teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoyan; Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L.

    2001-10-01

    A novel nondestructive imaging technique, thermosonics, which combines ultrasonic/sonic excitation and advanced infrared imaging, will be described. In this paper, the authors will illuminate the physical principles underlining this technique, and demonstrate its applications to detection of cracks in teeth.

  5. Advanced noninvasive imaging of spinal vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Eddleman, Christopher S.; Jeong, Hyun; Cashen, Ty A.; Walker, Matthew; Bendok, Bernard R.; Batjer, H. Hunt; Carroll, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal vascular malformations (SVMs) are an uncommon, heterogeneous group of vascular anomalies that can render devastating neurological consequences if they are not diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion. Imaging SVMs has always presented a formidable challenge because their clinical and imaging presentations resemble those of neoplasms, demyelination diseases, and infection. Advancements in noninvasive imaging modalities (MR and CT angiography) have increased during the last decade and have improved the ability to accurately diagnose spinal vascular anomalies. In addition, intraoperative imaging techniques have been developed that aid in the intraoperative assessment before, during, and after resection of these lesions with minimal and/or optimal use of spinal digital subtraction angiography. In this report, the authors review recent advancements in the imaging of SVMs that will likely lead to more timely diagnoses and treatment while reducing procedural risk exposure to the patients who harbor these uncommon spinal lesions. PMID:19119895

  6. Hyperspectral image projector applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Joseph P.; Brown, Steven W.; Allen, David W.; Yoon, Howard W.; Litorja, Maritoni; Hwang, Jeeseong C.

    2012-03-01

    For the past several years NIST has been developing, along with several collaborators, a Hyperspectral Image Projector (HIP). This scene projector produces high-resolution programmable spectra and projects them into dynamic two-dimensional images. The current digital micromirror device (DMD) based HIP prototype has a spatial resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels and a spectral range of 450 nm to 2400 nm, with spectral resolution from 2 nm in the visible to 5 nm in the short-wave infrared. It disperses light from a supercontinuum fiber source across two DMDs to produce the programmable spectra, which then globally-illuminate a third DMD to form the spatial images. The HIP can simulate top-of-the atmosphere spectral radiance over a 10 mm x 14 mm, f/3 image, and this can be collimated to stimulate remote sensing instruments. Also, the spectral radiance of the projected scenes can be measured with a NIST-calibrated spectroradiometer, such that the spectral radiance projected into each pixel can be accurately known. The HIP was originally developed for applications in multi-spectral and hyperspectral imager testing, calibration, and performance validation, and examples of this application will be reviewed. Conceivable applications for the HIP in photovoltaic device characterization and optical medical imaging will also be discussed.

  7. Advanced wavefront engineering for improved imaging and overlay applications on a 1.35 NA immersion scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staals, Frank; Andryzhyieuskaya, Alena; Bakker, Hans; Beems, Marcel; Finders, Jo; Hollink, Thijs; Mulkens, Jan; Nachtwein, Angelique; Willekers, Rob; Engblom, Peter; Gruner, Toralf; Zhang, Youping

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we describe the basic principle of FlexWave, a new high resolution wavefront manipulator, and discuss experimental data on imaging, focus and overlay. For this we integrated the FlexWave module in a 1.35 NA immersion scanner. With FlexWave we can perform both static and dynamic wavefront corrections. Wavefront control with FlexWave minimizes lens aberrations under high productivity usage of the scanner, hence maintaining overlay and focus performance, but moreover, the high resolution wavefront tuning can be used to compensate for litho related effects. Especially now mask 3D effects are becoming a major error component, additional tuning is required. Optimized wavefront can be achieved with computational lithography, by either co-optimizing source, mask, and Wavefront Target prior to tape-out, or by tuning Wavefront Targets for specific masks and scanners after the reticle is made.

  8. Recent advances in echocardiography: strain and strain rate imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mirea, Oana; Duchenne, Jurgen; Voigt, Jens-Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Deformation imaging by echocardiography is a well-established research tool which has been gaining interest from clinical cardiologists since the introduction of speckle tracking. Post-processing of echo images to analyze deformation has become readily available at the fingertips of the user. New parameters such as global longitudinal strain have been shown to provide added diagnostic value, and ongoing efforts of the imaging societies and industry aimed at harmonizing methods will improve the technique further. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of echocardiographic strain and strain rate imaging, and provides an overview on its current and potential future clinical applications. PMID:27158476

  9. Chemical Approaches for Advanced Optical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhixing

    Advances in optical microscopy have been constantly expanding our knowledge of biological systems. The achievements therein are a result of close collaborations between physicists/engineers who build the imaging instruments and chemists/biochemists who design the corresponding probe molecules. In this work I present a number of chemical approaches for the development of advanced optical imaging methods. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the recent advances of novel imaging approaches taking advantage of chemical tag technologies. Chapter 2 describes the second-generation covalent trimethoprim-tag as a viable tool for live cell protein-specific labeling and imaging. In Chapter 3 we present a fluorescence lifetime imaging approach to map protein-specific micro-environment in live cells using TMP-Cy3 as a chemical probe. In Chapter 4, we present a method harnessing photo-activatable fluorophores to extend the fundamental depth limit in multi-photon microscopy. Chapter 5 describes the development of isotopically edited alkyne palette for multi-color live cell vibrational imaging of cellular small molecules. These studies exemplify the impact of modern chemical approaches in the development of advanced optical microscopies.

  10. Advances in electromagnetic brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2010-02-01

    Non-invasive and dynamic imaging of brain activity in the sub-millisecond time-scale is enabled by measurements on or near the scalp surface using an array of sensors that measure magnetic fields (magnetoencephalography (MEG)) or electric potentials (electroencephalography (EEG)). Algorithmic reconstruction of brain activity from MEG and EEG data is referred to as electromagnetic brain imaging (EBI). Reconstructing the actual brain response to external events and distinguishing unrelated brain activity has been a challenge for many existing algorithms in this field. Furthermore, even under conditions where there is very little interference, accurately determining the spatial locations and timing of brain sources from MEG and EEG data is challenging problem because it involves solving for unknown brain activity across thousands of voxels from just a few sensors (~300). In recent years, my research group has developed a suite of novel and powerful algorithms for EBI that we have shown to be considerably superior to existing benchmark algorithms. Specifically, these algorithms can solve for many brain sources, including sources located far from the sensors, in the presence of large interference from unrelated brain sources. Our algorithms efficiently model interference contributions to sensors, accurately estimate sparse brain source activity using fast and robust probabilistic inference techniques. Here, we review some of these algorithms and illustrate their performance in simulations and real MEG/EEG data.

  11. Personnel screening with advanced multistatic imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Sherif S.

    2013-05-01

    Personnel screening is demanded nowadays for securing air traffic as well as critical infrastructures. The millimeter-waves are able to penetrate clothes and detect concealed objects, making them an attractive choice for security screening. Imaging methods based on multistatic architecture can ensure high quality imagery in terms of resolution and dynamic range. Following the advances in semiconductor technology, fully electronic solutions delivering real-time imaging are becoming feasible. Furthermore, the continuously increasing capabilities of digital signal processing units allow for the utilization of digital-beamforming techniques for image reconstruction, thus offering new opportunities for imaging systems to use sophisticated operation modes. Based on these modern technologies, an advanced realization addressing personnel screening in E-band with planar multistatic sparse array design is demonstrated.

  12. Advances in Molecular Imaging with Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Ryan; Dayton, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging has long demonstrated utility in the study and measurement of anatomic features and noninvasive observation of blood flow. Within the last decade, advances in molecular biology and contrast agents have allowed researchers to use ultrasound to detect changes in the expression of molecular markers on the vascular endothelium and other intravascular targets. This new technology, referred to as ultrasonic molecular imaging, is still in its infancy. However, in preclinical studies, ultrasonic molecular imaging has shown promise in assessing angiogenesis, inflammation, and thrombus. In this review, we discuss recent advances in microbubble-type contrast agent development, ultrasound technology, and signal processing strategies that have the potential to substantially improve the capabilities and utility of ultrasonic molecular imaging. PMID:20487678

  13. Communication services for advanced network applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Bresnahan, J.; Foster, I.; Insley, J.; Toonen, B.; Tuecke, S.

    1999-06-10

    Advanced network applications such as remote instrument control, collaborative environments, and remote I/O are distinguished by traditional applications such as videoconferencing by their need to create multiple, heterogeneous flows with different characteristics. For example, a single application may require remote I/O for raw datasets, shared controls for a collaborative analysis system, streaming video for image rendering data, and audio for collaboration. Furthermore, each flow can have different requirements in terms of reliability, network quality of service, security, etc. They argue that new approaches to communication services, protocols, and network architecture are required both to provide high-level abstractions for common flow types and to support user-level management of flow creation and quality. They describe experiences with the development of such applications and communication services.

  14. Towards advanced OCT clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Agrba, Pavel; Pasukhin, Mikhail; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Plankina, Elena; Dudenkova, Varvara; Gubarkova, Ekaterina; Kiseleva, Elena; Gladkova, Natalia; Shakhova, Natalia; Vitkin, Alex

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we report on our recent achievement in application of conventional and cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) modalities for in vivo clinical diagnostics in different medical areas including gynecology, dermatology, and stomatology. In gynecology, CP OCT was employed for diagnosing fallopian tubes and cervix; in dermatology OCT for monitoring of treatment of psoriasis, scleroderma and atopic dermatitis; and in stomatology for diagnosis of oral diseases. For all considered application, we propose and develop different image processing methods which enhance the diagnostic value of the technique. In particular, we use histogram analysis, Fourier analysis and neural networks, thus calculating different tissue characteristics as revealed by OCT's polarization evolution. These approaches enable improved OCT image quantification and increase its resultant diagnostic accuracy.

  15. Enzyme Mimics: Advances and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kuah, Evelyn; Toh, Seraphina; Yee, Jessica; Ma, Qian; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-13

    Enzyme mimics or artificial enzymes are a class of catalysts that have been actively pursued for decades and have heralded much interest as potentially viable alternatives to natural enzymes. Aside from having catalytic activities similar to their natural counterparts, enzyme mimics have the desired advantages of tunable structures and catalytic efficiencies, excellent tolerance to experimental conditions, lower cost, and purely synthetic routes to their preparation. Although still in the midst of development, impressive advances have already been made. Enzyme mimics have shown immense potential in the catalysis of a wide range of chemical and biological reactions, the development of chemical and biological sensing and anti-biofouling systems, and the production of pharmaceuticals and clean fuels. This Review concerns the development of various types of enzyme mimics, namely polymeric and dendrimeric, supramolecular, nanoparticulate and proteinic enzyme mimics, with an emphasis on their synthesis, catalytic properties and technical applications. It provides an introduction to enzyme mimics and a comprehensive summary of the advances and current standings of their applications, and seeks to inspire researchers to perfect the design and synthesis of enzyme mimics and to tailor their functionality for a much wider range of applications. PMID:27062126

  16. Advanced endoscopic imaging to improve adenoma detection

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Helmut; Nägel, Andreas; Buda, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Advanced endoscopic imaging is revolutionizing our way on how to diagnose and treat colorectal lesions. Within recent years a variety of modern endoscopic imaging techniques was introduced to improve adenoma detection rates. Those include high-definition imaging, dye-less chromoendoscopy techniques and novel, highly flexible endoscopes, some of them equipped with balloons or multiple lenses in order to improve adenoma detection rates. In this review we will focus on the newest developments in the field of colonoscopic imaging to improve adenoma detection rates. Described techniques include high-definition imaging, optical chromoendoscopy techniques, virtual chromoendoscopy techniques, the Third Eye Retroscope and other retroviewing devices, the G-EYE endoscope and the Full Spectrum Endoscopy-system. PMID:25789092

  17. The ADIS advanced data acquisition, imaging, and storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The design and development of Automated Ultrasonic Scanning Systems (AUSS) by McDonnell Aircraft Company has provided the background for the development of the ADIS advanced data acquisition, imaging, and storage system. The ADIS provides state-of-the-art ultrasonic data processing and imaging features which can be utilized in both laboratory and production line composite evaluation applications. System features, such as, real-time imaging, instantaneous electronic rescanning, multitasking capability, histograms, and cross-sections, provide the tools necessary to inspect and evaluate composite parts quickly and consistently.

  18. Advanced ground-penetrating, imaging radar for bridge inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.E.; Lee, Hua

    1993-08-01

    Inspecting high-value structures, like bridges and buildings using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of the technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like reinforcing bars embedded in concrete, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without the need for destructive techniques like coring. In the following sections, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept and provide an overview of a program aimed at developing such a system. Examples of modeling, image reconstruction, and experimental results are presented.

  19. Advances in retinal ganglion cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Balendra, S I; Normando, E M; Bloom, P A; Cordeiro, M F

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide and will affect 79.6 million people worldwide by 2020. It is caused by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), predominantly via apoptosis, within the retinal nerve fibre layer and the corresponding loss of axons of the optic nerve head. One of its most devastating features is its late diagnosis and the resulting irreversible visual loss that is often predictable. Current diagnostic tools require significant RGC or functional visual field loss before the threshold for detection of glaucoma may be reached. To propel the efficacy of therapeutics in glaucoma, an earlier diagnostic tool is required. Recent advances in retinal imaging, including optical coherence tomography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and adaptive optics, have propelled both glaucoma research and clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. However, an ideal imaging technique to diagnose and monitor glaucoma would image RGCs non-invasively with high specificity and sensitivity in vivo. It may confirm the presence of healthy RGCs, such as in transgenic models or retrograde labelling, or detect subtle changes in the number of unhealthy or apoptotic RGCs, such as detection of apoptosing retinal cells (DARC). Although many of these advances have not yet been introduced to the clinical arena, their successes in animal studies are enthralling. This review will illustrate the challenges of imaging RGCs, the main retinal imaging modalities, the in vivo techniques to augment these as specific RGC-imaging tools and their potential for translation to the glaucoma clinic. PMID:26293138

  20. Technical advances of interventional fluoroscopy and flat panel image receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Jan Paul

    2008-11-01

    In the past decade, various radiation reducing devices and control circuits have been implemented on fluoroscopic imaging equipment. Because of the potential for lengthy fluoroscopic procedures in interventional cardiovascular angiography, these devices and control circuits have been developed for the cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional angiography suites. Additionally, fluoroscopic systems equipped with image intensifiers have benefited from technological advances in x-ray tube, x-ray generator, and spectral shaping filter technologies. The high heat capacity x-ray tube, the medium frequency inverter generator with high performance switching capability, and the patient dose reduction spectral shaping filter had already been implemented on the image intensified fluoroscopy systems. These three underlying technologies together with the automatic dose rate and image quality (ADRIQ) control logic allow patients undergoing cardiovascular angiography procedures to benefit from "lower patient dose" with "high image quality." While photoconductor (or phosphor plate) x-ray detectors and signal capture thin film transistor (TFT) and charge coupled device (CCD) arrays are analog in nature, the advent of the flat panel image receptor allowed for fluoroscopy procedures to become more streamlined. With the analog-to-digital converter built into the data lines, the flat panel image receptor appears to become a digital device. While the transition from image intensified fluoroscopy systems to flat panel image receptor fluoroscopy systems is part of the on-going "digitization of imaging," the value of a flat panel image receptor may have to be evaluated with respect to patient dose, image quality, and clinical application capabilities. The advantage of flat panel image receptors has yet to be fully explored. For instance, the flat panel image receptor has its disadvantages as compared to the image intensifiers; the cost of the equipment is probably the most

  1. Nanobiocatalyst advancements and bioprocessing applications

    PubMed Central

    Misson, Mailin; Zhang, Hu; Jin, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The nanobiocatalyst (NBC) is an emerging innovation that synergistically integrates advanced nanotechnology with biotechnology and promises exciting advantages for improving enzyme activity, stability, capability and engineering performances in bioprocessing applications. NBCs are fabricated by immobilizing enzymes with functional nanomaterials as enzyme carriers or containers. In this paper, we review the recent developments of novel nanocarriers/nanocontainers with advanced hierarchical porous structures for retaining enzymes, such as nanofibres (NFs), mesoporous nanocarriers and nanocages. Strategies for immobilizing enzymes onto nanocarriers made from polymers, silicas, carbons and metals by physical adsorption, covalent binding, cross-linking or specific ligand spacers are discussed. The resulting NBCs are critically evaluated in terms of their bioprocessing performances. Excellent performances are demonstrated through enhanced NBC catalytic activity and stability due to conformational changes upon immobilization and localized nanoenvironments, and NBC reutilization by assembling magnetic nanoparticles into NBCs to defray the high operational costs associated with enzyme production and nanocarrier synthesis. We also highlight several challenges associated with the NBC-driven bioprocess applications, including the maturation of large-scale nanocarrier synthesis, design and development of bioreactors to accommodate NBCs, and long-term operations of NBCs. We suggest these challenges are to be addressed through joint collaboration of chemists, engineers and material scientists. Finally, we have demonstrated the great potential of NBCs in manufacturing bioprocesses in the near future through successful laboratory trials of NBCs in carbohydrate hydrolysis, biofuel production and biotransformation. PMID:25392397

  2. An extensible imaging platform for optical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, Gianluca; Azar, Fred S.

    2009-02-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recently developed an extensible imaging platform (XIP), a new open-source software development platform. XIP can be used to rapidly develop imaging applications designed to meet the needs of the optical imaging community. XIP is a state-of-the-art set of visual 'drag and drop' programming tools and associated libraries for rapid prototyping and application development. The tools include modules tailored for medical imaging, many of which are GPU hardware accelerated. They also provide a friendlier environment for utilizing popular toolkits such as ITK and VTK, and enable the visualization and processing of optical imaging data and standard DICOM data. XIP has built-in functionality for multidimensional data visualization and processing, and enables the development of independently optimized and re-usable software modules, which can be seamlessly added and interconnected to build advanced applications. XIP applications can run "stand alone", including in client/server mode for remote access. XIP also supports the DICOM WG23 "Application Hosting" standard, which will enable plug-in XIP applications to run on any DICOM host workstation. Such interoperability will enable the optical imaging community to develop and deploy modular applications across all academic/clinical/industry partners with WG23 compliant imaging workstations.

  3. Small pixel uncooled imaging FPAs and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Richard; Franks, Glen; Lacroix, Daniel; Hyland, Sandra; Murphy, Robert

    2010-04-01

    BAE Systems continues to make dramatic progress in uncooled microbolometer sensors and applications. This paper will review the latest advancements in microbolometer technology at BAE Systems, including the development status of 17 micrometer pixel pitch detectors and imaging modules which are entering production and will be finding their way into BAE Systems products and applications. Benefits include increased die per wafer and potential benefits to SWAP for many applications. Applications include thermal weapons sights, thermal imaging modules for remote weapon stations, vehicle situational awareness sensors and mast/pole mounted sensors.

  4. Foundations of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan; Newbould, Rexford; Liu, Chunlei; Thijs, Vincent; Ropele, Stefan; Clayton, David B.; Krueger, Gunnar; Moseley, Michael E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: During the past decade, major breakthroughs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quality were made by means of quantum leaps in scanner hardware and pulse sequences. Some advanced MRI techniques have truly revolutionized the detection of disease states and MRI can now—within a few minutes—acquire important quantitative information noninvasively from an individual in any plane or volume at comparatively high resolution. This article provides an overview of the most common advanced MRI methods including diffusion MRI, perfusion MRI, functional MRI, and the strengths and weaknesses of MRI at high magnetic field strengths. PMID:15897944

  5. Foundations of advanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan; Newbould, Rexford; Liu, Chunlei; Thijs, Vincent; Ropele, Stefan; Clayton, David B; Krueger, Gunnar; Moseley, Michael E; Glover, Gary H

    2005-04-01

    During the past decade, major breakthroughs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quality were made by means of quantum leaps in scanner hardware and pulse sequences. Some advanced MRI techniques have truly revolutionized the detection of disease states and MRI can now-within a few minutes-acquire important quantitative information noninvasively from an individual in any plane or volume at comparatively high resolution. This article provides an overview of the most common advanced MRI methods including diffusion MRI, perfusion MRI, functional MRI, and the strengths and weaknesses of MRI at high magnetic field strengths.

  6. Terahertz Tools Advance Imaging for Security, Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Picometrix, a wholly owned subsidiary of Advanced Photonix Inc. (API), of Ann Arbor, Michigan, invented the world s first commercial terahertz system. The company improved the portability and capabilities of their systems through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Langley Research Center to provide terahertz imaging capabilities for inspecting the space shuttle external tanks and orbiters. Now API s systems make use of the unique imaging capacity of terahertz radiation on manufacturing floors, for thickness measurements of coatings, pharmaceutical tablet production, and even art conservation.

  7. Simulations and surface quality testing of high asymmetry angle x-ray crystal monochromators for advanced x-ray imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zápražný, Z.; Korytár, D.; Šiffalovič, P.; Jergel, M.; Demydenko, M.; Mikulík, P.; Dobročka, E.; Ferrari, C.; Vagovič, P.; Mikloška, M.

    2014-09-01

    Advanced X-ray imaging techniques of weakly absorbing structures require an increase of the sensitivity to small refractive angles considering that they are based more on coherent X-ray phase contrast than on X-ray absorption one. Simulations of diffraction properties of germanium (Ge) X-ray crystal monochromators and of analyzer based imaging (ABI) method were performed for various asymmetry factors and several lattice plane orientations using an X-ray energy range from 8 keV to 20 keV. Using an appropriate phase/amplitude retrieval method one can recover the phase information from the ABI image, which is directly proportional to the projected electron density. We are using germanium based optics for X-ray imaging or image magnification. The use of Ge crystals offers several advantages over silicon crystals. The integrated reflectivity of Ge crystals is two to three times larger than that of Si crystals. The spatial resolution of Ge magnifiers is typically two times better than the spatial resolution of Si magnifiers. We used high asymmetry diffractions to increase effectively the propagation distance and decrease the effective pixel size of the detector, to achieve a sufficient magnification of the sample and to improve coherence and increase output intensity. The most important parameter of a highly asymmetric monochromators as image magnifiers is the crystal surface quality. We have applied several crystal surface finishing methods including conventional mechanical lapping, chemical polishing, chemo-mechanical polishing and advanced nano-machining using single point diamond turning (SPDT), and we have evaluated these methods by means of AFM, diffractometry, reciprocal space mapping and others.

  8. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in perfusion. Chronic hypoxia may cause either tumor progression or regressive effects depending on the tumor model. However, there is a general trend toward the development of a more aggressive phenotype after cycling hypoxia. With advanced hypoxia imaging techniques, spatiotemporal characteristics of tumor hypoxia and the changes to the tumor microenvironment can be analyzed. Critical Issues: In this review, we focus on the biological and clinical consequences of chronic and cycling hypoxia on radiation treatment. We also discuss the advanced non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed to detect and monitor tumor hypoxia in preclinical and clinical studies. Future Directions: A better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia with non-invasive imaging will provide a basis for improved radiation therapeutic practices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 313–337. PMID:24329000

  9. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts were evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy materials are now under development.

  10. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts have been evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy material is now under development.

  11. Advanced flow MRI: emerging techniques and applications.

    PubMed

    Markl, M; Schnell, S; Wu, C; Bollache, E; Jarvis, K; Barker, A J; Robinson, J D; Rigsby, C K

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide non-invasive and non-ionising methods for the highly accurate anatomical depiction of the heart and vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, the intrinsic sensitivity of MRI to motion offers the unique ability to acquire spatially registered blood flow simultaneously with the morphological data, within a single measurement. In clinical routine, flow MRI is typically accomplished using methods that resolve two spatial dimensions in individual planes and encode the time-resolved velocity in one principal direction, typically oriented perpendicular to the two-dimensional (2D) section. This review describes recently developed advanced MRI flow techniques, which allow for more comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics, such as real-time flow imaging, 2D multiple-venc phase contrast MRI, four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, quantification of complex haemodynamic properties, and highly accelerated flow imaging. Emerging techniques and novel applications are explored. In addition, applications of these new techniques for the improved evaluation of cardiovascular (aorta, pulmonary arteries, congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation, coronary arteries) as well as cerebrovascular disease (intra-cranial arteries and veins) are presented. PMID:26944696

  12. Advanced femtosecond lasers enable new developments in non-linear imaging and functional studies in neuroscience, biology and medical applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigoni, Marco; McCoy, Darryl

    2016-03-01

    In the last few years Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy witnessed a mutation from tool for imaging cellular structures in living animals deeper than other high-resolution techniques, into an instrument for monitoring functionality and even stimulating or inhibiting inter-cellular signalling. This paradigm shift has been enabled primarily by the development of genetically encoded probes like Ca indicators (GECI) and Opsins for optogenetics inhibition and stimulation. These developments will hopefully enable the understanding of how local network of hundreds or thousands of neurons operate in response to actual tasks or induced stimuli. Imaging, monitoring signals and activating neurons, all on a millisecond time scale, requires new laser tools providing a combination of wavelengths, higher powers and operating regimes different from the ones traditionally used for classic multiphoton imaging. The other key development in multiphoton techniques relates to potential diagnostic and clinical applications where non-linear imaging could provide all optical marker-free replacement of H and E techniques and even intra-operative guidance for procedures like cancer surgery. These developments will eventually drive the development of specialized laser sources where compact size, ease of use, beam delivery and cost are primary concerns. In this talk we will discuss recent laser product developments targeting the various applications of multiphoton imaging, as fiber lasers and other new type of lasers gradually gain popularity and their own space, side-by-side or as an alternative to conventional titanium sapphire femtosecond lasers.

  13. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this has been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.

  14. Imaging spectroscopic analysis at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, A. A.; Warwick, T.; Anders, S.; Lamble, G.M.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.

    1999-05-12

    One of the major advances at the high brightness third generation synchrotrons is the dramatic improvement of imaging capability. There is a large multi-disciplinary effort underway at the ALS to develop imaging X-ray, UV and Infra-red spectroscopic analysis on a spatial scale from. a few microns to 10nm. These developments make use of light that varies in energy from 6meV to 15KeV. Imaging and spectroscopy are finding applications in surface science, bulk materials analysis, semiconductor structures, particulate contaminants, magnetic thin films, biology and environmental science. This article is an overview and status report from the developers of some of these techniques at the ALS. The following table lists all the currently available microscopes at the. ALS. This article will describe some of the microscopes and some of the early applications.

  15. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    DOE PAGES

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this hasmore » been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.« less

  16. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-01

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  17. Recent advances in computer image generation simulation.

    PubMed

    Geltmacher, H E

    1988-11-01

    An explosion in flight simulator technology over the past 10 years is revolutionizing U.S. Air Force (USAF) operational training. The single, most important development has been in computer image generation. However, other significant advances are being made in simulator handling qualities, real-time computation systems, and electro-optical displays. These developments hold great promise for achieving high fidelity combat mission simulation. This article reviews the progress to date and predicts its impact, along with that of new computer science advances such as very high speed integrated circuits (VHSIC), on future USAF aircrew simulator training. Some exciting possibilities are multiship, full-mission simulators at replacement training units, miniaturized unit level mission rehearsal training simulators, onboard embedded training capability, and national scale simulator networking.

  18. Intelligent imaging systems for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Huang, Yingping; Fu, Shan

    2004-03-01

    In common with many other application areas, visual signals are becoming an increasingly important information source for many automotive applications. For several years CCD cameras have been used as research tools for a range of automotive applications. Infrared cameras, RADAR and LIDAR are other types of imaging sensors that have also been widely investigated for use in cars. This paper will describe work in this field performed in C2VIP over the last decade - starting with Night Vision Systems and looking at various other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. Emerging from this experience, we make the following observations which are crucial for "intelligent" imaging systems: 1. Careful arrangement of sensor array. 2. Dynamic-Self-Calibration. 3. Networking and processing. 4. Fusion with other imaging sensors, both at the image level and the feature level, provides much more flexibility and reliability in complex situations. We will discuss how these problems can be addressed and what are the outstanding issues.

  19. Advanced Materials for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency--nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  20. Advanced materials for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2007-12-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency—nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  1. Advanced optical imaging techniques for neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade, developmental neuroscience has been transformed by the widespread application of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Even greater progress is imminent, as recent innovations in microscopy now enable imaging with increased depth, speed, and spatial resolution; reduced phototoxicity; and in some cases without external fluorescent probes. We discuss these new techniques and emphasize their dramatic impact on neurobiology, including the ability to image neurons at depths exceeding 1mm, to observe neurodevelopment noninvasively throughout embryogenesis, and to visualize neuronal processes or structures that were previously too small or too difficult to target with conventional microscopy.

  2. Advanced Optical Imaging Techniques for Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, developmental neuroscience has been transformed by the widespread application of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Even greater progress is imminent, as recent innovations in microscopy now enable imaging with increased depth, speed, and spatial resolution; reduced phototoxicity; and in some cases without external fluorescent probes. We discuss these new techniques and emphasize their dramatic impact on neurobiology, including the ability to image neurons at depths exceeding 1 mm, to observe neurodevelopment noninvasively throughout embryogenesis, and to visualize neuronal processes or structures that were previously too small or too difficult to target with conventional microscopy. PMID:23831260

  3. Recent advances in imaging-guided interventions for prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Ran; Zheng, Weiliang; Yang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The numbers of patients diagnosed with prostate cancers is increasing due to the widespread application of prostate-specific antigen screening and subsequent prostate biopsies. The methods of systemic administration of therapeutics are not target-specific and thus cannot efficiently destroy prostate tumour cells while simultaneously sparing the surrounding normal tissues and organs. Recent advances in imaging-guided minimally invasive therapeutic techniques offer considerable potential for the effective management of prostate cancers. An objective understanding of the feasibility, effectiveness, morbidity, and deficiencies of these interventional techniques is essential for both clinical practice and scientific progress. This review presents the recent advances in imaging-guided interventional techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancers. PMID:24769076

  4. Advanced imaging of the scapholunate ligamentous complex.

    PubMed

    Shahabpour, Maryam; Staelens, Barbara; Van Overstraeten, Luc; De Maeseneer, Michel; Boulet, Cedric; De Mey, Johan; Scheerlinck, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    The scapholunate joint is one of the most involved in wrist injuries. Its stability depends on primary and secondary stabilisers forming together the scapholunate complex. This ligamentous complex is often evaluated by wrist arthroscopy. To avoid surgery as diagnostic procedure, optimization of MR imaging parameters as use of three-dimensional (3D) sequences with very thin slices and high spatial resolution, is needed to detect lesions of the intrinsic and extrinsic ligaments of the scapholunate complex. The paper reviews the literature on imaging of radial-sided carpal ligaments with advanced computed tomographic arthrography (CTA) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) to evaluate the scapholunate complex. Anatomy and pathology of the ligamentous complex are described and illustrated with CTA, MRA and corresponding arthroscopy. Sprains, mid-substance tears, avulsions and fibrous infiltrations of carpal ligaments could be identified on CTA and MRA images using 3D fat-saturated PD and 3D DESS (dual echo with steady-state precession) sequences with 0.5-mm-thick slices. Imaging signs of scapholunate complex pathology include: discontinuity, nonvisualization, changes in signal intensity, contrast extravasation (MRA), contour irregularity and waviness and periligamentous infiltration by edema, granulation tissue or fibrosis. Based on this preliminary experience, we believe that 3 T MRA using 3D sequences with 0.5-mm-thick slices and multiplanar reconstructions is capable to evaluate the scapholunate complex and could help to reduce the number of diagnostic arthroscopies.

  5. Advanced automated char image analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Wu; Edward Lester; Michael Cloke

    2006-05-15

    Char morphology is an important characteristic when attempting to understand coal behavior and coal burnout. In this study, an augmented algorithm has been proposed to identify char types using image analysis. On the basis of a series of image processing steps, a char image is singled out from the whole image, which then allows the important major features of the char particle to be measured, including size, porosity, and wall thickness. The techniques for automated char image analysis have been tested against char images taken from ICCP Char Atlas as well as actual char particles derived from pyrolyzed char samples. Thirty different chars were prepared in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 1% oxygen, and 100 ms from 15 different world coals sieved into two size fractions (53-75 and 106-125 {mu}m). The results from this automated technique are comparable with those from manual analysis, and the additional detail from the automated sytem has potential use in applications such as combustion modeling systems. Obtaining highly detailed char information with automated methods has traditionally been hampered by the difficulty of automatic recognition of individual char particles. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Reflectometric measurement of plasma imaging and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, A.; Ito, N.; Oda, M.; Komada, Y.; Nagae, D.; Zhang, D.; Kogi, Y.; Tobimatsu, S.; Maruyama, T.; Shimazu, H.; Sakata, E.; Sakai, F.; Kuwahara, D.; Yoshinaga, T.; Tokuzawa, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G.; Lee, W.; Padhi, S.; Kim, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    Progress in microwave and millimeter-wave technologies has made possible advanced diagnostics for application to various fields, such as, plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, alien substance detection, airborne and spaceborne imaging radars called as synthetic aperture radars, living body measurements. Transmission, reflection, scattering, and radiation processes of electromagnetic waves are utilized as diagnostic tools. In this report we focus on the reflectometric measurements and applications to biological signals (vital signal detection and breast cancer detection) as well as plasma diagnostics, specifically by use of imaging technique and ultra-wideband radar technique.

  7. Neurolight -astonishing advances in brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Rojczyk-Gołębiewska, Ewa; Pałasz, Artur; Worthington, John J; Markowski, Grzegorz; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, significant advances in basic neuroanatomical studies have taken place. Moreover, such classical, clinically-oriented human brain imaging methods such as MRI, PET and DTI have been applied to small laboratory animals allowing improvement in current experimental neuroscience. Contemporary structural neurobiology also uses various technologies based on fluorescent proteins. One of these is optogenetics, which integrates physics, genetics and bioengineering to enable temporal precise control of electrical activity of specific neurons. Another important challenge in the field is the accurate imaging of complicated neural networks. To address this problem, three-dimensional reconstruction techniques and retrograde labeling with modified viruses has been developed. However, a revolutionary step was the invention of the "Brainbow" system, utilizing gene constructs including the sequences of fluorescent proteins and the usage of Cre recombinase to create dozens of colour combinations, enabling visualization of neurons and their connections in extremely high resolution. Furthermore, the newly- introduced CLARITY method should make it possible to visualize three-dimensionally the structure of translucent brain tissue using the hydrogel polymeric network. This original technique is a big advance in neuroscience creating novel viewpoints completely different than standard glass slide immunostaining. PMID:24730999

  8. Neurolight -astonishing advances in brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Rojczyk-Gołębiewska, Ewa; Pałasz, Artur; Worthington, John J; Markowski, Grzegorz; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, significant advances in basic neuroanatomical studies have taken place. Moreover, such classical, clinically-oriented human brain imaging methods such as MRI, PET and DTI have been applied to small laboratory animals allowing improvement in current experimental neuroscience. Contemporary structural neurobiology also uses various technologies based on fluorescent proteins. One of these is optogenetics, which integrates physics, genetics and bioengineering to enable temporal precise control of electrical activity of specific neurons. Another important challenge in the field is the accurate imaging of complicated neural networks. To address this problem, three-dimensional reconstruction techniques and retrograde labeling with modified viruses has been developed. However, a revolutionary step was the invention of the "Brainbow" system, utilizing gene constructs including the sequences of fluorescent proteins and the usage of Cre recombinase to create dozens of colour combinations, enabling visualization of neurons and their connections in extremely high resolution. Furthermore, the newly- introduced CLARITY method should make it possible to visualize three-dimensionally the structure of translucent brain tissue using the hydrogel polymeric network. This original technique is a big advance in neuroscience creating novel viewpoints completely different than standard glass slide immunostaining.

  9. Genitourinary imaging: current and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    O' Donoghue, P M; McSweeney, S E; Jhaveri, K

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the current and emerging techniques in urinary tract imaging. Recent technical advances and novel discoveries make this an exciting but challenging time for urinary tract imaging. The first section describes the imaging of the adrenal gland which has made great strides in the last decade, the current major adrenal imaging modalities as well as new applications are discussed with particular attention to the role of imaging in the incidentally detected adrenal lesion. In the second section the role of ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) in evaluation of the renal tract are discussed with the new technical advances leading to earlier detection and characterization of renal lesions. Complementary to this is the emerging role of CT and MR urography in assessment of the urinary tract and bladder in contrast to the demise of plain film studies/intravenous urography. The role of CT angiography in assessment of the renal vasculature is also discussed. The third section discusses the role of prostate imaging in the diagnosis, staging and management of prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasonography, can be used to guide biopsy, CT is frequently used in staging, with bone scintigraphy and positron emission tomography having roles in advanced disease. Currently, all imaging modalities, especially MR are evolving to improve disease detection and staging. The final section discusses the recently encountered adverse reaction of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients post gadolinium-enhanced MRI and how to help prevent this adverse reaction.

  10. Advanced enhancement techniques for digitized images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, V. T.; Merenyi, R. C.; Carlotto, M. J.; Heller, W. G.

    Computer image enhancement of digitized X-ray and conventional photographs has been employed to reveal anomalies in aerospace hardware. Signal processing of these images included use of specially-developed filters to sharpen detail without sacrificing radiographic information, application of local contrast stretch and histogram equalization algorithms to display structure in low-contrast areas and employment of other unique digital processing methods. Edge detection, normally complicated by poor spatial resolution, limited contrast and recording media noise, was performed as a post-processing operation via a difference-of-Gaussians method and a least squares fitting procedures. In this manner, multi-image signal processing allowed for the precise measurement (to within 0.02 inches, rms) of the Inertial Upper Stage nozzle nosecap motion during a static test firing as well as identifying potential problems in the Solid Rocket Booster parachute deployment.

  11. Advances in noninvasive imaging of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Menge, Tyler D; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer and its incidence has risen sharply in recent decades. Early detection of disease is critical for improving patient outcomes. Any pigmented lesion that is clinically concerning must be removed by biopsy for morphologic investigation on histology. However, biopsies are invasive and can cause significant morbidity, and their accuracy in detecting melanoma may be limited by sampling error. The advent of noninvasive imaging devices has allowed for assessment of intact skin, thereby minimizing the need for biopsy; and these technologies are increasingly being used in the diagnosis and management of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, ultrasonography, and multispectral imaging are noninvasive imaging techniques that have emerged as diagnostic aids to physical exam and/or conventional dermoscopy. This review summarizes the current knowledge about these techniques and discusses their practical applications and limitations. PMID:26963113

  12. Optical design and characterization of an advanced computational imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, R. Hamilton; Fernandez-Cull, Christy; Raskar, Ramesh; Shi, Boxin; Barsi, Christopher; Zhao, Hang

    2014-09-01

    We describe an advanced computational imaging system with an optical architecture that enables simultaneous and dynamic pupil-plane and image-plane coding accommodating several task-specific applications. We assess the optical requirement trades associated with custom and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) optics and converge on the development of two low-cost and robust COTS testbeds. The first is a coded-aperture programmable pixel imager employing a digital micromirror device (DMD) for image plane per-pixel oversampling and spatial super-resolution experiments. The second is a simultaneous pupil-encoded and time-encoded imager employing a DMD for pupil apodization or a deformable mirror for wavefront coding experiments. These two testbeds are built to leverage two MIT Lincoln Laboratory focal plane arrays - an orthogonal transfer CCD with non-uniform pixel sampling and on-chip dithering and a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) with advanced on-chip per-pixel processing capabilities. This paper discusses the derivation of optical component requirements, optical design metrics, and performance analyses for the two testbeds built.

  13. Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications and Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaspro, Alberto

    2001-11-01

    Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy Foundations, Applications, and Advances Edited by Alberto Diaspro Confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy has provided researchers with unique possibilities of three-dimensional imaging of biological cells and tissues and of other structures such as semiconductor integrated circuits. Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications, and Advances provides clear, comprehensive coverage of basic foundations, modern applications, and groundbreaking new research developments made in this important area of microscopy. Opening with a foreword by G. J. Brakenhoff, this reference gathers the work of an international group of renowned experts in chapters that are logically divided into balanced sections covering theory, techniques, applications, and advances, featuring: In-depth discussion of applications for biology, medicine, physics, engineering, and chemistry, including industrial applications Guidance on new and emerging imaging technology, developmental trends, and fluorescent molecules Uniform organization and review-style presentation of chapters, with an introduction, historical overview, methodology, practical tips, applications, future directions, chapter summary, and bibliographical references Companion FTP site with full-color photographs The significant experience of pioneers, leaders, and emerging scientists in the field of confocal and two-photon excitation microscopy Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications, and Advances is invaluable to researchers in the biological sciences, tissue and cellular engineering, biophysics, bioengineering, physics of matter, and medicine, who use these techniques or are involved in developing new commercial instruments.

  14. Advanced gastrointestinal endoscopic imaging for inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Rath, Timo; Neumann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal luminal endoscopy is of paramount importance for diagnosis, monitoring and dysplasia surveillance in patients with both, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Moreover, with the recent recognition that mucosal healing is directly linked to the clinical outcome of patients with inflammatory bowel disorders, a growing demand exists for the precise, timely and detailed endoscopic assessment of superficial mucosal layer. Further, the novel field of molecular imaging has tremendously expanded the clinical utility and applications of modern endoscopy, now encompassing not only diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment but also the prediction of individual therapeutic responses. Within this review, we describe how novel endoscopic approaches and advanced endoscopic imaging methods such as high definition and high magnification endoscopy, dye-based and dye-less chromoendoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy, endocytoscopy and molecular imaging now allow for the precise and ultrastructural assessment of mucosal inflammation and describe the potential of these techniques for dysplasia detection. PMID:26811662

  15. Calculations and surface quality measurements of high-asymmetry angle x-ray crystal monochromators for advanced x-ray imaging and metrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zápražný, Zdenko; Korytár, Dušan; Jergel, Matej; Šiffalovič, Peter; Dobročka, Edmund; Vagovič, Patrik; Ferrari, Claudio; Mikulík, Petr; Demydenko, Maksym; Mikloška, Marek

    2015-03-01

    We present the numerical optimization and the technological development progress of x-ray optics based on asymmetric germanium crystals. We show the results of several basic calculations of diffraction properties of germanium x-ray crystal monochromators and of an analyzer-based imaging method for various asymmetry factors using an x-ray energy range from 8 to 20 keV. The important parameter of highly asymmetric monochromators as image magnifiers or compressors is the crystal surface quality. We have applied several crystal surface finishing methods, including advanced nanomachining using single-point diamond turning (SPDT), conventional mechanical lapping, chemical polishing, and chemomechanical polishing, and we have evaluated these methods by means of atomic force microscopy, diffractometry, reciprocal space mapping, and others. Our goal is to exclude the chemical etching methods as the final processing technique because it causes surface undulations. The aim is to implement very precise deterministic methods with a control of surface roughness down to 0.1 nm. The smallest roughness (˜0.3 nm), best planarity, and absence of the subsurface damage were observed for the sample which was machined using an SPDT with a feed rate of 1 mm/min and was consequently polished using a fine polishing 15-min process with a solution containing SiO2 nanoparticles (20 nm).

  16. Applications of Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Galbán, Craig; Galbán, Stefanie; Van Dort, Marcian; Luker, Gary D.; Bhojani, Mahaveer S.; Rehemtualla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Today molecular imaging technologies play a central role in clinical oncology. The use of imaging techniques in early cancer detection, treatment response and new therapy development is steadily growing and has already significantly impacted clinical management of cancer. In this chapter we will overview three different molecular imaging technologies used for the understanding of disease biomarkers, drug development, or monitoring therapeutic outcome. They are (1) optical imaging (bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging) (2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (3) nuclear imaging (e.g, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)). We will review the use of molecular reporters of biological processes (e.g. apoptosis and protein kinase activity) for high throughput drug screening and new cancer therapies, diffusion MRI as a biomarker for early treatment response and PET and SPECT radioligands in oncology. PMID:21075334

  17. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kenneth A.; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  18. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kenneth A; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  19. Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles for Medical Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chen; Zhang, Miqin

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted enormous research attention due to their unique magnetic properties that enable the detection by the non-invasive medical imaging modality—magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By incorporating advanced features, such as specific targeting, multimodality, therapeutic delivery, the detectability and applicability of MNPs have been dramatically expanded. A delicate design on structure, composition and surface chemistry is essential to achieving desired properties in MNP systems, such as high imaging contrast and chemical stability, non-fouling surface, target specificity and/or multimodality. This article presents the design fundamentals on the development of MNP systems, from discussion of material selection for nanoparticle cores and coatings, strategies for chemical synthesis and surface modification and their merits and limitations, to conjugation of special biomolecules for intended functions, and reviews the recent advances in the field. PMID:20593005

  20. Imaging Structure and Composition Homogeneity of 300 mm SiGe Virtual Substrates for Advanced CMOS Applications by Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Marvin H; Richard, Marie-Ingrid; Chahine, Gilbert A; Zaumseil, Peter; Reich, Christian; Capellini, Giovanni; Montalenti, Francesco; Marzegalli, Anna; Xie, Ya-Hong; Schülli, Tobias U; Häberlen, Maik; Storck, Peter; Schroeder, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Advanced semiconductor heterostructures are at the very heart of many modern technologies, including aggressively scaled complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistors for high performance computing and laser diodes for low power solid state lighting applications. The control of structural and compositional homogeneity of these semiconductor heterostructures is the key to success to further develop these state-of-the-art technologies. In this article, we report on the lateral distribution of tilt, composition, and strain across step-graded SiGe strain relaxed buffer layers on 300 mm Si(001) wafers treated with and without chemical-mechanical polishing. By using the advanced synchrotron based scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy technique K-Map together with micro-Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy, we are able to establish a partial correlation between real space morphology and structural properties of the sample resolved at the micrometer scale. In particular, we demonstrate that the lattice plane bending of the commonly observed cross-hatch pattern is caused by dislocations. Our results show a strong local correlation between the strain field and composition distribution, indicating that the adatom surface diffusion during growth is driven by strain field fluctuations induced by the underlying dislocation network. Finally, it is revealed that a superficial chemical-mechanical polishing of cross-hatched surfaces does not lead to any significant change of tilt, composition, and strain variation compared to that of as-grown samples. PMID:25871429

  1. Advances in fluorescence labeling strategies for dynamic cellular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Kevin M; Palmer, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic advances in optical physics, probe design, molecular biology, labeling techniques and computational analysis have propelled fluorescence imaging into new realms of spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. This review aims to discuss advances in fluorescent probes and live-cell labeling strategies, two areas that remain pivotal for future advances in imaging technology. Fluorescent protein– and bio-orthogonal–based methods for protein and RNA imaging are discussed as well as emerging bioengineering techniques that enable their expression at specific genomic loci (for example, CRISPR and TALENs). Important attributes that contribute to the success of each technique are emphasized, providing a guideline for future advances in dynamic live-cell imaging. PMID:24937069

  2. Diagnostic imaging advances in murine models of colitis

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Markus; Lenz, Philipp; Mücke, Marcus M; Gohar, Faekah; Willeke, Peter; Domagk, Dirk; Bettenworth, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic-remittent inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract still evoking challenging clinical diagnostic and therapeutic situations. Murine models of experimental colitis are a vital component of research into human IBD concerning questions of its complex pathogenesis or the evaluation of potential new drugs. To monitor the course of colitis, to the present day, classical parameters like histological tissue alterations or analysis of mucosal cytokine/chemokine expression often require euthanasia of animals. Recent advances mean revolutionary non-invasive imaging techniques for in vivo murine colitis diagnostics are increasingly available. These novel and emerging imaging techniques not only allow direct visualization of intestinal inflammation, but also enable molecular imaging and targeting of specific alterations of the inflamed murine mucosa. For the first time, in vivo imaging techniques allow for longitudinal examinations and evaluation of intra-individual therapeutic response. This review discusses the latest developments in the different fields of ultrasound, molecularly targeted contrast agent ultrasound, fluorescence endoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy as well as tomographic imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and fluorescence-mediated tomography, discussing their individual limitations and potential future diagnostic applications in the management of human patients with IBD. PMID:26811642

  3. Advances and challenges in deformable image registration: From image fusion to complex motion modelling.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Julia A; Heinrich, Mattias P; Papież, Bartłomiej W; Brady, Sir J Michael

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 20 years, the field of medical image registration has significantly advanced from multi-modal image fusion to highly non-linear, deformable image registration for a wide range of medical applications and imaging modalities, involving the compensation and analysis of physiological organ motion or of tissue changes due to growth or disease patterns. While the original focus of image registration has predominantly been on correcting for rigid-body motion of brain image volumes acquired at different scanning sessions, often with different modalities, the advent of dedicated longitudinal and cross-sectional brain studies soon necessitated the development of more sophisticated methods that are able to detect and measure local structural or functional changes, or group differences. Moving outside of the brain, cine imaging and dynamic imaging required the development of deformable image registration to directly measure or compensate for local tissue motion. Since then, deformable image registration has become a general enabling technology. In this work we will present our own contributions to the state-of-the-art in deformable multi-modal fusion and complex motion modelling, and then discuss remaining challenges and provide future perspectives to the field.

  4. Advances and challenges in deformable image registration: From image fusion to complex motion modelling.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Julia A; Heinrich, Mattias P; Papież, Bartłomiej W; Brady, Sir J Michael

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 20 years, the field of medical image registration has significantly advanced from multi-modal image fusion to highly non-linear, deformable image registration for a wide range of medical applications and imaging modalities, involving the compensation and analysis of physiological organ motion or of tissue changes due to growth or disease patterns. While the original focus of image registration has predominantly been on correcting for rigid-body motion of brain image volumes acquired at different scanning sessions, often with different modalities, the advent of dedicated longitudinal and cross-sectional brain studies soon necessitated the development of more sophisticated methods that are able to detect and measure local structural or functional changes, or group differences. Moving outside of the brain, cine imaging and dynamic imaging required the development of deformable image registration to directly measure or compensate for local tissue motion. Since then, deformable image registration has become a general enabling technology. In this work we will present our own contributions to the state-of-the-art in deformable multi-modal fusion and complex motion modelling, and then discuss remaining challenges and provide future perspectives to the field. PMID:27364430

  5. Aerospace applications of advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.; Langenbeck, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced metallic materials within the Al-base family are being developed for applications on current and future aerospace vehicles. These advanced materials offer significant improvements in density, strength, stiffness, fracture resistance, and/or higher use temperature which translates into improved vehicle performance. Aerospace applications of advanced metallic materials include space structures, fighters, military and commercial transport aircraft, and missiles. Structural design requirements, including not only static and durability/damage tolerance criteria but also environmental considerations, drive material selections. Often trade-offs must be made regarding strength, fracture resistance, cost, reliability, and maintainability in order to select the optimum material for a specific application. These trade studies not only include various metallic materials but also many times include advanced composite materials. Details of material comparisons, aerospace applications, and material trades will be presented.

  6. Prior image constrained image reconstruction in emerging computed tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Stephen T.

    Advances have been made in computed tomography (CT), especially in the past five years, by incorporating prior images into the image reconstruction process. In this dissertation, we investigate prior image constrained image reconstruction in three emerging CT applications: dual-energy CT, multi-energy photon-counting CT, and cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy. First, we investigate the application of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) in dual-energy CT, which has been called "one of the hottest research areas in CT." Phantom and animal studies are conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice GE Discovery 750 HD CT scanner to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose reduction in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging. Second, we extend the application of PICCS from dual-energy CT to multi-energy photon-counting CT, which has been called "one of the 12 topics in CT to be critical in the next decade." Numerical simulations are conducted to generate multiple energy bin images for a photon-counting CT acquisition and to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose efficiency improvement. Third, we investigate the performance of a newly proposed prior image constrained scatter correction technique to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT, which, when used in image-guided radiation therapy procedures, can assist in patient localization, and potentially, dose verification and adaptive radiation therapy. Phantom studies are conducted using a Varian 2100 EX system with an on-board imager to investigate the extent to which the prior image constrained scatter correction technique can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT. Results show that these prior image constrained image reconstruction techniques can reduce radiation dose in dual-energy CT by 50% in phantom and animal studies in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging, can lead to radiation

  7. Advanced digital detectors for neutron imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F. Patrick

    2003-12-01

    Neutron interrogation provides unique information valuable for Nonproliferation & Materials Control and other important applications including medicine, airport security, protein crystallography, and corrosion detection. Neutrons probe deep inside massive objects to detect small defects and chemical composition, even through high atomic number materials such as lead. However, current detectors are bulky gas-filled tubes or scintillator/PM tubes, which severely limit many applications. Therefore this project was undertaken to develop new semiconductor radiation detection materials to develop the first direct digital imaging detectors for neutrons. The approach relied on new discovery and characterization of new solid-state sensor materials which convert neutrons directly to electronic signals via reactions BlO(n,a)Li7 and Li6(n,a)T.

  8. An advanced design of non-radioactive image capturing and management system for applications in non-invasive skin disorder diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Carol Y. B.; Luk, David C. K.; Zhou, Kany S. Y.; So, Bryan M. K.; Louie, Derek C. H.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the increasing incidences of malignant melanoma, there is a rising demand for assistive technologies for its early diagnosis and improving the survival rate. The commonly used visual screening method is with limited accuracy as the early phase of melanoma shares many clinical features with an atypical nevus, while conventional dermoscopes are not user-friendly in terms of setup time and operations. Therefore, the development of an intelligent and handy system to assist the accurate screening and long-term monitoring of melanocytic skin lesions is crucial for early diagnosis and prevention of melanoma. In this paper, an advanced design of non-invasive and non-radioactive dermoscopy system was reported. Computer-aided simulations were conducted for optimizing the optical design and uniform illumination distribution. Functional prototype and the software system were further developed, which could enable image capturing at 10x amplified and general modes, convenient data transmission, analysis of dermoscopic features (e.g., asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter and dermoscopic structure) for assisting the early detection of melanoma, extract patient information (e.g. code, lesion location) and integrate with dermoscopic images, thus further support long term monitoring of diagnostic analysis results. A clinical trial study was further conducted on 185 Chinese children (0-18 years old). The results showed that for all subjects, skin conditions diagnosed based on the developed system accurately confirmed the diagnoses by conventional clinical procedures. Besides, clinical analysis on dermoscopic features and a potential standard approach by the developed system to support identifying specific melanocytic patterns for dermoscopic examination in Chinese children were also reported.

  9. Real applications of quantum imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genovese, Marco

    2016-07-01

    In previous years the possibility of creating and manipulating quantum states of light has paved the way for the development of new technologies exploiting peculiar properties of quantum states, such as quantum information, quantum metrology and sensing, quantum imaging, etc. In particular quantum imaging addresses the possibility of overcoming limits of classical optics by using quantum resources such as entanglement or sub-Poissonian statistics. Albeit, quantum imaging is a more recent field than other quantum technologies, e.g. quantum information, it is now mature enough for application. Several different protocols have been proposed, some of them only theoretically, others with an experimental implementation and a few of them pointing to a clear application. Here we present a few of the most mature protocols ranging from ghost imaging to sub shot noise imaging and sub-Rayleigh imaging.

  10. The new kid on the block for advanced imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a review of volumetric laser endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Arvind J.; Smith, Michael S.; Pleskow, Douglas K.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced imaging techniques used in the management of Barrett’s esophagus include electronic imaging enhancement (e.g. narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement, and i-Scan), chromoendoscopy, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. Electronic imaging enhancement is used frequently in daily practice, but use of the other advanced technologies is not routine. High-definition white light endoscopy and random four quadrant biopsy remain the standard of care for evaluation of Barrett’s esophagus; this is largely due to the value of advanced imaging technologies not having been validated in large studies or in everyday practice. A new advanced imaging technology called volumetric laser endomicroscopy is commercially available in the United States. Its ease of use and rapid acquisition of high-resolution images make this technology very promising for widespread application. In this article we review the technology and its potential for advanced imaging in Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:27134668

  11. Technology in radiology: advances in diagnostic imaging & therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Stern, S M

    1993-01-01

    Nearly 100 years from its birth, radiology continues to grow as though still in adolescence. Although some radiologic technologies have matured more than others, new applications and techniques appear regularly in the literature. Radiology has evolved from purely diagnostic devices to interventional technologies. New contrast agents in MRI, X ray and ultrasound enable physicians to make diagnoses and plan therapies with greater precision than ever before. Techniques are less and less invasive. Advances in computer technology have given supercomputer-like power to high-end nuclear medicine and MRI systems. Imaging systems in most modalities are now designed with upgrades in mind instead of "planned obsolescence." Companies routinely upgrade software and other facets of their products, sometimes at no additional charge to existing customers. Hospitals, radiology groups and imaging centers will face increasing demands to justify what they do according to patient outcomes and management criteria. Did images make the diagnosis or confirm it? Did the images determine optimal treatment strategies or confirm which strategies might be appropriate? Third-party payers, especially the government, will view radiology in those terms. The diagnostic imaging and therapy systems of today require increasingly sophisticated technical support for maintenance and repair. Hospitals, radiology groups and imaging centers will have to determine the most economic and effective ways to guarantee equipment up-time. Borrowing from the automotive industry, some radiology manufacturers have devised transtelephonic software systems to facilitate remote troubleshooting. To ensure their fiscal viability, hospitals continue to acquire new imaging and therapy technologies for competitive and access-to-services reasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10129808

  12. Cloning pigs: advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Polejaeva, I A

    2001-01-01

    Although mouse embryonic stem cells have been used widely for over a decade as an important tool for introducing precise genetic modification into the genome, demonstrating the great value of this technology in a range of biomedical applications, similar technology does not exist for domestic animals. However, the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer has bypassed the need for embryonic stem cells from livestock. The production of offspring from differentiated cell nuclei provides information and opportunities in a number of areas including cellular differentiation, early development and ageing. However, the primary significance of cloning is probably in the opportunities that this technology brings to genetic manipulation. Potential applications of gene targeting in livestock species are described with particular emphasis on the generation of pigs that can be used for xenotransplantation, and the production of improved models for human physiology and disease. The development of techniques for somatic cell nuclear transfer in pigs and the challenges associated with this technology are also reviewed.

  13. Nanoscale Advances in Catalysis and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yimin; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-05-12

    In this perspective, we present an overview of nanoscience applications in catalysis, energy conversion, and energy conservation technologies. We discuss how novel physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials can be applied and engineered to meet the advanced material requirements in the new generation of chemical and energy conversion devices. We highlight some of the latest advances in these nanotechnologies and provide an outlook at the major challenges for further developments.

  14. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; Marconcini, Mattia; Tilton, James C.; Trianni, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  15. MO-C-BRE-01: The WMIS-AAPM Joint Symposium: Advances in Molecular Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Contag, C; Pogue, B; Lewis, J

    2014-06-15

    This joint symposium of the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS) and the AAPM includes three luminary speakers discussing work in new paradigms of molecular imaging in cancer (Contag), applications of optical imaging technologies to radiation therapy (Pogue) and an update on PET imaging as a surrogate biomarker for cancer progression and response to therapy. Learning Objectives: Appreciate the current trends in molecular and systems imaging. Understand how optical imaging technologies, and particularly Cerenkov detectors, can be used in advancing radiation oncology. Stay current on new PET tracers - and targets - of interest in cancer treatment.

  16. Signature molecular descriptor : advanced applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr.

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the development of the Signature Molecular Descriptor (or Signature) for use in the solution of inverse design problems as well as in highthroughput screening applications. The ultimate goal of using Signature is to identify novel and non-intuitive chemical structures with optimal predicted properties for a given application. We demonstrate this in three studies: green solvent design, glucocorticoid receptor ligand design and the design of inhibitors for Factor XIa. In many areas of engineering, compounds are designed and/or modified in incremental ways which rely upon heuristics or institutional knowledge. Often multiple experiments are performed and the optimal compound is identified in this brute-force fashion. Perhaps a traditional chemical scaffold is identified and movement of a substituent group around a ring constitutes the whole of the design process. Also notably, a chemical being evaluated in one area might demonstrate properties very attractive in another area and serendipity was the mechanism for solution. In contrast to such approaches, computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) looks to encompass both experimental and heuristic-based knowledge into a strategy that will design a molecule on a computer to meet a given target. Depending on the algorithm employed, the molecule which is designed might be quite novel (re: no CAS registration number) and/or non-intuitive relative to what is known about the problem at hand. While CAMD is a fairly recent strategy (dating to the early 1980s), it contains a variety of bottlenecks and limitations which have prevented the technique from garnering more attention in the academic, governmental and industrial institutions. A main reason for this is how the molecules are described in the computer. This step can control how models are developed for the properties of interest on a given problem as well as how to go from an output of the algorithm to an actual chemical structure. This report

  17. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  18. Survey of Advanced Applications Over ACTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Robert; McMasters, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system provided a national testbed that enabled advanced applications to be tested and demonstrated over a live satellite link. Of the applications that used ACTS. some offered unique advantages over current methods, while others simply could not be accommodated by conventional systems. The initial technical and experiments results of the program were reported at the 1995 ACTS Results Conference. in Cleveland, Ohio. Since then, the Experiments Program has involved 45 new experiments comprising 30 application experiments and 15 technology related experiments that took advantage of the advanced technologies and unique capabilities offered by ACTS. The experiments are categorized and quantified to show the organizational mix of the experiments program and relative usage of the satellite. Since paper length guidelines preclude each experiment from being individually reported, the application experiments and significant demonstrations are surveyed to show the breadth of the activities that have been supported. Experiments in a similar application category are collectively discussed, such as. telemedicine. or networking and protocol evaluation. Where available. experiment conclusions and impact are presented and references of results and experiment information are provided. The quantity and diversity of the experiments program demonstrated a variety of service areas for the next generation of commercially available, advanced satellite communications.

  19. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  20. Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)

  1. Advanced Imaging in Femoroacetabular Impingement: Current State and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Hosalkar, Harish S; Hesper, Tobias; Tiderius, Carl Johan; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is now a known precursor of early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In terms of clinical intervention, the decision between joint preservation and joint replacement hinges on the severity of articular cartilage degeneration. The exact threshold during the course of disease progression when the cartilage damage is irreparable remains elusive. The intention behind radiographic imaging is to accurately identify the morphology of osseous structural abnormalities and to accurately characterize the chondrolabral damage as much as possible. However, both plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are insensitive for articular cartilage anatomy and pathology. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques include magnetic resonance arthrography and biochemically sensitive techniques of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T1rho (T1ρ), T2/T2* mapping, and several others. The diagnostic performance of these techniques to evaluate cartilage degeneration could improve the ability to predict an individual patient-specific outcome with non-surgical and surgical care. This review discusses the facts and current applications of biochemical MRI for hip joint cartilage assessment covering the roles of dGEMRIC, T2/T2*, and T1ρ mapping. The basics of each technique and their specific role in FAI assessment are outlined. Current limitations and potential pitfalls as well as future directions of biochemical imaging are also outlined. PMID:26258129

  2. Advanced Imaging in Femoroacetabular Impingement: Current State and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Hosalkar, Harish S.; Hesper, Tobias; Tiderius, Carl Johan; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is now a known precursor of early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In terms of clinical intervention, the decision between joint preservation and joint replacement hinges on the severity of articular cartilage degeneration. The exact threshold during the course of disease progression when the cartilage damage is irreparable remains elusive. The intention behind radiographic imaging is to accurately identify the morphology of osseous structural abnormalities and to accurately characterize the chondrolabral damage as much as possible. However, both plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are insensitive for articular cartilage anatomy and pathology. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques include magnetic resonance arthrography and biochemically sensitive techniques of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T1rho (T1ρ), T2/T2* mapping, and several others. The diagnostic performance of these techniques to evaluate cartilage degeneration could improve the ability to predict an individual patient-specific outcome with non-surgical and surgical care. This review discusses the facts and current applications of biochemical MRI for hip joint cartilage assessment covering the roles of dGEMRIC, T2/T2*, and T1ρ mapping. The basics of each technique and their specific role in FAI assessment are outlined. Current limitations and potential pitfalls as well as future directions of biochemical imaging are also outlined. PMID:26258129

  3. Advanced MEMS systems for optical communication and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horenstein, M. N.; Stewart, J. B.; Cornelissen, S.; Sumner, R.; Freedman, D. S.; Datta, M.; Kani, N.; Miller, P.

    2011-06-01

    Optical communication and adaptive optics have emerged as two important uses of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) devices based on electrostatic actuation. Each application uses a mirror whose surface is altered by applying voltages of up to 300 V. Previous generations of adaptive-optic mirrors were large (~1 m) and required the use of piezoelectric transducers. Beginning in the mid-1990s, a new class of small MEMS mirrors (~1 cm) were developed. These mirrors are now a commercially available, mature technology. This paper describes three advanced applications of MEMS mirrors. The first is a mirror used for corona-graphic imaging, whereby an interferometric telescope blocks the direct light from a distant star so that nearby objects such as planets can be seen. We have developed a key component of the system: a 144-channel, fully-scalable, high-voltage multiplexer that reduces power consumption to only a few hundred milliwatts. In a second application, a MEMS mirror comprises part of a two-way optical communication system in which only one node emits a laser beam. The other node is passive, incorporating a retro-reflective, electrostatic MEMS mirror that digitally encodes the reflected beam. In a third application, the short (~100-ns) pulses of a commercially-available laser rangefinder are returned by the MEMS mirror as a digital data stream. Suitable low-power drive systems comprise part of the system design.

  4. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue, and can cause tissue death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light ... location of cavities within these light areas. The x-ray on the left clearly shows that the opacities ...

  5. Advanced energy storage for space applications: A follow-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1994-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced energy storage for space applications are presented. Topics covered include: categories of space missions using batteries; battery challenges; properties of SOA and advanced primary batteries; lithium primary cell applications; advanced rechargeable battery applications; present limitations of advanced battery technologies; and status of Li-TiS2, Ni-MH, and Na-NiCl2 cell technologies.

  6. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    SciTech Connect

    Scrymgeour, David; Boye, Robert; Adelsberger, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  7. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno

    2016-03-01

    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  8. Emerging applications of conjugated polymers in molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Junwei; Liu, Jie; Wei, Chen-Wei; Liu, Bin; O'Donnell, Matthew; Gao, Xiaohu

    2013-10-28

    In recent years, conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention from the imaging community as a new class of contrast agent due to their intriguing structural, chemical, and optical properties. Their size and emission wavelength tunability, brightness, photostability, and low toxicity have been demonstrated in a wide range of in vitro sensing and cellular imaging applications, and have just begun to show impact in in vivo settings. In this Perspective, we summarize recent advances in engineering conjugated polymers as imaging contrast agents, their emerging applications in molecular imaging (referred to as in vivo uses in this paper), as well as our perspectives on future research.

  9. Advanced ultrasound probes for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildes, Douglas G.; Smith, L. Scott

    2012-05-01

    New medical ultrasound probe architectures and materials build upon established 1D phased array technology and provide improved imaging performance and clinical value. Technologies reviewed include 1.25D and 1.5D arrays for elevation slice thickness control; electro-mechanical and 2D array probes for real-time 3D imaging; catheter probes for imaging during minimally-invasive procedures; single-crystal piezoelectric materials for greater frequency bandwidth; and cMUT arrays using silicon MEMS in place of piezo materials.

  10. Imaging Multimodalities for Dissecting Alzheimer's Disease: Advanced Technologies of Positron Emission Tomography and Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shimojo, Masafumi; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya; Sahara, Naruhiko

    2015-01-01

    The rapid progress in advanced imaging technologies has expanded our toolbox for monitoring a variety of biological aspects in living subjects including human. In vivo radiological imaging using small chemical tracers, such as with positron emission tomography, represents an especially vital breakthrough in the efforts to improve our understanding of the complicated cascade of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it has provided the most reliable visible biomarkers for enabling clinical diagnosis. At the same time, in combination with genetically modified animal model systems, the most recent innovation of fluorescence imaging is helping establish diverse applications in basic neuroscience research, from single-molecule analysis to animal behavior manipulation, suggesting the potential utility of fluorescence technology for dissecting the detailed molecular-based consequence of AD pathophysiology. In this review, our primary focus is on a current update of PET radiotracers and fluorescence indicators beneficial for understanding the AD cascade, and discussion of the utility and pitfalls of those imaging modalities for future translational research applications. We will also highlight current cutting-edge genetic approaches and discuss how to integrate individual technologies for further potential innovations. PMID:26733795

  11. Advanced Image Search: A Strategy for Creating Presentation Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Diane K.; Hines, Jean D.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Finding relevant digital images to create presentation boards requires advanced search skills. This article describes a course assignment involving a technique designed to develop students' literacy skills with respect to locating images of desired quality and content from Internet databases. The assignment was applied in a collegiate apparel…

  12. Application of conventional and advanced techniques for the interpretation of LANDSAT 2 images for the study of linears in the Friuli earthquake area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardamone, P.; Lechi, G. M.; Cavallin, A.; Marino, C. M.; Zanferrari, A.

    1977-01-01

    The results obtained in the study of linears derived from the analysis of LANDSAT 2 images recorded over Friuli during 1975 are described. Particular attention is devoted to the comparison of several passes in different bands, scales and photographic supports. Moreover reference is made to aerial photographic interpretation in selected sites and to the information obtained by laser techniques.

  13. Image wavelet decomposition and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treil, N.; Mallat, S.; Bajcsy, R.

    1989-01-01

    The general problem of computer vision has been investigated for more that 20 years and is still one of the most challenging fields in artificial intelligence. Indeed, taking a look at the human visual system can give us an idea of the complexity of any solution to the problem of visual recognition. This general task can be decomposed into a whole hierarchy of problems ranging from pixel processing to high level segmentation and complex objects recognition. Contrasting an image at different representations provides useful information such as edges. An example of low level signal and image processing using the theory of wavelets is introduced which provides the basis for multiresolution representation. Like the human brain, we use a multiorientation process which detects features independently in different orientation sectors. So, images of the same orientation but of different resolutions are contrasted to gather information about an image. An interesting image representation using energy zero crossings is developed. This representation is shown to be experimentally complete and leads to some higher level applications such as edge and corner finding, which in turn provides two basic steps to image segmentation. The possibilities of feedback between different levels of processing are also discussed.

  14. Center for Advanced Signal and Imaging Sciences Workshop 2004

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, J H; Carrano, C; Poyneer, L; Palmer, D; Baker, K; Chen, D; London, R; Weinert, G; Brase, J; Paglieroni, D; Lopez, A; Grant, C W; Wright, W; Burke, M; Miller, W O; DeTeresa, S; White, D; Toeppen, J; Haugen, P; Kamath, C; Nguyen, T; Manay, S; Newsam, S; Cantu-Paz, E; Pao, H; Chang, J; Chambers, D; Leach, R; Paulson, C; Romero, C E; Spiridon, A; Vigars, M; Welsh, P; Zumstein, J; Romero, K; Oppenheim, A; Harris, D B; Dowla, F; Brown, C G; Clark, G A; Ong, M M; Clance, T J; Kegelmeyer, l M; Benzuijen, M; Bliss, E; Burkhart, S; Conder, A; Daveler, S; Ferguson, W; Glenn, S; Liebman, J; Norton, M; Prasad, R; Salmon, T; Kegelmeyer, L M; Hafiz, O; Cheung, S; Fodor, I; Aufderheide, M B; Bary, A; Martz, Jr., H E; Burke, M W; Benson, S; Fisher, K A; Quarry, M J

    2004-11-15

    Welcome to the Eleventh Annual C.A.S.I.S. Workshop, a yearly event at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, presented by the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences, or CASIS, and sponsored by the LLNL Engineering Directorate. Every November for the last 10 years we have convened a diverse set of engineering and scientific talent to share their work in signal processing, imaging, communications, controls, along with associated fields of mathematics, statistics, and computing sciences. This year is no exception, with sessions in Adaptive Optics, Applied Imaging, Scientific Data Mining, Electromagnetic Image and Signal Processing, Applied Signal Processing, National Ignition Facility (NIF) Imaging, and Nondestructive Characterization.

  15. Adaptive optics retinal imaging: emerging clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Godara, Pooja; Dubis, Adam M; Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L; Carroll, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    The human retina is a uniquely accessible tissue. Tools like scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography provide clinicians with remarkably clear pictures of the living retina. Although the anterior optics of the eye permit such non-invasive visualization of the retina and associated pathology, the same optics induce significant aberrations that obviate cellular-resolution imaging in most cases. Adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems use active optical elements to compensate for aberrations in the optical path between the object and the camera. When applied to the human eye, AO allows direct visualization of individual rod and cone photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, and white blood cells. AO imaging has changed the way vision scientists and ophthalmologists see the retina, helping to clarify our understanding of retinal structure, function, and the etiology of various retinal pathologies. Here, we review some of the advances that were made possible with AO imaging of the human retina and discuss applications and future prospects for clinical imaging.

  16. A Review of Significant Advances in Neutron Imaging from Conception to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenizer, J. S.

    This review summarizes the history of neutron imaging with a focus on the significant events and technical advancements in neutron imaging methods, from the first radiograph to more recent imaging methods. A timeline is presented to illustrate the key accomplishments that advanced the neutron imaging technique. Only three years after the discovery of the neutron by English physicist James Chadwick in 1932, neutron imaging began with the work of Hartmut Kallmann and Ernst Kuhn in Berlin, Germany, from 1935-1944. Kallmann and Kuhn were awarded a joint US Patent issued in January 1940. Little progress was made until the mid-1950's when Thewlis utilized a neutron beam from the BEPO reactor at Harwell, marking the beginning of the application of neutron imaging to practical applications. As the film method was improved, imaging moved from a qualitative to a quantitative technique, with applications in industry and in nuclear fuels. Standards were developed to aid in the quantification of the neutron images and the facility's capabilities. The introduction of dynamic neutron imaging (initially called real-time neutron radiography and neutron television) in the late 1970's opened the door to new opportunities and new challenges. As the electronic imaging matured, the introduction of the CCD imaging devices and solid-state light intensifiers helped address some of these challenges. Development of improved imaging devices for the medical community has had a major impact on neutron imaging. Additionally, amorphous silicon sensors provided improvements in temporal resolution, while providing a reasonably large imaging area. The development of new neutron imaging sensors and the development of new neutron imaging techniques in the past decade has advanced the technique's ability to provide insight and understanding of problems that other non-destructive techniques could not provide. This rapid increase in capability and application would not have been possible without the

  17. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G.; Humphreys, Peter C.; Bustard, Philip J.; Acosta, Victor M.; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum light–matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories.

  18. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G.; Humphreys, Peter C.; Bustard, Philip J.; Acosta, Victor M.; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-11-01

    Quantum light-matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories.

  19. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G.; Humphreys, Peter C.; Bustard, Philip J.; Acosta, Victor M.; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum light–matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories. PMID:27695198

  20. Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozetič, M.; Ostrikov, K.; Ruzic, D. N.; Curreli, D.; Cvelbar, U.; Vesel, A.; Primc, G.; Leisch, M.; Jousten, K.; Malyshev, O. B.; Hendricks, J. H.; Kövér, L.; Tagliaferro, A.; Conde, O.; Silvestre, A. J.; Giapintzakis, J.; Buljan, M.; Radić, N.; Dražić, G.; Bernstorff, S.; Biederman, H.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Miloševič, S.; Galtayries, A.; Dietrich, P.; Unger, W.; Lehocky, M.; Sedlarik, V.; Stana-Kleinschek, K.; Drmota-Petrič, A.; Pireaux, J. J.; Rogers, J. W.; Anderle, M.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications are reviewed. Novel optical interferometer cavity devices enable pressure measurements with ppm accuracy. The innovative dynamic vacuum standard allows for pressure measurements with temporal resolution of 2 ms. Vacuum issues in the construction of huge ultra-high vacuum devices worldwide are reviewed. Recent advances in surface science and thin films include new phenomena observed in electron transport near solid surfaces as well as novel results on the properties of carbon nanomaterials. Precise techniques for surface and thin-film characterization have been applied in the conservation technology of cultural heritage objects and recent advances in the characterization of biointerfaces are presented. The combination of various vacuum and atmospheric-pressure techniques enables an insight into the complex phenomena of protein and other biomolecule conformations on solid surfaces. Studying these phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is regarded as the main issue in the development of alternative techniques for drug delivery, tissue engineering and thus the development of innovative techniques for curing cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A review on recent advances in plasma medicine is presented as well as novel hypotheses on cell apoptosis upon treatment with gaseous plasma. Finally, recent advances in plasma nanoscience are illustrated with several examples and a roadmap for future activities is presented.

  1. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  2. New Advanced Dielectric Materials for Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kanareykin, A.

    2010-11-04

    We present our recent results on the development and experimental testing of advanced dielectric materials that are capable of supporting the high RF electric fields generated by electron beams or pulsed high power microwaves. These materials have been optimized or specially designed for accelerator applications. The materials discussed here include low loss microwave ceramics, quartz, Chemical Vapor Deposition diamonds and nonlinear Barium Strontium Titanate based ferroelectrics.

  3. Tutorial: Advanced fault tree applications using HARP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Joanne Bechta; Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Boyd, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Reliability analysis of fault tolerant computer systems for critical applications is complicated by several factors. These modeling difficulties are discussed and dynamic fault tree modeling techniques for handling them are described and demonstrated. Several advanced fault tolerant computer systems are described, and fault tree models for their analysis are presented. HARP (Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor) is a software package developed at Duke University and NASA Langley Research Center that is capable of solving the fault tree models presented.

  4. New Advanced Dielectric Materials for Accelerator Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanareykin, A.

    2010-11-01

    We present our recent results on the development and experimental testing of advanced dielectric materials that are capable of supporting the high RF electric fields generated by electron beams or pulsed high power microwaves. These materials have been optimized or specially designed for accelerator applications. The materials discussed here include low loss microwave ceramics, quartz, Chemical Vapor Deposition diamonds and nonlinear Barium Strontium Titanate based ferroelectrics.

  5. The future of imaging spectroscopy - Prospective technologies and applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaepman, M.E.; Green, R.O.; Ungar, S.G.; Curtiss, B.; Boardman, J.; Plaza, A.J.; Gao, B.-C.; Ustin, S.; Kokaly, R.; Miller, J.R.; Jacquemoud, S.; Ben-Dor, E.; Clark, R.; Davis, C.; Dozier, J.; Goodenough, D.G.; Roberts, D.; Swayze, G.; Milton, E.J.; Goetz, A.F.H.

    2006-01-01

    Spectroscopy has existed for more than three centuries now. Nonetheless, significant scientific advances have been achieved. We discuss the history of spectroscopy in relation to emerging technologies and applications. Advanced focal plane arrays, optical design, and intelligent on-board logic are prime prospective technologies. Scalable approaches in pre-processing of imaging spectrometer data will receive additional focus. Finally, we focus on new applications monitoring transitional ecological zones, where human impact and disturbance have highest impact as well as in monitoring changes in our natural resources and environment We conclude that imaging spectroscopy enables mapping of biophysical and biochemical variables of the Earth's surface and atmospheric composition with unprecedented accuracy.

  6. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Work to develop and demonstrate the technology of structural ceramics for automotive engines and similar applications is described. Long-range technology is being sought to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. The Advanced Turbine Technology Application Project (ATTAP) test bed engine is designed such that, when installed in a 3,000 pound inertia weight automobile, it will provide low emissions, 42 miles per gallon fuel economy on diesel fuel, multifuel capability, costs competitive with current spark ignition engines, and noise and safety characteristics that meet Federal standards.

  7. Spectrally Tunable Sources for Advanced Radiometric Applications.

    PubMed

    Brown, S W; Rice, J P; Neira, J E; Johnson, B C; Jackson, J D

    2006-01-01

    A common radiometric platform for the development of application-specific metrics to quantify the performance of sensors and systems is described. Using this platform, sensor and system performance may be quantified in terms of the accuracy of measurements of standardized sets of source distributions. The prototype platform consists of spectrally programmable light sources that can generate complex spectral distributions in the ultraviolet, visible and short-wave infrared regions for radiometric, photometric and colorimetric applications. In essence, the programmable spectral source is a radiometric platform for advanced instrument characterization and calibration that can also serve as a basis for algorithm testing and instrument comparison.

  8. Environmental Applications of Biosurfactants: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna A.; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2011-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies. PMID:21340005

  9. Imaging morphogenesis: technological advances and biological insights.

    PubMed

    Keller, Philipp J

    2013-06-01

    Morphogenesis, the development of the shape of an organism, is a dynamic process on a multitude of scales, from fast subcellular rearrangements and cell movements to slow structural changes at the whole-organism level. Live-imaging approaches based on light microscopy reveal the intricate dynamics of this process and are thus indispensable for investigating the underlying mechanisms. This Review discusses emerging imaging techniques that can record morphogenesis at temporal scales from seconds to days and at spatial scales from hundreds of nanometers to several millimeters. To unlock their full potential, these methods need to be matched with new computational approaches and physical models that help convert highly complex image data sets into biological insights.

  10. Advanced imaging of osseous maxillary clefts.

    PubMed

    Boyne, P J; Christiansen, E L; Thompson, J R

    1993-01-01

    A computed tomographic (CT) technique to establish precise two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) images of the osseous defects of cleft palates is presented and illustrated by two case studies. Prospective soft tissue algorithms and bone detail imaging was made possible by a retrospective program, a specific software program and vertical reformatting technique leading to 3-D image reconstruction. The two cases illustrate the flexibility of the CT program in accurately providing morphometric and bone density data on the location and size of the osseous defects involved in the cleft. Not every cleft palate patient is a candidate for the procedures outlined; however, the diagnosis of and treatment planning for patients presenting with bilateral or extensive osseous clefting can be more accurate.

  11. Advanced decision aiding techniques applicable to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruchten, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    RADC has had an intensive program to show the feasibility of applying advanced technology to Air Force decision aiding situations. Some aspects of the program, such as Satellite Autonomy, are directly applicable to space systems. For example, RADC has shown the feasibility of decision aids that combine the advantages of laser disks and computer generated graphics; decision aids that interface object-oriented programs with expert systems; decision aids that solve path optimization problems; etc. Some of the key techniques that could be used in space applications are reviewed. Current applications are reviewed along with their advantages and disadvantages, and examples are given of possible space applications. The emphasis is to share RADC experience in decision aiding techniques.

  12. Recent Advances in Cardiac Computed Tomography: Dual Energy, Spectral and Molecular CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Danad, Ibrahim; Fayad, Zahi A.; Willemink, Martin J.; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) evolved into a powerful diagnostic tool and it is impossible to imagine current clinical practice without CT imaging. Due to its widespread availability, ease of clinical application, superb sensitivity for detection of CAD, and non-invasive nature, CT has become a valuable tool within the armamentarium of the cardiologist. In the last few years, numerous technological advances in CT have occurred—including dual energy CT (DECT), spectral CT and CT-based molecular imaging. By harnessing the advances in technology, cardiac CT has advanced beyond the mere evaluation of coronary stenosis to an imaging modality tool that permits accurate plaque characterization, assessment of myocardial perfusion and even probing of molecular processes that are involved in coronary atherosclerosis. Novel innovations in CT contrast agents and pre-clinical spectral CT devices have paved the way for CT-based molecular imaging. PMID:26068288

  13. Advances in Pediatric Small Bowel Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tom K

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances for visualizing the small bowel have significantly grown over the past few decades. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy has come to the forefront of these innovations, and has been found to be safe and effective in children with small bowel ailments. The expanding body of research into balloon-assisted enteroscopy will continue to refine the current knowledge base of this technique, along with a growing assessment of the long-term benefits of such interventions. PMID:26616902

  14. Recent advances in breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Newman, J

    1999-01-01

    Mammography is the best technique currently available for early detection of breast cancer, but it has limitations. Several new techniques are under investigation that may provide valuable complementary images. This article discusses some of the most promising adjuncts to film-screen mammography, including digital mammography, ultrasound of the breast, breast MR, scintimammography and sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy.

  15. Advances in Lymphatic Imaging and Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Laird, Forrest M.

    2011-09-10

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases will have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastly improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed.

  16. Multispectral laser imaging for advanced food analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senni, L.; Burrascano, P.; Ricci, M.

    2016-07-01

    A hardware-software apparatus for food inspection capable of realizing multispectral NIR laser imaging at four different wavelengths is herein discussed. The system was designed to operate in a through-transmission configuration to detect the presence of unwanted foreign bodies inside samples, whether packed or unpacked. A modified Lock-In technique was employed to counterbalance the significant signal intensity attenuation due to transmission across the sample and to extract the multispectral information more efficiently. The NIR laser wavelengths used to acquire the multispectral images can be varied to deal with different materials and to focus on specific aspects. In the present work the wavelengths were selected after a preliminary analysis to enhance the image contrast between foreign bodies and food in the sample, thus identifying the location and nature of the defects. Experimental results obtained from several specimens, with and without packaging, are presented and the multispectral image processing as well as the achievable spatial resolution of the system are discussed.

  17. Recent advances in the development and application of nanoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunshan; Han, Chu; Zhang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Nanoelectrodes have key advantages compared to electrodes of conventional size and are the tool of choice for numerous applications in both fundamental electrochemistry research and bioelectrochemical analysis. This Minireview summarizes recent advances in the development, characterization, and use of nanoelectrodes in nanoscale electroanalytical chemistry. Methods of nanoelectrode preparation include laser-pulled glass-sealed metal nanoelectrodes, mass-produced nanoelectrodes, carbon nanotube based and carbon-filled nanopipettes, and tunneling nanoelectrodes. Several new topics of their recent application are covered, which include the use of nanoelectrodes for electrochemical imaging at ultrahigh spatial resolution, imaging with nanoelectrodes and nanopipettes, electrochemical analysis of single cells, single enzymes, and single nanoparticles, and the use of nanoelectrodes to understand single nanobubbles. PMID:27510555

  18. Advanced Applications of RNA Sequencing and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Han, Yixing; Gao, Shouguo; Muegge, Kathrin; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionarily advanced sequence-based research with the advantages of high-throughput, high-sensitivity, and high-speed. RNA-seq is now being used widely for uncovering multiple facets of transcriptome to facilitate the biological applications. However, the large-scale data analyses associated with RNA-seq harbors challenges. In this study, we present a detailed overview of the applications of this technology and the challenges that need to be addressed, including data preprocessing, differential gene expression analysis, alternative splicing analysis, variants detection and allele-specific expression, pathway analysis, co-expression network analysis, and applications combining various experimental procedures beyond the achievements that have been made. Specifically, we discuss essential principles of computational methods that are required to meet the key challenges of the RNA-seq data analyses, development of various bioinformatics tools, challenges associated with the RNA-seq applications, and examples that represent the advances made so far in the characterization of the transcriptome.

  19. Advanced Applications of RNA Sequencing and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yixing; Gao, Shouguo; Muegge, Kathrin; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionarily advanced sequence-based research with the advantages of high-throughput, high-sensitivity, and high-speed. RNA-seq is now being used widely for uncovering multiple facets of transcriptome to facilitate the biological applications. However, the large-scale data analyses associated with RNA-seq harbors challenges. In this study, we present a detailed overview of the applications of this technology and the challenges that need to be addressed, including data preprocessing, differential gene expression analysis, alternative splicing analysis, variants detection and allele-specific expression, pathway analysis, co-expression network analysis, and applications combining various experimental procedures beyond the achievements that have been made. Specifically, we discuss essential principles of computational methods that are required to meet the key challenges of the RNA-seq data analyses, development of various bioinformatics tools, challenges associated with the RNA-seq applications, and examples that represent the advances made so far in the characterization of the transcriptome. PMID:26609224

  20. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Reports technical effort by AlliedSignal Engines in sixth year of DOE/NASA funded project. Topics include: gas turbine engine design modifications of production APU to incorporate ceramic components; fabrication and processing of silicon nitride blades and nozzles; component and engine testing; and refinement and development of critical ceramics technologies, including: hot corrosion testing and environmental life predictive model; advanced NDE methods for internal flaws in ceramic components; and improved carbon pulverization modeling during impact. ATTAP project is oriented toward developing high-risk technology of ceramic structural component design and fabrication to carry forward to commercial production by 'bridging the gap' between structural ceramics in the laboratory and near-term commercial heat engine application. Current ATTAP project goal is to support accelerated commercialization of advanced, high-temperature engines for hybrid vehicles and other applications. Project objectives are to provide essential and substantial early field experience demonstrating ceramic component reliability and durability in modified, available, gas turbine engine applications; and to scale-up and improve manufacturing processes of ceramic turbine engine components and demonstrate application of these processes in the production environment.

  1. Advanced image analysis for the preservation of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Fenella G.; Christens-Barry, William; Toth, Michael B.; Boydston, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    The Library of Congress' Preservation Research and Testing Division has established an advanced preservation studies scientific program for research and analysis of the diverse range of cultural heritage objects in its collection. Using this system, the Library is currently developing specialized integrated research methodologies for extending preservation analytical capacities through non-destructive hyperspectral imaging of cultural objects. The research program has revealed key information to support preservation specialists, scholars and other institutions. The approach requires close and ongoing collaboration between a range of scientific and cultural heritage personnel - imaging and preservation scientists, art historians, curators, conservators and technology analysts. A research project of the Pierre L'Enfant Plan of Washington DC, 1791 had been undertaken to implement and advance the image analysis capabilities of the imaging system. Innovative imaging options and analysis techniques allow greater processing and analysis capacities to establish the imaging technique as the first initial non-invasive analysis and documentation step in all cultural heritage analyses. Mapping spectral responses, organic and inorganic data, topography semi-microscopic imaging, and creating full spectrum images have greatly extended this capacity from a simple image capture technique. Linking hyperspectral data with other non-destructive analyses has further enhanced the research potential of this image analysis technique.

  2. Conventional and advanced imaging in neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Y; Sutton, I J; Ghadiri, M; Masters, L; Zivadinov, R; Barnett, M H

    2014-08-01

    Myelitis and optic neuritis are prototypic clinical presentations of both multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Once considered a subtype of multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, is now known to have a discrete pathogenesis in which antibodies to the water channel, aquaporin 4, play a critical role. Timely differentiation of neuromyelitis optica from MS is imperative, determining both prognosis and treatment strategy. Early, aggressive immunosuppression is required to prevent the accrual of severe disability in neuromyelitis optica; conversely, MS-specific therapies may exacerbate the disease. The diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica requires the integration of clinical, MR imaging, and laboratory data, but current criteria are insensitive and exclude patients with limited clinical syndromes. Failure to recognize the expanding spectrum of cerebral MR imaging patterns associated with aquaporin 4 antibody seropositivity adds to diagnostic uncertainty in some patients. We present the state of the art in conventional and nonconventional MR imaging in neuromyelitis optica and review the place of neuroimaging in the diagnosis, management, and research of the condition.

  3. Three-Dimensional Joint Geophysical Imaging Using an Advanced Multivariate Inversion Technique: the Method and its Application to the Utah area, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haijiang; Maceira, Monica; Benson, Thomas; Nafi Toksoz, M.

    2010-05-01

    We present an advanced multivariate inversion technique to generate a realistic, comprehensive, and high-resolution 3D model of the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle. The model satisfies several independent geophysical datasets including seismic surface wave dispersion measurements, gravity, and seismic arrival time. The joint inversion method takes advantage of strengths of individual data sets and is able to better constrain the seismic velocity models from shallower to greater depths. To combine different geophysical datasets into a common system, we design an optimal weighting scheme that is based on relative uncertainties of individual observations, their sensitivities to model parameters, and the trade-off of different data fitting. We apply this joint inversion method to determine the 3D Vp and Vs models of the Utah area. The seismic body wave arrival times are assembled from waveform data recorded by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) regional network and the EarthScope/USArray network. The surface wave dispersion measurements are obtained from the ambient noise tomography study by the University of Colorado group using EarthScope/USArray stations. The gravity data for the Utah area is extracted from the North American Gravity Database managed by the University of Texas at El Paso. The joint inversions using two individual data sets such as seismic arrival time and gravity data, as well as seismic surface wave and gravity data indicate strong low velocity anomalies in middle crust beneath some known geothermal sites in Utah. The joint inversion of all three data sets will be presented and is expected to produce a reasonably well-constrained velocity structure of the Utah area, which is helpful for characterizing and exploring existing and potential geothermal reservoirs.

  4. Gold Nanoparticles: Recent Advances in the Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoying

    2015-07-01

    Among the multiple branches of nanotechnology applications in the area of medicine and biology, Nanoparticle technology is the fastest growing and shows significant future promise. Nanoscale structures, with size similar to many biological molecules, show different physical and chemical properties compared to either small molecules or bulk materials, find many applications in the fields of biomedical imaging and therapy. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are relatively inert in biological environment, and have a number of physical properties that are suitable for several biomedical applications. For example, AuNPs have been successfully employed in inducing localized hyperthermia for the destruction of tumors or radiotherapy for cancer, photodynamic therapy, computed tomography imaging, as drug carriers to tumors, bio-labeling through single particle detection by electron microscopy and in photothermal microscopy. Recent advances in synthetic chemistry makes it possible to make gold nanoparticles with precise control over physicochemical and optical properties that are desired for specific clinical or biological applications. Because of the availability of several methods for easy modification of the surface of gold nanoparticles for attaching a ligand, drug or other targeting molecules, AuNPs are useful in a wide variety of applications. Even though gold is biologically inert and thus shows much less toxicity, the relatively low rate of clearance from circulation and tissues can lead to health problems and therefore, specific targeting of diseased cells and tissues must be achieved before AuNPs find their application for routine human use.

  5. Advanced Breast Imaging Availability by Screening Facility Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christoph I.; Bogart, Andy; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Obadina, Eniola T.; Hill, Deirdre A.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer A.; Sprague, Brian L.; DeMartini, Wendy B.; Lehman, Constance D.; Onega, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objective To determine the relationship between screening mammography facility characteristics and on-site availability of advanced breast imaging services required for supplemental screening and the diagnostic evaluation of abnormal screening findings. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from all active imaging facilities across six regional registries of the National Cancer Institute-funded Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium offering screening mammography in calendar years 2011–2012 (n=105). We used generalized estimating equations regression models to identify associations between facility characteristics (e.g., academic affiliation, practice type) and availability of on-site advanced breast imaging (e.g., ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and image-guided biopsy services. Results Breast MRI was not available at any non-radiology or breast imaging only facilities. A combination of breast US, breast MRI, and imaging-guided breast biopsy services was available at 76.0% of multi-specialty breast centers compared to 22.2% of full diagnostic radiology practices (p=0.0047) and 75.0% of facilities with academic affiliations compared to 29.0% of those without academic affiliations (p=0.04). Both supplemental screening breast ultrasound and screening breast MRI were available at 28.0% of multi-specialty breast centers compared to 4.7% of full diagnostic radiology practices (p<0.01) and 25.0% of academic facilities compared to 8.5% of non-academic facilities (p=0.02). Conclusion Screening facility characteristics are strongly associated with the availability of on-site advanced breast imaging and image-guided biopsy service. Therefore, the type of imaging facility a woman attends for screening may have important implications on her timely access to supplemental screening and diagnostic breast imaging services. PMID:25851643

  6. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus.

    PubMed

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  7. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  8. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M. Levy, Elliot Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  9. Advances in target imaging of deep Earth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Y.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Clouzet, P.

    2015-12-01

    A new generation of global tomographic models (Lekić and Romanowicz, 2011; French et al, 2013, 2014) has emerged with the development of accurate numerical wavefield computations in a 3D earth combined with access to enhanced HPC capabilities. These models have sharpened up mantle images and unveiled relatively small scale structures that were blurred out in previous generation models. Fingerlike structures have been found at the base of the oceanic asthenosphere, and vertically oriented broad low velocity plume conduits extend throughout the lower mantle beneath those major hotspots that are located within the perimeter of the deep mantle large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). While providing new insights into our understanding of mantle dynamics, the detailed morphology of these features, requires further efforts to obtain higher resolution images. The focus of our ongoing effort is to develop advanced tomographic methods to image remote regions of the Earth at fine scales. We have developed an approach in which distant sources (located outside of the target region) are replaced by an equivalent set of local sources located at the border of the computational domain (Masson et al., 2014). A limited number of global simulations in a reference 3D earth model is then required. These simulations are computed prior to the regional inversion, while iterations of the model need to be performed only within the region of interest, potentially allowing us to include shorter periods at limited additional computational cost. Until now, the application was limited to a distribution of receivers inside the target region. This is particularly suitable for studies of upper mantle structure in regions with dense arrays (e.g. see our companion presentation Clouzet et al., this Fall AGU). Here we present our latest development that now can include teleseismic data recorded outside the imaged region. This allows us to perform regional waveform tomography in the situation where

  10. Real Time Fast Ultrasound Imaging Technology and Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruza, J. F.; Perez, M.; Moreno, J. M.; Fritsch, C.

    In this work, a novel hardware architecture for fast ultrasound imaging based on FPGA devices is proposed. A key difference over other approaches is the unlimited scalability in terms of active channels without performance losses. Acquisition and processing tasks share the same hardware, eliminating communication bottlenecks with smaller size and power losses. These features make this system suitable to implement the most demanding imaging applications, like 3D Phased Array, Total Focusing Method, Vector Doppler, Image Compounding, High Speed Part Scanning and advanced elastographic techniques. A single medium sized FPGA allows beamforming up to 200 scan lines simultaneously, which is enough to perform most of the above mentioned applications in strict real time.

  11. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Radiometric Response Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, J. A.; Lencioni, D. E.; Evans, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is one of three instruments to be flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). ALI contains a number of innovative features, including a wide field of view optical design, compact multispectral focal plane arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe detectors for the short wave infrared bands, and silicon carbide optics. This document outlines the techniques adopted during ground calibration of the radiometric response of the Advanced Land Imager. Results from system level measurements of the instrument response, signal-to-noise ratio, saturation radiance, and dynamic range for all detectors of every spectral band are also presented.

  12. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or ``hyperspectral`` imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne`s Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image ``texture spectra`` derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  13. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or hyperspectral'' imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne's Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image texture spectra'' derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  14. Planning applications in image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We describe two interim results from an ongoing effort to automate the acquisition, analysis, archiving, and distribution of satellite earth science data. Both results are applications of Artificial Intelligence planning research to the automatic generation of processing steps for image analysis tasks. First, we have constructed a linear conditional planner (CPed), used to generate conditional processing plans. Second, we have extended an existing hierarchical planning system to make use of durations, resources, and deadlines, thus supporting the automatic generation of processing steps in time and resource-constrained environments.

  15. Advanced Imaging Catheter: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Krulevitch, P; Colston, B; DaSilva, L; Hilken, D; Kluiwstra, J U; Lee, A P; London, R; Miles, R; Schumann, D; Seward, K; Wang, A

    2001-07-20

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is an approach whereby procedures conventionally performed with large and potentially traumatic incisions are replaced by several tiny incisions through which specialized instruments are inserted. Early MIS, often called laparoscopic surgery, used video cameras and laparoscopes to visualize and control the medical devices, which were typically cutting or stapling tools. More recently, catheter-based procedures have become a fast growing sector of all surgeries. In these procedures, small incisions are made into one of the main arteries (e.g. femoral artery in the thigh), and a long thin hollow tube is inserted and positioned near the target area. The key advantage of this technique is that recovery time can be reduced from months to a matter of days. In the United States, over 700,000 catheter procedures are performed annually representing a market of over $350 million. Further growth in this area will require significant improvements in the current catheter technology. In order to effectively navigate a catheter through the tortuous vessels of the body, two capabilities must exist: imaging and positioning. In most cases, catheter procedures rely on radiography for visualization and manual manipulation for positioning of the device. Radiography provides two-dimensional, global images of the vasculature and cannot be used continuously due to radiation exposure to both the patient and physician. Intravascular ultrasound devices are available for continuous local imaging at the catheter tip, but these devices cannot be used simultaneously with therapeutic devices. Catheters are highly compliant devices, and manipulating the catheter is similar to pushing on a string. Often, a guide wire is used to help position the catheter, but this procedure has its own set of problems. Three characteristics are used to describe catheter maneuverability: (1) pushability -- the amount of linear displacement of the distal end (inside body) relative to

  16. Imaging spectrometer technologies for advanced Earth remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Kuperfman, P.; Salazar, R. P.; Sigurdson, K. B.

    1982-01-01

    A major requirement of multispectral imaging systems for advanced Earth remote sensing is the provision for greater spectral resolution and more versatile spectral band selection. The imaging spectrometer instrument concept provides this versatility by the combination of pushbroom imaging and spectrally dispersing optics using area array detectors in the focal plane. The shuttle imaging spectrometer concept achieves 10- and 20-meter ground instantaneous fields of view with 20-nanometer spectral resolution from Earth Orbit. Onboard processing allows the selection of spectral bands during flight; this, in turn, permits the sensor parameters to be tailored to the experiment objectives. Advances in optical design, infrared detector arrays, and focal plane cooling indicate the feasibility of the instrument concept and support the practicability of a validation flight experiment for the shuttle in the late 1980s.

  17. Advanced digital image archival system using MPEG technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wo

    2009-08-01

    Digital information and records are vital to the human race regardless of the nationalities and eras in which they were produced. Digital image contents are produced at a rapid pace from cultural heritages via digitalization, scientific and experimental data via high speed imaging sensors, national defense satellite images from governments, medical and healthcare imaging records from hospitals, personal collection of photos from digital cameras. With these mass amounts of precious and irreplaceable data and knowledge, what standards technologies can be applied to preserve and yet provide an interoperable framework for accessing the data across varieties of systems and devices? This paper presents an advanced digital image archival system by applying the international standard of MPEG technologies to preserve digital image content.

  18. Advanced Energetics for Aeronautical Applications. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David S.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has identified water vapor emission into the upper atmosphere from commercial transport aircraft, particularly as it relates to the formation of persistent contrails, as a potential environmental problem. Since 1999, MSE has been working with NASA-LaRC to investigate the concept of a transport-size emissionless aircraft fueled with liquid hydrogen combined with other possible breakthrough technologies. The goal of the project is to significantly advance air transportation in the next decade and beyond. The power and propulsion (P/P) system currently being studied would be based on hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) powering electric motors, which drive fans for propulsion. The liquid water reaction product is retained onboard the aircraft until a flight mission is completed. As of now, NASA-LaRC and MSE have identified P/P system components that, according to the high-level analysis conducted to date, are light enough to make the emissionless aircraft concept feasible. Calculated maximum aircraft ranges (within a maximum weight constraint) and other performance predictions are included in this report. This report also includes current information on advanced energy-related technologies, which are still being researched, as well as breakthrough physics concepts that may be applicable for advanced energetics and aerospace propulsion in the future.

  19. Automotive applications for advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of nonaerospace applications for advanced composite materials with special emphasis on the automotive applications. The automotive industry has to satisfy exacting requirements to reduce the average fuel consumption of cars. A feasible approach to accomplish this involves the development of composites cars with a total weight of 2400 pounds and a fuel consumption of 33 miles per gallon. In connection with this possibility, the automotive companies have started to look seriously at composite materials. The aerospace industry has over the past decade accumulated a considerable data base on composite materials and this is being made available to the nonaerospace sector. However, the automotive companies will place prime emphasis on low cost resins which lend themselves to rapid fabrication techniques.

  20. Advanced science and applications space platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J.; Runge, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements for and descriptions of the mission equipment, subsystems, configuration, utilities, and interfaces for an Advanced Science and Applications Space Platform (ASASP) are developed using large space structure technology. Structural requirements and attitude control system concepts are emphasized. To support the development of ASASP requirements, a mission was described that would satisfy the requirements of a representative set of payloads requiring large separation distances selected from the Science and Applications Space Platform data base. Platform subsystems are defined which support the payload requirements and a physical platform concept is developed. Structural system requirements which include utilities accommodation, interface requirements, and platform strength and stiffness requirements are developed. An attitude control system concept is also described. The resultant ASASP is analyzed and technological developments deemed necessary in the area of large space systems are recommended.

  1. Mission applications for advanced photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; West, John L.; Chave, Robert G.; Mcgee, David P.; Yen, Albert S.

    1990-01-01

    The suitability of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) for future space missions was examined by considering the impact on the spacecraft system in general. The lightweight flexible blanket array system was compared to rigid arrays and a radio-isotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) static power source for a wide range of assumed future earth orbiting and interplanetary mission applications. The study approach was to establish assessment criteria and a rating scheme, identify a reference mission set, perform the power system assessment for each mission, and develop conclusions and recommendations to guide future APSA technology development. The authors discuss the three selected power sources, the assessment criteria and rating definitions, and the reference missions. They present the assessment results in a convenient tabular format. It is concluded that the three power sources examined, APSA, conventional solar arrays, and RTGs, can be considered to complement each other. Each power technology has its own range of preferred applications.

  2. Advanced Sensors Boost Optical Communication, Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Brooklyn, New York-based Amplification Technologies Inc. (ATI), employed Phase I and II SBIR funding from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to forward the company's solid-state photomultiplier technology. Under the SBIR, ATI developed a small, energy-efficient, extremely high-gain sensor capable of detecting light down to single photons in the near infrared wavelength range. The company has commercialized this technology in the form of its NIRDAPD photomultiplier, ideal for use in free space optical communications, lidar and ladar, night vision goggles, and other light sensing applications.

  3. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  4. 12 CFR 950.2 - Authorization and application for advances; obligation to repay advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization and application for advances; obligation to repay advances. 950.2 Section 950.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.2...

  5. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  6. Recent Advances of Radionuclide-based Molecular Imaging of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kazuma, Soraya M.; Sultan, Deborah; Zhao, Yongfeng; Detering, Lisa; You, Meng; Luehmann, Hannah P.; Abdalla, Dulcineia S.P.; Liu, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease characterized by the development of multifocal plaque lesions within vessel walls and extending into the vascular lumen. The disease takes decades to develop symptomatic lesions, affording opportunities for accurate detection of plaque progression, analysis of risk factors responsible for clinical events, and planning personalized treatment. Of the available molecular imaging modalities, radionuclide-based imaging strategies have been favored due to their sensitivity, quantitative detection and pathways for translational research. This review summarizes recent advances of radiolabeled small molecules, peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles for atherosclerotic plaque imaging during disease progression. PMID:26369676

  7. AXIOM: Advanced X-Ray Imaging Of the Magnetosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembay, S.; Branduardi-Rayrnont, G.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sibeck, D. G.; Abbey, A.; Brown, P.; Carter, J. A.; Carr, C. M.; Forsyth, C; Kataria, D.; Kemble, S.; Milan, S.; Owen, C. J.; Read, A. M.; Peacocke, L.; Arridge, C. S.; Coates, A. J.; Collier, M. R.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Fraser, G.; Jones, G. H.; Lallement, R.; Lester, M.; Porter, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    AXIOM (Advanced X-ray Imaging Of the Magnetosphere) is a concept mission which aims to explain how the Earth's magnetosphere responds to the changing impact of the solar wind using a unique method never attempted before; performing wide-field soft X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the magnetosheath. magnetopause and bow shock at high spatial and temporal resolution. Global imaging of these regions is possible because of the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) process which produces elevated soft X-ray emission from the interaction of high charge-state solar wind ions with primarily neutral hydrogen in the Earth's exosphere and near-interplanetary space.

  8. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    This concise review attempts to highlight the recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to all the different aspects of prostate cancer (PCa), and outlines future implications of MRI in the diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance of PCa. PMID:21283654

  9. Constructing a prior information base for river mapping from digital images and DEMs by an advanced image interpretation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirkesen, Ali Can

    The purpose of this dissertation is to describe the construction of a prior information-base (interpretation of river characteristics) for river mapping from digital representations, such as remotely sensed digital images and DEMs, by an advanced image interpretation system. More reliable prior information availability in an advanced image interpretation system enables GIS and remote sensing facilities to locate rivers in an easier, more accurate and more straightforward way. In this study, the author proposes a prior information-base including some rules and facts for river mapping from the use of both remotely sensed multi-spectral images and DEMs. These rules not only allow water-related applications in both GIS and remote sensing to be more accurate, but also construct the information-base for river mapping by an advanced image interpretation system. These rules were constructed as a synthesis from searching the literature and experiments with both digital images and DEMs. These rules are employed in an advanced image interpretation system which requires (1) a prior information-base; (2) a working memory; (3) an inference module (Caelli and Bischof, 1997; Schenk and Zilberstein, 1990). A prior information-base is formed by a set of rules (qualitative or quantitative or relationships). A working memory has the basic function of holding features in the form of spatial data and their attribute values. These spatial and attribute data are used by interpreters to activate the rules. Inference module refers to software and hardware that connect the user's questions to the prior information-base and instruct the user (interpreter) about the process. In this dissertation, a prior information-based river mapping was implemented and the proposed rules were tested studying both images and DEMs in IDRISI, as well as RiverTools.

  10. Recent Advances in Metabolic Profiling And Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Roopa; Titus, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a metabolic disease. Cancer cells, being highly proliferative, show significant alterations in metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, respiration, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. Metabolites like peptides, nucleotides, products of glycolysis, the TCA cycle, fatty acids, and steroids can be an important read out of disease when characterized in biological samples such as tissues and body fluids like urine, serum, etc. The cancer metabolome has been studied since the 1960s by analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Current research is focused on the identification and validation of biomarkers in the cancer metabolome that can stratify high-risk patients and distinguish between benign and advanced metastatic forms of the disease. In this review, we discuss the current state of prostate cancer metabolomics, the biomarkers that show promise in distinguishing indolent from aggressive forms of the disease, the strengths and limitations of the analytical techniques being employed, and future applications of metabolomics in diagnostic imaging and personalized medicine of prostate cancer. PMID:25632377

  11. Applications of image processing and visualization in the evaluation of murder and assault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, William R.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Boxwala, Aziz; Stotts, David; Smith, John; Soltys, Mitchell; Symon, James; Cullip, Tim; Wagner, Glenn

    1994-09-01

    Recent advances in image processing and visualization are of increasing use in the investigation of violent crime. The Digital Image Processing Laboratory at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in collaboration with groups at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill are actively exploring visualization applications including image processing of trauma images, 3D visualization, forensic database management and telemedicine. Examples of recent applications are presented. Future directions of effort include interactive consultation and image manipulation tools for forensic data exploration.

  12. HIAD Advancements and Extension of Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Keith; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Korzun, Ashley M.; DiNonno, John M.; Lindell, Mike C.; Swanson, Greg T.

    2016-01-01

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology has made significant advancements over the last decade with flight test demonstrations and ground development campaigns. The first generation (Gen-1) design and materials were flight tested with the successful third Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment flight test of a 3-m HIAD (IRVE-3). Ground development efforts incorporated materials with higher thermal capabilities for the inflatable structure (IS) and flexible thermal protection system (F-TPS) as a second generation (Gen-2) system. Current efforts and plans are focused on extending capabilities to improve overall system performance and reduce areal weight, as well as expand mission applicability. F-TPS materials that offer greater thermal resistance, and ability to be packed to greater density, for a given thickness are being tested to demonstrated thermal performance benefits and manufacturability at flight-relevant scale. IS materials and construction methods are being investigated to reduce mass, increase load capacities, and improve durability for packing. Previous HIAD systems focused on symmetric geometries using stacked torus construction. Flight simulations and trajectory analysis show that symmetrical HIADs may provide L/D up to 0.25 via movable center of gravity (CG) offsets. HIAD capabilities can be greatly expanded to suit a broader range of mission applications with asymmetric shapes and/or modulating L/D. Various HIAD concepts are being developed to provide greater control to improve landing accuracy and reduce dependency upon propulsion systems during descent and landing. Concepts being studied include a canted stack torus design, control surfaces, and morphing configurations that allow the shape to be actively manipulated for flight control. This paper provides a summary of recent HIAD development activities, and plans for future HIAD developments including advanced materials, improved construction techniques, and alternate

  13. Advanced astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer in spectral broadband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Hai-fang

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports an advanced Czerny-Turner optical structure which is used for the application in imaging spectrometers. To obtain the excellent imaging quality, a cylindrical lens with a wedge angle is used between the focusing mirror and the imaging plane to remove astigmatism in broadband. It makes the advanced optical system presents high resolution over the full bandwidth and decreases the cost. An example of the imaging spectrometer in the waveband of 260nm~520nm has been designed to prove our theory. It yields the excellent modulation transfer functions (MTF) of all fields of view which are more than 0.75 over the broadband under the required Nyquist frequency (20lp/mm).

  14. Image Processing Application for Cognition (IPAC) - Traditional and Emerging Topics in Image Processing in Astronomy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesenson, M.; Roby, W.; Helou, G.; McCollum, B.; Ly, L.; Wu, X.; Laine, S.; Hartley, B.

    2008-08-01

    A new application framework for advanced image processing for astronomy is presented. It implements standard two-dimensional operators, and recent developments in the field of non-astronomical image processing (IP), as well as original algorithms based on nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE). These algorithms are especially well suited for multi-scale astronomical images since they increase signal to noise ratio without smearing localized and diffuse objects. The visualization component is based on the extensive tools that we developed for Spitzer Space Telescope's observation planning tool Spot and archive retrieval tool Leopard. It contains many common features, combines images in new and unique ways and interfaces with many astronomy data archives. Both interactive and batch mode processing are incorporated. In the interactive mode, the user can set up simple processing pipelines, and monitor and visualize the resulting images from each step of the processing stream. The system is platform-independent and has an open architecture that allows extensibility by addition of plug-ins. This presentation addresses astronomical applications of traditional topics of IP (image enhancement, image segmentation) as well as emerging new topics like automated image quality assessment (QA) and feature extraction, which have potential for shaping future developments in the field. Our application framework embodies a novel synergistic approach based on integration of image processing, image visualization and image QA (iQA).

  15. Advanced Stirling conversion systems for terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program, Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) is developing heat engines for terrestrial Solar Distributed Heat Receivers. SNLA has identified the Stirling to be one of the most promising candidates for the terrestrial applications. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) has the potential to meet the DOE goals for both performance and cost. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is conducting free-piston Stirling activities which are directed toward a dynamic power source for space applications. Space power system requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability and low vibration. The FPSE has the potential for future high power space conversion systems, either solar or nuclear. Generic free-piston technology is currently being developed by LeRC for DOE/ORNL for use with a residential heat pump under an Interagency Agreement. Since 1983, the SP-100 Program (DOD/NASA/DOE) is developing dynamic power sources for space. Although both applications (heat pump and space power) appear to be quite different, their requirements complement each other. A cooperative Interagency Agreement (IAA) was signed in 1985 with NASA Lewis to provide technical management for an Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) for SNLA. Conceptual design(s) using a free-piston Stirling (FPSE), and a heat pipe will be discussed. The ASCS will be designed using technology which can reasonably be expected to be available in the 1980's.

  16. An advanced unmanned vehicle for remote applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B.; Sackos, J.

    1998-03-01

    An autonomous mobile robotic capability is critical to developing remote work applications for hazardous environments. A few potential applications include humanitarian demining and ordnance neutralization, extraterrestrial science exploration, and hazardous waste cleanup. The ability of the remote platform to sense and maneuver within its environment is a basic technology requirement which is currently lacking. This enabling technology will open the door for force multiplication and cost effective solutions to remote operations. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a mobile robotic platform that can identify and avoid local obstacles as it traverses from its current location to a specified destination. This goal directed autonomous navigation scheme uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to identify the robot`s current coordinates in space and neural network processing of LADAR range images for local obstacle detection and avoidance. The initial year funding provided by this LDRD project has developed a small exterior mobile robotic development platform and a fieldable version of Sandia`s Scannerless Range Imager (SRI) system. The robotic testbed platform is based on the Surveillance And Reconnaissance ground Equipment (SARGE) robotic vehicle design recently developed for the US DoD. Contingent upon follow-on funding, future enhancements will develop neural network processing of the range map data to traverse unstructured exterior terrain while avoiding obstacles. The SRI will provide real-time range images to a neural network for autonomous guidance. Neural network processing of the range map data will allow real-time operation on a Pentium based embedded processor board.

  17. INVITED REVIEW--IMAGE REGISTRATION IN VETERINARY RADIATION ONCOLOGY: INDICATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND FUTURE ADVANCES.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yang; Lawrence, Jessica; Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Forrest, Lisa; Mclaren, Duncan B; McLaughlin, Stephen; Argyle, David J; Nailon, William H

    2016-01-01

    The field of veterinary radiation therapy (RT) has gained substantial momentum in recent decades with significant advances in conformal treatment planning, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and intensity-modulated (IMRT) techniques. At the root of these advancements lie improvements in tumor imaging, image alignment (registration), target volume delineation, and identification of critical structures. Image registration has been widely used to combine information from multimodality images such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) to improve the accuracy of radiation delivery and reliably identify tumor-bearing areas. Many different techniques have been applied in image registration. This review provides an overview of medical image registration in RT and its applications in veterinary oncology. A summary of the most commonly used approaches in human and veterinary medicine is presented along with their current use in IGRT and adaptive radiation therapy (ART). It is important to realize that registration does not guarantee that target volumes, such as the gross tumor volume (GTV), are correctly identified on the image being registered, as limitations unique to registration algorithms exist. Research involving novel registration frameworks for automatic segmentation of tumor volumes is ongoing and comparative oncology programs offer a unique opportunity to test the efficacy of proposed algorithms. PMID:26777133

  18. INVITED REVIEW--IMAGE REGISTRATION IN VETERINARY RADIATION ONCOLOGY: INDICATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND FUTURE ADVANCES.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yang; Lawrence, Jessica; Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Forrest, Lisa; Mclaren, Duncan B; McLaughlin, Stephen; Argyle, David J; Nailon, William H

    2016-01-01

    The field of veterinary radiation therapy (RT) has gained substantial momentum in recent decades with significant advances in conformal treatment planning, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and intensity-modulated (IMRT) techniques. At the root of these advancements lie improvements in tumor imaging, image alignment (registration), target volume delineation, and identification of critical structures. Image registration has been widely used to combine information from multimodality images such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) to improve the accuracy of radiation delivery and reliably identify tumor-bearing areas. Many different techniques have been applied in image registration. This review provides an overview of medical image registration in RT and its applications in veterinary oncology. A summary of the most commonly used approaches in human and veterinary medicine is presented along with their current use in IGRT and adaptive radiation therapy (ART). It is important to realize that registration does not guarantee that target volumes, such as the gross tumor volume (GTV), are correctly identified on the image being registered, as limitations unique to registration algorithms exist. Research involving novel registration frameworks for automatic segmentation of tumor volumes is ongoing and comparative oncology programs offer a unique opportunity to test the efficacy of proposed algorithms.

  19. Advanced teleoperation: Technology innovations and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, Paul S.; Bejczy, Antal K.; Kim, Won S.

    1994-01-01

    The capability to remotely, robotically perform space assembly, inspection, servicing, and science functions would rapidly expand our presence in space, and the cost efficiency of being there. There is considerable interest in developing 'telerobotic' technologies, which also have comparably important terrestrial applications to health care, underwater salvage, nuclear waste remediation and other. Such tasks, both space and terrestrial, require both a robot and operator interface that is highly flexible and adaptive, i.e., capable of efficiently working in changing and often casually structured environments. One systems approach to this requirement is to augment traditional teleoperation with computer assists -- advanced teleoperation. We have spent a number of years pursuing this approach, and highlight some key technology developments and their potential commercial impact. This paper is an illustrative summary rather than self-contained presentation; for completeness, we include representative technical references to our work which will allow the reader to follow up items of particular interest.

  20. Surface plasmon resonance biosensors: advances and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, Jirí

    2009-10-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors represent the most advanced label-free optical affinity biosensor technology. In the last decade numerous SPR sensor platforms have been developed and applied in the life sciences and bioanalytics. This contribution reviews the state of the art in the development of SPR (bio)sensor technology and presents selected results of research into SPR biosensors at the Institute of Photonics and Electronics, Prague. The developments discussed in detail include a miniature fiber optic SPR sensor for localized measurements, a compact SPR sensor for field use and a multichannel SPR sensor for high-throughput screening. Examples of applications for the detection of analytes related to medical diagnostics (biomarkers, hormones, antibodies), environmental monitoring (endocrine disrupting compounds), and food safety (pathogens and toxins) are given.

  1. Fundamental developments in infrared spectroscopic imaging for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Michael; Gardner, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Infrared chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field with new advances in instrumentation, data acquisition and data analysis. These developments have had significant impact in biomedical applications and numerous studies have now shown that this technology offers great promise for the improved diagnosis of the diseased state. Relying on purely biochemical signatures rather than contrast from exogenous dyes and stains, infrared chemical imaging has the potential to revolutionise histopathology for improved disease diagnosis. In this review we discuss the recent advances in infrared spectroscopic imaging specifically related to spectral histopathology (SHP) and consider the current state of the field. Finally we consider the practical application of SHP for disease diagnosis and consider potential barriers to clinical translation highlighting current directions and the future outlook. PMID:26996636

  2. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. Results: Findings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. Conclusions: The authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  3. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThis article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). MethodsThe study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. ResultsFindings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. ConclusionsThe authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ. PMID:26229631

  4. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of Annual Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report was prepared by Garrett Auxiliary Power Division (GAPD), a unit of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, a unit of Allied Signal, Inc. The report includes information provided by Garrett Ceramic Components, and the Norton Advanced Ceramics Company, (formerly Norton/TRW Ceramics), subcontractors to GAPD on the ATTAP. This report covers plans and progress on ceramics development for commercial automotive applications over the period 1 Jan. through 31 Dec. 1992. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System program. This program is directed to provide the U.S. automotive industry the high-risk, long-range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption, reduced environmental impact, and a decreased reliance on scarce materials and resources. The program is oriented toward developing the high-risk technology of ceramic structural component design and fabrication, such that industry can carry this technology forward to production in the 1990's. The ATTAP test bed engine, carried over from the previous AGT101 project, is being used for verification testing of the durability of next generation ceramic components, and their suitability for service at Reference Powertrain Design conditions. This document reports the technical effort conducted by GAPD and the ATTAP subcontractors during the fifth year of the project. Topics covered include ceramic processing definition and refinement, design improvements to the ATTAP test bed engine and test rigs, and the methodology development of ceramic impact and fracture mechanisms. Appendices include reports by ATTAP subcontractors in the development of silicon nitride materials and processes.

  5. Advanced scanners and imaging systems for earth observations. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Assessments of present and future sensors and sensor related technology are reported along with a description of user needs and applications. Five areas are outlined: (1) electromechanical scanners, (2) self-scanned solid state sensors, (3) electron beam imagers, (4) sensor related technology, and (5) user applications. Recommendations, charts, system designs, technical approaches, and bibliographies are included for each area.

  6. IR camera system with an advanced image processing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Syuichi; Tamura, Tetsuo

    2016-05-01

    We have developed image processing technologies for resolving issues caused by the inherent UFPA (uncooled focal plane array) sensor characteristics to spread its applications. For example, large time constant of an uncooled IR (infra-red) sensor limits its application field, because motion blur is caused in monitoring the objective moving at high speed. The developed image processing technologies can eliminate the blur and retrieve almost the equivalent image observed in still motion. This image processing is based on the idea that output of the IR sensor is construed as the convolution of radiated IR energy from the objective and impulse response of the IR sensor. With knowledge of the impulse response and moving speed of the objective, the IR energy from the objective can be de-convolved from the observed images. We have successfully retrieved the image without blur using the IR sensor of 15 ms time constant under the conditions in which the objective is moving at the speed of about 10 pixels/60 Hz. The image processing for reducing FPN (fixed pattern noise) has also been developed. UFPA having the responsivity in the narrow wavelength region, e.g., around 8 μm is appropriate for measuring the surface of glass. However, it suffers from severe FPN due to lower sensitivity compared with 8-13 μm. The developed image processing exploits the images of the shutter itself, and can reduce FPN significantly.

  7. Challenges and recent advances in mass spectrometric imaging of neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Gemperline, Erin; Chen, Bingming; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules, from small molecules to large proteins, by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in the study of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides of different classes toward investigation of neurobiological functions and diseases. These studies have provided significant insight in neurobiology over the years and current technical advances are facilitating further improvements in this field. neurotransmitters, focusing specifically on the challenges and recent Herein, we advances of MSI of neurotransmitters. PMID:24568355

  8. Advances in imaging explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, H; Bandak, A; Ling, G; Bandak, F A

    2015-01-01

    In the past, direct physical evidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from explosive blast has been difficult to obtain through conventional imaging modalities such as T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Here, we review current progress in detecting evidence of brain injury from explosive blast using advanced imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and the metabolic imaging methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), where each targets different aspects of the pathology involved in mTBI. DTI provides a highly sensitive measure to detect primary changes in the microstructure of white matter tracts. fMRI enables the measurement of changes in brain activity in response to different stimuli or tasks. Remarkably, all three of these paradigms have found significant success in conventional mTBI where conventional clinical imaging frequently fails to provide definitive differences. Additionally, although used less frequently for conventional mTBI, PET has the potential to characterize a variety of neurotransmitter systems using target agents and will undoubtedly play a larger role, once the basic mechanisms of injury are better understood and techniques to identify the injury are more common. Finally, our MRSI imaging studies, although acquired at much lower spatial resolution, have demonstrated selectivity to different metabolic and physiologic processes, uncovering some of the most profound differences on an individual by individual basis, suggesting the potential for utility in the management of individual patients.

  9. Recent advances in image-guided targeted prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna M; Elbuluk, Osama; Mertan, Francesca; Sankineni, Sandeep; Margolis, Daniel J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in the United States that results in over 30,000 deaths per year. The current state of prostate cancer diagnosis, based on PSA screening and sextant biopsy, has been criticized for both overdiagnosis of low-grade tumors and underdiagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancers (Gleason score ≥7). Recently, image guidance has been added to perform targeted biopsies of lesions detected on multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scans. These methods have improved the ability to detect clinically significant cancer, while reducing the diagnosis of low-grade tumors. Several approaches have been explored to improve the accuracy of image-guided targeted prostate biopsy, including in-bore MRI-guided, cognitive fusion, and MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy. This review will examine recent advances in these image-guided targeted prostate biopsy techniques. PMID:25596716

  10. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  11. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630

  12. Applications of dual energy computed tomography in abdominal imaging.

    PubMed

    Lestra, T; Mulé, S; Millet, I; Carsin-Vu, A; Taourel, P; Hoeffel, C

    2016-06-01

    Dual energy computed tomography (CT) is an imaging technique based on data acquisition at two different energy settings. Recent advances in CT have allowed data acquisition and almost simultaneously analysis of two spectra of X-rays at different energy levels resulting in novel developments in the field of abdominal imaging. This technique is widely used in cardiovascular imaging, especially for pulmonary embolism work-up but is now also increasingly developed in the field of abdominal imaging. With dual-energy CT it is possible to obtain virtual unenhanced images from monochromatic reconstructions as well as attenuation maps of different elements, thereby improving detection and characterization of a variety of renal, adrenal, hepatic and pancreatic abnormalities. Also, dual-energy CT can provide information regarding urinary calculi composition. This article reviews and illustrates the different applications of dual-energy CT in routine abdominal imaging.

  13. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of Annual Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP). This report covers plans and progress on ceramics development for commercial automotive applications over the period 1 Jan. - 31 Dec. 1991. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System program. This program is directed to provide the U.S. automotive industry the high-risk, long-range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption, reduced environmental impact, and a decreased reliance on scarce materials and resources. The program is oriented toward developing the high-risk technology of ceramic structural component design and fabrication, such that industry can carry this technology forward to production in the 1990s. The ATTAP test bed engine, carried over from the previous AGT101 project, is being used for verification testing of the durability of next-generation ceramic components, and their suitability for service at Reference Powertrain Design conditions. This document reports the technical effort conducted by GAPD and the ATTAP subcontractors during the fourth year of the project. Topics covered include ceramic processing definition and refinement, design improvements to the ATTAP test bed engine and test rigs and the methodology development of ceramic impact and fracture mechanisms. Appendices include reports by ATTAP subcontractors in the development of silicon nitride and silicon carbide families of materials and processes.

  14. Advanced Stirling conversion systems for terrestrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shaltens, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) is developing heat engines for terrestrial Solar distributed Heat Receivers. SNLA has identified the Stirling to be one of the most promising candidates for the terrestrial applications. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) has the potential to meet the DOE goals for both performance and cost. Free-piston Stirling activities which are directed toward a dynamic power source for the space application are being conducted. Space power system requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability and low vibration. The FPSE has the potential for future high power space conversion systems, either solar or nuclear powered. Generic free-piston technology is currently being developed for use with a residential heat pump under an Interagency Agreement. Also, an overview is presented of proposed conceptual designs for the Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) using a free-piston Stirling engine and a liquid metal heat pipe receiver. Power extraction includes both a linear alternator and hydraulic output capable of delivering approximately 25 kW of electrical power to the electric utility grid. Target cost of the engine/alternator is 300 dollars per kilowatt at a manufacturing rate of 10,000 units per year. The design life of the ASCS is 60,000 h (30 y) with an engine overhaul at 40,000 h (20 y). Also discussed are the key features and characteristics of the ASCS conceptual designs.

  15. Applications of advanced diffractive optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, W. Hudson; Morris, James E.; Feldman, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Digital Optics Corporation is a UNC-Charlotte spin-off company, established to transfer technology developed at UNC-Charlotte for the design and manufacture Computer Generated Holograms (CGH's) and to market products based on CGH technology. DOC acquired core technologies from UNC-Charlotte including: (1) a CGH encoding process that can provide holograms with extremely high diffraction efficiency; (2) a low cost, high precision CGH manufacturing process; and (3) extensive holographic and refractive element design capabilities for design and evaluation of complex optical systems. These technologies have been used to design and/or manufacture optical components for a variety of applications including: (1) generation of Spot arrays; (2) fiber optic coupling elements; (3) optical interconnects between VLSI chips within and between multichip modules; and (4) imaging systems for head-mounted displays (HMD's).

  16. Recent advances in cross-sectional renal imaging-an oncologic perspective: the current concepts and the future challenges.

    PubMed

    Ganeshan, Dhakshinamoorthy; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaidis, Paul; Sanyal, Rupan; Bhosale, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Renal imaging remains a critical tool to differentiate and manage benign from malignant renal disorders. Conventional multidetector computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) provide great anatomical details, although lack functional information and specificity. The lack of resolution undermines the functional capabilities of nuclear medicine imaging. Functional MR imaging has shown strong utility in imaging of renal masses, with evolving techniques such as diffusion, perfusion, and blood oxygen level-dependent sequences. At the same time, newer techniques like dual-energy CT and CT perfusion are also showing promise in renal oncologic imaging.This article will discuss the recent advances in MR imaging and CT techniques pertaining to renal oncological applications.

  17. Applications for thermal NDT on advanced composites in aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baughman, Steve R.

    1998-03-01

    Following several years of investigating active thermal imaging techniques, Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems Company (LMASC) has introduced a portable, time-dependent thermography (TDT) system into the production inspection environment. Originally pursued as a rapid, non-contacting, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tool for inspecting large surface areas, the TDT system has proven most useful as a rapid verification tool on advanced composite assemblies. TDT is a relatively new NDE methodology as compared to conventional ultrasonic and radiography testing. SEveral technical issues are being addressed as confidence in the system's capabilities increase. These include inspector training and certification, system sensitivity assessments, and test results interpretation. Starting in 1991, LMASC began a beta-site evaluation of a prototype TDT system developed by the Institute of Manufacturing Research at Wayne State University. This prototype was the forerunner of the current production system, which is offered commercially as a fully integrated thermal NDE system. Applications investigated to data include quality assurance of advanced aerospace composite structures/assemblies for disbonds/voids between skin and core. TDT has a number of advantages over traditional NDT methods. The process of acquiring thermal images is fast, and can decrease inspection time required to locate suspect areas. The system also holds promise for depot level inspections due to its portability. This paper describes a systematic approach to implementing TDT into the production inspection arena.

  18. Advances in artificial olfaction: sensors and applications.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J; Horrillo, M C

    2014-06-01

    The artificial olfaction, based on electronic systems (electronic noses), includes three basic functions that operate on an odorant: a sample handler, an array of gas sensors, and a signal-processing method. The response of these artificial systems can be the identity of the odorant, an estimate concentration of the odorant, or characteristic properties of the odour as might be perceived by a human. These electronic noses are bio inspired instruments that mimic the sense of smell. The complexity of most odorants makes characterisation difficult with conventional analysis techniques, such as gas chromatography. Sensory analysis by a panel of experts is a costly process since it requires trained people who can work for only relatively short periods of time. The electronic noses are easy to build, provide short analysis times, in real time and on-line, and show high sensitivity and selectivity to the tested odorants. These systems are non-destructive techniques used to characterise odorants in diverse applications linked with the quality of life such as: control of foods, environmental quality, citizen security or clinical diagnostics. However, there is much research still to be done especially with regard to new materials and sensors technology, data processing, interpretation and validation of results. This work examines the main features of modern electronic noses and their most important applications in the environmental, and security fields. The above mentioned main components of an electronic nose (sample handling system, more advanced materials and methods for sensing, and data processing system) are described. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of electronic noses in the different applications are also mentioned. PMID:24767451

  19. Advances in artificial olfaction: sensors and applications.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J; Horrillo, M C

    2014-06-01

    The artificial olfaction, based on electronic systems (electronic noses), includes three basic functions that operate on an odorant: a sample handler, an array of gas sensors, and a signal-processing method. The response of these artificial systems can be the identity of the odorant, an estimate concentration of the odorant, or characteristic properties of the odour as might be perceived by a human. These electronic noses are bio inspired instruments that mimic the sense of smell. The complexity of most odorants makes characterisation difficult with conventional analysis techniques, such as gas chromatography. Sensory analysis by a panel of experts is a costly process since it requires trained people who can work for only relatively short periods of time. The electronic noses are easy to build, provide short analysis times, in real time and on-line, and show high sensitivity and selectivity to the tested odorants. These systems are non-destructive techniques used to characterise odorants in diverse applications linked with the quality of life such as: control of foods, environmental quality, citizen security or clinical diagnostics. However, there is much research still to be done especially with regard to new materials and sensors technology, data processing, interpretation and validation of results. This work examines the main features of modern electronic noses and their most important applications in the environmental, and security fields. The above mentioned main components of an electronic nose (sample handling system, more advanced materials and methods for sensing, and data processing system) are described. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of electronic noses in the different applications are also mentioned.

  20. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    ATTAP activities during the past year were highlighted by an extensive materials assessment, execution of a reference powertrain design, test-bed engine design and development, ceramic component design, materials and component characterization, ceramic component process development and fabrication, component rig design and fabrication, test-bed engine fabrication, and hot gasifier rig and engine testing. Materials assessment activities entailed engine environment evaluation of domestically supplied radial gasifier turbine rotors that were available at the conclusion of the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project as well as an extensive survey of both domestic and foreign ceramic suppliers and Government laboratories performing ceramic materials research applicable to advanced heat engines. A reference powertrain design was executed to reflect the selection of the AGT-5 as the ceramic component test-bed engine for the ATTAP. Test-bed engine development activity focused on upgrading the AGT-5 from a 1038 C (1900 F) metal engine to a durable 1371 C (2500 F) structural ceramic component test-bed engine. Ceramic component design activities included the combustor, gasifier turbine static structure, and gasifier turbine rotor. The materials and component characterization efforts have included the testing and evaluation of several candidate ceramic materials and components being developed for use in the ATTAP. Ceramic component process development and fabrication activities were initiated for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine vanes, gasifier turbine scroll, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Component rig development activities included combustor, hot gasifier, and regenerator rigs. Test-bed engine fabrication activities consisted of the fabrication of an all-new AGT-5 durability test-bed engine and support of all engine test activities through instrumentation/build/repair. Hot gasifier rig and test-bed engine testing

  1. Advanced indium antimonide monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, T. L.; Merilainen, C. A.; Thom, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The continued process development of SiO2 insulators for use in advanced InSb monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays is described. Specific investigations into the use of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) SiO2 as a gate insulator for InSb charge coupled devices is discussed, as are investigations of other chemical vapor deposited SiO2 materials.

  2. Advanced Imaging for Biopsy Guidance in Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tsiouris, Apostolos J; Ramakrishna, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate glioma sampling is required for diagnosis and establishing eligibility for relevant clinical trials. MR-based perfusion and spectroscopy sequences supplement conventional MR in noninvasively predicting the areas of highest tumor grade for biopsy. We report the case of a patient with gliomatosis cerebri and multifocal patchy enhancement in whom the combination of advanced and conventional imaging attributes successfully guided a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:27014538

  3. Applications Of Image Processing In Criminalistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krile, Thomas F.; Walkup, John F.; Barsallo, Adonis; Olimb, Hal; Tarng, Jaw-Horng

    1987-01-01

    A review of some basic image processing techniques for enhancement and restoration of images is given. Both digital and optical approaches are discussed. Fingerprint images are used as examples to illustrate the various processing techniques and their potential applications in criminalistics.

  4. Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasen, Nancy C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses various brain imaging techniques, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow, single photo emission tomography, and position emission tomography. Describes the uses of these techniques in helping to understand brain functioning. (TW)

  5. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Claudia F.E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 20 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advanced due to new techniques involving increased magnetic field strength and developments in coils and pulse sequences. These advances allow increased opportunity to delineate the complex skull base anatomy and may guide the diagnosis and treatment of the myriad of pathologies that can affect the skull base. Objectives The objective of this article is to provide a brief background of the development of MRI and illustrate advances in skull base imaging, including techniques that allow improved conspicuity, characterization, and correlative physiologic assessment of skull base pathologies. Data Synthesis Specific radiographic illustrations of increased skull base conspicuity including the lower cranial nerves, vessels, foramina, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, and effacement of endolymph are provided. In addition, MRIs demonstrating characterization of skull base lesions, such as recurrent cholesteatoma versus granulation tissue or abscess versus tumor, are also provided as well as correlative clinical findings in CSF flow studies in a patient pre- and post-suboccipital decompression for a Chiari I malformation. Conclusions This article illustrates MRI radiographic advances over the past 20 years, which have improved clinicians' ability to diagnose, define, and hopefully improve the treatment and outcomes of patients with underlying skull base pathologies. PMID:25992137

  6. Advanced echocardiographic imaging of the congenitally malformed heart.

    PubMed

    Black, D; Vettukattil, J

    2013-08-01

    There have been significant advancements in the ability of echocardiography to provide both morphological and functional information in children with congenitally malformed hearts. This progress has come through the development of improved technology such as matrix array probes and software which allows for the off line analysis of images to a high standard. This article focuses on these developments and discusses some newer concepts in advanced echocardiography such is multi-planar reformatting [MPR] and tissue motion annular displacement [TMAD]. Our aim is to discuss important aspects related to the quality and reproducibility of data, to review the most recent published data regarding advanced echocardiography in the malformed heart and to guide the reader to appropriate text for overcoming the technical challenges of using these methods. Many of the technical aspects of image acquisition and post processing have been discussed in recent reviews by the authors and we would urge readers to study these texts to gain a greater understanding [1]. The quality of the two dimensional image is paramount in both strain analysis and three dimensional echocardiography. An awareness of how to improve image quality is vital to acquiring accurate and usable data. Three dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is an attempt to visualise the dynamic morphology of the heart. Although published media is the basis for theoretical knowledge of how to practically acquire images, electronic media [eg.www.3dechocardiography.com] is the only way of visualising the advantages of this technology in real time. It is important to be aware of the limitations of this technology and that much of the data gleaned from using these methods is at a research stage and not yet in regular clinical practice. PMID:23228075

  7. Advanced contrast nanoagents for photoacoustic molecular imaging, cytometry, blood test and photothermal theranostics†

    PubMed Central

    de la Zerda, Adam; Kim, Jin-Woo; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2013-01-01

    Various nanoparticles have raised significant interest over the past decades for their unique physical and optical properties and biological utilities. Here we summarize the vast applications of advanced nanoparticles with a focus on carbon nanotube (CNT)-based or CNT-catalyzed contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging, cytometry and theranostics applications based on the photothermal (PT) effect. We briefly review the safety and potential toxicity of the PA/PT contrast nanoagents, while showing how the physical properties as well as multiple biological coatings change their toxicity profiles and contrasts. We provide general guidelines needed for the validation of a new molecular imaging agent in living subjects, and exemplify these guidelines with single-walled CNTs targeted to αvβ3, an integrin associated with tumor angiogenesis, and golden carbon nanotubes targeted to LYVE-1, endothelial lymphatic receptors. An extensive review of the potential applications of advanced contrast agents is provided, including imaging of static targets such as tumor angiogenesis receptors, in vivo cytometry of dynamic targets such as circulating tumor cells and nanoparticles in blood, lymph, bones and plants, methods to enhance the PA and PT effects with transient and stationary bubble conjugates, PT/PA Raman imaging and multispectral histology. Finally, theranostic applications are reviewed, including the nanophotothermolysis of individual tumor cells and bacteria with clustered nanoparticles, nanothrombolysis of blood clots, detection and purging metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes, spectral hole burning and multiplex therapy with ultrasharp rainbow nanoparticles. PMID:22025336

  8. Carbon nanotubes for biomedical imaging: the recent advances.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Peng, Rui; Liu, Zhuang

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews the latest progresses regarding the applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as multifunctional nano-probes for biomedical imaging. Utilizing the intrinsic band-gap fluorescence of semi-conducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), fluorescence imaging in the near infrared II (NIR-II) region with enhanced tissue penetration and spatial resolution has shown great promise in recent years. Raman imaging based on the resonance Raman scattering of SWNTs has also been explored by a number of groups for in vitro and in vivo imaging of biological samples. The strong absorbance of CNTs in the NIR region can be used for photoacoustic imaging, and their photoacoustic signals can be dramatically enhanced by adding organic dyes, or coating with gold shells. Taking advantages of metal nanoparticle impurities attached to nanotubes, CNTs can also serve as a T2-contrast agent in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In addition, when labeled with radioactive isotopes, many groups have developed nuclear imaging with functionalized CNTs. Therefore CNTs are unique imaging probes with great potential in biomedical multimodal imaging.

  9. Mass spectrometry imaging for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangjiang; Ouyang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The development of mass spectrometry imaging technologies is of significant current research interest. Mass spectrometry potentially is capable of providing highly specific information about the distribution of chemical compounds on tissues at highly sensitive levels. The required in-situ analysis for the tissue imaging forced MS analysis being performed off the traditional conditions optimized in pharmaceutical applications with intense sample preparation. This critical review seeks to present an overview of the current status of the MS imaging with different sampling ionization methods and to discuss the 3D imaging and quantitative imaging capabilities needed to be further developed, the importance of the multi-modal imaging, and a balance between the pursuit of the high imaging resolution and the practical application of MS imaging in biomedicine. PMID:23539099

  10. Visualizing Chemistry: The Progess and Promise of Advanced Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Committee on Revealing Chemistry Through Advanced Chemical Imaging

    2006-09-01

    The field of chemical imaging can provide detailed structural, functional, and applicable information about chemistry and chemical engineering phenomena that have enormous impacts on medicine, materials, and technology. In recognizing the potential for more research development in the field of chemical imaging, the National Academies was asked by the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, U.S. Army, and National Cancer Institute to complete a study that would review the current state of molecular imaging technology, point to promising future developments and their applications, and suggest a research and educational agenda to enable breakthrough improvements in the ability to image molecular processes simultaneously in multiple physical dimensions as well as time. The study resulted in a consensus report that provides guidance for a focused research and development program in chemical imaging and identifies research needs and possible applications of imaging technologies that can provide the breakthrough knowledge in chemistry, materials science, biology, and engineering for which we should strive. Public release of this report is expected in early October.

  11. PIFEX: An advanced programmable pipelined-image processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, D. B.; Wilcox, B.

    1985-01-01

    PIFEX is a pipelined-image processor being built in the JPL Robotics Lab. It will operate on digitized raster-scanned images (at 60 frames per second for images up to about 300 by 400 and at lesser rates for larger images), performing a variety of operations simultaneously under program control. It thus is a powerful, flexible tool for image processing and low-level computer vision. It also has applications in other two-dimensional problems such as route planning for obstacle avoidance and the numerical solution of two-dimensional partial differential equations (although its low numerical precision limits its use in the latter field). The concept and design of PIFEX are described herein, and some examples of its use are given.

  12. MO-C-18A-01: Advances in Model-Based 3D Image Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G; Pan, X; Stayman, J; Samei, E

    2014-06-15

    Recent years have seen the emergence of CT image reconstruction techniques that exploit physical models of the imaging system, photon statistics, and even the patient to achieve improved 3D image quality and/or reduction of radiation dose. With numerous advantages in comparison to conventional 3D filtered backprojection, such techniques bring a variety of challenges as well, including: a demanding computational load associated with sophisticated forward models and iterative optimization methods; nonlinearity and nonstationarity in image quality characteristics; a complex dependency on multiple free parameters; and the need to understand how best to incorporate prior information (including patient-specific prior images) within the reconstruction process. The advantages, however, are even greater – for example: improved image quality; reduced dose; robustness to noise and artifacts; task-specific reconstruction protocols; suitability to novel CT imaging platforms and noncircular orbits; and incorporation of known characteristics of the imager and patient that are conventionally discarded. This symposium features experts in 3D image reconstruction, image quality assessment, and the translation of such methods to emerging clinical applications. Dr. Chen will address novel methods for the incorporation of prior information in 3D and 4D CT reconstruction techniques. Dr. Pan will show recent advances in optimization-based reconstruction that enable potential reduction of dose and sampling requirements. Dr. Stayman will describe a “task-based imaging” approach that leverages models of the imaging system and patient in combination with a specification of the imaging task to optimize both the acquisition and reconstruction process. Dr. Samei will describe the development of methods for image quality assessment in such nonlinear reconstruction techniques and the use of these methods to characterize and optimize image quality and dose in a spectrum of clinical

  13. Brain Imaging Using T-Rays Instrumentation Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviño-Palacios, C. G.; Celis-López, M. A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, J. M.; García-Garduño, A.; Zapata-Nava, O. J.; Díaz, A. Orduña; Torres-Jácome, A.; de-la-Hidalga-Wade, J.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    We present the advances on a brain imaging setup using submillimeter detectors and terahertz laser source. Terahertz radiation, known as T-rays, falls in the far infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum close to the microwaves and fraction of millimeter wavelengths. These T-rays are ideal candidates for medical imaging because the wavelength is long enough to be dispersed by molecular structures and sufficient small to produce images with a reasonable resolution, in a non-ionizing way. The millimeter detectors used in this proposal are being developed in parallel to the detectors used in the large Millimeter Telescope (LMT/GTM). Using the non-ionizing water absorption to terahertz radiation by different tissues we study the absorption difference between healthy and tumors in spite of the large absorption by water present in the body.

  14. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Turbine Technologies Application Project (ATTAP) is in the fifth year of a multiyear development program to bring the automotive gas turbine engine to a state at which industry can make commercialization decisions. Activities during the past year included reference powertrain design updates, test-bed engine design and development, ceramic component design, materials and component characterization, ceramic component process development and fabrication, ceramic component rig testing, and test-bed engine fabrication and testing. Engine design and development included mechanical design, combustion system development, alternate aerodynamic flow testing, and controls development. Design activities included development of the ceramic gasifier turbine static structure, the ceramic gasifier rotor, and the ceramic power turbine rotor. Material characterization efforts included the testing and evaluation of five candidate high temperature ceramic materials. Ceramic component process development and fabrication, with the objective of approaching automotive volumes and costs, continued for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine scroll, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Engine and rig fabrication, testing, and development supported improvements in ceramic component technology. Total test time in 1992 amounted to 599 hours, of which 147 hours were engine testing and 452 were hot rig testing.

  15. Polymers as advanced materials for desiccant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W.

    1990-12-01

    This research is concerned with solid materials used as desiccants for desiccant cooling systems (DCSs) that process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce cooling. Background information includes an introduction to DCSs and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The water vapor sorption performance criteria used for screening the modified polymers prepared include the water sorption capacity from 5% to 80% relative humidity (R.H.), isotherm shape, and rate of adsorption and desorption. Measurements are presented for the sorption performance of modified polymeric advanced desiccant materials with the quartz crystal microbalance. Isotherms of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) taken over a 5-month period show that the material has a dramatic loss in capacity and that the isotherm shape is time dependent. The adsorption and desorption kinetics for PSSA and all the ionic salts of it studied are easily fast enough for commercial DCS applications with a wheel rotation speed of 6 min per revolution. Future activities for the project are addressed, and a 5-year summary of the project is included as Appendix A. 34 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Advances in Spectral-Spatial Classification of Hyperspectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fauvel, Mathieu; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Tilton, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral images are presented in this paper. Several techniques are investigated for combining both spatial and spectral information. Spatial information is extracted at the object (set of pixels) level rather than at the conventional pixel level. Mathematical morphology is first used to derive the morphological profile of the image, which includes characteristics about the size, orientation and contrast of the spatial structures present in the image. Then the morphological neighborhood is defined and used to derive additional features for classification. Classification is performed with support vector machines using the available spectral information and the extracted spatial information. Spatial post-processing is next investigated to build more homogeneous and spatially consistent thematic maps. To that end, three presegmentation techniques are applied to define regions that are used to regularize the preliminary pixel-wise thematic map. Finally, a multiple classifier system is defined to produce relevant markers that are exploited to segment the hyperspectral image with the minimum spanning forest algorithm. Experimental results conducted on three real hyperspectral images with different spatial and spectral resolutions and corresponding to various contexts are presented. They highlight the importance of spectral-spatial strategies for the accurate classification of hyperspectral images and validate the proposed methods.

  17. Recent Advances in Higher-order Multimodal Biomedical Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rieffel, James; Chitgupi, Upendra

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomedical imaging have spurred the development of integrated multimodal scanners, usually capable of two simultaneous imaging modes. The long-term vision of higher-order multimodality is to improve diagnostics or guidance through analysis of complementary, data-rich, co-registered images. Synergies achieved through combined modalities could enable researchers to better track diverse physiological and structural events, analyze biodistribution and treatment efficacy, and compare established and emerging modalities. Higher-order multimodal approaches stand to benefit from molecular imaging probes and in recent years, contrast agents that have hypermodal characteristics have increasingly been reported in preclinical studies. Given the chemical requirements for contrast agents representing various modalities to be integrated into a single entity, higher-order multimodal agents reported so far tend to be of nanoparticulate form. To date, the majority of reported nanoparticles have included components that are active for magnetic resonance. Herein, we review recent progress in higher-order multimodal imaging agents, which span a range of material and structural classes, that have demonstrated utility in three (or more) imaging modalities. PMID:26185099

  18. New applications of Spectral Edge image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Alex E.; Montagna, Roberto; Finlayson, Graham D.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present new applications of the Spectral Edge image fusion method. The Spectral Edge image fusion algorithm creates a result which combines details from any number of multispectral input images with natural color information from a visible spectrum image. Spectral Edge image fusion is a derivative-based technique, which creates an output fused image with gradients which are an ideal combination of those of the multispectral input images and the input visible color image. This produces both maximum detail and natural colors. We present two new applications of Spectral Edge image fusion. Firstly, we fuse RGB-NIR information from a sensor with a modified Bayer pattern, which captures visible and near-infrared image information on a single CCD. We also present an example of RGB-thermal image fusion, using a thermal camera attached to a smartphone, which captures both visible and low-resolution thermal images. These new results may be useful for computational photography and surveillance applications.

  19. Clinical decision support systems for brain tumor characterization using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Tsolaki, Evangelia; Kousi, Evanthia; Svolos, Patricia; Kapsalaki, Efthychia; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Kappas, Constastine; Tsougos, Ioannis

    2014-04-28

    In recent years, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and perfusion weighted imaging have been used in order to resolve demanding diagnostic problems such as brain tumor characterization and grading, as these techniques offer a more detailed and non-invasive evaluation of the area under study. In the last decade a great effort has been made to import and utilize intelligent systems in the so-called clinical decision support systems (CDSS) for automatic processing, classification, evaluation and representation of MRI data in order for advanced MRI techniques to become a part of the clinical routine, since the amount of data from the aforementioned techniques has gradually increased. Hence, the purpose of the current review article is two-fold. The first is to review and evaluate the progress that has been made towards the utilization of CDSS based on data from advanced MRI techniques. The second is to analyze and propose the future work that has to be done, based on the existing problems and challenges, especially taking into account the new imaging techniques and parameters that can be introduced into intelligent systems to significantly improve their diagnostic specificity and clinical application.

  20. Application of image fusion techniques in DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Feng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Xu, Jing

    2007-12-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is an important technology in both medical diagnoses and interposal therapy, which can eliminate the interferential background and give prominence to blood vessels by computer processing. After contrast material is injected into an artery or vein, a physician produces fluoroscopic images. Using these digitized images, a computer subtracts the image made with contrast material from a series of post injection images made without background information. By analyzing the characteristics of DSA medical images, this paper provides a solution of image fusion which is in allusion to the application of DSA subtraction. We fuse the images of angiogram and subtraction, in order to obtain the new image which has more data information. The image that fused by wavelet transform can display the blood vessels and background information clearly, and medical experts gave high score on the effect of it.

  1. [Advances in infrared spectrum zoom imaging system research].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu; Xing, Ting-wen; Jiang, Ya-dong

    2014-12-01

    Compared with the infrared spectrum fixed focal length system and infrared spectrum dual-zoom system, infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system which has continuous variational field of view can track targets sequentially, so it is a research direction in infrared spectrum imaging technology. Some new technologies are presented overseas in order to improve the detection performance, reduce cost and have good athermalized performance in infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system. Infrared material, infrared detector and variable aperture, those new technologies are su mmarized and the idiographic application of those new technologies in infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system are presented in the paper, for example athermalization of an infrared spectrum zoom lens system with new infrared material for target detection, dual band infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared, infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with high ratio, nfrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with dual F/number. It is useful for the development of chinese infrared continuous zoom imaging system.

  2. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Kishen, Anil; Peters, Ove A.; Zehnder, Matthias; Diogenes, Anibal R.; Nair, Madhu K.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary endodontics has seen an unprecedented advance in technology and materials. This article aimed to review some of the challenges and advances in the following sections: (1) endodontic imaging, (2) root canal preparation, (3) root canal disinfection, (4) root canal filling, and (4) regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Jointly, these advances are aimed at improving the state of the art and science of root canal treatment. PMID:27217630

  3. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kishen, Anil; Peters, Ove A; Zehnder, Matthias; Diogenes, Anibal R; Nair, Madhu K

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary endodontics has seen an unprecedented advance in technology and materials. This article aimed to review some of the challenges and advances in the following sections: (1) endodontic imaging, (2) root canal preparation, (3) root canal disinfection, (4) root canal filling, and (4) regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Jointly, these advances are aimed at improving the state of the art and science of root canal treatment. PMID:27217630

  4. Medical image informatics infrastructure design and applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K; Wong, S T; Pietka, E

    1997-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) is a system integration of multimodality images and health information systems designed for improving the operation of a radiology department. As it evolves, PACS becomes a hospital image document management system with a voluminous image and related data file repository. A medical image informatics infrastructure can be designed to take advantage of existing data, providing PACS with add-on value for health care service, research, and education. A medical image informatics infrastructure (MIII) consists of the following components: medical images and associated data (including PACS database), image processing, data/knowledge base management, visualization, graphic user interface, communication networking, and application oriented software. This paper describes these components and their logical connection, and illustrates some applications based on the concept of the MIII. PMID:9509399

  5. In situ metabolomic mass spectrometry imaging: recent advances and difficulties.

    PubMed

    Miura, Daisuke; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-30

    MS imaging (MSI) is a remarkable new technology that enables us to determine the distribution of biological molecules present in tissue sections by direct ionization and detection. This technique is now widely used for in situ imaging of endogenous or exogenous molecules such as proteins, lipids, drugs and their metabolites, and it is a potential tool for pathological analysis and the investigation of disease mechanisms. MSI is also thought to be a technique that could be used for biomarker discovery with spatial information. The application of MSI to the study of endogenous metabolites has received considerable attention because metabolites are the result of the interactions of a system's genome with its environment and a total set of these metabolites more closely represents the phenotype of an organism under a given set of conditions. Recent studies have suggested the importance of in situ metabolite imaging in biological discovery and biomedical applications, but several issues regarding the technical application limits of MSI still remained to be resolved. In this review, we describe the capabilities of the latest MSI techniques for the imaging of endogenous metabolites in biological samples, and also discuss the technical problems and new challenges that need to be addressed for effective and widespread application of MSI in both preclinical and clinical settings.

  6. Fabry-Perot MEMS Accelerometers for Advanced Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chisum, Brad

    2015-05-31

    This report summarizes the technical achievements that occurred over the duration of the project. On November 14th, 2014, Lumedyne Technologies Incorporated was acquired. As a result of the acquisition, the work toward seismic imaging applications was suspended indefinitely. This report captures the progress achieved up to that time.

  7. Medical imaging applications of amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Mireshghi, A.; Drewery, J.S.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.K.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1994-07-01

    Two dimensional hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) pixel arrays are good candidates as flat-panel imagers for applications in medical imaging. Various performance characteristics of these imagers are reviewed and compared with currently used equipments. An important component in the a-Si:H imager is the scintillator screen. A new approach for fabrication of high resolution CsI(Tl) scintillator layers, appropriate for coupling to a-Si:H arrays, are presented. For nuclear medicine applications, a new a-Si:H based gamma camera is introduced and Monte Carlo simulation is used to evaluate its performance.

  8. Multilanthanide Systems for Medical Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeremiah D.; Allen, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecules containing multiple lanthanide ions have unique potential in applications for medical imaging including the areas of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluoresence imaging. The study of multilanthanide complexes as contrast agents for MRI and as biologically responsive fluorescent probes has resulted in an improved understanding of the structural characteristics that govern the behavior of these complexes. This review will survey the last five years of progress in multinuclear lanthanide complexes with a specific focus on the structural parameters that impact potential medical imaging applications. The patents cited in this review are from the last five years and describe contrast agents that contain multiple lanthanide ions. PMID:23543789

  9. Lens-Free Imaging for Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Bok; Bae, Hojae; Koo, Kyo-in; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Ozcan, Aydogan; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Lens-free (or lensless) imaging is emerging as a cost-effective, compact, and lightweight detection method that can serve numerous biological applications. Lens-free imaging can generate high-resolution images within a field-portable platform, which is ideal for affordable point-of-care devices aiming at resource-limited settings. In this mini-review, we first describe different modes of operation for lens-free imaging and then highlight several recent biological applications of this emerging platform technology. PMID:22357607

  10. Advanced image processing package for FPGA-based re-programmable miniature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovod, Vladimir I.; Baxter, Christopher R.; Massie, Mark A.; McCarley, Paul L.

    2005-05-01

    Nova Sensors produces miniature electronics for a variety of real-time digital video camera systems, including foveal sensors based on Nova's Variable Acuity Superpixel Imager (VASITM) technology. An advanced image-processing package has been designed at Nova Sensors to re-configure the FPGA-based co-processor board for numerous applications including motion detection, optical, background velocimetry and target tracking. Currently, the processing package consists of 14 processing operations that cover a broad range of point- and area-applied algorithms. Flexible FPGA designs of these operations and re-programmability of the processing board allows for easy updates of the VASITM sensors, and for low-cost customization of VASITM sensors taking into account specific customer requirements. This paper describes the image processing algorithms implemented and verified in Xilinx FPGAs and provides the major technical performances with figures illustrating practical applications of the processing package.

  11. Petrophysical applications of NMR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rothwell, W.P.; Vinegar, H.J.

    1985-12-01

    A system for obtaining high-resolution NMR images of oil field cores is described. Separate proton density and T/sub 2/ relaxation images are obtained to distinguish spatial variations of fluid-filled porosity and the physical nature of the pores. Results are presented for typical sandstones.

  12. Advances in probing the blood vessels of the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacke, E. Mark

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging offers a marvelous means to probe the vasculature of the human body non-invasively. The first major advances came when the physics of the effects of motion in MRI were first understood well enough that new methods could be designed to compensate for the motion. This led to the development of MR angiography. The second major advance occurred when a contrast agent was used to enhance the signal from vessels independent of blood flow. This made it possible to image much smaller vessels because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio. The third major advance occurred when the susceptibility of the venous blood was used to create a new contrast unique to veins even in the presence of the contrast agent to enhance their signal. The fourth advance is close behind with the potential to use the susceptibility to measure the local oxygen content. Each of these advances involved some interesting physics and raised questions about local magnetic field effects, some of which remain unanswered yet today. We will show results from the first three levels with hints at how to proceed to the fourth. The development of this technology has important clinical implications. With new higher relaxivity contrast agents and higher field magnets coming on the market, the possibility to image vessels down to on the order of 100 microns may be viable. Each advance has enhanced the range of applications from just imaging vessels to occult vascular disease, trauma, the detection of blood products, and physiologic function of the tissue itself.

  13. Quantitative Computed Tomography and Image Analysis for Advanced Muscle Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Kyle Joseph; Gíslason, Magnus K.; Arnadottir, Iris D.; Marcante, Andrea; Piccione, Francesco; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging is of particular interest in the field of translational myology, as extant literature describes the utilization of a wide variety of techniques to non-invasively recapitulate and quantity various internal and external tissue morphologies. In the clinical context, medical imaging remains a vital tool for diagnostics and investigative assessment. This review outlines the results from several investigations on the use of computed tomography (CT) and image analysis techniques to assess muscle conditions and degenerative process due to aging or pathological conditions. Herein, we detail the acquisition of spiral CT images and the use of advanced image analysis tools to characterize muscles in 2D and 3D. Results from these studies recapitulate changes in tissue composition within muscles, as visualized by the association of tissue types to specified Hounsfield Unit (HU) values for fat, loose connective tissue or atrophic muscle, and normal muscle, including fascia and tendon. We show how results from these analyses can be presented as both average HU values and compositions with respect to total muscle volumes, demonstrating the reliability of these tools to monitor, assess and characterize muscle degeneration. PMID:27478562

  14. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Advanced Turbine Technology Application Project (ATTAP) activities during the past year were highlighted by test-bed engine design and development activities; ceramic component design; materials and component characterization; ceramic component process development and fabrication; component rig testing; and test-bed engine fabrication and testing. Although substantial technical challenges remain, all areas exhibited progress. Test-bed engine design and development activity included engine mechanical design, power turbine flow-path design and mechanical layout, and engine system integration aimed at upgrading the AGT-5 from a 1038 C metal engine to a durable 1371 C structural ceramic component test-bed engine. ATTAP-defined ceramic and associated ceramic/metal component design activities include: the ceramic combustor body, the ceramic gasifier turbine static structure, the ceramic gasifier turbine rotor, the ceramic/metal power turbine static structure, and the ceramic power turbine rotors. The materials and component characterization efforts included the testing and evaluation of several candidate ceramic materials and components being developed for use in the ATTAP. Ceramic component process development and fabrication activities are being conducted for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine vanes, gasifier turbine scroll, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Component rig testing activities include the development of the necessary test procedures and conduction of rig testing of the ceramic components and assemblies. Four-hundred hours of hot gasifier rig test time were accumulated with turbine inlet temperatures exceeding 1204 C at 100 percent design gasifier speed. A total of 348.6 test hours were achieved on a single ceramic rotor without failure and a second ceramic rotor was retired in engine-ready condition at 364.9 test hours. Test-bed engine fabrication, testing, and development supported improvements in ceramic component technology

  15. Passive terahertz imaging for security application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2013-08-01

    The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

  16. Advanced imaging techniques for assessment of structure, composition and function in biofilm systems.

    PubMed

    Neu, Thomas R; Manz, Bertram; Volke, Frank; Dynes, James J; Hitchcock, Adam P; Lawrence, John R

    2010-04-01

    Scientific imaging represents an important and accepted research tool for the analysis and understanding of complex natural systems. Apart from traditional microscopic techniques such as light and electron microscopy, new advanced techniques have been established including laser scanning microscopy (LSM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These new techniques allow in situ analysis of the structure, composition, processes and dynamics of microbial communities. The three techniques open up quantitative analytical imaging possibilities that were, until a few years ago, impossible. The microscopic techniques represent powerful tools for examination of mixed environmental microbial communities usually encountered in the form of aggregates and films. As a consequence, LSM, MRI and STXM are being used in order to study complex microbial biofilm systems. This mini review provides a short outline of the more recent applications with the intention to stimulate new research and imaging approaches in microbiology.

  17. Single virus detection by means of atomic force microscopy in combination with advanced image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bocklitz, Thomas; Kämmer, Evelyn; Stöckel, Stephan; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Zell, Roland; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    In the present contribution virions of five different virus species, namely Varicella-zoster virus, Porcine teschovirus, Tobacco mosaic virus, Coliphage M13 and Enterobacteria phage PsP3, are investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). From the resulting height images quantitative features like maximal height, area and volume of the viruses could be extracted and compared to reference values. Subsequently, these features were accompanied by image moments, which quantify the morphology of the virions. Both types of features could be utilized for an automatic discrimination of the five virus species. The accuracy of this classification model was 96.8%. Thus, a virus detection on a single-particle level using AFM images is possible. Due to the application of advanced image analysis the morphology could be quantified and used for further analysis. Here, an automatic recognition by means of a classification model could be achieved in a reliable and objective manner. PMID:25196422

  18. Photoacoustic lifetime imaging and its biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qi

    Even though oxygen plays a crucial role in body function and cancer biology, methods of measuring oxygen level in tissue are all limited. The current gold standard relies on an invasive electrode for only single-point reading at a time. The photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) approach overcomes these major limitations by applying photoacoustic probing to oxygen-sensitive optical transient absorption. The capability of assessing oxygen distribution is demonstrated by imaging tumor hypoxia in a small animal model, and monitoring changes of tissue oxygen induced by external modulations. Proposed applications of this imaging technique includes imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) and activatable probes for molecular imaging.

  19. Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2013-05-31

    The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe.

  20. Nuclear molecular imaging with nanoparticles: radiochemistry, applications and translation

    PubMed Central

    Abou, D S; Pickett, J E

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging provides considerable insight into biological processes for greater understanding of health and disease. Numerous advances in medical physics, chemistry and biology have driven the growth of this field in the past two decades. With exquisite sensitivity, depth of detection and potential for theranostics, radioactive imaging approaches have played a major role in the emergence of molecular imaging. At the same time, developments in materials science, characterization and synthesis have led to explosive progress in the nanoparticle (NP) sciences. NPs are generally defined as particles with a diameter in the nanometre size range. Unique physical, chemical and biological properties arise at this scale, stimulating interest for applications as diverse as energy production and storage, chemical catalysis and electronics. In biomedicine, NPs have generated perhaps the greatest attention. These materials directly interface with life at the subcellular scale of nucleic acids, membranes and proteins. In this review, we will detail the advances made in combining radioactive imaging and NPs. First, we provide an overview of the NP platforms and their properties. This is followed by a look at methods for radiolabelling NPs with gamma-emitting radionuclides for use in single photon emission CT and planar scintigraphy. Next, utilization of positron-emitting radionuclides for positron emission tomography is considered. Finally, recent advances for multimodal nuclear imaging with NPs and efforts for clinical translation and ongoing trials are discussed. PMID:26133075

  1. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) - Simulation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.

    2008-12-24

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a US-led concept for a next-generation instrument in ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The most important design requirement for AGIS is a sensitivity of about 10 times greater than current observatories like Veritas, H.E.S.S or MAGIC. We present results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance, collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity are discussed.

  2. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Simulation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.; Vassiliev, V.V.; /UCLA

    2011-06-14

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory being planned in the U.S. The anticipated sensitivity of AGIS is about one order of magnitude better than the sensitivity of current observatories, allowing it to measure gamma-ray emission from a large number of Galactic and extra-galactic sources. We present here results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance - collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity - are discussed.

  3. CMOS imager for pointing and tracking applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Heynssens, Julie B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Systems and techniques to realize pointing and tracking applications with CMOS imaging devices. In general, in one implementation, the technique includes: sampling multiple rows and multiple columns of an active pixel sensor array into a memory array (e.g., an on-chip memory array), and reading out the multiple rows and multiple columns sampled in the memory array to provide image data with reduced motion artifact. Various operation modes may be provided, including TDS, CDS, CQS, a tracking mode to read out multiple windows, and/or a mode employing a sample-first-read-later readout scheme. The tracking mode can take advantage of a diagonal switch array. The diagonal switch array, the active pixel sensor array and the memory array can be integrated onto a single imager chip with a controller. This imager device can be part of a larger imaging system for both space-based applications and terrestrial applications.

  4. Advances in high-resolution imaging – techniques for three-dimensional imaging of cellular structures

    PubMed Central

    Lidke, Diane S.; Lidke, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental goal in biology is to determine how cellular organization is coupled to function. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of organelle composition and structure is needed. Although visualization of cellular organelles using fluorescence or electron microscopy (EM) has become a common tool for the cell biologist, recent advances are providing a clearer picture of the cell than ever before. In particular, advanced light-microscopy techniques are achieving resolutions below the diffraction limit and EM tomography provides high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) images of cellular structures. The ability to perform both fluorescence and electron microscopy on the same sample (correlative light and electron microscopy, CLEM) makes it possible to identify where a fluorescently labeled protein is located with respect to organelle structures visualized by EM. Here, we review the current state of the art in 3D biological imaging techniques with a focus on recent advances in electron microscopy and fluorescence super-resolution techniques. PMID:22685332

  5. Recent Advances in the Imaging of Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging has played an important role in the characterization of the frontotemporal dementia (FTD) syndromes, demonstrating neurodegenerative signatures that can aid in the differentiation of FTD from other neurodegenerative disorders. Recent advances have been driven largely by the refinement of the clinical syndromes that underlie FTD, and by the discovery of new genetic and pathological features associated with FTD. Many new imaging techniques and modalities are also now available that allow the assessment of other aspects of brain structure and function, such as diffusion tensor imaging and resting state functional MRI. Studies have utilized these recent techniques, as well as traditional volumetric MRI, to provide further insight into disease progression across the many clinical, genetic and pathological variants of FTD. Importantly, neuroimaging signatures have been identified that will improve the clinician’s ability to predict underlying genetic and pathological features, and hence ultimately improve patient diagnosis. PMID:23015371

  6. Glaucoma Diagnosis and Monitoring Using Advanced Imaging Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Sehi, Mitra; Iverson, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    Advanced ocular imaging technologies facilitate objective and reproducible quantification of change in glaucoma but at the same time, impose new challenges on scientists and clinicians for separating true structural change from imaging noise. This review examines time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and scanning laser polarimetry technologies and discusses the diagnostic accuracy and the ability of each technique for evaluation of glaucomatous progression. A broad review of the current literature reveals that objective assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell complex and optic nerve head topography may improve glaucoma monitoring when used as a complementary tool in conjunction with the clinical judgment of an expert. PMID:24470807

  7. Advances in imaging ultrastructure yield new insights into presynaptic biology

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Joseph J.; Zhan, Hong; O’Connor-Giles, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Synapses are the fundamental functional units of neural circuits, and their dysregulation has been implicated in diverse neurological disorders. At presynaptic terminals, neurotransmitter-filled synaptic vesicles are released in response to calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels activated by the arrival of an action potential. Decades of electrophysiological, biochemical, and genetic studies have contributed to a growing understanding of presynaptic biology. Imaging studies are yielding new insights into how synapses are organized to carry out their critical functions. The development of techniques for rapid immobilization and preservation of neuronal tissues for electron microscopy (EM) has led to a new renaissance in ultrastructural imaging that is rapidly advancing our understanding of synapse structure and function. PMID:26052269

  8. Image informatics in systems biology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2005-02-01

    Digital optical microscopy, coupled with parallel processing and a large arsenal of labeling techniques, offers tremendous values to localize, identify, and characterize cells and molecules. This generates many image informatics challenges in requiring new algorithms and tools to extract, classify, correlate, and model image features and content from massive amounts of cellular and molecular images acquired. Image informatics aims to fill this gap. Coupling automated microscopy and image analysis with biostatistical and data mining techniques to provide a system biologic approach in studying the cells, the basic unit of life, potentially leads to many exciting applications in life and health sciences. In this presentation, we describe certain new system biology applications enabled by image informatics technology.

  9. Application of ASAP in integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-xia; Xu, Zhi-li; Wen, Shao-jie; Wu, Chun-hong

    2012-10-01

    Integral imaging (II) is a technique that is capable of displaying 3D images with continuous parallax in full natural color. At present Integral Imaging is a popular three-dimensional imaging technology. It is becoming the most perspective technique in developing next generation three-dimensional TV (3DTV) and visualization field due to its outstanding advantages. The micro-lens array is used in recording and replaying 3D scene information in this technique with true color, simply reconstruction and non-relevant light source. In order to research really many precision instrument are required. But the price is too high to set up a complicated authentic imaging system. In the same time the imaging condition is very difficult to satisfy. ASAP (Advanced System Analysis Program) is an advanced imitates optical software to solve reality optical questions. It is used in many research territories. In this paper the ASAP software is proposed to simulate and model the micro-lens array sheet. The ray tracing and energy distribution is completed. According to the study results we can optimum lens designing through modifying the focal length, aperture size and imaging position. We hope the study cost can be reduced and the efficiency can be improved through the use of simulation method to optical design software ASAP.

  10. Modern night vision goggles for advanced infantry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrera, Joseph P.; Ostromek, Timothy E.; Isbell, Wayne; Bacarella, Antonio V.

    2003-09-01

    Northrop Grumman Electro-Optical Systems (NGEOS) has concentrated in recent years on the development of advanced night vision goggle (NVG) systems. These NVGs developments concentrate on past operational deficiencies such as high light/bright source conditions during military operations in urban terrain (MOUT), poor individual movement technique (IMT) infantry operations, and obscured battlefield and reduced weather conditions. The first area of NVG advancement involves direct image intensifier (I2) replacement involving automatic gated power supply technology for wide dynamic NVG operation and advanced Generation III halo free I2 technology for reduction of NVG image halo and "blooming" artifacts. The second significant development area is NVG individual movement technique (IMT) deficiencies such as reduced field of view, reduced depth perception, center of gravity problems, and limited operation flexibility. These issues of NVG IMT have resulted in the development of an IMT enhanced night vision goggle for the U.S. Army's enhanced night vision goggle (ENVG). Finally, Northrop Grumman EOS is developing a NVG with the capability of producing optimized real-time image fusion from an image intensified sensor and uncooled long wavelength infrared (LWIR) sensor. This new technology allows for optimum imaging in battlefield obscured and laser polluted environment. These image fusion NVG development efforts have concentrated on both optical overlay image fusion and digital image fusion. This paper will compare and contrast these two types of image fusion technologies.

  11. Imaging retinal ganglion cells: enabling experimental technology for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Smith, Corey A; Chauhan, Balwantray C

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in clinical ophthalmic imaging have enhanced patient care. However, the ability to differentiate retinal neurons, such as retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), would advance many areas within ophthalmology, including the screening and monitoring of glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. Imaging at the single cell level would take diagnostics to the next level. Experimental methods have provided techniques and insight into imaging RGCs, however no method has yet to be translated to clinical application. This review provides an overview of the importance of non-invasive imaging of RGCs and the clinically relevant capabilities. In addition, we report on experimental data from wild-type mice that received an in vivo intravitreal injection of a neuronal tracer that labelled RGCs, which in turn were monitored for up to 100 days post-injection with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. We were able to demonstrate efficient and consistent RGC labelling with this delivery method and discuss the issue of cell specificity. This type of experimental work is important in progressing towards clinically applicable methods for monitoring loss of RGCs in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. We discuss the challenges to translating these findings to clinical application and how this method of tracking RGCs in vivo could provide valuable structural and functional information to clinicians. PMID:25448921

  12. Advanced 3D imaging lidar concepts for long range sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, K. J.; Hiskett, P. A.; Lamb, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Recent developments in 3D imaging lidar are presented. Long range 3D imaging using photon counting is now a possibility, offering a low-cost approach to integrated remote sensing with step changing advantages in size, weight and power compared to conventional analogue active imaging technology. We report results using a Geiger-mode array for time-of-flight, single photon counting lidar for depth profiling and determination of the shape and size of tree canopies and distributed surface reflections at a range of 9km, with 4μJ pulses with a frame rate of 100kHz using a low-cost fibre laser operating at a wavelength of λ=1.5 μm. The range resolution is less than 4cm providing very high depth resolution for target identification. This specification opens up several additional functionalities for advanced lidar, for example: absolute rangefinding and depth profiling for long range identification, optical communications, turbulence sensing and time-of-flight spectroscopy. Future concepts for 3D time-of-flight polarimetric and multispectral imaging lidar, with optical communications in a single integrated system are also proposed.

  13. Image processing applications in NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) can be defined as a technique or collection of techniques that permits one to determine some property of a material or object without damaging the object. There are a large number of such techniques and most of them use visual imaging in one form or another. They vary from holographic interferometry where displacements under stress are measured to the visual inspection of an objects surface to detect cracks after penetrant has been applied. The use of image processing techniques on the images produced by NDE is relatively new and can be divided into three general categories: classical image enhancement; mensuration techniques; and quantitative sensitometry. An example is discussed of how image processing techniques are used to nondestructively and destructively test the product throughout its life cycle. The product that will be followed is the microballoon target used in the laser fusion program. The laser target is a small (50 to 100 ..mu..m - dia) glass sphere with typical wall thickness of 0.5 to 6 ..mu..m. The sphere may be used as is or may be given a number of coatings of any number of materials. The beads are mass produced by the millions and the first nondestructive test is to separate the obviously bad beads (broken or incomplete) from the good ones. After this has been done, the good beads must be inspected for spherocity and wall thickness uniformity. The microradiography of the glass, uncoated bead is performed on a specially designed low-energy x-ray machine. The beads are mounted in a special jig and placed on a Kodak high resolution plate in a vacuum chamber that contains the x-ray source. The x-ray image is made with an energy less that 2 keV and the resulting images are then inspected at a magnification of 500 to 1000X. Some typical results are presented.

  14. Advances in Hyperspectral and Multispectral Image Fusion and Spectral Unmixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanaras, C.; Baltsavias, E.; Schindler, K.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we jointly process high spectral and high geometric resolution images and exploit their synergies to (a) generate a fused image of high spectral and geometric resolution; and (b) improve (linear) spectral unmixing of hyperspectral endmembers at subpixel level w.r.t. the pixel size of the hyperspectral image. We assume that the two images are radiometrically corrected and geometrically co-registered. The scientific contributions of this work are (a) a simultaneous approach to image fusion and hyperspectral unmixing, (b) enforcing several physically plausible constraints during unmixing that are all well-known, but typically not used in combination, and (c) the use of efficient, state-of-the-art mathematical optimization tools to implement the processing. The results of our joint fusion and unmixing has the potential to enable more accurate and detailed semantic interpretation of objects and their properties in hyperspectral and multispectral images, with applications in environmental mapping, monitoring and change detection. In our experiments, the proposed method always improves the fusion compared to competing methods, reducing RMSE between 4% and 53%.

  15. Targeted radionuclide and fluorescence dual-modality imaging of cancer: preclinical advances and clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Lütje, S; Rijpkema, M; Helfrich, W; Oyen, W J G; Boerman, O C

    2014-12-01

    In oncology, sensitive and reliable detection tumor tissue is crucial to prevent recurrences and to improve surgical outcome. Currently, extensive research is focused on the use of radionuclides as well as fluorophores to provide real-time guidance during surgery to aid the surgeon in the identification of malignant tissue. Particularly, dual-modality approaches combining radionuclide and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging have shown promising results in preclinical studies. Radionuclide imaging allows sensitive intra-operative localization of tumor lesions using a gamma probe, whereas NIRF imaging allows more accurate real-time tumor delineation. Consequently, both radionuclide and NIRF imaging might complement each other, and dual-modality image-guided surgery may overcome limitations of the currently used single-modality imaging techniques. In this review, a comprehensive overview on recent preclinical advances in tumor-targeted radionuclide and fluorescence dual-modality imaging is provided. Subsequently, the clinical applicability of dual-modality image-guided surgery is discussed.

  16. Simulation of concomitant magnetic fields on fast switched gradient coils used in advanced application of MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas-Muciño, G.; Torres-García, E.; Hidalgo-Tobon, S.

    2012-10-01

    The process to produce an MR image includes nuclear alignment, RF excitation, spatial encoding, and image formation. To form an image, it is necessary to perform spatial localization of the MR signals, which is achieved using gradient coils. MRI requires the use of gradient coils that generate magnetic fields, which vary linearly with position over the imaging volume. Safety issues have been a motivation to study deeply the relation between the interaction of gradient magnetic field and the peripheral nerve stimulation. In this work is presented a numerical modeling between the concomitant magnetic fields produced by the gradient coils and the electric field induced in a cube with σ conductivity by the gradient field switching in pulse sequences as Eco planar Imaging (EPI), due to this kind of sequence is the most used in advance applications of magnetic resonance imaging as functional MRI, cardiac imaging or diffusion.

  17. Advances in photographic X-ray imaging for solar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, D.; Schueller, R.; Waljeski, K.; Davis, J. M.

    1989-11-01

    The technique of obtaining quantitative data from high resolution soft X-ray photographic images produced by grazing incidence optics was successfully developed to a high degree during the AS&E Solar Research Sounding Rocket Program and the S-054 X-Ray Spectrographic Telescope Experiment Program on Skylab. Continued use of soft X-Ray photographic imaging in sounding rocket flights of the AS&E High Resolution Solar Soft X-Ray Imaging Payload has provided opportunities to further develop these techniques. The developments discussed include: (1) the calibration and use of an inexpensive, commercially available microprocessor controlled drum type film processor for photometric film development, (2) the use of Kodak Technical Pan 2415 film and Kodak SO-253 High Speed Holographic film for improved resolution, and (3) the application of a technique described by Cook, Ewing, and Sutton (1988) for determining the film characteristics curves from density histograms of the flight film. Although the superior sensitivity, noise level, and linearity of microchannel plate and CCD detectors attracts the development efforts of many groups working in soft X-ray imaging, the high spatial resolution and dynamic range as well as the reliability and ease of application of photographic media assures the continued use of these techniques in solar X-ray astronomy observations.

  18. Advances in photographic X-ray imaging for solar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, J. Daniel; Schueller, R.; Waljeski, K.; Davis, John M.

    1989-08-01

    The technique of obtaining quantitative data from high resolution soft X-ray photographic images produced by grazing incidence optics was successfully developed to a high degree during the Solar Research Sounding Rocket Program and the S-054 X-Ray Spectrographic Telescope Experiment Program on Skylab. Continued use of soft X-ray photographic imaging in sounding rocket flights of the High Resolution Solar Soft X-Ray Imaging Payload has provided opportunities to further develop these techniques. The developments discussed include: (1) The calibration and use of an inexpensive, commercially available microprocessor controlled drum type film processor for photometric film development; (2) The use of Kodak Technical Pan 2415 film and Kodak SO-253 High Speed Holographic film for improved resolution; and (3) The application of a technique described by Cook, Ewing, and Sutton for determining the film characteristics curves from density histograms of the flight film. Although the superior sensitivity, noise level, and linearity of microchannel plate and CCD detectors attracts the development efforts of many groups working in soft X-ray imaging, the high spatial resolution and dynamic range as well as the reliability and ease of application of photographic media assures the continued use of these techniques in solar X-ray astronomy observations.

  19. The Effectiveness of Advance Organizers on the Signification of Poetic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayat, Nihat

    2007-01-01

    Advance organizers activate the most suitable schema to learn new material. Poetic images are signified in schemata and the elements which are not expressed may be called by advance organizers. The purpose of this investigation is to discern the effectiveness of advance organizers on the signification of poetic images. Pretest-posttest…

  20. Advances in engineering of high contrast CARS imaging endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Deladurantaye, Pascal; Paquet, Alex; Paré, Claude; Zheng, Huimin; Doucet, Michel; Gay, David; Poirier, Michel; Cormier, Jean-François; Mermut, Ozzy; Wilson, Brian C; Seibel, Eric J

    2014-10-20

    The translation of CARS imaging towards real time, high resolution, chemically selective endoscopic tissue imaging applications is limited by a lack of sensitivity in CARS scanning probes sufficiently small for incorporation into endoscopes. We have developed here a custom double clad fiber (DCF)-based CARS probe which is designed to suppress the contaminant Four-Wave-Mixing (FWM) background generated within the fiber and integrated it into a fiber based scanning probe head of a few millimeters in diameter. The DCF includes a large mode area (LMA) core as a first means of reducing FWM generation by ~3 dB compared to commercially available, step-index single mode fibers. A micro-fabricated miniature optical filter (MOF) was grown on the distal end of the DCF to block the remaining FWM background from reaching the sample. The resulting probe was used to demonstrate high contrast images of polystyrene beads in the forward-CARS configuration with > 10 dB suppression of the FWM background. In epi-CARS geometry, images exhibited lower contrast due to the leakage of MOF-reflected FWM from the fiber core. Improvements concepts for the fiber probe are proposed for high contrast epi-CARS imaging to enable endoscopic implementation in clinical tissue assessment contexts, particularly in the early detection of endoluminal cancers and in tumor margin assessment. PMID:25401538

  1. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  2. Reliability and qualification of advanced microelectronics for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayali, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion of the subject and an approach to establish a reliability and qualification methodology to facilitate the utilization of state-of-the-art advanced microelectronic devices and structures in high reliability applications.

  3. Agricultural and environmental applications of biochar: Advances and barriers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This summary chapter highlights the achieved advances in biochar research and the existing barriers to biochar application. Substantial research over the past decade on biochar production, characterization, and utilization has indicated that biochar serves as a promising agricultural and environment...

  4. Advanced remote handling for future applications: The advanced integrated maintenance system

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Kring, C.T.; Rowe, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing advanced techniques for remote maintenance of future US fuel reprocessing plants. The developed technology has a wide spectrum of application for other hazardous environments. These efforts are based on the application of teleoperated, force-reflecting servomanipulators for dexterous remote handling with television viewing for large-volume hazardous applications. These developments fully address the nonrepetitive nature of remote maintenance in the unstructured environments encountered in fuel reprocessing. This paper covers the primary emphasis in the present program; the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a prototype remote handling system for reprocessing applications, the Advanced Integrated Maintenance System.

  5. Introduction to Natural Resources: Advanced Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan

    This guide, which is designed for use with student and teacher guides to a 10-unit secondary-level course in natural resources, contains a series of student supplements and advanced assignment and job sheets that provide students with additional opportunities to explore the following areas of natural resources and conservation education: outdoor…

  6. Advanced transponders for deep space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Kayalar, Selahattin; Yeh, Hen-Geul; Kyriacou, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Three architectures for advanced deep space transponders are proposed. The architectures possess various digital techniques such as fast Fourier transform (FFT), digital phase-locked loop (PLL), and digital sideband aided carrier detection with analog or digital turn-around ranging. Preliminary results on the design and conceptual implementation are presented. Modifications to the command detector unit (CDU) are also presented.

  7. Recent advances and applications of probabilistic topic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Ian

    2014-12-01

    I present here an overview of recent advances in probabilistic topic modelling and related Bayesian graphical models as well as some of their more atypical applications outside of their home: text analysis. These techniques allow the modelling of high dimensional count vectors with strong correlations. With such data, simply calculating a correlation matrix is infeasible. Probabilistic topic models address this using mixtures of multinomials estimated via Bayesian inference with Dirichlet priors. The use of conjugate priors allows for efficient inference, and these techniques scale well to data sets with many millions of vectors. The first of these techniques to attract significant attention was Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) [1, 2]. Numerous extensions and adaptations of LDA have been proposed: non-parametric models; assorted models incorporating authors, sentiment and other features; models regularised through the use of extra metadata or extra priors on topic structure, and many more [3]. They have become widely used in the text analysis and population genetics communities, with a number of compelling applications. These techniques are not restricted to text analysis, however, and can be applied to other types of data which can be sensibly discretised and represented as counts of labels/properties/etc. LDA and it's variants have been used to find patterns in data from diverse areas of inquiry, including genetics, plant physiology, image analysis, social network analysis, remote sensing and astrophysics. Nonetheless, it is relatively recently that probabilistic topic models have found applications outside of text analysis, and to date few such applications have been considered. I suggest that there is substantial untapped potential for topic models and models inspired by or incorporating topic models to be fruitfully applied, and outline the characteristics of systems and data for which this may be the case.

  8. Assessment of Cardiac Sarcoidosis with Advanced Imaging Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Akasaka, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by the presence of noncaseating epithelioid granulomas, usually in multiple organs. Several studies have shown that sarcoidosis might be the result of an exaggerated granulomatous reaction after exposure to unidentified antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. Cardiac involvement may occur and lead to an adverse outcome: the heart mechanics will be affected and that causes ventricular failure, and the cardiac electrical system will be disrupted and lead to third degree atrioventricular block, malignant ventricular tachycardia, and sudden cardiac death. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment of this potentially devastating disease is critically important. However, sensitive and accurate imaging modalities have not been established. Recent studies have demonstrated the promising potential of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) in the diagnosis and assessment of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, etiology, histological findings, and clinical features of sarcoidosis. We also introduce advanced imaging including 18F-FDG PET and cardiac MRI as more reliable diagnostic modalities for CS. PMID:25250336

  9. Advances in ultrasound imaging for congenital malformations during early gestation

    PubMed Central

    Rayburn, William F.; Jolley, Jennifer A.; Simpson, Lynn L.

    2015-01-01

    With refinement in ultrasound technology, detection of fetal structural abnormalities has improved and there have been detailed reports of the natural history and expected outcomes for many anomalies. The ability to either reassure a high-risk woman with normal intrauterine images or offer comprehensive counseling and offer options in cases of strongly suspected lethal or major malformations has shifted prenatal diagnoses to the earliest possible gestational age. When indicated, scans in early gestation are valuable in accurate gestational dating. Stricter sonographic criteria for early nonviability guard against unnecessary intervention. Most birth defects are without known risk factors, and detection of certain malformations is possible in the late first trimester. The best time for a standard complete fetal and placental scan is 18–20 weeks. In addition, certain soft anatomic markers provide clues to chromosomal aneuploidy risk. Maternal obesity and multifetal pregnancies are now more common and further limit early gestation visibility. Other advanced imaging techniques during early gestation in select cases of suspected malformations include fetal echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25820190

  10. An advanced CCD emulator with 32MB image memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, P.; Fried, J.; Kotov, I.

    2012-07-01

    As part of the LSST sensor development program we have developed an advanced CCD emulator for testing new multichannel readout electronics. The emulator, based on an Altera Stratix II FPGA for timing and control, produces 4 channels of simulated video waveforms in response to an appropriate sequence of horizontal and vertical clocks. It features 40MHz, 16-bit DACs for reset and video generation, 32MB of image memory for storage of arbitrary grayscale bitmaps, and provision to simulate reset and clock feedthrough ("glitches") on the video channels. Clock inputs are qualified for proper sequences and levels before video output is generated. Binning, region of interest, and reverse clock sequences are correctly recognized and appropriate video output will be produced. Clock transitions are timestamped and can be played back to a control PC. A simplified user interface is provided via a daughter card having an ARM M3 Cortex microprocessor and miniature color LCD display and joystick. The user can select video modes from stored bitmap images, or flat, gradient, bar, chirp, or checkerboard test patterns; set clock thresholds and video output levels; and set row/column formats for image outputs. Multiple emulators can be operated in parallel to simulate complex CCDs or CCD arrays.

  11. Coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, Nabeel A.

    2016-04-01

    Starting in 2001, we proposed and extensively demonstrated (using a DMD: Digital Micromirror Device) an agile pixel Spatial Light Modulator (SLM)-based optical imager based on single pixel photo-detection (also called a single pixel camera) that is suited for operations with both coherent and incoherent light across broad spectral bands. This imager design operates with the agile pixels programmed in a limited SNR operations starring time-multiplexed mode where acquisition of image irradiance (i.e., intensity) data is done one agile pixel at a time across the SLM plane where the incident image radiation is present. Motivated by modern day advances in RF wireless, optical wired communications and electronic signal processing technologies and using our prior-art SLM-based optical imager design, described using a surprisingly simple approach is a new imager design called Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) that has the ability to alleviate some of the key prior imager fundamental limitations. The agile pixel in the CAOS imager can operate in different time-frequency coding modes like Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Data from a first CAOS camera demonstration is described along with novel designs of CAOS-based optical instruments for various applications.

  12. Recent Advances in 19Fluorine Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Perfluorocarbon Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Schmieder, Anne H.; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Keupp, Jochen; Wickline, Samuel A.; Lanza, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    The research roots of 19fluorine (19F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) date back over 35 years. Over that time span, 1H imaging flourished and was adopted worldwide with an endless array of applications and imaging approaches, making magnetic resonance an indispensable pillar of biomedical diagnostic imaging. For many years during this timeframe, 19F imaging research continued at a slow pace as the various attributes of the technique were explored. However, over the last decade and particularly the last several years, the pace and clinical relevance of 19F imaging has exploded. In part, this is due to advances in MRI instrumentation, 19F/1H coil designs, and ultrafast pulse sequence development for both preclinical and clinical scanners. These achievements, coupled with interest in the molecular imaging of anatomy and physiology, and combined with a cadre of innovative agents, have brought the concept of 19F into early clinical evaluation. In this review, we attempt to provide a slice of this rich history of research and development, with a particular focus on liquid perfluorocarbon compound-based agents. PMID:27110430

  13. Advancing Patient-centered Outcomes in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Kanzaria, Hemal K; McCabe, Aileen M; Meisel, Zachary M; LeBlanc, Annie; Schaffer, Jason T; Bellolio, M Fernanda; Vaughan, William; Merck, Lisa H; Applegate, Kimberly E; Hollander, Judd E; Grudzen, Corita R; Mills, Angela M; Carpenter, Christopher R; Hess, Erik P

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging is integral to the evaluation of many emergency department (ED) patients. However, relatively little effort has been devoted to patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) in emergency diagnostic imaging. This article provides background on this topic and the conclusions of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference PCOR work group regarding "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The goal was to determine a prioritized research agenda to establish which outcomes related to emergency diagnostic imaging are most important to patients, caregivers, and other key stakeholders and which methods will most optimally engage patients in the decision to undergo imaging. Case vignettes are used to emphasize these concepts as they relate to a patient's decision to seek care at an ED and the care received there. The authors discuss applicable research methods and approaches such as shared decision-making that could facilitate better integration of patient-centered outcomes and patient-reported outcomes into decisions regarding emergency diagnostic imaging. Finally, based on a modified Delphi process involving members of the PCOR work group, prioritized research questions are proposed to advance the science of patient-centered outcomes in ED diagnostic imaging. PMID:26574729

  14. A Bright Future for Precision Medicine: Advances in Fluorescent Chemical Probe Design and Their Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Garland, Megan; Yim, Joshua J; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-01-21

    The Precision Medicine Initiative aims to use advances in basic and clinical research to develop therapeutics that selectively target and kill cancer cells. Under the same doctrine of precision medicine, there is an equally important need to visualize these diseased cells to enable diagnosis, facilitate surgical resection, and monitor therapeutic response. Therefore, there is a great opportunity for chemists to develop chemically tractable probes that can image cancer in vivo. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of optical probes, as well as their current and future applications in the clinical management of cancer. The progress in probe development described here suggests that optical imaging is an important and rapidly developing field of study that encourages continued collaboration among chemists, biologists, and clinicians to further refine these tools for interventional surgical imaging, as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26933740

  15. Recent advancements in structured-illumination microscopy toward live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Atsushi; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2015-08-01

    Fluorescence microscopy allows us to observe fluorescently labeled molecules in diverse biological processes and organelle structures within living cells. However, the diffraction limit restricts its spatial resolution to about half of its wavelength, limiting the capability of biological observation at the molecular level. Structured-illumination microscopy (SIM), a type of super-resolution microscopy, doubles the spatial resolution in all three dimensions by illuminating the sample with a patterned excitation light, followed by computer reconstruction. SIM uses a relatively low illumination power compared with other methods of super-resolution microscopy and is easily available for multicolor imaging. SIM has great potential for meeting the requirements of live-cell imaging. Recent developments in diverse types of SIM have achieved higher spatial (∼50 nm lateral) and temporal (∼100 Hz) resolutions. Here, we review recent advancements in SIM and discuss its application in noninvasive live-cell imaging. PMID:26133185

  16. AXIOM: Advanced X-Ray Imaging of the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sembay, S. F.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sibeck, D. G.; Abbey, A.; Brown, P.; Carter, J. A.; Carr, C. M.; Forsyth, C.; Kataria, D.; Kemble, S.; Milan, S. E.; Owen, C. J.; Peacocke, L.; Read, A. M.; Coates, A. J.; Collier, M. R.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Fraser, G. W.; Jones, G. H.; Lallement, R.; Lester, M.; Porter, F. S.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Planetary plasma and magnetic field environments can be studied in two complementary ways by in situ measurements, or by remote sensing. While the former provide precise information about plasma behaviour, instabilities and dynamics on local scales, the latter offers the global view necessary to understand the overall interaction of the magnetospheric plasma with the solar wind. Some parts of the Earth's magnetosphere have been remotely sensed, but the majority remains unexplored by this type of measurements. Here we propose a novel and more elegant approach employing remote X-ray imaging techniques, which are now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange X-ray emissions in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere. In this article we describe how an appropriately designed and located X-ray telescope, supported by simultaneous in situ measurements of the solar wind, can be used to image the dayside magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock, with a temporal and spatial resolution sufficient to address several key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere on a global level. Global images of the dayside magnetospheric boundaries require vantage points well outside the magnetosphere. Our studies have led us to propose AXIOM: Advanced X-ray Imaging Of the Magnetosphere, a concept mission using a Vega launcher with a LISA Pathfinder-type Propulsion Module to place the spacecraft in a Lissajous orbit around the Earth Moon L1 point. The model payload consists of an X-ray Wide Field Imager, capable of both imaging and spectroscopy, and an in situ plasma and magnetic field measurement package. This package comprises a Proton-Alpha Sensor, designed to measure the bulk properties of the solar wind, an Ion Composition Analyser, to characterize the minor ion populations in the solar wind that cause charge exchange emission, and a Magnetometer, designed to measure the strength and direction

  17. AXIOM: Advanced X-ray Imaging of the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sembay, S. F.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sibeck, D. G.; Abbey, A.; Brown, P.; Carter, J. A.; Carr, C. M.; Forsyth, C.; Kataria, D.; Kemble, S.; Milan, S. E.; Owen, C. J.; Peacocke, L.; Read, A. M.; Coates, A. J.; Collier, M. R.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Fraser, G. W.; Jones, G. H.; Lallement, R.; Lester, M.; Porter, F. S.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    Planetary plasma and magnetic field environments can be studied in two complementary ways - by in situ measurements, or by remote sensing. While the former provide precise information about plasma behaviour, instabilities and dynamics on local scales, the latter offers the global view necessary to understand the overall interaction of the magnetospheric plasma with the solar wind. Some parts of the Earth's magnetosphere have been remotely sensed, but the majority remains unexplored by this type of measurements. Here we propose a novel and more elegant approach employing remote X-ray imaging techniques. which are now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange X-ray emissions in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere. In this article we describe how an appropriately designed and located. X-ray telescope, supported by simultaneous in situ measurements of the solar wind, can be used to image the dayside magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock. with a temporal and spatial resolution sufficient to address several key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere on a global level. Global images of the dayside magnetospheric boundaries require vantage points well outside the magnetosphere. Our studies have led us to propose 'AXIOM: Advanced X-ray Imaging Of the Magnetosphere', a concept mission using a Vega launcher with a LISA Pathfinder-type Propulsion Module to place the spacecraft in a Lissajous orbit around the Earth - Moon Ll point. The model payload consists of an X-ray Wide Field Imager, capable of both imaging and spectroscopy, and an in situ plasma and magnetic field measurement package. This package comprises a Proton-Alpha Sensor, designed to measure the bulk properties of the solar wind, an Ion Composition Analyser, to characterize the minor ion populations in the solar wind that cause charge exchange emission, and a Magnetometer, designed to measure the strength and

  18. AXIOM: advanced X-ray imaging of the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Sembay, Steve F.; Eastwood, Jonathan P.; Sibeck, David G.; Abbey, Tony A.; Brown, Patrick; Carter, Jenny A.; Carr, Chris M.; Forsyth, Colin; Kataria, Dhiren; Kemble, Steve; Milan, Steve E.; Owen, Chris J.; Peacocke, Lisa; Read, Andy M.; Coates, Andrew J.; Collier, Michael R.; Cowley, Stan W. H.; Fazakerley, Andrew N.; Fraser, George W.; Jones, Geraint H.; Lallement, Rosine; Lester, Mark; Porter, F. Scott; Yeoman, Tim K.

    2012-04-01

    Planetary plasma and magnetic field environments can be studied in two complementary ways—by in situ measurements, or by remote sensing. While the former provide precise information about plasma behaviour, instabilities and dynamics on local scales, the latter offers the global view necessary to understand the overall interaction of the magnetospheric plasma with the solar wind. Some parts of the Earth's magnetosphere have been remotely sensed, but the majority remains unexplored by this type of measurements. Here we propose a novel and more elegant approach employing remote X-ray imaging techniques, which are now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange X-ray emissions in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere. In this article we describe how an appropriately designed and located X-ray telescope, supported by simultaneous in situ measurements of the solar wind, can be used to image the dayside magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock, with a temporal and spatial resolution sufficient to address several key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere on a global level. Global images of the dayside magnetospheric boundaries require vantage points well outside the magnetosphere. Our studies have led us to propose `AXIOM: Advanced X-ray Imaging of the Magnetosphere', a concept mission using a Vega launcher with a LISA Pathfinder-type Propulsion Module to place the spacecraft in a Lissajous orbit around the Earth-Moon L1 point. The model payload consists of an X-ray Wide Field Imager, capable of both imaging and spectroscopy, and an in situ plasma and magnetic field measurement package. This package comprises a Proton-Alpha Sensor, designed to measure the bulk properties of the solar wind, an Ion Composition Analyser, to characterise the minor ion populations in the solar wind that cause charge exchange emission, and a Magnetometer, designed to measure the strength and

  19. [Advances in the research of laser Doppler perfusion imaging in burn wounds].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Longshun; Hu, Dahai; Qu, Yi; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Hongtao

    2014-04-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) works through the Doppler effect of light wave, and it could depict the blood flow value of the entire wound in two-dimensional image without contacting the detection site directly. In resent years, LDPI has been proved to be effective to evaluate healing potential of a wound, and to predict burn depth and scar formation. The accuracy of LDPI is higher than other traditional methods and technique. However, there are still many influencing factors for the clinical application of LDPI scanning. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of advances in the research of LDPI for clinical application in the care of burn wounds and influencing factors for accurate scanning. PMID:24989665

  20. Advanced composite applications for sub-micron biologically derived microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnur, J. M.; Price, R. R.; Schoen, P. E.; Bonanventura, Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    A major thrust of advanced material development is in the area of self-assembled ultra-fine particulate based composites (micro-composites). The application of biologically derived, self-assembled microstructures to form advanced composite materials is discussed. Hollow 0.5 micron diameter cylindrical shaped microcylinders self-assemble from diacetylenic lipids. These microstructures have a multiplicity of potential applications in the material sciences. Exploratory development is proceeding in application areas such as controlled release for drug delivery, wound repair, and biofouling as well as composites for electronic and magnetic applications, and high power microwave cathodes.

  1. Advanced imaging of the macrostructure and microstructure of bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genant, H. K.; Gordon, C.; Jiang, Y.; Link, T. M.; Hans, D.; Majumdar, S.; Lang, T. F.

    2000-01-01

    Noninvasive and/or nondestructive techniques are capable of providing more macro- or microstructural information about bone than standard bone densitometry. Although the latter provides important information about osteoporotic fracture risk, numerous studies indicate that bone strength is only partially explained by bone mineral density. Quantitative assessment of macro- and microstructural features may improve our ability to estimate bone strength. The methods available for quantitatively assessing macrostructure include (besides conventional radiographs) quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT). Methods for assessing microstructure of trabecular bone noninvasively and/or nondestructively include high-resolution computed tomography (hrCT), micro-computed tomography (muCT), high-resolution magnetic resonance (hrMR), and micromagnetic resonance (muMR). vQCT, hrCT and hrMR are generally applicable in vivo; muCT and muMR are principally applicable in vitro. Although considerable progress has been made in the noninvasive and/or nondestructive imaging of the macro- and microstructure of bone, considerable challenges and dilemmas remain. From a technical perspective, the balance between spatial resolution versus sampling size, or between signal-to-noise versus radiation dose or acquisition time, needs further consideration, as do the trade-offs between the complexity and expense of equipment and the availability and accessibility of the methods. The relative merits of in vitro imaging and its ultrahigh resolution but invasiveness versus those of in vivo imaging and its modest resolution but noninvasiveness also deserve careful attention. From a clinical perspective, the challenges for bone imaging include balancing the relative advantages of simple bone densitometry against the more complex architectural features of bone or, similarly, the deeper research requirements against the broader clinical needs. The

  2. Evaluation of the Pentium 4 for imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grow, Michael S.; Kim, Yongmin

    2001-12-01

    In the past few years, programmable mediaprocessors (e.g., Hitachi/Equator Technologies MAP-CA and Texas Instruments TMS320C6x) have been replacing ASICs and other hardwired components in imaging applications (e.g., medical imaging modalities, machine vision systems, and video conferencing). Due to the high performance requirements of many imaging applications, older general-purpose processors were not suitable for these kinds of applications. For instance, in 1993 the TMS320C80 was about 50 times faster than the Intel 486 processor. However, recent advances in the architecture and instruction sets of general-purpose processors have closed the gap significantly in performance between these processors and programmable mediaprocessors. For example, the MMX, SSE, and SSE2 extensions to the Pentium 4 instruction set give the Pentium 4 a legitimate multimedia instruction set that is comparable to the instruction sets found in mediaprocessors, thus further blurring the boundary between general-purpose processors and mediaprocessors. The combination of the instruction set extensions and a new architecture that supports very high clock frequencies give the Pentium 4 performance in imaging functions comparable to high performance mediaprocessors and thereby make the Pentium 4 a candidate for applications where its large size, high cost, and high power consumption are not overriding issues.

  3. Photodetectors for the Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert G.; Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System AGIS Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory. Design goals include an order of magnitude better sensitivity, better angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a camera that detects and records the Cherenkov-light flashes from air showers. The camera is comprised of a pixelated focal plane of blue sensitive and fast (nanosecond) photon detectors that detect the photon signal and convert it into an electrical one. Given the scale of AGIS, the camera must be reliable and cost effective. The Schwarzschild-Couder optical design yields a smaller plate scale than present-day Cherenkov telescopes, enabling the use of more compact, multi-pixel devices, including multianode photomultipliers or Geiger avalanche photodiodes. We present the conceptual design of the focal plane for the camera and results from testing candidate! focal plane sensors.

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2011-09-01

    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant

  5. Mechanochemical synthesis of advanced nanomaterials for catalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunping; De, Sudipta; Balu, Alina M; Ojeda, Manuel; Luque, Rafael

    2015-04-21

    Mechanochemical synthesis emerged as the most advantageous, environmentally sound alternative to traditional routes for nanomaterials preparation with outstanding properties for advanced applications. Featuring simplicity, high reproducibility, mild/short reaction conditions and often solvent-free condition (dry milling), mechanochemistry can offer remarkable possibilities in the development of advanced catalytically active materials. The proposed contribution has been aimed to provide a brief account of remarkable recent findings and advances in the mechanochemical synthesis of solid phase advanced catalysts as opposed to conventional systems. The role of mechanical energy in the synthesis of solid catalysts and their application is critically discussed as well as the influence of the synthesis procedure on the physicochemical properties and the efficiency of synthesized catalysts is studied. The main purpose of this feature article is to highlight the possibilities of mechanochemical protocols in (nano)materials engineering for catalytic applications.

  6. Advanced composites: Design and application. Proceedings of the meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shives, T. R.; Willard, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design and application of advanced composites is discussed with emphasis on aerospace, aircraft, automotive, marine, and industrial applications. Failure modes in advanced composites are also discussed.

  7. Imaging spectrometry - Technology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Jerry E.

    1989-01-01

    The development history and current status of NASA imaging-spectrometer (IS) technology are discussed in a review covering the period 1982-1988. Consideration is given to the Airborne IS first flown in 1982, the second-generation Airborne Visible and IR IS (AVIRIS), the High-Resolution IS being developed for the EOS polar platform, improved two-dimensional focal-plane arrays for the short-wave IR spectral region, and noncollinear acoustooptic tunable filters for use as spectral dispersing elements. Also examined are approaches to solving the data-processing problems posed by the high data volumes of state-of-the-art ISs (e.g., 160 MB per 600 x 600-pixel AVIRIS scene), including intelligent data editing, lossless and lossy data compression techniques, and direct extraction of scientifically meaningful geophysical and biophysical parameters.

  8. Integrated Imaging and Vision Techniques for Industrial Inspection: A Special Issue on Machine Vision and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zheng; Ukida, H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Forsyth, D. S.

    2010-06-05

    Imaging- and vision-based techniques play an important role in industrial inspection. The sophistication of the techniques assures high- quality performance of the manufacturing process through precise positioning, online monitoring, and real-time classification. Advanced systems incorporating multiple imaging and/or vision modalities provide robust solutions to complex situations and problems in industrial applications. A diverse range of industries, including aerospace, automotive, electronics, pharmaceutical, biomedical, semiconductor, and food/beverage, etc., have benefited from recent advances in multi-modal imaging, data fusion, and computer vision technologies. Many of the open problems in this context are in the general area of image analysis methodologies (preferably in an automated fashion). This editorial article introduces a special issue of this journal highlighting recent advances and demonstrating the successful applications of integrated imaging and vision technologies in industrial inspection.

  9. Advanced Sensors and Applications Study (ASAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chism, S. B.; Hughes, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present EOD requirements for sensors in the space shuttle era are reported with emphasis on those applications which were deemed important enough to warrant separate sections. The application areas developed are: (1) agriculture; (2) atmospheric corrections; (3) cartography; (4) coastal studies; (5) forestry; (6) geology; (7) hydrology; (8) land use; (9) oceanography; and (10) soil moisture. For each application area. The following aspects were covered: (1) specific goals and techniques, (2) individual sensor requirements including types, bands, resolution, etc.; (3) definition of mission requirements, type orbits, coverages, etc.; and (4) discussion of anticipated problem areas and solutions. The remote sensors required for these application areas include; (1) camera systems; (2) multispectral scanners; (3) microwave scatterometers; (4) synthetic aperture radars; (5) microwave radiometers; and (6) vidicons. The emphasis in the remote sensor area was on the evaluation of present technology implications about future systems.

  10. ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

  11. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  12. Advanced miniature processing handware for ATR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anikumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Optoelectronic Neural Object Recognition System (HONORS), is disclosed, comprising two major building blocks: (1) an advanced grayscale optical correlator (OC) and (2) a massively parallel three-dimensional neural-processor. The optical correlator, with its inherent advantages in parallel processing and shift invariance, is used for target of interest (TOI) detection and segmentation. The three-dimensional neural-processor, with its robust neural learning capability, is used for target classification and identification. The hybrid optoelectronic neural object recognition system, with its powerful combination of optical processing and neural networks, enables real-time, large frame, automatic target recognition (ATR).

  13. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time. PMID:17817782

  14. Applications of magnetic resonance imaging in food science.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S J; Sun, X; Litchfield, J B

    1996-04-01

    The physical and chemical changes that occur in foods during growth, harvest, processing, storage, preparation, and consumption are often very difficult to measure and quantify. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a pioneering technology, originally developed in the medical field, that is now being used in a large number of disciplines to study a wide variety of materials and processes. In food science, MRI techniques allow the interior of foods to be imaged noninvasively and nondestructively. These images can then be quantified to yield information about several processes and material properties, such as mass and heat transfer, fat and ice crystallization, gelation, water mobidity, composition and volume changes, food stability and maturation, flow behavior, and temperature. This article introduces the fundamental principles of MRI, presents some of the recent advances in MRI technology, and reviews some of the current applications of MRI in food science research.

  15. Sharpening advanced land imager multispectral data using a sensor model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, G.P.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument on NASA's Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite provides for nine spectral bands at 30m ground sample distance (GSD) and a 10m GSD panchromatic band. This report describes an image sharpening technique where the higher spatial resolution information of the panchromatic band is used to increase the spatial resolution of ALI multispectral (MS) data. To preserve the spectral characteristics, this technique combines reported deconvolution deblurring methods for the MS data with highpass filter-based fusion methods for the Pan data. The deblurring process uses the point spread function (PSF) model of the ALI sensor. Information includes calculation of the PSF from pre-launch calibration data. Performance was evaluated using simulated ALI MS data generated by degrading the spatial resolution of high resolution IKONOS satellite MS data. A quantitative measure of performance was the error between sharpened MS data and high resolution reference. This report also compares performance with that of a reported method that includes PSF information. Preliminary results indicate improved sharpening with the method reported here.

  16. Spaceborne imaging radar - Geologic and oceanographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Synoptic, large-area radar images of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous images taken by the Seasat imaging radar. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications.

  17. Spaceborne imaging radar: geologic and oceanographic applications.

    PubMed

    Elachi, C

    1980-09-01

    Synoptic, large-area radar images of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous images taken by the Seasat imaging radar. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications.

  18. X-ray imaging in advanced studies of ophthalmic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Antunes, Andrea; Safatle, Angelica M. V.; Barros, Paulo S. M.; Morelhao, Sergio L.

    2006-07-15

    Microscopic characterization of pathological tissues has one major intrinsic limitation, the small sampling areas with respect to the extension of the tissues. Mapping possible changes on vast tissues and correlating them with large ensembles of clinical cases is not a feasible procedure for studying most diseases, as for instance vision loss related diseases and, in particular, the cataract. Although intraocular lens implants are successful treatments, cataract still is a leading public-health issue that grows in importance as the population increases and life expectancy is extended worldwide. In this work we have exploited the radiation-tissue interaction properties of hard x-rays--very low absorption and scattering--to map distinct lesions on entire eye lenses. At the used synchrotron x-ray photon energy of 20 keV (wavelength {lambda}=0.062 nm), scattering and refraction are angular resolved effects. It allows the employed x-ray image technique to efficiently characterize two types of lesions in eye lenses under cataractogenesis: distributions of tiny scattering centers and extended areas of fiber cell compaction. The data collection procedure is relatively fast; allowing dozens of samples to be totally imaged (scattering, refraction, and mass absorption images) in a single day of synchrotron beam time. More than 60 cases of canine cataract, not correlated to specific causes, were investigated in this first application of x-rays to image entire lenses. Cortical opacity cases, or partial opacity, could be related to the presence of calcificated tissues at the cortical areas, clearly visible in the images, whose elemental contents were verified by micro x-ray fluorescence as very rich in calcium. Calcificated tissues were also observed at nuclear areas in some cases of hypermature cataract. Total opacity cases without distinguishable amount of scattering centers consist in 70% of the analyzed cases, where remarkable fissure marks owing to extended areas of fiber

  19. X-ray imaging in advanced studies of ophthalmic diseases.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Andrea; Safatle, Angélica M V; Barros, Paulo S M; Morelhão, Sérgio L

    2006-07-01

    Microscopic characterization of pathological tissues has one major intrinsic limitation, the small sampling areas with respect to the extension of the tissues. Mapping possible changes on vast tissues and correlating them with large ensembles of clinical cases is not a feasible procedure for studying most diseases, as for instance vision loss related diseases and, in particular, the cataract. Although intraocular lens implants are successful treatments, cataract still is a leading public-health issue that grows in importance as the population increases and life expectancy is extended worldwide. In this work we have exploited the radiation-tissue interaction properties of hard x-rays--very low absorption and scattering--to map distinct lesions on entire eye lenses. At the used synchrotron x-ray photon energy of 20 keV (wavelength lambda=0.062 nm), scattering and refraction are angular resolved effects. It allows the employed x-ray image technique to efficiently characterize two types of lesions in eye lenses under cataractogenesis: distributions of tiny scattering centers and extended areas of fiber cell compaction. The data collection procedure is relatively fast; allowing dozens of samples to be totally imaged (scattering, refraction, and mass absorption images) in a single day of synchrotron beam time. More than 60 cases of canine cataract, not correlated to specific causes, were investigated in this first application of x-rays to image entire lenses. Cortical opacity cases, or partial opacity, could be related to the presence of calcificated tissues at the cortical areas, clearly visible in the images, whose elemental contents were verified by micro x-ray fluorescence as very rich in calcium. Calcificated tissues were also observed at nuclear areas in some cases of hypermature cataract. Total opacity cases without distinguishable amount of scattering centers consist in 70% of the analyzed cases, where remarkable fissure marks owing to extended areas of fiber

  20. Recent Advances in the Imaging Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Value of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Ijin; Lee, Jeong Min

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DPTA), or gadoxetic acid for short, is a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent which is now increasingly used for the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions, particularly in patients at high-risk of developing hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). In fact, several recent guidelines now recognize gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (Gd-EOB-MRI) as the primary diagnostic imaging modality for the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, although it must be noted that several major guidelines still include only extracellular contrast media-enhanced computed tomography and MRI. The primary merits of Gd-EOB-MRI lie in the fact that it can provide not only dynamic imaging, but also hepatobiliary phase (HBP) imaging which can lead to high lesion-to-liver contrast and give additional information regarding hepatocyte uptake via organic anion transporting polypeptides. This, in turn, allows higher sensitivity in detecting small HCCs and helps provide additional information regarding the multistep process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Indeed, many recent studies have investigated the diagnostic value of Gd-EOB-MRI for early HCCs as well as its role as a potential imaging biomarker in predicting outcome. We herein review the recent advances in the imaging diagnosis of HCCs focusing on the applications of Gd-EOB-MRI and the challenging issues that remain. PMID:26989660

  1. Technologies of image guidance and the development of advanced linear accelerator systems for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vincent W C; Law, Maria Y Y; Star-Lack, Josh; Cheung, Fion W K; Ling, C Clifton

    2011-01-01

    As advanced radiotherapy approaches for targeting the tumor and sparing the normal tissues have been developed, the image guidance of therapy has become essential to directing and confirming treatment accuracy. To approach these goals, image guidance devices now include kV on-board imagers, kV/MV cone-beam CT systems, CT-on-rails, and mobile and in-room radiographic/fluoroscopic systems. Nonionizing sources, such as ultrasound and optical systems, and electromagnetic devices have been introduced to monitor or track the patient and/or tumor positions during treatment. In addition, devices have been designed specifically for monitoring and/or controlling respiratory motion. Optimally, image-guided radiation therapy systems should possess 3 essential elements: (1) 3D imaging of soft tissues and tumors, (2) efficient acquisition and comparison of the 3D images, and (3) an efficacious process for clinically meaningful intervention. Understanding and using these tools effectively is central to current radiotherapy practice. The implementation and integration of these devices continue to carry practical challenges, which emphasize the need for further development of the technologies and their clinical applications.

  2. Recent Advances in the Imaging Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Value of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Joo, Ijin; Lee, Jeong Min

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DPTA), or gadoxetic acid for short, is a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent which is now increasingly used for the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions, particularly in patients at high-risk of developing hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). In fact, several recent guidelines now recognize gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (Gd-EOB-MRI) as the primary diagnostic imaging modality for the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, although it must be noted that several major guidelines still include only extracellular contrast media-enhanced computed tomography and MRI. The primary merits of Gd-EOB-MRI lie in the fact that it can provide not only dynamic imaging, but also hepatobiliary phase (HBP) imaging which can lead to high lesion-to-liver contrast and give additional information regarding hepatocyte uptake via organic anion transporting polypeptides. This, in turn, allows higher sensitivity in detecting small HCCs and helps provide additional information regarding the multistep process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Indeed, many recent studies have investigated the diagnostic value of Gd-EOB-MRI for early HCCs as well as its role as a potential imaging biomarker in predicting outcome. We herein review the recent advances in the imaging diagnosis of HCCs focusing on the applications of Gd-EOB-MRI and the challenging issues that remain. PMID:26989660

  3. Neural networks: Application to medical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Laurence P.

    1994-01-01

    The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

  4. Ceramic applications in the advanced Stirling automotive engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.; Cairelli, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The ideal cycle, its application to a practical machine, and the specific advantages of high efficiency, low emissions, multi-fuel capability, and low noise of the stirling engine are discussed. Certain portions of the Stirling engine must operate continuously at high temperature. Ceramics offer the potential of cost reduction and efficiency improvement for advanced engine applications. Potential applications for ceramics in Stirling engines, and some of the special problems pertinent to using ceramics in the Stirling engine are described. The research and technology program in ceramics which is planned to support the development of advanced Stirling engines is outlined.

  5. Protein Dielectrophoresis: Advances, Challenges and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Asuka; Ros, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Protein dielectrophoresis (DEP) has the potential to play an important role as a manipulation, fractionation, pre-concentration and separation method in bioanalysis and as manipulation tool for nanotechnological applications. The first demonstrations of protein DEP have been reported almost twenty years ago. Since then various experimental realizations to manipulate proteins by DEP as well as more targeted applications employing protein DEP have been demonstrated. This review summarizes the experimental studies in the field of protein DEP trapping and focusing as well as specific applications in separation, molecular patterning, on bioprobes and biosensors. While a comprehensive theoretical model describing protein DEP is still lacking we also attempt to provide an overview of the factors influencing protein DEP and relate to currently available theoretical models. We further point out the variations in experimental conditions used in the past to study the somewhat 20 proteins as well as the implications of protein molecular structure to the DEP response. PMID:23400789

  6. Solid state imagers and their applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cannes, France, November 26, 27, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Declerck, Gilbert J. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Topics treated include the use of semiconductor imagers in high energy particle physics, an X-ray image sensor based on an optical TDI-CCD imager, and an electron-sensitive CCD readout array for a circular-scan streak tube. Papers are presented on the pan-imager, high resolution linear arrays, the reduction of reflection losses in solid-state image sensors, a high resolution CCD imager module with swing operation, large area CCD image sensors for scientific applications, and new readout techniques for frame transfer CCDs. Consideration is given to advanced optoelectronical sensors for autonomous rendezvous/docking and proximity operations in space, the testing and characterization of CCDs for the Rosat star sensors, an advanced radial camera for the Hubble Space Telescope, and scanning or staring infrared imagers.

  7. Advanced communications payload for mobile applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, S. A.; Kwan, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    An advanced satellite payload is proposed for single hop linking of mobile terminals of all classes as well as Very Small Aperture Terminal's (VSAT's). It relies on an intensive use of communications on-board processing and beam hopping for efficient link design to maximize capacity and a large satellite antenna aperture and high satellite transmitter power to minimize the cost of the ground terminals. Intersatellite links are used to improve the link quality and for high capacity relay. Power budgets are presented for links between the satellite and mobile, VSAT, and hub terminals. Defeating the effects of shadowing and fading requires the use of differentially coherent demodulation, concatenated forward error correction coding, and interleaving, all on a single link basis.

  8. Next generation sequencing technology: Advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Buermans, H P J; den Dunnen, J T

    2014-10-01

    Impressive progress has been made in the field of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Through advancements in the fields of molecular biology and technical engineering, parallelization of the sequencing reaction has profoundly increased the total number of produced sequence reads per run. Current sequencing platforms allow for a previously unprecedented view into complex mixtures of RNA and DNA samples. NGS is currently evolving into a molecular microscope finding its way into virtually every fields of biomedical research. In this chapter we review the technical background of the different commercially available NGS platforms with respect to template generation and the sequencing reaction and take a small step towards what the upcoming NGS technologies will bring. We close with an overview of different implementations of NGS into biomedical research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From Genome to Function.

  9. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed in support of the development and demonstration of a structural ceramic technology for automotive gas turbine engines. The AGT101 regenerated gas turbine engine developed under the previous DOE/NASA Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) program is being utilized for verification testing of the durability of next-generation ceramic components and their suitability for service at reference powertrain design conditions. Topics covered in this report include ceramic processing definition and refinement, design improvements to the test bed engine and test rigs, and design methodologies related to ceramic impact and fracture mechanisms. Appendices include reports by ATTAP subcontractors addressing the development of silicon nitride and silicon carbide families of materials and processes.

  10. Applications technology satellites advanced mission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    Three spacecraft configurations were designed for operation as a high powered synchronous communications satellite. Each spacecraft includes a 1 kw TWT and a 2 kw Klystron power amplifier feeding an antenna with multiple shaped beams. One of the spacecraft is designed to be boosted by a Thor-Delta launch vehicle and raised to synchronous orbit with electric propulsion. The other two are inserted into a elliptical transfer orbit with an Atlas Centaur and injected into final orbit with an apogee kick motor. Advanced technologies employed in the several configurations include tubes with multiple stage collectors radiating directly to space, multiple-contoured beam antennas, high voltage rollout solar cell arrays with integral power conditioning, electric propulsion for orbit raising and on-station attitude control and station-keeping, and liquid metal slip rings.

  11. Advances in laser diodes for pyrotechnic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Richard R.

    1993-01-01

    Background information concerning the use of laser diodes in pyrotechnic applications is provided in viewgraph form. The following topics are discussed: damage limits, temperature stability, fiber coupling issues, and small (100 micron) and large (400 micron) fiber results. The discussions concerning fiber results concentrate on the areas of package geometry and electro-optical properties.

  12. Dawn of advanced molecular medicine: nanotechnological advancements in cancer imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaittanis, Charalambos; Shaffer, Travis M; Thorek, Daniel L J; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role not only in our everyday life (with all its benefits and dangers) but also in medicine. Nanoparticles are to date the most intriguing option to deliver high concentrations of agents specifically and directly to cancer cells; therefore, a wide variety of these nanomaterials has been developed and explored. These span the range from simple nanoagents to sophisticated smart devices for drug delivery or imaging. Nanomaterials usually provide a large surface area, allowing for decoration with a large amount of moieties on the surface for either additional functionalities or targeting. Besides using particles solely for imaging purposes, they can also carry as a payload a therapeutic agent. If both are combined within the same particle, a theranostic agent is created. The sophistication of highly developed nanotechnology targeting approaches provides a promising means for many clinical implementations and can provide improved applications for otherwise suboptimal formulations. In this review we will explore nanotechnology both for imaging and therapy to provide a general overview of the field and its impact on cancer imaging and therapy. PMID:25271430

  13. Dawn of Advanced Molecular Medicine: Nanotechnological Advancements in Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaittanis, Charalambos; Shaffer, Travis M.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role not only in our everyday life (with all its benefits and dangers) but also in medicine. Nanoparticles are to date the most intriguing option to deliver high concentrations of agents specifically and directly to cancer cells; therefore, a wide variety of these nanomaterials has been developed and explored. These span the range from simple nanoagents to sophisticated smart devices for drug delivery or imaging. Nanomaterials usually provide a large surface area, allowing for decoration with a large amount of moieties on the surface for either additional functionalities or targeting. Besides using particles solely for imaging purposes, they can also carry as a payload a therapeutic agent. If both are combined within the same particle, a theranostic agent is created. The sophistication of highly developed nanotechnology targeting approaches provides a promising means for many clinical implementations and can provide improved applications for otherwise suboptimal formulations. In this review we will explore nanotechnology both for imaging and therapy to provide a general overview of the field and its impact on cancer imaging and therapy. PMID:25271430

  14. High power infrared QCLs: advances and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2012-01-01

    QCLs are becoming the most important sources of laser radiation in the midwave infrared (MWIR) and longwave infrared (LWIR) regions because of their size, weight, power and reliability advantages over other laser sources in the same spectral regions. The availability of multiwatt RT operation QCLs from 3.5 μm to >16 μm with wall plug efficiency of 10% or higher is hastening the replacement of traditional sources such as OPOs and OPSELs in many applications. QCLs can replace CO2 lasers in many low power applications. Of the two leading groups in improvements in QCL performance, Pranalytica is the commercial organization that has been supplying the highest performance QCLs to various customers for over four year. Using a new QCL design concept, the non-resonant extraction [1], we have achieved CW/RT power of >4.7 W and WPE of >17% in the 4.4 μm - 5.0 μm region. In the LWIR region, we have recently demonstrated QCLs with CW/RT power exceeding 1 W with WPE of nearly 10 % in the 7.0 μm-10.0 μm region. In general, the high power CW/RT operation requires use of TECs to maintain QCLs at appropriate operating temperatures. However, TECs consume additional electrical power, which is not desirable for handheld, battery-operated applications, where system power conversion efficiency is more important than just the QCL chip level power conversion efficiency. In high duty cycle pulsed (quasi-CW) mode, the QCLs can be operated without TECs and have produced nearly the same average power as that available in CW mode with TECs. Multiwatt average powers are obtained even in ambient T>70°C, with true efficiency of electrical power-to-optical power conversion being above 10%. Because of the availability of QCLs with multiwatt power outputs and wavelength range covering a spectral region from ~3.5 μm to >16 μm, the QCLs have found instantaneous acceptance for insertion into multitude of defense and homeland security applications, including laser sources for infrared

  15. Advances in endoscopic ultrasound imaging of colorectal diseases.

    PubMed

    Cârțână, Elena Tatiana; Gheonea, Dan Ionuț; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    The development of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has had a significant impact for patients with digestive diseases, enabling enhanced diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, with most of the available evidence focusing on upper gastrointestinal (GI) and pancreatico-biliary diseases. For the lower GI tract the main application of EUS has been in staging rectal cancer, as a complementary technique to other cross-sectional imaging methods. EUS can provide highly accurate in-depth assessments of tumour infiltration, performing best in the diagnosis of early rectal tumours. In the light of recent developments other EUS applications for colorectal diseases have been also envisaged and are currently under investigation, including beyond-rectum tumour staging by means of the newly developed forward-viewing radial array echoendoscope. Due to its high resolution, EUS might be also regarded as an ideal method for the evaluation of subepithelial lesions. Their differential diagnosis is possible by imaging the originating wall layer and the associated echostructure, and cytological and histological confirmation can be obtained through EUS-guided fine needle aspiration or trucut biopsy. However, reports on the use of EUS in colorectal subepithelial lesions are currently limited. EUS allows detailed examination of perirectal and perianal complications in Crohn's disease and, as a safe and less expensive investigation, can be used to monitor therapeutic response of fistulae, which seems to improve outcomes and reduce the need for additional surgery. Furthermore, EUS image enhancement techniques, such as the use of contrast agents or elastography, have recently been evaluated for colorectal indications as well. Possible applications of contrast enhancement include the assessment of tumour angiogenesis in colorectal cancer, the monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease based on quantification of bowel wall vascularization, and differentiating between benign and

  16. Advances in imaging technologies for planning breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Anita T.

    2016-01-01

    The role and choice of preoperative imaging for planning in breast reconstruction is still a disputed topic in the reconstructive community, with varying opinion on the necessity, the ideal imaging modality, costs and impact on patient outcomes. Since the advent of perforator flaps their use in microsurgical breast reconstruction has grown. Perforator based flaps afford lower donor morbidity by sparing the underlying muscle provide durable results, superior cosmesis to create a natural looking new breast, and are preferred in the context of radiation therapy. However these surgeries are complex; more technically challenging that implant based reconstruction, and leaves little room for error. The role of imaging in breast reconstruction can assist the surgeon in exploring or confirming flap choices based on donor site characteristics and presence of suitable perforators. Vascular anatomical studies in the lab have provided the surgeon a foundation of knowledge on location and vascular territories of individual perforators to improve our understanding for flap design and safe flap harvest. The creation of a presurgical map in patients can highlight any abnormal or individual anatomical variance to optimize flap design, intraoperative decision-making and execution of flap harvest with greater predictability and efficiency. This article highlights the role and techniques for preoperative planning using the newer technologies that have been adopted in reconstructive clinical practice: computed tomographic angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), laser-assisted indocyanine green fluorescence angiography (LA-ICGFA) and dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT). The primary focus of this paper is on the application of CTA and MRA imaging modalities. PMID:27047790

  17. Advances in imaging technologies for planning breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Anita T; Saint-Cyr, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The role and choice of preoperative imaging for planning in breast reconstruction is still a disputed topic in the reconstructive community, with varying opinion on the necessity, the ideal imaging modality, costs and impact on patient outcomes. Since the advent of perforator flaps their use in microsurgical breast reconstruction has grown. Perforator based flaps afford lower donor morbidity by sparing the underlying muscle provide durable results, superior cosmesis to create a natural looking new breast, and are preferred in the context of radiation therapy. However these surgeries are complex; more technically challenging that implant based reconstruction, and leaves little room for error. The role of imaging in breast reconstruction can assist the surgeon in exploring or confirming flap choices based on donor site characteristics and presence of suitable perforators. Vascular anatomical studies in the lab have provided the surgeon a foundation of knowledge on location and vascular territories of individual perforators to improve our understanding for flap design and safe flap harvest. The creation of a presurgical map in patients can highlight any abnormal or individual anatomical variance to optimize flap design, intraoperative decision-making and execution of flap harvest with greater predictability and efficiency. This article highlights the role and techniques for preoperative planning using the newer technologies that have been adopted in reconstructive clinical practice: computed tomographic angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), laser-assisted indocyanine green fluorescence angiography (LA-ICGFA) and dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT). The primary focus of this paper is on the application of CTA and MRA imaging modalities. PMID:27047790

  18. Novel hemispheric image formation: concepts and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Simon; Konen, Pierre; Roulet, Patrice; Villegas, Mathieu

    2008-04-01

    Panoramic and hemispheric lens technologies represent new and exciting opportunities in both imaging and projection systems. Such lenses offer intriguing applications for the transportation/automotive industry, in the protection of civilian and military areas, business. In this paper we describe a new optical design technique that provides a greater degree of freedom in producing a variety of hemispheric spatial light distribution areas. This innovative optical design strategy, of generating and controlling image mapping, has been successful in producing high-resolution imaging and projection systems. This success has subsequently generated increased interest in the high-resolution camera/projector and the concept of absolute measurement with high-resolution wide-angle lenses. The new technique described in this paper uses optimization techniques to improve the performance of a customized wide-angle lens optical system for a specific application. By adding a custom angle-to-pixel ratio at the optical design stage, this customized optical system provides ideal image coverage while reducing and optimizing signal processing. This novel image formation technique requires the development of new algorithms in order to view the panoramic image on a display without any residual distortion.

  19. Multifunctional nanomaterials for advanced molecular imaging and cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Prasad

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on

  20. MEMS temperature scanner: principles, advances, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Gessner, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Contactless measurement of temperatures has gained enormous significance in many application fields, ranging from climate protection over quality control to object recognition in public places or military objects. Thereby measurement of linear or spatially temperature distribution is often necessary. For this purposes mostly thermographic cameras or motor driven temperature scanners are used today. Both are relatively expensive and the motor drive devices are limited regarding to the scanning rate additionally. An economic alternative are temperature scanner devices based on micro mirrors. The micro mirror, attached in a simple optical setup, reflects the emitted radiation from the observed heat onto an adapted detector. A line scan of the target object is obtained by periodic deflection of the micro scanner. Planar temperature distribution will be achieved by perpendicularly moving the target object or the scanner device. Using Planck radiation law the temperature of the object is calculated. The device can be adapted to different temperature ranges and resolution by using different detectors - cooled or uncooled - and parameterized scanner parameters. With the basic configuration 40 spatially distributed measuring points can be determined with temperatures in a range from 350°C - 1000°C. The achieved miniaturization of such scanners permits the employment in complex plants with high building density or in direct proximity to the measuring point. The price advantage enables a lot of applications, especially new application in the low-price market segment This paper shows principle, setup and application of a temperature measurement system based on micro scanners working in the near infrared range. Packaging issues and measurement results will be discussed as well.

  1. Underwater sensor networks: applications, advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, John; Stojanovic, Milica; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-13

    This paper examines the main approaches and challenges in the design and implementation of underwater wireless sensor networks. We summarize key applications and the main phenomena related to acoustic propagation, and discuss how they affect the design and operation of communication systems and networking protocols at various layers. We also provide an overview of communications hardware, testbeds and simulation tools available to the research community.

  2. Advanced Interconnect Roadmap for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, Lissa

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the NASA electronic parts and packaging program for space applications. The topics include: 1) Forecasts; 2) Technology Challenges; 3) Research Directions; 4) Research Directions for Chip on Board (COB); 5) Research Directions for HDPs: Multichip Modules (MCMs); 6) Research Directions for Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS); 7) Research Directions for Photonics; and 8) Research Directions for Materials. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  3. Advanced giant magnetoresistance technology for measurement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Roland; Mattheis, Roland; Reiss, Günter

    2013-08-01

    Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors are considered one of the first real applications of nanotechnology. They consist of nm-thick layered structures where ferromagnetic metals are sandwiched by nonmagnetic metals. Such multilayered films produce a large change in resistance (typically 10 to 20%) when subjected to a magnetic field, compared with a maximum change of a few per cent for other types of magnetic sensors. This technology has been intensively used in read heads for hard disk drives and now increasingly finds applications due to the high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. Additionally these sensors are compatible with miniaturization and thus offer a high spatial resolution combined with a frequency range up to the 100 MHz regime and simple electronic conditioning. In this review, we first discuss the basics of the underlying magnetoresistance effects in layered structures and then present three prominent examples for future applications: in the field of current sensing the new GMR sensors offer high bandwidth and good accuracy in a space-saving open loop measurement configuration. In rotating systems they can be used for multiturn angle measurements, and in biotechnology the detection of magnetic particles enables the quantitative measurement of biomolecule concentrations.

  4. Advances and applications of occupancy models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Larissa; MacKenzie, Darry I.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The past decade has seen an explosion in the development and application of models aimed at estimating species occurrence and occupancy dynamics while accounting for possible non-detection or species misidentification. We discuss some recent occupancy estimation methods and the biological systems that motivated their development. Collectively, these models offer tremendous flexibility, but simultaneously place added demands on the investigator. Unlike many mark–recapture scenarios, investigators utilizing occupancy models have the ability, and responsibility, to define their sample units (i.e. sites), replicate sampling occasions, time period over which species occurrence is assumed to be static and even the criteria that constitute ‘detection’ of a target species. Subsequent biological inference and interpretation of model parameters depend on these definitions and the ability to meet model assumptions. We demonstrate the relevance of these definitions by highlighting applications from a single biological system (an amphibian–pathogen system) and discuss situations where the use of occupancy models has been criticized. Finally, we use these applications to suggest future research and model development.

  5. Advances in photorefractive polymers and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanche, P.-A.; Lynn, B.; Norwood, R. A.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2015-09-01

    Photorefractive (PR) polymers change their index of refraction upon illumination through a series of electronic phenomena that makes these materials one of the most complex organic systems known. The refractive index change is dynamic and fully reversible, making PR materials very interesting for a large variety of applications such as holography and 3D display. In order to improve the recording speed and achieve videorate for our stereographic display application, we have introduced a new type of electrode geometry where the anode and cathode are in the same plane and are shaped as interpenetrating combs. This type of electrode geometry does not require the sample to be tilted with respect to the writing beams to record the hologram, which is a significant advantage. To monitor the highly non-homogeneous field resulting from this configuration, we used a multiphoton microscope to directly observe the chromophore orientation in situ upon the application of an electric field. Most recently, we developed a fast repetition rate laser (10kHz) where the pulse width can be adjusted from microseconds to milliseconds so that, in conjunction with a ns Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and an externally chopped CW laser, the diffraction efficiency of the material could be measured over 9 orders of magnitude. This measurement helps us better understand the mechanism of grating buildup inside photorefractive polymers.

  6. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gabai, Andrea; Veritti, Daniele; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications. PMID:26139802

  7. Recent applications of hyperspectral imaging in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Gowen, Aoife A; Feng, Yaoze; Gaston, Edurne; Valdramidis, Vasilis

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral chemical imaging (HSI) is a broad term encompassing spatially resolved spectral data obtained through a variety of modalities (e.g. Raman scattering, Fourier transform infrared microscopy, fluorescence and near-infrared chemical imaging). It goes beyond the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy by obtaining spatially resolved spectra from objects at spatial resolutions varying from the level of single cells up to macroscopic objects (e.g. foods). In tandem with recent developments in instrumentation and sampling protocols, applications of HSI in microbiology have increased rapidly. This article gives a brief overview of the fundamentals of HSI and a comprehensive review of applications of HSI in microbiology over the past 10 years. Technical challenges and future perspectives for these techniques are also discussed.

  8. Molecular imaging: an overview and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Rollo, F David

    2003-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a new medical discipline that integrates cell biology, molecular biology and diagnostic imaging. Clinical applications of molecular imaging include the use of nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US). The nuclear medicine applications utilize devices such as single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Molecular imaging has two basic applications. The first is diagnostic imaging, which is used to determine the location and extent of targeted molecules specific to the disease being assessed. The second is therapy, which is used to treat specific disease-targeted molecules. The basic principle of the diagnostic imaging application is derived from the ability of cell and molecular biologists to identify specific receptor sites associated with target molecules that characterize the disease process to be studied. The biology teams then develop molecular imaging agents, which will bind specifically to the target molecules of interest. The principle for using molecular targeting therapy is based on an extension of the diagnostic imaging principle. Basically, it is assumed that if the molecular probe does target the specific disease molecules of interest, the same molecular agent can be loaded with an agent that will deliver therapy to the targeted cells. Patients and physicians have the clinical expectation that molecular imaging, when used for diagnostic purposes, will significantly improve the time-liness as well as the accuracy of detecting the presence and extent of disease. When applied to therapy, the expectation is that FDA-approved agents will have been shown in clinical trials to provide a significant improvement in clinical outcomes over traditional therapy methods. The eventual clinical owners of molecular imaging may be a specialty group that is a hybrid by conventional measures. For example, the clinical owner should have fundamental knowledge in basic

  9. Advanced helium magnetometer for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this effort was demonstration of the concepts for an advanced helium magnetometer which meets the demands of future NASA earth orbiting, interplanetary, solar, and interstellar missions. The technical effort focused on optical pumping of helium with tunable solid state lasers. We were able to demonstrate the concept of a laser pumped helium magnetometer with improved accuracy, low power, and sensitivity of the order of 1 pT. A number of technical approaches were investigated for building a solid state laser tunable to the helium absorption line at 1083 nm. The laser selected was an Nd-doped LNA crystal pumped by a diode laser. Two laboratory versions of the lanthanum neodymium hexa-aluminate (LNA) laser were fabricated and used to conduct optical pumping experiments in helium and demonstrate laser pumped magnetometer concepts for both the low field vector mode and the scalar mode of operation. A digital resonance spectrometer was designed and built in order to evaluate the helium resonance signals and observe scalar magnetometer operation. The results indicate that the laser pumped sensor in the VHM mode is 45 times more sensitive than a lamp pumped sensor for identical system noise levels. A study was made of typical laser pumped resonance signals in the conventional magnetic resonance mode. The laser pumped sensor was operated as a scalar magnetometer, and it is concluded that magnetometers with 1 pT sensitivity can be achieved with the use of laser pumping and stable laser pump sources.

  10. Ceramics for advanced O2/H2 application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Ceramics are prime candidate materials for advanced rocket engines because they possess high-temperature capability, a tolerance for aggressive environments, and low density. A program was conducted to assess the applicability of structural ceramics to advanced versions of the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME). Operating conditions of ceramic turbine components were defined and each component in the hot-gas path was assessed in regard to materials selection, manufacturing process and feasibility, and relative structural reliability. The conclusion is that ceramic components would be viable in advanced SSME turbopumps.

  11. Microbolometer uncooled thermal imaging sensors for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figler, Burton D.

    2001-02-01

    In this paper we will describe advances in microbolometer uncooled thermal imaging sensor technology as they apply to law enforcement applications. Improvements in sensor performance that will be described include: (1) reduced pixel pitch, (2) increased spatial resolution, (3) increased thermal sensitivity, (4) reduced electrical power, and (5) reduced size. Since cost considerations dominate many, if not most, potential law enforcement applications, microbolometer sensor cost issues will be addressed in terms of current and projected cost trends. In addition to the use of theoretical considerations in describing microbolometer technology advancements currently being made or planned, examples of actual improvements, in the form of real imagery and/or actual performance measurements, will be provided in the paper. Finally, we will look at those areas of law enforcement that are most likely to benefit from the application of microbolometer uncooled thermal imaging sensor technology. These include: (1) surveillance sensor systems, (2) unattended sensor systems, (3) mobile sensor systems and platforms, and (4) gunfire localization and counter sniper systems.

  12. LBB application in the US operating and advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wichman, K.; Tsao, J.; Mayfield, M.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory application of leak before break (LBB) for operating and advanced reactors in the U.S. is described. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved the application of LBB for six piping systems in operating reactors: reactor coolant system primary loop piping, pressurizer surge, safety injection accumulator, residual heat removal, safety injection, and reactor coolant loop bypass. The LBB concept has also been applied in the design of advanced light water reactors. LBB applications, and regulatory considerations, for pressurized water reactors and advanced light water reactors are summarized in this paper. Technology development for LBB performed by the NRC and the International Piping Integrity Research Group is also briefly summarized.

  13. Advanced new materials with various applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu-Claudiu, Fierascu; Rodica-Mariana, Ion; Irina, Dumitriu

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the manufacture and science of materials with at least one dimension in the nanometer scale [1]. Many nanomaterials have novel chemical and biological properties and most of them are not naturally occurring. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an example of a carbon-based nanomaterial which has won enormous popularity in nanotechnology for its unique properties and applications [2]. CNTs have highly desirable physicochemical properties for use in commercial, environmental and medical sectors. The inclusion of CNTs to improve the quality and performance of many widely used products, as well as potentially in medicine, will dramatically affect occupational and public exposure to CNT based nanomaterials in the near future [3].

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations: advances and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Adam; Goñi, Josep Ramon; Orozco, Modesto; Gelpí, Josep L

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have evolved into a mature technique that can be used effectively to understand macromolecular structure-to-function relationships. Present simulation times are close to biologically relevant ones. Information gathered about the dynamic properties of macromolecules is rich enough to shift the usual paradigm of structural bioinformatics from studying single structures to analyze conformational ensembles. Here, we describe the foundations of molecular dynamics and the improvements made in the direction of getting such ensemble. Specific application of the technique to three main issues (allosteric regulation, docking, and structure refinement) is discussed. PMID:26604800

  15. Advanced COIL technologies for field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tei, Kazuyoku; Sugimoto, Daichi; Ito, T.; Watanabe, G.; Vyskubenko, O.; Takeuchi, N.; Muto, S.; Kenzo, N.; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2005-01-01

    Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has a great potential for applications such as decommissioning and dismantlement (D&D) of nuclear reactor, rock destruction and removal and extraction of a natural resource (Methane hydrate) because of the unique characteristics such as power scalability, high optical beam quality and optical fiber beam. Five-kilowatt Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) test facility has been developed. The chemical efficiency of 27% has been demonstrated with a moderate beam quality for optical fiber coupling. Our research program contains conventional/ejector-COIL scheme, Jet-SOG/Mist-SOG optimization, fiber delivery and long-term operation.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations: advances and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Adam; Goñi, Josep Ramon; Orozco, Modesto; Gelpí, Josep L

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have evolved into a mature technique that can be used effectively to understand macromolecular structure-to-function relationships. Present simulation times are close to biologically relevant ones. Information gathered about the dynamic properties of macromolecules is rich enough to shift the usual paradigm of structural bioinformatics from studying single structures to analyze conformational ensembles. Here, we describe the foundations of molecular dynamics and the improvements made in the direction of getting such ensemble. Specific application of the technique to three main issues (allosteric regulation, docking, and structure refinement) is discussed.

  17. A geometric performance assessment of the EO-1 advanced land imager

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, J.C.; Choate, M.J.; Meyer, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) demonstrates technology applicable to a successor system to the Landsat Thematic Mapper series. A study of the geometric performance characteristics of the ALI was conducted under the auspices of the EO-1 Science Validation Team. This study evaluated ALI performance with respect to absolute pointing knowledge, focal plane sensor chip assembly alignment, and band-to-band registration for purposes of comparing this new technology to the heritage Landsat systems. On-orbit geometric calibration procedures were developed that allowed the generation of ALI geometrically corrected products that compare favorably with their Landsat 7 counterparts with respect to absolute geodetic accuracy, internal image geometry, and band registration.

  18. Applications of Imaging Flow Cytometry for Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Mark; Davis, Aubrey; Abbriano, Raffaela; Pugsley, Haley R; Traller, Jesse C; Smith, Sarah R; Shrestha, Roshan P; Cook, Orna; Sánchez-Alvarez, Eva L; Manandhar-Shrestha, Kalpana; Alderete, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to image large numbers of cells at high resolution enhances flow cytometric analysis of cells and cell populations. In particular, the ability to image intracellular features adds a unique aspect to analyses, and can enable correlation between molecular phenomena resulting in alterations in cellular phenotype. Unicellular microalgae are amenable to high-throughput analysis to capture the diversity of cell types in natural samples, or diverse cellular responses in clonal populations, especially using imaging cytometry. Using examples from our laboratory, we review applications of imaging cytometry, specifically using an Amnis(®) ImageStream(®)X instrument, to characterize photosynthetic microalgae. Some of these examples highlight advantages of imaging flow cytometry for certain research objectives, but we also include examples that would not necessarily require imaging and could be performed on a conventional cytometer to demonstrate other concepts in cytometric evaluation of microalgae. We demonstrate the value of these approaches for (1) analysis of populations, (2) documentation of cellular features, and (3) analysis of gene expression. PMID:27460237

  19. The Advanced X-ray Spectroscopy and Imaging Observatory (AXSIO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Bookbinder, Jay; Petre, Robert; Smith, Randall; Ptak, Andrew; Tananbaum, Harvey; Garcia, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Following recommendations from the 2010 "New Worlds, New Horizons" (NWNH) report, the Advanced X-ray Spectroscopy and Imaging Observatory (AXSIO) concept streamlines the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) mission to concentrate on the science objectives that are enabled by high-resolution spectroscopic capabilities. AXSIO will trace orbits close to the event horizon of black holes, measure black hole spin for tens of supermassive black holes (SMBH), use spectroscopy to characterize outflows and the environment of AGN during their peak activity, observe 5MBH out to redshift z=6, map bulk motions and turbulence in galaxy clusters, find the missing baryons in the cosmic web using background quasars, and observe the process of cosmic feedback where black holes and supernovae inject energy on galactic and intergalactic scales. These measurements are enabled by a 0.9 sq m collecting area at 1.25 keV, a micro calorimeter array providing high-resolution spectroscopic imaging and a deployable high efficiency grating spectrometer. AXSIO delivers a 30-fold increase in effective area for high resolution spectroscopy. The key simplifications are guided by recommendations in the NWNH panel report include a reduction in focal length from 20m to 10m, eliminating the extendable optical bench, and a reduction in the instrument complement from six to two, avoiding a movable instrument platform. A focus on spectroscopic science allows the spatial resolution requirement to be relaxed to 10 arc sec (with a 5 arc sec goal). These simplifications decrease the total mission cost to under the $2B cost to NASA recommended by NWNH. AXSIO will be available to the entire astronomical community with observing allocations based on peer-review.

  20. Advanced imaging microscope tools applied to microgravity research investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, L.; Samson, J.; Conrad, D.; Clark, K.

    1998-01-01

    The inability to observe and interact with experiments on orbit has been an impediment for both basic research and commercial ventures using the shuttle. In order to open the frontiers of space, the Center for Microgravity Automation Technology has developed a unique and innovative system for conducting experiments at a distance, the ``Remote Scientist.'' The Remote Scientist extends laboratory automation capability to the microgravity environment. While the Remote Scientist conceptually encompasses a broad spectrum of elements and functionalities, the development approach taken is to: • establish a baseline capability that is both flexible and versatile • incrementally augment the baseline with additional functions over time. Since last year, the application of the Remote Scientist has changed from protein crystal growth to tissue culture, specifically, the development of skeletal muscle under varying levels of tension. This system includes a series of bioreactor chambers that allow for three-dimensional growth of muscle tissue on a membrane suspended between the two ends of a programmable force transducer that can provide automated or investigator-initiated tension on the developing tissue. A microscope objective mounted on a translation carriage allows for high-resolution microscopy along a large area of the tissue. These images will be mosaiced on orbit to detect features and structures that span multiple images. The use of fluorescence and pseudo-confocal microscopy will maximize the observational capabilities of this system. A series of ground-based experiments have been performed to validate the bioreactor, the force transducer, the translation carriage and the image acquisition capabilities of the Remote Scientist. • The bioreactor is capable of sustaining three dimensional tissue culture growth over time. • The force transducer can be programmed to provide static tension on cells or to simulate either slow or fast growth of underlying tissues in

  1. Uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors for unattended ground sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figler, Burton D.

    2001-09-01

    Starting in the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology began to move out of the basic development laboratories of the Honeywell Corporation in Minneapolis and into applied development at several companies which have licensed the basic technology. Now, this technology is addressing military, government, and commercial applications in the real world. Today, thousands of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors are being produced and sold annually. At the same time, applied research and development on the technology continues at an unabated pace. These research and development efforts have two primary goals: 1) improving sensor performance in terms of increased resolution and greater thermal sensitivity and 2) reducing sensor cost. Success is being achieved in both areas. In this paper we will describe advances in uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology as they apply to the modern battlefield and to unattended ground sensor applications in particular. Improvements in sensor performance include: a) reduced size, b) increased spatial resolution, c) increased thermal sensitivity, d) reduced electrical power, and e) reduced weight. For battlefield applications, unattended sensors are used not only in fixed ground locations, but also on a variety of moving platforms, including remotely operated ground vehicles, as well as Micro and Miniature Aerial Vehicles. The use of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors on these platforms will be discussed, and the results from simulations, of an uncooled microbolometer sensor flying on a Micro Aerial Vehicle will be presented. Finally, we will describe microbolometer technology advancements currently being made or planned at BAE SYSTEMS. Where possible, examples of actual improvements, in the form of real imagery and/or actual performance measurements, will be provided.

  2. A collaborative enterprise for multi-stakeholder participation in the advancement of quantitative imaging.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Andrew J; Bresolin, Linda; Dunnick, N Reed; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2011-03-01

    Medical imaging has seen substantial and rapid technical advances during the past decade, including advances in image acquisition devices, processing and analysis software, and agents to enhance specificity. Traditionally, medical imaging has defined anatomy, but increasingly newer, more advanced, imaging technologies provide biochemical and physiologic information based on both static and dynamic modalities. These advanced technologies are important not only for detecting disease but for characterizing and assessing change of disease with time or therapy. Because of the rapidity of these advances, research to determine the utility of quantitative imaging in either clinical research or clinical practice has not had time to mature. Methods to appropriately develop, assess, regulate, and reimburse must be established for these advanced technologies. Efficient and methodical processes that meet the needs of stakeholders in the biomedical research community, therapeutics developers, and health care delivery enterprises will ultimately benefit individual patients. To help address this, the authors formed a collaborative program-the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance. This program draws from the very successful precedent set by the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise effort but is adapted to the needs of imaging science. Strategic guidance supporting the development, qualification, and deployment of quantitative imaging biomarkers will lead to improved standardization of imaging tests, proof of imaging test performance, and greater use of imaging to predict the biologic behavior of tissue and monitor therapy response. These, in turn, confer value to corporate stakeholders, providing incentives to bring new and innovative products to market. PMID:21339352

  3. A collaborative enterprise for multi-stakeholder participation in the advancement of quantitative imaging.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Andrew J; Bresolin, Linda; Dunnick, N Reed; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2011-03-01

    Medical imaging has seen substantial and rapid technical advances during the past decade, including advances in image acquisition devices, processing and analysis software, and agents to enhance specificity. Traditionally, medical imaging has defined anatomy, but increasingly newer, more advanced, imaging technologies provide biochemical and physiologic information based on both static and dynamic modalities. These advanced technologies are important not only for detecting disease but for characterizing and assessing change of disease with time or therapy. Because of the rapidity of these advances, research to determine the utility of quantitative imaging in either clinical research or clinical practice has not had time to mature. Methods to appropriately develop, assess, regulate, and reimburse must be established for these advanced technologies. Efficient and methodical processes that meet the needs of stakeholders in the biomedical research community, therapeutics developers, and health care delivery enterprises will ultimately benefit individual patients. To help address this, the authors formed a collaborative program-the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance. This program draws from the very successful precedent set by the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise effort but is adapted to the needs of imaging science. Strategic guidance supporting the development, qualification, and deployment of quantitative imaging biomarkers will lead to improved standardization of imaging tests, proof of imaging test performance, and greater use of imaging to predict the biologic behavior of tissue and monitor therapy response. These, in turn, confer value to corporate stakeholders, providing incentives to bring new and innovative products to market.

  4. [Study on the advanced Schwarzschild imaging spectrometer with high resolution in broadband].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Fang

    2013-08-01

    The Schwarzschild optical structure was studied for the application of imaging spectrometer. The perfect astigmatism-corrected condition was obtained based on the analysis of the astigmatism of the Schwarzschild structure. The structure was advanced in the paper. The Schwarzschild imaging spectrum system is composed of two Schwarzschild structures, which are the collimating mirror-convex mirror and the convex mirror-focusing mirror. The calculation was given to present the parameters of the imaging spectrum system. An example of the imaging spectrum system in the waveband of 340-500 nm was designed and proved our design theory. The solution of the initial optimum structure was designed by our theory and simulated. A system with NA 1.25, of which the modulation transfer functions (MTF) of all fields of view are more than 0.58 in the waveband in the required Nyquist frequency (20 lp x mm(-1)), is presented in the paper. The form of the design structure can be changed as C-T system, Ebert-Fastie system and Offner system. The result also certificated that the optical system theory can be applied to the small scale imaging spectrometer with high resolution and spectral broadband.

  5. Advances in functional and structural imaging of the human lung using proton MRI.

    PubMed

    Miller, G Wilson; Mugler, John P; Sá, Rui C; Altes, Talissa A; Prisk, G Kim; Hopkins, Susan R

    2014-12-01

    The field of proton lung MRI is advancing on a variety of fronts. In the realm of functional imaging, it is now possible to use arterial spin labeling (ASL) and oxygen-enhanced imaging techniques to quantify regional perfusion and ventilation, respectively, in standard units of measurement. By combining these techniques into a single scan, it is also possible to quantify the local ventilation-perfusion ratio, which is the most important determinant of gas-exchange efficiency in the lung. To demonstrate potential for accurate and meaningful measurements of lung function, this technique was used to study gravitational gradients of ventilation, perfusion, and ventilation-perfusion ratio in healthy subjects, yielding quantitative results consistent with expected regional variations. Such techniques can also be applied in the time domain, providing new tools for studying temporal dynamics of lung function. Temporal ASL measurements showed increased spatial-temporal heterogeneity of pulmonary blood flow in healthy subjects exposed to hypoxia, suggesting sensitivity to active control mechanisms such as hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, and illustrating that to fully examine the factors that govern lung function it is necessary to consider temporal as well as spatial variability. Further development to increase spatial coverage and improve robustness would enhance the clinical applicability of these new functional imaging tools. In the realm of structural imaging, pulse sequence techniques such as ultrashort echo-time radial k-space acquisition, ultrafast steady-state free precession, and imaging-based diaphragm triggering can be combined to overcome the significant challenges associated with proton MRI in the lung, enabling high-quality three-dimensional imaging of the whole lung in a clinically reasonable scan time. Images of healthy and cystic fibrosis subjects using these techniques demonstrate substantial promise for non-contrast pulmonary angiography and detailed

  6. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  7. Advanced Pattern Material for Investment Casting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    F. Douglas Neece Neil Chaudhry

    2006-02-08

    Cleveland Tool and Machine (CTM) of Cleveland, Ohio in conjunction with Harrington Product Development Center (HPDC) of Cincinnati, Ohio have developed an advanced, dimensionally accurate, temperature-stable, energy-efficient and cost-effective material and process to manufacture patterns for the investment casting industry. In the proposed technology, FOPAT (aFOam PATtern material) has been developed which is especially compatible with the investment casting process and offers the following advantages: increased dimensional accuracy; increased temperature stability; lower cost per pattern; less energy consumption per pattern; decreased cost of pattern making equipment; decreased tooling cost; increased casting yield. The present method for investment casting is "the lost wax" process, which is exactly that, the use of wax as a pattern material, which is then melted out or "lost" from the ceramic shell. The molten metal is then poured into the ceramic shell to produce a metal casting. This process goes back thousands of years and while there have been improvements in the wax and processing technology, the material is basically the same, wax. The proposed technology is based upon an established industrial process of "Reaction Injection Molding" (RIM) where two components react when mixed and then "molded" to form a part. The proposed technology has been modified and improved with the needs of investment casting in mind. A proprietary mix of components has been formulated which react and expand to form a foam-like product. The result is an investment casting pattern with smooth surface finish and excellent dimensional predictability along with the other key benefits listed above.

  8. Advancing differential atom interferometry for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Williams, Jason; Yu, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Atom interferometer (AI) based sensors exhibit precision and accuracy unattainable with classical sensors, thanks to the inherent stability of atomic properties. Dual atomic sensors operating in a differential mode further extend AI applicability beyond environmental disturbances. Extraction of the phase difference between dual AIs, however, typically introduces uncertainty and systematic in excess of that warranted by each AI's intrinsic noise characteristics, especially in practical applications and real time measurements. In this presentation, we report our efforts in developing practical schemes for reducing noises and enhancing sensitivities in the differential AI measurement implementations. We will describe an active phase extraction method that eliminates the noise overhead and demonstrates a performance boost of a gravity gradiometer by a factor of 3. We will also describe a new long-baseline approach for differential AI measurements in a laser ranging assisted AI configuration. The approach uses well-developed AIs for local measurements but leverage the mature schemes of space laser interferometry for LISA and GRACE. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a Contract with NASA.

  9. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  10. [Study on the Advanced Czerny-Turner Imaging Spectrometer with High Resolution in Broadband].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ling-wei

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the Czerny-Turner optical structure which is used for the application in imaging spectrometers. To obtain the perfect astigmatism-corrected condition, the Czerny-Turner system has been analyzed and advanced. The basic structure of optical system is still as the traditional form which is composed by the spherical collimating mirror, the plane grating and the spherical focusing mirror. However, an off-the-shelf cylindrical lens is added after the focusing mirror to remove astigmatism differences between the tangential direction and the sagittaI direction. It makes the advanced optical system presents high resolution over the full bandwidth and decreases the cost. An example of the imaging spectrum system in the waveband of 380-760 nm has been designed to prove our theory. A system owns that NA equals to 0.05, and the modulation transfer functions (MTF) of all fields of view are more than 0.59 over the broadband under the required Nyquist frequency (20 lp x mm(-1)). It certificates that the optical system theory can be applied to the small scale imaging spectrometer with high resolution in spectral broadband.

  11. [Study on the Advanced Czerny-Turner Imaging Spectrometer with High Resolution in Broadband].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ling-wei

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the Czerny-Turner optical structure which is used for the application in imaging spectrometers. To obtain the perfect astigmatism-corrected condition, the Czerny-Turner system has been analyzed and advanced. The basic structure of optical system is still as the traditional form which is composed by the spherical collimating mirror, the plane grating and the spherical focusing mirror. However, an off-the-shelf cylindrical lens is added after the focusing mirror to remove astigmatism differences between the tangential direction and the sagittaI direction. It makes the advanced optical system presents high resolution over the full bandwidth and decreases the cost. An example of the imaging spectrum system in the waveband of 380-760 nm has been designed to prove our theory. A system owns that NA equals to 0.05, and the modulation transfer functions (MTF) of all fields of view are more than 0.59 over the broadband under the required Nyquist frequency (20 lp x mm(-1)). It certificates that the optical system theory can be applied to the small scale imaging spectrometer with high resolution in spectral broadband. PMID:26601404

  12. Connectomics in psychiatric research: advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Miao; Wang, Zhijiang; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders disturb higher cognitive functions and severely compromise human health. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders are very complex, and understanding these mechanisms remains a great challenge. Currently, many psychiatric disorders are hypothesized to reflect "faulty wiring" or aberrant connectivity in the brains. Imaging connectomics is arising as a promising methodological framework for describing the structural and functional connectivity patterns of the human brain. Recently, alterations of brain networks in the connectome have been reported in various psychiatric disorders, and these alterations may provide biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis for the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Here, we summarize the current achievements in both the structural and functional connectomes in several major psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism) based on multi-modal neuroimaging data. We highlight the current progress in the identification of these alterations and the hypotheses concerning the aberrant brain networks in individuals with psychiatric disorders and discuss the research questions that might contribute to a further mechanistic understanding of these disorders from a connectomic perspective. PMID:26604764

  13. Advanced imaging techniques for the study of plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Sozzani, Rosangela; Busch, Wolfgang; Spalding, Edgar P; Benfey, Philip N

    2014-05-01

    A variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of plant growth and development from living plants. Multi-level data, from macroscopic to molecular, and from weeks to seconds, can be acquired. Furthermore, advances in parallelized and automated image acquisition enable the throughput to capture images from large populations of plants under specific growth conditions. Image-processing capabilities allow for 3D or 4D reconstruction of image data and automated quantification of biological features. These advances facilitate the integration of imaging data with genome-wide molecular data to enable systems-level modeling.

  14. Development of Backscatter X-Ray Imaging Techniques for Space Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartha, Bence B.; Hope, Dale; Vona, Paul; Born, Martin; Corak, Tony

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of backscatter x ray (BSX) imaging techniques to perform inspection of spacecraft components. The techniques are currently being enhanced to advance Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods for future space vehicle applications. The presentation includes an overview of x ray techniques, a description of current BSX applications used on the space shuttle, the development for Constellation applications, and the use of the system for foam applications.

  15. Study on the Integrated Geophysic Methods and Application of Advanced Geological Detection for Complicated Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Xiao, G.

    2014-12-01

    The engineering geological and hydrological conditions of current tunnels are more and more complicated, as the tunnels are elongated with deeper depth. In constructing these complicated tunnels, geological hazards prone to occur as induced by unfavorable geological bodies, such as fault zones, karst or hydrous structures, etc. The working emphasis and difficulty of the advanced geological exploration for complicated tunnels are mainly focused on the structure and water content of these unfavorable geological bodies. The technical aspects of my paper systematically studied the advanced geological exploration theory and application aspects for complicated tunnels, with discussion on the key technical points and useful conclusions. For the all-aroundness and accuracy of advanced geological exploration results, the objective of my paper is targeted on the comprehensive examination on the structure and hydrous characteristic of the unfavorable geological bodies in complicated tunnels. By the multi-component seismic modeling on a more real model containing the air medium, the wave field response characteristics of unfavorable geological bodies can be analyzed, thus providing theoretical foundation for the observation system layout, signal processing and interpretation of seismic methods. Based on the tomographic imaging theory of seismic and electromagnetic method, 2D integrated seismic and electromagnetic tomographic imaging and visualization software was designed and applied in the advanced drilling hole in the tunnel face, after validation of the forward and inverse modeling results on theoretical models. The transmission wave imaging technology introduced in my paper can be served as a new criterion for detection of unfavorable geological bodies. After careful study on the basic theory, data processing and interpretation, practical applications of TSP and ground penetrating radar (GPR) method, as well as serious examination on their application examples, my paper

  16. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. Fifty-five battery experts from government, industry and universities participated in the survey by providing their opinions on the use of several battery types for six space missions, and their predictions of likely technological advances that would impact the development of these batteries. The results of the survey predict that only four battery types are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the safety and reliability requirements for space applications within the next 15 years.

  17. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Imaging Performance On-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    This report analyzes the on-orbit imaging performance of the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing-1 satellite. The pre-flight calibrations are first summarized. The methods used to reconstruct and geometrically correct the image data from this push-broom sensor are described. The method used here does not refer to the position and attitude telemetry from the spacecraft. Rather, it is assumed that the image of the scene moves across the focal plane with a constant velocity, which can be ascertained from the image data itself. Next, an assortment of the images so reconstructed is presented. Color images sharpened with the 10-m panchromatic band data are shown, and the algorithm for producing them from the 30-m multispectral data is described. The approach taken for assessing spatial resolution is to compare the sharpness of features in the on-orbit image data with profiles predicted on the basis of the pre-flight calibrations. A large assortment of bridge profiles is analyzed, and very good fits to the predicted shapes are obtained. Lunar calibration scans are analyzed to examine the sharpness of the edge-spread function at the limb of the moon. The darkness of the space beyond the limb is better for this purpose than anything that could be simulated on the ground. From these scans, we find clear evidence of scattering in the optical system, as well as some weak ghost images. Scans of planets and stars are also analyzed. Stars are useful point sources of light at all wavelengths, and delineate the point-spread functions of the system. From a quarter-speed scan over the Pleiades, we find that the ALI can detect 6th magnitude stars. The quality of the reconstructed images verifies the capability of the ALI to produce Landsat-type multi spectral data. The signal-to-noise and panchromatic spatial resolution are considerably superior to those of the existing Landsat sensors. The spatial resolution is confirmed to be as good as it was designed to be.

  18. Advanced Reservoir Imaging Using Frequency-Dependent Seismic Attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Hilterman; Tad Patzek; Gennady Goloshubin; Dmitriy Silin; Charlotte Sullivan; Valeri Korneev

    2007-12-31

    Our report concerning advanced imaging and interpretation technology includes the development of theory, the implementation of laboratory experiments and the verification of results using field data. We investigated a reflectivity model for porous fluid-saturated reservoirs and demonstrated that the frequency-dependent component of the reflection coefficient is asymptotically proportional to the reservoir fluid mobility. We also analyzed seismic data using different azimuths and offsets over physical models of fractures filled with air and water. By comparing our physical model synthetics to numerical data we have identified several diagnostic indicators for quantifying the fractures. Finally, we developed reflectivity transforms for predicting pore fluid and lithology using rock-property statistics from 500 reservoirs in both the shelf and deep-water Gulf of Mexico. With these transforms and seismic AVO gathers across the prospect and its down-dip water-equivalent reservoir, fluid saturation can be estimated without a calibration well that ties the seismic. Our research provides the important additional mechanisms to recognize, delineate, and validate new hydrocarbon reserves and assist in the development of producing fields.

  19. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasawa, Satomi

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  20. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  1. Technological advances in hybrid imaging and impact on dose.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Sören; Andersson, Martin; Söderberg, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    New imaging technologies utilising X-rays and radiopharmaceuticals have developed rapidly. Clinical application of computed tomography (CT) has revolutionised medical imaging and plays an enormous role in medical care. Due to technical improvements, spatial, contrast and temporal resolutions have continuously improved. In spite of significant reduction of CT doses during recent years, CT is still a dominating source of radiation exposure to the population. Combinations with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) and especially the use of SPECT/CT and PET/CT, provide important additional information about physiology as well as cellular and molecular events. However, significant dose contributions from SPECT and PET occur, making PET/CT and SPECT/CT truly high dose procedures. More research should be done to find optimal activities of radiopharmaceuticals for various patient groups and investigations. The implementation of simple protocol adjustments, including individually based administration, encouraged hydration, forced diuresis and use of optimised voiding intervals, laxatives, etc., can reduce the radiation exposure to the patients. New data about staff doses to fingers, hands and eye lenses indicate that finger doses could be a problem, but not doses to the eye lenses and to the whole body.

  2. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  3. Advanced electron crystallography through model-based imaging

    PubMed Central

    Van Aert, Sandra; De Backer, Annick; Martinez, Gerardo T.; den Dekker, Arnold J.; Van Dyck, Dirk; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need for precise determination of the atomic arrangement of non-periodic structures in materials design and the control of nanostructures explains the growing interest in quantitative transmission electron microscopy. The aim is to extract precise and accurate numbers for unknown structure parameters including atomic positions, chemical concentrations and atomic numbers. For this purpose, statistical parameter estimation theory has been shown to provide reliable results. In this theory, observations are considered purely as data planes, from which structure parameters have to be determined using a parametric model describing the images. As such, the positions of atom columns can be measured with a precision of the order of a few picometres, even though the resolution of the electron microscope is still one or two orders of magnitude larger. Moreover, small differences in average atomic number, which cannot be distinguished visually, can be quantified using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images. In addition, this theory allows one to measure compositional changes at interfaces, to count atoms with single-atom sensitivity, and to reconstruct atomic structures in three dimensions. This feature article brings the reader up to date, summarizing the underlying theory and highlighting some of the recent applications of quantitative model-based transmisson electron microscopy. PMID:26870383

  4. Advanced electron crystallography through model-based imaging.

    PubMed

    Van Aert, Sandra; De Backer, Annick; Martinez, Gerardo T; den Dekker, Arnold J; Van Dyck, Dirk; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need for precise determination of the atomic arrangement of non-periodic structures in materials design and the control of nanostructures explains the growing interest in quantitative transmission electron microscopy. The aim is to extract precise and accurate numbers for unknown structure parameters including atomic positions, chemical concentrations and atomic numbers. For this purpose, statistical parameter estimation theory has been shown to provide reliable results. In this theory, observations are considered purely as data planes, from which structure parameters have to be determined using a parametric model describing the images. As such, the positions of atom columns can be measured with a precision of the order of a few picometres, even though the resolution of the electron microscope is still one or two orders of magnitude larger. Moreover, small differences in average atomic number, which cannot be distinguished visually, can be quantified using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images. In addition, this theory allows one to measure compositional changes at interfaces, to count atoms with single-atom sensitivity, and to reconstruct atomic structures in three dimensions. This feature article brings the reader up to date, summarizing the underlying theory and highlighting some of the recent applications of quantitative model-based transmisson electron microscopy. PMID:26870383

  5. Positron emission tomography (PET) advances in neurological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sossi, V.

    2003-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a functional imaging modality used in brain research to map in vivo neurotransmitter and receptor activity and to investigate glucose utilization or blood flow patterns both in healthy and disease states. Such research is made possible by the wealth of radiotracers available for PET, by the fact that metabolic and kinetic parameters of particular processes can be extracted from PET data and by the continuous development of imaging techniques. In recent years great advancements have been made in the areas of PET instrumentation, data quantification and image reconstruction that allow for more detailed and accurate biological information to be extracted from PET data. It is now possible to quantitatively compare data obtained either with different tracers or with the same tracer under different scanning conditions. These sophisticated imaging approaches enable detailed investigation of disease mechanisms and system response to disease and/or therapy.

  6. Multidirectional mobilities: Advanced measurement techniques and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, Lars Holger

    Today high noise-and-vibration comfort has become a quality sign of products in sectors such as the automotive industry, aircraft, components, households and manufacturing. Consequently, already in the design phase of products, tools are required to predict the final vibration and noise levels. These tools have to be applicable over a wide frequency range with sufficient accuracy. During recent decades a variety of tools have been developed such as transfer path analysis (TPA), input force estimation, substructuring, coupling by frequency response functions (FRF) and hybrid modelling. While these methods have a well-developed theoretical basis, their application combined with experimental data often suffers from a lack of information concerning rotational DOFs. In order to measure response in all 6 DOFs (including rotation), a sensor has been developed, whose special features are discussed in the thesis. This transducer simplifies the response measurements, although in practice the excitation of moments appears to be more difficult. Several excitation techniques have been developed to enable measurement of multidirectional mobilities. For rapid and simple measurement of the loaded mobility matrix, a MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technique is used. The technique has been tested and validated on several structures of different complexity. A second technique for measuring the loaded 6-by-6 mobility matrix has been developed. This technique employs a model of the excitation set-up, and with this model the mobility matrix is determined from sequential measurements. Measurements on ``real'' structures show that both techniques give results of similar quality, and both are recommended for practical use. As a further step, a technique for measuring the unloaded mobilities is presented. It employs the measured loaded mobility matrix in order to calculate compensation forces and moments, which are later applied in order to compensate for the loading of the

  7. Applications Of Binary Image Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropf, H.; Enderle, E.; Kammerer, H. P.

    1983-10-01

    After discussing the conditions where binary image analysis techniques can be used, three new applications of the fast binary image analysis system S.A.M. (Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) are reported: (1) The human view direction is measured at TV frame rate while the subject's head is free movable. (2) Industrial parts hanging on a moving conveyor are classified prior to spray painting by robot. (3) In automotive wheel assembly, the eccentricity of the wheel is minimized by turning the tyre relative to the rim in order to balance the eccentricity of the components.

  8. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  9. Extended SWIR imaging sensors for hyperspectral imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, A.; Benecke, M.; Wendler, J.; Sieck, A.; Hübner, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Breiter, R.

    2016-05-01

    AIM has developed SWIR modules including FPAs based on liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) grown MCT usable in a wide range of hyperspectral imaging applications. Silicon read-out integrated circuits (ROIC) provide various integration and readout modes including specific functions for spectral imaging applications. An important advantage of MCT based detectors is the tunable band gap. The spectral sensitivity of MCT detectors can be engineered to cover the extended SWIR spectral region up to 2.5μm without compromising in performance. AIM developed the technology to extend the spectral sensitivity of its SWIR modules also into the VIS. This has been successfully demonstrated for 384x288 and 1024x256 FPAs with 24μm pitch. Results are presented in this paper. The FPAs are integrated into compact dewar cooler configurations using different types of coolers, like rotary coolers, AIM's long life split linear cooler MCC030 or extreme long life SF100 Pulse Tube cooler. The SWIR modules include command and control electronics (CCE) which allow easy interfacing using a digital standard interface. The development status and performance results of AIM's latest MCT SWIR modules suitable for hyperspectral systems and applications will be presented.

  10. [Advances in the application of smart phones in modern medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Hu, Jie; Li, Fei; Wei, Huilin; Li, Ying; Lu, Tianjian; Wang, Shuqi; Xu, Feng

    2014-02-01

    Since smart phones have been developed, significant advances in the function of mobile phone due to the development of software, hardware and accessories have been reached. Till now, smart phones have been engaged in daily life with an increasing impact. As a new medical model, mobile phone medicine is emerging and has found wide spread applications in medicine, especially in diagnosing, monitoring and screening various diseases. In addition, mo bile phone medical application shows great potential trend to improve healthcare in resource-limited regions due to its advantageous features of portability and information communication capability. Nowadays, the scientific and technological issues related to mobile phone medicine have attracted worldwide attention. In this review, we summarize state-of-the-art advances of mobile phone medicine with focus on its diagnostics applications in order to expand the fields of their applications and promote healthcare informatization.

  11. PREFACE: Advanced Materials for Demanding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Alison; Schofield, Stephen; Kelly, Michael

    2015-02-01

    This was a special conference. It was small enough (60+ delegates) but covering a wide range of topics, under a broad end-use focussed heading. Most conferences today either have hundreds or thousands of delegates or are small and very focussed. The topics ranged over composite materials, the testing of durability aspects of materials, and an eclectic set of papers on radar screening using weak ionized plasmas, composites for microvascular applications, composites in space rockets, and materials for spallation neutron sources etc. There were several papers of new characterisation techniques and, very importantly, several papers that started with the end-user requirements leading back into materials selection. In my own area, there were three talks about the technology for the ultra-precise positioning of individual atoms, donors, and complete monolayers to take modern electronics and optoelectronics ideas closer to the market place. The President of the Institute opened with an experience-based talk on translating innovative technology into business. Everyone gave a generous introduction to bring all-comers up to speed with the burning contemporary issues. Indeed, I wish that a larger cohort of first-year engineering PhD students were present to see the full gamut of what takes a physics idea to a success in the market place. I would urge groups to learn from Prof Alison McMillan (a Vice President of the Institute of Physics) and Steven Schofield, to set up conferences of similar scale and breadth. I took in more than I do from mega-meetings, and in greater depth. Professor Michael Kelly Department of Engineering University of Cambridge

  12. Diffusion-weighted imaging in cancer: Physical foundations and applications of Restriction Spectrum Imaging

    PubMed Central

    White, Nathan S.; McDonald, Carrie; Farid, Niky; Kuperman, Josh; Karow, David; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; Bartsch, Hauke; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Holland, Dominic; Shabaik, Ahmed; Bjørnerud, Atle; Hope, Tuva; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona; Liss, Michael; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Chen, Clark C.; Raman, Steve; Margolis, Daniel; Reiter, Robert E.; Marks, Leonard; Kesari, Santosh; Mundt, Arno J.; Kane, Chris J.; Carter, Bob S.; Bradley, William G.; Dale, Anders M.

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been at the forefront of cancer imaging since the early 2000’s. Prior to its application in clinical oncology, this powerful technique had already achieved widespread recognition due to its utility in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. Following this initial success, the ability of DWI to detect inherent tissue contrast began to be exploited in the field of oncology. Although the initial oncologic applications for tumor detection and characterization, assessing treatment response, and predicting survival were primarily in the field of neuro-oncology, the scope of DWI has since broadened to include oncologic imaging of the prostate gland, breast, and liver. Despite its growing success and application, misconceptions as to the underlying physical basis of the DWI signal exist among researchers and clinicians alike. In this review, we provide a detailed explanation of the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast, emphasizing the difference between hindered and restricted diffusion, and elucidating how diffusion parameters in tissue are derived from the measurements via the diffusion model. We describe one advanced DWI modeling technique, called Restriction Spectrum Imaging (RSI). This technique offers a more direct in vivo measure of tumor cells, due to its ability to distinguish separable pools of water within tissue based on their intrinsic diffusion characteristics. Using RSI as an example, we then highlight the ability of advanced DWI techniques to address key clinical challenges in neuro-oncology, including improved tumor conspicuity, distinguishing actual response to therapy from pseudoresponse, and delineation of white matter tracts in regions of peritumoral edema. We also discuss how RSI, combined with new methods for correction of spatial distortions inherent diffusion MRI scans, may enable more precise spatial targeting of lesions, with implications for radiation oncology, and surgical planning. PMID:25183788

  13. Diffusion-weighted imaging in cancer: physical foundations and applications of restriction spectrum imaging.

    PubMed

    White, Nathan S; McDonald, Carrie; McDonald, Carrie R; Farid, Niky; Kuperman, Josh; Karow, David; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M; Bartsch, Hauke; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Holland, Dominic; Shabaik, Ahmed; Bjørnerud, Atle; Hope, Tuva; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona; Liss, Michael; Parsons, J Kellogg; Chen, Clark C; Raman, Steve; Margolis, Daniel; Reiter, Robert E; Marks, Leonard; Kesari, Santosh; Mundt, Arno J; Kane, Christopher J; Kaine, Christopher J; Carter, Bob S; Bradley, William G; Dale, Anders M

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been at the forefront of cancer imaging since the early 2000s. Before its application in clinical oncology, this powerful technique had already achieved widespread recognition due to its utility in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. Following this initial success, the ability of DWI to detect inherent tissue contrast began to be exploited in the field of oncology. Although the initial oncologic applications for tumor detection and characterization, assessing treatment response, and predicting survival were primarily in the field of neurooncology, the scope of DWI has since broadened to include oncologic imaging of the prostate gland, breast, and liver. Despite its growing success and application, misconceptions about the underlying physical basis of the DWI signal exist among researchers and clinicians alike. In this review, we provide a detailed explanation of the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast, emphasizing the difference between hindered and restricted diffusion, and elucidating how diffusion parameters in tissue are derived from the measurements via the diffusion model. We describe one advanced DWI modeling technique, called restriction spectrum imaging (RSI). This technique offers a more direct in vivo measure of tumor cells, due to its ability to distinguish separable pools of water within tissue based on their intrinsic diffusion characteristics. Using RSI as an example, we then highlight the ability of advanced DWI techniques to address key clinical challenges in neurooncology, including improved tumor conspicuity, distinguishing actual response to therapy from pseudoresponse, and delineation of white matter tracts in regions of peritumoral edema. We also discuss how RSI, combined with new methods for correction of spatial distortions inherent in diffusion MRI scans, may enable more precise spatial targeting of lesions, with implications for radiation oncology and surgical planning. See all articles in this

  14. Diffusion-weighted imaging in cancer: physical foundations and applications of restriction spectrum imaging.

    PubMed

    White, Nathan S; McDonald, Carrie; McDonald, Carrie R; Farid, Niky; Kuperman, Josh; Karow, David; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M; Bartsch, Hauke; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Holland, Dominic; Shabaik, Ahmed; Bjørnerud, Atle; Hope, Tuva; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona; Liss, Michael; Parsons, J Kellogg; Chen, Clark C; Raman, Steve; Margolis, Daniel; Reiter, Robert E; Marks, Leonard; Kesari, Santosh; Mundt, Arno J; Kane, Christopher J; Kaine, Christopher J; Carter, Bob S; Bradley, William G; Dale, Anders M

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been at the forefront of cancer imaging since the early 2000s. Before its application in clinical oncology, this powerful technique had already achieved widespread recognition due to its utility in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. Following this initial success, the ability of DWI to detect inherent tissue contrast began to be exploited in the field of oncology. Although the initial oncologic applications for tumor detection and characterization, assessing treatment response, and predicting survival were primarily in the field of neurooncology, the scope of DWI has since broadened to include oncologic imaging of the prostate gland, breast, and liver. Despite its growing success and application, misconceptions about the underlying physical basis of the DWI signal exist among researchers and clinicians alike. In this review, we provide a detailed explanation of the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast, emphasizing the difference between hindered and restricted diffusion, and elucidating how diffusion parameters in tissue are derived from the measurements via the diffusion model. We describe one advanced DWI modeling technique, called restriction spectrum imaging (RSI). This technique offers a more direct in vivo measure of tumor cells, due to its ability to distinguish separable pools of water within tissue based on their intrinsic diffusion characteristics. Using RSI as an example, we then highlight the ability of advanced DWI techniques to address key clinical challenges in neurooncology, including improved tumor conspicuity, distinguishing actual response to therapy from pseudoresponse, and delineation of white matter tracts in regions of peritumoral edema. We also discuss how RSI, combined with new methods for correction of spatial distortions inherent in diffusion MRI scans, may enable more precise spatial targeting of lesions, with implications for radiation oncology and surgical planning. See all articles in this

  15. Spectromicroscopy and coherent diffraction imaging: focus on energy materials applications.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Adam P; Toney, Michael F

    2014-09-01

    Current and future capabilities of X-ray spectromicroscopy are discussed based on coherence-limited imaging methods which will benefit from the dramatic increase in brightness expected from a diffraction-limited storage ring (DLSR). The methods discussed include advanced coherent diffraction techniques and nanoprobe-based real-space imaging using Fresnel zone plates or other diffractive optics whose performance is affected by the degree of coherence. The capabilities of current systems, improvements which can be expected, and some of the important scientific themes which will be impacted are described, with focus on energy materials applications. Potential performance improvements of these techniques based on anticipated DLSR performance are estimated. Several examples of energy sciences research problems which are out of reach of current instrumentation, but which might be solved with the enhanced DLSR performance, are discussed.

  16. Advanced photovoltaic power system technology for lunar base applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of an advanced photovoltaic power system that would have application for a manned lunar base is currently planned under the Surface Power element of Pathfinder. Significant mass savings over state-of-the-art photovoltaic/battery systems are possible with the use of advanced lightweight solar arrays coupled with regenerative fuel cell storage. The solar blanket, using either ultrathin GaAs or amorphous silicon solar cells, would be integrated with a reduced-g structure. Regenerative fuel cells with high-pressure gas storage in filament-wound tanks are planned for energy storage. An advanced PV/RFC power system is a leading candidate for a manned lunar base as it offers a tremendous weight advantage over state-of-the-art photovoltaic/battery systems and is comparable in mass to other advanced power generation technologies.

  17. Spacecraft applications of advanced global positioning system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, Gaylord; Dodds, James; Udalov, Sergei; Austin, Richard; Loomis, Peter; Duboraw, I. Newton, III

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential uses of Global Positioning System (GPS) in spacecraft applications in the following areas: attitude control and tracking; structural control; traffic control; and time base definition (synchronization). Each of these functions are addressed. Also addressed are the hardware related issues concerning the application of GPS technology and comparisons are provided with alternative instrumentation methods for specific functions required for an advanced low earth orbit spacecraft.

  18. Advanced Boost System Developing for High EGR Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Harold

    2012-09-30

    To support industry efforts of clean and efficient internal combustion engine development for passenger and commercial applications • This program focuses on turbocharger improvement for medium and light duty diesel applications, from complete system optimization percepective to enable commercialization of advanced diesel combustion technologies, such as HCCI/LTC. • Improve combined turbocharger efficiency up to 10% or fuel economy by 3% on FTP cycle at Tier II Bin 5 emission level.

  19. Application of advanced technologies to future military transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Rodney L.; Lange, Roy H.; Wagner, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Long range military transport technologies are addressed with emphasis of defining the potential benefits of the hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) concept currently being flight tested. Results of a 1990's global range transport study are presented showing the expected payoff from application of advanced technologies. Technology forecast for military transports is also presented.

  20. Advanced camera image data acquisition system for Pi-of-the-Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Wrochna, Grzegorz

    2008-11-01

    The paper describes a new generation of high performance, remote control, CCD cameras designed for astronomical applications. A completely new camera PCB was designed, manufactured, tested and commissioned. The CCD chip was positioned in a different way than previously resulting in better performance of the astronomical video data acquisition system. The camera was built using a low-noise, 4Mpixel CCD circuit by STA. The electronic circuit of the camera is highly parameterized and reconfigurable, as well as modular in comparison with the solution of first generation, due to application of open software solutions and FPGA circuit, Altera Cyclone EP1C6. New algorithms were implemented into the FPGA chip. There were used the following advanced electronic circuit in the camera system: microcontroller CY7C68013a (core 8051) by Cypress, image processor AD9826 by Analog Devices, GigEth interface RTL8169s by Realtec, memory SDRAM AT45DB642 by Atmel, CPU typr microprocessor ARM926EJ-S AT91SAM9260 by ARM and Atmel. Software solutions for the camera and its remote control, as well as image data acquisition are based only on the open source platform. There were used the following image interfaces ISI and API V4L2, data bus AMBA, AHB, INDI protocol. The camera will be replicated in 20 pieces and is designed for continuous on-line, wide angle observations of the sky in the research program Pi-of-the-Sky.

  1. The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS): Science Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.; Coppi, P.; Digel, S.; Funk, S.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Pohl, M.; Romani, R.; Vassiliev, V.; /UCLA

    2011-11-21

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS), a future gamma-ray telescope consisting of an array of {approx}50 atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes distributed over an area of {approx}1 km{sup 2}, will provide a powerful new tool for exploring the high-energy universe. The order-of-magnitude increase in sensitivity and improved angular resolution could provide the first detailed images of {gamma}-ray emission from other nearby galaxies or galaxy clusters. The large effective area will provide unprecedented sensitivity to short transients (such as flares from AGNs and GRBs) probing both intrinsic spectral variability (revealing the details of the acceleration mechanism and geometry) as well as constraining the high-energy dispersion in the velocity of light (probing the structure of spacetime and Lorentz invariance). A wide field of view ({approx}4 times that of current instruments) and excellent angular resolution (several times better than current instruments) will allow for an unprecedented survey of the Galactic plane, providing a deep unobscured survey of SNRs, X-ray binaries, pulsar-wind nebulae, molecular cloud complexes and other sources. The differential flux sensitivity of {approx}10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} will rival the most sensitive X-ray instruments for these extended Galactic sources. The excellent capabilities of AGIS at energies below 100 GeV will provide sensitivity to AGN and GRBs out to cosmological redshifts, increasing the number of AGNs detected at high energies from about 20 to more than 100, permitting population studies that will provide valuable insights into both a unified model for AGN and a detailed measurement of the effects of intergalactic absorption from the diffuse extragalactic background light. A new instrument with fast-slewing wide-field telescopes could provide detections of a number of long-duration GRBs providing important physical constraints from this new spectral component. The new array will also have excellent

  2. Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang; Zhao, Xiang; Yang, Ke; Liu, Yueping; Liu, Yu; Fu, Weiling; Luo, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Terahertz (THz=10(12)Hz) radiation has attracted wide attention for its unprecedented sensing ability and its noninvasive and nonionizing properties. Tremendous strides in THz instrumentation have prompted impressive breakthroughs in THz biomedical research. Here, we review the current state of THz spectroscopy and imaging in various biomedical applications ranging from biomolecules, including DNA/RNA, amino acids/peptides, proteins, and carbohydrates, to cells and tissues. We also address the potential biological effects of THz radiation during its biological applications and propose future prospects for this cutting-edge technology.

  3. Recent Advances in Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Cellular Imaging and Targeted Therapy Research

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Xuan, Shouhu; Port, Marc; Idee, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Advances of nanotechnology have led to the development of nanomaterials with both potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Among them, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have received particular attention. Over the past decade, various SPIOs with unique physicochemical and biological properties have been designed by modifying the particle structure, size and coating. This article reviews the recent advances in preparing SPIOs with novel properties, the way these physicochemical properties of SPIOs influence their interaction with cells, and the development of SPIOs in liver and lymph nodes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. Cellular uptake of SPIO can be exploited in a variety of potential clinical applications, including stem cell and inflammation cell tracking and intra-cellular drug delivery to cancerous cells which offers higher intra-cellular concentration. When SPIOs are used as carrier vehicle, additional advantages can be achieved including magnetic targeting and hyperthermia options, as well as monitoring with MRI. Other potential applications of SPIO include magnetofection and gene delivery, targeted retention of labeled stem cells, sentinel lymph nodes mapping, and magnetic force targeting and cell orientation for tissue engineering. PMID:23621536

  4. Whole body MR imaging: applications in oncology.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C; Brennan, S; Ford, S; Eustace, S

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews technique and clinical applications of whole body MR imaging as a diagnostic tool in cancer staging. In particular the article reviews its role as an alternative to scintigraphy (bone scan and PET) in staging skeletal spread of disease, its role in assessing total tumour burden, its role in multiple myeloma and finally its evolving non oncologic role predominantly assessing total body composition.

  5. Advancements in Transmitters and Sensors for Biological Tissue Imaging in Magnetic Induction Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zulkarnay; Rahim, Ruzairi Abdul; Mansor, Muhammad Saiful Badri; Yaacob, Sazali; Ayub, Nor Muzakkir Nor; Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Rahiman, Mohd Hafiz Fazalul; Aman, Syed Mustafa Kamal Syed

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT), which is also known as Electromagnetic Tomography (EMT) or Mutual Inductance Tomography, is among the imaging modalities of interest to many researchers around the world. This noninvasive modality applies an electromagnetic field and is sensitive to all three passive electromagnetic properties of a material that are conductivity, permittivity and permeability. MIT is categorized under the passive imaging family with an electrodeless technique through the use of excitation coils to induce an electromagnetic field in the material, which is then measured at the receiving side by sensors. The aim of this review is to discuss the challenges of the MIT technique and summarize the recent advancements in the transmitters and sensors, with a focus on applications in biological tissue imaging. It is hoped that this review will provide some valuable information on the MIT for those who have interest in this modality. The need of this knowledge may speed up the process of adopted of MIT as a medical imaging technology. PMID:22969341

  6. Advances in photo-thermal infrared imaging microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furstenberg, Robert; Kendziora, Chris; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; McGill, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing need for chemical imaging techniques in many fields of science and technology: forensics, materials science, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, just to name a few. While FTIR micro-spectroscopy is commonly used, its practical resolution limit of about 20 microns or more is often insufficient. Raman micro-spectroscopy provides better spatial resolution (~1 micron), but is not always practical because of samples exhibiting fluorescence or low Raman scattering efficiency. We are developing a non-contact and non-destructive technique we call photo-thermal infrared imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). It involves photo-thermal heating of the sample with a tunable quantum cascade laser and measuring the resulting increase in thermal emission with an infrared detector. Photo-thermal emission spectra resemble FTIR absorbance spectra and can be acquired in both stand-off and microscopy configurations. Furthermore, PT-IRIS allows the acquisition of absorbance-like photo-thermal spectra in a reflected geometry, suitable for field applications and for in-situ study of samples on optically IR-opaque substrates (metals, fabrics, paint, glass etc.). Conventional FTIR microscopes in reflection mode measure the reflectance spectra which are different from absorbance spectra and are usually not catalogued in FTIR spectral libraries. In this paper, we continue developing this new technique. We perform a series of numerical simulations of the laser heating of samples during photo-thermal microscopy. We develop parameterized formulas to help the user pick the appropriate laser illumination power. We also examine the influence of sample geometry on spectral signatures. Finally, we measure and compare photo-thermal and reflectance spectra for two test samples.

  7. Applications review for a Space Program Imaging Radar (SPIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The needs, applications, user support, research, and theoretical studies of imaging radar are reviewed. The applications of radar in water resources, minerals and petroleum exploration, vegetation resources, ocean radar imaging, and cartography are discussed. The advantages of space imaging radar are presented, and it is recommended that imaging radar be placed on the space shuttle.

  8. Advanced magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging techniques applied to brain development and animal models of perinatal injury.

    PubMed

    van de Looij, Yohan; Dean, Justin M; Gunn, Alistair J; Hüppi, Petra S; Sizonenko, Stéphane V

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used in the field of brain development and perinatal brain injury. Due to technical progress the magnetic field strength (B0) of MR systems has continuously increased, favoring (1)H-MRS with quantification of up to 18 metabolites in the brain and short echo time (TE) MRI sequences including phase and susceptibility imaging. For longer TE techniques including diffusion imaging modalities, the benefits of higher B0 have not been clearly established. Nevertheless, progress has also been made in new advanced diffusion models that have been developed to enhance the accuracy and specificity of the derived diffusion parameters. In this review, we will describe the latest developments in MRS and MRI techniques, including high-field (1)H-MRS, phase and susceptibility imaging, and diffusion imaging, and discuss their application in the study of cerebral development and perinatal brain injury.

  9. Development in Diagnostics Application to Control Advanced Tokamak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, Y.

    2008-03-12

    For continuous operation expected in DEMO, all the plasma current must be non-inductively driven, with self-generated neoclassical bootstrap current being maximized. The control of such steady state high performance tokamak plasma (so-called 'Advanced Tokamak Plasma') is a challenge because of the strong coupling between the current density, the pressure profile and MHD stability. In considering diagnostic needs for the advanced tokamak research, diagnostics for MHD are the most fundamental, since discharges which violate the MHD stability criteria either disrupt or have significantly reduced confinement. This report deals with the development in diagnostic application to control advanced tokamak plasma, with emphasized on recent progress in active feedback control of the current profile and the pressure profile under DEMO-relevant high bootstrap-current fraction. In addition, issues in application of the present-day actuators and diagnostics for the advanced control to DEMO will be briefly addressed, where port space for the advanced control may be limited so as to keep sufficient tritium breeding ratio (TBR)

  10. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. The objectives were: to identify advanced battery systems capable of meeting the requirements of various types of space missions, with significant advantages over currently available batteries, to obtain an accurate estimate of the anticipated improvements of these advanced systems, and to obtain a consensus for the selection of systems most likely to yield the desired improvements. Few advanced systems are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the additional requirements of safety and reliability within the next 15 years. The few that have this potential are: (1) regenerative fuel cells, both alkaline and solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) types for large power systems; (2) lithium-intercalatable cathodes, particularly the metal ozides intercalatable cathodes (MnO2 or CoO2), with applications limited to small spacecrafts requiring limited cycle life and low power levels; (3) lithium molten salt systems (e.g., LiAl-FeS2); and (4) Na/beta Alumina/Sulfur or metal chlorides cells. Likely technological advances that would enhance the performance of all the above systems are also identified, in particular: improved bifunctional oxygen electrodes; improved manufacturing technology for thin film lithium electrodes in combination with polymeric electrolytes; improved seals for the lithium molten salt cells; and improved ceramics for sodium/solid electrolyte cells.

  11. ABrIL - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab : a cloud based computation environment for cooperative neuroimaging projects.

    PubMed

    Neves Tafula, Sérgio M; Moreira da Silva, Nádia; Rozanski, Verena E; Silva Cunha, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an increasingly multidisciplinary and highly cooperative field where neuroimaging plays an important role. Neuroimaging rapid evolution is demanding for a growing number of computing resources and skills that need to be put in place at every lab. Typically each group tries to setup their own servers and workstations to support their neuroimaging needs, having to learn from Operating System management to specific neuroscience software tools details before any results can be obtained from each setup. This setup and learning process is replicated in every lab, even if a strong collaboration among several groups is going on. In this paper we present a new cloud service model - Brain Imaging Application as a Service (BiAaaS) - and one of its implementation - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab (ABrIL) - in the form of an ubiquitous virtual desktop remote infrastructure that offers a set of neuroimaging computational services in an interactive neuroscientist-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). This remote desktop has been used for several multi-institution cooperative projects with different neuroscience objectives that already achieved important results, such as the contribution to a high impact paper published in the January issue of the Neuroimage journal. The ABrIL system has shown its applicability in several neuroscience projects with a relatively low-cost, promoting truly collaborative actions and speeding up project results and their clinical applicability.

  12. Global shutter imagers for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynants, G.

    2014-05-01

    Global shutter image sensors offer significant advantages over rolling shutter imagers but their implementation needs careful consideration. Each pixel needs a storage element on which the signal is stored after the exposure period. To cope with low read noise requirements, it is essential that the pixel can still perform correlated double sampling or CDS. This requires a second memory element in the pixel, so that the reset reference level of the sense amplifier can be read before the charge is dumped onto the sense node. An important specification is the parasitic light sensitivity or shutter efficiency of the pixel. This is a measure how insensitive the memory cell in the pixel is to light. Depending on the pixel architecture, this may be especially difficult in combination with backside illumination. Other important pixel performance parameters related to pixel architecture are read noise and dark current. In this paper we will review global shutter pixel architectures, compare their performances and discuss future developments. We discuss the issues related to global shutter pixels for high dynamic range and backside illumination, and how the most advanced CMOS image sensor process technologies can offer new approaches.

  13. Multi-colour microscopic interferometry for optical metrology and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit; Nandigana, Krishna Mohan; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2016-09-01

    Interferometry has been widely used for optical metrology and imaging applications because of their precision, reliability, and versatility. Although single-wavelength interferometery can provide high sensitivity and resolution, it has several drawbacks, namely, it fails to quantify large-discontinuities, large-deformations, and shape of unpolished surfaces. Multiple-wavelength techniques have been successfully used to overcome the drawbacks associated with single wavelength analysis. The use of colour CCD camera allows simultaneous acquisition of multiple interferograms. The advances in colour CCD cameras and image processing techniques have made the multi-colour interferometry a faster, simpler, and cost-effective tool for industrial applications. This article reviews the recent advances in multi-colour interferometric techniques and their demanding applications for characterization of micro-systems, non-destructive testing, and bio-imaging applications.

  14. Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, P.; Valavanis, A.; Keeley, J.; Bertling, K.; Lim, Y. L.; Alhathlool, R.; Burnett, A. D.; Li, L. H.; Khanna, S. P.; Indjin, D.; Taimre, T.; Rakić, A. D.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    The terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a compact source of THz radiation offering high power, high spectral purity and moderate tunability. As such, these sources are particularly suited to the application of THz frequency imaging across a range of disciplines, and have motivated significant research interest in this area over the past decade. In this paper we review the technological approaches to THz QCL-based imaging and the key advancements within this field. We discuss in detail a number of imaging approaches targeted to application areas including multiple-frequency transmission and diffuse reflection imaging for the spectral mapping of targets; as well as coherent approaches based on the self-mixing phenomenon in THz QCLs for long-range imaging, three-dimensional imaging, materials analysis, and high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging.

  15. In vivo molecular imaging of chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression in patients with advanced multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Philipp-Abbrederis, Kathrin; Herrmann, Ken; Knop, Stefan; Schottelius, Margret; Eiber, Matthias; Lückerath, Katharina; Pietschmann, Elke; Habringer, Stefan; Gerngroß, Carlos; Franke, Katharina; Rudelius, Martina; Schirbel, Andreas; Lapa, Constantin; Schwamborn, Kristina; Steidle, Sabine; Hartmann, Elena; Rosenwald, Andreas; Kropf, Saskia; Beer, Ambros J; Peschel, Christian; Einsele, Hermann; Buck, Andreas K; Schwaiger, Markus; Götze, Katharina; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Keller, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that mediates recruitment of blood cells toward its ligand SDF-1. In cancer, high CXCR4 expression is frequently associated with tumor dissemination and poor prognosis. We evaluated the novel CXCR4 probe [68Ga]Pentixafor for in vivo mapping of CXCR4 expression density in mice xenografted with human CXCR4-positive MM cell lines and patients with advanced MM by means of positron emission tomography (PET). [68Ga]Pentixafor PET provided images with excellent specificity and contrast. In 10 of 14 patients with advanced MM [68Ga]Pentixafor PET/CT scans revealed MM manifestations, whereas only nine of 14 standard [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT scans were rated visually positive. Assessment of blood counts and standard CD34+ flow cytometry did not reveal significant blood count changes associated with tracer application. Based on these highly encouraging data on clinical PET imaging of CXCR4 expression in a cohort of MM patients, we conclude that [68Ga]Pentixafor PET opens a broad field for clinical investigations on CXCR4 expression and for CXCR4-directed therapeutic approaches in MM and other diseases. PMID:25736399

  16. Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging.

    PubMed

    Ju, Myeong Jin; Hong, Young-Joo; Makita, Shuichi; Lim, Yiheng; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Duan, Lian; Miura, Masahiro; Tang, Shuo; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2013-08-12

    An advanced version of Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (JMT) is demonstrated for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging of the posterior eye. JMT is capable of providing localized flow tomography by Doppler detection and investigating the birefringence property of tissue through a three-dimensional (3-D) Jones matrix measurement. Owing to an incident polarization multiplexing scheme based on passive optical components, this system is stable, safe in a clinical environment, and cost effective. Since the properties of this version of JMT provide intrinsic compensation for system imperfection, the system is easy to calibrate. Compared with the previous version of JMT, this advanced JMT achieves a sufficiently long depth measurement range for clinical cases of posterior eye disease. Furthermore, a fine spectral shift compensation method based on the cross-correlation of calibration signals was devised for stabilizing the phase of OCT, which enables a high sensitivity Doppler OCT measurement. In addition, a new theory of JMT which integrates the Jones matrix measurement, Doppler measurement, and scattering measurement is presented. This theory enables a sensitivity-enhanced scattering OCT and high-sensitivity Doppler OCT. These new features enable the application of this system to clinical cases. A healthy subject and a geographic atrophy patient were measured in vivo, and simultaneous imaging of choroidal vasculature and birefringence structures are demonstrated.

  17. New Generation of High Resolution Ultrasonic Imaging Technique for Advanced Material Characterization: Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maev, R. Gr.

    The role of non-destructive material characterization and NDT is changing at a rapid rate, continuing to evolve alongside the dramatic development of novel techniques based on the principles of high-resolution imaging. The modern use of advanced optical, thermal, ultrasonic, laser-ultrasound, acoustic emission, vibration, electro-magnetic, and X-ray techniques, etc., as well as refined measurement and signal/data processing devices, allows for continuous generation of on-line information. As a result real-time process monitoring can be achieved, leading to the more effective and efficient control of numerous processes, greatly improving manufacturing as a whole. Indeed, concurrent quality inspection has become an attainable reality. With the advent of new materials for use in various structures, joints, and parts, however, innovative applications of modern NDT imaging techniques are necessary to monitor as many stages of manufacturing as possible. Simply put, intelligent advance manufacturing is impossible without actively integrating modern non-destructive evaluation into the production system.

  18. Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging.

    PubMed

    Ju, Myeong Jin; Hong, Young-Joo; Makita, Shuichi; Lim, Yiheng; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Duan, Lian; Miura, Masahiro; Tang, Shuo; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2013-08-12

    An advanced version of Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (JMT) is demonstrated for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging of the posterior eye. JMT is capable of providing localized flow tomography by Doppler detection and investigating the birefringence property of tissue through a three-dimensional (3-D) Jones matrix measurement. Owing to an incident polarization multiplexing scheme based on passive optical components, this system is stable, safe in a clinical environment, and cost effective. Since the properties of this version of JMT provide intrinsic compensation for system imperfection, the system is easy to calibrate. Compared with the previous version of JMT, this advanced JMT achieves a sufficiently long depth measurement range for clinical cases of posterior eye disease. Furthermore, a fine spectral shift compensation method based on the cross-correlation of calibration signals was devised for stabilizing the phase of OCT, which enables a high sensitivity Doppler OCT measurement. In addition, a new theory of JMT which integrates the Jones matrix measurement, Doppler measurement, and scattering measurement is presented. This theory enables a sensitivity-enhanced scattering OCT and high-sensitivity Doppler OCT. These new features enable the application of this system to clinical cases. A healthy subject and a geographic atrophy patient were measured in vivo, and simultaneous imaging of choroidal vasculature and birefringence structures are demonstrated. PMID:23938857

  19. Advanced magneto-optical microscopy: Imaging from picoseconds to centimeters - imaging spin waves and temperature distributions (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urs, Necdet Onur; Mozooni, Babak; Mazalski, Piotr; Kustov, Mikhail; Hayes, Patrick; Deldar, Shayan; Quandt, Eckhard; McCord, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in the observation of magnetic domains and domain walls by wide-field optical microscopy based on the magneto-optical Kerr, Faraday, Voigt, and Gradient effect are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the existence of higher order magneto-optical effects for advanced magnetic imaging. Fundamental concepts and advances in methodology are discussed that allow for imaging of magnetic domains on various length and time scales. Time-resolved imaging of electric field induced domain wall rotation is shown. Visualization of magnetization dynamics down to picosecond temporal resolution for the imaging of spin-waves and magneto-optical multi-effect domain imaging techniques for obtaining vectorial information are demonstrated. Beyond conventional domain imaging, the use of a magneto-optical indicator technique for local temperature sensing is shown.

  20. Advanced tools for astronomical time series and image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    The algorithms described here, which I have developed for applications in X-ray and γ-ray astronomy, will hopefully be of use in other ways, perhaps aiding in the exploration of modern astronomy's data cornucopia. The goal is to describe principled approaches to some ubiquitous problems, such as detection and characterization of periodic and aperiodic signals, estimation of time delays between multiple time series, and source detection in noisy images with noisy backgrounds. The latter problem is related to detection of clusters in data spaces of various dimensions. A goal of this work is to achieve a unifying view of several related topics: signal detection and characterization, cluster identification, classification, density estimation, and multivariate regression. In addition to being useful for analysis of data from space-based and ground-based missions, these algorithms may be a basis for a future automatic science discovery facility, and in turn provide analysis tools for the Virtual Observatory. This chapter has ties to those by Larry Bretthorst, Tom Loredo, Alanna Connors, Fionn Murtagh, Jim Berger, David van Dyk, Vicent Martinez & Enn Saar.

  1. Significant advancement of mass spectrometry imaging for food chemistry.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Zaima, Nobuhiro

    2016-11-01

    Food contains various compounds that have an impact on our daily lives. Many technologies have been established to analyze these molecules of interest in foods. However, the analysis of the spatial distribution of these compounds in foods using conventional technology, such as high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is difficult. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is considered an ideal complementary approach. MALDI-MSI is a two-dimensional MALDI-MS technology that can detect compounds in a tissue section without extraction, purification, separation, or labeling. MALDI-MSI can be used to visualize the spatial distribution of chemical compounds or biomolecules in foods. Although the methodology of MALDI-MSI in food science is not yet fully established, the versatility of MALDI-MSI is expected to open a new frontier in food science. Herein, we describe the principles and applications of MALDI-MSI in food science and related fields.

  2. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  3. Image Understanding Applications of Lattice Autoassociative Memories.

    PubMed

    Grana, Manuel; Chyzhyk, Darya

    2016-09-01

    Multivariate mathematical morphology (MMM) aims to extend the mathematical morphology from gray scale images to images whose pixels are high-dimensional vectors, such as remote sensing hyperspectral images and functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs). Defining an ordering over the multidimensional image data space is a fundamental issue MMM, to ensure that ensuing morphological operators and filters are mathematically consistent. Recent approaches use the outputs of two-class classifiers to build such reduced orderings. This paper presents the applications of MMM built on reduced supervised orderings based on lattice autoassociative memories (LAAMs) recall error measured by the Chebyshev distance. Foreground supervised orderings use one set of training data from a foreground class, whereas background/foreground supervised orderings use two training data sets, one for each relevant class. The first case study refers to the realization of the thematic segmentation of the hyperspectral images using spatial-spectral information. Spectral classification is enhanced by a spatial processing consisting in the spatial correction guided by a watershed segmentation computed by the LAAM-based morphological operators. The approach improves the state-of-the-art hyperspectral spatial-spectral thematic map building approaches. The second case study is the analysis of resting state fMRI data, working on a data set of healthy controls, schizophrenia patients with and without auditory hallucinations. We perform two experiments: 1) the localization of differences in brain functional networks on population-dependent templates and 2) the classification of subjects into each possible pair of cases. In this data set, we find that the LAAM-based morphological features improve over the conventional correlation-based graph measure features often employed in fMRI data classification.

  4. Image Understanding Applications of Lattice Autoassociative Memories.

    PubMed

    Grana, Manuel; Chyzhyk, Darya

    2016-09-01

    Multivariate mathematical morphology (MMM) aims to extend the mathematical morphology from gray scale images to images whose pixels are high-dimensional vectors, such as remote sensing hyperspectral images and functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs). Defining an ordering over the multidimensional image data space is a fundamental issue MMM, to ensure that ensuing morphological operators and filters are mathematically consistent. Recent approaches use the outputs of two-class classifiers to build such reduced orderings. This paper presents the applications of MMM built on reduced supervised orderings based on lattice autoassociative memories (LAAMs) recall error measured by the Chebyshev distance. Foreground supervised orderings use one set of training data from a foreground class, whereas background/foreground supervised orderings use two training data sets, one for each relevant class. The first case study refers to the realization of the thematic segmentation of the hyperspectral images using spatial-spectral information. Spectral classification is enhanced by a spatial processing consisting in the spatial correction guided by a watershed segmentation computed by the LAAM-based morphological operators. The approach improves the state-of-the-art hyperspectral spatial-spectral thematic map building approaches. The second case study is the analysis of resting state fMRI data, working on a data set of healthy controls, schizophrenia patients with and without auditory hallucinations. We perform two experiments: 1) the localization of differences in brain functional networks on population-dependent templates and 2) the classification of subjects into each possible pair of cases. In this data set, we find that the LAAM-based morphological features improve over the conventional correlation-based graph measure features often employed in fMRI data classification. PMID:26292345

  5. English 591, 592, and 593--Advance Program: Images of Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Board of Education, Louisville, KY.

    For those students who qualify, the Advance Program offers an opportunity to follow a stimulating curriculum designed for the academically talented. The purposes of the course outlined in this guide for twelfth grade English are to bring the previous three years' studies in Advance Program English to a meaningful culmination; to provide a…

  6. Advanced Millimeter-Wave Imaging Enhances Security Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-01-12

    Millimeter-wave imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This paper details a number of techniques developed over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, as well as high frequency high bandwidth techniques. Implementation of some of these methods will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems.

  7. Advanced Millimeter-Wave Security Portal Imaging Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-04-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This paper details a number of techniques developed over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, as well as high frequency high bandwidth techniques. Implementation of some of these methods will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems.

  8. Advanced microlens and color filter process technology for the high-efficiency CMOS and CCD image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yang-Tung; Peng, Chiou-Shian; Chu, Cheng-Yu

    2000-12-01

    New markets are emerging for digital electronic image device, especially in visual communications, PC camera, mobile/cell phone, security system, toys, vehicle image system and computer peripherals for document capture. To enable one-chip image system that image sensor is with a full digital interface, can make image capture devices in our daily lives. Adding a color filter to such image sensor in a pattern of mosaics pixel or wide stripes can make image more real and colorful. We can say 'color filter makes the life more colorful color filter is? Color filter means can filter image light source except the color with specific wavelength and transmittance that is same as color filter itself. Color filter process is coating and patterning green, red and blue (or cyan, magenta and yellow) mosaic resists onto matched pixel in image sensing array pixels. According to the signal caught from each pixel, we can figure out the environment image picture. Widely use of digital electronic camera and multimedia applications today makes the feature of color filter becoming bright. Although it has challenge but it is very worthy to develop the process of color filter. We provide the best service on shorter cycle time, excellent color quality, high and stable yield. The key issues of advanced color process have to be solved and implemented are planarization and micro-lens technology. Lost of key points of color filter process technology have to consider will also be described in this paper.

  9. Applications of scientific imaging in environmental toxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Demerdash, Aref M.

    The national goals of clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems are a few of the primary forces that drive the need for better environmental monitoring. As we approach the end of the 1990s, the environmental questions at regional to global scales are being redefined and refined in the light of developments in environmental understanding and technological capability. Research in the use of scientific imaging data for the study of the environment is urgently needed in order to explore the possibilities of utilizing emerging new technologies. The objective of this research proposal is to demonstrate the usability of a wealth of new technology made available in the last decade to providing a better understanding of environmental problems. Research is focused in two imaging techniques macro and micro imaging. Several examples of applications of scientific imaging in research in the field of environmental toxicology were presented. This was achieved on two scales, micro and macro imaging. On the micro level four specific examples were covered. First, the effect of utilizing scanning electron microscopy as an imaging tool in enhancing taxa identification when studying diatoms was presented. Second, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray analyzer were demonstrated as a valuable and effective tool for identifying and analyzing household dust samples. Third, electronic autoradiography combined with FT-IR microscopy were used to study the distribution pattern of [14C]-Malathion in rats as a result of dermal exposure. The results of the autoradiography made on skin sections of the application site revealed the presence of [ 14C]-activity in the first region of the skin. These results were evidenced by FT-IR microscopy. The obtained results suggest that the penetration of Malathion into the skin and other tissues is vehicle and dose dependent. The results also suggest the use of FT-IR microscopy imaging for monitoring the disposition of

  10. The application of ghost imaging in infrared imaging detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hongtao; Yang, Zhaohua; Li, Dapeng; Wu, Ling-an

    2015-11-01

    Traditional imaging are mostly based on the principle of lens imaging which is simple but the imaging result is heavily dependent on the quality of detector. It is usual to increase the detector array density or reduce the size of pixels to improve the imaging resolution, especially for infrared imaging. It will decrease the light flux causing the noise enhance relatively and add the cost on the contrary. Besides, there is a novel imaging technology called ghost imaging. We present a new infrared imaging method named computational ghost imaging only using a bucket detector without spatial resolution, which avoiding the allocation of flux on the pixel dimension as well as reducing the cost.

  11. Application of GFP imaging in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Multicolored proteins have allowed the color-coding of cancer cells growing in vivo and enabled the distinction of host from tumor with single-cell resolution. Non-invasive imaging with fluorescent proteins enabled the dynamics of metastatic cancer to be followed in real time in individual animals. Non-invasive imaging of cancer cells expressing fluorescent proteins has allowed the real-time determination of efficacy of candidate antitumor and antimetastatic agents in mouse models. The use of fluorescent proteins to differentially label cancer cells in the nucleus and cytoplasm can visualize the nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics of cancer cells in vivo including: mitosis, apoptosis, cell-cycle position, and differential behavior of nucleus and cytoplasm that occurs during cancer-cell deformation and extravasation. Recent applications of the technology described here include linking fluorescent proteins with cell-cycle-specific proteins such that the cells change color from red to green as they transit from G1 to S phases. With the macro- and micro-imaging technologies described here, essentially any in vivo process can be imaged, giving rise to the new field of in vivo cell biology using fluorescent proteins.

  12. Application of GFP imaging in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Multicolored proteins have allowed the color-coding of cancer cells growing in vivo and enabled the distinction of host from tumor with single-cell resolution. Non-invasive imaging with fluorescent proteins enabled the dynamics of metastatic cancer to be followed in real time in individual animals. Non-invasive imaging of cancer cells expressing fluorescent proteins has allowed the real-time determination of efficacy of candidate antitumor and antimetastatic agents in mouse models. The use of fluorescent proteins to differentially label cancer cells in the nucleus and cytoplasm can visualize the nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics of cancer cells in vivo including: mitosis, apoptosis, cell-cycle position, and differential behavior of nucleus and cytoplasm that occurs during cancer-cell deformation and extravasation. Recent applications of the technology described here include linking fluorescent proteins with cell-cycle-specific proteins such that the cells change color from red to green as they transit from G1 to S phases. With the macro- and micro-imaging technologies described here, essentially any in vivo process can be imaged, giving rise to the new field of in vivo cell biology using fluorescent proteins. PMID:25686095

  13. Diffusion weighted imaging: Technique and applications

    PubMed Central

    Baliyan, Vinit; Das, Chandan J; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a method of signal contrast generation based on the differences in Brownian motion. DWI is a method to evaluate the molecular function and micro-architecture of the human body. DWI signal contrast can be quantified by apparent diffusion coefficient maps and it acts as a tool for treatment response evaluation and assessment of disease progression. Ability to detect and quantify the anisotropy of diffusion leads to a new paradigm called diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI is a tool for assessment of the organs with highly organised fibre structure. DWI forms an integral part of modern state-of-art magnetic resonance imaging and is indispensable in neuroimaging and oncology. DWI is a field that has been undergoing rapid technical evolution and its applications are increasing every day. This review article provides insights in to the evolution of DWI as a new imaging paradigm and provides a summary of current role of DWI in various disease processes. PMID:27721941

  14. Development of an advanced photovoltaic concentrator system for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that significant increases in system performance (increased efficiency and reduced system mass) are possible for high power space based systems by incorporating technological developments with photovoltaic power systems. The Advanced Photovoltaic Concentrator Program is an effort to take advantage of recent advancements in refractive optical elements. By using a domed Fresnel lens concentrator and a prismatic cell cover, to eliminate metallization losses, dramatic reductions in the required area and mass over current space photovoltaic systems are possible. The advanced concentrator concept also has significant advantages when compared to solar dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle power systems in Low Earth Orbit applications where energy storage is required. The program is currently involved in the selection of a material for the optical element that will survive the space environment and a demonstration of the system performance of the panel design.

  15. Amphiphile nanoarchitectonics: from basic physical chemistry to advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Mori, Taizo; Ji, Qingmin; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2013-07-14

    Amphiphiles, either synthetic or natural, are structurally simple molecules with the unprecedented capacity to self-assemble into complex, hierarchical geometries in nanospace. Effective self-assembly processes of amphiphiles are often used to mimic biological systems, such as assembly of lipids and proteins, which has paved a way for bottom-up nanotechnology with bio-like advanced functions. Recent developments in nanostructure formation combine simple processes of assembly with the more advanced concept of nanoarchitectonics. In this perspective, we summarize research on self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules such as lipids, surfactants or block copolymers that are a focus of interest for many colloid, polymer, and materials scientists and which have become increasingly important in emerging nanotechnology and practical applications, latter of which are often accomplished by amphiphile-like polymers. Because the fundamental science of amphiphiles was initially developed for their solution assembly then transferred to assemblies on surfaces as a development of nanotechnological techniques, this perspective attempts to mirror this development by introducing solution systems and progressing to interfacial systems, which are roughly categorized as (i) basic properties of amphiphiles, (ii) self-assembly of amphiphiles in bulk phases, (iii) assembly on static surfaces, (iv) assembly at dynamic interfaces, and (v) advanced topics from simulation to application. This progression also represents the evolution of amphiphile science and technology from simple assemblies to advanced assemblies to nanoarchitectonics.

  16. Advanced photoacoustic image reconstruction using the k-Wave toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treeby, B. E.; Jaros, J.; Cox, B. T.

    2016-03-01

    Reconstructing images from measured time domain signals is an essential step in tomography-mode photoacoustic imaging. However, in practice, there are many complicating factors that make it difficult to obtain high-resolution images. These include incomplete or undersampled data, filtering effects, acoustic and optical attenuation, and uncertainties in the material parameters. Here, the processing and image reconstruction steps routinely used by the Photoacoustic Imaging Group at University College London are discussed. These include correction for acoustic and optical attenuation, spatial resampling, material parameter selection, image reconstruction, and log compression. The effect of each of these steps is demonstrated using a representative in vivo dataset. All of the algorithms discussed form part of the open-source k-Wave toolbox (available from http://www.k-wave.org).

  17. Nanostructured Materials For Advanced Technological Applications: A Brief Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulisch, W.; Freudenstein, R.; Ruiz, A.; Valsesia, A.; Sirghi, L.; Ponti, J.; Colpo, P.; Rossi, F.

    In this contribution a short introduction to nanostructured materials for advanced technological applications is presented. A major aim is to demonstrate, on the one hand, the diversity of approaches, methods, techniques and solutions, which are used currently worldwide — but also by the authors of the contributions collected in this book — in the field of nano-structured materials, but also that, on the other hand, these diverse topics are based on the same principles, face similar problems, and bear similar prospects for future applications. For this reason, frequent reference is made to the contributions to this book. Some examples to illustrate current topics, advances and problems are taken from the recent work of the present home institute of the author, the NanoBioTech group of the IHCP at the JRC.

  18. Recent Advances in Bioprinting and Applications for Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Andrew D.; Kingsley, David M.; Corr, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Future biosensing applications will require high performance, including real-time monitoring of physiological events, incorporation of biosensors into feedback-based devices, detection of toxins, and advanced diagnostics. Such functionality will necessitate biosensors with increased sensitivity, specificity, and throughput, as well as the ability to simultaneously detect multiple analytes. While these demands have yet to be fully realized, recent advances in biofabrication may allow sensors to achieve the high spatial sensitivity required, and bring us closer to achieving devices with these capabilities. To this end, we review recent advances in biofabrication techniques that may enable cutting-edge biosensors. In particular, we focus on bioprinting techniques (e.g., microcontact printing, inkjet printing, and laser direct-write) that may prove pivotal to biosensor fabrication and scaling. Recent biosensors have employed these fabrication techniques with success, and further development may enable higher performance, including multiplexing multiple analytes or cell types within a single biosensor. We also review recent advances in 3D bioprinting, and explore their potential to create biosensors with live cells encapsulated in 3D microenvironments. Such advances in biofabrication will expand biosensor utility and availability, with impact realized in many interdisciplinary fields, as well as in the clinic. PMID:25587413

  19. Recent advances on in vivo imaging with fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    In vivo imaging with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and other fluorescent proteins is revolutionizing cancer biology and other fields of in vivo biology (Hoffman, 2005; Hoffman and Yang, 2006a,b,c). Our laboratory pioneered the use of GFP for in vivo imaging in 1997 (Chishima et al., 1997). This chapter highlights recent developments from our laboratory on both macro and micro in vivo imaging by using fluorescent proteins.

  20. Recent Advances in Image Assisted Neurosurgical Procedures: Improved Navigational Accuracy and Patient Safety

    ScienceCinema

    Olivi, Alessandro, M.D.

    2016-07-12

    Neurosurgical procedures require precise planning and intraoperative support. Recent advances in image guided technology have provided neurosurgeons with improved navigational support for more effective and safer procedures. A number of exemplary cases will be presented.

  1. Recent Advances in Image Assisted Neurosurgical Procedures: Improved Navigational Accuracy and Patient Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Olivi, Alessandro, M.D.

    2010-08-28

    Neurosurgical procedures require precise planning and intraoperative support. Recent advances in image guided technology have provided neurosurgeons with improved navigational support for more effective and safer procedures. A number of exemplary cases will be presented.

  2. Visualizing epigenetics: current advances and advantages in HDAC PET imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Schroeder, F A; Hooker, J M

    2014-04-01

    Abnormal gene regulation as a consequence of flawed epigenetic mechanisms may be central to the initiation and persistence of many human diseases. However, the association of epigenetic dysfunction with disease and the development of therapeutic agents for treatment are slow. Developing new methodologies used to visualize chromatin-modifying enzymes and their function in the human brain would be valuable for the diagnosis of brain disorders and drug discovery. We provide an overview of current invasive and noninvasive techniques for measuring expression and functions of chromatin-modifying enzymes in the brain, emphasizing tools applicable to histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes as a leading example. The majority of current techniques are invasive and difficult to translate to what is happening within a human brain in vivo. However, recent progress in molecular imaging provides new, noninvasive ways to visualize epigenetics in the human brain. Neuroimaging tool development presents a unique set of challenges in order to identify and validate CNS radiotracers for HDACs and other histone-modifying enzymes. We summarize advances in the effort to image HDACs and HDAC inhibitory effects in the brain using positron emission tomography (PET) and highlight generalizable techniques that can be adapted to investigate other specific components of epigenetic machinery. Translational tools like neuroimaging by PET and magnetic resonance imaging provide the best way to link our current understanding of epigenetic changes with in vivo function in normal and diseased brains. These tools will be a critical addition to ex vivo methods to evaluate - and intervene - in CNS dysfunction.

  3. Recent advances in rapid and non-destructive assessment of meat quality using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Feifei; Ngadi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Meat is an important food item in human diet. Its production and consumption has greatly increased in the last decades with the development of economies and improvement of peoples' living standards. However, most of the traditional methods for evaluation of meat quality are time-consuming, laborious, inconsistent and destructive to samples, which make them not appropriate for a fast-paced production and processing environment. Development of innovative and non-destructive optical sensing techniques to facilitate simple, fast, and accurate evaluation of quality are attracting increasing attention in the food industry. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the promising techniques. It integrates the combined merits of imaging and spectroscopic techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in evaluation of the important quality attributes of meat including color, marbling, tenderness, pH, water holding capacity, and also chemical composition attributes such as moisture content, protein content and fat content in pork, beef and lamb. In addition, the future potential applications and trends of hyperspectral imaging are also discussed in this paper.

  4. The Advancing Clinical Impact of Molecular Imaging in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Eric A; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging seeks to unravel critical molecular and cellular events in living subjects by providing complementary biological information to current structural clinical imaging modalities. In recent years, molecular imaging efforts have marched forward into the clinical cardiovascular arena, and are now actively illuminating new biology in a broad range of conditions, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, vasculitis, aneurysm, cardiomyopathy, and valvular disease. Development of novel molecular imaging reporters is occurring for many clinical cardiovascular imaging modalities (PET, SPECT, MRI), as well in translational platforms such as intravascular fluorescence imaging. The ability to image, track, and quantify molecular biomarkers in organs not routinely amenable to biopsy (e.g. the heart and vasculature) open new clinical opportunities to tailor therapeutics based on a cardiovascular disease molecular profile. In addition, molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in atherosclerosis drug development in Phase II clinical trials. Here we present state-of-the-art clinical cardiovascular molecular imaging strategies, and explore promising translational approaches positioned for clinical testing in the near term. PMID:24332285

  5. Advances in passive imaging elements with micromirror array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Satoshi; Nitta, Kouichi; Matoba, Osamu

    2008-02-01

    We have proposed a new passive imaging optics which consists of a grid array of micro roof mirrors working as dihedral corner reflectors. Although this element forms mirror-like images at opposite side of objects, the images are real. Because the imaging principle of the proposed element is based on accumulation of rays, the design of each light path makes many kinds of devices possible. So, we propose two variations of such a device. One device consists of an array of micro retroreflectors and a half mirror, and it can also form real mirror-like images. The advantage of this device is wide range of view, because the displacement of each retororeflector is not limited on a plane unlike the roof mirror grid array. The other consists of an array of long dihedral corner reflectors. Although this structure has been already known as a roof mirror array, it can be used for imaging. This device forms two heterogeneous images. One is real at the same side of an object, and the other is virtual at the opposite side. This is a conjugate imaging optics of a slit mirror array whose mirror surface is perpendicular to the device surface. The advantage of a roor mirror array is that the real image has horizontal parallax and can be seen in air naturally.

  6. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are investigated. Constructions of special elements which containing traction-free circular boundaries are investigated. New versions of mixed variational principle and version of hybrid stress elements are formulated. A method is established for suppression of kinematic deformation modes. semiLoof plate and shell elements are constructed by assumed stress hybrid method. An elastic-plastic analysis is conducted by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  7. Recent advances in carbon nanodots: synthesis, properties and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Peng; Han, Kun; Tang, Yuguo; Wang, Bidou; Lin, Tao; Cheng, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Herein, a mini review is presented concerning the most recent research progress of carbon nanodots, which have emerged as one of the most attractive photoluminescent materials. Different synthetic methodologies to achieve advanced functions and better photoluminescence performances are summarized, which are mainly divided into two classes: top-down and bottom-up. The inspiring properties, including photoluminescence emission, chemiluminescence, electrochemical luminescence, peroxidase-like activity and toxicity, are discussed. Moreover, the biomedical applications in biosensing, bioimaging and drug delivery are reviewed.

  8. Continuously variable transmission: Assessment of applicability to advance electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function of several CVT concepts are cited along with their current developmental status. The results of preliminary design studies conducted on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are discussed.

  9. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular, and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology

    PubMed Central

    Niendorf, Thoralf; Pohlmann, Andreas; Reimann, Henning M.; Waiczies, Helmar; Peper, Eva; Huelnhagen, Till; Seeliger, Erdmann; Schreiber, Adrian; Kettritz, Ralph; Strobel, Klaus; Ku, Min-Chi; Waiczies, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR) for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF) coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g., by supporting MR microscopy) and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g., by reducing measuring time); both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (bio)medical imaging, molecular medicine, and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (patho)physiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular, and renal disease will be discussed. PMID:26617515

  10. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular, and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology.

    PubMed

    Niendorf, Thoralf; Pohlmann, Andreas; Reimann, Henning M; Waiczies, Helmar; Peper, Eva; Huelnhagen, Till; Seeliger, Erdmann; Schreiber, Adrian; Kettritz, Ralph; Strobel, Klaus; Ku, Min-Chi; Waiczies, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR) for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF) coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g., by supporting MR microscopy) and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g., by reducing measuring time); both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (bio)medical imaging, molecular medicine, and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (patho)physiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular, and renal disease will be discussed.

  11. Natural polyphenols based new therapeutic avenues for advanced biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are naturally occurring, synthetic or semisynthetic organic compounds that offer a vast array of advanced biomedical applications. The mostly researched polyphenolic compounds are resveratrol and flavanols, notably (-)-epicatechin. The ongoing research on clinically important resveratrol and flavanols has revealed their potentials as extremely efficient drug agents that can be leveraged for new therapeutic designs for combating stroke related injuries, cancer and renal failures. Here, we have highlighted recent developments in this area with an emphasis on the biomedical applications of polyphenols. Also, a perspective on the future research directions has been discussed. We believe that this review would facilitate further research and development of polyphenols as a therapeutic avenue in medical science.

  12. Advances in targeting strategies for nanoparticles in cancer imaging and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YheeThese Authors Contributed The Same., Ji Young; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2014-10-01

    In the last decade, nanoparticles have offered great advances in diagnostic imaging and targeted drug delivery. In particular, nanoparticles have provided remarkable progress in cancer imaging and therapy based on materials science and biochemical engineering technology. Researchers constantly attempted to develop the nanoparticles which can deliver drugs more specifically to cancer cells, and these efforts brought the advances in the targeting strategy of nanoparticles. This minireview will discuss the progress in targeting strategies for nanoparticles focused on the recent innovative work for nanomedicine.

  13. Survey of advanced nuclear technologies for potential applications of sonoprocessing.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Floren; Blandford, Edward D; Bond, Leonard J

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonics has been used in many industrial applications for both sensing at low power and processing at higher power. Generally, the high power applications fall within the categories of liquid stream degassing, impurity separation, and sonochemical enhancement of chemical processes. Examples of such industrial applications include metal production, food processing, chemical production, and pharmaceutical production. There are many nuclear process streams that have similar physical and chemical processes to those applications listed above. These nuclear processes could potentially benefit from the use of high-power ultrasonics. There are also potential benefits to applying these techniques in advanced nuclear fuel cycle processes, and these benefits have not been fully investigated. Currently the dominant use of ultrasonic technology in the nuclear industry has been using low power ultrasonics for non-destructive testing/evaluation (NDT/NDE), where it is primarily used for inspections and for characterizing material degradation. Because there has been very little consideration given to how sonoprocessing can potentially improve efficiency and add value to important process streams throughout the nuclear fuel cycle, there are numerous opportunities for improvement in current and future nuclear technologies. In this paper, the relevant fundamental theory underlying sonoprocessing is highlighted, and some potential applications to advanced nuclear technologies throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. PMID:27400217

  14. Survey of advanced nuclear technologies for potential applications of sonoprocessing.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Floren; Blandford, Edward D; Bond, Leonard J

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonics has been used in many industrial applications for both sensing at low power and processing at higher power. Generally, the high power applications fall within the categories of liquid stream degassing, impurity separation, and sonochemical enhancement of chemical processes. Examples of such industrial applications include metal production, food processing, chemical production, and pharmaceutical production. There are many nuclear process streams that have similar physical and chemical processes to those applications listed above. These nuclear processes could potentially benefit from the use of high-power ultrasonics. There are also potential benefits to applying these techniques in advanced nuclear fuel cycle processes, and these benefits have not been fully investigated. Currently the dominant use of ultrasonic technology in the nuclear industry has been using low power ultrasonics for non-destructive testing/evaluation (NDT/NDE), where it is primarily used for inspections and for characterizing material degradation. Because there has been very little consideration given to how sonoprocessing can potentially improve efficiency and add value to important process streams throughout the nuclear fuel cycle, there are numerous opportunities for improvement in current and future nuclear technologies. In this paper, the relevant fundamental theory underlying sonoprocessing is highlighted, and some potential applications to advanced nuclear technologies throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed.

  15. Three-Dimensional Printing and Medical Imaging: A Review of the Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Marro, Alessandro; Bandukwala, Taha; Mak, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent innovations on the process and application of 3-dimensional (3D) printed objects from medical imaging data. Data for 3D printed medical models can be obtained from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound using the Data Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) software. The data images are processed using segmentation and mesh generation tools and converted to a standard tessellation language (STL) file for printing. 3D printing technologies include stereolithography, selective laser sintering, inkjet, and fused-deposition modeling . 3D printed models have been used for preoperative planning of complex surgeries, the creation of custom prosthesis, and in the education and training of physicians. The application of medical imaging and 3D printers has been successful in providing solutions to many complex medical problems. As technology advances, its applications continue to grow in the future.

  16. Advances in the manufacturing, types, and applications of biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindra, Nuggehalli M.; Prodan, Camelia; Fnu, Shanmugamurthy; Padronl, Ivan; Sikha, Sushil K.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, there have been significant technological advancements in the manufacturing, types, and applications of biosensors. Applications include clinical and non-clinical diagnostics for home, bio-defense, bio-remediation, environment, agriculture, and the food industry. Biosensors have progressed beyond the detection of biological threats such as anthrax and are finding use in a number of non-biological applications. Emerging biosensor technologies such as lab-on-a-chip have revolutionized the integration approaches for a very flexible, innovative, and user-friendly platform. An overview of the fundamentals, types, applications, and manufacturers, as well as the market trends of biosensors is presented here. Two case studies are discussed: one focused on a characterization technique—patch clamping and dielectric spectroscopy as a biological sensor—and the other about lithium phthalocyanine, a material that is being developed for in-vivo oxymetry.

  17. Recent advances in research applications of nanophase hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kate; Tran, Phong A; Tran, Nhiem

    2012-07-16

    Hydroxyapatite, the main inorganic material in natural bone, has been used widely for orthopaedic applications. Due to size effects and surface phenomena at the nanoscale, nanophase hydroxyapatite possesses unique properties compared to its bulk-phase counterpart. The high surface-to-volume ratio, reactivities, and biomimetic morphologies make nano-hydroxyapatite more favourable in applications such as orthopaedic implant coating or bone substitute filler. Recently, more efforts have been focused on the possibility of combining hydroxyapatite with other drugs and materials for multipurpose applications, such as antimicrobial treatments, osteoporosis treatments and magnetic manipulation. To build more effective nano-hydroxyapatite and composite systems, the particle synthesis processes, chemistry, and toxicity have to be thoroughly investigated. In this Minireview, we report the recent advances in research regarding nano-hydroxyapatite. Synthesis routes and a wide range of applications of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles will be discussed. The Minireview also addresses several challenges concerning the biosafety of the nanoparticles.

  18. Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono

    2004-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

  19. Advanced imaging techniques II: using a compound microscope for photographing point-mount specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital imaging technology has revolutionized the practice photographing insects for scientific study. Herein described are lighting and mounting techniques designed for imaging micro Hymenoptera. Techniques described here are applicable to all small insects, as well as other invertebrates. The ke...

  20. Hybrid magnetic nanostructures (MNS) for magnetic resonance imaging applications.

    PubMed

    De, Mrinmoy; Chou, Stanley S; Joshi, Hrushikesh M; Dravid, Vinayak P

    2011-11-01

    The development of MRI contrast agents has experienced its version of the gilded age over the past decade, thanks largely to the rapid advances in nanotechnology. In addition to progress in single mode contrast agents, which ushered in unprecedented R(1) or R(2) sensitivities, there has also been a boon in the development of agents covering more than one mode of detection. These include T(1)-PET, T(2)-PET T(1)-optical, T(2)-optical, T(1)-T(2) agents and many others. In this review, we describe four areas which we feel have experienced particular growth due to nanotechnology, specifically T(2) magnetic nanostructure development, T(1)/T(2)-optical dual mode agents, and most recently the T(1)-T(2) hybrid imaging systems. In each of these systems, we describe applications including in vitro, in vivo usage and assay development. In all, while the benefits and drawbacks of most MRI contrast agents depend on the application at hand, the recent development in multimodal nanohybrids may curtail the shortcomings of single mode agents in diagnostic and clinical settings by synergistically incorporating functionality. It is hoped that as nanotechnology advances over the next decade, it will produce agents with increased diagnostics and assay relevant capabilities in streamlined packages that can meaningfully improve patient care and prognostics. In this review article, we focus on T(2) materials, its surface functionalization and coupling with optical and/or T(1) agents. PMID:21851844

  1. Hybrid Magnetic Nanostructures (MNS) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    De, Mrinmoy; Chou, Stanley S.; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.

    2011-01-01

    The development of MRI contrast agents has experienced its version of the gilded age over the past decade, thanks largely to the rapid advances in nanotechnology. In addition to progress in single mode contrast agents, which ushered in unprecedented R1 or R2 sensitivities, there has also been a boon in the development of agents covering more than one mode of detection. These include T1-PET, T2-PET T1-optical, T2-optical, T1–T2 agents and many others. In this review, we describe four areas which we feel have experienced particular growth due to nanotechnology, specifically T2 magnetic nanostructure development, T1/T2-optical dual mode agents, and most recently the T1–T2 hybrid imaging systems. In each of these systems, we describe applications including in vitro, in vivo usage and assay development. In all, while the benefits and drawbacks of most MRI contrast agents depend on the application at hand, the recent development in multimodal nanohybrids may curtail the shortcomings of single mode agents in diagnostic and clinical settings by synergistically incorporating functionality. It is hoped that as nanotechnology advances over the next decade, it will produce agents with increased diagnostics and assay relevant capabilities in streamlined packages that can meaningfully improve patient care and prognostics. In this review article, we focus on T2 materials, its surface functionalization and coupling with optical and/or T1 agents. PMID:21851844

  2. Applications and Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software innovations and progress in microcircuitry design and systems integration. The invention of many new e-nose sensor types and arrays, based on different detection principles and mechanisms, is closely correlated with the expansion of new applications. Electronic noses have provided a plethora of benefits to a variety of commercial industries, including the agricultural, biomedical, cosmetics, environmental, food, manufacturing, military, pharmaceutical, regulatory, and various scientific research fields. Advances have improved product attributes, uniformity, and consistency as a result of increases in quality control capabilities afforded by electronic-nose monitoring of all phases of industrial manufacturing processes. This paper is a review of the major electronic-nose technologies, developed since this specialized field was born and became prominent in the mid 1980s, and a summarization of some of the more important and useful applications that have been of greatest benefit to man. PMID:22346690

  3. Feature-based tolerancing for advanced manufacturing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.W.; Kirk, W.J. III; Simons, W.R.; Ward, R.C.; Brooks, S.L.

    1994-11-01

    A primary requirement for the successful deployment of advanced manufacturing applications is the need for a complete and accessible definition of the product. This product definition must not only provide an unambiguous description of a product`s nominal shape but must also contain complete tolerance specification and general property attributes. Likewise, the product definition`s geometry, topology, tolerance data, and modeler manipulative routines must be fully accessible through a robust application programmer interface. This paper describes a tolerancing capability using features that complements a geometric solid model with a representation of conventional and geometric tolerances and non-shape property attributes. This capability guarantees a complete and unambiguous definition of tolerances for manufacturing applications. An object-oriented analysis and design of the feature-based tolerance domain was performed. The design represents and relates tolerance features, tolerances, and datum reference frames. The design also incorporates operations that verify correctness and check for the completeness of the overall tolerance definition. The checking algorithm is based upon the notion of satisfying all of a feature`s toleranceable aspects. Benefits from the feature-based tolerance modeler include: advancing complete product definition initiatives, incorporating tolerances in product data exchange, and supplying computer-integrated manufacturing applications with tolerance information.

  4. Robust image modeling techniques with an image restoration application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, Rangasami L.; Eom, Kie-Bum

    1988-08-01

    A robust parameter-estimation algorithm for a nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP) autoregressive model, where the driving noise is a mixture of a Gaussian and an outlier process, is presented. The convergence of the estimation algorithm is proved. An algorithm to estimate parameters and original image intensity simultaneously from the impulse-noise-corrupted image, where the model governing the image is not available, is also presented. The robustness of the parameter estimates is demonstrated by simulation. Finally, an algorithm to restore realistic images is presented. The entire image generally does not obey a simple image model, but a small portion (e.g., 8 x 8) of the image is assumed to obey an NSHP model. The original image is divided into windows and the robust estimation algorithm is applied for each window. The restoration algorithm is tested by comparing it to traditional methods on several different images.

  5. Amphiphile nanoarchitectonics: from basic physical chemistry to advanced applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Mori, Taizo; Ji, Dr. Qingmin; Hill, Dr. Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphiles, either synthetic or natural, are structurally simple molecules with the unprecedented capacity to self-assemble into complex, hierarchical geometries in nanospace. Effective self-assembly processes of amphiphiles are often used to mimic biological systems, such as, assembly of lipids and proteins, which has paved a way for bottom-up nanotechnology with bio-like advanced functions. Recent developments on nanostructure formation combine simple processes of assembly with the more advanced concept of nanoarchitectonics. In this pespective, we summarize research on self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules such as lipids, surfactants or block copolymers that are a focus of interest for many colloid, polymer, and materials scientists and which have become increasingly important in emerging nanotechnology. Because the fundamental science of amphiphiles was initially developed for their solution assembly then transferred to assemblies on surfaces as a development of nanotechnological technique, this perspective attempts to mirro this development by introducing solution systems and progressing to interfacial systems, which are roughly categorized as (i) basic properties of amphiphiles, (ii) self-assembly of amphiphiles in bulk phases, (iii) assembly on static surfaces, (iv) assembly at dynamic interfaces, and (v) advanced topics from simulation to application. This progression also represents the evolution of amphiphile science and technology from simple assemblies to advanced assemblies to nanoarchitectonics.

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros; Staggs, Michael C.

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos; Stavros , Staggs; Michael C.

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  8. Design Advances in Particulate Systems for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Catarina; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Mano, João F

    2016-07-01

    The search for more efficient therapeutic strategies and diagnosis tools is a continuous challenge. Advances in understanding the biological mechanisms behind diseases and tissues regeneration have widened the field of applications of particulate systems. Particles are no more just protective systems for the encapsulated drugs, but they play an active role in the success of the therapy. Moreover, particles have been explored for innovative purposes as templates for cells growth and as diagnostic tools. Until few years ago the most relevant parameters in particles formulation were the chemistry and the size. Currently, it is known that other physical characteristics can remarkably affect the performance of particulate systems. Particles with non-conventional shapes exhibit advantages due to the increasing circulation time in blood stream, less clearance by the immune system and more efficient cell internalization and trafficking. Creation of compartments has been found useful to control drug release, to tune the transport of substances across biological barriers, to supply the target with more than one bioactive agent or even to act as theranostic systems. It is expected that such complex shaped and compartmentalized systems improve the therapeutic outcomes and also the patient's compliance, acting as advanced devices that serve for simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of the disease, combining agents of very different features, at the same time. In this review, we overview and analyse the most recent advances in particle shape and compartmentalization and applications of newly designed particulate systems in the biomedical field.

  9. Advanced millimeter-wave security portal imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-03-01

    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance as a security tool to augment conventional metal detectors and baggage x-ray systems for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This acceptance indicates that the technology has matured; however, many potential improvements can yet be realized. The authors have developed a number of techniques over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, and high-frequency high-bandwidth techniques. All of these may improve the performance of new systems; however, some of these techniques will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. Reducing this cost may require the development of novel array designs. In particular, RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems. Highfrequency, high-bandwidth designs are difficult to achieve with conventional mm-wave electronic devices, and RF photonic devices may be a practical alternative. In this paper, the mm-wave imaging techniques developed at PNNL are reviewed and the potential for implementing RF photonic mm-wave array designs is explored.

  10. State of the art: advanced imaging of the right ventricle and pulmonary circulation in humans (2013 Grover Conference series)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by remodeling and vasoconstriction of the pulmonary vasculature, ultimately leading to right ventricular (RV) failure and death. Recent developments in echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography allow advanced, noninvasive, in vivo assessment of the RV and have contributed to the identification of risk factors, prognostic factors, and monitoring of therapeutic responses in patients with PAH. Although far from reaching its future potential, these techniques have not only provided global RV assessment but also allowed evaluation of changes in cellular and molecular tissue processes, such as metabolism, oxygen balance and ischemia, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Integrated application of these techniques could provide full insights into the different pathophysiological aspects of a failing RV in the setting of PAH. Recent advances in hybrid imaging have implemented simultaneous measurements of myocardial and vascular interactions and will be one of the most important potential future developments. PMID:25006434

  11. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: From Energy Applications to Advanced Medical Therapies

    ScienceCinema

    Tijana Rajh

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Rajh will present a general talk on nanotechnology – an overview of why nanotechnology is important and how it is useful in various fields. The specific focus will be on Solar energy conversion, environmental applications and advanced medical therapies. She has broad expertise in synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials that are used in nanotechnology including novel hybrid systems connecting semiconductors to biological molecules like DNA and antibodies. This technology could lead to new gene therapy procedures, cancer treatments and other medical applications. She will also discuss technologies made possible by organizing small semiconductor particles called quantum dots, materials that exhibit a rich variety of phenomena that are size and shape dependent. Development of these new materials that harnesses the unique properties of materials at the 1-100 nanometer scale resulted in the new field of nanotechnology that currently affects many applications in technological and medical fields.

  12. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  13. 78 FR 18287 - Passenger Screening Using Advanced Imaging Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... confirmed that both the backscatter and millimeter wave technologies are safe because the x-ray or radio... bottled liquid scanners, advanced technology x-ray systems, explosives trace detection (ETD) units, and...-through explosive detection portals, document scanners, shoe scanners, and backscatter x-ray...

  14. Advances in Echocardiographic Imaging in Heart Failure With Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Omar, Alaa Mabrouk Salem; Bansal, Manish; Sengupta, Partho P

    2016-07-01

    Echocardiography, given its safety, easy availability, and the ability to permit a comprehensive assessment of cardiac structure and function, is an indispensable tool in the evaluation and management of patients with heart failure (HF). From initial phenotyping and risk stratification to providing vital data for guiding therapeutic decision-making and monitoring, echocardiography plays a pivotal role in the care of HF patients. The recent advent of multiparametric approaches for myocardial deformation imaging has provided valuable insights in the pathogenesis of HF, elucidating distinct patterns of myocardial dysfunction and events that are associated with progression from subclinical stage to overt HF. At the same time, miniaturization of echocardiography has further expanded clinical application of echocardiography, with the use of pocket cardiac ultrasound as an adjunct to physical examination demonstrated to improve diagnostic accuracy and risk stratification. Furthermore, ongoing advances in the field of big data analytics promise to create an exciting opportunity to operationalize precision medicine as the new approach to healthcare delivery that aims to individualize patient care by integrating data extracted from clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic, and genetic assessments. The present review summarizes the recent advances in the field of echocardiography, with emphasis on their role in HF phenotyping, risk stratification, and optimizing clinical outcomes. PMID:27390337

  15. Advances in Echocardiographic Imaging in Heart Failure With Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Omar, Alaa Mabrouk Salem; Bansal, Manish; Sengupta, Partho P

    2016-07-01

    Echocardiography, given its safety, easy availability, and the ability to permit a comprehensive assessment of cardiac structure and function, is an indispensable tool in the evaluation and management of patients with heart failure (HF). From initial phenotyping and risk stratification to providing vital data for guiding therapeutic decision-making and monitoring, echocardiography plays a pivotal role in the care of HF patients. The recent advent of multiparametric approaches for myocardial deformation imaging has provided valuable insights in the pathogenesis of HF, elucidating distinct patterns of myocardial dysfunction and events that are associated with progression from subclinical stage to overt HF. At the same time, miniaturization of echocardiography has further expanded clinical application of echocardiography, with the use of pocket cardiac ultrasound as an adjunct to physical examination demonstrated to improve diagnostic accuracy and risk stratification. Furthermore, ongoing advances in the field of big data analytics promise to create an exciting opportunity to operationalize precision medicine as the new approach to healthcare delivery that aims to individualize patient care by integrating data extracted from clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic, and genetic assessments. The present review summarizes the recent advances in the field of echocardiography, with emphasis on their role in HF phenotyping, risk stratification, and optimizing clinical outcomes.

  16. Advanced computational sensors technology: testing and evaluation in visible, SWIR, and LWIR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizk, Charbel G.; Wilson, John P.; Pouliquen, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced Computational Sensors Team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and the Johns Hopkins University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering has been developing advanced readout integrated circuit (ROIC) technology for more than 10 years with a particular focus on the key challenges of dynamic range, sampling rate, system interface and bandwidth, and detector materials or band dependencies. Because the pixel array offers parallel sampling by default, the team successfully demonstrated that adding smarts in the pixel and the chip can increase performance significantly. Each pixel becomes a smart sensor and can operate independently in collecting, processing, and sharing data. In addition, building on the digital circuit revolution, the effective well size can be increased by orders of magnitude within the same pixel pitch over analog designs. This research has yielded an innovative class of a system-on-chip concept: the Flexible Readout and Integration Sensor (FRIS) architecture. All key parameters are programmable and/or can be adjusted dynamically, and this architecture can potentially be sensor and application agnostic. This paper reports on the testing and evaluation of one prototype that can support either detector polarity and includes sample results with visible, short-wavelength infrared (SWIR), and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging.

  17. Three dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging: advantages and advances.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Michelle L; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Xu, Juan; Kim, Jongsick; Kagemann, Larry; Folio, Lindsey S; Schuman, Joel S

    2010-11-01

    Three dimensional (3D) ophthalmic imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized assessment of the eye, the retina in particular. Recent technological improvements have made the acquisition of 3D-OCT datasets feasible. However, while volumetric data can improve disease diagnosis and follow-up, novel image analysis techniques are now necessary in order to process the dense 3D-OCT dataset. Fundamental software improvements include methods for correcting subject eye motion, segmenting structures or volumes of interest, extracting relevant data post hoc and signal averaging to improve delineation of retinal layers. In addition, innovative methods for image display, such as C-mode sectioning, provide a unique viewing perspective and may improve interpretation of OCT images of pathologic structures. While all of these methods are being developed, most remain in an immature state. This review describes the current status of 3D-OCT scanning and interpretation, and discusses the need for standardization of clinical protocols as well as the potential benefits of 3D-OCT scanning that could come when software methods for fully exploiting these rich datasets are available clinically. The implications of new image analysis approaches include improved reproducibility of measurements garnered from 3D-OCT, which may then help improve disease discrimination and progression detection. In addition, 3D-OCT offers the potential for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative surgical guidance.

  18. Neuroimaging of pediatric brain tumors: from basic to advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Blüml, Stefan

    2009-11-01

    In this review, the basic magnetic resonance concepts used in the imaging approach of a pediatric brain tumor are described with respect to different factors including understanding the significance of the patient's age. Also discussed are other factors directly related to the magnetic resonance scan itself including evaluating the location of the tumor, determining if the lesion is extra-axial or intra-axial, and evaluating the contrast characteristics of the lesion. Of note, there are key imaging features of pediatric brain tumors, which can give information about the cellularity of the lesion, which can then be confirmed with advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. The second part of this review will provide an overview of the major advanced MRI techniques used in pediatric imaging, particularly, magnetic resonance diffusion, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and magnetic resonance perfusion. The last part of the review will provide more specific information about the use of advanced magnetic resonance techniques in the evaluation of pediatric brain tumors.

  19. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry. PMID:22346620

  20. Super-resolution imaging with stochastic single-molecule localization: concepts, technical developments, and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Oddone, Anna; Vilanova, Ione Verdeny; Tam, Johnny; Lakadamyali, Melike

    2014-07-01

    Light microscopy has undergone a revolution with the advent of super-resolution microscopy methods that can surpass the diffraction limit. These methods have generated much enthusiasm, in particular with regards to the new possibilities they offer for biological imaging. The recent years have seen a great advancement both in terms of new technological developments and exciting biological applications. Here, we review some of the important milestones in the field and highlight some recent biological applications.