Science.gov

Sample records for advanced imaging capabilities

  1. Combining advanced imaging processing and low cost remote imaging capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrer, Matthew J.; McQuiddy, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Target images are very important for evaluating the situation when Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) are deployed. These images add a significant amount of information to determine the difference between hostile and non-hostile activities, the number of targets in an area, the difference between animals and people, the movement dynamics of targets, and when specific activities of interest are taking place. The imaging capabilities of UGS systems need to provide only target activity and not images without targets in the field of view. The current UGS remote imaging systems are not optimized for target processing and are not low cost. McQ describes in this paper an architectural and technologic approach for significantly improving the processing of images to provide target information while reducing the cost of the intelligent remote imaging capability.

  2. Image processing for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard R.; Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Miller-Kamm, Victoria; Orth, Charles; Roberts, Randy; Wilhelmsen, Karl

    2016-09-01

    The Advance Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a laser system that employs up to four petawatt (PW) lasers to produce a sequence of short-pulse kilo-Joule laser pulses with controllable delays that generate X-rays to provide backlighting for high-density internal confinement fusion (ICF) capsule targets. Multi-frame, hard-X-ray radiography of imploding NIF capsules is a capability which is critical to the success of NIF's missions. ARC is designed to employ up to eight backlighters with tens-of-picosecond temporal resolution, to record the dynamics and produce an X-ray "motion picture" of the compression and ignition of cryogenic deuterium-tritium targets. ARC will generate tens-of-picosecond temporal resolution during the critical phases of ICF shots. Additionally, ARC supports a variety of other high energy density experiments including fast ignition studies on NIF. The automated alignment image analysis algorithms use digital camera sensor images to direct ARC beams onto the tens-of-microns scale metal wires. This paper describes the ARC automatic alignment sequence throughout the laser chain from pulse initiation to target with an emphasis on the image processing algorithms that generate the crucial alignment positions for ARC. The image processing descriptions and flow diagrams detail the alignment control loops throughout the ARC laser chain beginning in the ARC high-contrast front end (HCAFE), on into the ARC main laser area, and ending in the ARC target area.

  3. AXIS: an instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Zacharias, R; Felker, B; Holder, J P; Allen, F V; Bell, P M; Bradley, D; Montesanti, R; Landen, O L

    2014-11-01

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV-200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  4. AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G. N. Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Zacharias, R.; Felker, B.; Holder, J. P.; Allen, F. V.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D.; Montesanti, R.; Landen, O. L.

    2014-11-15

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV–200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  5. Advanced CLIPS capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a forward chaining rule based language developed by NASA. CLIPS was designed specifically to provide high portability, low cost, and easy integration with external systems. The current release of CLIPS, version 4.3, is being used by over 2500 users throughout the public and private community. The primary addition to the next release of CLIPS, version 5.0, will be the CLIPS Object Oriented Language (COOL). The major capabilities of COOL are: class definition with multiple inheritance and no restrictions on the number, types, or cardinality of slots; message passing which allows procedural code bundled with an object to be executed; and query functions which allow groups of instances to be examined and manipulated. In addition to COOL, numerous other enhancements were added to CLIPS including: generic functions (which allow different pieces of procedural code to be executed depending upon the types or classes of the arguments); integer and double precision data type support; multiple conflict resolution strategies; global variables; logical dependencies; type checking on facts; full ANSI compiler support; and incremental reset for rules.

  6. Alignment mask design and image processing for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard R.; Awwal, Abdul; Cohen, Simon; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Roberts, Randy; Salmon, Thad; Smauley, David; Wilhelmsen, Karl

    2015-09-01

    The Advance Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a laser system that employs up to four petawatt (PW) lasers to produce a sequence of short pulses that generate X-rays which backlight high-density inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. ARC is designed to produce multiple, sequential X-ray images by using up to eight back lighters. The images will be used to examine the compression and ignition of a cryogenic deuterium-tritium target with tens-of-picosecond temporal resolution during the critical phases of an ICF shot. Multi-frame, hard-X-ray radiography of imploding NIF capsules is a capability which is critical to the success of NIF's missions. As in the NIF system, ARC requires an optical alignment mask that can be inserted and removed as needed for precise positioning of the beam. Due to ARC's split beam design, inserting the nominal NIF main laser alignment mask in ARC produced a partial blockage of the mask pattern. Requirements for a new mask design were needed. In this paper we describe the ARC mask requirements, the resulting mask design pattern, and the image analysis algorithms used to detect and identify the beam and reference centers required for ARC alignment.

  7. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. N.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Lee, J. J.; Romano, E.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V.

    2016-11-01

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40-200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  8. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Landen, O L; Tommasini, R; Holder, J P; Hargrove, D; Bradley, D K; Lumbard, A; Cruz, J G; Piston, K; Lee, J J; Romano, E; Bell, P M; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Felker, B; Rekow, V; Allen, F V

    2016-11-01

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40-200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  9. Analysis of the confluence of three patterns using the Centering and Pointing System (CAPS) images for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard R.; Awwal, Abdul; Bliss, Erlan; Roberts, Randy; Rushford, Michael; Wilhelmsen, Karl; Zobrist, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The Advance Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a laser system that employs up to four petawatt (PW) lasers to produce a sequence of short pulses that generate X-rays which backlight highdensity internal confinement fusion (ICF) targets. Employing up to eight backlighters, ARC can produce an X-ray "motion picture" to diagnose the compression and ignition of a cryogenic deuterium-tritium target with tens-ofpicosecond temporal resolution during the critical phases of an ICF shot. Multi-frame, hard-X-ray radiography of imploding NIF capsules is a capability which is critical to the success of NIF's missions. The function of the Centering and Pointing System (CAPS) in ARC is to provide superimposed near-field and far-field images on a common optical path. The Images are then analyzed to extract beam centering and pointing data for the control system. The images contain the confluence of pointing, centering, and reference patterns. The patterns may have uneven illumination, particularly when the laser is misaligned. In addition, the simultaneous appearance of three reference patterns may be co-incidental, possibly masking one or more of the patterns. Image analysis algorithms have been developed to determine the centering and pointing position of ARC from these images. In the paper we describe the image analysis algorithms used to detect and identify the centers of these patterns. Results are provided, illustrating how well the process meets system requirements.

  10. NASA capabilities roadmap: advanced telescopes and observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescopes and Observatories (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories collecting all electromagnetic bands, ranging from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It has derived capability priorities from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps and, where appropriate, has ensured their consistency with other NASA Strategic and Capability Roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  11. Advances in Computational Capabilities for Hypersonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Moss, James N.; Drummond, J. Philip

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews the growth and advances in computational capabilities for hypersonic applications over the period from the mid-1980's to the present day. The current status of the code development issues such as surface and field grid generation, algorithms, physical and chemical modeling, and validation is provided. A brief description of some of the major codes being used at NASA Langley Research Center for hypersonic continuum and rarefied flows is provided, along with their capabilities and deficiencies. A number of application examples are presented, and future areas of research to enhance accuracy, reliability, efficiency, and robustness of computational codes are discussed.

  12. Advancing Test Capabilities at NASA Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA maintains twelve major wind tunnels at three field centers capable of providing flows at 0.1 M 10 and unit Reynolds numbers up to 45106m. The maintenance and enhancement of these facilities is handled through a unified management structure under NASAs Aeronautics and Evaluation and Test Capability (AETC) project. The AETC facilities are; the 11x11 transonic and 9x7 supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Ames; the 10x10 and 8x6 supersonic wind tunnels, 9x15 low speed tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, and Propulsion Simulator Laboratory, all at NASA Glenn; and the National Transonic Facility, Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, LAL aerothermodynamics laboratory, 8 High Temperature Tunnel, and 14x22 low speed tunnel, all at NASA Langley. This presentation describes the primary AETC facilities and their current capabilities, as well as improvements which are planned over the next five years. These improvements fall into three categories. The first are operations and maintenance improvements designed to increase the efficiency and reliability of the wind tunnels. These include new (possibly composite) fan blades at several facilities, new temperature control systems, and new and much more capable facility data systems. The second category of improvements are facility capability advancements. These include significant improvements to optical access in wind tunnel test sections at Ames, improvements to test section acoustics at Glenn and Langley, the development of a Supercooled Large Droplet capability for icing research, and the development of an icing capability for large engine testing. The final category of improvements consists of test technology enhancements which provide value across multiple facilities. These include projects to increase balance accuracy, provide NIST-traceable calibration characterization for wind tunnels, and to advance optical instruments for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation. Taken as a whole, these individual projects provide significant

  13. Advanced-capability alkaline fuel cell powerplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    The alkaline fuel cell powerplant utilized in the Space Shuttle Orbiter has established an excellent performance and reliability record over the past decade. Recent AFC technology programs have demonstrated significant advances in cell durability and power density. These capabilities provide the basis for substantial improvement of the Orbiter powerplant, enabling new mission applications as well as enhancing performance in the Orbiter. Improved durability would extend the powerplant's time between overhaul fivefold, and permit longer-duration missions. The powerplant would also be a strong candidate for lunar/planetary surface power systems. Higher power capability would enable replacement of the Orbiter's auxiliary power units with electric motors, and benefits mass-critical applications such as the National AeroSpace Plane.

  14. Hyperspectral Systems Increase Imaging Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In 1983, NASA started developing hyperspectral systems to image in the ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. In 2001, the first on-orbit hyperspectral imager, Hyperion, was launched aboard the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft. Based on the hyperspectral imaging sensors used in Earth observation satellites, Stennis Space Center engineers and Institute for Technology Development researchers collaborated on a new design that was smaller and used an improved scanner. Featured in Spinoff 2007, the technology is now exclusively licensed by Themis Vision Systems LLC, of Richmond, Virginia, and is widely used in medical and life sciences, defense and security, forensics, and microscopy.

  15. Multi-scale 3D X-ray Imaging Capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source - Current status and future direction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, F.; Xiao, X.; Khan, F.; Glowacki, A.; Schwarz, N.; Jacobsen, C.

    2013-12-01

    In x-ray computed μ-tomography (μ-XCT), a thin scintillator screen is coupled to a visible light lens and camera system to obtain micrometer-scale transmission imaging of specimens as large as a few millimeters. Recent advances in detector technology allow collecting these images at unprecedented frame rates. For a high x-ray flux density synchrotron facility like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the detector exposure time ranges from hundreds of milliseconds to hundreds of picoseconds, making possible to acquire a full 3D micrometer-resolution dataset in less than one second. The micron resolution limitation of parallel x-ray beam projection systems can be overcame by Transmission X-ray Microscopes (TXM) where part of the image magnification is done in x-ray regime using x-ray optics like capillary condensers and Fresnel zone plates. These systems, when installed on a synchrotron x-ray source, can generate 2D images with up to 20 nm resolution with second exposure time and collect a full 3D nano-resolution dataset in few minutes. μ-XCT and TXM systems available at the x-ray imaging beamlines of the APS are routinely used in material science and geoscience applications where high-resolution and fast 3D imaging are instrumental in extracting in situ four-dimensional dynamic information. In this presentation we describe the computational challenges associated with μ-XCT and TXM systems and present the framework and infrastructure developed at the APS to allow for routine multi-scale data integration between the two systems.

  16. Multi-scale 3D X-ray Imaging Capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source - Current status and future direction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, F.; Xiao, X.; Khan, F.; Glowacki, A.; Schwarz, N.; Jacobsen, C.

    2011-12-01

    In x-ray computed μ-tomography (μ-XCT), a thin scintillator screen is coupled to a visible light lens and camera system to obtain micrometer-scale transmission imaging of specimens as large as a few millimeters. Recent advances in detector technology allow collecting these images at unprecedented frame rates. For a high x-ray flux density synchrotron facility like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the detector exposure time ranges from hundreds of milliseconds to hundreds of picoseconds, making possible to acquire a full 3D micrometer-resolution dataset in less than one second. The micron resolution limitation of parallel x-ray beam projection systems can be overcame by Transmission X-ray Microscopes (TXM) where part of the image magnification is done in x-ray regime using x-ray optics like capillary condensers and Fresnel zone plates. These systems, when installed on a synchrotron x-ray source, can generate 2D images with up to 20 nm resolution with second exposure time and collect a full 3D nano-resolution dataset in few minutes. μ-XCT and TXM systems available at the x-ray imaging beamlines of the APS are routinely used in material science and geoscience applications where high-resolution and fast 3D imaging are instrumental in extracting in situ four-dimensional dynamic information. In this presentation we describe the computational challenges associated with μ-XCT and TXM systems and present the framework and infrastructure developed at the APS to allow for routine multi-scale data integration between the two systems.

  17. Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.; Jorgensen, J.; Jun, I.; Maki, J. N.; McEwen, A. S.; Riedel, E.; Walch, M.; Watkins, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) concept is envisioned as an integrated system, with optical bench and flight-proven components, designed for deep-space planetary missions with 2-DOF control capability.

  18. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  19. Exploiting EIS/Hinode Imaging Diagnostic Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, H. P.

    2009-05-01

    Using a wide slit, also called slot, the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, on-board Hinode, is capable of obtaining relatively fast (1-3 min) simultaneous monochromatic images of various spectral lines with different formation temperatures ranging 0.4-3 MK. This mode allows us to study morphology and dynamics of solar coronal and transition region structures across the temperature spectrum in a similar way to an EUV imager. This is achieved at the expense of spectral resolution. In this paper we investigate the plasma diagnostic capabilities of these spectrally pure images.Wide slit images can be interpreted as a superposition of simultaneous narrow slit spectra from adjacent solar positions. From the comparison of consecutive narrow slit rasters and wide slit images, we demonstrate that by making simple assumptions it is possible to extract the narrow slit spectra out of the slot images. This encouraging result opens up the door for plasma diagnostics, like electron density from spectral line ratios and differential emission measure analysis, for solar dynamic events. Various examples, as well as the limitations and validity of the assumptions, are discussed.

  20. Biological Imaging Capability in the ABRS Facility on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, David R.; Murdoch, T.; Regan, M. F.; Meshlberger, R. J.; Mortenson, T. E.; Albino, S. A.; Paul, A. L.; Ferl, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) on the International Space Station (ISS) and its biological imaging capability. The ABRS is an environmental control chamber. It has two indpendently controlled Experiment Research Chambers (ERCs) with temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide controls. ABRS is a third generation plant growth system. Several experiments are reviewed, with particular interest in the use of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) a non-destructive plant stress reporting mechanism, naturally found in jellyfish.

  1. Advanced Imaging Tracker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    document requires that it 1e returncd: ADVANCED IMACINGC TRACKER Dr . L. E. Schmutz Contractor: Adaptive Optics Associates, Inc. Contt-ict Number: F30602-80...Code Number: IE20 Period of Worl: Covered: jun 80 - D’:c 81 Principal Investigator: Dr . Larry Schmut~z Phone: 617 547-2786 Project Engineer: Captaia...yaJPODCVR~ ADVANCED IMAGING TRACKER 10Jun 80 - ’,’ Dec 81 𔄃 PiRFORMiNO7 01G. REPORT NUMBER 7 ATII~(. ONTPA OR GRANTY NUMDERf.) Dr . 1L. E. Schiiut

  2. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  3. Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis (AMSA) Capability Roadmap Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonsson, Erik; Gombosi, Tamas

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: NASA capability roadmap activity. Advanced modeling, simulation, and analysis overview. Scientific modeling and simulation. Operations modeling. Multi-special sensing (UV-gamma). System integration. M and S Environments and Infrastructure.

  4. Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near-field communication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Banks, Anthony; Cheng, Huanyu; Xie, Zhaoqian; Xu, Sheng; Jang, Kyung-In; Lee, Jung Woo; Liu, Zhuangjian; Gutruf, Philipp; Huang, Xian; Wei, Pinghung; Liu, Fei; Li, Kan; Dalal, Mitul; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang; Gupta, Sanjay; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A

    2015-02-25

    Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near field communications (NFC) are presented. The systems include stretchable coils and thinned NFC chips on thin, low modulus stretchable adhesives, to allow seamless, conformal contact with the skin and simultaneous capabilities for wireless interfaces to any standard, NFC-enabled smartphone, even under extreme deformation and after/during normal daily activities.

  5. Advances in multimodal molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Auletta, Luigi; Gramanzini, Matteo; Gargiulo, Sara; Albanese, Sandra; Salvatore, Marco; Greco, Adelaide

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical molecular imaging is an emerging field. Improving the ability of scientists to study the molecular basis of human pathology in animals is of the utmost importance for future advances in all fields of human medicine. Moreover, the possibility of developing new imaging techniques or of implementing old ones adapted to the clinic is a significant area. Cardiology, neurology, immunology and oncology have all been studied with preclinical molecular imaging. The functional techniques of photoacoustic imaging (PAI), fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in association with each other or with the anatomic reference provided by computed tomography (CT) as well as with anatomic and functional information provided by magnetic resonance (MR) have all been proficiently applied to animal models of human disease. All the above-mentioned imaging techniques have shown their ability to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in animal models of disease. The clinical translatability of most of the techniques motivates the ongoing study of their possible fields of application. The ability to combine two or more techniques allows obtaining as much information as possible on the molecular processes involved in pathologies, reducing the number of animals necessary in each experiment. Merging molecular probes compatible with various imaging technique will further expand the capability to achieve the best results.

  6. Advanced Telescopes and Observatories Capability Roadmap Presentation to the NRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the NASA Advanced Planning and Integration Office (APIO) roadmap for developing technological capabilities for telescopes and observatories in the following areas: Optics; Wavefront Sensing and Control and Interferometry; Distributed and Advanced Spacecraft; Large Precision Structures; Cryogenic and Thermal Control Systems; Infrastructure.

  7. Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capabilities Alternatives Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Bryan; Bill Landman; Porter Hill

    2012-12-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for the Advanced Post-Irradiation Capabilities (APIEC) project in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE O 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets”. The Alternatives Analysis considered six major alternatives: ? No Action ? Modify Existing DOE Facilities – capabilities distributed among multiple locations ? Modify Existing DOE Facilities – capabilities consolidated at a few locations ? Construct New Facility ? Commercial Partnership ? International Partnerships Based on the alternatives analysis documented herein, it is recommended to DOE that the advanced post-irradiation examination capabilities be provided by a new facility constructed at the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  8. Summary of NASA Advanced Telescope and Observatory Capability Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Phil; Feinberg, Lee

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescope and Observatory (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories operating in all electromagnetic bands, from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It lists capability priorities derived from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  9. Summary of NASA Advanced Telescope and Observatory Capability Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Feinberg, Lee

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescope and Observatory (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories operating in all electromagnetic bands, from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It lists capability priorities derived from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  10. Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS): Imaging and Tracking Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, Xu; Reisse, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Revercomb, H. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Zollinger, L. J.; Tansock, J. J.; Huppi, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    The geosynchronous-imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (GIFTS) engineering demonstration unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. It measures the infrared spectrum in two spectral bands (14.6 to 8.8 microns, 6.0 to 4.4 microns) using two 128 128 detector arrays with a spectral resolution of 0.57/cm with a scan duration of approx. 11 seconds. From a geosynchronous orbit, the instrument will have the capability of taking successive measurements of such data to scan desired regions of the globe, from which atmospheric status, cloud parameters, wind field profiles, and other derived products can be retrieved. The GIFTS EDU provides a flexible and accurate testbed for the new challenges of the emerging hyperspectral era. The EDU ground-based measurement experiment, held in Logan, Utah during September 2006, demonstrated its extensive capabilities and potential for geosynchronous and other applications (e.g., Earth observing environmental measurements). This paper addresses the experiment objectives and overall performance of the sensor system with a focus on the GIFTS EDU imaging capability and proof of the GIFTS measurement concept.

  11. Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Segment Enhancement (PAC-3 MSE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-492 Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Segment Enhancement (PAC-3 MSE) As of FY 2017...Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ADVANCED RADIOGRAPHIC CAPABILITY FRONT END ON NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, C; Heebner, J; Dawson, J; Fochs, S; Shverdin, M; Crane, J K; Kanz, V K; Halpin, J; Phan, H; Sigurdsson, R; Brewer, W; Britten, J; Brunton, G; Clark, W; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Nguyen, H; Shaw, B; Hackel, R; Hermann, M; Tietbohl, G; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-07-15

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  13. Terahertz Tools Advance Imaging for Security, Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Picometrix, a wholly owned subsidiary of Advanced Photonix Inc. (API), of Ann Arbor, Michigan, invented the world s first commercial terahertz system. The company improved the portability and capabilities of their systems through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Langley Research Center to provide terahertz imaging capabilities for inspecting the space shuttle external tanks and orbiters. Now API s systems make use of the unique imaging capacity of terahertz radiation on manufacturing floors, for thickness measurements of coatings, pharmaceutical tablet production, and even art conservation.

  14. Advances in alimentary tract imaging.

    PubMed

    Maglinte, Dean-Dt; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Tann, Mark

    2006-05-28

    Advances in imaging techniques are changing the way radiologists undertake imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and their ability to answer questions posed by surgeons. In this paper we discuss the technological improvements of imaging studies that have occurred in the last few years and how these help to better diagnosing alimentary tract disease.

  15. Advancing biomedical imaging.

    PubMed

    Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2015-11-24

    Imaging reveals complex structures and dynamic interactive processes, located deep inside the body, that are otherwise difficult to decipher. Numerous imaging modalities harness every last inch of the energy spectrum. Clinical modalities include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and light-based methods [endoscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT)]. Research modalities include various light microscopy techniques (confocal, multiphoton, total internal reflection, superresolution fluorescence microscopy), electron microscopy, mass spectrometry imaging, fluorescence tomography, bioluminescence, variations of OCT, and optoacoustic imaging, among a few others. Although clinical imaging and research microscopy are often isolated from one another, we argue that their combination and integration is not only informative but also essential to discovering new biology and interpreting clinical datasets in which signals invariably originate from hundreds to thousands of cells per voxel.

  16. Advancing biomedical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Imaging reveals complex structures and dynamic interactive processes, located deep inside the body, that are otherwise difficult to decipher. Numerous imaging modalities harness every last inch of the energy spectrum. Clinical modalities include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and light-based methods [endoscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT)]. Research modalities include various light microscopy techniques (confocal, multiphoton, total internal reflection, superresolution fluorescence microscopy), electron microscopy, mass spectrometry imaging, fluorescence tomography, bioluminescence, variations of OCT, and optoacoustic imaging, among a few others. Although clinical imaging and research microscopy are often isolated from one another, we argue that their combination and integration is not only informative but also essential to discovering new biology and interpreting clinical datasets in which signals invariably originate from hundreds to thousands of cells per voxel. PMID:26598657

  17. Advances in Molecular Imaging with Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Ryan; Dayton, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging has long demonstrated utility in the study and measurement of anatomic features and noninvasive observation of blood flow. Within the last decade, advances in molecular biology and contrast agents have allowed researchers to use ultrasound to detect changes in the expression of molecular markers on the vascular endothelium and other intravascular targets. This new technology, referred to as ultrasonic molecular imaging, is still in its infancy. However, in preclinical studies, ultrasonic molecular imaging has shown promise in assessing angiogenesis, inflammation, and thrombus. In this review, we discuss recent advances in microbubble-type contrast agent development, ultrasound technology, and signal processing strategies that have the potential to substantially improve the capabilities and utility of ultrasonic molecular imaging. PMID:20487678

  18. Personnel screening with advanced multistatic imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Sherif S.

    2013-05-01

    Personnel screening is demanded nowadays for securing air traffic as well as critical infrastructures. The millimeter-waves are able to penetrate clothes and detect concealed objects, making them an attractive choice for security screening. Imaging methods based on multistatic architecture can ensure high quality imagery in terms of resolution and dynamic range. Following the advances in semiconductor technology, fully electronic solutions delivering real-time imaging are becoming feasible. Furthermore, the continuously increasing capabilities of digital signal processing units allow for the utilization of digital-beamforming techniques for image reconstruction, thus offering new opportunities for imaging systems to use sophisticated operation modes. Based on these modern technologies, an advanced realization addressing personnel screening in E-band with planar multistatic sparse array design is demonstrated.

  19. Imaging Arrays With Improved Transmit Power Capability

    PubMed Central

    Zipparo, Michael J.; Bing, Kristin F.; Nightingale, Kathy R.

    2010-01-01

    Bonded multilayer ceramics and composites incorporating low-loss piezoceramics have been applied to arrays for ultrasound imaging to improve acoustic transmit power levels and to reduce internal heating. Commercially available hard PZT from multiple vendors has been characterized for microstructure, ability to be processed, and electroacoustic properties. Multilayers using the best materials demonstrate the tradeoffs compared with the softer PZT5-H typically used for imaging arrays. Three-layer PZT4 composites exhibit an effective dielectric constant that is three times that of single layer PZT5H, a 50% higher mechanical Q, a 30% lower acoustic impedance, and only a 10% lower coupling coefficient. Application of low-loss multilayers to linear phased and large curved arrays results in equivalent or better element performance. A 3-layer PZT4 composite array achieved the same transmit intensity at 40% lower transmit voltage and with a 35% lower face temperature increase than the PZT-5 control. Although B-mode images show similar quality, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) images show increased displacement for a given drive voltage. An increased failure rate for the multilayers following extended operation indicates that further development of the bond process will be necessary. In conclusion, bonded multilayer ceramics and composites allow additional design freedom to optimize arrays and improve the overall performance for increased acoustic output while maintaining image quality. PMID:20875996

  20. Flight simulator with IR and MMW radar image generation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonjean, Maxime E.; Lapierre, Fabian D.; Schiefele, Jens; Verly, Jacques G.

    2006-05-01

    In the future, modern airliners will use enhanced-synthesic vision systems (ESVS) to improve aeronautical operations in bad weather conditions. Before ESVS are effectively found aboard airliners, one must develop a multisensor flight simulator capable of synthetizing, in real time, images corresponding to a variety of imaging modalities. We present a real-time simulator called ARIS (Airborne Radar and Infrared Simulator) which is capable of generating two such imaging modalities: a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and a millimeter-wave radar (MMWR) imaging system. The proposed simulator is modular sothat additional imaging modalities can be added. Example of images generated by the simulator are shown.

  1. Modern Imaging Technology: Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.

    2004-06-18

    This 2-day conference is designed to bring scientist working in nuclear medicine, as well as nuclear medicine practitioners together to discuss the advances in four selected areas of imaging: Biochemical Parameters using Small Animal Imaging, Developments in Small Animal PET Imaging, Cell Labeling, and Imaging Angiogenesis Using Multiple Modality. The presentations will be on molecular imaging applications at the forefront of research, up to date on the status of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as in related imaging areas. Experts will discuss the basic science of imaging techniques, and scheduled participants will engage in an exciting program that emphasizes the current status of molecular imaging as well as the role of DOE funded research in this area.

  2. Advanced Image Understanding.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Applications to Computer Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967). . 3. B. Kruse, "System Architecture for Image Analysis," Chapter 7 of Structured ... Computer Vision, edited by S. Tanimoto and A. Klinger (Academic Press, 1980). 107

  3. Invisibility cloak with image projection capability

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Debasish; Ji, Chengang; Iizuka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of invisibility cloaks have been led by rigorous theories and such cloak structures, in general, require extreme material parameters. Consequently, it is challenging to realize them, particularly in the full visible region. Due to the insensitivity of human eyes to the polarization and phase of light, cloaking a large object in the full visible region has been recently realized by a simplified theory. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a device concept where a large object can be concealed in a cloak structure and at the same time any images can be projected through it by utilizing a distinctively different approach; the cloaking via one polarization and the image projection via the other orthogonal polarization. Our device structure consists of commercially available optical components such as polarizers and mirrors, and therefore, provides a significant further step towards practical application scenarios such as transparent devices and see-through displays. PMID:27958334

  4. See-through integral imaging display with background occlusion capability.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yuta; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-20

    Background occlusion capability is provided to a flat-panel-type integral imaging display that has a transparent screen and can superimpose three-dimensional (3D) images on real scenes. A symmetric integral imaging system that comprises two integral imaging systems connected by an additional lens array, is proposed. Elementary images are displayed on a flat-panel display on one integral imaging system to generate 3D images, and the occlusion mask patterns are displayed on a flat-panel display on the other integral imaging system to selectively block rays from background scenes. The proposed system was constructed and experimentally verified.

  5. Advanced imaging communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Rice, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Key elements of system are imaging and nonimaging sensors, data compressor/decompressor, interleaved Reed-Solomon block coder, convolutional-encoded/Viterbi-decoded telemetry channel, and Reed-Solomon decoding. Data compression provides efficient representation of sensor data, and channel coding improves reliability of data transmission.

  6. Surface science capabilities from IMP spectral imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) had a single 12-position filter wheel for one of its two 'eyes'. Originally eight, and then nine, of these filters were optimized for surface science, and three narrow-band filters for atmospheric science. Because of some design revisions we will now have filter wheels on both sides. The wheels for right and left eyes are identical, 12 filter positions each, and rigidly linked to the same rotation shaft. There are now 13 surface filters, in addition to 5 for atmospheric observations. Details of all the filter positions are tabulated and approximate gaussian bandpasses for the 13 surface filters are shown.

  7. Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.

    1993-06-07

    Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

  8. Intergraph video and images exploitation capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colla, Simone; Manesis, Charalampos

    2013-08-01

    The current paper focuses on the capture, fusion and process of aerial imagery in order to leverage full motion video, giving analysts the ability to collect, analyze, and maximize the value of video assets. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have provided critical real-time surveillance and operational support to military organizations, and are a key source of intelligence, particularly when integrated with other geospatial data. In the current workflow, at first, the UAV operators plan the flight by using a flight planning software. During the flight the UAV send a live video stream directly on the field to be processed by Intergraph software, to generate and disseminate georeferenced images trough a service oriented architecture based on ERDAS Apollo suite. The raw video-based data sources provide the most recent view of a situation and can augment other forms of geospatial intelligence - such as satellite imagery and aerial photos - to provide a richer, more detailed view of the area of interest. To effectively use video as a source of intelligence, however, the analyst needs to seamlessly fuse the video with these other types of intelligence, such as map features and annotations. Intergraph has developed an application that automatically generates mosaicked georeferenced image, tags along the video route which can then be seamlessly integrated with other forms of static data, such as aerial photos, satellite imagery, or geospatial layers and features. Consumers will finally have the ability to use a single, streamlined system to complete the entire geospatial information lifecycle: capturing geospatial data using sensor technology; processing vector, raster, terrain data into actionable information; managing, fusing, and sharing geospatial data and video toghether; and finally, rapidly and securely delivering integrated information products, ensuring individuals can make timely decisions.

  9. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) Phase II Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.; Hubbard, S.; Flach, G.; Freedman, V.; Agarwal, D.; Andre, B.; Bott, Y.; Chen, X.; Davis, J.; Faybishenko, B.; Gorton, I.; Murray, C.; Moulton, D.; Meyer, J.; Rockhold, M.; Shoshani, A.; Steefel, C.; Wainwright, H.; Waichler, S.

    2012-09-28

    In 2009, the National Academies of Science (NAS) reviewed and validated the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technology Program in its publication, Advice on the Department of Energy’s Cleanup Technology Roadmap: Gaps and Bridges. The NAS report outlined prioritization needs for the Groundwater and Soil Remediation Roadmap, concluded that contaminant behavior in the subsurface is poorly understood, and recommended further research in this area as a high priority. To address this NAS concern, the EM Office of Site Restoration began supporting the development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific approach that uses an integration of toolsets for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The ASCEM modeling toolset is modular and open source. It is divided into three thrust areas: Multi-Process High Performance Computing (HPC), Platform and Integrated Toolsets, and Site Applications. The ASCEM toolsets will facilitate integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. During fiscal year 2012, the ASCEM project continued to make significant progress in capabilities development. Capability development occurred in both the Platform and Integrated Toolsets and Multi-Process HPC Simulator areas. The new Platform and Integrated Toolsets capabilities provide the user an interface and the tools necessary for end-to-end model development that includes conceptual model definition, data management for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and model output processing including visualization. The new HPC Simulator capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, toolsets for interaction with the Platform, and model confidence testing and verification for

  10. Advanced Query and Data Mining Capabilities for MaROS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Paul; Wallick, Michael N.; Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Hy, Franklin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Relay Operational Service (MaROS) comprises a number of tools to coordinate, plan, and visualize various aspects of the Mars Relay network. These levels include a Web-based user interface, a back-end "ReSTlet" built in Java, and databases that store the data as it is received from the network. As part of MaROS, the innovators have developed and implemented a feature set that operates on several levels of the software architecture. This new feature is an advanced querying capability through either the Web-based user interface, or through a back-end REST interface to access all of the data gathered from the network. This software is not meant to replace the REST interface, but to augment and expand the range of available data. The current REST interface provides specific data that is used by the MaROS Web application to display and visualize the information; however, the returned information from the REST interface has typically been pre-processed to return only a subset of the entire information within the repository, particularly only the information that is of interest to the GUI (graphical user interface). The new, advanced query and data mining capabilities allow users to retrieve the raw data and/or to perform their own data processing. The query language used to access the repository is a restricted subset of the structured query language (SQL) that can be built safely from the Web user interface, or entered as freeform SQL by a user. The results are returned in a CSV (Comma Separated Values) format for easy exporting to third party tools and applications that can be used for data mining or user-defined visualization and interpretation. This is the first time that a service is capable of providing access to all cross-project relay data from a single Web resource. Because MaROS contains the data for a variety of missions from the Mars network, which span both NASA and ESA, the software also establishes an access control list (ACL) on each data record

  11. Advances in abdominal MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, J T

    1998-01-01

    Major technical advances in MR imaging have led to its wider use in the evaluation of abdominal disease. The principle new pulse sequence is the RARE sequence for T2-weighted imaging. Multishot and breath-hold single-shot RARE techniques are now widely used, and both have performed as well as conventional spin-echo imaging with far shorter acquisition times. The most notable improvements have been in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Two liver-specific contrast agents received FDA approval during 1997: SPIO particles or ferumoxide and mangafodipir trisodium, a hepatocyte-specific agent. Both of these agents provide considerable benefit in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Manganese enhancement has also proved useful in MR imaging of the pancreas, although fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging with dynamic gadolinium enhancement has also yielded results comparable with those of contrast-enhanced CT. MR hydrography, a generic term for static fluid imaging, is another derivative of RARE fast T2-weighted imaging. MRCP, the best known example of MR hydrography, has been rapidly and widely employed as a primary method for imaging the biliary and pancreatic ducts and has become competitive with ERCP. MR vascular imaging, especially portal venography, has been used for noninvasive imaging of portal venous disease in Budd Chiari disease, before placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, and for pancreatic cancer staging. Finally, the development of conventional phased-array body coils and endorectal coils has enabled high-quality MR imaging of perirectal disease (including Crohn disease, fistula in ano, and postpartum sphincter dysfunction). Future abdominal applications of MR imaging will involve second-generation MR interventional techniques, including use of open systems, functional or diffusion-weighted imaging exploiting the molecular activity of tissues, and virtual MR endoscopy. Although CT continues to evolve

  12. Recent imaging advances in neurology.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Lorenzo; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2015-09-01

    Over the recent years, the application of neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has considerably advanced the understanding of complex neurological disorders. PET is a powerful molecular imaging tool, which investigates the distribution and binding of radiochemicals attached to biologically relevant molecules; as such, this technique is able to give information on biochemistry and metabolism of the brain in health and disease. MRI uses high intensity magnetic fields and radiofrequency pulses to provide structural and functional information on tissues and organs in intact or diseased individuals, including the evaluation of white matter integrity, grey matter thickness and brain perfusion. The aim of this article is to review the most recent advances in neuroimaging research in common neurological disorders such as movement disorders, dementia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis, and to evaluate their contribution in the diagnosis and management of patients.

  13. Advances in multimodality molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Habib; Prasad, Rameshwar

    2009-01-01

    Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT) and functional or metabolic (PET) information provided in a “one-stop shop” and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed. PMID:20098557

  14. Advanced SAR simulator with multi-beam interferometric capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reppucci, Antonio; Márquez, José; Cazcarra, Victor; Ruffini, Giulio

    2014-10-01

    State of the art simulations are of great interest when designing a new instrument, studying the imaging mechanisms due to a given scenario or for inversion algorithm design as they allow to analyze and understand the effects of different instrument configurations and targets compositions. In the framework of the studies about a new instruments devoted to the estimation of the ocean surface movements using Synthetic Aperture Radar along-track interferometry (SAR-ATI) an End-to-End simulator has been developed. The simulator, built in a high modular way to allow easy integration of different processing-features, deals with all the basic operations involved in an end to end scenario. This includes the computation of the position and velocity of the platform (airborne/spaceborne) and the geometric parameters defining the SAR scene, the surface definition, the backscattering computation, the atmospheric attenuation, the instrument configuration, and the simulation of the transmission/reception chains and the raw data. In addition, the simulator provides a inSAR processing suit and a sea surface movement retrieval module. Up to four beams (each one composed by a monostatic and a bistatic channel) can be activated. Each channel provides raw data and SLC images with the possibility of choosing between Strip-map and Scansar modes. Moreover, the software offers the possibility of radiometric sensitivity analysis and error analysis due atmospheric disturbances, instrument-noise, interferogram phase-noise, platform velocity and attitude variations. In this paper, the architecture and the capabilities of this simulator will be presented. Meaningful simulation examples will be shown.

  15. Advanced capabilities for in situ planetary mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S.; Benna, M.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R.; Pinnick, V. T.; Li, X.; Grubisic, A.; Cornish, T.; Hovmand, L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA GSFC has delivered highly capable quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS) for missions to Venus (Pioneer Venus), Jupiter (Galileo), Saturn/Titan (Cassini-Huygens), Mars (MSL and MAVEN), and the Moon (LADEE). Our understanding of the Solar System has been expanded significantly by these exceedingly versatile yet low risk and cost efficient instruments. GSFC has developed more recently a suite of advanced instrument technologies promising enhanced science return while selectively leveraging heritage designs. Relying on a traditional precision QMS, the Analysis of Gas Evolved from Samples (AGES) instrument measures organic inventory, determines exposure age and establishes the absolute timing of deposition/petrogenesis of interrogated samples. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars 2018 rover employs a two-dimensional ion trap, built analogously to heritage QMS rod assemblies, which can support dual ionization sources, selective ion enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The same miniaturized analyzer serves as the core of the Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) instrument, which offers negative ion detection (switchable polarity) and an extended mass range (>2000 Da). Time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MS) have been interfaced to a range of laser sources to progress high-sensitivity laser ablation and desorption methods for analysis of inorganic and non-volatile organic compounds, respectively. The L2MS (two-step laser mass spectrometer) enables the desorption of neutrals and/or prompt ionization at IR (1.0 up to 3.1 µm, with an option for tunability) or UV wavelengths (commonly 266 or 355 nm). For the selective ionization of specific classes of organics, such as aromatic hydrocarbons, a second UV laser may be employed to decouple the desorption and ionization steps and limit molecular fragmentation. Mass analyzers with substantially higher resolving powers (up to m/Δm > 100,000), such as the Advanced Resolution Organic

  16. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM): Early Site Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Meza, Juan; Hubbard, Susan; Freshley, Mark D.; Gorton, Ian; Moulton, David; Denham, Miles E.

    2011-03-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management, Technology Innovation and Development (EM-32), is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high performance computing tool will facilitate integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. As part of the initial development process, a series of demonstrations were defined to test ASCEM components and provide feedback to developers, engage end users in applications, and lead to an outcome that would benefit the sites. The demonstration was implemented for a sub-region of the Savannah River Site General Separations Area that includes the F-Area Seepage Basins. The physical domain included the unsaturated and saturated zones in the vicinity of the seepage basins and Fourmile Branch, using an unstructured mesh fit to the hydrostratigraphy and topography of the site. The calculations modeled variably saturated flow and the resulting flow field was used in simulations of the advection of non-reactive species and the reactive-transport of uranium. As part of the demonstrations, a new set of data management, visualization, and uncertainty quantification tools were developed to analyze simulation results and existing site data. These new tools can be used to provide summary statistics, including information on which simulation parameters were most important in the prediction of uncertainty and to visualize the relationships between model input and output.

  17. Photoacoustic mammography capable of simultaneously acquiring photoacoustic and ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asao, Yasufumi; Hashizume, Yohei; Suita, Takahiro; Nagae, Ken-ichi; Fukutani, Kazuhiko; Sudo, Yoshiaki; Matsushita, Toshikazu; Kobayashi, Shuichi; Tokiwa, Mariko; Yamaga, Iku; Fakhrejahani, Elham; Torii, Masae; Kawashima, Masahiro; Takada, Masahiro; Kanao, Shotaro; Kataoka, Masako; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Toi, Masakazu

    2016-11-01

    We have constructed a prototype photoacoustic mammography system (PAM-02) capable of simultaneously acquiring photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) images. Each PA, US, and fused PA/US image can be acquired over a wide area of the breast using the scanning module of a US transducer, a PA detector, and optical prisms. The resolution of the PA images exhibits improvement from 2 to 1 mm compared to images acquired using our previous prototype. The maximum scan area of PAM-02 is 90 mm along the horizontal axis and 150 mm along the vertical axis. In a phantom experiment, the available depth was at least 45 mm. A representative example of the application of the PAM-02 prototype in clinical research at Kyoto University is presented and shows S-factor images, which are considered an approximation parameter related to hemoglobin saturation of tumor-related blood vessels. We confirmed the applicability of the system for anatomical and biological research.

  18. A new type of GC-MS with advanced capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialkov, Alexander B.; Steiner, Urs; Jones, Larry; Amirav, Aviv

    2006-03-01

    We have combined the benefits of supersonic molecular beam interface and its related fly-through electron ionization (EI) ion source with the advanced features of the Varian 1200L gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (MS-MS), resulting in a new and powerful GC-MS platform with record setting performance. Electron ionization of vibrationally cold molecules in the supersonic molecular beams (SMB) (cold EI) provided mass spectra with enhanced molecular ion, yet with good library search results and superior identification probabilities. We found that high GC column flow rates lower the elution temperature for any given compounds. This allows much larger molecules to elute at the maximum temperature of standard columns. We analyzed a mixture of heavy linear chain hydrocarbons all the way to C84H170 with a molecular weight of 1179.3 amu, using a 4 m 0.25 mm i.d. column and 32 ml/min He flow rate. Furthermore, we obtained a dominant molecular ion to all these compounds. The lower elution temperatures also greatly enhance the ability to analyze very thermally labile compounds such as carbamate pesticides. The experimental 1200 system is capable of triple quadrupole based MS-MS. We found that MS-MS on the molecular ion is much more effective than on fragment ions, and thus, the enhancement of the molecular ion directly improves the MS-MS sensitivity. Fast GC-MS analysis was also explored, based on very high column flow rate for fast splitless injections without affecting the sensitivity, and on the high system selectivity due to the combination of enhanced molecular ion and MS-MS. We demonstrate a few seconds long GC-MS-MS analysis of diazinon, spiked at 10 ng/g in a mixed fruit and vegetable extract. The feature of enhanced molecular ion provides significant enhancement in the detection sensitivity via SIM and RSIM on the molecular ion. While octafluoronaphthalene (OFN) detection limit of below 1 fg in SIM mode is shown, the

  19. Advanced Telescopes and Observatories and Scientific Instruments and Sensors Capability Roadmaps: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Dan; Bankston, Perry

    2005-01-01

    Agency objective are: Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  20. F/A-18 FAST Offers Advanced System Test Capability

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has modified an F/A-18A Hornet aircraft with additional research flight control computer systems for use as a Full-scale Advanced Systems Test Bed. Previously f...

  1. Advanced imaging of the scapholunate ligamentous complex.

    PubMed

    Shahabpour, Maryam; Staelens, Barbara; Van Overstraeten, Luc; De Maeseneer, Michel; Boulet, Cedric; De Mey, Johan; Scheerlinck, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    The scapholunate joint is one of the most involved in wrist injuries. Its stability depends on primary and secondary stabilisers forming together the scapholunate complex. This ligamentous complex is often evaluated by wrist arthroscopy. To avoid surgery as diagnostic procedure, optimization of MR imaging parameters as use of three-dimensional (3D) sequences with very thin slices and high spatial resolution, is needed to detect lesions of the intrinsic and extrinsic ligaments of the scapholunate complex. The paper reviews the literature on imaging of radial-sided carpal ligaments with advanced computed tomographic arthrography (CTA) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) to evaluate the scapholunate complex. Anatomy and pathology of the ligamentous complex are described and illustrated with CTA, MRA and corresponding arthroscopy. Sprains, mid-substance tears, avulsions and fibrous infiltrations of carpal ligaments could be identified on CTA and MRA images using 3D fat-saturated PD and 3D DESS (dual echo with steady-state precession) sequences with 0.5-mm-thick slices. Imaging signs of scapholunate complex pathology include: discontinuity, nonvisualization, changes in signal intensity, contrast extravasation (MRA), contour irregularity and waviness and periligamentous infiltration by edema, granulation tissue or fibrosis. Based on this preliminary experience, we believe that 3 T MRA using 3D sequences with 0.5-mm-thick slices and multiplanar reconstructions is capable to evaluate the scapholunate complex and could help to reduce the number of diagnostic arthroscopies.

  2. Advancing NASA's Satellite Control Capabilities: More than Just Better Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) in the development of the NASA's satellite control capabilities. The purpose of the presentation is to provide a quick overview of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and our approach to coordinating the ground system resources and development activities across many different missions. NASA Goddard's work in developing and managing the current and future space exploration missions is highlighted. The GMSEC, was established to to coordinate ground and flight data systems development and services, to create a new standard ground system for many missions and to reflect the reality that business reengineering and mindset were just as important.

  3. Recent advances in imaging technologies in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseem; Bansal, Nikhil; Logani, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools, specially imaging methods, have become mandatory. From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the process simpler and faster but also made image storage, manipulation (brightness/contrast, image cropping, etc.) and retrieval easier. The three-dimensional imaging has made the complex cranio-facial structures more accessible for examination and early and accurate diagnosis of deep seated lesions. This paper is to review current advances in imaging technology and their uses in different disciplines of dentistry. PMID:25349663

  4. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) capabilities for serving science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    Results of research on potential science applications of the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) are presented. Discussed here are: (1) general research on communications related issues; (2) a survey of science-related activities and programs in the local area; (3) interviews of selected scientists and associated telecommunications support personnel whose projects have communications requirements; (4) analysis of linkages between ACTS functionality and science user communications activities and modes of operation; and (5) an analysis of survey results and the projection of conclusions to a national scale.

  5. Advanced imaging in equine dental disease.

    PubMed

    Selberg, Kurt; Easley, Jeremiah T

    2013-08-01

    Dental and sinus disorders are relatively common and of major clinical importance in equine medicine. Advanced diagnostic imaging has become an integral part of equine veterinary medicine. Advanced imaging has progressed the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of dental- and sinus-related diseases. As a clinician, it is important to realize the value of advanced diagnostic imaging. Although computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are both significantly more expensive compared with other diagnostic tools, the financial cost of inaccurate diagnosis and treatment can often result in higher overall costs.

  6. Image analysis in medical imaging: recent advances in selected examples.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, G

    2010-01-01

    Medical imaging has developed into one of the most important fields within scientific imaging due to the rapid and continuing progress in computerised medical image visualisation and advances in analysis methods and computer-aided diagnosis. Several research applications are selected to illustrate the advances in image analysis algorithms and visualisation. Recent results, including previously unpublished data, are presented to illustrate the challenges and ongoing developments.

  7. Advancing Space Weather Modeling Capabilities at the CCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, M. Leila; Kuznetsova, Maria; Boblitt, Justin; Chulaki, Anna; MacNeice, Peter; Mendoza, Michelle; Mullinix, Richard; Pembroke, Asher; Pulkkinen, Antti; Rastaetter, Lutz; Shim, Ja Soon; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Wiegand, Chiu; Zheng, Yihua

    2016-04-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC, http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) serves as a community access point to an expanding collection of state-of-the-art space environment models and as a hub for collaborative development on next generation of space weather forecasting systems. In partnership with model developers and the international research and operational communities, the CCMC integrates new data streams and models from diverse sources into end-to-end space weather predictive systems, identifies weak links in data-model & model-model coupling and leads community efforts to fill those gaps. The presentation will focus on the latest model installations at the CCMC and advances in CCMC-led community-wide model validation projects.

  8. Brookhaven National Laboratory's capabilities for advanced analyses of cyber threats

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    BNL has several ongoing, mature, and successful programs and areas of core scientific expertise that readily could be modified to address problems facing national security and efforts by the IC related to securing our nation’s computer networks. In supporting these programs, BNL houses an expansive, scalable infrastructure built exclusively for transporting, storing, and analyzing large disparate data-sets. Our ongoing research projects on various infrastructural issues in computer science undoubtedly would be relevant to national security. Furthermore, BNL frequently partners with researchers in academia and industry worldwide to foster unique and innovative ideas for expanding research opportunities and extending our insights. Because the basic science conducted at BNL is unique, such projects have led to advanced techniques, unlike any others, to support our mission of discovery. Many of them are modular techniques, thus making them ideal for abstraction and retrofitting to other uses including those facing national security, specifically the safety of the nation’s cyber space.

  9. Characterizing the Temperature Discrimination Capability of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Kashyap, V.; Boerner, P.

    2008-05-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) will be one of the instrument packages on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), due to launch in late 2008. This instrument will image the full solar disk in each of eight UV and EUV passbands, with a resolution of about one arc-second and a cadence of 10 seconds. Six of these passbands are dominated by Fe lines, thus minimizing the effect of abundance uncertainties while permitting thermal diagnostic analysis of solar coronal plasma across a range of log T = 5.6 to greater than 7.3. Using the method of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), we characterize the temperature discrimination capability of the AIA passbands when used as a set. Upper and lower thresholds can be placed on the useful temperature range. Furthermore, we consider how AIA's thermal diagnostic capability is uneven across the useful temperature response range. This information can be useful in designing thermal studies that determine the most robust temperature solutions.

  10. Spectroscopic and imaging capabilities of a pixellated photon counting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendolia, S. R.; Bisogni, M. G.; Bottigli, U.; Delogu, P.; Dipasquale, G.; Fantacci, M. E.; Marchi, A.; Marzulli, V. M.; Oliva, P.; Palmiero, R.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Stumbo, S.; Zucca, S.

    2001-06-01

    We are studying the performance of various thickness GaAs pixel detectors bump-bonded to a dedicated photon counting chip (PCC) for medical imaging applications in different energy ranges. In this work we present the experimental results obtained with a 600 μm thick pixel matrix (64×64 square pixels, 170 μm side) in the 60-140 keV energy range to evaluate the possible use of such a system in the nuclear medicine field. In particular, we have measured the spectroscopic properties of the detector (charge collection efficiency, energy resolution and detection efficiency) and evaluated the discrimination capability of the electronics. Then we have measured the imaging properties of the whole system in terms of Point Spread Function and using a home made thyroid phantom. We present also a comparison with a traditional gamma camera and an evaluation, made by both experimental measurements and software simulations, of the imaging characteristics related to the use of a collimation system.

  11. Advanced Capabilities for Wind Tunnel Testing in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind tunnel testing methods and test technologies for the 21st century using advanced capabilities are presented. These capabilities are necessary to capture more accurate and high quality test results by eliminating the uncertainties in testing and to facilitate verification of computational tools for design. This paper discusses near term developments underway in ground testing capabilities, which will enhance the quality of information of both the test article and airstream flow details. Also discussed is a selection of new capability investments that have been made to accommodate such developments. Examples include advanced experimental methods for measuring the test gas itself; using efficient experiment methodologies, including quality assurance strategies within the test; and increasing test result information density by using extensive optical visualization together with computed flow field results. These points could be made for both major investments in existing tunnel capabilities or for entirely new capabilities.

  12. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1993-04-02

    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  13. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Advances in diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haoran; Song, Tianqiang

    2015-10-01

    Thanks to the growing knowledge on biological behaviors of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), as well as continuous improvement in imaging techniques and experienced interpretation of imaging features of the nodules in cirrhotic liver, the detection and characterization of HCC has improved in the past decade. A number of practice guidelines for imaging diagnosis have been developed to reduce interpretation variability and standardize management of HCC, and they are constantly updated with advances in imaging techniques and evidence based data from clinical series. In this article, we strive to review the imaging techniques and the characteristic features of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhotic liver, with emphasis on the diagnostic value of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and utilization of hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agents. We also briefly describe the concept of liver imaging reporting and data systems and discuss the consensus and controversy of major practice guidelines.

  15. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-10-25

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  16. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-11-22

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  17. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2015-11-24

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  18. Advanced Atmospheric Sounder and Imaging Radiometer (AASIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Design information for the Advanced Atmospheric Sounder and Imaging Radiometer is reported, which was developed to determine the configuration of a sensor for IR and visible imaging. The areas of technology reported include: systems design, optics, mechanics, electronics, detectors, radiative cooler, and radiometric calibration.

  19. Advanced Imaging Algorithms for Radiation Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The intent of the proposed work, in collaboration with University of Michigan, is to develop the algorithms that will bring the analysis from qualitative images to quantitative attributes of objects containing SNM. The first step to achieving this is to develop an indepth understanding of the intrinsic errors associated with the deconvolution and MLEM algorithms. A significant new effort will be undertaken to relate the image data to a posited three-dimensional model of geometric primitives that can be adjusted to get the best fit. In this way, parameters of the model such as sizes, shapes, and masses can be extracted for both radioactive and non-radioactive materials. This model-based algorithm will need the integrated response of a hypothesized configuration of material to be calculated many times. As such, both the MLEM and the model-based algorithm require significant increases in calculation speed in order to converge to solutions in practical amounts of time.

  20. Review of fluorescence guided surgery systems: identification of key performance capabilities beyond indocyanine green imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Lin, Huiyun; Henderson, Eric R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-08-01

    There is growing interest in using fluorescence imaging instruments to guide surgery, and the leading options for open-field imaging are reviewed here. While the clinical fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) field has been focused predominantly on indocyanine green (ICG) imaging, there is accelerated development of more specific molecular tracers. These agents should help advance new indications for which FGS presents a paradigm shift in how molecular information is provided for resection decisions. There has been a steady growth in commercially marketed FGS systems, each with their own differentiated performance characteristics and specifications. A set of desirable criteria is presented to guide the evaluation of instruments, including: (i) real-time overlay of white-light and fluorescence images, (ii) operation within ambient room lighting, (iii) nanomolar-level sensitivity, (iv) quantitative capabilities, (v) simultaneous multiple fluorophore imaging, and (vi) ergonomic utility for open surgery. In this review, United States Food and Drug Administration 510(k) cleared commercial systems and some leading premarket FGS research systems were evaluated to illustrate the continual increase in this performance feature base. Generally, the systems designed for ICG-only imaging have sufficient sensitivity to ICG, but a fraction of the other desired features listed above, with both lower sensitivity and dynamic range. In comparison, the emerging research systems targeted for use with molecular agents have unique capabilities that will be essential for successful clinical imaging studies with low-concentration agents or where superior rejection of ambient light is needed. There is no perfect imaging system, but the feature differences among them are important differentiators in their utility, as outlined in the data and tables here.

  1. Imaging of the pancreas: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of anomalies of pancreas and the pancreatic duct system are commonly encountered at radiological evaluation. Diagnosing pancreatic lesions generally requires a multimodality approach. This review highlights the new advances in pancreatic imaging and their applications in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic pathologies. The mainstay techniques include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), radionuclide imaging (RNI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). PMID:21847450

  2. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Capability and Systems Engineering Capability Roadmap Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikins, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps. Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  3. Advanced Imaging for Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA interferometric missions will realize high-resolution with less mass and volume compared to filled-apertures thus saving in cost over comparable filled-aperture systems. However, interferometeric aperture systems give reduced sensitivity requiring longer integration times to achieve a desired signal-to-noise ratio but is likely the only cost effective path forward for high-resolution space imaging.

  4. Development and integration of Raman imaging capabilities to Sandia National Laboratories hyperspectral fluorescence imaging instrument.

    SciTech Connect

    Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Nieman, Linda T.

    2005-11-01

    Raman spectroscopic imaging is a powerful technique for visualizing chemical differences within a variety of samples based on the interaction of a substance's molecular vibrations with laser light. While Raman imaging can provide a unique view of samples such as residual stress within silicon devices, chemical degradation, material aging, and sample heterogeneity, the Raman scattering process is often weak and thus requires very sensitive collection optics and detectors. Many commercial instruments (including ones owned here at Sandia National Laboratories) generate Raman images by raster scanning a point focused laser beam across a sample--a process which can expose a sample to extreme levels of laser light and requires lengthy acquisition times. Our previous research efforts have led to the development of a state-of-the-art two-dimensional hyperspectral imager for fluorescence imaging applications such as microarray scanning. This report details the design, integration, and characterization of a line-scan Raman imaging module added to this efficient hyperspectral fluorescence microscope. The original hyperspectral fluorescence instrument serves as the framework for excitation and sample manipulation for the Raman imaging system, while a more appropriate axial transmissive Raman imaging spectrometer and detector are utilized for collection of the Raman scatter. The result is a unique and flexible dual-modality fluorescence and Raman imaging system capable of high-speed imaging at high spatial and spectral resolutions. Care was taken throughout the design and integration process not to hinder any of the fluorescence imaging capabilities. For example, an operator can switch between the fluorescence and Raman modalities without need for extensive optical realignment. The instrument performance has been characterized and sample data is presented.

  5. Advances in National Capabilities for Consequence Assessment Modeling of Airborne Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Nasstrom, J; Sugiyama, G; Foster, K; Larsen, S; Kosovic, B; Eme, B; Walker, H; Goldstein, P; Lundquist, J; Pobanz, B; Fulton, J

    2007-11-26

    This paper describes ongoing advancement of airborne hazard modeling capabilities in support of multiple agencies through the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) and the Interagency Atmospheric Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC). A suite of software tools developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and collaborating organizations includes simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end user's computers, Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced 3-D flow and atmospheric dispersion modeling tools and expert analysis from the national center at LLNL, and state-of-the-science high-resolution urban models and event reconstruction capabilities.

  6. Advances in noninvasive functional imaging of bone.

    PubMed

    Lan, Sheng-Min; Wu, Ya-Na; Wu, Ping-Ching; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Lin, Ruey-Mo

    2014-02-01

    The demand for functional imaging in clinical medicine is comprehensive. Although the gold standard for the functional imaging of human bones in clinical settings is still radionuclide-based imaging modalities, nonionizing noninvasive imaging technology in small animals has greatly advanced in recent decades, especially the diffuse optical imaging to which Britton Chance made tremendous contributions. The evolution of imaging probes, instruments, and computation has facilitated exploration in the complicated biomedical research field by allowing longitudinal observation of molecular events in live cells and animals. These research-imaging tools are being used for clinical applications in various specialties, such as oncology, neuroscience, and dermatology. The Bone, a deeply located mineralized tissue, presents a challenge for noninvasive functional imaging in humans. Using nanoparticles (NP) with multiple favorable properties as bioimaging probes has provided orthopedics an opportunity to benefit from these noninvasive bone-imaging techniques. This review highlights the historical evolution of radionuclide-based imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, diffuse optics-enabled in vivo technologies, vibrational spectroscopic imaging, and a greater potential for using NPs for biomedical imaging.

  7. Advanced MR Imaging in Neuro-oncology.

    PubMed

    Radbruch, A; Bendszus, M

    2015-10-01

    The value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the clinical management of brain tumour patients has greatly increased in recent years through the introduction of functional MR sequences. Previously, MR imaging for brain tumours relied for the most part on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR sequences but today with the help of advanced functional MR sequences, the pathophysiological aspects of tumour growth can be directly visualised and investigated. This article will present the pathophysiological background of the MR sequences relevant to neuro-oncological imaging as well as potential clinical applications. Ultimately, we take a look at possible future developments for ultra-high-field MR imaging.

  8. Advanced Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zuowei; Yang, Lu; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Domier, C. W.; Ito, N.; Kogi, Y.; Liang, Y.; Mase, A.; Park, H.; Sakata, E.; Tsai, W.; Xia, Z. G.; Zhang, P.

    Millimeter wave technology advances have made possible active and passive millimeter wave imaging for a variety of applications including advanced plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, atmospheric radiometry, concealed weapon detection, all-weather aircraft landing, contraband goods detection, harbor navigation/surveillance in fog, highway traffic monitoring in fog, helicopter and automotive collision avoidance in fog, and environmental remote sensing data associated with weather, pollution, soil moisture, oil spill detection, and monitoring of forest fires, to name but a few. The primary focus of this paper is on technology advances which have made possible advanced imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations and microturbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis include frequency selective surfaces, planar Schottky diode mixer arrays, electronically controlled beam shaping/steering arrays, and high power millimeter wave local oscillator and probe sources.

  9. World Wide Web interface to digital imaging and communication in medicine-capable image servers.

    PubMed

    Browning, G C; Liang, Y; Buckwalter, K A; Kruger, R A; Aisen, A

    1996-11-01

    As a trial project, the Indiana University Department of Radiology has develop[ed a low-cost manner of distributing radiological images throughout a medical environment using the World Wide Web (WWW). The interface requires the user to have a WWW-browser client, such as Netscape, running on UNIX, PC, or Macintosh platforms. A forms-based interface allows the user to query several DICOM-capable machines at the machine, patient, study, series, and image levels. Once an image transfer is initiated, images are prewindowed from 16- to 8-bits, compressed using public domain Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) compression routines, transferred to the WWW client program, and decompressed and displayed using a locally selected image viewing program. At the currently implemented level of compression (75% quality), the entire fetch-transform-JPEG-display process takes 2 to 5 seconds over Ethernet, depending on the platform used.

  10. Technical advances of interventional fluoroscopy and flat panel image receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Jan Paul

    2008-11-01

    In the past decade, various radiation reducing devices and control circuits have been implemented on fluoroscopic imaging equipment. Because of the potential for lengthy fluoroscopic procedures in interventional cardiovascular angiography, these devices and control circuits have been developed for the cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional angiography suites. Additionally, fluoroscopic systems equipped with image intensifiers have benefited from technological advances in x-ray tube, x-ray generator, and spectral shaping filter technologies. The high heat capacity x-ray tube, the medium frequency inverter generator with high performance switching capability, and the patient dose reduction spectral shaping filter had already been implemented on the image intensified fluoroscopy systems. These three underlying technologies together with the automatic dose rate and image quality (ADRIQ) control logic allow patients undergoing cardiovascular angiography procedures to benefit from "lower patient dose" with "high image quality." While photoconductor (or phosphor plate) x-ray detectors and signal capture thin film transistor (TFT) and charge coupled device (CCD) arrays are analog in nature, the advent of the flat panel image receptor allowed for fluoroscopy procedures to become more streamlined. With the analog-to-digital converter built into the data lines, the flat panel image receptor appears to become a digital device. While the transition from image intensified fluoroscopy systems to flat panel image receptor fluoroscopy systems is part of the on-going "digitization of imaging," the value of a flat panel image receptor may have to be evaluated with respect to patient dose, image quality, and clinical application capabilities. The advantage of flat panel image receptors has yet to be fully explored. For instance, the flat panel image receptor has its disadvantages as compared to the image intensifiers; the cost of the equipment is probably the most

  11. Technology and application advancements of uncooled imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Peter W.; Kohin, Margaret

    2005-05-01

    Having delivered over 30,000 uncooled microbolometer based thermal imaging engines, BAE Systems is the world's leading producer. Advancements in technology include the demonstration of broadband microbolometers on a 46 μm pixel pitch which have excellent sensitivity in the MWIR (NETD ~180 mK, 3-5 μm) and LWIR (NETD ~ 15 mK, 8-12 μm) wavebands. Application advancements include the development of a family of thermal weapons sights for the military which will replace current cooled systems with lighter, lower power systems and the introduction of a new generation of handheld and pole mounted thermal imagers for commercial markets.

  12. Advanced missions safety. Volume 3: Appendices. Part 1: Space shuttle rescue capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle rescue capability is analyzed as a part of the advanced mission safety study. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission evaluation, (2) shuttle configurations and performance, (3) performance of shuttle-launched tug system, (4) multiple pass grazing reentry from lunar orbit, (5) ground launched ascent and rendezvous time, (6) cost estimates, and (7) parallel-burn space shuttle configuration.

  13. Performance Measurements of the Injection Laser System Configured for Picosecond Scale Advanced Radiographic Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, L C; Heebner, J E; Dawson, J W; Fochs, S N; Shverdin, M Y; Crane, J K; Kanz, K V; Halpin, J M; Phan, H H; Sigurdsson, R J; Brewer, S W; Britten, J A; Brunton, G K; Clark, W J; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Shaw, B H; Hackel, R P; Hermann, M R; Tietbohl, G L; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-10-23

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  14. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY ADVANCES: EMERGING CAPABILITIES FOR DATA EXPLORATION AND SAR MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational Toxicology Advances: Emerging capabilities for data exploration and SAR model development
    Ann M. Richard and ClarLynda R. Williams, National Health & Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; email: richard.ann@epa.gov

  15. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  16. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630

  17. Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, John; Pullammanappallil, Satish; Honjas, Bill

    2016-08-01

    J. N. Louie, Pullammanappallil, S., and Honjas, W., 2011, Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development: Proceedings of the New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2011, Nov. 21-23, Auckland, paper 32, 7 pp. Preprint available at http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/geothermal/Louie-NZGW11.pdf

  18. Uncooled thermal imaging sensor and application advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Peter W.; Cox, Stephen; Murphy, Bob; Grealish, Kevin; Joswick, Mike; Denley, Brian; Feda, Frank; Elmali, Loriann; Kohin, Margaret

    2006-05-01

    BAE Systems continues to advance the technology and performance of microbolometer-based thermal imaging modules and systems. 640x480 digital uncooled infrared focal plane arrays are in full production, illustrated by recent production line test data for two thousand focal plane arrays. This paper presents a snapshot of microbolometer technology at BAE Systems and an overview of two of the most important thermal imaging sensor programs currently in production: a family of thermal weapons sights for the United States Army and a thermal imager for the remote weapons station on the Stryker vehicle.

  19. ADVANCED SIMULATION CAPABILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT- CURRENT STATUS AND PHASE II DEMONSTRATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.

    2013-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Toolsets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multiprocess Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, toolsets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial toolsets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  20. ADVANCED SIMULATION CAPABILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT – CURRENT STATUS AND PHASE II DEMONSTRATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger; Freshley, Mark D.; Dixon, Paul; Hubbard, Susan S.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Flach, Gregory P.; Faybishenko, Boris; Gorton, Ian; Finsterle, Stefan A.; Moulton, John D.; Steefel, Carl I.; Marble, Justin

    2013-06-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Toolsets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multiprocess Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, toolsets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial toolsets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  1. Advanced imaging techniques for the study of plant growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Sozzani, Rosangela; Busch, Wolfgang; Spalding, Edgar P.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of plant growth and development from living plants. Multi-level data, from macroscopic to molecular, and from weeks to seconds, can be acquired. Furthermore, advances in parallelized and automated image acquisition enable the throughput to capture images from large populations of plants under specific growth conditions. Image-processing capabilities allow for 3D or 4D reconstruction of image data and automated quantification of biological features. These advances facilitate the integration of imaging data with genome-wide molecular data to enable systems-level modeling. PMID:24434036

  2. Advanced imaging techniques for the study of plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Sozzani, Rosangela; Busch, Wolfgang; Spalding, Edgar P; Benfey, Philip N

    2014-05-01

    A variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of plant growth and development from living plants. Multi-level data, from macroscopic to molecular, and from weeks to seconds, can be acquired. Furthermore, advances in parallelized and automated image acquisition enable the throughput to capture images from large populations of plants under specific growth conditions. Image-processing capabilities allow for 3D or 4D reconstruction of image data and automated quantification of biological features. These advances facilitate the integration of imaging data with genome-wide molecular data to enable systems-level modeling.

  3. Advanced ground-penetrating, imaging radar for bridge inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.E.; Lee, Hua

    1993-08-01

    Inspecting high-value structures, like bridges and buildings using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of the technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like reinforcing bars embedded in concrete, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without the need for destructive techniques like coring. In the following sections, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept and provide an overview of a program aimed at developing such a system. Examples of modeling, image reconstruction, and experimental results are presented.

  4. Advanced endoscopic imaging to improve adenoma detection

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Helmut; Nägel, Andreas; Buda, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Advanced endoscopic imaging is revolutionizing our way on how to diagnose and treat colorectal lesions. Within recent years a variety of modern endoscopic imaging techniques was introduced to improve adenoma detection rates. Those include high-definition imaging, dye-less chromoendoscopy techniques and novel, highly flexible endoscopes, some of them equipped with balloons or multiple lenses in order to improve adenoma detection rates. In this review we will focus on the newest developments in the field of colonoscopic imaging to improve adenoma detection rates. Described techniques include high-definition imaging, optical chromoendoscopy techniques, virtual chromoendoscopy techniques, the Third Eye Retroscope and other retroviewing devices, the G-EYE endoscope and the Full Spectrum Endoscopy-system. PMID:25789092

  5. Advances in retinal ganglion cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Balendra, S I; Normando, E M; Bloom, P A; Cordeiro, M F

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide and will affect 79.6 million people worldwide by 2020. It is caused by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), predominantly via apoptosis, within the retinal nerve fibre layer and the corresponding loss of axons of the optic nerve head. One of its most devastating features is its late diagnosis and the resulting irreversible visual loss that is often predictable. Current diagnostic tools require significant RGC or functional visual field loss before the threshold for detection of glaucoma may be reached. To propel the efficacy of therapeutics in glaucoma, an earlier diagnostic tool is required. Recent advances in retinal imaging, including optical coherence tomography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and adaptive optics, have propelled both glaucoma research and clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. However, an ideal imaging technique to diagnose and monitor glaucoma would image RGCs non-invasively with high specificity and sensitivity in vivo. It may confirm the presence of healthy RGCs, such as in transgenic models or retrograde labelling, or detect subtle changes in the number of unhealthy or apoptotic RGCs, such as detection of apoptosing retinal cells (DARC). Although many of these advances have not yet been introduced to the clinical arena, their successes in animal studies are enthralling. This review will illustrate the challenges of imaging RGCs, the main retinal imaging modalities, the in vivo techniques to augment these as specific RGC-imaging tools and their potential for translation to the glaucoma clinic. PMID:26293138

  6. Advanced communications technologies for image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, W. C.; Jones, H. W.; Shameson, L.

    1984-01-01

    It is essential for image analysts to have the capability to link to remote facilities as a means of accessing both data bases and high-speed processors. This can increase productivity through enhanced data access and minimization of delays. New technology is emerging to provide the high communication data rates needed in image processing. These developments include multi-user sharing of high bandwidth (60 megabits per second) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) satellite links, low-cost satellite ground stations, and high speed adaptive quadrature modems that allow 9600 bit per second communications over voice-grade telephone lines.

  7. Computational and design methods for advanced imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Gabriel C.

    This dissertation merges the optical design and computational aspects of imaging systems to create novel devices that solve engineering problems in optical science and attempts to expand the solution space available to the optical designer. This dissertation is divided into two parts: the first discusses a new active illumination depth sensing modality, while the second part discusses a passive illumination system called plenoptic, or lightfield, imaging. The new depth sensing modality introduced in part one is called depth through controlled aberration. This technique illuminates a target with a known, aberrated projected pattern and takes an image using a traditional, unmodified imaging system. Knowing how the added aberration in the projected pattern changes as a function of depth, we are able to quantitatively determine depth of a series of points from the camera. A major advantage this method permits is the ability for illumination and imaging axes to be coincident. Plenoptic cameras capture both spatial and angular data simultaneously. This dissertation present a new set of parameters that permit the design and comparison of plenoptic devices outside the traditionally published plenoptic 1.0 and plenoptic 2.0 configurations. Additionally, a series of engineering advancements are presented, including full system raytraces of raw plenoptic images, Zernike compression techniques of raw image files, and non-uniform lenslet arrays to compensate for plenoptic system aberrations. Finally, a new snapshot imaging spectrometer is proposed based off the plenoptic configuration.

  8. Surface Wind Vector and Rain Rate Observation Capability of Future Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Bailey, M. C.; Black, Peter; El-Nimri, Salem; Hood, Robbie; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Christopher; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is the next-generation Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), and it will offer the capability of simultaneous wide-swath observations of both extreme ocean surface wind vector and strong precipitation from either aircraft (including UAS) or satellite platforms. HIRAD will be a compact, lightweight, low-power instrument with no moving parts that will produce valid wind observations under hurricane conditions when existing microwave sensors (radiometers or scatterometers) are hindered by precipitation. The SFMR i s a proven aircraft remote sensing system for simultaneously observing extreme ocean surface wind speeds and rain rates, including those of major hurricane intensity. The proposed HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer technology. The first version of the instrument will be a single polarization system for wind speed and rain rate, with a dual-polarization system to follow for wind vector capability. This sensor will operate over 4-7 GHz (C-band frequencies) where the required tropical cyclone remote sensing physics has been validated by both SFMR and WindSat radiometers. HIRAD incorporates a unique, technologically advanced array antenna and several other technologies successfully demonstrated by NASA s Instrument Incubator Program. A brassboard (laboratory) version of the instrument has been completed and successfully tested in a test chamber. Development of the aircraft instrument is underway, with flight testing planned for the fall of 2009. Preliminary Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) show that HIRAD will have a significant positive impact on surface wind analyses as either a new aircraft or satellite sensor. New off-nadir data collected in 2008 by SFMR that affirms the ability of this measurement technique to obtain wind speed data at non-zero incidence angle will

  9. Imaging spectroscopic analysis at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, A. A.; Warwick, T.; Anders, S.; Lamble, G.M.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.

    1999-05-12

    One of the major advances at the high brightness third generation synchrotrons is the dramatic improvement of imaging capability. There is a large multi-disciplinary effort underway at the ALS to develop imaging X-ray, UV and Infra-red spectroscopic analysis on a spatial scale from. a few microns to 10nm. These developments make use of light that varies in energy from 6meV to 15KeV. Imaging and spectroscopy are finding applications in surface science, bulk materials analysis, semiconductor structures, particulate contaminants, magnetic thin films, biology and environmental science. This article is an overview and status report from the developers of some of these techniques at the ALS. The following table lists all the currently available microscopes at the. ALS. This article will describe some of the microscopes and some of the early applications.

  10. The AEDC aerospace chamber 7V: An advanced test capability for infrared surveillance and seeker sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced sensor test capability is now operational at the Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) for calibration and performance characterization of infrared sensors. This facility, known as the 7V, is part of a broad range of test capabilities under development at AEDC to provide complete ground test support to the sensor community for large-aperture surveillance sensors and kinetic kill interceptors. The 7V is a state-of-the-art cryo/vacuum facility providing calibration and mission simulation against space backgrounds. Key features of the facility include high-fidelity scene simulation with precision track accuracy and in-situ target monitoring, diffraction limited optical system, NIST traceable broadband and spectral radiometric calibration, outstanding jitter control, environmental systems for 20 K, high-vacuum, low-background simulation, and an advanced data acquisition system.

  11. Rheumatoid Arthritis Revisited - Advanced Imaging Review.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Surabhi; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Ranjan, Piyush; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Uma; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a multisystem disorder, which causes significant morbidity. An early diagnosis of RA is essential to prevent the development of irreversible bone and joint changes. The disease has characteristic clinical features, but an early evaluation of the quantum of disease may be difficult with plain radiography alone. Recent developments in the imaging of RA have contributed significantly to an early diagnosis of the disease. In this article, we review the role and current status of various imaging modalities including recent advances in the evaluation and follow-up of early RA.

  12. Rheumatoid Arthritis Revisited – Advanced Imaging Review

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Surabhi; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Ranjan, Piyush; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Uma; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a multisystem disorder, which causes significant morbidity. An early diagnosis of RA is essential to prevent the development of irreversible bone and joint changes. The disease has characteristic clinical features, but an early evaluation of the quantum of disease may be difficult with plain radiography alone. Recent developments in the imaging of RA have contributed significantly to an early diagnosis of the disease. In this article, we review the role and current status of various imaging modalities including recent advances in the evaluation and follow-up of early RA. PMID:28105245

  13. Advanced Imaging Modalities in the Detection of Cerebral Vasospasm

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jena N.; Mehta, Vivek; Russin, Jonathan; Amar, Arun P.; Rajamohan, Anandh; Mack, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is complex and is not entirely understood. Mechanistic insights have been gained through advances in the capabilities of diagnostic imaging. Core techniques have focused on the assessment of vessel caliber, tissue metabolism, and/or regional perfusion parameters. Advances in imaging have provided clinicians with a multifaceted approach to assist in the detection of cerebral vasospasm and the diagnosis of delayed ischemic neurologic deficits (DIND). However, a single test or algorithm with broad efficacy remains elusive. This paper examines both anatomical and physiological imaging modalities applicable to post-SAH vasospasm and offers a historical background. We consider cerebral blood flow velocities measured by Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TCD). Structural imaging techniques, including catheter-based Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), CT Angiography (CTA), and MR Angiography (MRA), are reviewed. We examine physiologic assessment by PET, HMPAO SPECT, 133Xe Clearance, Xenon-Enhanced CT (Xe/CT), Perfusion CT (PCT), and Diffusion-Weighted/MR Perfusion Imaging. Comparative advantages and limitations are discussed. PMID:23476766

  14. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Agosta, Federica; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Filippi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasingly important role in the study of neurodegenerative diseases, delineating the structural and functional alterations determined by these conditions. Advanced MRI techniques are of special interest for their potential to characterize the signature of each neurodegenerative condition and aid both the diagnostic process and the monitoring of disease progression. This aspect will become crucial when disease-modifying (personalized) therapies will be established. MRI techniques are very diverse and go from the visual inspection of MRI scans to more complex approaches, such as manual and automatic volume measurements, diffusion tensor MRI, and functional MRI. All these techniques allow us to investigate the different features of neurodegeneration. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances concerning the use of MRI in some of the most important neurodegenerative conditions, putting an emphasis on the advanced techniques.

  15. The Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Capability Roadmap Vision for Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas; Lieber, Mike; Norton, Charles; Fucik, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes a subset of the Advanced Modeling Simulation and Analysis (AMSA) Capability Roadmap that was developed for NASA in 2005. The AMSA Capability Roadmap Team was chartered to "To identify what is needed to enhance NASA's capabilities to produce leading-edge exploration and science missions by improving engineering system development, operations, and science understanding through broad application of advanced modeling, simulation and analysis techniques." The AMSA roadmap stressed the need for integration, not just within the science, engineering and operations domains themselves, but also across these domains. Here we discuss the roadmap element pertaining to integration within the engineering domain, with a particular focus on implications for future observatory missions. The AMSA products supporting the system engineering function are mission information, bounds on information quality, and system validation guidance. The Engineering roadmap element contains 5 sub-elements: (1) Large-Scale Systems Models, (2) Anomalous Behavior Models, (3) advanced Uncertainty Models, (4) Virtual Testing Models, and (5) space-based Robotics Manufacture and Servicing Models.

  16. In-Situ Creep Testing Capability for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    B. G. Kim; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; B. H. Sencer

    2012-09-01

    An instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) coolant conditions at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The test rig has been developed such that samples will be subjected to stresses ranging from 92 to 350 MPa at temperatures between 290 and 370 °C up to at least 2 dpa (displacement per atom). The status of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) efforts to develop the test rig in-situ creep testing capability for the ATR is described. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper reports efforts by INL to evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). Initial data from autoclave tests with 304 stainless steel (304 SS) specimens are reported.

  17. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in perfusion. Chronic hypoxia may cause either tumor progression or regressive effects depending on the tumor model. However, there is a general trend toward the development of a more aggressive phenotype after cycling hypoxia. With advanced hypoxia imaging techniques, spatiotemporal characteristics of tumor hypoxia and the changes to the tumor microenvironment can be analyzed. Critical Issues: In this review, we focus on the biological and clinical consequences of chronic and cycling hypoxia on radiation treatment. We also discuss the advanced non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed to detect and monitor tumor hypoxia in preclinical and clinical studies. Future Directions: A better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia with non-invasive imaging will provide a basis for improved radiation therapeutic practices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 313–337. PMID:24329000

  18. Imaging capabilities of SXT for Solar-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemen, J. R.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E.; Catura, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The present study characterizes the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), a grazing-incidence solar X-ray telescope which will be flown on the Japanese Solar-A satellite. X-ray tests showed that the SXT mirror meets or exceeds design requirements. SXT advantages over Skylab are: improved time resolution (not less than 0.5 s), greatly decreased mirror scatter, coaligned aspect telescope to intersperse images of sunspots and magnetic plage, and digital data readout.

  19. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management - Current Status and Phase II Demonstration Results - 13161

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Flach, Greg; Freshley, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky; Gorton, Ian; Dixon, Paul; Moulton, J. David; Hubbard, Susan S.; Faybishenko, Boris; Steefel, Carl I.; Finsterle, Stefan; Marble, Justin

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Tool-sets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multi-process Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, tool-sets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial tool-sets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  20. Applications of digital image analysis capability in Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of digital image analysis of LANDSAT imagery in water resource assessment is discussed. The data processing systems employed are described. The determination of urban land use conversion of agricultural land in two southwestern Idaho counties involving estimation and mapping of crop types and of irrigated land is described. The system was also applied to an inventory of irrigated cropland in the Snake River basin and establishment of a digital irrigation water source/service area data base for the basin. Application of the system to a determination of irrigation development in the Big Lost River basin as part of a hydrologic survey of the basin is also described.

  1. Recent Advances in Higher-Order, Multimodal, Biomedical Imaging Agents.

    PubMed

    Rieffel, James; Chitgupi, Upendra; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2015-09-16

    Advances in biomedical imaging have spurred the development of integrated multimodal scanners, usually capable of two simultaneous imaging modes. The long-term vision of higher-order multimodality is to improve diagnostics or guidance through the analysis of complementary, data-rich, co-registered images. Synergies achieved through combined modalities could enable researchers to better track diverse physiological and structural events, analyze biodistribution and treatment efficacy, and compare established and emerging modalities. Higher-order multimodal approaches stand to benefit from molecular imaging probes and, in recent years, contrast agents that have hypermodal characteristics have increasingly been reported in preclinical studies. Given the chemical requirements for contrast agents representing various modalities to be integrated into a single entity, the higher-order multimodal agents reported so far tend to be of nanoparticulate form. To date, the majority of reported nanoparticles have included components that are active for magnetic resonance. Herein, recent progress in higher-order multimodal imaging agents is reviewed, spanning a range of material and structural classes, and demonstrating utility in three (or more) imaging modalities.

  2. Advanced imaging in valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    Although echocardiography remains the mainstay imaging technique for the evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), innovations in noninvasive imaging in the past few years have provided new insights into the pathophysiology and quantification of VHD, early detection of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and advanced prognostic assessment. The severity grading of valve dysfunction has been refined with the use of Doppler echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and CT imaging. LV ejection fraction remains an important criterion when deciding whether patients should be referred for surgery. However, echocardiographic strain imaging can now detect impaired LV systolic function before LV ejection fraction reduces, thus provoking the debate on whether patients with severe VHD should be referred for surgery at an earlier stage (before symptom onset). Impaired LV strain correlates with the amount of myocardial fibrosis detected with CMR techniques. Furthermore, accumulating data show that the extent of fibrosis associated with severe VHD has important prognostic implications. The present Review focuses on using these novel imaging modalities to assess pathophysiology, early LV dysfunction, and prognosis of major VHDs, including aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation, and aortic regurgitation.

  3. Advanced EVA Capabilities: A Study for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study carried out as part of NASA s Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Program examining the future technology needs of extravehicular activities (EVAs). The intent of this study is to produce a comprehensive report that identifies various design concepts for human-related advanced EVA systems necessary to achieve the goals of supporting future space exploration and development customers in free space and on planetary surfaces for space missions in the post-2020 timeframe. The design concepts studied and evaluated are not limited to anthropomorphic space suits, but include a wide range of human-enhancing EVA technologies as well as consideration of coordination and integration with advanced robotics. The goal of the study effort is to establish a baseline technology "road map" that identifies and describes an investment and technical development strategy, including recommendations that will lead to future enhanced synergistic human/robot EVA operations. The eventual use of this study effort is to focus evolving performance capabilities of various EVA system elements toward the goal of providing high performance human operational capabilities for a multitude of future space applications and destinations. The data collected for this study indicate a rich and diverse history of systems that have been developed to perform a variety of EVA tasks, indicating what is possible. However, the data gathered for this study also indicate a paucity of new concepts and technologies for advanced EVA missions - at least any that researchers are willing to discuss in this type of forum.

  4. A Radiological Image Processing Facility and some of its Three-Dimensional Data Manipulation Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H.K.; Mankovich, Nicholas J.; Chuang, K.S.; Papin, Patrick; Lo, S. B.; Wong, C. K.; Hernandez-Armas, Jose

    1983-01-01

    In anticipation of the arrival of a digital radiology department, a dedicated image processing laboratory has been established within the Department of Radiological Sciences, UCLA. This laboratory consists of a multiple user computer, an image processor, a communication system, and an image mass storage device. Three major areas of activities in the laboratory are the development of a radiological image archiving and communication system, installation of a multiple digital viewing station, and research on picture processing techniques to enhance the image diagnostic value. This paper describes the system configuration of the laboratory and some of its capabilities in manipulating three-dimensional medical images. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4

  5. The Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation Capabilities Available as a National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. The ATR is a very versatile facility with a wide variety of experimental test capabilities for providing the environment needed in an irradiation experiment. These capabilities include simple capsule experiments, instrumented and/or temperature-controlled experiments, and pressurized water loop experiment facilities. Monitoring systems have also been utilized to monitor different parameters such as fission gases for fuel experiments, to measure specimen performance during irradiation. ATR’s control system provides a stable axial flux profile throughout each reactor operating cycle, and allows the thermal and fast neutron fluxes to be controlled separately in different sections of the core. The ATR irradiation positions vary in diameter from 16 mm to 127 mm over an active core height of 1.2 m. This paper discusses the different irradiation capabilities with examples of different experiments and the cost/benefit issues related to each capability. The recent designation of ATR as a national scientific user facility will make the ATR much more accessible at very low to no cost for research by universities and possibly commercial entities.

  6. Advances in Engine Test Capabilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter M.; Panek, Joseph W.; Dicki, Dennis J.; Piendl, Barry R.; Lizanich, Paul J.; Klann, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center is one of the premier U.S. facilities for research on advanced aeropropulsion systems. The facility can simulate a wide range of altitude and Mach number conditions while supplying the aeropropulsion system with all the support services necessary to operate at those conditions. Test data are recorded on a combination of steady-state and highspeed data-acquisition systems. Recently a number of upgrades were made to the facility to meet demanding new requirements for the latest aeropropulsion concepts and to improve operational efficiency. Improvements were made to data-acquisition systems, facility and engine-control systems, test-condition simulation systems, video capture and display capabilities, and personnel training procedures. This paper discusses the facility s capabilities, recent upgrades, and planned future improvements.

  7. Recent advances in imaging preterm brain injury.

    PubMed

    Boardman, J P; Dyet, L E

    2007-08-01

    Survivors of preterm birth are at high risk of neurocognitive impairment in childhood, but the disturbances to brain growth and function that underlie impairment are not completely understood. Improvements in perinatal care have led to a reduction in the major destructive parenchymal brain lesions that are associated with motor impairment, such as cystic periventricular leucomalacia and haemorrhagic parenchymal infarction. However, with the application of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and processing techniques in the neonatal period, subtle alterations in brain development have become apparent. These changes occur with similar frequency to long-term neurocognitive impairment, and may therefore represent candidate neural substrates for this group of disorders. Here we review the range of lesions and associated outcomes that are seen in the current era of perinatal care, and discuss how state of the art MR imaging techniques have helped to define the neural systems affected by preterm birth, and have provided insights into understanding mechanisms of injury.

  8. Advanced methods in synthetic aperture radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    For over 50 years our world has been mapped and measured with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). A SAR system operates by transmitting a series of wideband radio-frequency pulses towards the ground and recording the resulting backscattered electromagnetic waves as the system travels along some one-dimensional trajectory. By coherently processing the recorded backscatter over this extended aperture, one can form a high-resolution 2D intensity map of the ground reflectivity, which we call a SAR image. The trajectory, or synthetic aperture, is achieved by mounting the radar on an aircraft, spacecraft, or even on the roof of a car traveling down the road, and allows for a diverse set of applications and measurement techniques for remote sensing applications. It is quite remarkable that the sub-centimeter positioning precision and sub-nanosecond timing precision required to make this work properly can in fact be achieved under such real-world, often turbulent, vibrationally intensive conditions. Although the basic principles behind SAR imaging and interferometry have been known for decades, in recent years an explosion of data exploitation techniques enabled by ever-faster computational horsepower have enabled some remarkable advances. Although SAR images are often viewed as simple intensity maps of ground reflectivity, SAR is also an exquisitely sensitive coherent imaging modality with a wealth of information buried within the phase information in the image. Some of the examples featured in this presentation will include: (1) Interferometric SAR, where by comparing the difference in phase between two SAR images one can measure subtle changes in ground topography at the wavelength scale. (2) Change detection, in which carefully geolocated images formed from two different passes are compared. (3) Multi-pass 3D SAR tomography, where multiple trajectories can be used to form 3D images. (4) Moving Target Indication (MTI), in which Doppler effects allow one to detect and

  9. Characterization of the Temperature Capabilities of Advanced Disk Alloy ME3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter T.; OConnor, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    The successful development of an advanced powder metallurgy disk alloy, ME3, was initiated in the NASA High Speed Research/Enabling Propulsion Materials (HSR/EPM) Compressor/Turbine Disk program in cooperation with General Electric Engine Company and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Engines. This alloy was designed using statistical screening and optimization of composition and processing variables to have extended durability at 1200 F in large disks. Disks of this alloy were produced at the conclusion of the program using a realistic scaled-up disk shape and processing to enable demonstration of these properties. The objective of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technologies disk program was to assess the mechanical properties of these ME3 disks as functions of temperature in order to estimate the maximum temperature capabilities of this advanced alloy. These disks were sectioned, machined into specimens, and extensively tested. Additional sub-scale disks and blanks were processed and selectively tested to explore the effects of several processing variations on mechanical properties. Results indicate the baseline ME3 alloy and process can produce 1300 to 1350 F temperature capabilities, dependent on detailed disk and engine design property requirements.

  10. Advanced simulation capability for environmental management - current status and future applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, Mark; Scheibe, Timothy; Robinson, Bruce; Moulton, J. David; Dixon, Paul; Marble, Justin; Gerdes, Kurt; Stockton, Tom; Seitz, Roger; Black, Paul

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater (EM-12), is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach that is currently aimed at understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. ASCEM is a modular and open source high-performance computing tool. It will be used to facilitate integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization, and provide robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of capabilities, with current emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Tool-sets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) multi-process simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, tool-sets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The integration of the Platform and HPC capabilities were tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities in 2012. The current maturity of the ASCEM computational and analysis capabilities has afforded the opportunity for collaborative efforts to develop decision analysis tools to support and optimize radioactive waste disposal. Recent advances in computerized decision analysis frameworks provide the perfect opportunity to bring this capability into ASCEM. This will allow radioactive waste

  11. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the Advanced Test Reactor Remote Monitoring and Management Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Bohachek, Randolph Charles

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR; TRA-670), which is located in the ATR Complex at Idaho National Laboratory, was constructed in the 1960s for the purpose of irradiating reactor fuels and materials. Other irradiation services, such as radioisotope production, are also performed at ATR. While ATR is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, assessments are continuing. These assessments intend to identify areas to provide defense–in-depth and improve safety for ATR. One of the assessments performed by an independent group of nuclear industry experts recommended that a remote accident management capability be provided. The report stated that: “contemporary practice in commercial power reactors is to provide a remote shutdown station or stations to allow shutdown of the reactor and management of long-term cooling of the reactor (i.e., management of reactivity, inventory, and cooling) should the main control room be disabled (e.g., due to a fire in the control room or affecting the control room).” This project will install remote reactor monitoring and management capabilities for ATR. Remote capabilities will allow for post scram reactor management and monitoring in the event the main Reactor Control Room (RCR) must be evacuated.

  12. A Ground Testbed to Advance US Capability in Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This project will advance the Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) GNC system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of testing it in IPAS with the Waypoint L2 AR&D scenario. The entire Agency supports development of a Commodity for Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (CARD) as outlined in the Agency-wide Community of Practice whitepaper entitled: "A Strategy for the U.S. to Develop and Maintain a Mainstream Capability for Automated/Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking in Low Earth Orbit and Beyond". The whitepaper establishes that 1) the US is in a continual state of AR&D point-designs and therefore there is no US "off-the-shelf" AR&D capability in existence today, 2) the US has fallen behind our foreign counterparts particularly in the autonomy of AR&D systems, 3) development of an AR&D commodity is a national need that would benefit NASA, our commercial partners, and DoD, and 4) an initial estimate indicates that the development of a standardized AR&D capability could save the US approximately $60M for each AR&D project and cut each project's AR&D flight system implementation time in half.

  13. Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Miles Q.; Pfeiffer, Joel E.; Sparks, Andrew W.; Jim, Kevin T. C.; Yoon, Dugan

    2002-11-01

    The design, operation, and performance of the fourth generation of Science and Technology International's Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors (AAHIS) are described. These imaging spectrometers have a variable bandwidth ranging from 390-840 nm. A three-axis image stabilization provides spatially and spectrally coherent imagery by damping most of the airborne platform's random motion. A wide 40-degree field of view coupled with sub-pixel detection allows for a large area coverage rate. A software controlled variable aperture, spectral shaping filters, and high quantum efficiency, back-illuminated CCD's contribute to the excellent sensitivity of the sensors. AAHIS sensors have been operated on a variety of fixed and rotary wing platforms, achieving ground-sampling distances ranging from 6.5 cm to 2 m. While these sensors have been primarily designed for use over littoral zones, they are able to operate over both land and water. AAHIS has been used for detecting and locating submarines, mines, tanks, divers, camouflage and disturbed earth. Civilian applications include search and rescue on land and at sea, agricultural analysis, environmental time-series, coral reef assessment, effluent plume detection, coastal mapping, damage assessment, and seasonal whale population monitoring

  14. Advanced Test Reactor -- Testing Capabilities and Plans AND Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility -- Partnerships and Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall

    2008-07-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world’s premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The physical configuration of the ATR, a 4-leaf clover shape, allows the reactor to be operated at different power levels in the corner “lobes” to allow for different testing conditions for multiple simultaneous experiments. The combination of high flux (maximum thermal neutron fluxes of 1E15 neutrons per square centimeter per second and maximum fast [E>1.0 MeV] neutron fluxes of 5E14 neutrons per square centimeter per second) and large test volumes (up to 122 cm long and 12.7 cm diameter) provide unique testing opportunities. For future research, some ATR modifications and enhancements are currently planned. In 2007 the US Department of Energy designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper provides more details on some of the ATR capabilities, key design features, experiments, and plans for the NSUF.

  15. Advanced MR Imaging in Pediatric Brain Tumors, Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lequin, Maarten; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2017-02-01

    Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as spectroscopy, perfusion, diffusion, and functional imaging, have improved the diagnosis of brain tumors in children and also play an important role in defining surgical as well as therapeutic responses in these patients. In addition to the anatomic or structural information gained with conventional MR imaging sequences, advanced MR imaging techniques also provide physiologic information about tumor morphology, metabolism, and hemodynamics. This article reviews the physiology, techniques, and clinical applications of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion MR imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and functional MR imaging in the setting of neuro-oncology.

  16. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kenneth A; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology.

  17. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shengyong; Zhao, Mingzhu; Wu, Guang; Yao, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed. PMID:22272215

  18. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kenneth A.; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  19. Monitoring of Ebola Virus Makona Evolution through Establishment of Advanced Genomic Capability in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Wiley, Michael R; Mate, Suzanne; Ladner, Jason T; Beitzel, Brett; Fakoli, Lawrence; Taweh, Fahn; Prieto, Karla; Diclaro, Joseph W; Minogue, Timothy; Schoepp, Randal J; Schaecher, Kurt E; Pettitt, James; Bateman, Stacey; Fair, Joseph; Kuhn, Jens H; Hensley, Lisa; Park, Daniel J; Sabeti, Pardis C; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Bolay, Fatorma K; Palacios, Gustavo

    2015-07-01

    To support Liberia's response to the ongoing Ebola virus (EBOV) disease epidemic in Western Africa, we established in-country advanced genomic capabilities to monitor EBOV evolution. Twenty-five EBOV genomes were sequenced at the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, which provided an in-depth view of EBOV diversity in Liberia during September 2014-February 2015. These sequences were consistent with a single virus introduction to Liberia; however, shared ancestry with isolates from Mali indicated at least 1 additional instance of movement into or out of Liberia. The pace of change is generally consistent with previous estimates of mutation rate. We observed 23 nonsynonymous mutations and 1 nonsense mutation. Six of these changes are within known binding sites for sequence-based EBOV medical countermeasures; however, the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of EBOV evolution within Liberia appears to be low.

  20. Time-temperature-stress capabilities of composite materials for advanced supersonic technology application, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, J. R.; Haskins, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Implementation of metal and resin matrix composites into supersonic vehicle usage is contingent upon accelerating the demonstration of service capacity and design technology. Because of the added material complexity and lack of extensive service data, laboratory replication of the flight service will provide the most rapid method of documenting the airworthiness of advanced composite systems. A program in progress to determine the time temperature stress capabilities of several high temperature composite materials includes thermal aging, environmental aging, fatigue, creep, fracture, and tensile tests as well as real time flight simulation exposure. The program has two parts. The first includes all the material property determinations and aging and simulation exposures up through 10,000 hours. The second continues these tests up to 50,000 cumulative hours. Results are presented of the 10,000 hour phase, which has now been completed.

  1. Recent advances in human viruses imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Florian, Paula Ecaterina; Rouillé, Yves; Ruta, Simona; Nichita, Norica; Roseanu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    Microscopy techniques are often exploited by virologists to investigate molecular details of critical steps in viruses' life cycles such as host cell recognition and entry, genome replication, intracellular trafficking, and release of mature virions. Fluorescence microscopy is the most attractive tool employed to detect intracellular localizations of various stages of the viral infection and monitor the pathogen-host interactions associated with them. Super-resolution microscopy techniques have overcome the technical limitations of conventional microscopy and offered new exciting insights into the formation and trafficking of human viruses. In addition, the development of state-of-the art electron microscopy techniques has become particularly important in studying virus morphogenesis by revealing ground-braking ultrastructural details of this process. This review provides recent advances in human viruses imaging in both, in vitro cell culture systems and in vivo, in the animal models recently developed. The newly available imaging technologies bring a major contribution to our understanding of virus pathogenesis and will become an important tool in early diagnosis of viral infection and the development of novel therapeutics to combat the disease.

  2. Advanced Mesh-Enabled Monte carlo capability for Multi-Physics Reactor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Paul; Evans, Thomas; Tautges, Tim

    2012-12-24

    This project will accumulate high-precision fluxes throughout reactor geometry on a non- orthogonal grid of cells to support multi-physics coupling, in order to more accurately calculate parameters such as reactivity coefficients and to generate multi-group cross sections. This work will be based upon recent developments to incorporate advanced geometry and mesh capability in a modular Monte Carlo toolkit with computational science technology that is in use in related reactor simulation software development. Coupling this capability with production-scale Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can provide advanced and extensible test-beds for these developments. Continuous energy Monte Carlo methods are generally considered to be the most accurate computational tool for simulating radiation transport in complex geometries, particularly neutron transport in reactors. Nevertheless, there are several limitations for their use in reactor analysis. Most significantly, there is a trade-off between the fidelity of results in phase space, statistical accuracy, and the amount of computer time required for simulation. Consequently, to achieve an acceptable level of statistical convergence in high-fidelity results required for modern coupled multi-physics analysis, the required computer time makes Monte Carlo methods prohibitive for design iterations and detailed whole-core analysis. More subtly, the statistical uncertainty is typically not uniform throughout the domain, and the simulation quality is limited by the regions with the largest statistical uncertainty. In addition, the formulation of neutron scattering laws in continuous energy Monte Carlo methods makes it difficult to calculate adjoint neutron fluxes required to properly determine important reactivity parameters. Finally, most Monte Carlo codes available for reactor analysis have relied on orthogonal hexahedral grids for tallies that do not conform to the geometric boundaries and are thus generally not well

  3. Advancing Capabilities for Understanding the Earth System Through Intelligent Systems, the NSF Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.; Zanzerkia, E. E.; Munoz-Avila, H.

    2015-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) and Directorate for Computer and Information Science (CISE) acknowledge the significant scientific challenges required to understand the fundamental processes of the Earth system, within the atmospheric and geospace, Earth, ocean and polar sciences, and across those boundaries. A broad view of the opportunities and directions for GEO are described in the report "Dynamic Earth: GEO imperative and Frontiers 2015-2020." Many of the aspects of geosciences research, highlighted both in this document and other community grand challenges, pose novel problems for researchers in intelligent systems. Geosciences research will require solutions for data-intensive science, advanced computational capabilities, and transformative concepts for visualizing, using, analyzing and understanding geo phenomena and data. Opportunities for the scientific community to engage in addressing these challenges are available and being developed through NSF's portfolio of investments and activities. The NSF-wide initiative, Cyberinfrastructure Framework for 21st Century Science and Engineering (CIF21), looks to accelerate research and education through new capabilities in data, computation, software and other aspects of cyberinfrastructure. EarthCube, a joint program between GEO and the Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Division, aims to create a well-connected and facile environment to share data and knowledge in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner, thus accelerating our ability to understand and predict the Earth system. EarthCube's mission opens an opportunity for collaborative research on novel information systems enhancing and supporting geosciences research efforts. NSF encourages true, collaborative partnerships between scientists in computer sciences and the geosciences to meet these challenges.

  4. An Overview of Advanced Elastomeric Seal Development and Testing Capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced space-rated elastomeric seals to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and other destinations. This includes seals for a new docking system and vehicle hatches. These seals must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow the sealed interface to be separated when required (e.g., during undocking or hatch opening). NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a number of unique test fixtures to measure the leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate seal designs under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed on full-scale seals with diameters on the order of 50 in., subscale seals that are about 12 in. in diameter, and smaller specimens such as O-rings. Test conditions include temperatures ranging from -238 to 662 F (-150 to 350 C), operational pressure gradients, and seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange mating configurations. Nominal and off-nominal conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features and capabilities of each type of test apparatus and provides an overview of advanced seal development activities at NASA Glenn.

  5. An Overview of Advanced Elastomeric Seal Development and Testing Capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced space-rated elastomeric seals to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and other destinations. This includes seals for a new docking system and vehicle hatches. These seals must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow the sealed interface to be separated when required (e.g., during undocking or hatch opening). NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a number of unique test fixtures to measure the leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate seal designs under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed on full-scale seals with diameters on the order of 50 in., subscale seals that are about 12 in. in diameter, and smaller specimens such as O-rings. Test conditions include temperatures ranging from -238 to +662F (-150 to +350C), operational pressure gradients, and seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange mating configurations. Nominal and off-nominal conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features and capabilities of each test apparatus and provides an overview of advanced seal development activities at NASA Glenn.

  6. An Overview of Advanced Elastomeric Seal Development and Testing Capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced space-rated elastomeric seals to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and other destinations. This includes seals for a new docking system and vehicle hatches. These seals must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow the sealed interface to be separated when required (e.g., during undocking or hatch opening). NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a number of unique test fixtures to measure the leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate seal designs under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed on fullscale seals with diameters on the order of 50 in., subscale seals that are about 12 in. in diameter, and smaller specimens such as O-rings. Test conditions include temperatures ranging from -238 to 662degF (-150 to 350degC), operational pressure gradients, and seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange mating configurations. Nominal and off-nominal conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features and capabilities of each type of test apparatus and provides an overview of advanced seal development activities at NASA Glenn.

  7. Time-temperature-stress capabilities of composite materials for advanced supersonic technology application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, James R.; Haskins, James F.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced composites will play a key role in the development of the technology for the design and fabrication of future supersonic vehicles. However, incorporating the material into vehicle usage is contingent on accelerating the demonstration of service capacity and design technology. Because of the added material complexity and lack of extensive data, laboratory replication of the flight service will provide the most rapid method to document the airworthiness of advanced composite systems. Consequently, a laboratory program was conducted to determine the time-temperature-stress capabilities of several high temperature composites. Tests included were thermal aging, environmental aging, fatigue, creep, fracture, tensile, and real-time flight simulation exposure. The program had two phases. The first included all the material property determinations and aging and simulation exposures up through 10,000 hours. The second continued these tests up to 50,000 cumulative hours. This report presents the results of the Phase 1 baseline and 10,000-hr aging and flight simulation studies, the Phase 2 50,000-hr aging studies, and the Phase 2 flight simulation tests, some of which extended to almost 40,000 hours.

  8. Multi-imaging capabilities of a 2D diffraction grating in combination with digital holography.

    PubMed

    Paturzo, Melania; Merola, Francesco; Ferraro, Pietro

    2010-04-01

    In this Letter we report on an alternative approach to get multiple images in microscopy, exploiting the capabilities of both a lithium niobate diffraction grating and digital holographic technique. We demonstrate that multi-imaging can be achieved in a lensless configuration by using a hexagonal diffraction grating but overcoming, thanks to digital holography (DH), the many constrains imposed by the grating parameters in multi-imaging with Talbot effect or Talbot array illuminators. In fact, DH permits the numerical reconstruction of the optical field diffracted by the grating, thus obtaining in-focus multiple images in a plane different from the fractional or entire Talbot ones.

  9. Advances in diagnostic imaging for pathologic conditions of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Benson, Byron W; Flint, Diane J; Liang, Hui; Opatowsky, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in dental and maxillofacial imaging are delineated along with the advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality. The imaging modalities that are included are intraoral radiography, panoramic radiography, cone-beam computed tomography, multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine, and ultrasound.

  10. AXIOM: Advanced X-Ray Imaging of the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sembay, S. F.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sibeck, D. G.; Abbey, A.; Brown, P.; Carter, J. A.; Carr, C. M.; Forsyth, C.; Kataria, D.; Kemble, S.; Milan, S. E.; Owen, C. J.; Peacocke, L.; Read, A. M.; Coates, A. J.; Collier, M. R.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Fraser, G. W.; Jones, G. H.; Lallement, R.; Lester, M.; Porter, F. S.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Planetary plasma and magnetic field environments can be studied in two complementary ways by in situ measurements, or by remote sensing. While the former provide precise information about plasma behaviour, instabilities and dynamics on local scales, the latter offers the global view necessary to understand the overall interaction of the magnetospheric plasma with the solar wind. Some parts of the Earth's magnetosphere have been remotely sensed, but the majority remains unexplored by this type of measurements. Here we propose a novel and more elegant approach employing remote X-ray imaging techniques, which are now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange X-ray emissions in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere. In this article we describe how an appropriately designed and located X-ray telescope, supported by simultaneous in situ measurements of the solar wind, can be used to image the dayside magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock, with a temporal and spatial resolution sufficient to address several key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere on a global level. Global images of the dayside magnetospheric boundaries require vantage points well outside the magnetosphere. Our studies have led us to propose AXIOM: Advanced X-ray Imaging Of the Magnetosphere, a concept mission using a Vega launcher with a LISA Pathfinder-type Propulsion Module to place the spacecraft in a Lissajous orbit around the Earth Moon L1 point. The model payload consists of an X-ray Wide Field Imager, capable of both imaging and spectroscopy, and an in situ plasma and magnetic field measurement package. This package comprises a Proton-Alpha Sensor, designed to measure the bulk properties of the solar wind, an Ion Composition Analyser, to characterize the minor ion populations in the solar wind that cause charge exchange emission, and a Magnetometer, designed to measure the strength and direction

  11. AXIOM: Advanced X-ray Imaging of the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sembay, S. F.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sibeck, D. G.; Abbey, A.; Brown, P.; Carter, J. A.; Carr, C. M.; Forsyth, C.; Kataria, D.; Kemble, S.; Milan, S. E.; Owen, C. J.; Peacocke, L.; Read, A. M.; Coates, A. J.; Collier, M. R.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Fraser, G. W.; Jones, G. H.; Lallement, R.; Lester, M.; Porter, F. S.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    Planetary plasma and magnetic field environments can be studied in two complementary ways - by in situ measurements, or by remote sensing. While the former provide precise information about plasma behaviour, instabilities and dynamics on local scales, the latter offers the global view necessary to understand the overall interaction of the magnetospheric plasma with the solar wind. Some parts of the Earth's magnetosphere have been remotely sensed, but the majority remains unexplored by this type of measurements. Here we propose a novel and more elegant approach employing remote X-ray imaging techniques. which are now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange X-ray emissions in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere. In this article we describe how an appropriately designed and located. X-ray telescope, supported by simultaneous in situ measurements of the solar wind, can be used to image the dayside magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock. with a temporal and spatial resolution sufficient to address several key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere on a global level. Global images of the dayside magnetospheric boundaries require vantage points well outside the magnetosphere. Our studies have led us to propose 'AXIOM: Advanced X-ray Imaging Of the Magnetosphere', a concept mission using a Vega launcher with a LISA Pathfinder-type Propulsion Module to place the spacecraft in a Lissajous orbit around the Earth - Moon Ll point. The model payload consists of an X-ray Wide Field Imager, capable of both imaging and spectroscopy, and an in situ plasma and magnetic field measurement package. This package comprises a Proton-Alpha Sensor, designed to measure the bulk properties of the solar wind, an Ion Composition Analyser, to characterize the minor ion populations in the solar wind that cause charge exchange emission, and a Magnetometer, designed to measure the strength and

  12. Using superconducting undulator for enhanced imaging capabilities of MaRIE

    SciTech Connect

    Yampolsky, Nikolai

    2016-09-22

    MaRIE x-ray free electron laser (FEL) is envisioned to deliver a burst of closely spaced in time pulses for enabling the capability of studying the dynamic processes in a sample. MaRIE capability can be largely enhanced using the superconducting undulator, which has the capability of doubling its period. This technology will allow reaching the photon energy as low as ~200-500 eV. As a result, the MaRIE facility will have a broader photon energy range enabling a larger variety of experiments. The soft x-ray capability is more likely to achieve the 3D imaging of dynamic processes in noncrystal materials than the hard x-ray capability alone.

  13. A deep tissue fluorescence imaging system with enhanced SHG detection capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Crosignani, Viera; Jahid, Sohail; Dvornikov, Alexander S.; Gratton, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel two-photon fluorescence microscopy system capable of producing high quality SHG images in thick turbid media by using an innovative detection system. This novel detection system is capable of detecting photons from a very large surface area. This system has proven effective in providing images of thick turbid samples, both biological and artificial. Due to its transmission detection geometry, the system is particularly suitable for detecting second harmonic generated signals (SHG) which are generally forward directed. In this paper we present comparative data acquired simultaneously on the same sample with the forward and epi-detection schemes. PMID:24610799

  14. Advanced Imaging Catheter: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Krulevitch, P; Colston, B; DaSilva, L; Hilken, D; Kluiwstra, J U; Lee, A P; London, R; Miles, R; Schumann, D; Seward, K; Wang, A

    2001-07-20

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is an approach whereby procedures conventionally performed with large and potentially traumatic incisions are replaced by several tiny incisions through which specialized instruments are inserted. Early MIS, often called laparoscopic surgery, used video cameras and laparoscopes to visualize and control the medical devices, which were typically cutting or stapling tools. More recently, catheter-based procedures have become a fast growing sector of all surgeries. In these procedures, small incisions are made into one of the main arteries (e.g. femoral artery in the thigh), and a long thin hollow tube is inserted and positioned near the target area. The key advantage of this technique is that recovery time can be reduced from months to a matter of days. In the United States, over 700,000 catheter procedures are performed annually representing a market of over $350 million. Further growth in this area will require significant improvements in the current catheter technology. In order to effectively navigate a catheter through the tortuous vessels of the body, two capabilities must exist: imaging and positioning. In most cases, catheter procedures rely on radiography for visualization and manual manipulation for positioning of the device. Radiography provides two-dimensional, global images of the vasculature and cannot be used continuously due to radiation exposure to both the patient and physician. Intravascular ultrasound devices are available for continuous local imaging at the catheter tip, but these devices cannot be used simultaneously with therapeutic devices. Catheters are highly compliant devices, and manipulating the catheter is similar to pushing on a string. Often, a guide wire is used to help position the catheter, but this procedure has its own set of problems. Three characteristics are used to describe catheter maneuverability: (1) pushability -- the amount of linear displacement of the distal end (inside body) relative to

  15. Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2002-01-01

    A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

  16. Advanced Image Intensifier: a 60°field-of-view night vision system with integral electroluminescent display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crenshaw, David A.; Branigan, Robert G.

    1996-06-01

    The Advanced Image Intensifier Advanced Technology Demonstrator is an Army program to develop and demonstrate the next generation of night vision goggle using revolutionary new technologies to improve system performance and expand the capability of currently fielded image intensifier devices. The Advanced Image Intensifier is a helmet mounted imaging and display system that exploits recent advances in diffractive optics, miniature flat panel displays, image intensifier tube technology and manufacturing processes. The system will demonstrate significantly enhanced operational performance by increasing low-light resolution by greater than 25 percent; increasing field of view from 40 degrees to 60 degrees; improving high light performance; and integrating a display for viewing thermal imagery, computer graphics, and symbology. The results of these improvements will increase the night fighting capability, operational effectiveness, mobilty, versatility, and survivability of the dismounted soldier and aviator.

  17. Methodological advances in imaging intravital axonal transport

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, James N.; Vagnoni, Alessio; Twelvetrees, Alison E.; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2017-01-01

    Axonal transport is the active process whereby neurons transport cargoes such as organelles and proteins anterogradely from the cell body to the axon terminal and retrogradely in the opposite direction. Bi-directional transport in axons is absolutely essential for the functioning and survival of neurons and appears to be negatively impacted by both aging and diseases of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The movement of individual cargoes along axons has been studied in vitro in live neurons and tissue explants for a number of years; however, it is currently unclear as to whether these systems faithfully and consistently replicate the in vivo situation. A number of intravital techniques originally developed for studying diverse biological events have recently been adapted to monitor axonal transport in real-time in a range of live organisms and are providing novel insight into this dynamic process. Here, we highlight these methodological advances in intravital imaging of axonal transport, outlining key strengths and limitations while discussing findings, possible improvements, and outstanding questions. PMID:28344778

  18. Methodological advances in imaging intravital axonal transport.

    PubMed

    Sleigh, James N; Vagnoni, Alessio; Twelvetrees, Alison E; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2017-01-01

    Axonal transport is the active process whereby neurons transport cargoes such as organelles and proteins anterogradely from the cell body to the axon terminal and retrogradely in the opposite direction. Bi-directional transport in axons is absolutely essential for the functioning and survival of neurons and appears to be negatively impacted by both aging and diseases of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The movement of individual cargoes along axons has been studied in vitro in live neurons and tissue explants for a number of years; however, it is currently unclear as to whether these systems faithfully and consistently replicate the in vivo situation. A number of intravital techniques originally developed for studying diverse biological events have recently been adapted to monitor axonal transport in real-time in a range of live organisms and are providing novel insight into this dynamic process. Here, we highlight these methodological advances in intravital imaging of axonal transport, outlining key strengths and limitations while discussing findings, possible improvements, and outstanding questions.

  19. Rodent Habitat on ISS: Advances in Capability for Determining Spaceflight Effects on Mammalian Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Ronca, A.; Taylor, E.; Beegle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Rodent research is a valuable essential tool for advancing biomedical discoveries in life sciences on Earth and in space. The National Research Counsel's Decadal survey (1) emphasized the importance of expanding NASAs life sciences research to perform long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, new flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities were developed at NASA ARC to support commercial and government-sponsored research. The flight phases of two separate spaceflight missions (Rodent Research-1 and Rodent Research-2) have been completed and new capabilities are in development. The first flight experiments carrying 20 mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4; Rodent Research-1 was dedicated to achieving both NASA validation and CASIS science objectives, while Rodent Reesearch-2 extended the period on orbit to 60 days. Groundbased control groups (housed in flight hardware or standard cages) were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Crewmembers previously trained in animal handling transferred mice from the Transporter into Habitats under simultaneous veterinary supervision by video streaming and were deemed healthy. Health and behavior of all mice on the ISS was monitored by video feed on a daily basis, and post-flight quantitative analyses of behavior were performed. The 10 mice from RR-1 Validation (16wk old, female C57Bl6/J) ambulated freely and actively throughout the Habitat, relying heavily on their forelimbs for locomotion. The first on-orbit dissections of mice were performed successfully, and high quality RNA (RIN values>9) and liver enzyme activities were obtained, validating the quality of sample recovery. Post-flight sample analysis revealed that body weights of FLT animals did not differ from ground controls (GC) housed in the same hardware, or vivarium controls (VIV) housed in standard cages. Organ weights analyzed post

  20. Security protection of DICOM medical images using dual-layer reversible watermarking with tamper detection capability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chun Kiat; Ng, Jason Changwei; Xu, Xiaotian; Poh, Chueh Loo; Guan, Yong Liang; Sheah, Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    Teleradiology applications and universal availability of patient records using web-based technology are rapidly gaining importance. Consequently, digital medical image security has become an important issue when images and their pertinent patient information are transmitted across public networks, such as the Internet. Health mandates such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act require healthcare providers to adhere to security measures in order to protect sensitive patient information. This paper presents a fully reversible, dual-layer watermarking scheme with tamper detection capability for medical images. The scheme utilizes concepts of public-key cryptography and reversible data-hiding technique. The scheme was tested using medical images in DICOM format. The results show that the scheme is able to ensure image authenticity and integrity, and to locate tampered regions in the images.

  1. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) utilizing Man-Tended Capability (MTC) hardware onboard Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M.; Barratt, M.; Lloyd, C.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the time and distance involved in returning a patient from space to a definitive medical care facility, the capability for Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) exists onboard Space Station Freedom. Methods: In order to evaluate the effectiveness of terrestrial ACLS protocols in microgravity, a medical team conducted simulations during parabolic flights onboard the KC-135 aircraft. The hardware planned for use during the MTC phase of the space station was utilized to increase the fidelity of the scenario and to evaluate the prototype equipment. Based on initial KC-135 testing of CPR and ACLS, changes were made to the ventricular fibrillation algorithm in order to accommodate the space environment. Other constraints to delivery of ACLS onboard the space station include crew size, minimum training, crew deconditioning, and limited supplies and equipment. Results: The delivery of ACLS in microgravity is hindered by the environment, but should be adequate. Factors specific to microgravity were identified for inclusion in the protocol including immediate restraint of the patient and early intubation to insure airway. External cardiac compressions of adequate force and frequency were administered using various methods. The more significant limiting factors appear to be crew training, crew size, and limited supplies. Conclusions: Although ACLS is possible in the microgravity environment, future evaluations are necessary to further refine the protocols. Proper patient and medical officer restraint is crucial prior to advanced procedures. Also emphasis should be placed on early intubation for airway management and drug administration. Preliminary results and further testing will be utilized in the design of medical hardware, determination of crew training, and medical operations for space station and beyond.

  2. Advances in superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI)

    PubMed Central

    Dertinger, Thomas; Pallaoro, Alessia; Braun, Gary; Ly, Sonny; Laurence, Ted A.; Weiss, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    We review the concept of superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI), discuss its attributes and trade-offs (in comparison with other superresolution methods), and present superresolved images taken on samples stained with quantum dots, organic dyes, and plasmonic metal nanoparticles. We also discuss the prospects of SOFI for live cell superresolution imaging and for imaging with other (non-fluorescent) contrasts. PMID:23672771

  3. Advanced x-ray imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, John L. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An x-ray spectrometer that also provides images of an x-ray source. Coded aperture imaging techniques are used to provide high resolution images. Imaging position-sensitive x-ray sensors with good energy resolution are utilized to provide excellent spectroscopic performance. The system produces high resolution spectral images of the x-ray source which can be viewed in any one of a number of specific energy bands.

  4. Workshop on the Use of Future Multispectral Imaging Capabilities for Lithologic Mapping: Workshop summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settle, M.; Adams, J.

    1982-01-01

    Improved orbital imaging capabilities from the standpoint of different scientific disciplines, such as geology, botany, hydrology, and geography were evaluated. A discussion on how geologists might exploit the anticipated measurement capabilities of future orbital imaging systems to discriminate and characterize different types of geologic materials exposed at the Earth's surface is presented. Principle objectives are to summarize past accomplishments in the use of multispectral imaging techniques for lithologic mapping; to identify critical gaps in earlier research efforts that currently limit the ability to extract useful information about the physical and chemical characteristics of geological materials from orbital multispectral surveys; and to define major thresholds, resolution and sensitivity within the visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum which, if achieved would result in significant improvement in our ability to discriminate and characterize different geological materials exposed at the Earth's surface.

  5. Advance of Molecular Imaging Technology and Targeted Imaging Agent in Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Liao, Yang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an emerging field that integrates advanced imaging technology with cellular and molecular biology. It can realize noninvasive and real time visualization, measurement of physiological or pathological process in the living organism at the cellular and molecular level, providing an effective method of information acquiring for diagnosis, therapy, and drug development and evaluating treatment of efficacy. Molecular imaging requires high resolution and high sensitive instruments and specific imaging agents that link the imaging signal with molecular event. Recently, the application of new emerging chemical technology and nanotechnology has stimulated the development of imaging agents. Nanoparticles modified with small molecule, peptide, antibody, and aptamer have been extensively applied for preclinical studies. Therapeutic drug or gene is incorporated into nanoparticles to construct multifunctional imaging agents which allow for theranostic applications. In this review, we will discuss the characteristics of molecular imaging, the novel imaging agent including targeted imaging agent and multifunctional imaging agent, as well as cite some examples of their application in molecular imaging and therapy. PMID:24689058

  6. The experimentation research of IR imaging system capability affected by sapphire window's pneumatic calefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang-peng; Pan, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yun-qiang

    2009-07-01

    In the inclement pneumatic calefaction condition, the window of IR imaging system will be calefied and emit infrared radiation, so that the Signal-to-Noise and quality of target IR image are felled off that are from the imaging system. At this rate the physical characteristic of IR window direct affect capability of imaging system controlled and guided homing by IR tracker and measure precision of target IR characteristics. The properties of sapphire make it an ideal choice for the high speed missile applications compared to other existing or emerging materials. But the research has not been reported about the infrared radiation characteristic of sapphire as the IR window. In this paper, based on an IR imaging system using the sapphire window, the experimentation and conclusions of IR thermal image measurement affected by IR window's pneumatic calefaction have been accomplished. Firstly, the temperatures of sapphire window at supersonic flight extended over 1 km and 15 km from the ground have been estimated by calculating the flow and state variables and the aerodynamic heating into the window. On the base of the results calculated the window static state calefaction experimentation and electric arc wind tunnel experimentation had been designed and completed to validate the effect degree of pneumatic calefaction to the imaging system. With the temperatures of the sapphire window rising, in the image coming from the imaging system, the peak luminance of target image detected is increased, the background average luminance of the image is also increased, and the margin of above two varies in a little range. The data obtained from the different temperature experimentation have demonstrated that the IR flux due to the sapphire window becomes heated by friction with the air and heat transfer to the dome can obscure the target image created by the onboard IR sensor, depress Signal-to-Noise and resolving power of the imaging system, but can not overload the detector.

  7. High resolution neutron imaging capabilities at BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Morgano, M.; Panzner, T.; Lehmann, E.; Filgers, U.; Vallerga, J. V.; McPhate, J. B.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Feller, W. B.

    2015-06-01

    The cold neutron spectrum of the Beamline for neutron Optics and other Applications (BOA) at Paul Scherrer Institut enables high contrast neutron imaging because neutron cross sections for many materials increase with neutron wavelength. However, for many neutron imaging applications, spatial resolution can be as important as contrast. In this paper the neutron transmission imaging capabilities of an MCP/Timepix detector installed at the BOA beamline are presented, demonstrating the possibilities for studying sub-20 μm features in various samples. In addition to conventional neutron radiography and microtomography, the high degree of neutron polarization at the BOA beamline can be very attractive for imaging of magnetic fields, as demonstrated by our measurements. We also show that a collimated cold neutron beamline combined with a high resolution detector can produce image artifacts, (e.g. edge enhancements) due to neutron refraction and scattering. The results of our experiments indicate that the BOA beamline is a valuable addition to neutron imaging facilities, providing improved and sometimes unique capabilities for non-destructive studies with cold neutrons.

  8. Optics for Advanced Neutron Imaging and Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Moncton, David E.; Khaykovich, Boris

    2016-03-30

    During the report period, we continued the work as outlined in the original proposal. We have analyzed potential optical designs of Wolter mirrors for the neutron-imaging instrument VENUS, which is under construction at SNS. In parallel, we have conducted the initial polarized imaging experiment at Helmholtz Zentrum, Berlin, one of very few of currently available polarized-imaging facilities worldwide.

  9. TerraSAR Advancements & Next Generation-Mission Capabilities Supporting GMES/Copernicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Katja; Schrage, Thomas; Janoth, Jurgen; Tinz, Marek; Thiergan, Christian

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the continuous evolution of the TerraSAR-X Mission in the context of Copernicus, previously known as GMES. From first data contracts starting in 2009, the TerraSAR-X GMES Contributing Mission (TSX-GCM) has become closely integrated with ESA's Coordinated Data Access System (CDS). TSX-GCM has continuously been working on improving data access for Copernicus users in response to new requirements on timeliness and data products: The TerraSAR ground station network has been upgraded to include Svalbard as a receiving station, and the product portfolio for TerraSAR-X has been enhanced with two new operational imaging modes, a Staring Spotlight and a Wide ScanSAR Mode. The planned TerraSAR Next Generation (TerraSAR- NG) System guarantees TerraSAR-X data and service continuity and provides advanced very high-resolution products to the user community. A partnership model, “WorldSAR”, is envisioned, where partners can participate through co-investment, subscription, and ownership of additional satellites operated in constellation.

  10. Advancing the predictive capability for pedestal structure through experiment and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Jerry

    2012-10-01

    Prospects for predictive capability of the edge pedestal in magnetic fusion devices have been dramatically enhanced due to recent research, which was conducted jointly by the US experimental and theory communities. Studies on the C-Mod, DIII-D and NSTX devices have revealed common features, including an upper limit on pedestal pressure in ELMy H-mode determined by instability to peeling-ballooning modes (PBMs), and pedestal width which scales approximately as βpol^1/2. The width dependence is consistent with a pedestal regulated by kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs). Signatures of KBMs have been actively sought both in experimental fluctuation measurements and in gyrokinetic simulations of the pedestal, with encouraging results. Studies of the temporal evolution of the pedestal during the ELM cycle reveal a tendency for the pressure gradient to saturate in advance of the ELM, with a steady growth in the pedestal width occurring prior to the ELM crash, which further supports a model for KBMs and PBMs working together to set the pedestal structure. Such a model, EPED, reproduces the pedestal height and width to better than 20% accuracy on existing devices over a range of more than 20 in pedestal pressure. Additional transport processes are assessed for their impact on pedestal structure, in particular the relative variation of the temperature and density pedestals due, for example, to differences in edge neutral sources. Such differences are observed in dimensionlessly matched discharges on C-Mod and DIII-D, despite their having similar calculated MHD stability and similar edge fluctuations. In certain high performance discharges, such as EDA H-mode, QH-mode and I-mode, pedestal relaxation is accomplished by continuous edge fluctuations, avoiding peeling-ballooning instabilities and associated ELMs. Progress in understanding these regimes will be reported.

  11. First Results On The Imaging Capabilities Of A DROID Array In The UV/Visible

    SciTech Connect

    Hijmering, R. A.; Verhoeve, P.; Martin, D. D. E.; Venn, R.

    2009-12-16

    Within the SCAM project of the European Space Agency the next step in the development of a cryogenic optical photon counting imaging spectrometer would be to increase the field of view using DROIDs (Distributed Read-Out Imaging Detector). We present the results of the first system test using an array of 60 360x33.5 {mu}m{sup 2} DROIDs in a 3x20 format for optical photon detection. This is an increase in area by a factor of 5.5 compared to the successful S-Cam 3 detector. The responsivity of the DROID array tested is too low for actual use on the telescope. However the spatial resolution of {approx}35 {mu}m is just above the size of a virtual pixel and imaging capabilities of the array can be demonstrated. With increasing responsivity this will improve, yielding a DROID array which can be used as an astronomical optical photon counting imaging spectrometer.

  12. A Review of Significant Advances in Neutron Imaging from Conception to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenizer, J. S.

    This review summarizes the history of neutron imaging with a focus on the significant events and technical advancements in neutron imaging methods, from the first radiograph to more recent imaging methods. A timeline is presented to illustrate the key accomplishments that advanced the neutron imaging technique. Only three years after the discovery of the neutron by English physicist James Chadwick in 1932, neutron imaging began with the work of Hartmut Kallmann and Ernst Kuhn in Berlin, Germany, from 1935-1944. Kallmann and Kuhn were awarded a joint US Patent issued in January 1940. Little progress was made until the mid-1950's when Thewlis utilized a neutron beam from the BEPO reactor at Harwell, marking the beginning of the application of neutron imaging to practical applications. As the film method was improved, imaging moved from a qualitative to a quantitative technique, with applications in industry and in nuclear fuels. Standards were developed to aid in the quantification of the neutron images and the facility's capabilities. The introduction of dynamic neutron imaging (initially called real-time neutron radiography and neutron television) in the late 1970's opened the door to new opportunities and new challenges. As the electronic imaging matured, the introduction of the CCD imaging devices and solid-state light intensifiers helped address some of these challenges. Development of improved imaging devices for the medical community has had a major impact on neutron imaging. Additionally, amorphous silicon sensors provided improvements in temporal resolution, while providing a reasonably large imaging area. The development of new neutron imaging sensors and the development of new neutron imaging techniques in the past decade has advanced the technique's ability to provide insight and understanding of problems that other non-destructive techniques could not provide. This rapid increase in capability and application would not have been possible without the

  13. Development of capabilities for imaging mass spectrometry under ambient conditions with desorption electrospray ionization (DESI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifa, Demian R.; Wiseman, Justin M.; Song, Qingyu; Cooks, R. Graham

    2007-01-01

    Aspects of the development of mass spectrometry over the past three decades are briefly reviewed and growth points in the subject are identified. Molecular imaging by mass spectrometry is one such growth area. The development of a capability for 2D chemical imaging of surfaces is described, based on the combination of a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) ion source with an automated surface stage capable of x, y translational motion. The lateral resolution of this new system is found to be less than 200 microns, using a test ink pattern. Chemical imaging of surfaces is demonstrated using model examples of organic and biological systems: (i) imaging of a 2D pattern written in different colored inks on photographic paper and (ii) imaging of thin coronal sections of rat brain tissue fixed onto a glass microscope slide. In both cases, full mass spectra are recorded as a function of x,y-position on the surface. In the chemical imaging example, the distributions of the two different inks on the paper surface were mapped by tracking the abundance of the intact organic cation which characterizes each particular ink dye. In the tissue imaging example, distributions of specific lipids in coronal sections of rat brain tissue were followed from the abundance distributions in 2D space of the deprotonated lipid molecules recorded in the negative ion mass spectra. These latter distributions reveal distinct anatomical features of the rat brain. The results of these studies demonstrate the feasibility of performing surface imaging studies using DESI and show that at this stage of its development it has a lateral spatial resolution of a few hundred microns.

  14. Evaluating the capability of time-of-flight cameras for accurately imaging a cyclically loaded beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahamy, Hervé; Lichti, Derek; El-Badry, Mamdouh; Qi, Xiaojuan; Detchev, Ivan; Steward, Jeremy; Moravvej, Mohammad

    2015-05-01

    Time-of-flight cameras are used for diverse applications ranging from human-machine interfaces and gaming to robotics and earth topography. This paper aims at evaluating the capability of the Mesa Imaging SR4000 and the Microsoft Kinect 2.0 time-of-flight cameras for accurately imaging the top surface of a concrete beam subjected to fatigue loading in laboratory conditions. Whereas previous work has demonstrated the success of such sensors for measuring the response at point locations, the aim here is to measure the entire beam surface in support of the overall objective of evaluating the effectiveness of concrete beam reinforcement with steel fibre reinforced polymer sheets. After applying corrections for lens distortions to the data and differencing images over time to remove systematic errors due to internal scattering, the periodic deflections experienced by the beam have been estimated for the entire top surface of the beam and at witness plates attached. The results have been assessed by comparison with measurements from highly-accurate laser displacement transducers. This study concludes that both the Microsoft Kinect 2.0 and the Mesa Imaging SR4000s are capable of sensing a moving surface with sub-millimeter accuracy once the image distortions have been modeled and removed.

  15. Statement of capabilities: Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) technology applied to mine detection and imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.G.; Gavel, D.T.; Mast, J.E.; Warhus, J.P.

    1995-03-13

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed radar and imaging technologies with potential applications in mine detection by the armed forces and other agencies involved in demining efforts. These new technologies use a patented ultra-wideband (impulse) radar technology that is compact, low-cost, and low power. Designated as Micropower Impulse Radar, these compact, self-contained radars can easily be assembled into arrays to form complete ground penetrating radar imaging systems. LLNL has also developed tomographic reconstruction and signal processing software capable of producing high-resolution 2-D and 3-D images of objects buried in materials like soil or concrete from radar data. Preliminary test results have shown that a radar imaging system using these technologies has the ability to image both metallic and plastic land mine surrogate targets buried in 5 to 10 cm of moist soil. In dry soil, the system can detect buried objects to a depth of 30 cm and more. This report describes LLNL`s unique capabilities and technologies that can be applied to the demining problem.

  16. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  17. Preclinical imaging in oncology: advances and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Iommelli, Francesca; DE Rosa, Viviana; Terlizzi, Cristina; Del Vecchio, Silvana

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical imaging with radiolabeled probes became an integral part of the complex translational process that moves a newly developed compound from laboratory to clinical application. Imaging studies in animal tumor models may be undertaken to test a newly synthesized tracer, a newly developed drug or to interrogate, in the living organism, specific molecular and biological processes underlying tumor growth and progression. The aim of the present review is to outline the current knowledge and future perspectives of preclinical imaging in oncology by providing examples from recent literature. Among the biological processes and molecular targets that can be visualized with radiolabeled probes in animal tumor models, we focused on proliferation, expression of targets suitable for therapy, glycolytic phenotype, metastatic dissemination, tumor angiogenesis and survival. The major contribution of preclinical imaging emerging from these studies is the development and validation of imaging biomarkers that can be translated into the clinical context for patient selection and evaluation of tumor response to molecularly targeted agents.

  18. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    SciTech Connect

    Scrymgeour, David; Boye, Robert; Adelsberger, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  19. Smart image sensors: an emerging key technology for advanced optical measurement and microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Peter

    1996-08-01

    Optical microsystems typically include photosensitive devices, analog preprocessing circuitry and digital signal processing electronics. The advances in semiconductor technology have made it possible today to integrate all photosensitive and electronical devices on one 'smart image sensor' or photo-ASIC (application-specific integrated circuits containing photosensitive elements). It is even possible to provide each 'smart pixel' with additional photoelectronic functionality, without compromising the fill factor substantially. This technological capability is the basis for advanced cameras and optical microsystems showing novel on-chip functionality: Single-chip cameras with on- chip analog-to-digital converters for less than $10 are advertised; image sensors have been developed including novel functionality such as real-time selectable pixel size and shape, the capability of performing arbitrary convolutions simultaneously with the exposure, as well as variable, programmable offset and sensitivity of the pixels leading to image sensors with a dynamic range exceeding 150 dB. Smart image sensors have been demonstrated offering synchronous detection and demodulation capabilities in each pixel (lock-in CCD), and conventional image sensors are combined with an on-chip digital processor for complete, single-chip image acquisition and processing systems. Technological problems of the monolithic integration of smart image sensors include offset non-uniformities, temperature variations of electronic properties, imperfect matching of circuit parameters, etc. These problems can often be overcome either by designing additional compensation circuitry or by providing digital correction routines. Where necessary for technological or economic reasons, smart image sensors can also be combined with or realized as hybrids, making use of commercially available electronic components. It is concluded that the possibilities offered by custom smart image sensors will influence the design

  20. Full Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST): Capabilities and Recent Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    At the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center research is being conducted into flight control technologies that will enable the next generation of air and space vehicles. The Full Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST) aircraft provides a laboratory for flight exploration of these technologies. In recent years novel but simple adaptive architectures for aircraft and rockets have been researched along with control technologies for improving aircraft fuel efficiency and control structural interaction. This presentation outlines the FAST capabilities and provides a snapshot of the research accomplishments to date. Flight experimentation allows a researcher to substantiate or invalidate their assumptions and intuition about a new technology or innovative approach Data early in a development cycle is invaluable for determining which technology barriers are real and which ones are imagined Data for a technology at a low TRL can be used to steer and focus the exploration and fuel rapid advances based on real world lessons learned It is important to identify technologies that are mature enough to benefit from flight research data and not be tempted to wait until we have solved all the potential issues prior to getting some data Sometimes a stagnated technology just needs a little real world data to get it going One trick to getting data for low TRL technologies is finding an environment where it is okay to take risks, where occasional failure is an expected outcome Learning how things fail is often as valuable as showing that they work FAST has been architected to facilitate this type of testing for control system technologies, specifically novel algorithms and sensors Rapid prototyping with a quick turnaround in a fly-fix-fly paradigm Sometimes it's easier and cheaper to just go fly it than to analyze the problem to death The goal is to find and test control technologies that would benefit from flight data and find solutions to the real barriers to innovation. The FAST

  1. Advances in target imaging of deep Earth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Y.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Clouzet, P.

    2015-12-01

    A new generation of global tomographic models (Lekić and Romanowicz, 2011; French et al, 2013, 2014) has emerged with the development of accurate numerical wavefield computations in a 3D earth combined with access to enhanced HPC capabilities. These models have sharpened up mantle images and unveiled relatively small scale structures that were blurred out in previous generation models. Fingerlike structures have been found at the base of the oceanic asthenosphere, and vertically oriented broad low velocity plume conduits extend throughout the lower mantle beneath those major hotspots that are located within the perimeter of the deep mantle large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). While providing new insights into our understanding of mantle dynamics, the detailed morphology of these features, requires further efforts to obtain higher resolution images. The focus of our ongoing effort is to develop advanced tomographic methods to image remote regions of the Earth at fine scales. We have developed an approach in which distant sources (located outside of the target region) are replaced by an equivalent set of local sources located at the border of the computational domain (Masson et al., 2014). A limited number of global simulations in a reference 3D earth model is then required. These simulations are computed prior to the regional inversion, while iterations of the model need to be performed only within the region of interest, potentially allowing us to include shorter periods at limited additional computational cost. Until now, the application was limited to a distribution of receivers inside the target region. This is particularly suitable for studies of upper mantle structure in regions with dense arrays (e.g. see our companion presentation Clouzet et al., this Fall AGU). Here we present our latest development that now can include teleseismic data recorded outside the imaged region. This allows us to perform regional waveform tomography in the situation where

  2. Flight Test Results of the Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Hearn, David R.; Digenis, Constantine J.

    2002-09-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is the primary instrument on the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft (EO-1) and was developed under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The NMP mission objective is to flight-validate advanced technologies that will enable dramatic improvements in performance, cost, mass, and schedule for future, Landsat-like, Earth Science Enterprise instruments. ALI contains a number of innovative features designed to achieve this objective. These include the basic instrument architecture, which employs a push-broom data collection mode, a wide field-of-view optical design, compact multi-spectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. The sensor includes detector arrays that operate in ten bands, one panchromatic, six VNIR and three SWIR, spanning the range from 0.433 to 2.35 μm. Launched on November 21, 2000, ALI instrument performance was monitored during its first year on orbit using data collected during solar, lunar, stellar, and earth observations. This paper will provide an overview of EO-1 mission activities during this period. Additionally, the on-orbit spatial and radiometric performance of the instrument will be compared to pre-flight measurements and the temporal stability of ALI will be presented.

  3. Big capabilities in small packages: hyperspectral imaging from a compact platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Matthew; Goldberg, Hannah; Voorhees, Christopher; Illsley, Peter

    2016-09-01

    We present the Compact Holographic Aberration-corrected Platform (CHAP) instrument, designed and developed at Planetary Resources Development Corporation. By combining a dispersive element with the secondary of a telescope, we are able to produce a relatively long focal length with moderate dispersion at the focal plane. This design enables us to build a capable hyperspectral imaging instrument within the size constraints of the Cubesat form-factor. The advantages of our design revolves around its simplicity: there are only two optical elements, producing both a white light and diffracted image. With the use of a replicated grating, we can produce a long focal length hyperspectral imager at a price point far below other spaceflight instruments. The design is scalable for larger platforms and since it has no transmitting optics and only two reflective surfaces could be designed to function at any desired wavelength. Our system will be capable of spectral imaging across the 400 to 900 nm spectral range for use in small body surveys.

  4. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Imaging Performance On-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    This report analyzes the on-orbit imaging performance of the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing-1 satellite. The pre-flight calibrations are first summarized. The methods used to reconstruct and geometrically correct the image data from this push-broom sensor are described. The method used here does not refer to the position and attitude telemetry from the spacecraft. Rather, it is assumed that the image of the scene moves across the focal plane with a constant velocity, which can be ascertained from the image data itself. Next, an assortment of the images so reconstructed is presented. Color images sharpened with the 10-m panchromatic band data are shown, and the algorithm for producing them from the 30-m multispectral data is described. The approach taken for assessing spatial resolution is to compare the sharpness of features in the on-orbit image data with profiles predicted on the basis of the pre-flight calibrations. A large assortment of bridge profiles is analyzed, and very good fits to the predicted shapes are obtained. Lunar calibration scans are analyzed to examine the sharpness of the edge-spread function at the limb of the moon. The darkness of the space beyond the limb is better for this purpose than anything that could be simulated on the ground. From these scans, we find clear evidence of scattering in the optical system, as well as some weak ghost images. Scans of planets and stars are also analyzed. Stars are useful point sources of light at all wavelengths, and delineate the point-spread functions of the system. From a quarter-speed scan over the Pleiades, we find that the ALI can detect 6th magnitude stars. The quality of the reconstructed images verifies the capability of the ALI to produce Landsat-type multi spectral data. The signal-to-noise and panchromatic spatial resolution are considerably superior to those of the existing Landsat sensors. The spatial resolution is confirmed to be as good as it was designed to be.

  5. Advanced ultrasound probes for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildes, Douglas G.; Smith, L. Scott

    2012-05-01

    New medical ultrasound probe architectures and materials build upon established 1D phased array technology and provide improved imaging performance and clinical value. Technologies reviewed include 1.25D and 1.5D arrays for elevation slice thickness control; electro-mechanical and 2D array probes for real-time 3D imaging; catheter probes for imaging during minimally-invasive procedures; single-crystal piezoelectric materials for greater frequency bandwidth; and cMUT arrays using silicon MEMS in place of piezo materials.

  6. Rapid production of structural color images with optical data storage capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Mohamad; Jiang, Hao; Qarehbaghi, Reza; Naghshineh, Mohammad; Kaminska, Bozena

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present novel methods to produce structural color image for any given color picture using a pixelated generic stamp named nanosubstrate. The nanosubstrate is composed of prefabricated arrays of red, green and blue subpixels. Each subpixel has nano-gratings and/or sub-wavelength structures which give structural colors through light diffraction. Micro-patterning techniques were implemented to produce the color images from the nanosubstrate by selective activation of subpixels. The nano-grating structures can be nanohole arrays, which after replication are converted to nanopillar arrays or vice versa. It has been demonstrated that visible and invisible data can be easily stored using these fabrication methods and the information can be easily read. Therefore the techniques can be employed to produce personalized and customized color images for applications in optical document security and publicity, and can also be complemented by combined optical data storage capabilities.

  7. Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research and Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0198 TITLE: Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging... Brain Imaging Research Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0198 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Catherine...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Brain injury is a leading cause of

  8. Advanced Image Search: A Strategy for Creating Presentation Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Diane K.; Hines, Jean D.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Finding relevant digital images to create presentation boards requires advanced search skills. This article describes a course assignment involving a technique designed to develop students' literacy skills with respect to locating images of desired quality and content from Internet databases. The assignment was applied in a collegiate apparel…

  9. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-01

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  10. Advances in scintillators for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Shah, Kanai S.

    2014-09-01

    A review is presented of some recent work in the field of inorganic scintillator research for medical imaging applications, in particular scintillation detectors for Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

  11. Center for Advanced Signal and Imaging Sciences Workshop 2004

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, J H; Carrano, C; Poyneer, L; Palmer, D; Baker, K; Chen, D; London, R; Weinert, G; Brase, J; Paglieroni, D; Lopez, A; Grant, C W; Wright, W; Burke, M; Miller, W O; DeTeresa, S; White, D; Toeppen, J; Haugen, P; Kamath, C; Nguyen, T; Manay, S; Newsam, S; Cantu-Paz, E; Pao, H; Chang, J; Chambers, D; Leach, R; Paulson, C; Romero, C E; Spiridon, A; Vigars, M; Welsh, P; Zumstein, J; Romero, K; Oppenheim, A; Harris, D B; Dowla, F; Brown, C G; Clark, G A; Ong, M M; Clance, T J; Kegelmeyer, l M; Benzuijen, M; Bliss, E; Burkhart, S; Conder, A; Daveler, S; Ferguson, W; Glenn, S; Liebman, J; Norton, M; Prasad, R; Salmon, T; Kegelmeyer, L M; Hafiz, O; Cheung, S; Fodor, I; Aufderheide, M B; Bary, A; Martz, Jr., H E; Burke, M W; Benson, S; Fisher, K A; Quarry, M J

    2004-11-15

    Welcome to the Eleventh Annual C.A.S.I.S. Workshop, a yearly event at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, presented by the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences, or CASIS, and sponsored by the LLNL Engineering Directorate. Every November for the last 10 years we have convened a diverse set of engineering and scientific talent to share their work in signal processing, imaging, communications, controls, along with associated fields of mathematics, statistics, and computing sciences. This year is no exception, with sessions in Adaptive Optics, Applied Imaging, Scientific Data Mining, Electromagnetic Image and Signal Processing, Applied Signal Processing, National Ignition Facility (NIF) Imaging, and Nondestructive Characterization.

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, A. P.; Hebden, J. C.; Arridge, S. R.

    2005-02-01

    We review the current state-of-the-art of diffuse optical imaging, which is an emerging technique for functional imaging of biological tissue. It involves generating images using measurements of visible or near-infrared light scattered across large (greater than several centimetres) thicknesses of tissue. We discuss recent advances in experimental methods and instrumentation, and examine new theoretical techniques applied to modelling and image reconstruction. We review recent work on in vivo applications including imaging the breast and brain, and examine future challenges.

  13. Advanced endoscopic imaging in gastric neoplasia and preneoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonathan W J; Lim, Lee Guan; Yeoh, Khay Guan

    2017-01-01

    Conventional white light endoscopy remains the current standard in routine clinical practice for early detection of gastric cancer. However, it may not accurately diagnose preneoplastic gastric lesions. The technological advancements in the field of endoscopic imaging for gastric lesions are fast growing. This article reviews currently available advanced endoscopic imaging modalities, in particular chromoendoscopy, narrow band imaging and confocal laser endomicroscopy, and their corresponding evidence shown to improve diagnosis of preneoplastic gastric lesions. Raman spectrometry and polarimetry are also introduced as promising emerging technologies. PMID:28176895

  14. The Advanced X-ray Spectroscopy and Imaging Observatory (AXSIO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Bookbinder, Jay; Petre, Robert; Smith, Randall; Ptak, Andrew; Tananbaum, Harvey; Garcia, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Following recommendations from the 2010 "New Worlds, New Horizons" (NWNH) report, the Advanced X-ray Spectroscopy and Imaging Observatory (AXSIO) concept streamlines the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) mission to concentrate on the science objectives that are enabled by high-resolution spectroscopic capabilities. AXSIO will trace orbits close to the event horizon of black holes, measure black hole spin for tens of supermassive black holes (SMBH), use spectroscopy to characterize outflows and the environment of AGN during their peak activity, observe 5MBH out to redshift z=6, map bulk motions and turbulence in galaxy clusters, find the missing baryons in the cosmic web using background quasars, and observe the process of cosmic feedback where black holes and supernovae inject energy on galactic and intergalactic scales. These measurements are enabled by a 0.9 sq m collecting area at 1.25 keV, a micro calorimeter array providing high-resolution spectroscopic imaging and a deployable high efficiency grating spectrometer. AXSIO delivers a 30-fold increase in effective area for high resolution spectroscopy. The key simplifications are guided by recommendations in the NWNH panel report include a reduction in focal length from 20m to 10m, eliminating the extendable optical bench, and a reduction in the instrument complement from six to two, avoiding a movable instrument platform. A focus on spectroscopic science allows the spatial resolution requirement to be relaxed to 10 arc sec (with a 5 arc sec goal). These simplifications decrease the total mission cost to under the $2B cost to NASA recommended by NWNH. AXSIO will be available to the entire astronomical community with observing allocations based on peer-review.

  15. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  16. Advances in computer imaging/applications in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D; Jiannetto, D F

    1999-01-01

    Rapidly progressing computer technology, ever-increasing expectations of patients, and a confusing medicolegal environment requires a clarification of the role of computer imaging/applications. Advances in computer technology and its applications are reviewed. A brief historical discussion is included for perspective. Improvements in both hardware and software with the advent of digital imaging have allowed great increases in speed and accuracy in patient imaging. This facilitates doctor-patient communication and possibly realistic patient expectations. Patients seeking cosmetic surgery now often expect preoperative imaging. Although society in general has become more litigious, a literature search up to 1998 reveals no lawsuits directly involving computer imaging. It appears that conservative utilization of computer imaging by the facial plastic surgeon may actually reduce liability and promote communication. Recent advances have significantly enhanced the value of computer imaging in the practice of facial plastic surgery. These technological advances in computer imaging appear to contribute a useful technique for the practice of facial plastic surgery. Inclusion of computer imaging should be given serious consideration as an adjunct to clinical practice.

  17. Tube focal spot size and power capability impact image quality in the evaluation of intracoronary stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesmeli, Erdogan; Berry, Joel L.; Carr, J. J.

    2005-04-01

    Proliferation of coronary stent deployment for treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) creates a need for imaging-based follow-up examinations to assess patency. Technological improvements in multi-detector computer tomography (MDCT) make it a potential non-invasive alternative to coronary catheterization for evaluation of stent patency; however, image quality with MDCT varies based on the size and composition of the stent. We studied the role of tube focal spot size and power in the optimization of image quality in a stationary phantom. A standard uniform physical phantom with a tubular insert was used where coronary stents (4 mm in diameter) were deployed in a tube filled with contrast to simulate a typical imaging condition observed in clinical practice. We utilized different commercially available stents and scanned them with different tube voltage and current settings (LightSpeed Pro16, GE Healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, WI, USA). The scanner used different focal spot size depending on the power load and thus allowed us to assess the combined effect of the focal spot size and the power. A radiologist evaluated the resulting images in terms of image quality and artifacts. For all stents, we found that the small focal spot size yielded better image quality and reduced artifacts. In general, higher power capability for the given focal spot size improved the signal-to-noise ratio in the images allowing improved assessment. Our preliminary study in a non-moving phantom suggests that a CT scanner that can deliver the same power on a small focal spot size is better suited to have an optimized scan protocol for reliable stent assessment.

  18. Quantitative characterization of the x-ray imaging capability of rotating modulation collimators with laser light.

    PubMed

    Gaither Iii, C C; Schmahl, E J; Crannell, C J; Dennis, B R; Lang, F L; Orwig, L E; Hartman, C N; Hurford, G J

    1996-12-01

    We developed a method for making quantitative characterizations of bi-grid rotating modulation collimators (RMC's) that are used in a Fourier transform x-ray imager. With appropriate choices of the collimator spacings, this technique can be implemented with a beam-expanded He-Ne laser to simulate the plane wave produced by a point source at infinity even though the RMC's are diffraction limited at the He-Ne wavelength of 632.8 nm. The expanded beam passes through the grid pairs at a small angle with respect to their axis of rotation, and the modulated transmission through the grids as the RMC's rotate is detected with a photomultiplier tube. In addition to providing a quantitative characterization of the RMC's, the method also produces a measured point response function and provides an end-to-end check of the imaging system. We applied our method to the RMC's on the high-energy imaging device (HEIDI) balloon payload in its preflight configuration. We computed the harmonic ratios of the modulation time profile from the laser measurements and compared them with theoretical calculations, including the diffraction effects on irregular grids. Our results indicate the 25-in. (64-cm) x-ray imaging optics on HEIDI are capable of achieving images near the theoretical limit and are not seriously compromised by imperfections in the grids.

  19. Quantitative characterization of the x-ray imaging capability of rotating modulation collimators with laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaither, C. C., III; Schmahl, E. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Lang, F. L.; Orwig, L. E.; Hartman, C. N.; Hurford, G. J.

    1996-12-01

    We developed a method for making quantitative characterizations of bi-grid rotating modulation collimators (RMC's) that are used in a Fourier transform x-ray imager. With appropriate choices of the collimator spacings, this technique can be implemented with a beam-expanded He-Ne laser to simulate the plane wave produced by a point source at infinity even though the RMC's are diffraction limited at the He-Ne wavelength of 632.8 nm. The expanded beam passes through the grid pairs at a small angle with respect to their axis of rotation, and the modulated transmission through the grids as the RMC's rotate is detected with a photomultiplier tube. In addition to providing a quantitative characterization of the RMC's, the method also produces a measured point response function and provides an end-to-end check of the imaging system. We applied our method to the RMC's on the high-energy imaging device (HEIDI) balloon payload in its preflight configuration. We computed the harmonic ratios of the modulation time profile from the laser measurements and compared them with theoretical calculations, including the diffraction effects on irregular grids. Our results indicate the 25-in. (64-cm) x-ray imaging optics on HEIDI are capable of achieving images near the theoretical limit and are not seriously compromised by imperfections in the grids.

  20. Study of the Imaging Capabilities of SPIRIT/SPECS Concept Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Ronald J.

    2002-01-01

    Several new space science mission concepts under development at NASA-GSFC for astronomy are intended to carry out synthetic imaging using Michelson interferometers or direct (Fizeau) imaging with sparse apertures. Examples of these mission concepts include the Stellar Imager (SI), the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT), the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS), and the Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI). We have been developing computer-based simulators for these missions. These simulators are aimed at providing a quantitative evaluation of the imaging capabilities of the mission by modeling the performance on different realistic targets in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, and dynamic range. Both Fizeau and Michelson modes of operation can be considered. Our work is based on adapting a computer simulator called imSIM which was initially written for the Space Interferometer Mission in order to simulate the imaging mode of new missions such as those listed. This report covers the activities we have undertaken to provide a preliminary version of a simulator for the SPIRIT mission concept.

  1. Quantum-dot-modified microbubbles with bi-mode imaging capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Hengte; Xing, Zhanwen; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Jinrui; Liu, Jibin; Guo, Caixin; Yue, Xiuli; Liu, Shaoqin; Tang, Zhiyong; Dai, Zhifei

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop a novel bi-mode ultrasound/fluorescent imaging agent through stepwise layer-by-layer deposition of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) onto ST68 microbubbles (MBs) produced by sonication of a mixture of surfactants (Span 60 and Tween 80). The experiments using photoluminescence spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that CdTe nanoparticles were successfully adsorbed on the outer surface of the MBs. The static light scattering measurements showed that size distributions of MBs before and after QD deposition met the size requirements for clinical application. The in vitro and in vivo ultrasonography indicated that the QD-modified MBs maintained good contrast enhancement properties as the original MBs. Furthermore, the in vitro ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) experiment of the QD-MB composites was carried out to validate the ability of MBs to deliver QDs for fluorescent imaging. The results showed that the QD-modified MBs not only maintained the capability of ultrasound imaging, but also could be used as a targeted-drug controlled-release system to deliver the QDs for cell and tissue fluorescent imaging by UTMD. The novel dual-functional imaging agent has potential for a variety of biological and medical applications.

  2. Advancing the Surveillance Capabilities of the Air Force’s Large-Aperature Telescopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-06

    added to these images to simulate the observed data. Since it is not fundamental, we do not include read noise from the detectors , assuming that... blind restorations for simulated data of a target of brightness mv=+2 as would be acquired with telescopes of 1 m (blue line), 1.6 m (magenta line...aperture diversity and blind deconvolution”, OSA topical meeting on Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, Computational Imaging through Turbulence

  3. Advances in Lymphatic Imaging and Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Laird, Forrest M.

    2011-09-10

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases will have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastly improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed.

  4. Aircraft corrosion and crack inspection using advanced magneto-optic imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, David K.; Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Skaugset, Richard L.; Shih, William C.

    1996-11-01

    A next generation magneto-optic imaging system, the MOI 303, has recently been introduced with the ability to generate real-time, complete, 2D eddy current images of cracks and corrosion in aircraft. The new imaging system described features advanced, digital remote control operation and on- screen display of setup parameters for ease of use. This instrument gives the inspector the capability to more rapidly scan large surfaces areas. The magneto-optic/eddy current imaging technology has already been formally approved for inspection of surface cracking on an aircraft fuselage. The improved magneto-optic imager is now poised to aid rapid inspection for corrosion and subsurface cracking. Previous magneto-optic imaging systems required the inspector to scan the surface twice for complete inspection coverage: a second scan was necessary with the imager rotated about 90 degrees from the orientation of the first pass. However, by providing eddy current excitation simultaneously from two orthogonal directions, complete, filled-in magneto-optic images are now generated regardless of the orientation of the imager. THese images are considerably easier to interpret and evaluate. In addition, there is a synergism obtained in applying eddy current excitation simultaneously in multiple directions: better penetration is obtained and the resulting images have better signal to noise levels compared to those produced with eddy current excitation applied only in one direction. Examples of these improved images are presented.

  5. Advanced Sensors Boost Optical Communication, Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Brooklyn, New York-based Amplification Technologies Inc. (ATI), employed Phase I and II SBIR funding from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to forward the company's solid-state photomultiplier technology. Under the SBIR, ATI developed a small, energy-efficient, extremely high-gain sensor capable of detecting light down to single photons in the near infrared wavelength range. The company has commercialized this technology in the form of its NIRDAPD photomultiplier, ideal for use in free space optical communications, lidar and ladar, night vision goggles, and other light sensing applications.

  6. Advances In The Image Sensor: The Critical Element In The Performance Of Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narabu, Tadakuni

    2011-01-01

    Digital imaging technology and digital imaging products are advancing at a rapid pace. The progress of digital cameras has been particularly impressive. Image sensors now have smaller pixel size, a greater number of pixels, higher sensitivity, lower noise and a higher frame rate. Picture resolution is a function of the number of pixels of the image sensor. The more pixels there are, the smaller each pixel, but the sensitivity and the charge-handling capability of each pixel can be maintained or even be increased by raising the quantum efficiency and the saturation capacity of the pixel per unit area. Sony's many technologies can be successfully applied to CMOS Image Sensor manufacturing toward sub-2.0 um pitch pixel and beyond.

  7. Advanced Research into Imaging of Moving Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    antenna. The antenna currents are measured and the radar receiver collects a time-varying voltage srec(t) [1]. Signal processing of the measured...produce images from the collected radar systems. 2. Radar Measurables Radar systems determine information about the target by various means ...elimination), or none when drawing a standard see-through wireframe. The current colormap determines the edge color [9]. The surf function is similar to

  8. Conventional and advanced imaging in neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Y; Sutton, I J; Ghadiri, M; Masters, L; Zivadinov, R; Barnett, M H

    2014-08-01

    Myelitis and optic neuritis are prototypic clinical presentations of both multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Once considered a subtype of multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, is now known to have a discrete pathogenesis in which antibodies to the water channel, aquaporin 4, play a critical role. Timely differentiation of neuromyelitis optica from MS is imperative, determining both prognosis and treatment strategy. Early, aggressive immunosuppression is required to prevent the accrual of severe disability in neuromyelitis optica; conversely, MS-specific therapies may exacerbate the disease. The diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica requires the integration of clinical, MR imaging, and laboratory data, but current criteria are insensitive and exclude patients with limited clinical syndromes. Failure to recognize the expanding spectrum of cerebral MR imaging patterns associated with aquaporin 4 antibody seropositivity adds to diagnostic uncertainty in some patients. We present the state of the art in conventional and nonconventional MR imaging in neuromyelitis optica and review the place of neuroimaging in the diagnosis, management, and research of the condition.

  9. Recent advances in radiology and medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, R.E.; Sherwood, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first chapter, on the radiology of arthritis, is an overview. The second and seventh chapters are on the chest the former, on adult respiratory distress syndrome, is a brief summary, and the latter, on digital radiography of the chest with the prototype slit-scanning technique. The third chapter reviews computed tomography of the lumbar spine. The following two chapters are on MR imaging, one on the central nervous system (covering demyelinating diseases, cardiovascular disease, infections, and tumors), with excellent illustrations; and one on MR imaging of the body. The illustrations are good. The following chapter is on extracardiac digital subtraction angiography (DSA), with an interesting table comparing and contrasting conventional angiography with both intraveneous and intraarterial DSA. The eighth chapter on pediatric imaging fits a world of experience. Chapter 9 is an update on contrast media, while the next chapter is on barium infusion examination of the small intestine. The final three chapters are concerned with the present state of angioplasty, interventional radiology in the urinary tract.

  10. Magnetic particle imaging: advancements and perspectives for real-time in vivo monitoring and image-guided therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablico-Lansigan, Michele H.; Situ, Shu F.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging biomedical imaging technology that allows the direct quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. MPI's increased sensitivity and short image acquisition times foster the creation of tomographic images with high temporal and spatial resolution. The contrast and sensitivity of MPI is envisioned to transcend those of other medical imaging modalities presently used, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray scans, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this review, we present an overview of the recent advances in the rapidly developing field of MPI. We begin with a basic introduction of the fundamentals of MPI, followed by some highlights over the past decade of the evolution of strategies and approaches used to improve this new imaging technique. We also examine the optimization of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers used for imaging, underscoring the importance of size homogeneity and surface engineering. Finally, we present some future research directions for MPI, emphasizing the novel and exciting opportunities that it offers as an important tool for real-time in vivo monitoring. All these opportunities and capabilities that MPI presents are now seen as potential breakthrough innovations in timely disease diagnosis, implant monitoring, and image-guided therapeutics.

  11. Recent advances in echocardiography: strain and strain rate imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mirea, Oana; Duchenne, Jurgen; Voigt, Jens-Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Deformation imaging by echocardiography is a well-established research tool which has been gaining interest from clinical cardiologists since the introduction of speckle tracking. Post-processing of echo images to analyze deformation has become readily available at the fingertips of the user. New parameters such as global longitudinal strain have been shown to provide added diagnostic value, and ongoing efforts of the imaging societies and industry aimed at harmonizing methods will improve the technique further. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of echocardiographic strain and strain rate imaging, and provides an overview on its current and potential future clinical applications. PMID:27158476

  12. Recent advancements in photorefractive holographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, B.; Blanche, P.-A.; Bablumian, A.; Rankin, R.; Voorakaranam, R.; St. Hilaire, P.; LaComb, L., Jr.; Yamamoto, M.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2013-02-01

    We have recently demonstrated several improvements in material properties and optical design to increase the resolution, size, brightness, and color range of updatable holograms using photorefractive materials. A compact system has been developed that is capable of producing holograms with brightness in excess of 2,500 cd/m2 using less than 20mW of CW laser power. The size of the hologram has been increased to 300mm × 150mm with a writing time of less than 8 seconds using a 50 Hz pulse laser. Optical improvements have been implemented to reduce the hogel size to less than 200 μm. We have optimized the color gamut to extend beyond the NTSC CIE color space through a combination of spatial and polarization multiplexing. Further improvements could bring applications in telemedicine, prototyping, advertising, updatable 3D maps and entertainment.

  13. Improvements in Thermal Protection Sizing Capabilities for TCAT: Conceptual Design for Advanced Space Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Izon, Stephen James

    2002-01-01

    The Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT), originally developed for the Space Systems Design Lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology, is a conceptual design tool capable of integrating aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle design. It provides Thermal Protection System (TPS) unit thicknesses and acreage percentages based on the geometry of the vehicle and a reference trajectory to be used in calculation of the total cost and weight of the vehicle design. TCAT has proven to be reasonably accurate at calculating the TPS unit weights for in-flight trajectories; however, it does not have the capability of sizing TPS materials above cryogenic fuel tanks for ground hold operations. During ground hold operations, the vehicle is held for a brief period (generally about two hours) during which heat transfer from the TPS materials to the cryogenic fuel occurs. If too much heat is extracted from the TPS material, the surface temperature may fall below the freezing point of water, thereby freezing any condensation that may be present at the surface of the TPS. Condensation or ice on the surface of the vehicle is potentially hazardous to the mission and can also damage the TPS. It is questionable whether or not the TPS thicknesses provided by the aeroheating analysis would be sufficiently thick to insulate the surface of the TPS from the heat transfer to the fuel. Therefore, a design tool has been developed that is capable of sizing TPS materials at these cryogenic fuel tank locations to augment TCAT's TPS sizing capabilities.

  14. Capability of Thermographic Imaging Defined for Detection in High-Temperature Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.

    1997-01-01

    Significant effort and resources are being expended to develop ceramic matrix (CMC), metal matrix (MMC), and polymer matrix (PMC) composites for high-temperature engine components and other parts in advanced aircraft. The objective of this NASA Lewis Research Center study was to evaluate the ability of a thermographic imaging technique for detecting artificially created defects (flat-bottom holes) of various diameters and depths in four composite systems (two CMC's, one MMC, and one PMC) of interest as high-temperature structural materials.

  15. Live endothelial cells imaged by Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM): capabilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bulat, Katarzyna; Rygula, Anna; Szafraniec, Ewelina; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2016-08-22

    The scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) shows a potential to study details of biological samples, since it provides the optical images of objects with nanometric spatial resolution (50-200 nm) and the topographic information at the same time. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the capabilities of SNOM in transmission configuration to study human endothelial cells and their morphological changes, sometimes very subtle, upon inflammation. Various sample preparations were tested for SNOM measurements and promising results are collected to show: 1) the influence of α tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) on EA.hy 926 cells (measurements of the fixed cells); 2) high resolution images of various endothelial cell lines, i.e. EA.hy 926 and HLMVEC (investigations of the fixed cells in buffer environment); 3) imaging of live endothelial cells in physiological buffers. The study demonstrate complementarity of the SNOM measurements performed in air and in liquid environments, on fixed as well as on living cells. Furthermore, it is proved that the SNOM is a very useful method for analysis of cellular morphology and topography. Changes in the cell shape and nucleus size, which are the symptoms of inflammatory reaction, were noticed in TNF-α activated EA.hy 926 cells. The cellular structures of submicron size were observed in high resolution optical images of cells from EA.hy 926 and HLMVEC lines.

  16. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  17. Thin chitosan films containing super-paramagnetic nanoparticles with contrasting capability in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Farjadian, Fatemeh; Moradi, Sahar; Hosseini, Majid

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have found application as MRI contrasting agents. Herein, chitosan thin films containing super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are evaluated in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To determine their contrasting capability, super-paramagnetic nanoparticles coated with citrate (SPIONs-cit) were synthesized. Then, chitosan thin films with different concentrations of SPIONs-cit were prepared and their MRI data (i.e., r 2 and r 2*) was evaluated in an aqueous medium. The synthesized SPIONs-cit and chitosan/SPIONs-cit films were characterized by FTIR, EDX, XRD as well as VSM with the morphology evaluated by SEM and AFM. The nanoparticle sizes and distribution confirmed well-defined nanoparticles and thin films formation along with high contrasting capability in MRI. Images revealed well-dispersed uniform nanoparticles, averaging 10 nm in size. SPIONs-cit's hydrodynamic size averaged 23 nm in diameter. The crystallinity obeyed a chitosan and SPIONs pattern. The in vitro cellular assay of thin films with a novel route was performed within Hek293 cell lines showing that thin films can be biocompatible.

  18. TOF capability evaluation on a panel PET for human body imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, P.; Cao, X.; Wan, L.; Li, Y.; Xie, Q.

    2013-04-01

    Due to its unique structure, parallel panel configuration may lead to novel applications for positron emission tomography (PET). The major challenge of panel PET imaging is the limited angle problem, to which the time-of-flight (TOF) information seems to be a promising solution. This work investigated the required TOF capability of a panel PET design, which has a feasible size of field of view (FOV) for human torso. Such a system's corresponding angular coverage can vary from 70 to 102 degrees. The recovery ability of small lesions was assessed, and the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were analyzed, with a full ring PET as the benchmark system. We also varied the timing resolution and the distance between panels, to evaluate their impacts on image quality. Encouraging results were obtained in simulation study. Distortions and artifacts caused by the limited angular coverage were greatly reduced with timing resolutions better than 300 ps. The recovery ability of small lesions in most part of FOV was desirable. Meanwhile, varying panel distance in the range of 25 to 45 cm seemed to have trivial influence, when timing resolution was fixed at 300 ps. That means that such changes of panel distance might not affect the requirement on TOF capability, allowing more flexibility in panel PET's design and applications.

  19. Assessment and Mission Planning Capability For Quantitative Aerothermodynamic Flight Measurements Using Remote Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Splinter, Scott; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wood, William; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin

    2008-01-01

    High resolution calibrated infrared imagery of vehicles during hypervelocity atmospheric entry or sustained hypersonic cruise has the potential to provide flight data on the distribution of surface temperature and the state of the airflow over the vehicle. In the early 1980 s NASA sought to obtain high spatial resolution infrared imagery of the Shuttle during entry. Despite mission execution with a technically rigorous pre-planning capability, the single airborne optical system for this attempt was considered developmental and the scientific return was marginal. In 2005 the Space Shuttle Program again sponsored an effort to obtain imagery of the Orbiter. Imaging requirements were targeted towards Shuttle ascent; companion requirements for entry did not exist. The engineering community was allowed to define observation goals and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved measurement capability over a series of flights. These imaging opportunities were extremely beneficial and clearly demonstrated capability to capture infrared imagery with mature and operational assets of the US Navy and the Missile Defense Agency. While successful, the usefulness of the imagery was, from an engineering perspective, limited. These limitations were mainly associated with uncertainties regarding operational aspects of data acquisition. These uncertainties, in turn, came about because of limited pre-flight mission planning capability, a poor understanding of several factors including the infrared signature of the Shuttle, optical hardware limitations, atmospheric effects and detector response characteristics. Operational details of sensor configuration such as detector integration time and tracking system algorithms were carried out ad hoc (best practices) which led to low probability of target acquisition and detector saturation. Leveraging from the qualified success during Return-to-Flight, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsored an

  20. Advanced Concepts in Multi-Dimensional Radiation Detection and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Kai; Haefner, Andy; Barnowski, Ross; Pavlovsky, Ryan; Torii, Tatsuo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Shikaze, Yoshiaki

    Recent developments in the detector fabrication, signal readout, and data processing enable new concepts in radiation detection that are relevant for applications ranging from fundamental physics to medicine as well as nuclear security and safety. We present recent progress in multi-dimensional radiation detection and imaging in the Berkeley Applied Nuclear Physics program. It is based on the ability to reconstruct scenes in three dimensions and fuse it with gamma-ray image information. We are using the High-Efficiency Multimode Imager HEMI in its Compton imaging mode and combining it with contextual sensors such as the Microsoft Kinect or visual cameras. This new concept of volumetric imaging or scene data fusion provides unprecedented capabilities in radiation detection and imaging relevant for the detection and mapping of radiological and nuclear materials. This concept brings us one step closer to the seeing the world with gamma-ray eyes.

  1. Demonstration of the Capabilities of CometCIEF: A Web-based Image Enhancement Facility to Enhance Images of Cometary Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael Patrick; Samarasinha, Nalin; Larson, Steve

    2014-11-01

    Accurate identifications and measurements of spatial information related to coma structures of comets are an essential component of realistic quantitative interpretation of coma observations. For this purpose, there is a number of image enhancement techniques used by cometary scientists. Despite this, the wider applicability of many advanced enhancement techniques is limited due to the non-availability of relevant software as open source. We are making available a number of such techniques using a user-friendly web interface.In this image enhancement facility available at http://www.psi.edu/research/cometimen one can upload a FITS format image of a cometary coma and digitally enhance it using an image enhancement technique of the user’s choice. The user can then download the enhanced image as well as any associated images generated during the enhancement as FITS files for detailed analysis later at the user’s institution. The available image enhancement techniques at the facility are:(a) division by azimuthal average,(b) division by azimuthal median,(c) azimuthal renormalization,(d) division by 1/ρ profile, where ρ is the skyplane projected distance from the nucleus, and(e) radially variable spatial filtering.The site provides documentation describing the above enhancement techniques as well as a tutorial showing the application of the enhancement techniques to actual cometary images and how the results may vary with different input parameters. In addition, the source codes as well as the executables are available for the user to download. To provide a secure facility, all the images uploaded by the users as well as the images created at the facility are deleted using a script that runs every hour.At the Division for Planetary Sciences 2014 meeting, we will present a description of CometCIEF and its capabilities, as well as a live demonstration of the facility that includes a question-answer session.Acknowledgements: We thank the NASA Planetary Atmospheres

  2. Performance capabilities of a JPL dual-arm advanced teleoperation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Z. F.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1991-01-01

    The system comprises: (1) two PUMA 560 robot arms, each equipped with the latest JPL developed smart hands which contain 3-D force/moment and grasp force sensors; (2) two general purpose force reflecting hand controllers; (3) a NS32016 microprocessors based distributed computing system together with JPL developed universal motor controllers; (4) graphics display of sensor data; (5) capabilities for time delay experiments; and (6) automatic data recording capabilities. Several different types of control modes are implemented on this system using different feedback control techniques. Some of the control modes and the related feedback control techniques are described, and the achievable control performance for tracking position and force trajectories are reported. The interaction between position and force trajectory tracking is illustrated. The best performance is obtained by using a novel, task space error feedback technique.

  3. Advanced E-O test capability for Army Next-Generation Automated Test System (NGATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, S.; Grigor, J.; King, D. F.; Matis, G.; McHugh, S.; McKechnie, J.; Nehring, B.

    2015-05-01

    The Future E-O (FEO) program was established to develop a flexible, modular, automated test capability as part of the Next Generation Automatic Test System (NGATS) program to support the test and diagnostic needs of currently fielded U.S. Army electro-optical (E-O) devices, as well as being expandable to address the requirements of future Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force E-O systems. Santa Barbara infrared (SBIR) has designed, fabricated, and delivered three (3) prototype FEO for engineering and logistics evaluation prior to anticipated full-scale production beginning in 2016. In addition to presenting a detailed overview of the FEO system hardware design, features and testing capabilities, the integration of SBIR's EO-IR sensor and laser test software package, IRWindows 4™, into FEO to automate the test execution, data collection and analysis, archiving and reporting of results is also described.

  4. Recent advances in molecular, multimodal and theranostic ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Fabian; Fokong, Stanley; Bzyl, Jessica; Lederle, Wiltrud; Palmowski, Moritz; Lammers, Twan

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging is an exquisite tool for the non-invasive and real-time diagnosis of many different diseases. In this context, US contrast agents can improve lesion delineation, characterization and therapy response evaluation. US contrast agents are usually micrometer-sized gas bubbles, stabilized with soft or hard shells. By conjugating antibodies to the microbubble (MB) surface, and by incorporating diagnostic agents, drugs or nucleic acids into or onto the MB shell, molecular, multimodal and theranostic MBs can be generated. We here summarize recent advances in molecular, multimodal and theranostic US imaging, and introduce concepts how such advanced MB can be generated, applied and imaged. Examples are given for their use to image and treat oncological, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Furthermore, we discuss for which therapeutic entities incorporation into (or conjugation to) MB is meaningful, and how US-mediated MB destruction can increase their extravasation, penetration, internalization and efficacy.

  5. Advancing Cybersecurity Capability Measurement Using the CERT(registered trademark)-RMM Maturity Indicator Level Scale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Institute at permission@sei.cmu.edu. * These restrictions do not apply to U.S. government entities. CERT® and CMMI ® are registered marks of Carnegie...Attributes 4 1.3.4 Appraisal and Scoring Methods 5 1.3.5 Improvement Roadmaps 5 2 Introducing the Maturity Indicator Level (MIL) Concept 6 2.1...CERT®-RMM v1.2) utilizes the maturity architecture (levels and descriptions) as provided in the Capability Maturity Model Integration ( CMMI

  6. Advanced fuel assembly characterization capabilities based on gamma tomography at the Halden boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, S.; Eitrheim, K.; Svaerd, S. J.; Hallstadius, L.; Willman, C.

    2012-07-01

    Characterization of individual fuel rods using gamma spectroscopy is a standard part of the Post Irradiation Examinations performed on experimental fuel at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor. However, due to handling and radiological safety concerns, these measurements are presently carried out only at the end of life of the fuel, and not earlier than several days or weeks after its removal from the reactor core. In order to enhance the fuel characterization capabilities at the Halden facilities, a gamma tomography measurement system is now being constructed, capable of characterizing fuel assemblies on a rod-by-rod basis in a more timely and efficient manner. Gamma tomography for measuring nuclear fuel is based on gamma spectroscopy measurements and tomographic reconstruction techniques. The technique, previously demonstrated on irradiated commercial fuel assemblies, is capable of determining rod-by-rod information without the need to dismantle the fuel. The new gamma tomography system will be stationed close to the Halden reactor in order to limit the need for fuel transport, and it will significantly reduce the time required to perform fuel characterization measurements. Furthermore, it will allow rod-by-rod fuel characterization to occur between irradiation cycles, thus allowing for measurement of experimental fuel repeatedly during its irradiation lifetime. The development of the gamma tomography measurement system is a joint project between the Inst. for Energy Technology - OECD Halden Reactor Project, Westinghouse (Sweden), and Uppsala Univ.. (authors)

  7. Advanced imaging assessment of bone quality.

    PubMed

    Genant, Harry K; Jiang, Yebin

    2006-04-01

    Noninvasive and/or nondestructive techniques can provide structural information about bone, beyond simple bone densitometry. While the latter provides important information about osteoporotic fracture risk, many studies indicate that bone mineral density (BMD) only partly explains bone strength. Quantitative assessment of macrostructural characteristics, such as geometry, and microstructural features, such as relative trabecular volume, trabecular spacing, and connectivity, may improve our ability to estimate bone strength. Methods for quantitatively assessing macrostructure include (besides conventional radiographs) dual X ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT), particularly volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT). Methods for assessing microstructure of trabecular bone noninvasively and/or nondestructively include high-resolution computed tomography (hrCT), microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), high-resolution magnetic resonance (hrMR), and micromagnetic resonance (micro-MR). vQCT, hrCT, and hrMR are generally applicable in vivo; micro-CT and micro-MR are principally applicable in vitro. Despite progress, problems remain. The important balances between spatial resolution and sampling size, or between signal-to-noise and radiation dose or acquisition time, need further consideration, as do the complexity and expense of the methods versus their availability and accessibility. Clinically, the challenges for bone imaging include balancing the advantages of simple bone densitometry versus the more complex architectural features of bone, or the deeper research requirements versus the broader clinical needs. The biological differences between the peripheral appendicular skeleton and the central axial skeleton must be further addressed. Finally, the relative merits of these sophisticated imaging techniques must be weighed with respect to their applications as diagnostic procedures, requiring high accuracy or reliability, versus their monitoring

  8. Evaluation of state-of-the-art imaging systems for in vivo monitoring of retinal structure in mice: current capabilities and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2014-02-01

    Animal models of human diseases play an important role in studying and advancing our understanding of these conditions, allowing molecular level studies of pathogenesis as well as testing of new therapies. Recently several non-invasive imaging modalities including Fundus Camera, Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) have been successfully applied to monitor changes in the retinas of the living animals in experiments in which a single animal is followed over a portion of its lifespan. Here we evaluate the capabilities and limitations of these three imaging modalities for visualization of specific structures in the mouse eye. Example images acquired from different types of mice are presented. Future directions of development for these instruments and potential advantages of multi-modal imaging systems are discussed as well.

  9. Advanced digital image archival system using MPEG technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wo

    2009-08-01

    Digital information and records are vital to the human race regardless of the nationalities and eras in which they were produced. Digital image contents are produced at a rapid pace from cultural heritages via digitalization, scientific and experimental data via high speed imaging sensors, national defense satellite images from governments, medical and healthcare imaging records from hospitals, personal collection of photos from digital cameras. With these mass amounts of precious and irreplaceable data and knowledge, what standards technologies can be applied to preserve and yet provide an interoperable framework for accessing the data across varieties of systems and devices? This paper presents an advanced digital image archival system by applying the international standard of MPEG technologies to preserve digital image content.

  10. New concepts in standing advanced diagnostic equine imaging.

    PubMed

    Porter, Erin G; Werpy, Natasha M

    2014-04-01

    This article addresses the clinical application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) as applied to the standing equine patient. This discussion includes the logistics, advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of imaging a standing horse. In addition, a brief review is given of the physics of these modalities as applied in clinical practice, and the currently available hardware and software required by these techniques for image acquisition and artifact reduction. The appropriate selection of clinical cases for standing MRI and CT is reviewed, focusing on cases that are capable of undergoing standing surgeries following lesion diagnosis.

  11. Advances in fntd technology: Instrumentation, image processing and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartz, James Andrew

    Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTDs), based on Al2O 3:C,Mg single crystal material, enable diffraction limited imaging of ionization patterns. This fast, luminescent material is thermally and optically stable. This work expands and assesses the capability of FNTD technology to measure radiation dose quickly and accurately, especially neutron radition. Developments in FNTD instrumentation, software, image reconstruction, image processing and data processing improved ease of use, productivity and reliability and brought the technology into commercial viability. Descriptions of these developments are presented. Additionally, these developments were assessed and were found to comply with ANSI and ISO standards for personnel neutron dosimetry. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  12. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  13. Advances in Sensitivity Analysis Capabilities with SCALE 6.0 and 6.1

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Petrie Jr, Lester M; Williams, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis sequences of SCALE compute the sensitivity of k{sub eff} to each constituent multigroup cross section using perturbation theory based on forward and adjoint transport computations with several available codes. Versions 6.0 and 6.1 of SCALE, released in 2009 and 2010, respectively, include important additions to the TSUNAMI-3D sequence, which computes forward and adjoint solutions in multigroup with the KENO Monte Carlo codes. Previously, sensitivity calculations were performed with the simple and efficient geometry capabilities of KENO V.a, but now calculations can also be performed with the generalized geometry code KENO-VI. TSUNAMI-3D requires spatial refinement of the angular flux moment solutions for the forward and adjoint calculations. These refinements are most efficiently achieved with the use of a mesh accumulator. For SCALE 6.0, a more flexible mesh accumulator capability has been added to the KENO codes, enabling varying granularity of the spatial refinement to optimize the calculation for different regions of the system model. The new mesh capabilities allow the efficient calculation of larger models than were previously possible. Additional improvements in the TSUNAMI calculations were realized in the computation of implicit effects of resonance self-shielding on the final sensitivity coefficients. Multigroup resonance self-shielded cross sections are accurately computed with SCALE's robust deterministic continuous-energy treatment for the resolved and thermal energy range and with Bondarenko shielding factors elsewhere, including the unresolved resonance range. However, the sensitivities of the self-shielded cross sections to the parameters input to the calculation are quantified using only full-range Bondarenko factors.

  14. Development of high-lift wing modifications for an advanced capability EA-6B aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waggoner, Edgar G.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley has been in a development program aimed at improvements of the EA-6B electronic countermeasures aircraft's maneuvering capabilities; one objective of this effort is the investigation of relatively simple wing design modifications which could yield improved low speed high lift performance with minimum degradation of higher-speed performance. Various two- and three-dimensional low speed and transonic CFD techniques have accordingly been used during the design effort, which involved leading-edge slat and trailing-edge flap contour evaluations by both computation and wind tunnel experiment. Significant low-speed maximum-lift enhancements were obtained without cruise-speed deterioration.

  15. An Advanced Neutronic Analysis Toolkit with Inline Monte Carlo capability for BHTR Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Martin; John C. Lee

    2009-12-30

    Monte Carlo capability has been combined with a production LWR lattice physics code to allow analysis of high temperature gas reactor configurations, accounting for the double heterogeneity due to the TRISO fuel. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 has been used in conjunction with CPM3, which was the testbench lattice physics code for this project. MCNP5 is used to perform two calculations for the geometry of interest, one with homogenized fuel compacts and the other with heterogeneous fuel compacts, where the TRISO fuel kernels are resolved by MCNP5.

  16. The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS): Science Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.; Coppi, P.; Digel, S.; Funk, S.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Pohl, M.; Romani, R.; Vassiliev, V.; /UCLA

    2011-11-21

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS), a future gamma-ray telescope consisting of an array of {approx}50 atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes distributed over an area of {approx}1 km{sup 2}, will provide a powerful new tool for exploring the high-energy universe. The order-of-magnitude increase in sensitivity and improved angular resolution could provide the first detailed images of {gamma}-ray emission from other nearby galaxies or galaxy clusters. The large effective area will provide unprecedented sensitivity to short transients (such as flares from AGNs and GRBs) probing both intrinsic spectral variability (revealing the details of the acceleration mechanism and geometry) as well as constraining the high-energy dispersion in the velocity of light (probing the structure of spacetime and Lorentz invariance). A wide field of view ({approx}4 times that of current instruments) and excellent angular resolution (several times better than current instruments) will allow for an unprecedented survey of the Galactic plane, providing a deep unobscured survey of SNRs, X-ray binaries, pulsar-wind nebulae, molecular cloud complexes and other sources. The differential flux sensitivity of {approx}10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} will rival the most sensitive X-ray instruments for these extended Galactic sources. The excellent capabilities of AGIS at energies below 100 GeV will provide sensitivity to AGN and GRBs out to cosmological redshifts, increasing the number of AGNs detected at high energies from about 20 to more than 100, permitting population studies that will provide valuable insights into both a unified model for AGN and a detailed measurement of the effects of intergalactic absorption from the diffuse extragalactic background light. A new instrument with fast-slewing wide-field telescopes could provide detections of a number of long-duration GRBs providing important physical constraints from this new spectral component. The new array will also have excellent

  17. A geometry-based image search engine for advanced RADARSAT-1/2 GIS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotamraju, Vinay; Rabus, Bernhard; Busler, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors, such as RADARSAT-1 and -2, enable a multitude of defense and security applications owing to their unique capabilities of cloud penetration, day/night imaging and multi-polarization imaging. As a result, advanced SAR image time series exploitation techniques such as Interferometric SAR (InSAR) and Radargrammetry are now routinely used in applications such as underground tunnel monitoring, infrastructure monitoring and DEM generation. Imaging geometry, as determined by the satellite orbit and imaged terrain, plays a critical role in the success of such techniques. This paper describes the architecture and the current status of development of a geometry-based search engine that allows the search and visualization of archived and future RADARSAT-1 and -2 images appropriate for a variety of advanced SAR techniques and applications. Key features of the search engine's scalable architecture include (a) Interactive GIS-based visualization of the search results; (b) A client-server architecture for online access that produces up-to-date searches of the archive images and that can, in future, be extended to acquisition planning; (c) A techniquespecific search mode, wherein an expert user explicitly sets search parameters to find appropriate images for advanced SAR techniques such as InSAR and Radargrammetry; (d) A future application-specific search mode, wherein all search parameters implicitly default to preset values according to the application of choice such as tunnel monitoring, DEM generation and deformation mapping; (f) Accurate baseline calculations for InSAR searches, and, optimum beam configuration for Radargrammetric searches; (g) Simulated quick look images and technique-specific sensitivity maps in the future.

  18. MR pulmonary angiography and perfusion imaging: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Hatabu, H

    1997-10-01

    Recent advances in MR pulmonary angiography and MR perfusion imaging are reviewed, focusing on two principal areas of technical development: (1) the availability of MR scanners equipped with enhanced gradient systems; and (2) new trends in MR angiography using gadolinium contrast agents or labeling of blood with an inversion recovery radiofrequency pulse in place of the more traditional methods using naturally flowing spins as the source of intravascular signal. These recent developments in MR have significant potential for clinical imaging of the pulmonary vasculature, particularly for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and are now opening windows to functional MR imaging of the lung.

  19. Recent Advances of Radionuclide-based Molecular Imaging of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kazuma, Soraya M.; Sultan, Deborah; Zhao, Yongfeng; Detering, Lisa; You, Meng; Luehmann, Hannah P.; Abdalla, Dulcineia S.P.; Liu, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease characterized by the development of multifocal plaque lesions within vessel walls and extending into the vascular lumen. The disease takes decades to develop symptomatic lesions, affording opportunities for accurate detection of plaque progression, analysis of risk factors responsible for clinical events, and planning personalized treatment. Of the available molecular imaging modalities, radionuclide-based imaging strategies have been favored due to their sensitivity, quantitative detection and pathways for translational research. This review summarizes recent advances of radiolabeled small molecules, peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles for atherosclerotic plaque imaging during disease progression. PMID:26369676

  20. Recent Advances in Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Sollip

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease that occurs most often in female cancer patients. Early detection can significantly reduce the mortality rate. Microwave breast imaging, which is noninvasive and harmless to human, offers a promising alternative method to mammography. This paper presents a review of recent advances in microwave imaging for breast cancer detection. We conclude by introducing new research on a microwave imaging system with time-domain measurement that achieves short measurement time and low system cost. In the time-domain measurement system, scan time would take less than 1 sec, and it does not require very expensive equipment such as VNA. PMID:28096808

  1. AXIOM: Advanced X-Ray Imaging Of the Magnetosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembay, S.; Branduardi-Rayrnont, G.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sibeck, D. G.; Abbey, A.; Brown, P.; Carter, J. A.; Carr, C. M.; Forsyth, C; Kataria, D.; Kemble, S.; Milan, S.; Owen, C. J.; Read, A. M.; Peacocke, L.; Arridge, C. S.; Coates, A. J.; Collier, M. R.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Fraser, G.; Jones, G. H.; Lallement, R.; Lester, M.; Porter, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    AXIOM (Advanced X-ray Imaging Of the Magnetosphere) is a concept mission which aims to explain how the Earth's magnetosphere responds to the changing impact of the solar wind using a unique method never attempted before; performing wide-field soft X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the magnetosheath. magnetopause and bow shock at high spatial and temporal resolution. Global imaging of these regions is possible because of the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) process which produces elevated soft X-ray emission from the interaction of high charge-state solar wind ions with primarily neutral hydrogen in the Earth's exosphere and near-interplanetary space.

  2. Expanding imaging capabilities for microfluidics: applicability of darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI) to observations in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yoshihiro; Otsuka, Chino; Sanzo, James; Higgins, Christopher; Nirei, Tatsuo; Schilling, Tobias; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics is used increasingly for engineering and biomedical applications due to recent advances in microfabrication technologies. Visualization of bubbles, tracer particles, and cells in a microfluidic device is important for designing a device and analyzing results. However, with conventional methods, it is difficult to observe the channel geometry and such particles simultaneously. To overcome this limitation, we developed a Darkfield Internal Reflection Illumination (DIRI) system that improved the drawbacks of a conventional darkfield illuminator. This study was performed to investigate its utility in the field of microfluidics. The results showed that the developed system could clearly visualize both microbubbles and the channel wall by utilizing brightfield and DIRI illumination simultaneously. The methodology is useful not only for static phenomena, such as clogging, but also for dynamic phenomena, such as the detection of bubbles flowing in a channel. The system was also applied to simultaneous fluorescence and DIRI imaging. Fluorescent tracer beads and channel walls were observed clearly, which may be an advantage for future microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) analysis, especially near a wall. Two types of cell stained with different colors, and the channel wall, can be recognized using the combined confocal and DIRI system. Whole-slide imaging was also conducted successfully using this system. The tiling function significantly expands the observing area of microfluidics. The developed system will be useful for a wide variety of engineering and biomedical applications for the growing field of microfluidics.

  3. Advances in molecular preclinical therapy mediated by imaging.

    PubMed

    Greco, Adelaide; Albanese, Sandra; Auletta, Luigi; DE Carlo, Flavia; Salvatore, Marco; Howard, Candace M; Claudio, Pier P

    2017-03-01

    Several advances have been made toward understanding the biology of cancer and most of them are due to robust genetic studies that led to the scientific recognition that although many patients have the same type of cancer their tumors may have harbored different molecular alterations. Personalized therapy and the development of advanced techniques of preclinical imaging and new murine models of disease are emerging concepts that are allowing mapping of disease markers in vivo and in some cases also receptor targeted therapy. Aim of this review is to illustrate some emerging models of disease that allow patient tumor implantation in mice for subsequent drug testing and advanced approaches for therapy mediated by preclinical imaging. In particular we discuss targeted therapy mediated by high frequency ultrasound and magnetic resonance, two emerging techniques in molecular preclinical therapy.

  4. Modulated pulse laser with pseudorandom coding capabilities for underwater ranging, detection, and imaging.

    PubMed

    Cochenour, Brandon; Mullen, Linda; Muth, John

    2011-11-20

    Optical detection, ranging, and imaging of targets in turbid water is complicated by absorption and scattering. It has been shown that using a pulsed laser source with a range-gated receiver or an intensity modulated source with a coherent RF receiver can improve target contrast in turbid water. A blended approach using a modulated-pulse waveform has been previously suggested as a way to further improve target contrast. However only recently has a rugged and reliable laser source been developed that is capable of synthesizing such a waveform so that the effect of the underwater environment on the propagation of a modulated pulse can be studied. In this paper, we outline the motivation for the modulated-pulse (MP) concept, and experimentally evaluate different MP waveforms: single-tone MP and pseudorandom coded MP sequences.

  5. Depth profiling and imaging capabilities of an ultrashort pulse laser ablation time of flight mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yang; Moore, Jerry F.; Milasinovic, Slobodan; Liu, Yaoming; Gordon, Robert J.; Hanley, Luke

    2012-01-01

    An ultrafast laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (AToF-MS) and associated data acquisition software that permits imaging at micron-scale resolution and sub-micron-scale depth profiling are described. The ion funnel-based source of this instrument can be operated at pressures ranging from 10−8 to ∼0.3 mbar. Mass spectra may be collected and stored at a rate of 1 kHz by the data acquisition system, allowing the instrument to be coupled with standard commercial Ti:sapphire lasers. The capabilities of the AToF-MS instrument are demonstrated on metal foils and semiconductor wafers using a Ti:sapphire laser emitting 800 nm, ∼75 fs pulses at 1 kHz. Results show that elemental quantification and depth profiling are feasible with this instrument. PMID:23020378

  6. Advanced 0.3-NA EUV lithography capabilities at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Erik; Dean, Kim; Denham, Paul; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Hoef, Brian; Jackson, Keith

    2005-07-07

    For volume nanoelectronics production using Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography [1] to become a reality around the year 2011, advanced EUV research tools are required today. Microfield exposure tools have played a vital role in the early development of EUV lithography [2-4] concentrating on numerical apertures (NA) of 0.2 and smaller. Expected to enter production at the 32-nm node with NAs of 0.25, EUV can no longer rely on these early research tools to provide relevant learning. To overcome this problem, a new generation of microfield exposure tools, operating at an NA of 0.3 have been developed [5-8]. Like their predecessors, these tools trade off field size and speed for greatly reduced complexity. One of these tools is implemented at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility. This tool gets around the problem of the intrinsically high coherence of the synchrotron source [9,10] by using an active illuminator scheme [11]. Here we describe recent printing results obtained from the Berkeley EUV exposure tool. Limited by the availability of ultra-high resolution chemically amplified resists, present resolution limits are approximately 32 nm for equal lines and spaces and 27 nm for semi-isolated lines.

  7. Development, Capabilities, and Impact on Wind Analyses of the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T.; Amarin, R.; Atlas, R.; Bailey, M.; Black, P.; Buckley, C.; Chen, S.; El-Nimri, S.; Hood, R.; James, M.; Johnson, J.; Jones, W.; Ruf, C.; Simmons, D.; Uhlhorn, E.; Inglish, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in partnership with the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory/Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida, the University of Michigan, and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The instrument is being test flown in January and is expected to participate in the tropical cyclone experiment GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) in the 2010 season. HIRAD is being designed to study the wind field in some detail within strong hurricanes and to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft currently using the operational Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track at a single point directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 x the aircraft altitude) with approximately 2 km resolution. This paper describes the HIRAD instrument and the physical basis for its operations, including chamber test data from the instrument. The potential value of future HIRAD observations will be illustrated with a summary of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a detailed numerical model, and those results are used to construct simulated H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the impact on H*Wind analyses of using the HIRAD instrument observations to replace those of the SFMR instrument, and also on the impact of a future satellite-based HIRAD in comparison to instruments with more limited capabilities for observing strong winds through heavy

  8. Optoacoustic tomography and its recent advances in biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yixiong; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2005-01-01

    Optoacoustic tomography, which maps the distribution of the optical absorption within biological tissues by use of time-resolved laser-induced ultrasonic signals, is attracting increasing interests in biomedical imaging. As a hybrid imaging technique, it takes the advantages of both optical and ultrasonic techniques in that the tomography image has the optical contrast similar to the optical techniques while enjoying the high spatial resolution comparable to the ultrasound. In theories, this technique can image the objects embedded several centimeters deep within targets with a resolution of several tens of microns. In this paper, the current-state-of-the-art time-resolved optoacoustic tomography in biomedical imaging is reviewed. This paper consists of four sections: principles of optoacoustic tomography, signal acquisition and process, recent progress and advance, and problems and outlooks for the technique.

  9. Insights into dendritic cell function using advanced imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Jatin M

    2012-11-15

    The application of advanced imaging techniques to fundamental questions in immunology has provided insight into dendritic cell function and has challenged dogma created using static imaging of lymphoid tissue. The history of dendritic cell biology has a storied past and is tightly linked to imaging. The development of imaging techniques that emphasize live cell imaging in situ has provided not only breath-taking movies, but also novel insights into the importance of spatiotemporal relationships between antigen presenting cells and T cells. This review serves to provide a primer on two-photon microscopy, TIRF microscopy, spinning disk confocal microscopy and optical trapping and provides selective examples of insights gained from these tools on dendritic cell biology.

  10. Advanced technology development for image gathering, coding, and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.

    1990-01-01

    Three overlapping areas of research activities are presented: (1) Information theory and optimal filtering are extended to visual information acquisition and processing. The goal is to provide a comprehensive methodology for quantitatively assessing the end-to-end performance of image gathering, coding, and processing. (2) Focal-plane processing techniques and technology are developed to combine effectively image gathering with coding. The emphasis is on low-level vision processing akin to the retinal processing in human vision. (3) A breadboard adaptive image-coding system is being assembled. This system will be used to develop and evaluate a number of advanced image-coding technologies and techniques as well as research the concept of adaptive image coding.

  11. Technology Advances in Support of Fusion Plasma Imaging Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qi; Lai, Jiali; Hu, Fengqi; Li, Maijou; Chang, Yu-Ting; Domier, Calvin; Luhmann, Neville, Jr.

    2012-10-01

    Innovative technologies are under investigation in key areas to enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave fusion plasma imaging diagnostics. Novel antenna and mixer configurations are being developed at increasingly higher frequencies, to facilitate the use of electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) on high field (> 2.6 T) plasma devices. Low noise preamplifier-based imaging antenna arrays are being developed to increase the sensitivity and dynamic range of microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) diagnostics for the localized measurement of turbulent density fluctuations. High power multi-frequency sources, fabricated using advanced CMOS technology, offer the promise of allowing MIR-based diagnostic instruments to image these density fluctuations in 2-D over an extended plasma volume in high performance tokamak plasmas. Details regarding each of these diagnostic development areas will be presented.

  12. Recent Advances in Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Test Capability at NASA's Stennis Space Center E-Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacks, Thomas E.; Beisler, Michele

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the rocket propulsion test capability at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center's (SSC) E-Complex has been enhanced to include facilitization for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based ground testing. In particular, the E-3 test stand has conducted numerous test projects that have been reported in the open literature. These include combustion devices as simple as small-scale catalyst beds, and larger devices such as ablative thrust chambers and a flight-type engine (AR2-3). Consequently, the NASA SSC test engineering and operations knowledge base and infrastructure have grown considerably in order to conduct safe H2O2 test operations with a variety of test articles at the component and engine level. Currently, the E-Complex has a test requirement for a hydrogen peroxide based stage test. This new development, with its unique set of requirements, has motivated the facilitization for hydrogen peroxide propellant use at the E-2 Cell 2 test position in addition to E-3. Since the E-2 Cell 2 test position was not originally designed as a hydrogen peroxide test stand, a facility modernization-improvement project was planned and implemented in FY 2002-03 to enable this vertical engine test stand to accomodate H2O2. This paper discusses the ongoing enhancement of E-Complex ground test capability, specifically at the E-3 stand (Cell 1 and Cell 2) and E-2 Cell 2 stand, that enable current and future customers considerable test flexibility and operability in conducting their peroxide based rocket R&D efforts.

  13. Advancing Unmanned Aircraft Sensor Collection and Communication Capabilities with Optical Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukaczyk, T.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are now being used for monitoring climate change over both land and seas. Their uses include monitoring of cloud conditions and atmospheric composition of chemicals and aerosols due to pollution, dust storms, fires, volcanic activity and air-sea fluxes. Additional studies of carbon flux are important for various ecosystem studies of both marine and terrestrial environments specifically, and can be related to climate change dynamics. Many measurements are becoming more complex as additional sensors become small enough to operate on more widely available small UAS. These include interferometric radars as well as scanning and fan-beam lidar systems which produce data streams even greater than those of high resolution video. These can be used to precisely map surfaces of the earth, ocean or ice features that are important for a variety of earth system studies. As these additional sensor capabilities are added to UAS the ability to transmit data back to ground or ship monitoring sites is limited by traditional wireless communication protocols. We describe results of tests of optical communication systems that provide significantly greater communication bandwidths for UAS, and discuss both the bandwidth and effective range of these systems, as well as their power and weight requirements both for systems on UAS, as well as those of ground-based receiver stations. We justify our additional use of Delay and Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) communication protocols with optical communication methods to ensure security and continuity of command and control operations. Finally, we discuss the implications for receiving, geo-referencing, archiving and displaying data streams from sensors communicated via optical communication to better enable real-time anomaly detection and adaptive sampling capabilities using multiple UAS or other unmanned or manned systems.

  14. Advanced multi-dimensional deterministic transport computational capability for safety analysis of pebble-bed reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyobeka, Bismark Mzubanzi

    A coupled neutron transport thermal-hydraulics code system with both diffusion and transport theory capabilities is presented. At the heart of the coupled code is a powerful neutronics solver, based on a neutron transport theory approach, powered by the time-dependent extension of the well known DORT code, DORT-TD. DORT-TD uses a fully implicit time integration scheme and is coupled via a general interface to the thermal-hydraulics code THERMIX-DIREKT, an HTR-specific two dimensional core thermal-hydraulics code. Feedback is accounted for by interpolating multigroup cross sections from pre-generated libraries which are structured for user specified discrete sets of thermal-hydraulic parameters e.g. fuel and moderator temperatures. The coupled code system is applied to two HTGR designs, the PBMR 400MW and the PBMR 268MW. Steady-state and several design basis transients are modeled in an effort to discern with the adequacy of using neutron diffusion theory as against the more accurate but yet computationally expensive neutron transport theory. It turns out that there are small but significant differences in the results from using either of the two theories. It is concluded that diffusion theory can be used with a higher degree of confidence in the PBMR as long as more than two energy groups are used and that the result must be checked against lower order transport solution, especially for safety analysis purposes. The end product of this thesis is a high fidelity, state-of-the-art computer code system, with multiple capabilities to analyze all PBMR safety related transients in an accurate and efficient manner.

  15. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in

  16. Development of Education Program for Okinawa Model Creative and Capable Engineers in Advanced Welding Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yukio; Matsue, Junji; Makishi, Takashi; Higa, Yoshikazu; Matsuda, Shoich

    Okinawa National College of Technology proposed “Educational Program for Practically Skilled Engineers in Advanced Welding Technology in Okinawa Style” to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and was adopted as a 2-year project starting from 2005. This project designed to fit for the regional characteristics of Okinawa, aims to develop the core human resources program that will help reinforce and innovate the welding engineering in the manufacturing industries. In 2005, the education program and the original textbook were developed, and in 2006, a proof class was held to confirm the suitability and the effectiveness of the program and the textbook in order to improve the attendees' basics and the application ability of welding. The results were quite positive. Also, by collaborating with the Japan Welding Society, points scored in this course were authorized as the education points of IIW international welding engineer qualification.

  17. Capabilities and Impact on Wind Analyses of the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; Amarin, Ruba; Atlas, Robert; Bailey, M. C.; Black, Peter; Buckley, Courtney; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Christopher; Simmons, David; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in partnership with the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory/Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida, the University of Michigan, and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The instrument is being test flown in January and is expected to participate in or collaborate with the tropical cyclone experiment GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) in the 2010 season. HIRAD is designed to study the wind field in some detail within strong hurricanes and to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft currently using the operational Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track at a single point directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approx.3 x the aircraft altitude) with approx.2 km resolution. See Figure 1, which depicts a simulated HIRAD swath versus the line of data obtained by SFMR.

  18. A Transformative Imaging Capability Using Laser Driven Multi MeV Photon Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Donald; Espy, Michelle; Palaniyappan, Sasi; Mendez, Jacob; Nelson, Ronald; Hunter, James; Fernandez, Juan; los alamos national laboratory Team

    2016-10-01

    Recent results from the LANL Trident Laser demonstrate the practical use of a laser of this class ( 70 J, 600 fs) as a multi MeV photon source. The utilization of novel targets operating in the relativistic transparency regime of laser-plasmas has enabled this development. The electron population made from these targets, when coupled to a suitable high-Z converter foil placed near the laser target, produces an intense >1 MeV photon source with a small source size compared to conventional sources. When coupled with efficient imaging detectors, this laser-driven hard x-ray source provides new capabilities to address current non-destructive and dynamic testing problems that require a quantum jump in resolution. ``Flash'' (pulse picosecond) photon imaging, micro-focus resolution enhancement, good object penetration, and magnification (4x) with sufficient dose (>10 Rad/sr) for practical application have all been demonstrated at the LANL Trident Laser, as summarized in this presentation.

  19. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. Results: Findings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. Conclusions: The authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  20. Recent Advances with the AMPX Covariance Processing Capabilities in PUFF-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Wiarda, D. Arbanas, G.; Leal, L.; Dunn, M.E.

    2008-12-15

    The program PUFF-IV is used to process resonance parameter covariance information given in ENDF/B File 32 and point wise covariance matrices given in ENDF/B File 33 into group-averaged covariances matrices on a user-supplied group structure. For large resonance covariance matrices, found for example in {sup 235}U, the execution time of PUFF-IV can be quite long. Recently the code was modified to take advantage of Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) routines for the most time-consuming matrix multiplications. This led to a substantial decrease in execution time. This faster processing capability allowed us to investigate the conversion of File 32 data into File 33 data using a larger number of user-defined groups. While conversion substantially reduces the ENDF/B file size requirements for evaluations with a large number of resonances, a trade-off is made between the number of groups used to represent the resonance parameter covariance as a point wise covariance matrix and the file size. We are also investigating a hybrid version of the conversion, in which the low-energy part of the File 32 resonance parameter covariances matrix is retained and the correlations with higher energies as well as the high energy part are given in File 33.

  1. Recent Advances with the AMPX Covariance Processing Capabilities in PUFF-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Wiarda, Dorothea; Arbanas, Goran; Leal, Luiz C; Dunn, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    The program PUFF-IV is used to process resonance parameter covariance information given in ENDF/B File 32 and point-wise covariance matrices given in ENDF/B File 33 into group-averaged covariances matrices on a user-supplied group structure. For large resonance covariance matrices, found for example in 235U, the execution time of PUFF-IV can be quite long. Recently the code was modified to take advandage of Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) routines for the most time-consuming matrix multiplications. This led to a substantial decrease in execution time. This faster processing capability allowed us to investigate the conversion of File 32 data into File 33 data using a larger number of user-defined groups. While conversion substantially reduces the ENDF/B file size requirements for evaluations with a large number of resonances, a trade-off is made between the number of groups used to represent the resonance parameter covariance as a point-wise covariance matrix and the file size. We are also investigating a hybrid version of the conversion, in which the low-energy part of the File 32 resonance parameter covariances matrix is retained and the correlations with higher energies as well as the high energy part are given in File 33.

  2. "Head up and eyes out" advances in head mounted displays capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2013-06-01

    There are a host of helmet and head mounted displays, flooding the market place with displays which provide what is essentially a mobile computer display. What sets aviators HMDs apart is that they provide the user with accurate conformal information embedded in the pilots real world view (see through display) where the information presented is intuitive and easy to use because it overlays the real world (mix of sensor imagery, symbolic information and synthetic imagery) and enables them to stay head up, eyes out, - improving their effectiveness, reducing workload and improving safety. Such systems are an enabling technology in the provision of enhanced Situation Awareness (SA) and reducing user workload in high intensity situations. Safety Is Key; so the addition of these HMD functions cannot detract from the aircrew protection functions of conventional aircrew helmets which also include life support and audio communications. These capabilities are finding much wider application in new types of compact man mounted audio/visual products enabled by the emergence of new families of micro displays, novel optical concepts and ultra-compact low power processing solutions. This papers attempts to capture the key drivers and needs for future head mounted systems for aviation applications.

  3. Accuracy improvement capability of advanced projectile based on course correction fuze concept.

    PubMed

    Elsaadany, Ahmed; Wen-jun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake) and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze). The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion.

  4. Accuracy Improvement Capability of Advanced Projectile Based on Course Correction Fuze Concept

    PubMed Central

    Elsaadany, Ahmed; Wen-jun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake) and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze). The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion. PMID:25097873

  5. The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Nicola, J. M.; Yang, S. T.; Boley, C. D.; Crane, J. K.; Heebner, J. E.; Spinka, T. M.; Arnold, P.; Barty, C. P. J.; Bowers, M. W.; Budge, T. S.; Christensen, K.; Dawson, J. W.; Erbert, G.; Feigenbaum, E.; Guss, G.; Haefner, C.; Hermann, M. R.; Homoelle, D.; Jarboe, J. A.; Lawson, J. K.; Lowe-Webb, R.; McCandless, K.; McHale, B.; Pelz, L. J.; Pham, P. P.; Prantil, M. A.; Rehak, M. L.; Rever, M. A.; Rushford, M. C.; Sacks, R. A.; Shaw, M.; Smauley, D.; Smith, L. K.; Speck, R.; Tietbohl, G.; Wegner, P. J.; Widmayer, C.

    2015-02-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the first of a kind megajoule-class laser with 192 beams capable of delivering over 1.8 MJ and 500TW of 351nm light [1], [2]. It has been commissioned and operated since 2009 to support a wide range of missions including the study of inertial confinement fusion, high energy density physics, material science, and laboratory astrophysics. In order to advance our understanding, and enable short-pulse multi-frame radiographic experiments of dense cores of cold material, the generation of very hard x-rays above 50 keV is necessary. X-rays with such characteristics can be efficiently generated with high intensity laser pulses above 1017 W/cm² [3]. The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) [4] which is currently being commissioned on the NIF will provide eight, 1 ps to 50 ps, adjustable pulses with up to 1.7 kJ each to create x-ray point sources enabling dynamic, multi-frame x-ray backlighting. This paper will provide an overview of the ARC system and report on the laser performance tests conducted with a stretched-pulse up to the main laser output and their comparison with the results of our laser propagation codes.

  6. Advancement of a 30K W Solar Electric Propulsion System Capability for NASA Human and Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Nazario, Margaret L.; Manzella, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion has evolved into a demonstrated operational capability performing station keeping for geosynchronous satellites, enabling challenging deep-space science missions, and assisting in the transfer of satellites from an elliptical orbit Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) to a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). Advancing higher power SEP systems will enable numerous future applications for human, robotic, and commercial missions. These missions are enabled by either the increased performance of the SEP system or by the cost reductions when compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems. Higher power SEP systems that provide very high payload for robotic missions also trade favorably for the advancement of human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Demonstrated reliable systems are required for human space flight and due to their successful present day widespread use and inherent high reliability, SEP systems have progressively become a viable entrant into these future human exploration architectures. NASA studies have identified a 30 kW-class SEP capability as the next appropriate evolutionary step, applicable to wide range of both human and robotic missions. This paper describes the planning options, mission applications, and technology investments for representative 30kW-class SEP mission concepts under consideration by NASA

  7. WE-DE-207A-04: Advances in Radiological Neuro-Endovascular Interventional Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rudin, S

    2016-06-01

    1. Parallels in the evolution of x-ray angiographic systems and devices used for minimally invasive endovascular therapy Charles Strother - DSA, invented by Dr. Charles Mistretta at UW-Madison, was the technology which enabled the development of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. As DSA became widely available and the potential benefits for accessing the cerebral vasculature from an endovascular approach began to be apparent, industry began efforts to develop tools for use in these procedures. Along with development of catheters, embolic materials, pushable coils and the GDC coils there was simultaneous development and improvement of 2D DSA image quality and the introduction of 3D DSA. Together, these advances resulted in an enormous expansion in the scope and numbers of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. The introduction of flat detectors for c-arm angiographic systems in 2002 provided the possibility of the angiographic suite becoming not just a location for vascular imaging where physiological assessments might also be performed. Over the last decade algorithmic and hardware advances have been sufficient to now realize this potential in clinical practice. The selection of patients for endovascular treatments is enhanced by this dual capability. Along with these advances has been a steady reduction in the radiation exposure required so that today, vascular and soft tissue images may be obtained with equal or in many cases less radiation exposure than is the case for comparable images obtained with multi-detector CT.

  8. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Lesley A.; Jackson, Brian E.; Fonteno, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain. PMID:27135334

  9. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants.

    PubMed

    Judd, Lesley A; Jackson, Brian E; Fonteno, William C

    2015-07-03

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  10. An ALS handbook: A summary of the capabilities and characteristics of the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This booklet aims to provide the prospective user of the Advanced Light Source with a concise description of the radiation a researcher might expect at his or her experimental station. The focus is therefore on the characteristics of the light that emerges from insertion devices and bending magnets and on how components of the beam lines further alter the properties of the radiation. The few specifications and operating parameters of the ALS storage ring that are of interest are those that directly determine the radiation characteristics. Sections 4 through 5 are primarily devoted to summary presentations, by means of performance plots and tabular compilations, of radiation characteristics at the ALS--spectral brightness, flux, coherent power, resolution, etc.--assuming a representative set of three undulators and one wiggler and a corresponding set of four beam lines. As a complement to these performance summaries, Section 1 is a general introductory discussion of synchrotron radiation and the ALS, and Section 2 discusses the properties of the stored electron beam that affect the radiation. Section 3 then provides an introduction to the characteristics of synchrotron radiation from bending magnets, wigglers, and undulators. In addition, Section 5 briefly introduces the theory of diffraction-grating and crystal monochromators. As compared with previous editions of this booklet, the performance plots and tabular compilations of the ALS radiation characteristics are now based on conservative engineering designs rather than preliminary physics designs.

  11. Challenges and recent advances in mass spectrometric imaging of neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Gemperline, Erin; Chen, Bingming; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules, from small molecules to large proteins, by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in the study of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides of different classes toward investigation of neurobiological functions and diseases. These studies have provided significant insight in neurobiology over the years and current technical advances are facilitating further improvements in this field. neurotransmitters, focusing specifically on the challenges and recent Herein, we advances of MSI of neurotransmitters. PMID:24568355

  12. Geared rotor dynamic methodologies for advancing prognostic modeling capabilities in rotary-wing transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, David Blake

    The overarching objective in this research is the development of a robust, rotor dynamic, physics based model of a helicopter drive train as a foundation for the prognostic modeling for rotary-wing transmissions. Rotorcrafts rely on the integrity of their drive trains for their airworthiness. Drive trains rely on gear technology for their integrity and function. Gears alter the vibration characteristics of a mechanical system and significantly contribute to noise, component fatigue, and personal discomfort prevalent in rotorcraft. This research effort develops methodologies for generating a rotor dynamic model of a rotary-wing transmission based on first principles, through (i) development of a three-dimensional gear-mesh stiffness model for helical and spur gears and integration of this model in a finite element rotor dynamic model, (ii) linear and nonlinear analyses of a geared system for comparison and validation of the gear-mesh model, (iii) development of a modal synthesis technique for potentially providing model reduction and faster analysis capabilities for geared systems, and (iv) extension of the gear-mesh model to bevel and epicyclic configurations. In addition to model construction and validation, faults indigenous to geared systems are presented and discussed. Two faults are selected for analysis and seeded into the transmission model. Diagnostic vibration parameters are presented and used as damage indicators in the analysis. The fault models produce results consistent with damage experienced during experimental testing. The results of this research demonstrate the robustness of the physics-based approach in simulating multiple normal and abnormal conditions. The advantages of this physics-based approach, when combined with contemporary probabilistic and time-series techniques, provide a useful method for improving health monitoring technologies in mechanical systems.

  13. Advances in imaging explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, H; Bandak, A; Ling, G; Bandak, F A

    2015-01-01

    In the past, direct physical evidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from explosive blast has been difficult to obtain through conventional imaging modalities such as T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Here, we review current progress in detecting evidence of brain injury from explosive blast using advanced imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and the metabolic imaging methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), where each targets different aspects of the pathology involved in mTBI. DTI provides a highly sensitive measure to detect primary changes in the microstructure of white matter tracts. fMRI enables the measurement of changes in brain activity in response to different stimuli or tasks. Remarkably, all three of these paradigms have found significant success in conventional mTBI where conventional clinical imaging frequently fails to provide definitive differences. Additionally, although used less frequently for conventional mTBI, PET has the potential to characterize a variety of neurotransmitter systems using target agents and will undoubtedly play a larger role, once the basic mechanisms of injury are better understood and techniques to identify the injury are more common. Finally, our MRSI imaging studies, although acquired at much lower spatial resolution, have demonstrated selectivity to different metabolic and physiologic processes, uncovering some of the most profound differences on an individual by individual basis, suggesting the potential for utility in the management of individual patients.

  14. TU-AB-204-04: Advances in CBCT for Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, J.

    2015-06-15

    , significant effort has been expended to improve the quantitative accuracy of C-arm CBCT reconstructions. The challenge is to improve image quality while providing very short turnaround between data acquisition and volume data visualization. Corrections for x-ray scatter, view aliasing and patient motion that require no more than 2 iterations keep processing time short while reducing artifact. Fast, multi-sweep acquisitions can be used to permit assessment of left ventricular function, and visualization of radiofrequency lesions created to treat arrhythmias. Workflows for each imaging goal have been developed and validated against gold standard clinical CT or histology. The challenges, opportunities, and limitations of the new functional C-arm CBCT imaging techniques will be discussed. Dr. W. Zbijewski (Johns Hopkins University) will present on the topic: Advances in CBCT for Orthopaedics and Bone Health Imaging. Cone-beam CT is particularly well suited for imaging of musculoskeletal extremities. Owing to the high spatial resolution of flat-panel detectors, CBCT can surpass conventional CT in imaging tasks involving bone visualization, quantitative analysis of subchondral trabecular structure, and visualization and monitoring of subtle fractures that are common in orthopedic radiology. A dedicated CBCT platform has been developed that offers flexibility in system design and provides not only a compact configuration with improved logistics for extremities imaging but also enables novel diagnostic capabilities such as imaging of weight-bearing lower extremities in a natural stance. The design, development and clinical performance of dedicated extremities CBCT systems will be presented. Advanced capabilities for quantitative volumetric assessment of joint space morphology, dual-energy image-based quantification of bone composition, and in-vivo analysis of bone microarchitecture will be discussed, along with emerging applications in the diagnosis of arthritis and osteoporosis and

  15. TU-AB-204-01: Advances in C-Arm CBCT for Brain Perfusion Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.

    2015-06-15

    , significant effort has been expended to improve the quantitative accuracy of C-arm CBCT reconstructions. The challenge is to improve image quality while providing very short turnaround between data acquisition and volume data visualization. Corrections for x-ray scatter, view aliasing and patient motion that require no more than 2 iterations keep processing time short while reducing artifact. Fast, multi-sweep acquisitions can be used to permit assessment of left ventricular function, and visualization of radiofrequency lesions created to treat arrhythmias. Workflows for each imaging goal have been developed and validated against gold standard clinical CT or histology. The challenges, opportunities, and limitations of the new functional C-arm CBCT imaging techniques will be discussed. Dr. W. Zbijewski (Johns Hopkins University) will present on the topic: Advances in CBCT for Orthopaedics and Bone Health Imaging. Cone-beam CT is particularly well suited for imaging of musculoskeletal extremities. Owing to the high spatial resolution of flat-panel detectors, CBCT can surpass conventional CT in imaging tasks involving bone visualization, quantitative analysis of subchondral trabecular structure, and visualization and monitoring of subtle fractures that are common in orthopedic radiology. A dedicated CBCT platform has been developed that offers flexibility in system design and provides not only a compact configuration with improved logistics for extremities imaging but also enables novel diagnostic capabilities such as imaging of weight-bearing lower extremities in a natural stance. The design, development and clinical performance of dedicated extremities CBCT systems will be presented. Advanced capabilities for quantitative volumetric assessment of joint space morphology, dual-energy image-based quantification of bone composition, and in-vivo analysis of bone microarchitecture will be discussed, along with emerging applications in the diagnosis of arthritis and osteoporosis and

  16. TU-AB-204-03: Advances in CBCT for Orhtopaedics and Bone Health Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zbijewski, W.

    2015-06-15

    , significant effort has been expended to improve the quantitative accuracy of C-arm CBCT reconstructions. The challenge is to improve image quality while providing very short turnaround between data acquisition and volume data visualization. Corrections for x-ray scatter, view aliasing and patient motion that require no more than 2 iterations keep processing time short while reducing artifact. Fast, multi-sweep acquisitions can be used to permit assessment of left ventricular function, and visualization of radiofrequency lesions created to treat arrhythmias. Workflows for each imaging goal have been developed and validated against gold standard clinical CT or histology. The challenges, opportunities, and limitations of the new functional C-arm CBCT imaging techniques will be discussed. Dr. W. Zbijewski (Johns Hopkins University) will present on the topic: Advances in CBCT for Orthopaedics and Bone Health Imaging. Cone-beam CT is particularly well suited for imaging of musculoskeletal extremities. Owing to the high spatial resolution of flat-panel detectors, CBCT can surpass conventional CT in imaging tasks involving bone visualization, quantitative analysis of subchondral trabecular structure, and visualization and monitoring of subtle fractures that are common in orthopedic radiology. A dedicated CBCT platform has been developed that offers flexibility in system design and provides not only a compact configuration with improved logistics for extremities imaging but also enables novel diagnostic capabilities such as imaging of weight-bearing lower extremities in a natural stance. The design, development and clinical performance of dedicated extremities CBCT systems will be presented. Advanced capabilities for quantitative volumetric assessment of joint space morphology, dual-energy image-based quantification of bone composition, and in-vivo analysis of bone microarchitecture will be discussed, along with emerging applications in the diagnosis of arthritis and osteoporosis and

  17. The Need for Technology Maturity of Any Advanced Capability to Achieve Better Life Cycle Cost (LCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Programs such as space transportation systems are developed and deployed only rarely, and they have long development schedules and large development and life cycle costs (LCC). They have not historically had their LCC predicted well and have only had an effort to control the DDT&E phase of the programs. One of the factors driving the predictability, and thus control, of the LCC of a program is the maturity of the technologies incorporated in the program. If the technologies incorporated are less mature (as measured by their Technology Readiness Level - TRL), then the LCC not only increases but the degree of increase is difficult to predict. Consequently, new programs avoid incorporating technologies unless they are quite mature, generally TRL greater than or equal to 7 (system prototype demonstrated in a space environment) to allow better predictability of the DDT&E phase costs unless there is no alternative. On the other hand, technology development programs rarely develop technologies beyond TRL 6 (system/subsystem model or prototype demonstrated in a relevant environment). Currently the lack of development funds beyond TRL 6 and the major funding required for full scale development leave little or no funding available to prototype TRL 6 concepts so that hardware would be in the ready mode for safe, reliable and cost effective incorporation. The net effect is that each new program either incorporates little new technology or has longer development schedules and costs, and higher LCC, than planned. This paper presents methods to ensure that advanced technologies are incorporated into future programs while providing a greater accuracy of predicting their LCC. One method is having a dedicated organization to develop X-series vehicles or separate prototypes carried on other vehicles. The question of whether such an organization should be independent of NASA and/or have an independent funding source is discussed. Other methods are also discussed. How to make the

  18. Recent Advances in Computed Tomographic Technology: Cardiopulmonary Imaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Azadeh; Lo Gullo, Roberto; Murugan, Venkatesh; Otrakji, Alexi; Digumarthy, Subba; Kalra, Mannudeep

    2017-03-01

    Cardiothoracic diseases result in substantial morbidity and mortality. Chest computed tomography (CT) has been an imaging modality of choice for assessing a host of chest diseases, and technologic advances have enabled the emergence of coronary CT angiography as a robust noninvasive test for cardiac imaging. Technologic developments in CT have also enabled the application of dual-energy CT scanning for assessing pulmonary vascular and neoplastic processes. Concerns over increasing radiation dose from CT scanning are being addressed with introduction of more dose-efficient wide-area detector arrays and iterative reconstruction techniques. This review article discusses the technologic innovations in CT and their effect on cardiothoracic applications.

  19. Advances in molecular imaging for breast cancer detection and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Advances in our ability to assay molecular processes, including gene expression, protein expression, and molecular and cellular biochemistry, have fueled advances in our understanding of breast cancer biology and have led to the identification of new treatments for patients with breast cancer. The ability to measure biologic processes without perturbing them in vivo allows the opportunity to better characterize tumor biology and to assess how biologic and cytotoxic therapies alter critical pathways of tumor response and resistance. By accurately characterizing tumor properties and biologic processes, molecular imaging plays an increasing role in breast cancer science, clinical care in diagnosis and staging, assessment of therapeutic targets, and evaluation of responses to therapies. This review describes the current role and potential of molecular imaging modalities for detection and characterization of breast cancer and focuses primarily on radionuclide-based methods. PMID:22423895

  20. Advanced imaging microscope tools applied to microgravity research investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, L.; Samson, J.; Conrad, D.; Clark, K.

    1998-01-01

    The inability to observe and interact with experiments on orbit has been an impediment for both basic research and commercial ventures using the shuttle. In order to open the frontiers of space, the Center for Microgravity Automation Technology has developed a unique and innovative system for conducting experiments at a distance, the ``Remote Scientist.'' The Remote Scientist extends laboratory automation capability to the microgravity environment. While the Remote Scientist conceptually encompasses a broad spectrum of elements and functionalities, the development approach taken is to: • establish a baseline capability that is both flexible and versatile • incrementally augment the baseline with additional functions over time. Since last year, the application of the Remote Scientist has changed from protein crystal growth to tissue culture, specifically, the development of skeletal muscle under varying levels of tension. This system includes a series of bioreactor chambers that allow for three-dimensional growth of muscle tissue on a membrane suspended between the two ends of a programmable force transducer that can provide automated or investigator-initiated tension on the developing tissue. A microscope objective mounted on a translation carriage allows for high-resolution microscopy along a large area of the tissue. These images will be mosaiced on orbit to detect features and structures that span multiple images. The use of fluorescence and pseudo-confocal microscopy will maximize the observational capabilities of this system. A series of ground-based experiments have been performed to validate the bioreactor, the force transducer, the translation carriage and the image acquisition capabilities of the Remote Scientist. • The bioreactor is capable of sustaining three dimensional tissue culture growth over time. • The force transducer can be programmed to provide static tension on cells or to simulate either slow or fast growth of underlying tissues in

  1. Advanced indium antimonide monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, T. L.; Merilainen, C. A.; Thom, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The continued process development of SiO2 insulators for use in advanced InSb monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays is described. Specific investigations into the use of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) SiO2 as a gate insulator for InSb charge coupled devices is discussed, as are investigations of other chemical vapor deposited SiO2 materials.

  2. Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research and Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    injury in children. Dr. Dobson’s project was an investigation of the mechanisms of brain injury in premature infants , and potential neuroprotective...study hypoxic ischemic brain injury in newborns treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Dr. Massaro has a long standing interest in identifying early...TE.Understanding brain injury and neurodevelopmental disabilities in the preterm infant : the evolving role of advanced magnetic resonance imaging.Semin

  3. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Claudia F.E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 20 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advanced due to new techniques involving increased magnetic field strength and developments in coils and pulse sequences. These advances allow increased opportunity to delineate the complex skull base anatomy and may guide the diagnosis and treatment of the myriad of pathologies that can affect the skull base. Objectives The objective of this article is to provide a brief background of the development of MRI and illustrate advances in skull base imaging, including techniques that allow improved conspicuity, characterization, and correlative physiologic assessment of skull base pathologies. Data Synthesis Specific radiographic illustrations of increased skull base conspicuity including the lower cranial nerves, vessels, foramina, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, and effacement of endolymph are provided. In addition, MRIs demonstrating characterization of skull base lesions, such as recurrent cholesteatoma versus granulation tissue or abscess versus tumor, are also provided as well as correlative clinical findings in CSF flow studies in a patient pre- and post-suboccipital decompression for a Chiari I malformation. Conclusions This article illustrates MRI radiographic advances over the past 20 years, which have improved clinicians' ability to diagnose, define, and hopefully improve the treatment and outcomes of patients with underlying skull base pathologies. PMID:25992137

  4. Imaging of skull base pathologies: Role of advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ankit; Kesavadas, C; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, TR

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays a vital role in evaluation of skull base pathologies as this region is not directly accessible for clinical evaluation. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have played complementary roles in the diagnosis of the various neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of the skull base. However, CT and conventional MRI may at times be insufficient to correctly pinpoint the accurate diagnosis. Advanced MRI techniques, though difficult to apply in the skull base region, in conjunction with CT and conventional MRI can however help in improving the diagnostic accuracy. This article aims to highlight the importance of advanced MRI techniques like diffusion-weighted imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, perfusion-weighted imaging, and MR spectroscopy in differentiation of various lesions involving the skull base. PMID:26427895

  5. Advanced Echocardiographic Imaging of the Congenitally Malformed Heart

    PubMed Central

    Black, D; Vettukattil, J

    2013-01-01

    There have been significant advancements in the ability of echocardiography to provide both morphological and functional information in children with congenitally malformed hearts. This progress has come through the development of improved technology such as matrix array probes and software which allows for the off line analysis of images to a high standard. This article focuses on these developments and discusses some newer concepts in advanced echocardiography such is multi-planar reformatting [MPR] and tissue motion annular displacement [TMAD]. Our aim is to discuss important aspects related to the quality and reproducibility of data, to review the most recent published data regarding advanced echocardiography in the malformed heart and to guide the reader to appropriate text for overcoming the technical challenges of using these methods. Many of the technical aspects of image acquisition and post processing have been discussed in recent reviews by the authors and we would urge readers to study these texts to gain a greater understanding [1]. The quality of the two dimensional image is paramount in both strain analysis and three dimensional echocardiography. An awareness of how to improve image quality is vital to acquiring accurate and usable data. Three dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is an attempt to visualise the dynamic morphology of the heart. Although published media is the basis for theoretical knowledge of how to practically acquire images, electronic media [eg.www.3dechocardiography.com] is the only way of visualising the advantages of this technology in real time. It is important to be aware of the limitations of this technology and that much of the data gleaned from using these methods is at a research stage and not yet in regular clinical practice. PMID:23228075

  6. Ag/FeCo/Ag core/shell/shell magnetic nanoparticles with plasmonic imaging capability.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mari; Mohan, Priyank; Nakade, Akiko; Higashimine, Koichi; Mott, Derrick; Hamada, Tsutomu; Matsumura, Kazuaki; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Maenosono, Shinya

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) have been used to separate various species such as bacteria, cells, and proteins. In this study, we synthesized Ag/FeCo/Ag core/shell/shell NPs designed for magnetic separation of subcellular components like intracellular vesicles. A benefit of these NPs is that their silver metal content allows plasmon scattering to be used as a tool to observe detection by the NPs easily and semipermanently. Therefore, these NPs are considered a potential alternative to existing fluorescent probes like dye molecules and colloidal quantum dots. In addition, the Ag core inside the NPs suppresses the oxidation of FeCo because of electron transfer from the Ag core to the FeCo shell, even though FeCo is typically susceptible to oxidation. The surfaces of the Ag/FeCo/Ag NPs were functionalized with ε-poly-L-lysine-based hydrophilic polymers to make them water-soluble and biocompatible. The imaging capability of the polymer-functionalized NPs induced by plasmon scattering from the Ag core was investigated. The response of the NPs to a magnetic field using liposomes as platforms and applying a magnetic field during observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy was assessed. The results of the magnetophoresis experiments of liposomes allowed us to calculate the magnetic force to which each liposome was subjected.

  7. Advanced Scintillator Detectors for Neutron Imaging in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geppert-Kleinrath, Verena; Danly, Christopher; Merrill, Frank; Simpson, Raspberry; Volegov, Petr; Wilde, Carl

    2016-10-01

    The neutron imaging team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been providing two-dimensional neutron imaging of the inertial confinement fusion process at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for over five years. Neutron imaging is a powerful tool in which position-sensitive detectors register neutrons emitted in the fusion reactions, producing a picture of the burning fuel. Recent images have revealed possible multi-dimensional asymmetries, calling for additional views to facilitate three-dimensional imaging. These will be along shorter lines of sight to stay within the existing facility at NIF. In order to field imaging capabilities equivalent to the existing system several technological challenges have to be met: high spatial resolution, high light output, and fast scintillator response to capture lower-energy neutrons, which have scattered from non-burning regions of fuel. Deuterated scintillators are a promising candidate to achieve the timing and resolution required; a systematic study of deuterated and non-deuterated polystyrene and liquid samples is currently ongoing. A test stand has been implemented to measure the response function, and preliminary data on resolution and light output have been obtained at the LANL Weapons Neutrons Research facility.

  8. Advanced gastrointestinal endoscopic imaging for inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Rath, Timo; Neumann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal luminal endoscopy is of paramount importance for diagnosis, monitoring and dysplasia surveillance in patients with both, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Moreover, with the recent recognition that mucosal healing is directly linked to the clinical outcome of patients with inflammatory bowel disorders, a growing demand exists for the precise, timely and detailed endoscopic assessment of superficial mucosal layer. Further, the novel field of molecular imaging has tremendously expanded the clinical utility and applications of modern endoscopy, now encompassing not only diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment but also the prediction of individual therapeutic responses. Within this review, we describe how novel endoscopic approaches and advanced endoscopic imaging methods such as high definition and high magnification endoscopy, dye-based and dye-less chromoendoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy, endocytoscopy and molecular imaging now allow for the precise and ultrastructural assessment of mucosal inflammation and describe the potential of these techniques for dysplasia detection. PMID:26811662

  9. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    DOE PAGES

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this hasmore » been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.« less

  10. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this has been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.

  11. Brain Imaging Using T-Rays Instrumentation Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviño-Palacios, C. G.; Celis-López, M. A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, J. M.; García-Garduño, A.; Zapata-Nava, O. J.; Díaz, A. Orduña; Torres-Jácome, A.; de-la-Hidalga-Wade, J.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    We present the advances on a brain imaging setup using submillimeter detectors and terahertz laser source. Terahertz radiation, known as T-rays, falls in the far infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum close to the microwaves and fraction of millimeter wavelengths. These T-rays are ideal candidates for medical imaging because the wavelength is long enough to be dispersed by molecular structures and sufficient small to produce images with a reasonable resolution, in a non-ionizing way. The millimeter detectors used in this proposal are being developed in parallel to the detectors used in the large Millimeter Telescope (LMT/GTM). Using the non-ionizing water absorption to terahertz radiation by different tissues we study the absorption difference between healthy and tumors in spite of the large absorption by water present in the body.

  12. Advanced Imaging and Robotics Technologies for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masamune, Ken; Hong, Jaesung

    2011-10-01

    Due to the importance of surgery in the medical field, a large amount of research has been conducted in this area. Imaging and robotics technologies provide surgeons with the advanced eye and hand to perform their surgeries in a safer and more accurate manner. Recently medical images have been utilized in the operating room as well as in the diagnostic stage. If the image to patient registration is done with sufficient accuracy, medical images can be used as "a map" for guidance to the target lesion. However, the accuracy and reliability of the surgical navigation system should be sufficiently verified before applying it to the patient. Along with the development of medical imaging, various medical robots have also been developed. In particular, surgical robots have been researched in order to reach the goal of minimal invasiveness. The most important factors to consider are determining the demand, the strategy for their use in operating procedures, and how it aids patients. In addition to the above considerations, medical doctors and researchers should always think from the patient's point of view. In this article, the latest medical imaging and robotic technologies focusing on surgical applications are reviewed based upon the factors described in the above.

  13. Advances in Spectral-Spatial Classification of Hyperspectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fauvel, Mathieu; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Tilton, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral images are presented in this paper. Several techniques are investigated for combining both spatial and spectral information. Spatial information is extracted at the object (set of pixels) level rather than at the conventional pixel level. Mathematical morphology is first used to derive the morphological profile of the image, which includes characteristics about the size, orientation and contrast of the spatial structures present in the image. Then the morphological neighborhood is defined and used to derive additional features for classification. Classification is performed with support vector machines using the available spectral information and the extracted spatial information. Spatial post-processing is next investigated to build more homogeneous and spatially consistent thematic maps. To that end, three presegmentation techniques are applied to define regions that are used to regularize the preliminary pixel-wise thematic map. Finally, a multiple classifier system is defined to produce relevant markers that are exploited to segment the hyperspectral image with the minimum spanning forest algorithm. Experimental results conducted on three real hyperspectral images with different spatial and spectral resolutions and corresponding to various contexts are presented. They highlight the importance of spectral-spatial strategies for the accurate classification of hyperspectral images and validate the proposed methods.

  14. Diagnostic imaging advances in murine models of colitis.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Markus; Lenz, Philipp; Mücke, Marcus M; Gohar, Faekah; Willeke, Peter; Domagk, Dirk; Bettenworth, Dominik

    2016-01-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic-remittent inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract still evoking challenging clinical diagnostic and therapeutic situations. Murine models of experimental colitis are a vital component of research into human IBD concerning questions of its complex pathogenesis or the evaluation of potential new drugs. To monitor the course of colitis, to the present day, classical parameters like histological tissue alterations or analysis of mucosal cytokine/chemokine expression often require euthanasia of animals. Recent advances mean revolutionary non-invasive imaging techniques for in vivo murine colitis diagnostics are increasingly available. These novel and emerging imaging techniques not only allow direct visualization of intestinal inflammation, but also enable molecular imaging and targeting of specific alterations of the inflamed murine mucosa. For the first time, in vivo imaging techniques allow for longitudinal examinations and evaluation of intra-individual therapeutic response. This review discusses the latest developments in the different fields of ultrasound, molecularly targeted contrast agent ultrasound, fluorescence endoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy as well as tomographic imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and fluorescence-mediated tomography, discussing their individual limitations and potential future diagnostic applications in the management of human patients with IBD.

  15. High-resolution x-ray imaging for microbiology at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, B.; Kemner, K. M.; Maser, J.; Schneegurt, M. A.; Cai, Z.; Ilinski, P. P.; Kulpa, C. F.; Legnini, D. G.; Nealson, K. H.; Pratt, S. T.; Rodrigues, W.; Tischler, M. L.; Yun, W.

    1999-11-02

    Exciting new applications of high-resolution x-ray imaging have emerged recently due to major advances in high-brilliance synchrotrons sources and high-performance zone plate optics. Imaging with submicron resolution is now routine with hard x-rays: the authors have demonstrated 150 run in the 6--10 keV range with x-ray microscopes at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotrons radiation facility. This has fueled interest in using x-ray imaging in applications ranging from the biomedical, environmental, and materials science fields to the microelectronics industry. One important application they have pursued at the APS is a study of the microbiology of bacteria and their associated extracellular material (biofilms) using fluorescence microanalysis. No microscopy techniques were previously available with sufficient resolution to study live bacteria ({approx}1 {micro}m x 4 {micro}m in size) and biofilms in their natural hydrated state with better than part-per-million elemental sensitivity and the capability of determining g chemical speciation. In vivo x-ray imaging minimizes artifacts due to sample fixation, drying, and staining. This provides key insights into the transport of metal contaminants by bacteria in the environment and potential new designs for remediation and sequestration strategies.

  16. Advanced capability RFID system

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, Ronald W.; Steele, Kerry D.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    2007-09-25

    A radio-frequency transponder device having an antenna circuit configured to receive radio-frequency signals and to return modulated radio-frequency signals via continuous wave backscatter, a modulation circuit coupled to the antenna circuit for generating the modulated radio-frequency signals, and a microprocessor coupled to the antenna circuit and the modulation circuit and configured to receive and extract operating power from the received radio-frequency signals and to monitor inputs on at least one input pin and to generate responsive signals to the modulation circuit for modulating the radio-frequency signals. The microprocessor can be configured to generate output signals on output pins to associated devices for controlling the operation thereof. Electrical energy can be extracted and stored in an optional electrical power storage device.

  17. An Ultra-Low Power CMOS Image Sensor with On-Chip Energy Harvesting and Power Management Capability

    PubMed Central

    Cevik, Ismail; Huang, Xiwei; Yu, Hao; Yan, Mei; Ay, Suat U.

    2015-01-01

    An ultra-low power CMOS image sensor with on-chip energy harvesting and power management capability is introduced in this paper. The photodiode pixel array can not only capture images but also harvest solar energy. As such, the CMOS image sensor chip is able to switch between imaging and harvesting modes towards self-power operation. Moreover, an on-chip maximum power point tracking (MPPT)-based power management system (PMS) is designed for the dual-mode image sensor to further improve the energy efficiency. A new isolated P-well energy harvesting and imaging (EHI) pixel with very high fill factor is introduced. Several ultra-low power design techniques such as reset and select boosting techniques have been utilized to maintain a wide pixel dynamic range. The chip was designed and fabricated in a 1.8 V, 1P6M 0.18 µm CMOS process. Total power consumption of the imager is 6.53 µW for a 96 × 96 pixel array with 1 V supply and 5 fps frame rate. Up to 30 μW of power could be generated by the new EHI pixels. The PMS is capable of providing 3× the power required during imaging mode with 50% efficiency allowing energy autonomous operation with a 72.5% duty cycle. PMID:25756863

  18. An ultra-low power CMOS image sensor with on-chip energy harvesting and power management capability.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Ismail; Huang, Xiwei; Yu, Hao; Yan, Mei; Ay, Suat U

    2015-03-06

    An ultra-low power CMOS image sensor with on-chip energy harvesting and power management capability is introduced in this paper. The photodiode pixel array can not only capture images but also harvest solar energy. As such, the CMOS image sensor chip is able to switch between imaging and harvesting modes towards self-power operation. Moreover, an on-chip maximum power point tracking (MPPT)-based power management system (PMS) is designed for the dual-mode image sensor to further improve the energy efficiency. A new isolated P-well energy harvesting and imaging (EHI) pixel with very high fill factor is introduced. Several ultra-low power design techniques such as reset and select boosting techniques have been utilized to maintain a wide pixel dynamic range. The chip was designed and fabricated in a 1.8 V, 1P6M 0.18 µm CMOS process. Total power consumption of the imager is 6.53 µW for a 96 × 96 pixel array with 1 V supply and 5 fps frame rate. Up to 30 μW of power could be generated by the new EHI pixels. The PMS is capable of providing 3× the power required during imaging mode with 50% efficiency allowing energy autonomous operation with a 72.5% duty cycle.

  19. Recent advances in medical imaging: anatomical and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Grignon, Bruno; Mainard, Laurence; Delion, Matthieu; Hodez, Claude; Oldrini, Guillaume

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to present an overview of the most important recent advances in medical imaging and their potential clinical and anatomical applications. Dramatic changes have been particularly observed in the field of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computed tomography (CT) has been completely overturned by the successive development of helical acquisition, multidetector and large area-detector acquisition. Visualising brain function has become a new challenge for MRI, which is called functional MRI, currently based principally on blood oxygenation level-dependent sequences, which could be completed or replaced by other techniques such as diffusion MRI (DWI). Based on molecular diffusion due to the thermal energy of free water, DWI offers a spectrum of anatomical and clinical applications, ranging from brain ischemia to visualisation of large fibrous structures of the human body such as the anatomical bundles of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. In the field of X-ray projection imaging, a new low-dose device called EOS has been developed through new highly sensitive detectors of X-rays, allowing for acquiring frontal and lateral images simultaneously. Other improvements have been briefly mentioned. Technical principles have been considered in order to understand what is most useful in clinical practice as well as in the field of anatomical applications. Nuclear medicine has not been included.

  20. MDCT imaging of the stomach: advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Prashant; Prakash, Anjali; Pradhan, Gaurav; Vidholia, Aditi; Nagpal, Nishant; Saboo, Sachin S; Kuehn, David M; Khandelwal, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    The stomach may be involved by a myriad of pathologies ranging from benign aetiologies like inflammation to malignant aetiologies like carcinoma or lymphoma. Multidetector CT (MDCT) of the stomach is the first-line imaging for patients with suspected gastric pathologies. Conventionally, CT imaging had the advantage of simultaneous detection of the mural and extramural disease extent, but advances in MDCT have allowed mucosal assessment by virtual endoscopy (VE). Also, better three-dimensional (3D) post-processing techniques have enabled more robust and accurate pre-operative planning in patients undergoing gastrectomy and even predict the response to surgery for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for weight loss. The ability of CT to obtain stomach volume (for bariatric surgery patients) and 3D VE images depends on various patient and protocol factors that are important for a radiologist to understand. We review the appropriate CT imaging protocol in the patients with suspected gastric pathologies and highlight the imaging pearls of various gastric pathologies on CT and VE.

  1. Quantitative Computed Tomography and Image Analysis for Advanced Muscle Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Kyle Joseph; Gíslason, Magnus K.; Arnadottir, Iris D.; Marcante, Andrea; Piccione, Francesco; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging is of particular interest in the field of translational myology, as extant literature describes the utilization of a wide variety of techniques to non-invasively recapitulate and quantity various internal and external tissue morphologies. In the clinical context, medical imaging remains a vital tool for diagnostics and investigative assessment. This review outlines the results from several investigations on the use of computed tomography (CT) and image analysis techniques to assess muscle conditions and degenerative process due to aging or pathological conditions. Herein, we detail the acquisition of spiral CT images and the use of advanced image analysis tools to characterize muscles in 2D and 3D. Results from these studies recapitulate changes in tissue composition within muscles, as visualized by the association of tissue types to specified Hounsfield Unit (HU) values for fat, loose connective tissue or atrophic muscle, and normal muscle, including fascia and tendon. We show how results from these analyses can be presented as both average HU values and compositions with respect to total muscle volumes, demonstrating the reliability of these tools to monitor, assess and characterize muscle degeneration. PMID:27478562

  2. Refocusing capabilities in a miniaturized multi-channel multi-resolution imaging system using a tunable lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeesters, L.; Belay, Gebirie Y.; Ottevaere, H.; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, H.

    2014-05-01

    Inspired by nature, many application domains might gain from combining the multi-channel design of the compound eyes of insects and the refocusing capability of the human eye in one compact configuration. Multi-channel refocusing imaging systems are nowadays only commercially available in bulky and expensive designs since classical refocusing mechanisms cannot be integrated in a miniaturized configuration. We designed a wafer-level multi-resolution two-channel imaging system with refocusing capabilities using a voltage tunable liquid lens. One channel is able to capture a wide field-of-view image (2x40°) of a surrounding with a low angular resolution (0.078°), whereas a detailed image of a small region of interest (2x7.57°) can be obtained with the high angular resolution channel (0.0098°). The latter high angular resolution channel contains the tunable lens and therefore also the refocusing capabilities. In this paper, we first discuss the working principle, tunability and optical quality of a voltage tunable liquid lens. Based on optical characterization measurements with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we designed a tunable lens model. The designed tunable lens model and its validation in an imaging setup show a diffraction-limited image quality. Following, we discuss the performance of the designed two-channel imaging system. Both the wide field-of-view and high angular resolution optical channels show a diffraction-limited performance, ensuring a good image quality. Moreover, we obtained an improved depth-of-field, from 0.254m until infinity, in comparison with the current state-of-the art published wafer-level multi-channel imaging systems, which show a depth-of-field from 9m until infinity.

  3. Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    1993-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS (Earth Observation SystemData/Information System) prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

  4. TU-EF-207-00: Advances in Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    Breast imaging technology is advancing on several fronts. In digital mammography, the major technological trend has been on optimization of approaches for performing combined mammography and tomosynthesis using the same system. In parallel, photon-counting slot-scan mammography is now in clinical use and more efforts are directed towards further development of this approach for spectral imaging. Spectral imaging refers to simultaneous acquisition of two or more energy-windowed images. Depending on the detector and associated electronics, there are a number of ways this can be accomplished. Spectral mammography using photon-counting detectors can suppress electronic noise and importantly, it enables decomposition of the image into various material compositions of interest facilitating quantitative imaging. Spectral imaging can be particularly important in intravenously injected contrast mammography and eventually tomosynthesis. The various approaches and applications of spectral mammography are discussed. Digital breast tomosynthesis relies on the mechanical movement of the x-ray tube to acquire a number of projections in a predefined arc, typically from 9 to 25 projections over a scan angle of +/−7.5 to 25 degrees depending on the particular system. The mechanical x-ray tube motion requires relatively long acquisition time, typically between 3.7 to 25 seconds depending on the system. Moreover, mechanical scanning may have an effect on the spatial resolution due to internal x-ray filament or external mechanical vibrations. New x-ray source arrays have been developed and they are aimed at replacing the scanned x-ray tube for improved acquisition time and potentially for higher spatial resolution. The potential advantages and challenges of this approach are described. Combination of digital mammography and tomosynthesis in a single system places increased demands on certain functional aspects of the detector and overall performance, particularly in the tomosynthesis

  5. Technology in radiology: advances in diagnostic imaging & therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Stern, S M

    1993-01-01

    Nearly 100 years from its birth, radiology continues to grow as though still in adolescence. Although some radiologic technologies have matured more than others, new applications and techniques appear regularly in the literature. Radiology has evolved from purely diagnostic devices to interventional technologies. New contrast agents in MRI, X ray and ultrasound enable physicians to make diagnoses and plan therapies with greater precision than ever before. Techniques are less and less invasive. Advances in computer technology have given supercomputer-like power to high-end nuclear medicine and MRI systems. Imaging systems in most modalities are now designed with upgrades in mind instead of "planned obsolescence." Companies routinely upgrade software and other facets of their products, sometimes at no additional charge to existing customers. Hospitals, radiology groups and imaging centers will face increasing demands to justify what they do according to patient outcomes and management criteria. Did images make the diagnosis or confirm it? Did the images determine optimal treatment strategies or confirm which strategies might be appropriate? Third-party payers, especially the government, will view radiology in those terms. The diagnostic imaging and therapy systems of today require increasingly sophisticated technical support for maintenance and repair. Hospitals, radiology groups and imaging centers will have to determine the most economic and effective ways to guarantee equipment up-time. Borrowing from the automotive industry, some radiology manufacturers have devised transtelephonic software systems to facilitate remote troubleshooting. To ensure their fiscal viability, hospitals continue to acquire new imaging and therapy technologies for competitive and access-to-services reasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Novel genotype-phenotype associations in human cancers enabled by advanced molecular platforms and computational analysis of whole slide images.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Lee A D; Kong, Jun; Gutman, David A; Dunn, William D; Nalisnik, Michael; Brat, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    Technological advances in computing, imaging, and genomics have created new opportunities for exploring relationships between histology, molecular events, and clinical outcomes using quantitative methods. Slide scanning devices are now capable of rapidly producing massive digital image archives that capture histological details in high resolution. Commensurate advances in computing and image analysis algorithms enable mining of archives to extract descriptions of histology, ranging from basic human annotations to automatic and precisely quantitative morphometric characterization of hundreds of millions of cells. These imaging capabilities represent a new dimension in tissue-based studies, and when combined with genomic and clinical endpoints, can be used to explore biologic characteristics of the tumor microenvironment and to discover new morphologic biomarkers of genetic alterations and patient outcomes. In this paper, we review developments in quantitative imaging technology and illustrate how image features can be integrated with clinical and genomic data to investigate fundamental problems in cancer. Using motivating examples from the study of glioblastomas (GBMs), we demonstrate how public data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) can serve as an open platform to conduct in silico tissue-based studies that integrate existing data resources. We show how these approaches can be used to explore the relation of the tumor microenvironment to genomic alterations and gene expression patterns and to define nuclear morphometric features that are predictive of genetic alterations and clinical outcomes. Challenges, limitations, and emerging opportunities in the area of quantitative imaging and integrative analyses are also discussed.

  7. Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology Advancements for Plasma Diagnostics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangyu

    To realize fusion plant, the very first step is to understand the fundamental physics of materials under fusion conditions, i.e. to understand fusion plasmas. Our research group, Plasma Diagnostics Group, focuses on developing advanced tools for physicists to extract as much information as possible from fusion plasmas at millions degrees. The Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostics is a very useful tool invented in this group to study fusion plasma electron temperature and it fluctuations. This dissertation presents millimeter wave imaging technology advances recently developed in this group to improve the ECEI system. New technologies made it more powerful to image and visualize magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) activities and micro-turbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis start from development of miniaturized elliptical substrate lens array. This novel substrate lens array replaces the previous generation substrate lens, hyper-hemispherical substrate lens, in terms of geometry. From the optical performance perspective, this substitution not only significantly simplifies the optical system with improved optical coupling, but also enhances the RF/LO coupling efficiency. By the benefit of the mini lens focusing properties, a wideband dual-dipole antenna array is carefully designed and developed. The new antenna array is optimized simultaneously for receiving both RF and LO, with sharp radiation patterns, low side-lobe levels, and less crosstalk between adjacent antennas. In addition, a high frequency antenna is also developed, which extends the frequency limit from 145 GHz to 220 GHz. This type of antenna will be used on high field operation tokamaks with toroidal fields in excess of 3 Tesla. Another important technology advance is so-called extended bandwidth double down-conversion electronics. This new electronics extends the instantaneous IF coverage from 2 to 9.2 GHz to 2 to 16.4 GHz. From the plasma point of view, it means that the

  8. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Simulation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.; Vassiliev, V.V.; /UCLA

    2011-06-14

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory being planned in the U.S. The anticipated sensitivity of AGIS is about one order of magnitude better than the sensitivity of current observatories, allowing it to measure gamma-ray emission from a large number of Galactic and extra-galactic sources. We present here results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance - collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity - are discussed.

  9. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) - Simulation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.

    2008-12-24

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a US-led concept for a next-generation instrument in ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The most important design requirement for AGIS is a sensitivity of about 10 times greater than current observatories like Veritas, H.E.S.S or MAGIC. We present results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance, collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity are discussed.

  10. Advanced Imaging of Athletes: Added Value of Coronary Computed Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Matthew W

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac computed tomographic angiography have become important parts of the armamentarium for noninvasive diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Emerging technologies have produced faster imaging, lower radiation dose, improved spatial and temporal resolution, as well as a wealth of prognostic data to support usage. Investigating true pathologic disease as well as distinguishing normal from potentially dangerous is now increasingly more routine for the cardiologist in practice. This article investigates how advanced imaging technologies can assist the clinician when evaluating all athletes for pathologic disease that may put them at risk.

  11. An overview on the advances in cardiovascular interventional MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Saborowski, Olaf; Saeed, Maythem

    2007-06-01

    Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (iCMR) represents a new discipline whose systematic development will foster minimally invasive interventional procedures without radiation exposure. New generations of open, wide and short bore MR scanners and real time sequences made cardiovascular intervention possible. MR compatible endovascular catheters and guide-wires are needed for delivery of devices such as stents or atrial septal defect (ASD) closures. Catheter tracking is based on active and passive approaches. Currently performed MR-guided procedures are used to monitor, navigate and track endovascular catheters and to deliver local therapeutic agents to targets, such as infarcted myocardium and vascular walls. Heating of endovascular MR catheters, guide-wires and devices during imaging still presents high safety risks. MR contrast media improve the capabilities of MR imaging by enhancing blood signal, pathologic targets (such as myocardial infarctions and atherosclerotic plaques), endovascular catheters and by tracking injected therapeutic agents. Labeling injected soluble therapeutic agents, genes or cells with MR contrast media enables interventionalists to ensure the administration of the drugs in the target and to trace their distribution in the targets. The future clinical use of this iCMR technique requires (1) high spatial and temporal resolution imaging, (2) special catheters and devices and (3) effective therapeutic agents, genes or cells. These conditions are available at a low scale at the present time and need to be developed in the near future. Such progress will lead to improved patient care and minimize invasiveness.

  12. Initial clinical experience of an ultrasonic strain imaging system with novel noise-masking capability.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Freeman, S J; Gee, A H; Housden, R J; Prager, R W; Sinnatamby, R; Treece, G M

    2010-08-01

    Quasistatic strain imaging is a form of elastography that can produce qualitative images of tissue stiffness with only software modifications to conventional ultrasound hardware. Unlike current commercial offerings, the novel strain-imaging system that is the subject of this paper displays regions of signal decorrelation using an overlaid colour mask and can also produce three-dimensional (3D) strain images. In illustrative studies of the breast, testis and thyroid, the colour mask is seen to reduce the potential to misinterpret noise as meaningful stiffness information, and also helps to differentiate cystic and solid lesions. High-quality imaging of the testis in vivo demonstrates that 3D strain imaging is feasible.

  13. WE-H-206-00: Advances in Preclinical Imaging.

    PubMed

    La Riviere, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e.g., confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography) is limited to penetration within the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in the skin). Ultrasonic imaging, on the contrary, provides fine spatial resolution but suffers from both poor contrast in early-stage tumors and strong speckle artifacts. In PAT, pulsed laser light penetrates tissue and generates a small but rapid temperature rise, which induces emission of ultrasonic waves due to thermoelastic expansion. The ultrasonic waves, orders of magnitude less scattering than optical waves, are then detected to form high-resolution images of optical absorption at depths up to 7 cm, conquering the optical diffusion limit. PAT is the only modality capable of imaging across the length scales of organelles, cells, tissues, and organs (up to whole-body small animals) with consistent contrast. This rapidly growing technology promises to enable multiscale biological research and accelerate translation from microscopic laboratory discoveries to macroscopic clinical practice. PAT may also hold the key to label-free early detection of cancer by in vivo quantification of hypermetabolism, the quintessential hallmark of malignancy.

  14. Recent Advances in the Imaging of Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging has played an important role in the characterization of the frontotemporal dementia (FTD) syndromes, demonstrating neurodegenerative signatures that can aid in the differentiation of FTD from other neurodegenerative disorders. Recent advances have been driven largely by the refinement of the clinical syndromes that underlie FTD, and by the discovery of new genetic and pathological features associated with FTD. Many new imaging techniques and modalities are also now available that allow the assessment of other aspects of brain structure and function, such as diffusion tensor imaging and resting state functional MRI. Studies have utilized these recent techniques, as well as traditional volumetric MRI, to provide further insight into disease progression across the many clinical, genetic and pathological variants of FTD. Importantly, neuroimaging signatures have been identified that will improve the clinician’s ability to predict underlying genetic and pathological features, and hence ultimately improve patient diagnosis. PMID:23015371

  15. Advances in imaging ultrastructure yield new insights into presynaptic biology

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Joseph J.; Zhan, Hong; O’Connor-Giles, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Synapses are the fundamental functional units of neural circuits, and their dysregulation has been implicated in diverse neurological disorders. At presynaptic terminals, neurotransmitter-filled synaptic vesicles are released in response to calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels activated by the arrival of an action potential. Decades of electrophysiological, biochemical, and genetic studies have contributed to a growing understanding of presynaptic biology. Imaging studies are yielding new insights into how synapses are organized to carry out their critical functions. The development of techniques for rapid immobilization and preservation of neuronal tissues for electron microscopy (EM) has led to a new renaissance in ultrastructural imaging that is rapidly advancing our understanding of synapse structure and function. PMID:26052269

  16. Advanced DTM Generation from Very High Resolution Satellite Stereo Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perko, R.; Raggam, H.; Gutjahr, K. H.; Schardt, M.

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes a simple filtering approach that can be applied to digital surface models in order to extract digital terrain models. The method focusses on robustness and computational efficiency and is in particular tailored to filter DSMs that are extracted from satellite stereo images. It represents an evolution of an existing DTM generation method and includes distinct advancement through the integration of multi-directional processing as well as slope dependent filtering, thus denoted "MSD filtering". The DTM generation workflow is fully automatic and requires no user interaction. Exemplary results are presented for a DSM generated from a Pléiades tri-stereo image data set. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations with respect to highly accurate reference LiDAR data confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Advances and challenges in deformable image registration: From image fusion to complex motion modelling.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Julia A; Heinrich, Mattias P; Papież, Bartłomiej W; Brady, Sir J Michael

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 20 years, the field of medical image registration has significantly advanced from multi-modal image fusion to highly non-linear, deformable image registration for a wide range of medical applications and imaging modalities, involving the compensation and analysis of physiological organ motion or of tissue changes due to growth or disease patterns. While the original focus of image registration has predominantly been on correcting for rigid-body motion of brain image volumes acquired at different scanning sessions, often with different modalities, the advent of dedicated longitudinal and cross-sectional brain studies soon necessitated the development of more sophisticated methods that are able to detect and measure local structural or functional changes, or group differences. Moving outside of the brain, cine imaging and dynamic imaging required the development of deformable image registration to directly measure or compensate for local tissue motion. Since then, deformable image registration has become a general enabling technology. In this work we will present our own contributions to the state-of-the-art in deformable multi-modal fusion and complex motion modelling, and then discuss remaining challenges and provide future perspectives to the field.

  18. WAHRSIS: A low-cost high-resolution whole sky imager with near-infrared capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Soumyabrata; Savoy, Florian M.; Lee, Yee Hui; Winkler, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Cloud imaging using ground-based whole sky imagers is essential for a fine-grained understanding of cloud formations, which can be useful in many applications. Some such imagers are available commercially, but their cost is relatively high, and their flexibility is limited. Therefore, we built a new daytime Whole Sky Imager (WSI) called Wide Angle High-Resolution Sky Imaging System (WAHRSIS). The strengths of our new design are its simplicity, low manufacturing cost, and high image resolution. Our imager captures the entire hemisphere in a single picture using a digital camera with a Fish-eye lens. The camera was modified to capture light across the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. This paper describes the design of the device as well as the geometric and radiometric calibration of the imaging system.

  19. Diagnosis by Endoscopy and Advanced Imaging of Barrett's Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Swager, Anne-Fré; Curvers, Wouter L; Bergman, Jacques J

    Evaluation of patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) using dye-based chromoendoscopy, optical chromoendoscopy, autofluorescence imaging, or confocal laser endomicroscopy does not significantly increase the number of patients with a diagnosis of early neoplasia compared with high-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE) with random biopsy analysis. These newer imaging techniques are not more effective in standard surveillance of patients with BE because the prevalence of early neoplasia is low and HD-WLE with random biopsy analysis detects most cases of neoplasia. The evaluation and treatment of patients with BE and early stage neoplasia should be centralized in tertiary referral centers, where procedures are performed under optimal conditions, by expert endoscopists. Lesions that require resection are almost always detected by HD-WLE, although advanced imaging techniques can detect additional flat lesions. However, these are of limited clinical significance because they are effectively eradicated by ablation therapy. No endoscopic imaging technique can reliably assess submucosal or lymphangio invasion. Endoscopic resection of early stage neoplasia in patients with BE is important for staging and management. Optical chromoendoscopy can also be used to evaluate lesions before endoscopic resection and in follow-up after successful ablation therapy.

  20. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; Marconcini, Mattia; Tilton, James C.; Trianni, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  1. Microwave imaging for breast cancer detection: advances in three--dimensional image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Golnabi, Amir H; Meaney, Paul M; Epstein, Neil R; Paulsen, Keith D

    2011-01-01

    Microwave imaging is based on the electrical property (permittivity and conductivity) differences in materials. Microwave imaging for biomedical applications is particularly interesting, mainly due to the fact that available range of dielectric properties for different tissues can provide important functional information about their health. Under the assumption that a 3D scattering problem can be reasonably represented as a simplified 2D model, one can take advantage of the simplicity and lower computational cost of 2D models to characterize such 3D phenomenon. Nonetheless, by eliminating excessive model simplifications, 3D microwave imaging provides potentially more valuable information over 2D techniques, and as a result, more accurate dielectric property maps may be obtained. In this paper, we present some advances we have made in three-dimensional image reconstruction, and show the results from a 3D breast phantom experiment using our clinical microwave imaging system at Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (DHMC), NH.

  2. Improved detection limits using a hand-held optical imager with coregistration capabilities.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Sarah J; Martinez, Sergio L; Gonzalez, Jean; Caldera, Lizeth; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-07-15

    Optical imaging is emerging as a non-invasive and non-ionizing method for breast cancer diagnosis. A hand-held optical imager has been developed with coregistration facilities towards flexible imaging of different tissue volumes and curvatures in near real-time. Herein, fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging experiments are performed to demonstrate deeper target detection under perfect and imperfect (100:1) uptake conditions in (liquid) tissue phantoms and in vitro. Upon summation of multiple scans (fluorescence intensity images), fluorescent targets are detected at greater depths than from single scan alone.

  3. Experiences with a comprehensive hospital information system that incorporates image management capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayhoff, Ruth E.; Maloney, Daniel L.; Kuzmak, Peter M.; Shepard, Barclay M.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs has undertaken a project to integrate image management functionality within its hospital information system. One of the goals of this integrated image system is to provide high-quality image data from cardiology, pulmonary and gastrointestinal endoscopy, pathology, radiology, hematology, and nuclear medicine to clinicians throughout the hospital. Images are presented to clinicians on high-resolution workstations simultaneously with associated text data. This DHCP Integrated Imaging System is currently being installed and tested at the Washington DC VA Medical Center. Initial use has revealed a number of expected as well as unanticipated benefits for patient care and medical teaching.

  4. Advances in automated 3-D image analyses of cell populations imaged by confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ancin, H; Roysam, B; Dufresne, T E; Chestnut, M M; Ridder, G M; Szarowski, D H; Turner, J N

    1996-11-01

    Automated three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis methods are presented for rapid and effective analysis of populations of fluorescently labeled cells or nuclei in thick tissue sections that have been imaged three dimensionally using a confocal microscope. The methods presented here greatly improve upon our earlier work (Roysam et al.:J Microsc 173: 115-126, 1994). The principal advances reported are: algorithms for efficient data pre-processing and adaptive segmentation, effective handling of image anisotrophy, and fast 3-D morphological algorithms for separating overlapping or connected clusters utilizing image gradient information whenever available. A particular feature of this method is its ability to separate densely packed and connected clusters of cell nuclei. Some of the challenges overcome in this work include the efficient and effective handling of imaging noise, anisotrophy, and large variations in image parameters such as intensity, object size, and shape. The method is able to handle significant inter-cell, intra-cell, inter-image, and intra-image variations. Studies indicate that this method is rapid, robust, and adaptable. Examples were presented to illustrate the applicability of this approach to analyzing images of nuclei from densely packed regions in thick sections of rat liver, and brain that were labeled with a fluorescent Schiff reagent.

  5. Studies of challenge in lower hybrid current drive capability at high density regime in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.; Li, Y. C.; Wang, M.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.; Li, J. G.; Wan, B. N.; Wan

    2017-02-01

    Aiming at a fusion reactor, two issues must be solved for the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), namely good lower hybrid wave (LHW)-plasma coupling and effective current drive at high density. For this goal, efforts have been made to improve LHW-plasma coupling and current drive capability at high density in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). LHW-plasma coupling is improved by means of local gas puffing and gas puffing from the electron side is taken as a routine way for EAST to operate with LHCD. Studies of high density experiments suggest that low recycling and high lower hybrid (LH) frequency are preferred for LHCD experiments at high density, consistent with previous results in other machines. With the combination of 2.45 GHz and 4.6 GHz LH waves, a repeatable high confinement mode plasma with maximum density up to 19~\\text{m}-3$ was obtained by LHCD in EAST. In addition, in the first stage of LHCD cyclic operation, an alternative candidate for more economical fusion reactors has been demonstrated in EAST and further work will be continued.

  6. The Effectiveness of Advance Organizers on the Signification of Poetic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayat, Nihat

    2007-01-01

    Advance organizers activate the most suitable schema to learn new material. Poetic images are signified in schemata and the elements which are not expressed may be called by advance organizers. The purpose of this investigation is to discern the effectiveness of advance organizers on the signification of poetic images. Pretest-posttest…

  7. Advanced Imaging in Femoroacetabular Impingement: Current State and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Hosalkar, Harish S; Hesper, Tobias; Tiderius, Carl Johan; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is now a known precursor of early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In terms of clinical intervention, the decision between joint preservation and joint replacement hinges on the severity of articular cartilage degeneration. The exact threshold during the course of disease progression when the cartilage damage is irreparable remains elusive. The intention behind radiographic imaging is to accurately identify the morphology of osseous structural abnormalities and to accurately characterize the chondrolabral damage as much as possible. However, both plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are insensitive for articular cartilage anatomy and pathology. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques include magnetic resonance arthrography and biochemically sensitive techniques of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T1rho (T1ρ), T2/T2* mapping, and several others. The diagnostic performance of these techniques to evaluate cartilage degeneration could improve the ability to predict an individual patient-specific outcome with non-surgical and surgical care. This review discusses the facts and current applications of biochemical MRI for hip joint cartilage assessment covering the roles of dGEMRIC, T2/T2*, and T1ρ mapping. The basics of each technique and their specific role in FAI assessment are outlined. Current limitations and potential pitfalls as well as future directions of biochemical imaging are also outlined.

  8. Advanced Imaging in Femoroacetabular Impingement: Current State and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Hosalkar, Harish S.; Hesper, Tobias; Tiderius, Carl Johan; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is now a known precursor of early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In terms of clinical intervention, the decision between joint preservation and joint replacement hinges on the severity of articular cartilage degeneration. The exact threshold during the course of disease progression when the cartilage damage is irreparable remains elusive. The intention behind radiographic imaging is to accurately identify the morphology of osseous structural abnormalities and to accurately characterize the chondrolabral damage as much as possible. However, both plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are insensitive for articular cartilage anatomy and pathology. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques include magnetic resonance arthrography and biochemically sensitive techniques of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T1rho (T1ρ), T2/T2* mapping, and several others. The diagnostic performance of these techniques to evaluate cartilage degeneration could improve the ability to predict an individual patient-specific outcome with non-surgical and surgical care. This review discusses the facts and current applications of biochemical MRI for hip joint cartilage assessment covering the roles of dGEMRIC, T2/T2*, and T1ρ mapping. The basics of each technique and their specific role in FAI assessment are outlined. Current limitations and potential pitfalls as well as future directions of biochemical imaging are also outlined. PMID:26258129

  9. An advanced CCD emulator with 32MB image memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, P.; Fried, J.; Kotov, I.

    2012-07-01

    As part of the LSST sensor development program we have developed an advanced CCD emulator for testing new multichannel readout electronics. The emulator, based on an Altera Stratix II FPGA for timing and control, produces 4 channels of simulated video waveforms in response to an appropriate sequence of horizontal and vertical clocks. It features 40MHz, 16-bit DACs for reset and video generation, 32MB of image memory for storage of arbitrary grayscale bitmaps, and provision to simulate reset and clock feedthrough ("glitches") on the video channels. Clock inputs are qualified for proper sequences and levels before video output is generated. Binning, region of interest, and reverse clock sequences are correctly recognized and appropriate video output will be produced. Clock transitions are timestamped and can be played back to a control PC. A simplified user interface is provided via a daughter card having an ARM M3 Cortex microprocessor and miniature color LCD display and joystick. The user can select video modes from stored bitmap images, or flat, gradient, bar, chirp, or checkerboard test patterns; set clock thresholds and video output levels; and set row/column formats for image outputs. Multiple emulators can be operated in parallel to simulate complex CCDs or CCD arrays.

  10. Development and Application of Advanced Ophthalmic Imaging Technology to Enhance Military Ocular Health Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    macular degeneration , and glaucoma. These diseases typically affect the elderly, but a significant number of young people also fall victim. As a...dimensional space. In Fig. 1, we show this construct for the retina of a patient suffering from non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD...segmentation algorithm did not fail on a set of 36 B-scans from 12 eyes. The difference probability distributions, shown below in Fig. 9, are very tight

  11. Development and Application of Advanced Ophthalmic Imaging Technology to Enhance Military Ocular Health Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    macular degeneration , and glaucoma. These diseases typically affect the elderly, but a significant number of young people also fall victim. As a...dimensional space. In Fig. 1, we show this construct for the retina of a patient suffering from non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD...segmentation algorithm did not fail on a set of 36 B-scans from 12 eyes. The difference probability distributions, shown below in Fig. 9, are very tight

  12. Multifunctional nanomaterials for advanced molecular imaging and cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Prasad

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on

  13. Security surveillance challenges and proven thermal imaging capabilities in real-world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Glen L.; Roberts, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Uncooled thermal imaging was first introduced to the public in early 1980's by Raytheon (legacy Texas Instruments Defense Segment Electronics Group) as a solution for military applications. Since the introduction of this technology, Raytheon has remained the leader in this market as well as introduced commercial versions of thermal imaging products specifically designed for security, law enforcement, fire fighting, automotive and industrial uses. Today, low cost thermal imaging for commercial use in security applications is a reality. Organizations of all types have begun to understand the advantages of using thermal imaging as a means to solve common surveillance problems where other popular technologies fall short. Thermal imaging has proven to be a successful solution for common security needs such as: ¸ vision at night where lighting is undesired and 24x7 surveillance is needed ¸ surveillance over waterways, lakes and ports where water and lighting options are impractical ¸ surveillance through challenging weather conditions where other technologies will be challenged by atmospheric particulates ¸ low maintenance requirements due to remote or difficult locations ¸ low cost over life of product Thermal imaging is now a common addition to the integrated security package. Companies are relying on thermal imaging for specific applications where no other technology can perform.

  14. Advanced imaging in acute and chronic deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Karande, Gita Yashwantrao; Sanchez, Yadiel; Baliyan, Vinit; Mishra, Vishala; Ganguli, Suvranu; Prabhakar, Anand M.

    2016-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) affecting the extremities is a common clinical problem. Prompt imaging aids in rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment. While ultrasound (US) remains the workhorse of detection of extremity venous thrombosis, CT and MRI are commonly used as the problem-solving tools either to visualize the thrombosis in central veins like superior or inferior vena cava (IVC) or to test for the presence of complications like pulmonary embolism (PE). The cross-sectional modalities also offer improved visualization of venous collaterals. The purpose of this article is to review the established modalities used for characterization and diagnosis of DVT, and further explore promising innovations and recent advances in this field. PMID:28123971

  15. Recent advances in tissue (pro)renin imaging.

    PubMed

    Prokai, Agnes; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2010-06-01

    Due to its pivotal role in blood pressure control and renal pathologies there is renewed interest in renin and its precursor prorenin. Also, the newly discovered (pro)renin receptor is a new element of the ever broadening renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The complexity of RAS including the recently recognized collecting duct site of (pro)renin (a term denoting both renin and prorenin) synthesis requires the use of advanced research techniques such as multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. With the help of this technology we have pioneered an imaging approach to directly visualize (pro)renin content, release and tissue activity in the living kidney. The use of this technology is reviewed here and exemplified by the direct visualization of (pro)renin activity in the collecting duct. New pharmacological tools, the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the handle region peptide (decoy peptide) was used to further characterize the intra-renal, collecting duct RAS.

  16. Recent advances in tissue (pro)renin imaging

    PubMed Central

    Prokai, Agnes; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2010-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Due to its pivotal role in blood pressure control and renal pathologies there is renewed interest in renin and its precursor prorenin. Also, the newly discovered (pro)renin receptor is a new element of the ever broadening renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The complexity of RAS including the recently recognized collecting duct site of (pro)renin (a term denoting both renin and prorenin) synthesis requires the use of advanced research techniques such as multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. With the help of this technology we have pioneered an imaging approach to directly visualize (pro)renin content, release and tissue activity in the living kidney. The use of this technology is reviewed here and exemplified by the direct visualization of (pro)renin activity in the collecting duct. New pharmacological tools, the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the handle region peptide (decoy peptide) was used to further characterize the intra-renal, collecting duct RAS. PMID:20515794

  17. Recent advances in hydrogen peroxide imaging for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hengchang; Aleyasin, Hossein; Dickinson, Bryan C; Haskew-Layton, Renée E; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in physiological signaling as well as pathological conditions. However, the subtleties of peroxide-mediated signaling are not well understood, in part because the generation, degradation, and diffusion of H2O2 are highly volatile within different cellular compartments. Therefore, the direct measurement of H2O2 in living specimens is critically important. Fluorescent probes that can detect small changes in H2O2 levels within relevant cellular compartments are important tools to study the spatial dynamics of H2O2. To achieve temporal resolution, the probes must also be photostable enough to allow multiple readings over time without loss of signal. Traditional fluorescent redox sensitive probes that have been commonly used for the detection of H2O2 tend to react with a wide variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and often suffer from photostablilty issues. Recently, new classes of H2O2 probes have been designed to detect H2O2 with high selectivity. Advances in H2O2 measurement have enabled biomedical scientists to study H2O2 biology at a level of precision previously unachievable. In addition, new imaging techniques such as two-photon microscopy (TPM) have been employed for H2O2 detection, which permit real-time measurements of H2O2 in vivo. This review focuses on recent advances in H2O2 probe development and optical imaging technologies that have been developed for biomedical applications.

  18. Advanced image manipulation controller for cockpit LCD displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Gopal

    1998-09-01

    Key features of a family of LSI integrated circuits will be explained. These DSP devices are capable of taking digital inputs of either NTSC/PAL/SECAM video in YCrCb 4:2:2 format, or computer graphics data from a PC in RGB 8:8:8 format, de- interlacing the data (if required), then re-sizing the resolution of the image independently in the horizontal and vertical axes to fit arbitrary display resolutions. The devices use patented digital filter techniques to perform zoom-only or both zoom as well as shrink. The devices also include registers that allow for cropping the active input image, and registers to completely control horizontal and vertical timing parameters for LCD displays. Current members of this family work at clock rates of up to 84 MHz, at resolutions of 1024 X 768, and upcoming members of the family will raise both the target resolution and pixel rates. All these parts generate all timing signals required by the display. Typically, no external memory is required for zooming and shrinking. Cockpit display applications that could benefit from this chip include processing and display of video, FLIR, EFIS/EICAS displays, radar, digital terrain maps, ultrasonic/sonar, computer graphics/symbol generators, etc. The devices are members of the gmZx family of scaling chips, first introduced in April '97.

  19. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Its Application to Traumatic Brain Injury: Basic Principles and Recent Advances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Its Application to Traumatic Brain Injury: Basic Principles and Recent Advances Ping-Hong Yeh1*, Terrence R. Oakes2,3...00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Its Application to Traumatic Brain Injury: Basic Principles and Recent Advances 5a...Gerard Riedy1,2,3,4 1Traumatic Brain Injury Image Analysis Lab, Henry Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, USA

  20. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles in advanced imaging and nanotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rajh, Tijana; Dimitrijevic, Nada M; Rozhkova, Elena A

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysis using nanoparticulate TiO(2) has proven to be a promising technology for use in catalytic reactions, in the cleanup of water contaminated with hazardous industrial by-products, and in nanocrystalline solar cells as a photoactive material. Metal oxide semiconductor colloids are of considerable interest because of their photocatalytic properties. The coordination sphere of the surface metal atoms is incomplete and thus traps light-induced charges, but also exhibits high affinity for oxygen-containing ligands and gives the opportunity for chemical modification. We use enediol linkers, such as dopamine and its analogs, to bridge the semiconductors to biomolecules such as DNA or proteins. Nanobio hybrids that combine the physical robustness and chemical reactivity of nanoscale metal oxides with the molecular recognition and selectivity of biomolecules were developed. Control of chemical processes within living cells was achieved using TiO(2) nanocomposites in order to develop new tools for advanced nanotherapeutics. Here, we describe general experimental approaches for synthesis and characterization of high crystallinity, water soluble 5 nm TiO(2) particles and their nanobio composites, methods of cellular sample preparation for advanced Synchrotron-based imaging of nanoparticles in single cell X-ray fluorescence, and a detailed experimental setup for application of the high-performance TiO(2)-based nanobio photocatalyst for targeted lysis of cancerous or other disordered cells.

  1. Ground truth and mapping capability of urban areas in large scale using GE images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzi, Ahmed I.

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring and mapping complex urban features (e.g. roads and buildings) from remotely sensed data multispectral and hyperspectral has gained enormous research interest. Accurate ground truth allows for high quality assessment of classified images and to verify the produced map. Ground truth can be acquired from: field using the handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) device and from Images with high resolution extracted from Google Earth in additional to field. Ground truth or training samples could be achieved from VHR satellite images such as QuickBird, Ikonos, Geoeye-1 and Wordview images. Archived images are costly for researchers in developing countries. Images from GE with high spatial resolution are free for public and can be used directly producing large scale maps, in producing LULC mapping and training samples. Google Earth (GE) provides free access to high resolution satellite imagery, but is the quality good enough to map urban areas. Costal of the Red sea, Marsa Alam could be mapped using GE images. The main objective of this research is exploring the accuracy assessment of producing large scale maps from free Google Earth imagery and to collect ground truth or training samples in limited geographical extend. This research will be performed on Marsa Alam city or located on the western shore of the Red Sea, Red sea Governorate, Egypt. Marsa Alam is located 274 km south of Hurghada. The proposed methodology involves image collection taken into consideration the resolution of collected photographs which depend on the height of view. After that, image rectification using suitable rectification methods with different number and distributions of GCPs and CPs. Database and Geographic information systems (GIS) layers were created by on-screen vectorization based on the requirement of large scale maps. Attribute data have been collected from the field. The obtained results show that the planmetric accuracy of the produced map from Google Earth Images met map

  2. Commissioning and quality assurance of the X-ray volume Imaging system of an image-guided radiotherapy capable linear accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Muralidhar, K. R.; Murthy, P. Narayana; Kumar, Rajneesh

    2008-01-01

    An Image-Guided Radiotherapy–capable linear accelerator (Elekta Synergy) was installed at our hospital, which is equipped with a kV x-ray volume imaging (XVI) system and electronic portal imaging device (iViewGT). The objective of this presentation is to describe the results of commissioning measurements carried out on the XVI facility to verify the manufacturer's specifications and also to evolve a QA schedule which can be used to test its performance routinely. The QA program consists of a series of tests (safety features, geometric accuracy, and image quality). These tests were found to be useful to assess the performance of the XVI system and also proved that XVI system is very suitable for image-guided high-precision radiation therapy. PMID:19893694

  3. Advanced imaging of the macrostructure and microstructure of bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genant, H. K.; Gordon, C.; Jiang, Y.; Link, T. M.; Hans, D.; Majumdar, S.; Lang, T. F.

    2000-01-01

    Noninvasive and/or nondestructive techniques are capable of providing more macro- or microstructural information about bone than standard bone densitometry. Although the latter provides important information about osteoporotic fracture risk, numerous studies indicate that bone strength is only partially explained by bone mineral density. Quantitative assessment of macro- and microstructural features may improve our ability to estimate bone strength. The methods available for quantitatively assessing macrostructure include (besides conventional radiographs) quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT). Methods for assessing microstructure of trabecular bone noninvasively and/or nondestructively include high-resolution computed tomography (hrCT), micro-computed tomography (muCT), high-resolution magnetic resonance (hrMR), and micromagnetic resonance (muMR). vQCT, hrCT and hrMR are generally applicable in vivo; muCT and muMR are principally applicable in vitro. Although considerable progress has been made in the noninvasive and/or nondestructive imaging of the macro- and microstructure of bone, considerable challenges and dilemmas remain. From a technical perspective, the balance between spatial resolution versus sampling size, or between signal-to-noise versus radiation dose or acquisition time, needs further consideration, as do the trade-offs between the complexity and expense of equipment and the availability and accessibility of the methods. The relative merits of in vitro imaging and its ultrahigh resolution but invasiveness versus those of in vivo imaging and its modest resolution but noninvasiveness also deserve careful attention. From a clinical perspective, the challenges for bone imaging include balancing the relative advantages of simple bone densitometry against the more complex architectural features of bone or, similarly, the deeper research requirements against the broader clinical needs. The

  4. Advances in Imaging Techniques and Genetically Encoded Probes for Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Lin, Riqiang; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jingqin; Wang, Zhiyong; Song, Liang; Chu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a rapidly emerging biomedical imaging modality that is capable of visualizing cellular and molecular functions with high detection sensitivity and spatial resolution in deep tissue. Great efforts and progress have been made on the development of various PA imaging technologies with improved resolution and sensitivity over the past two decades. Various PA probes with high contrast have also been extensively developed, with many important biomedical applications. In comparison with chemical dyes and nanoparticles, genetically encoded probes offer easier labeling of defined cells within tissues or proteins of interest within a cell, have higher stability in vivo, and eliminate the need for delivery of exogenous substances. Genetically encoded probes have thus attracted increasing attention from researchers in engineering and biomedicine. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the existing PA imaging technologies and genetically encoded PA probes, and describe further improvements in PA imaging techniques and the near-infrared photochromic protein BphP1, the most sensitive genetically encoded probe thus far, as well as the potential biomedical applications of BphP1-based PA imaging in vivo. PMID:27877244

  5. Dissecting cell adhesion architecture using advanced imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Penny E

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins or to other cells is essential for the control of embryonic development, tissue integrity, immune function and wound healing. Adhesions are tightly spatially regulated structures containing over one hundred different proteins that coordinate both dynamics and signaling events at these sites. Extensive biochemical and morphological analysis of adhesion types over the past three decades has greatly improved understanding of individual protein contributions to adhesion signaling and, in some cases, dynamics. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that these diverse macromolecular complexes contain a variety of protein sub-networks, as well as distinct sub-domains that likely play important roles in regulating adhesion behavior. Until recently, resolving these structures, which are often less than a micron in size, was hampered by the limitations of conventional light microscopy. However, recent advances in optical techniques and imaging methods have revealed exciting insight into the intricate control of adhesion structure and assembly. Here we provide an overview of the recent data arising from such studies of cell:matrix and cell:cell contact and an overview of the imaging strategies that have been applied to study the intricacies and hierarchy of proteins within adhesions. PMID:21785274

  6. Advances in submicron infrared vibrational band chemical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragnea, Bogdan; Leone, Stephen R.

    The technique of infrared near-field microscopy with submicron resolution is an important addition to the chemical sciences arsenal in the last few years. Although related to highly successful scanning optical probe microscopies in the visible, infrared near-field microscopy had to overcome several obstacles, which slowed its development. This review illustrates the history as well as the state of the art of this new field, its limitations and perspectives. At present, two main experimental approaches have been successful: the apertureless metal tip approach and the fibre tip aperture approach. The two variants are compared from the point of view of resolution, ease of implementation in the laboratory and image formation mechanisms. The techniques using chemically specific vibrational absorption contrast are emphasized here, in the general context of chemical microscopy, which includes other methods such as chemical force, Raman and fluorescence microscopies. The phenomenon of surface-enhanced infrared absorption is also mentioned in relation to near-field infrared microscopy, with regard to important aspects of image formation and possible improvements. The main advantages of spatial resolution, chemical sensitivity, non-intrusiveness, minute amounts of specimen and the possibility of quantitative analytical measurements make infrared near-field microscopy a powerful tool. We also examine here possible future applications that go beyond the limits of classical vibrational microspectroscopy, as well as directions for additional advances.

  7. Advanced infrared detection and image processing for automated bat censusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Jeffery D.; Kunz, Tomas H.; Horn, Jason; Cleveland, Cutler; Petronio, Susan M.

    2003-09-01

    The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) forms some of the largest aggregations of mammals known to mankind. However, little is known about population sizes and nightly foraging activities. An advanced infrared (IR) thermal imaging system with a real time imaging and data acquisition system is described for censusing Brazilian free-tailed bats during nightly emergences at selected Texas caves. We developed a statistically-based algorithm suitable for counting emerging bats in columns with relative constant trajectories and velocities. Individual bats are not identified and tracked, but instead column density is calculated at intervals of 1/30th of a second and counts are accumulated based upon column velocity. Preliminary evaluation has shown this method to be far more accurate than those previously used to census large bat populations. This real-time automated censusing system allows us to make accurate and repeatable estimates of the number of bats present independent of colony size, ambient light, or weather conditions, and without causing disturbance to the colony.

  8. Sharpening advanced land imager multispectral data using a sensor model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, G.P.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument on NASA's Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite provides for nine spectral bands at 30m ground sample distance (GSD) and a 10m GSD panchromatic band. This report describes an image sharpening technique where the higher spatial resolution information of the panchromatic band is used to increase the spatial resolution of ALI multispectral (MS) data. To preserve the spectral characteristics, this technique combines reported deconvolution deblurring methods for the MS data with highpass filter-based fusion methods for the Pan data. The deblurring process uses the point spread function (PSF) model of the ALI sensor. Information includes calculation of the PSF from pre-launch calibration data. Performance was evaluated using simulated ALI MS data generated by degrading the spatial resolution of high resolution IKONOS satellite MS data. A quantitative measure of performance was the error between sharpened MS data and high resolution reference. This report also compares performance with that of a reported method that includes PSF information. Preliminary results indicate improved sharpening with the method reported here.

  9. A Vision of Quantitative Imaging Technology for Validation of Advanced Flight Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Gibson, David M.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Tack, Steve; Dantowitz, Ronald F.

    2011-01-01

    Flight-testing is traditionally an expensive but critical element in the development and ultimate validation and certification of technologies destined for future operational capabilities. Measurements obtained in relevant flight environments also provide unique opportunities to observe flow phenomenon that are often beyond the capabilities of ground testing facilities and computational tools to simulate or duplicate. However, the challenges of minimizing vehicle weight and internal complexity as well as instrumentation bandwidth limitations often restrict the ability to make high-density, in-situ measurements with discrete sensors. Remote imaging offers a potential opportunity to noninvasively obtain such flight data in a complementary fashion. The NASA Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements Project has demonstrated such a capability to obtain calibrated thermal imagery on a hypersonic vehicle in flight. Through the application of existing and accessible technologies, the acreage surface temperature of the Shuttle lower surface was measured during reentry. Future hypersonic cruise vehicles, launcher configurations and reentry vehicles will, however, challenge current remote imaging capability. As NASA embarks on the design and deployment of a new Space Launch System architecture for access beyond earth orbit (and the commercial sector focused on low earth orbit), an opportunity exists to implement an imagery system and its supporting infrastructure that provides sufficient flexibility to incorporate changing technology to address the future needs of the flight test community. A long term vision is offered that supports the application of advanced multi-waveband sensing technology to aid in the development of future aerospace systems and critical technologies to enable highly responsive vehicle operations across the aerospace continuum, spanning launch, reusable space access and global reach. Motivations for development of an Agency level imagery

  10. Advanced image analysis verifies geometry performance of micro-milling systems.

    PubMed

    Daemi, Bita; Ekberg, Peter; Mattsson, Lars

    2017-04-01

    Accurate dimensional measurement of micro-milled items is a challenge and machine specifications do not include operational parameters in the workshop. Therefore, a verification test that shows the machine's overall geometrical performance over its working area would help machine users in the assessment and adjustment of their equipment. In this study, we present an optical technique capable of finding micro-milled features at submicron uncertainty over working areas >10  cm2. The technique relies on an ultra-precision measurement microscope combined with advanced image analysis to get the center of gravity of milled cross-shaped features at subpixel levels. Special algorithms had to be developed to handle the disturbing influence of burr and milling marks. The results show repeatability, reproducibility, and axis straightness for three micro-milling facilities and also discovered an unknown 2 μm amplitude undulation in one of them.

  11. The Capabilities and Limitations of Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detecting Kidney Stones: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Mellena D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the performance of currently available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting kidney stones, compared to computed tomography (CT) results, and to determine the characteristics of successfully detected stones. Patients who had undergone both abdominal/pelvic CT and MRI exams within 30 days were studied. The images were reviewed by two expert radiologists blinded to the patients' respective radiological diagnoses. The study consisted of four steps: (1) reviewing the MRI images and determining whether any kidney stone(s) are identified; (2) reviewing the corresponding CT images and confirming whether kidney stones are identified; (3) reviewing the MRI images a second time, armed with the information from the corresponding CT, noting whether any kidney stones are positively identified that were previously missed; (4) for all stones MRI-confirmed on previous steps, the radiologist experts being asked to answer whether in retrospect, with knowledge of size and location on corresponding CT, these stones would be affirmed as confidently identified on MRI or not. In this best-case scenario involving knowledge of stones and their locations on concurrent CT, radiologist experts detected 19% of kidney stones on MRI, with stone size being a major factor for stone identification. PMID:27980535

  12. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER): Data Products for the High Spatial Resolution Imager on NASA's EOS-AMI Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high spatial resolution, multispectral imager with along-track stereo capabilities scheduled for launch on the first NASA spacecraft of the Earth Observing System (EOS AM-1) in mid-1999.

  13. Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS): an imaging spectrometer for maritime applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, Mark A.; Resmini, Ronald G.; Mooradian, Gregory C.; McCord, Thomas B.; Warren, Christopher P.; Fene, Michael W.; Coyle, Christopher C.; Anderson, Richard

    1995-06-01

    The Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS) is a compact, lightweight visible and near IR pushbroom hyperspectral imaging spectrometer flown on a Piper Aztec aircraft. AAHIS is optimized for use in shallow water, littoral, and vegetation remote sensing. Data are collected at up to 55 frames/second and may be displayed and analyzed inflight or recorded for post-flight processing. Swath width is 200 meters at a flight altitude of 1 km. Each image pixel contains hyperspectral data simultaneously recorded in up to 288 contiguous spectral channels covering the 432 to 832 nm spectral region. Pixel binning typically yields pixels 1.0 meter square with a spectral channel width of 5.5 nm. Design and performance of the AAHIS is presented, including processed imagery demonstrating feature detection and materials discrimination on land and underwater at depths up to 27 meters.

  14. A Laboratory Demonstration of the Capability to Image an Earth-like Extrasolar Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trauger, John T.; Wesley, A. Traub

    2007-01-01

    The detection and characterization of an Earth-like planet orbiting a nearby star requires a telescope with an extraordinarily large contrast at small angular separations. At visible wavelengths, an Earth-like planet would be 1 times 10-10 times fainter than the star at angular separations of typically 0.1 arcsecond or less. There are several proposed space telescope systems that could, in principle, achieve this. Here we report a laboratory experiment that reaches these limits. We have suppressed the diffracted and scattered light near a star-like source to a level of 6 times 10-10 times the peak intensity in individual coronagraph images. In a series of such images, together with simple image processing, we have effectively reduced this to a residual noise level of about 0.1 times 10-10. This demonstrates that a coronagraphic telescope in space could detect and spectroscopically characterize nearby exoplanetary systems, with the sensitivity to image an 'Earth-twin' orbiting a nearby star.

  15. A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Trauger, John T; Traub, Wesley A

    2007-04-12

    The detection and characterization of an Earth-like planet orbiting a nearby star requires a telescope with an extraordinarily large contrast at small angular separations. At visible wavelengths, an Earth-like planet would be 1 x 10(-10) times fainter than the star at angular separations of typically 0.1 arcsecond or less. There are several proposed space telescope systems that could, in principle, achieve this. Here we report a laboratory experiment that reaches these limits. We have suppressed the diffracted and scattered light near a star-like source to a level of 6 x 10(-10) times the peak intensity in individual coronagraph images. In a series of such images, together with simple image processing, we have effectively reduced this to a residual noise level of about 0.1 x 10(-10). This demonstrates that a coronagraphic telescope in space could detect and spectroscopically characterize nearby exoplanetary systems, with the sensitivity to image an 'Earth-twin' orbiting a nearby star.

  16. Accounting for anatomical noise in search-capable model observers for planar nuclear imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Model observers intended to predict the diagnostic performance of human observers should account for the effects of both quantum and anatomical noise. We compared the abilities of several visual-search (VS) and scanning Hotelling-type models to account for anatomical noise in a localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study involving simulated nuclear medicine images. Our VS observer invoked a two-stage process of search and analysis. The images featured lesions in the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Lesion contrast and the geometric resolution and sensitivity of the imaging collimator were the study variables. A set of anthropomorphic mathematical phantoms was imaged with an analytic projector based on eight parallel-hole collimators with different sensitivity and resolution properties. The LROC study was conducted with human observers and the channelized nonprewhitening, channelized Hotelling (CH) and VS model observers. The CH observer was applied in a “background-known-statistically” protocol while the VS observer performed a quasi-background-known-exactly task. Both of these models were applied with and without internal noise in the decision variables. A perceptual search threshold was also tested with the VS observer. The model observers without inefficiencies failed to mimic the average performance trend for the humans. The CH and VS observers with internal noise matched the humans primarily at low collimator sensitivities. With both internal noise and the search threshold, the VS observer attained quantitative agreement with the human observers. Computational efficiency is an important advantage of the VS observer. PMID:26835503

  17. Application of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of the Lower Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware. PMID:23622097

  18. A secret-sharing-based method for authentication of grayscale document images via the use of the PNG image with a data repair capability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Che-Wei; Tsai, Wen-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    A new blind authentication method based on the secret sharing technique with a data repair capability for grayscale document images via the use of the Portable Network Graphics (PNG) image is proposed. An authentication signal is generated for each block of a grayscale document image, which, together with the binarized block content, is transformed into several shares using the Shamir secret sharing scheme. The involved parameters are carefully chosen so that as many shares as possible are generated and embedded into an alpha channel plane. The alpha channel plane is then combined with the original grayscale image to form a PNG image. During the embedding process, the computed share values are mapped into a range of alpha channel values near their maximum value of 255 to yield a transparent stego-image with a disguise effect. In the process of image authentication, an image block is marked as tampered if the authentication signal computed from the current block content does not match that extracted from the shares embedded in the alpha channel plane. Data repairing is then applied to each tampered block by a reverse Shamir scheme after collecting two shares from unmarked blocks. Measures for protecting the security of the data hidden in the alpha channel are also proposed. Good experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method for real applications.

  19. Applications of Gas Imaging Micro-Well Detectors to an Advanced Compton Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloser, P. F.; Hunter, S. D.; Ryan, J. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Miller, R. S.; Jackson, T. N.; Bai, B.; Jung, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a concept for an Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) based on the use of pixelized gas micro-well detectors to form a three-dimensional electron track imager. A micro-well detector consists of an array of individual micro-patterned proportional counters opposite a planar drift electrode. When combined with thin film transistor array readouts, large gas volumes may be imaged with very good spatial and energy resolution at reasonable cost. The third dimension is determined by timing the drift of the ionization electrons. The primary advantage of this approach is the excellent tracking of the Compton recoil electron that is possible in a gas volume. Such good electron tracking allows us to reduce the point spread function of a single incident photon dramatically, greatly improving the imaging capability and sensitivity. The polarization sensitivity, which relies on events with large Compton scattering angles, is particularly enhanced. We describe a possible ACT implementation of this technique, in which the gas tracking volume is surrounded by a CsI calorimeter, and present our plans to build and test a small prototype over the next three years.

  20. MIDAS - A microcomputer-based image display and analysis system with full Landsat frame processing capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofman, L. B.; Erickson, W. K.; Donovan, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Image Display and Analysis Systems (MIDAS) developed at NASA/Ames for the analysis of Landsat MSS images is described. The MIDAS computer power and memory, graphics, resource-sharing, expansion and upgrade, environment and maintenance, and software/user-interface requirements are outlined; the implementation hardware (including 32-bit microprocessor, 512K error-correcting RAM, 70 or 140-Mbyte formatted disk drive, 512 x 512 x 24 color frame buffer, and local-area-network transceiver) and applications software (ELAS, CIE, and P-EDITOR) are characterized; and implementation problems, performance data, and costs are examined. Planned improvements in MIDAS hardware and design goals and areas of exploration for MIDAS software are discussed.

  1. Design and Construction of a Field Capable Snapshot Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arik, Glenda H.

    2005-01-01

    The computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) is a device which captures the spatial and spectral content of a rapidly evolving same in a single image frame. The most recent CTIS design is optically all reflective and uses as its dispersive device a stated the-art reflective computer generated hologram (CGH). This project focuses on the instrument's transition from laboratory to field. This design will enable the CTIS to withstand a harsh desert environment. The system is modeled in optical design software using a tolerance analysis. The tolerances guide the design of the athermal mount and component parts. The parts are assembled into a working mount shell where the performance of the mounts is tested for thermal integrity. An interferometric analysis of the reflective CGH is also performed.

  2. A Comparison of Satellite Images Capable of Detecting Ocean Surface Features

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    Band 4 image. A counterclockwise gyre seems to have formed south of the Bay near the Gulf of Farallones . Provided by Doug Pirie, Army Corps of...Formation and Growth of Vorticity Behind Plates Accelerated from Rest in Still Air." 69 Figure 17. Photographs taken of flow around a circular...Vorticity Behind Plates Accelerated from Rest in Still Air," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 11, p. 460-464, 1961. 26. Pirie, D.M. and Steller, D.D

  3. Double-channel, frequency-steered acoustic transducer with 2-D imaging capabilities.

    PubMed

    Baravelli, Emanuele; Senesi, Matteo; Ruzzene, Massimo; De Marchi, Luca; Speciale, Nicolò

    2011-07-01

    A frequency-steerable acoustic transducer (FSAT) is employed for imaging of damage in plates through guided wave inspection. The FSAT is a shaped array with a spatial distribution that defines a spiral in wavenumber space. Its resulting frequency-dependent directional properties allow beam steering to be performed by a single two-channel device, which can be used for the imaging of a two-dimensional half-plane. Ad hoc signal processing algorithms are developed and applied to the localization of acoustic sources and scatterers when FSAT arrays are used as part of pitch-catch and pulse-echo configurations. Localization schemes rely on the spectrogram analysis of received signals upon dispersion compensation through frequency warping and the application of the frequency-angle map characteristic of FSAT. The effectiveness of FSAT designs and associated imaging schemes are demonstrated through numerical simulations and experiments. Preliminary experimental validation is performed by forming a discrete array through the points of the measurement grid of a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. The presented results demonstrate the frequency-dependent directionality of the spiral FSAT and suggest its application for frequency-selective acoustic sensors, for the localization of broadband acoustic events, or for the directional generation of Lamb waves for active interrogation of structural health.

  4. Cervical collagen imaging for determining preterm labor risks using a colposcope with full Mueller matrix capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoff, Susan; Chue-Sang, Joseph; Holness, Nola A.; Gandjbakhche, Amir; Chernomordik, Viktor; Ramella-Roman, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth is a worldwide health issue, as the number one cause of infant mortality and neurological disorders. Although affecting nearly 10% of all births, an accurate, reliable diagnostic method for preterm birth has, yet, to be developed. The primary constituent of the cervix, collagen, provides the structural support and mechanical strength to maintain cervical closure, through specific organization, during fetal gestation. As pregnancy progresses, the disorganization of the cervical collagen occurs to allow eventual cervical pliability so the baby can be birthed through the cervical opening. This disorganization of collagen affects the mechanical properties of the cervix and, if the changes occur prematurely, may be a significant factor leading to preterm birth. The organization of collagen can be analyzed through the use of Mueller Matrix Polarimetric imaging of the characteristic birefringence of collagen. In this research, we have built a full Mueller Matrix Polarimetry attachment to a standard colposcope to enable imaging of human cervixes during standard prenatal exams at various stages of fetal gestation. Analysis of the polarimetric images provides information of quantity and organization of cervical collagen at specific gestational stages of pregnancy. This quantitative information may provide an indication of risk of preterm birth.

  5. WE-DE-207A-02: Advances in Cone Beam CT Anatomical and Functional Imaging in Angio-Suite to Enable One-Stop-Shop Stroke Imaging Workflow.

    PubMed

    Chen, G

    2016-06-01

    1. Parallels in the evolution of x-ray angiographic systems and devices used for minimally invasive endovascular therapy Charles Strother - DSA, invented by Dr. Charles Mistretta at UW-Madison, was the technology which enabled the development of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. As DSA became widely available and the potential benefits for accessing the cerebral vasculature from an endovascular approach began to be apparent, industry began efforts to develop tools for use in these procedures. Along with development of catheters, embolic materials, pushable coils and the GDC coils there was simultaneous development and improvement of 2D DSA image quality and the introduction of 3D DSA. Together, these advances resulted in an enormous expansion in the scope and numbers of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. The introduction of flat detectors for c-arm angiographic systems in 2002 provided the possibility of the angiographic suite becoming not just a location for vascular imaging where physiological assessments might also be performed. Over the last decade algorithmic and hardware advances have been sufficient to now realize this potential in clinical practice. The selection of patients for endovascular treatments is enhanced by this dual capability. Along with these advances has been a steady reduction in the radiation exposure required so that today, vascular and soft tissue images may be obtained with equal or in many cases less radiation exposure than is the case for comparable images obtained with multi-detector CT.

  6. Advanced Numerical Imaging Procedure Accounting for Non-Ideal Effects in GPR Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comite, Davide; Galli, Alessandro; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The capability to provide fast and reliable imaging of targets and interfaces in non-accessible probed scenarios is a topic of great scientific interest, and many investigations have shown that Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can provide an efficient technique to conduct this kind of analysis in various applications of geophysical nature and civil engineering. In these cases, the development of an efficient and accurate imaging procedure is strongly dependent on the capability of accounting for the incident field that activates the scattering phenomenon. In this frame, based on a suitable implementation of an electromagnetic (EM) CAD tool (CST Microwave Studio), it has been possible to accurately and efficiently model the radiation pattern of real antennas in environments typically considered in GPR surveys [1]. A typical scenario of our interest is constituted by targets hidden in a ground medium, described by certain EM parameters and probed by a movable GPR using interfacial antennas [2]. The transmitting and receiving antennas considered here are Vivaldi ones, but a wide variety of other antennas can be modeled and designed, similar to those ones available in commercial GPR systems. Hence, an advanced version of a well-known microwave tomography approach (MTA) [3] has been implemented, both in the canonical 2D scalar case and in the more realistic 3D vectorial one. Such an approach is able to account for the real distribution of the radiated and scattered EM fields. Comparisons of results obtained by means of a 'conventional' implementation of the MTA, where the antennas are modeled as ideal line sources, and by means of our 'advanced' approach, which instead takes into account the radiation features of the chosen antenna type, have been carried out and discussed. Since the antenna radiation patterns are modified by the probed environment, whose EM features and the possible stratified structure usually are not exactly known, the imaging capabilities of the MTA

  7. Simulation of the Secondary Frequency Control Capability of the Advanced PSH Technology and Its Application to the SMUD System

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, Vladimir; Feltes, James; Kazachkov, Yuriy

    2013-11-01

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), as a typical balancing authority and project team member, was suggested by the Advanced Technology Modeling TFG for testing the models of the advanced pump storage hydro technology newly developed in the course of the DOE project and for demonstration of the potential benefits of this technology.

  8. Advances in Bio-Optical Imaging for the Diagnosis of Early Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Keogh, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD), laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2–3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:24310585

  9. Design and performance of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lencioni, Donald E.; Digenis, Constantine J.; Bicknell, William E.; Hearn, David R.; Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.

    1999-12-01

    An Advanced Land Imager (ALI) will be flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The ALI contains a number of key NMP technologies. These include a 15 degree wide field-of-view, push-broom instrument architecture with a 12.5 cm aperture diameter, compact multispectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. The focal plane contains multispectral and panchromatic (MS/Pan) detector arrays with a total of 10 spectral bands spanning the 0.4 to 2.5 micrometer wavelength region. Seven of these correspond to the heritage Landsat bands. The instantaneous fields of view of the detectors are 14.2 (mu) rad for the Pan band and 42.6 (mu) rad for the MS bands. The partially populated focal plane provides a 3 degree cross-track coverage corresponding to 37 km on the ground. The focal plane temperature is maintained at 220 K by means of a passive radiator. The instrument environmental and performance testing has been completed. Preliminary data analysis indicates excellent performance. This paper presents an overview of the instrument design, the calibration strategy, and results of the pre-flight performance measurements. It also discusses the potential impact of ALI technologies to future Landsat-like instruments.

  10. Recent Advances in Metabolic Profiling And Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Roopa; Titus, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a metabolic disease. Cancer cells, being highly proliferative, show significant alterations in metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, respiration, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. Metabolites like peptides, nucleotides, products of glycolysis, the TCA cycle, fatty acids, and steroids can be an important read out of disease when characterized in biological samples such as tissues and body fluids like urine, serum, etc. The cancer metabolome has been studied since the 1960s by analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Current research is focused on the identification and validation of biomarkers in the cancer metabolome that can stratify high-risk patients and distinguish between benign and advanced metastatic forms of the disease. In this review, we discuss the current state of prostate cancer metabolomics, the biomarkers that show promise in distinguishing indolent from aggressive forms of the disease, the strengths and limitations of the analytical techniques being employed, and future applications of metabolomics in diagnostic imaging and personalized medicine of prostate cancer. PMID:25632377

  11. Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging: technology and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Bradford C

    2007-07-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a valuable method for use by clinical investigators to study task-related brain activation in patients with neurological or neuropsychiatric illness. Despite the relative infancy of the field, the rapid adoption of this functional neuroimaging technology has resulted from, among other factors, its ready availability, its relatively high spatial and temporal resolution, and its safety as a noninvasive imaging tool that enables multiple repeated scans over the course of a longitudinal study, and thus may lend itself well as a measure in clinical drug trials. Investigators have used fMRI to identify abnormal functional brain activity during task performance in a variety of patient populations, including those with neurodegenerative, demyelinating, cerebrovascular, and other neurological disorders that highlight the potential utility of fMRI in both basic and clinical spheres of research. In addition, fMRI studies reveal processes related to neuroplasticity, including compensatory hyperactivation, which may be a universally-occurring, adaptive neural response to insult. Functional MRI is being used to study the modulatory effects of genetic risk factors for neurological disease on brain activation; it is being applied to differential diagnosis, as a predictive biomarker of disease course, and as a means to identify neural correlates of neurotherapeutic interventions. Technological advances are rapidly occurring that should provide new applications for fMRI, including improved spatial resolution, which promises to reveal novel insights into the function of fine-scale neural circuitry of the human brain in health and disease.

  12. Comparison of fan- and cone-beam imaging capabilities on a portable x-ray imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Timothy A.; Roney, Tim J.; Pink, Robert J.; Noo, Frederic; Clackdoyle, Rolf; Smith, Mike; Jones, Warren F.

    1999-09-01

    Portable systems for x-ray imaging of objects up to 20-cm in diameter have been developed for field inspection of industrial objects. These systems can be configured with either a linear diode array (45-cm long, 1024-elements, 12- bits/element) or a large-area amorphous-silicon (a-Si) detector (30 X 40-cm2, 2304 X 3200-elements, 12- bits/element). Each detector utilizes gadolinium oxysulfide as the scintillation element. X-rays are emitted from an 80 to 300-kVp constant-potential source with a spot size of approximately 1.6-mm. The object can be rotated and the source and detector translated vertically for collection of 'spiral' fanbeam or 'helical' conebeam computed-tomography (CT) data. For low-density objects, the reconstructed spatial resolution of CT data collected with either detector is about the same and the choice of detector is determined by detector parameters such as dynamic range and integration/readout time. For higher-density objects, which need to be imaged at higher energies and for which there is a higher probability of Compton scatter, the linear diode array produces better contrast images of small voids in a scattering medium. A series of experiments designed to test the performance of each detector with and without a scattering medium will be presented.

  13. Capabilities and Facilities Available at the Advanced Test Reactor to Support Development of the Next Generation Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; Raymond V. Furstenau

    2005-10-01

    The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. It is a very versatile facility with a wide variety of experimental test capabilities for providing the environment needed in an irradiation experiment. These different capabilities include passive sealed capsule experiments, instrumented and/or temperature-controlled experiments, and pressurized water loop experiment facilities. The Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) installed in 1999 enhanced these capabilities by providing a built in experiment monitoring and control system for instrumented and/or temperature controlled experiments. This built in control system significantly reduces the cost for an actively monitored/temperature controlled experiments by providing the thermocouple connections, temperature control system, and temperature control gas supply and exhaust systems already in place at the irradiation position. Although the ITV in-core hardware was removed from the ATR during the last core replacement completed in early 2005, it (or a similar facility) could be re-installed for an irradiation program when the need arises. The proposed Gas Test Loop currently being designed for installation in the ATR will provide additional capability for testing of not only gas reactor materials and fuels but will also include enhanced fast flux rates for testing of materials and fuels for other next generation reactors including preliminary testing for fast reactor fuels and materials. This paper discusses the different irradiation capabilities available and the cost benefit issues related to each capability.

  14. A small-animal imaging system capable of multipinhole circular/helical SPECT and parallel-hole SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jianguo; Bradley, Eric L.; Majewski, Stan; Popov, Vladimir; Saha, Margaret S.; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Welsh, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and built a small animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system equipped with parallel-hole and multipinhole collimators and capable of circular or helical SPECT. Copper-beryllium parallel-hole collimators suitable for imaging the ~35 keV photons from the decay of 125I have been built and installed to achieve useful spatial resolution over a range of object-detector distances and to reduce imaging time on our dual-detector array. To address the resolution limitations in the parallel-hole SPECT and the sensitivity and limited field of view of single-pinhole SPECT, we have incorporated multipinhole circular and helical SPECT in addition to expanding the parallel-hole SPECT capabilities. The pinhole SPECT system is based on a 110 mm diameter circular detector equipped with a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator array (1×1×5 mm3/pixel). The helical trajectory is accomplished by two stepping motors controlling the rotation of the detector-support gantry and displacement of the animal bed along the axis of rotation of the gantry. Results obtained in SPECT studies of various phantoms show an enlarged field of view, very good resolution and improved sensitivity using multipinhole circular or helical SPECT. Collimators with one, three and five 1 mm diameter pinholes have been implemented and compared in these tests. Our objective is to develop a system on which one may readily select a suitable mode of either parallel-hole SPECT or pinhole circular or helical SPECT for a variety of small animal imaging applications. PMID:19701447

  15. Computational physics and applied mathematics capability review June 8-10, 2010 (Advance materials to committee members)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory will review its Computational Physics and Applied Mathematics (CPAM) capabilities in 2010. The goals of capability reviews are to assess the quality of science, technology, and engineering (STE) performed by the capability, evaluate the integration of this capability across the Laboratory and within the scientific community, examine the relevance of this capability to the Laboratory's programs, and provide advice on the current and future directions of this capability. This is the first such review for CPAM, which has a long and unique history at the laboratory, starting from the inception of the Laboratory in 1943. The CPAM capability covers an extremely broad technical area at Los Alamos, encompassing a wide array of disciplines, research topics, and organizations. A vast array of technical disciplines and activities are included in this capability, from general numerical modeling, to coupled mUlti-physics simulations, to detailed domain science activities in mathematics, methods, and algorithms. The CPAM capability involves over 12 different technical divisions and a majority of our programmatic and scientific activities. To make this large scope tractable, the CPAM capability is broken into the following six technical 'themes.' These themes represent technical slices through the CP AM capability and collect critical core competencies of the Laboratory, each of which contributes to the capability (and each of which is divided into multiple additional elements in the detailed descriptions of the themes in subsequent sections): (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics - This theme speaks to the vast array of scientific capabilities for the simulation of fluids under shocks, low-speed flow, and turbulent conditions - which are key, historical, and fundamental strengths of the laboratory; (2) Partial Differential Equations - The technical scope of this theme is the applied mathematics and numerical solution of partial differential equations

  16. WE-DE-207A-00: Advances in Image-Guided Neurointerventions-Clinical Pull and Technology Push.

    PubMed

    Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    1. Parallels in the evolution of x-ray angiographic systems and devices used for minimally invasive endovascular therapy Charles Strother - DSA, invented by Dr. Charles Mistretta at UW-Madison, was the technology which enabled the development of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. As DSA became widely available and the potential benefits for accessing the cerebral vasculature from an endovascular approach began to be apparent, industry began efforts to develop tools for use in these procedures. Along with development of catheters, embolic materials, pushable coils and the GDC coils there was simultaneous development and improvement of 2D DSA image quality and the introduction of 3D DSA. Together, these advances resulted in an enormous expansion in the scope and numbers of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. The introduction of flat detectors for c-arm angiographic systems in 2002 provided the possibility of the angiographic suite becoming not just a location for vascular imaging where physiological assessments might also be performed. Over the last decade algorithmic and hardware advances have been sufficient to now realize this potential in clinical practice. The selection of patients for endovascular treatments is enhanced by this dual capability. Along with these advances has been a steady reduction in the radiation exposure required so that today, vascular and soft tissue images may be obtained with equal or in many cases less radiation exposure than is the case for comparable images obtained with multi-detector CT.

  17. Imaging Multimodalities for Dissecting Alzheimer's Disease: Advanced Technologies of Positron Emission Tomography and Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shimojo, Masafumi; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya; Sahara, Naruhiko

    2015-01-01

    The rapid progress in advanced imaging technologies has expanded our toolbox for monitoring a variety of biological aspects in living subjects including human. In vivo radiological imaging using small chemical tracers, such as with positron emission tomography, represents an especially vital breakthrough in the efforts to improve our understanding of the complicated cascade of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it has provided the most reliable visible biomarkers for enabling clinical diagnosis. At the same time, in combination with genetically modified animal model systems, the most recent innovation of fluorescence imaging is helping establish diverse applications in basic neuroscience research, from single-molecule analysis to animal behavior manipulation, suggesting the potential utility of fluorescence technology for dissecting the detailed molecular-based consequence of AD pathophysiology. In this review, our primary focus is on a current update of PET radiotracers and fluorescence indicators beneficial for understanding the AD cascade, and discussion of the utility and pitfalls of those imaging modalities for future translational research applications. We will also highlight current cutting-edge genetic approaches and discuss how to integrate individual technologies for further potential innovations. PMID:26733795

  18. Advances in time-domain electromagnetic simulation capabilities through the use of overset grids and massively parallel computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Douglas Clifton

    A new methodology is presented for conducting numerical simulations of electromagnetic scattering and wave-propagation phenomena on massively parallel computing platforms. A process is constructed which is rooted in the Finite-Volume Time-Domain (FVTD) technique to create a simulation capability that is both versatile and practical. In terms of versatility, the method is platform independent, is easily modifiable, and is capable of solving a large number of problems with no alterations. In terms of practicality, the method is sophisticated enough to solve problems of engineering significance and is not limited to mere academic exercises. In order to achieve this capability, techniques are integrated from several scientific disciplines including computational fluid dynamics, computational electromagnetics, and parallel computing. The end result is the first FVTD solver capable of utilizing the highly flexible overset-gridding process in a distributed-memory computing environment. In the process of creating this capability, work is accomplished to conduct the first study designed to quantify the effects of domain-decomposition dimensionality on the parallel performance of hyperbolic partial differential equations solvers; to develop a new method of partitioning a computational domain comprised of overset grids; and to provide the first detailed assessment of the applicability of overset grids to the field of computational electromagnetics. Using these new methods and capabilities, results from a large number of wave propagation and scattering simulations are presented. The overset-grid FVTD algorithm is demonstrated to produce results of comparable accuracy to single-grid simulations while simultaneously shortening the grid-generation process and increasing the flexibility and utility of the FVTD technique. Furthermore, the new domain-decomposition approaches developed for overset grids are shown to be capable of producing partitions that are better load balanced and

  19. Five-Year Implementation Plan For Advanced Separations and Waste Forms Capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (FY 2011 to FY 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-03-01

    DOE-NE separations research is focused today on developing a science-based understanding that builds on historical research and focuses on combining a fundamental understanding of separations and waste forms processes with small-scale experimentation coupled with modeling and simulation. The result of this approach is the development of a predictive capability that supports evaluation of separations and waste forms technologies. The specific suite of technologies explored will depend on and must be integrated with the fuel development effort, as well as an understanding of potential waste form requirements. This five-year implementation plan lays out the specific near-term tactical investments in people, equipment and facilities, and customer capture efforts that will be required over the next five years to quickly and safely bring on line the capabilities needed to support the science-based goals and objectives of INL’s Advanced Separations and Waste Forms RD&D Capabilities Strategic Plan.

  20. [Dolichoectatic intracranial arteries. Advances in images and therapeutics].

    PubMed

    Casas Parera, I; Abruzzi, M; Lehkuniec, E; Schuster, G; Muchnik, S

    1995-01-01

    Dolichoectasia of intracranial arteries is an infrequent disease with an incidence less than 0.05% in general population. It represents 7% of all intracranial aneurysms. Commonly seen in middle age patients with severe atherosclerosis and hypertension, the affected arteries include the basilar artery, supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery, middle, anterior and posterior cerebral arteries; males are more frequently affected. The clinical features of these fusiform aneurysms are divided in three categories: ische-mic, cranial nerve compression and signs from mass effect. Hemorrhage may also occur. Nine patients with symptomatic cerebral blood vessel dolichoectasias are presented. Six of them were males with moderate or severe hypertension. Lesions were confined to the basilar artery in 3 cases, carotid arteries and the middle cerebral artery in 1 case, and both systems were affected in 4 patients. Middle cerebral arteries were affected in 5 cases and the anterior cerebral artery in one. An isolated fusiform aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery is also presented (case 8) (Table 3). Motor or sensory deficits, ataxia, dementia, hemifacial spasm and parkinsonism were observed. One patient died from cerebro-meningeal hemorrhage (Table 2). All patients were studied with computerized axial tomography of the brain, 5 cases with four vessel cerebral angiography, 4 cases with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and case 5 with MRI angiography. Clinical symptoms depend on the affected vascular territory, size of the aneurysm and compression of adjacent structures. The histopathologic findings are atheromatous lesions, disruption of the internal elastic membrane and fibrosis of the muscular wall. The resultant is a diffuse deficiency of the muscular wall and the internal elastic membrane. Recent advances in neuroimaging such as better resolution of CT scan, magnetic resonance images (MRI) and MRI angiography increased the diagnosis of this pathology showing

  1. A Low-Cost Digital Microscope with Real-Time Fluorescent Imaging Capability.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mehedi; Alam, Mohammad Wajih; Wahid, Khan A; Miah, Sayem; Lukong, Kiven Erique

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype of a low-cost digital fluorescent microscope built from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The prototype was tested to detect malignant tumor cells taken from a living organism in a preclinical setting. This experiment was accomplished by using Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate dye attached to the cancer cells. Our prototype utilizes a torch along with an excitation filter as a light source for fluorophore excitation, a dichroic mirror to reflect the excitation and pass the emitted green light from the sample under test and a barrier filter to permit only appropriate wavelength. The system is designed out of a microscope using its optical zooming property and an assembly of exciter filter, dichroic mirror and transmitter filter. The microscope is connected to a computer or laptop through universal serial bus (USB) that allows real-time transmission of captured florescence images; this also offers real-time control of the microscope. The designed system has comparable features of high-end commercial fluorescent microscopes while reducing cost, power, weight and size.

  2. A Low-Cost Digital Microscope with Real-Time Fluorescent Imaging Capability

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Mehedi; Wahid, Khan A.; Miah, Sayem; Lukong, Kiven Erique

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype of a low-cost digital fluorescent microscope built from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The prototype was tested to detect malignant tumor cells taken from a living organism in a preclinical setting. This experiment was accomplished by using Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate dye attached to the cancer cells. Our prototype utilizes a torch along with an excitation filter as a light source for fluorophore excitation, a dichroic mirror to reflect the excitation and pass the emitted green light from the sample under test and a barrier filter to permit only appropriate wavelength. The system is designed out of a microscope using its optical zooming property and an assembly of exciter filter, dichroic mirror and transmitter filter. The microscope is connected to a computer or laptop through universal serial bus (USB) that allows real-time transmission of captured florescence images; this also offers real-time control of the microscope. The designed system has comparable features of high-end commercial fluorescent microscopes while reducing cost, power, weight and size. PMID:27977709

  3. Capabilities of dual-energy x-ray imaging in medicine and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, Volodymyr D.; Grinyov, Borys V.; Opolonin, Oleksandr D.; Galkin, Serhiy M.; Lysetska, Olena K.; Voronkin, Yevheniy F.; Kostioukevitch, Serhiy A.

    2012-10-01

    The dual-energy computer tomography compared with its traditional single-energy variant ensures substantially higher contrast sensitivity. The evaluation of the signal ratio from high-energy and low-energy detectors has been carried out using a simplified model of the dual-energy detector array and accounting for the X-ray tube spectrum. We proposed to use of a dual-energy receiving-detecting circuit with a detector pair ZnSe/CsI or ZnSe/CdWO that allows efficient distinction between muscular and bone tissues, which supports our earlier theoretical assumptions that this method could be successfully used for separate detection of materials differing in their effective atomic number Zeff and local density (e.g., calcium contents in bone densitometry), so as can be turn to account for new generation instruments. A possibility of dual energy tomography use for osteoporosis diagnostics was considered. Direct image reconstruction of biological objects has been carried out, demonstrating details of bones with different density. The density of the bone depends on the calcium content, which is not more than 20 % for the narrow part and about 18,5 % in the broad part. This results obtained were in good agreement with the results of the independent chemical analysis.

  4. MO-DE-202-02: Advances in Image Registration and Reconstruction for Image-Guided Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Siewerdsen, J

    2016-06-01

    At least three major trends in surgical intervention have emerged over the last decade: a move toward more minimally invasive (or non-invasive) approach to the surgical target; the development of high-precision treatment delivery techniques; and the increasing role of multi-modality intraoperative imaging in support of such procedures. This symposium includes invited presentations on recent advances in each of these areas and the emerging role for medical physics research in the development and translation of high-precision interventional techniques. The four speakers are: (1) Keyvan Farahani, "Image-guided focused ultrasound surgery and therapy" (2) Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, "Advances in image registration and reconstruction for image-guided neurosurgery" (3) Tina Kapur, "Image-guided surgery and interventions in the advanced multimodality image-guided operating (AMIGO) suite" (4) Raj Shekhar, "Multimodality image-guided interventions: Multimodality for the rest of us" Learning Objectives: 1. Understand the principles and applications of HIFU in surgical ablation. 2. Learn about recent advances in 3D-2D and 3D deformable image registration in support of surgical safety and precision. 3. Learn about recent advances in model-based 3D image reconstruction in application to intraoperative 3D imaging. 4. Understand the multi-modality imaging technologies and clinical applications investigated in the AMIGO suite. 5. Understand the emerging need and techniques to implement multi-modality image guidance in surgical applications such as neurosurgery, orthopaedic surgery, vascular surgery, and interventional radiology. Research supported by the NIH and Siemens Healthcare.; J. Siewerdsen; Grant Support - National Institutes of Health; Grant Support - Siemens Healthcare; Grant Support - Carestream Health; Advisory Board - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Elekta Oncology.; T. Kapur, P41EB015898; R. Shekhar, Funding: R42CA137886 and

  5. Development of advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing a large area segmented proportional counter for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.

    2007-06-15

    An advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR tokamak has been developed by utilizing a segmented two dimensional (2D) position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The XICS for the KSTAR tokamak provides time-resolved measurements of the radial ion and electron temperature profiles, toroidal plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The segmented 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been adopted to improve the photon count rate capability. The current fabrication status of the XICS for the KSTAR tokamak and the first performance test results of the prototype segmented 2D detector are presented.

  6. Development of advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing a large area segmented proportional counter for KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    An advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR tokamak has been developed by utilizing a segmented two dimensional (2D) position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The XICS for the KSTAR tokamak provides time-resolved measurements of the radial ion and electron temperature profiles, toroidal plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The segmented 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been adopted to improve the photon count rate capability. The current fabrication status of the XICS for the KSTAR tokamak and the first performance test results of the prototype segmented 2D detector are presented.

  7. Development of advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing a large area segmented proportional counter for KSTAR.

    PubMed

    Lee, S G; Bak, J G; Nam, U W; Moon, M K; Cheon, J K

    2007-06-01

    An advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR tokamak has been developed by utilizing a segmented two dimensional (2D) position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The XICS for the KSTAR tokamak provides time-resolved measurements of the radial ion and electron temperature profiles, toroidal plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The segmented 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been adopted to improve the photon count rate capability. The current fabrication status of the XICS for the KSTAR tokamak and the first performance test results of the prototype segmented 2D detector are presented.

  8. Advances in Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging enable quantitative measurement of laterally heterogeneous coatings of nanoscale thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raegen, Adam; Reiter, Kyle; Clarke, Anthony; Lipkowski, Jacek; Dutcher, John

    2013-03-01

    The Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) phenomenon is routinely exploited to qualitatively probe changes to the optical properties of nanoscale coatings on thin metallic surfaces, for use in probes and sensors. Unfortunately, extracting truly quantitative information is usually limited to a select few cases - uniform absorption/desorption of small biomolecules and films, in which a continuous ``slab'' model is a good approximation. We present advancements in the SPR technique that expand the number of cases for which the technique can provide meaningful results. Use of a custom, angle-scanning SPR imaging system, together with a refined data analysis method, allow for quantitative kinetic measurements of laterally heterogeneous systems. We first demonstrate the directionally heterogeneous nature of the SPR phenomenon using a directionally ordered sample, then show how this allows for the calculation of the average coverage of a heterogeneous sample. Finally, the degradation of cellulose microfibrils and bundles of microfibrils due to the action of cellulolytic enzymes will be presented as an excellent example of the capabilities of the SPR imaging system.

  9. A scanning tunneling microscope capable of imaging specified micron-scale small samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wei; Cao, Yufei; Wang, Huafeng; Wang, Kaiyou; Lu, Qingyou

    2012-12-01

    We present a home-built scanning tunneling microscope (STM) which allows us to precisely position the tip on any specified small sample or sample feature of micron scale. The core structure is a stand-alone soft junction mechanical loop (SJML), in which a small piezoelectric tube scanner is mounted on a sliding piece and a "U"-like soft spring strip has its one end fixed to the sliding piece and its opposite end holding the tip pointing to the sample on the scanner. Here, the tip can be precisely aligned to a specified small sample of micron scale by adjusting the position of the spring-clamped sample on the scanner in the field of view of an optical microscope. The aligned SJML can be transferred to a piezoelectric inertial motor for coarse approach, during which the U-spring is pushed towards the sample, causing the tip to approach the pre-aligned small sample. We have successfully approached a hand cut tip that was made from 0.1 mm thin Pt/Ir wire to an isolated individual 32.5 × 32.5 μm2 graphite flake. Good atomic resolution images and high quality tunneling current spectra for that specified tiny flake are obtained in ambient conditions with high repeatability within one month showing high and long term stability of the new STM structure. In addition, frequency spectra of the tunneling current signals do not show outstanding tip mount related resonant frequency (low frequency), which further confirms the stability of the STM structure.

  10. A scanning tunneling microscope capable of imaging specified micron-scale small samples.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wei; Cao, Yufei; Wang, Huafeng; Wang, Kaiyou; Lu, Qingyou

    2012-12-01

    We present a home-built scanning tunneling microscope (STM) which allows us to precisely position the tip on any specified small sample or sample feature of micron scale. The core structure is a stand-alone soft junction mechanical loop (SJML), in which a small piezoelectric tube scanner is mounted on a sliding piece and a "U"-like soft spring strip has its one end fixed to the sliding piece and its opposite end holding the tip pointing to the sample on the scanner. Here, the tip can be precisely aligned to a specified small sample of micron scale by adjusting the position of the spring-clamped sample on the scanner in the field of view of an optical microscope. The aligned SJML can be transferred to a piezoelectric inertial motor for coarse approach, during which the U-spring is pushed towards the sample, causing the tip to approach the pre-aligned small sample. We have successfully approached a hand cut tip that was made from 0.1 mm thin Pt∕Ir wire to an isolated individual 32.5 × 32.5 μm(2) graphite flake. Good atomic resolution images and high quality tunneling current spectra for that specified tiny flake are obtained in ambient conditions with high repeatability within one month showing high and long term stability of the new STM structure. In addition, frequency spectra of the tunneling current signals do not show outstanding tip mount related resonant frequency (low frequency), which further confirms the stability of the STM structure.

  11. Evaluating the Pharmacokinetics and in vivo Cancer Targeting Capability of Au Nanocages by Positron Emission Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yucai; Liu, Yongjian; Luehmann, Hannah; Xia, Xiaohu; Brown, Paige; Jarreau, Chad; Welch, Michael; Xia, Younan

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanocages have recently emerged as a novel class of photothermal transducers and drug carriers for cancer treatment. However, their pharmacokinetics and tumor targeting capability remain to be largely unexplored due to the lack of an imaging modality for quick and reliable mapping of their distributions in vivo. Herein, Au nanocages were prepared with controlled physicochemical properties and radiolabeled with 64Cu in high specific activities for in vivo evaluation using positron emission tomography (PET). Our pharmacokinetic studies with femtomolar administrations suggest that nanocages of 30 nm in size had a greatly improved biodistribution profile than nanocages of 55 nm in size, together with higher blood retention and lower hepatic and splenic uptakes. In a murine EMT-6 breast cancer model, the small cages also showed a significantly higher level of tumor uptake and a greater tumor-to-muscle ratio than the large cages. Quantitative PET imaging confirmed rapid accumulation and retention of Au nanocages inside the tumors. The ability to directly and quickly image the distribution of Au nanocages in vivo allows us to further optimize their physicochemical properties for a range of theranostic applications. PMID:22690722

  12. English 591, 592, and 593--Advance Program: Images of Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Board of Education, Louisville, KY.

    For those students who qualify, the Advance Program offers an opportunity to follow a stimulating curriculum designed for the academically talented. The purposes of the course outlined in this guide for twelfth grade English are to bring the previous three years' studies in Advance Program English to a meaningful culmination; to provide a…

  13. Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Glen; Tillman, Jennifer; Hanna, Keith; Heubusch, Jeff; Ayers, Robert

    2007-04-01

    A complete detection, management, and control security system is absolutely essential to preempting criminal and terrorist assaults on key assets and critical infrastructure. According to Tom Ridge, former Secretary of the US Department of Homeland Security, "Voluntary efforts alone are not sufficient to provide the level of assurance Americans deserve and they must take steps to improve security." Further, it is expected that Congress will mandate private sector investment of over $20 billion in infrastructure protection between 2007 and 2015, which is incremental to funds currently being allocated to key sites by the department of Homeland Security. Nearly 500,000 individual sites have been identified by the US Department of Homeland Security as critical infrastructure sites that would suffer severe and extensive damage if a security breach should occur. In fact, one major breach in any of 7,000 critical infrastructure facilities threatens more than 10,000 people. And one major breach in any of 123 facilities-identified as "most critical" among the 500,000-threatens more than 1,000,000 people. Current visible, nightvision or near infrared imaging technology alone has limited foul-weather viewing capability, poor nighttime performance, and limited nighttime range. And many systems today yield excessive false alarms, are managed by fatigued operators, are unable to manage the voluminous data captured, or lack the ability to pinpoint where an intrusion occurred. In our 2006 paper, "Critical Infrastructure Security Confidence Through Automated Thermal Imaging", we showed how a highly effective security solution can be developed by integrating what are now available "next-generation technologies" which include: Thermal imaging for the highly effective detection of intruders in the dark of night and in challenging weather conditions at the sensor imaging level - we refer to this as the passive thermal sensor level detection building block Automated software detection

  14. Recent advances in CZT strip detectors and coded mask imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteson, J. L.; Gruber, D. E.; Heindl, W. A.; Pelling, M. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Rothschild, R. E.; Skelton, R. T.; Hink, P. L.; Slavis, K. R.; Binns, W. R.; Tumer, T.; Visser, G.

    1999-09-01

    The UCSD, WU, UCR and Nova collaboration has made significant progress on the necessary techniques for coded mask imaging of gamma-ray bursts: position sensitive CZT detectors with good energy resolution, ASIC readout, coded mask imaging, and background properties at balloon altitudes. Results on coded mask imaging techniques appropriate for wide field imaging and localization of gamma-ray bursts are presented, including a shadowgram and deconvolved image taken with a prototype detector/ASIC and MURA mask. This research was supported by NASA Grants NAG5-5111, NAG5-5114, and NGT5-50170.

  15. Advanced Tie Feature Matching for the Registration of Mobile Mapping Imaging Data and Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jende, P.; Peter, M.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping's ability to acquire high-resolution ground data is opposing unreliable localisation capabilities of satellite-based positioning systems in urban areas. Buildings shape canyons impeding a direct line-of-sight to navigation satellites resulting in a deficiency to accurately estimate the mobile platform's position. Consequently, acquired data products' positioning quality is considerably diminished. This issue has been widely addressed in the literature and research projects. However, a consistent compliance of sub-decimetre accuracy as well as a correction of errors in height remain unsolved. We propose a novel approach to enhance Mobile Mapping (MM) image orientation based on the utilisation of highly accurate orientation parameters derived from aerial imagery. In addition to that, the diminished exterior orientation parameters of the MM platform will be utilised as they enable the application of accurate matching techniques needed to derive reliable tie information. This tie information will then be used within an adjustment solution to correct affected MM data. This paper presents an advanced feature matching procedure as a prerequisite to the aforementioned orientation update. MM data is ortho-projected to gain a higher resemblance to aerial nadir data simplifying the images' geometry for matching. By utilising MM exterior orientation parameters, search windows may be used in conjunction with a selective keypoint detection and template matching. Originating from different sensor systems, however, difficulties arise with respect to changes in illumination, radiometry and a different original perspective. To respond to these challenges for feature detection, the procedure relies on detecting keypoints in only one image. Initial tests indicate a considerable improvement in comparison to classic detector/descriptor approaches in this particular matching scenario. This method leads to a significant reduction of outliers due to the limited availability

  16. Imaging of CNS Tumors in Children: Advances and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Vézina, Louis-Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    MR technology is constantly improving. Functional imaging techniques such as MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, diffusion imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are increasingly utilized in the pediatric patient with a brain tumor. However estimate of tumor size remains the primary imaging endpoint in the evaluation of response to treatment; validation across institutions and vendor platforms of MRI functional parameters is necessary given the relative uncommon occurrence of brain tumors in children. Pediatric neuroimaging can be challenging, and the optimal way to image children with CNS tumors is not uniformly applied across all centers. Application of proper scanning techniques and validation of functional imaging techniques should lead to improved care of children with CNS tumors PMID:18952579

  17. Recent Advances in Compressed Sensing: Discrete Uncertainty Principles and Fast Hyperspectral Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    medical imaging , e.g., magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since the early 1980s, MRI has granted doctors the ability to distinguish between healthy tissue...chemical composition of a star. Conventional hyperspectral cameras are slow. Different methods of hyperspectral imaging either require time to process ...Recent Advances in Compressed Sensing: Discrete Uncertainty Principles and Fast Hyperspectral Imaging THESIS MARCH 2015 Megan E. Lewis, Second

  18. Data Collection Capabilities of a New Non-Invasive Monitoring System for Patients with Advanced Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Diego E.; Pino, Esteban J.; Aqueveque, Pablo; Curtis, Dorothy W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a data collection study in a clinical environment to evaluate a new non-invasive monitoring system for people with advanced Multiple Sclerosis (MS) who use powered wheelchairs. The proposed system can acquire respiration and heart activity from ballistocardiogram (BCG) signals, seat and back pressure changes, wheelchair tilt angle, ambient temperature and relative humidity. The data was collected at The Boston Home (TBH), a specialized care residence for adults with advanced MS. The collected data will be used to design algorithms to generate alarms and recommendations for residents and caregivers. These alarms and recommendations will be related to vital signs, low mobility problems and heat exposure. We present different cases where it is possible to illustrate the type of information acquired by our system and the possible alarms we will generate. PMID:24551323

  19. Data collection capabilities of a new non-invasive monitoring system for patients with advanced multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Arias, Diego E; Pino, Esteban J; Aqueveque, Pablo; Curtis, Dorothy W

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a data collection study in a clinical environment to evaluate a new non-invasive monitoring system for people with advanced Multiple Sclerosis (MS) who use powered wheelchairs. The proposed system can acquire respiration and heart activity from ballistocardiogram (BCG) signals, seat and back pressure changes, wheelchair tilt angle, ambient temperature and relative humidity. The data was collected at The Boston Home (TBH), a specialized care residence for adults with advanced MS. The collected data will be used to design algorithms to generate alarms and recommendations for residents and caregivers. These alarms and recommendations will be related to vital signs, low mobility problems and heat exposure. We present different cases where it is possible to illustrate the type of information acquired by our system and the possible alarms we will generate.

  20. Advanced endoscopic imaging: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Technology Review.

    PubMed

    East, James E; Vleugels, Jasper L; Roelandt, Philip; Bhandari, Pradeep; Bisschops, Raf; Dekker, Evelien; Hassan, Cesare; Horgan, Gareth; Kiesslich, Ralf; Longcroft-Wheaton, Gaius; Wilson, Ana; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2016-11-01

    Background and aim: This technical review is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the utilization of advanced endoscopic imaging in gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Methods: This technical review is based on a systematic literature search to evaluate the evidence supporting the use of advanced endoscopic imaging throughout the GI tract. Technologies considered include narrowed-spectrum endoscopy (narrow band imaging [NBI]; flexible spectral imaging color enhancement [FICE]; i-Scan digital contrast [I-SCAN]), autofluorescence imaging (AFI), and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations:1. We suggest advanced endoscopic imaging technologies improve mucosal visualization and enhance fine structural and microvascular detail. Expert endoscopic diagnosis may be improved by advanced imaging, but as yet in community-based practice no technology has been shown consistently to be diagnostically superior to current practice with high definition white light. (Low quality evidence.) 2. We recommend the use of validated classification systems to support the use of optical diagnosis with advanced endoscopic imaging in the upper and lower GI tracts (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 3. We suggest that training improves performance in the use of advanced endoscopic imaging techniques and that it is a prerequisite for use in clinical practice. A learning curve exists and training alone does not guarantee sustained high performances in clinical practice. (Weak recommendation, low quality evidence.) Conclusion: Advanced endoscopic imaging can improve mucosal visualization and endoscopic diagnosis; however it requires training and the use of validated classification systems.

  1. Advanced concepts report on the detection of xenon with a miniature whole air sampler capable of extended operating times

    SciTech Connect

    Motes, B.G.; McManus, G.J.; Bird, S.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1993-07-01

    Many monitoring activities require the collection of whole air samples over an extended time interval without loss or concentration of any atmospheric constituents. Described is the development and laboratory testing of a whole air sampler capable of collecting a 100 liter sample over a period of 0.63 days. The sampler has an empty weight of 7.79 kg and an overall size of 20.8-cm {times} 20.8-cm {times} 66.1-cm. The conceptual design for the development of smaller, higher-performance whole air samplers is also reported.

  2. Recent Advances in Image Assisted Neurosurgical Procedures: Improved Navigational Accuracy and Patient Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Olivi, Alessandro, M.D.

    2010-08-28

    Neurosurgical procedures require precise planning and intraoperative support. Recent advances in image guided technology have provided neurosurgeons with improved navigational support for more effective and safer procedures. A number of exemplary cases will be presented.

  3. Recent Advances in Image Assisted Neurosurgical Procedures: Improved Navigational Accuracy and Patient Safety

    ScienceCinema

    Olivi, Alessandro, M.D.

    2016-07-12

    Neurosurgical procedures require precise planning and intraoperative support. Recent advances in image guided technology have provided neurosurgeons with improved navigational support for more effective and safer procedures. A number of exemplary cases will be presented.

  4. The Keck Cosmic Web Imager: a capable new integral field spectrograph for the W. M. Keck Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, Patrick; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Martin, Chris; Moore, Anna; Adkins, Sean; Epps, Harland; Bartos, Randy; Cabak, Jerry; Cowley, Dave; Davis, Jack; Delacroix, Alex; Fucik, Jason; Hilliard, David; James, Ean; Kaye, Steve; Lingner, Nicole; Neill, James D.; Pistor, Christoph; Phillips, Drew; Rockosi, Connie; Weber, Bob

    2012-09-01

    The Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI) is a new facility instrument being developed for the W. M. Keck Observatory and funded for construction by the Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). KCWI is a bench-mounted spectrograph for the Keck II right Nasmyth focal station, providing integral field spectroscopy over a seeing-limited field up to 20"x33" in extent. Selectable Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings provide high efficiency and spectral resolution in the range of 1000 to 20000. The dual-beam design of KCWI passed a Preliminary Design Review in summer 2011. The detailed design of the KCWI blue channel (350 to 700 nm) is now nearly complete, with the red channel (530 to 1050 nm) planned for a phased implementation contingent upon additional funding. KCWI builds on the experience of the Caltech team in implementing the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI), in operation since 2009 at Palomar Observatory. KCWI adds considerable flexibility to the CWI design, and will take full advantage of the excellent seeing and dark sky above Mauna Kea with a selectable nod-and-shuffle observing mode. In this paper, models of the expected KCWI sensitivity and background subtraction capability are presented, along with a detailed description of the instrument design. The KCWI team is lead by Caltech (project management, design and implementation) in partnership with the University of California at Santa Cruz (camera optical and mechanical design) and the W. M. Keck Observatory (program oversight and observatory interfaces).

  5. MO-C-BRE-01: The WMIS-AAPM Joint Symposium: Advances in Molecular Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Contag, C; Pogue, B; Lewis, J

    2014-06-15

    This joint symposium of the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS) and the AAPM includes three luminary speakers discussing work in new paradigms of molecular imaging in cancer (Contag), applications of optical imaging technologies to radiation therapy (Pogue) and an update on PET imaging as a surrogate biomarker for cancer progression and response to therapy. Learning Objectives: Appreciate the current trends in molecular and systems imaging. Understand how optical imaging technologies, and particularly Cerenkov detectors, can be used in advancing radiation oncology. Stay current on new PET tracers - and targets - of interest in cancer treatment.

  6. Carbon nanotubes for biomedical imaging: the recent advances.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Peng, Rui; Liu, Zhuang

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews the latest progresses regarding the applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as multifunctional nano-probes for biomedical imaging. Utilizing the intrinsic band-gap fluorescence of semi-conducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), fluorescence imaging in the near infrared II (NIR-II) region with enhanced tissue penetration and spatial resolution has shown great promise in recent years. Raman imaging based on the resonance Raman scattering of SWNTs has also been explored by a number of groups for in vitro and in vivo imaging of biological samples. The strong absorbance of CNTs in the NIR region can be used for photoacoustic imaging, and their photoacoustic signals can be dramatically enhanced by adding organic dyes, or coating with gold shells. Taking advantages of metal nanoparticle impurities attached to nanotubes, CNTs can also serve as a T2-contrast agent in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In addition, when labeled with radioactive isotopes, many groups have developed nuclear imaging with functionalized CNTs. Therefore CNTs are unique imaging probes with great potential in biomedical multimodal imaging.

  7. IR camera system with an advanced image processing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Syuichi; Tamura, Tetsuo

    2016-05-01

    We have developed image processing technologies for resolving issues caused by the inherent UFPA (uncooled focal plane array) sensor characteristics to spread its applications. For example, large time constant of an uncooled IR (infra-red) sensor limits its application field, because motion blur is caused in monitoring the objective moving at high speed. The developed image processing technologies can eliminate the blur and retrieve almost the equivalent image observed in still motion. This image processing is based on the idea that output of the IR sensor is construed as the convolution of radiated IR energy from the objective and impulse response of the IR sensor. With knowledge of the impulse response and moving speed of the objective, the IR energy from the objective can be de-convolved from the observed images. We have successfully retrieved the image without blur using the IR sensor of 15 ms time constant under the conditions in which the objective is moving at the speed of about 10 pixels/60 Hz. The image processing for reducing FPN (fixed pattern noise) has also been developed. UFPA having the responsivity in the narrow wavelength region, e.g., around 8 μm is appropriate for measuring the surface of glass. However, it suffers from severe FPN due to lower sensitivity compared with 8-13 μm. The developed image processing exploits the images of the shutter itself, and can reduce FPN significantly.

  8. Molecular Engineering of Vector-Based Oncolytic and Imaging Approaches for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Oncolytic and Imaging Approaches for Advanced Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lily Wu, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...SUBTITLE Molecular Engineering of Vector-based Oncolytic and Imaging Approaches for 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Advanced Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT...reproductions will be in black and white. 14. ABSTRACT Hormone refractory and metastatic prostate cancer are not well understood. Better animal models

  9. Development of coupled SCALE4.2/GTRAN2 computational capability for advanced MOX fueled assembly designs

    SciTech Connect

    Vujic, J.; Greenspan, E.; Slater, Postma, T.; Casher, G.; Soares, I.; Leal, L.

    1995-05-01

    An advanced assembly code system that can efficiently and accurately analyze various designs (current and advanced) proposed for plutonium disposition is being developed by {open_quotes}marrying{close_quotes} two existing state-of-the-art methodologies-GTRAN2 and SCALE 4.2. The resulting code system, GT-SCALE, posses several unique characteristics: exact 2D representation of a complete fuel assembly, while preserving the heterogeniety of each of its pin cells; flexibility in the energy group structure, the present upper limit being 218 groups; a comprehensive cross-section library and material data base; and accurate burnup calculations. The resulting GT-SCALE is expected to be very useful for a wide variety of applications, including the analysis of very heterogeneous UO{sub 2} fueled LWR fuel assemblies; of hexagonal shaped fuel assemblies as of the Russian LWRs; of fuel assemblies for HTGRs; as well as for the analysis of criticality safety and for calculation of the source term of spent fuel.

  10. Advanced Technology Demonstrator for IR Imaging Missile Warning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    13 Figure 9: Paraglider ...but also mountains, towers, other flying platform and e.g. paratroopers/ paragliders . Some of these objects have no plume, this excludes UV-devices for...Figure 9: Paraglider - The device also has to have the ability to recognize these a.m. objects, so it has to be an imaging device with intelligent image

  11. Advanced Image Processing Techniques for Maximum Information Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    The program shown as A4 in the Appendix embeds the message “GOD BLESS AMERICA” in the 20th row of the clown image shown below. The encoded...is not 200 x 320, changed the values of i and j below. load(’ clown ’) % This will convert the matrix for the clown image. for i = 1:200

  12. [Advances in infrared spectrum zoom imaging system research].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu; Xing, Ting-wen; Jiang, Ya-dong

    2014-12-01

    Compared with the infrared spectrum fixed focal length system and infrared spectrum dual-zoom system, infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system which has continuous variational field of view can track targets sequentially, so it is a research direction in infrared spectrum imaging technology. Some new technologies are presented overseas in order to improve the detection performance, reduce cost and have good athermalized performance in infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system. Infrared material, infrared detector and variable aperture, those new technologies are su mmarized and the idiographic application of those new technologies in infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system are presented in the paper, for example athermalization of an infrared spectrum zoom lens system with new infrared material for target detection, dual band infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared, infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with high ratio, nfrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with dual F/number. It is useful for the development of chinese infrared continuous zoom imaging system.

  13. Advanced Research into Moving Target Imaging Using Multistatic Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    From [2])...........................................................................................................5 Figure 6. SAR and ISAR schemes...SAR and ISAR schemes for imaging targets (From [2]) Synthetic aperture imaging can be accomplished using a stationary antenna and rotating target or a...with a series of pulses from the moving antenna (Figure 6). Inverse synthetic aperture radar ( ISAR ) assumes a stationary radar radiating a moving

  14. Putting Integrated Systems Health Management Capabilities to Work: Development of an Advanced Caution and Warning System for Next-Generation Crewed Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Smith, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) technologies have advanced to the point where they can provide significant automated assistance with real-time fault detection, diagnosis, guided troubleshooting, and failure consequence assessment. To exploit these capabilities in actual operational environments, however, ISHM information must be integrated into operational concepts and associated information displays in ways that enable human operators to process and understand the ISHM system information rapidly and effectively. In this paper, we explore these design issues in the context of an advanced caution and warning system (ACAWS) for next-generation crewed spacecraft missions. User interface concepts for depicting failure diagnoses, failure effects, redundancy loss, "what-if" failure analysis scenarios, and resolution of ambiguity groups are discussed and illustrated.

  15. Recent advances in intravital imaging of dynamic biological systems.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Intravital multiphoton microscopy has opened a new era in the field of biological imaging. Focal excitation of fluorophores by simultaneous attack of multiple (normally "two") photons generates images with high spatial resolution, and use of near-infrared lasers for multiphoton excitation allows penetration of thicker specimens, enabling biologists to visualize living cellular dynamics deep inside tissues and organs without thin sectioning. Moreover, the minimized photo-bleaching and toxicity associated with multiphoton techniques is beneficial for imaging of live specimens for extended observation periods. Here we focus on recent findings using intravital multiphoton imaging of dynamic biological systems such as the immune system and bone homeostasis. The immune system comprises highly dynamic networks, in which many cell types actively travel throughout the body and interact with each other in specific areas. Therefore, real-time intravital imaging represents a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms underlying this dynamic system.

  16. PIFEX: An advanced programmable pipelined-image processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, D. B.; Wilcox, B.

    1985-01-01

    PIFEX is a pipelined-image processor being built in the JPL Robotics Lab. It will operate on digitized raster-scanned images (at 60 frames per second for images up to about 300 by 400 and at lesser rates for larger images), performing a variety of operations simultaneously under program control. It thus is a powerful, flexible tool for image processing and low-level computer vision. It also has applications in other two-dimensional problems such as route planning for obstacle avoidance and the numerical solution of two-dimensional partial differential equations (although its low numerical precision limits its use in the latter field). The concept and design of PIFEX are described herein, and some examples of its use are given.

  17. Investing American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Funds to Advance Capability, Reliability, and Performance in NASA Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Goerge H.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) is implementing five significant ground-based test facility projects across the nation with funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The projects were selected as the best candidates within the constraints of the ARRA and the strategic plan of ATP. They are a combination of much-needed large scale maintenance, reliability, and system upgrades plus creating new test beds for upcoming research programs. The projects are: 1.) Re-activation of a large compressor to provide a second source for compressed air and vacuum to the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at the Ames Research Center (ARC) 2.) Addition of high-altitude ice crystal generation at the Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory Test Cell 3, 3.) New refrigeration system and tunnel heat exchanger for the Icing Research Tunnel at the Glenn Research Center, 4.) Technical viability improvements for the National Transonic Facility at the Langley Research Center, and 5.) Modifications to conduct Environmentally Responsible Aviation and Rotorcraft research at the 14 x 22 Subsonic Tunnel at Langley Research Center. The selection rationale, problem statement, and technical solution summary for each project is given here. The benefits and challenges of the ARRA funded projects are discussed. Indirectly, this opportunity provides the advantages of developing experience in NASA's workforce in large projects and maintaining corporate knowledge in that very unique capability. It is envisioned that improved facilities will attract a larger user base and capabilities that are needed for current and future research efforts will offer revenue growth and future operations stability. Several of the chosen projects will maximize wind tunnel reliability and maintainability by using newer, proven technologies in place of older and obsolete equipment and processes. The projects will meet NASA's goal of

  18. Wide field imager instrument for the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Nandra, Kirpal; Plattner, Markus; Porro, Matteo; Rau, Arne; Santangelo, Andrea; Tenzer, Chris; Wilms, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (Athena) has been selected for ESA's L2 mission, scheduled for launch in 2028. It will provide the necessary capabilities to achieve the ambitious goals of the science theme "The Hot and Energetic Universe." Athena's x-ray mirrors will be based on silicon pore optics technology with a 12-m focal length. Two complementary focal plane camera systems are foreseen, which can be moved interchangeably to the focus of the mirror system: the actively shielded micro-calorimeter spectrometer X-IFU and the wide field imager (WFI). The WFI camera will provide an unprecedented survey power through its large field of view of 40 arc min with a high count-rate capability (˜1 Crab). It permits a state-of-the-art energy resolution in the energy band of 0.1 to 15 keV during the entire mission lifetime (e.g., full width at half maximum ≤150 eV at 6 keV). This performance is accomplished by a set of depleted P-channel field effect transistor (DEPFET) active pixel sensor matrices with a pixel size well suited to the angular resolution of 5 arc sec (on-axis) of the mirror system. Each DEPFET pixel is a combined detector-amplifier structure with a MOSFET integrated onto a fully depleted 450-μm-thick silicon bulk. This manuscript will summarize the current instrument concept and design, the status of the technology development, and the envisaged baseline performance.

  19. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  20. EO-1 Advanced Land Imager Technology Validation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    133 3-108 Ghosting effects observed in Mount Etna lava flows 134 3-109 Cross section of ALI SCA 135 3-110 Generation of Lunar ghosts by scattering...images from a typical Lunar calibration. 3.2.2.4.2.2 Lava Flow Observation Ghost images have also been observed in the Mount Etna observation on 203091955...7. Odd and even pixels appear shifted by 15 frames within the ghost image Figure 3-108. Ghosting effects observed in Mount Etna lava flows (Band 7

  1. Volumes to learn: advancing therapeutics with innovative computed tomography image data analysis.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Michael L

    2010-09-15

    Semi-automated methods for calculating tumor volumes from computed tomography images are a new tool for advancing the development of cancer therapeutics. Volumetric measurements, relying on already widely available standard clinical imaging techniques, could shorten the observation intervals needed to identify cohorts of patients sensitive or resistant to treatment.

  2. Role of Advanced Laryngeal Imaging in Glottic Cancer: Early Detection and Evaluation of Glottic Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Kathleen M; Tan, Melin

    2015-08-01

    Laryngeal cancer accounts for approximately 2.4% of new malignancies worldwide each year. Early identification of laryngeal neoplasms results in improved prognosis and functional outcomes. Imaging plays an integral role in the diagnosis, staging, and long-term follow-up of laryngeal cancer. This article highlights advanced laryngeal imaging techniques and their application to early glottic neoplasms.

  3. Advanced Tracers in PET Imaging of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Hua; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers by positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the noninvasive detection and characterization of biological changes at the molecular level, leading to earlier disease detection, objective monitoring of therapies, and better prognostication of cardiovascular diseases progression. Here we review, the current role of PET in cardiovascular disease, with emphasize on tracers developed for PET imaging of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25389529

  4. Advanced millimeter-wave security portal imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-03-01

    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance as a security tool to augment conventional metal detectors and baggage x-ray systems for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This acceptance indicates that the technology has matured; however, many potential improvements can yet be realized. The authors have developed a number of techniques over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, and high-frequency high-bandwidth techniques. All of these may improve the performance of new systems; however, some of these techniques will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. Reducing this cost may require the development of novel array designs. In particular, RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems. Highfrequency, high-bandwidth designs are difficult to achieve with conventional mm-wave electronic devices, and RF photonic devices may be a practical alternative. In this paper, the mm-wave imaging techniques developed at PNNL are reviewed and the potential for implementing RF photonic mm-wave array designs is explored.

  5. Visualizing Chemistry: The Progess and Promise of Advanced Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Committee on Revealing Chemistry Through Advanced Chemical Imaging

    2006-09-01

    The field of chemical imaging can provide detailed structural, functional, and applicable information about chemistry and chemical engineering phenomena that have enormous impacts on medicine, materials, and technology. In recognizing the potential for more research development in the field of chemical imaging, the National Academies was asked by the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, U.S. Army, and National Cancer Institute to complete a study that would review the current state of molecular imaging technology, point to promising future developments and their applications, and suggest a research and educational agenda to enable breakthrough improvements in the ability to image molecular processes simultaneously in multiple physical dimensions as well as time. The study resulted in a consensus report that provides guidance for a focused research and development program in chemical imaging and identifies research needs and possible applications of imaging technologies that can provide the breakthrough knowledge in chemistry, materials science, biology, and engineering for which we should strive. Public release of this report is expected in early October.

  6. Advances in computed radiography systems and their physical imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Davies, A G; Kengyelics, S M

    2007-12-01

    Radiological imaging is progressing towards an all-digital future, across the spectrum of medical imaging techniques. Computed radiography (CR) has provided a ready pathway from screen film to digital radiography and a convenient entry point to PACS. This review briefly revisits the principles of modern CR systems and their physical imaging characteristics. Wide dynamic range and digital image enhancement are well-established benefits of CR, which lend themselves to improved image presentation and reduced rates of repeat exposures. However, in its original form CR offered limited scope for reducing the radiation dose per radiographic exposure, compared with screen film. Recent innovations in CR, including the use of dual-sided image readout and channelled storage phosphor have eased these concerns. For example, introduction of these technologies has improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by approximately 50 and 100%, respectively, compared with standard CR. As a result CR currently affords greater scope for reducing patient dose, and provides a more substantive challenge to the new solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors.

  7. ADVANCED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF CEREBRAL CAVERNOUS MALFORMATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Shenkar, Robert; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai N.; Wyrwicz, Alice M.; Zhao, Jin-cheng; Shi, Changbin; Akers, Amy; Marchuk, Douglas A.; Awad, Issam A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We sought to assess the appearance of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in murine Ccm1 and Ccm2 gene knockout models, and to develop a technique of lesion localization for correlative pathobiologic studies Methods Brains from eighteen CCM mutant mice (Ccm1+/-Trp53-/- and Ccm2+/-Trp53-/-) and 28 controls were imaged by gradient recalled echo (T2*)-weighted MR at 4.7 T and 14.1 T in vivo and/or ex vivo. After MR imaging, the brains were removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and cells were laser microdissected for molecular biologic studies. Results T2*-weighted MR imaging of brains in vivo and ex vivo revealed lesions similar to human CCMs in mutant mice, but not in control animals. Stereotactic localization and hematoxylin and eosin-staining of correlative tissue sections confirmed lesion histology, and revealed other areas of dilated capillaries in the same brains. Some lesions were identified by MR imaging at 14.1 T, but not at 4.7 T. PCR amplification from Ccm1 and β-actin genes was demonstrated from nucleic acids extracted from laser microdissected lesional and perilesional cells. Conclusions The high field MR imaging techniques offer new opportunities for further investigation of disease pathogenesis in vivo, and the localization, staging and histobiologic dissection of lesions, including the presumed earliest stages of CCM lesion development. PMID:18981891

  8. Advances and perspectives in lung cancer imaging using multidetector row computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Coche, Emmanuel

    2012-10-01

    The introduction of multidetector row computed tomography (CT) into clinical practice has revolutionized many aspects of the clinical work-up. Lung cancer imaging has benefited from various breakthroughs in computing technology, with advances in the field of lung cancer detection, tissue characterization, lung cancer staging and response to therapy. Our paper discusses the problems of radiation, image visualization and CT examination comparison. It also reviews the most significant advances in lung cancer imaging and highlights the emerging clinical applications that use state of the art CT technology in the field of lung cancer diagnosis and follow-up.

  9. Amplitude-modulated laser range-finder for 3D imaging with multi-sensor data integration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, L.; Ferri de Collibus, M.; Fornetti, G.; Guarneri, M.; Paglia, E.; Poggi, C.; Ricci, R.

    2005-06-01

    A high performance Amplitude Modulated Laser Rangefinder (AM-LR) is presented, aimed at accurately reconstructing 3D digital models of real targets, either single objects or complex scenes. The scanning system enables to sweep the sounding beam either linearly across the object or circularly around it, by placing the object on a controlled rotating platform. Both phase shift and amplitude of the modulating wave of back-scattered light are collected and processed, resulting respectively in an accurate range image and a shade-free, high resolution, photographic-like intensity image. The best performances obtained in terms of range resolution are ~100 μm. Resolution itself can be made to depend mainly on the laser modulation frequency, provided that the power of the backscattered light reaching the detector is at least a few nW. 3D models are reconstructed from sampled points by using specifically developed software tools, optimized so as to take advantage of the system peculiarities. Special procedures have also been implemented to perform precise matching of data acquired independently with different sensors (LIF laser sensors, thermographic cameras, etc.) onto the 3D models generated using the AM-LR. The system has been used to scan different types of real surfaces (stone, wood, alloys, bones) and ca be applied in various fields, ranging from industrial machining to medical diagnostics, vision in hostile environments cultural heritage conservation and restoration. The relevance of this technology in cultural heritage applications is discussed in special detail, by providing results obtained in different campaigns with an emphasis on the system's multi-sensor data integration capabilities.

  10. The new kid on the block for advanced imaging in Barrett's esophagus: a review of volumetric laser endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Arvind J; Smith, Michael S; Pleskow, Douglas K

    2016-05-01

    Advanced imaging techniques used in the management of Barrett's esophagus include electronic imaging enhancement (e.g. narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement, and i-Scan), chromoendoscopy, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. Electronic imaging enhancement is used frequently in daily practice, but use of the other advanced technologies is not routine. High-definition white light endoscopy and random four quadrant biopsy remain the standard of care for evaluation of Barrett's esophagus; this is largely due to the value of advanced imaging technologies not having been validated in large studies or in everyday practice. A new advanced imaging technology called volumetric laser endomicroscopy is commercially available in the United States. Its ease of use and rapid acquisition of high-resolution images make this technology very promising for widespread application. In this article we review the technology and its potential for advanced imaging in Barrett's esophagus.

  11. Advancing the Technology of Monolithic CMOS detectors for their use as X-ray Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) proposes a two year program to further advance the scientific capabilities of monolithic CMOS detectors for use as x-ray imaging spectrometers. This proposal will build upon the progress achieved with funding from a previous APRA proposal that ended in 2013. As part of that previous proposal, x- ray optimized, highly versatile, monolithic CMOS imaging detectors and technology were developed and tested. The performance and capabilities of these devices were then demonstrated, with an emphasis on the performance advantages these devices have over CCDs and other technologies. The developed SAO/SRI-Sarnoff CMOS devices incorporate: Low noise, high sensitivity ("gain") pixels; Highly parallel on-chip signal chains; Standard and very high resistivity (30,000Ohm-cm) Si; Back-Side thinning and passivation. SAO demonstrated the performance benefits of each of these features in these devices. This new proposal high-lights the performance of this previous generation of devices, and segues into new technology and capability. The high sensitivity ( 135uV/e) 6 Transistor (6T) Pinned Photo Diode (PPD) pixels provided a large charge to voltage conversion gain to the detect and resolve even small numbers of photo electrons produced by x-rays. The on-chip, parallel signal chain processed an entire row of pixels in the same time that a CCD requires to processes a single pixel. The resulting high speed operation ( 1000 times faster than CCD) provide temporal resolution while mitigating dark current and allowed room temperature operation. The high resistivity Si provided full (over) depletion for thicker devices which increased QE for higher energy x-rays. In this proposal, SAO will investigate existing NMOS and existing PMOS devices as xray imaging spectrometers. Conventional CMOS imagers are NMOS. NMOS devices collect and measure photo-electrons. In contrast, PMOS devices collect and measure photo-holes. PMOS devices have various

  12. Recent Advances in Cardiac Computed Tomography: Dual Energy, Spectral and Molecular CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Danad, Ibrahim; Fayad, Zahi A.; Willemink, Martin J.; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) evolved into a powerful diagnostic tool and it is impossible to imagine current clinical practice without CT imaging. Due to its widespread availability, ease of clinical application, superb sensitivity for detection of CAD, and non-invasive nature, CT has become a valuable tool within the armamentarium of the cardiologist. In the last few years, numerous technological advances in CT have occurred—including dual energy CT (DECT), spectral CT and CT-based molecular imaging. By harnessing the advances in technology, cardiac CT has advanced beyond the mere evaluation of coronary stenosis to an imaging modality tool that permits accurate plaque characterization, assessment of myocardial perfusion and even probing of molecular processes that are involved in coronary atherosclerosis. Novel innovations in CT contrast agents and pre-clinical spectral CT devices have paved the way for CT-based molecular imaging. PMID:26068288

  13. INL Initial Input to the Mission Need for Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capability A Non-Major System Acquisition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vince Tonc

    2010-04-01

    Consolidated and comprehensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) capabilities will enable the science and engineering understanding needed to develop the innovative nuclear fuels and materials that are critical to the success of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) programs. Existing PIE capabilities at DOE Laboratories, universities, and in the private sector are widely distributed, largely antiquated, and insufficient to support the long-range mission needs. In addition, DOE’s aging nuclear infrastructure was not designed to accommodate modern, state-of-the-art equipment and instrumentation. Currently, the U.S. does not have the capability to make use of state-of-the-art technology in a remote, hot cell environment to characterize irradiated fuels and materials on the micro, nano, and atomic scale. This “advanced PIE capability” to make use of state-of-the-art scientific instruments in a consolidated nuclear operating environment will enable comprehensive characterization and investigation that is essential for effectively implementing the nuclear fuels and materials development programs in support of achieving the U.S. DOE-NE Mission.

  14. Advanced characterization of microscopic kidney biopsies utilizing image analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Goudas, Theodosios; Doukas, Charalampos; Chatziioannou, Aristotle; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    Correct annotation and identification of salient regions in Kidney biopsy images can provide an estimation of pathogenesis in obstructive nephropathy. This paper presents a tool for the automatic or manual segmentation of such regions along with methodology for their characterization in terms of the exhibited pathology. The proposed implementation is based on custom code written in Java and the utilization of open source tools (i.e. RapidMiner, ImageJ). The corresponding implementation details along with the initial evaluation of the proposed integrated system are also presented in the paper.

  15. Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer - An advanced optics technology instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, Colin; Labaw, Clayton; Sobel, Harold; Kahle, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Through the use of a special optical filter, the Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, an airborne multispectral IR imaging instrument operating in the thermal emission region (7.5-14 microns), will achieve signal-to-noise ratios greater than 600 with ambient temperature optics. This instrument will be used to do compositional surface mapping of the terrain, and will refine the ability to categorize rock families and types by providing much higher spectral resolution in the emission region than was previously available. Details of the optical system, the detector, the cooler system, and the support electronics are described.

  16. Advanced InSAR imaging for dune mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havivi, Shiran; August, Yitzhak; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rotman, Stanley R.

    2015-04-01

    Aeolian morphologies are formed in the presence of sufficient wind energy and available particles. These processes occur naturally or are further enhanced or reduced by human intervention. The dimensions of change are dependent primarily on the wind energy and surface properties. Since the 1970's, remote sensing imagery both optical and radar, are used for documentation and interpretation of the geomorphologic changes of sand dunes. Remote sensing studies of Aeolian morphologies is mostly useful to document major changes, yet, subtle changes, occurring in a period of days or months in scales of centimeters, are very difficult to detect in imagery. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is an imaging technique for measuring Earth's surface topography and deformation. InSAR images are produced by measuring the radar phase difference between two separated antennas that view the same surface area. Classical InSAR is based on high coherence between two images or more. The output (interferogram) can show subtle changes with an accuracy of several millimeters to centimeters. Very little work has been done on measuring or identifying the changes in dunes using InSAR. The reason is that dunes tend to be less coherent than firm, stable, surfaces. This research aims to demonstrate how interferometric decorrelation, or, coherence change detection, can be used for identifying dune instability. We hypothesize and demonstrate that the loss of radar coherence over time on dunes can be used as an indication of the dune's instability. When SAR images are acquired at sufficiently close intervals one can measure the time it takes to lose coherence and associate this time with geomorphic stability. To achieve our goals, the Nitzanim coastal dunes along the Mediterranean, 40 km south of Tel-Aviv, Israel, were chosen as a case study. The dunes in this area are of varying levels of stability and vegetation cover and have been monitored meteorologically, geomorphologically and

  17. Advanced Computer Image Generation Techniques Exploiting Perceptual Characteristics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenger, Anthony J.; And Others

    This study suggests and identifies computer image generation (CIG) algorithms for visual simulation that improve the training effectiveness of CIG simulators and identifies areas of basic research in visual perception that are significant for improving CIG technology. The first phase of the project entailed observing three existing CIG simulators.…

  18. Fabry-Perot MEMS Accelerometers for Advanced Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chisum, Brad

    2015-05-31

    This report summarizes the technical achievements that occurred over the duration of the project. On November 14th, 2014, Lumedyne Technologies Incorporated was acquired. As a result of the acquisition, the work toward seismic imaging applications was suspended indefinitely. This report captures the progress achieved up to that time.

  19. Advances in low energy neutral atom imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Moore, K.R. ); Gruntman, M. . Space Sciences Center)

    1993-01-01

    Recently proposed low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging techniques use a collisional process to convert the low energy neutrals into ions before detection. At low energies, collisional processes limit the angular resolution and conversion efficiencies of these devices. However, if the intense ultraviolet light background can be suppressed, direct LENA detection is possible. We present results from a series of experiments designed to develop a novel filtering structure based on free-standing transmission gratings. If the grating period is sufficiently small, free standing transmission gratings can be employed to substantially polarize ultraviolet (UV) light in the wavelength range 300 [Angstrom] to 1500 [Angstrom]. If a second grating is placed behind the first grating with its axis of polarization oriented at a right angle to the first's, a substantial attenuation of UV radiation is achievable. ne neutrals will pass through the remaining open area of two gratings and be detected without UV background complications. We have obtained nominal 2000 [Angstrom] period (1000 [Angstrom] bars with 1000 [Angstrom] slits) free standing, gold transmission gratings and measured their UV and atomic transmission characteristics. The geometric factor of a LENA imager based on this technology is comparable to that of other proposed LENA imagers. In addition, this of imager does not distort the neutral trajectories, allowing for high angular resolution.

  20. Support for Advanced Imaging of Premixed Turbulent Combustion Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    quantifies mean flame properties (e.g., mean progress variable fields ), chemical reaction sheet wrinkling by turbulence (e. g., reaction sheet...orientation statistics, curvatures and surface density data) and important velocities (e. g., velocity field of reactants, reaction sheet displacement speeds...with stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) to measure flamelet wrinkling, flamelet speeds and the reactant velocity field in order to relate

  1. Advanced scanners and imaging systems for earth observations. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Assessments of present and future sensors and sensor related technology are reported along with a description of user needs and applications. Five areas are outlined: (1) electromechanical scanners, (2) self-scanned solid state sensors, (3) electron beam imagers, (4) sensor related technology, and (5) user applications. Recommendations, charts, system designs, technical approaches, and bibliographies are included for each area.

  2. Advances in Focal Plane Wavefront Estimation for Directly Imaging Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler Dean

    2015-01-01

    To image cold exoplanets directly in visible light, an instrument on a telescope needs to suppress starlight by about 9 orders of magnitude at small separations from the star. A coronagraph changes the point spread function to create regions of high contrast where exoplanets or disks can be seen. Aberrations on the optics degrade the contrast by several orders of magnitude, so all high-contrast imaging systems incorporate one or more deformable mirrors (DMs) to recover regions of high contrast. With a coronagraphic instrument planned for the WFIRST-AFTA space telescope, there is a pressing need for faster, more robust estimation and control schemes for the DMs. Non-common path aberrations limit conventional phase conjugation schemes to medium star-to-planet contrast ratios of about 1e-6. High-contrast imaging requires estimation and control of both phase and amplitude in the same beam path as the science camera. Field estimation is a challenge since only intensity is measured; the most common approach, including that planned for WFIRST-AFTA, is to use DMs to create diversity, via pairs of small probe shapes, thereby allowing disambiguation of the electric field. Most implementations of DM Diversity require at least five images per electric field estimate and require narrowband measurements. This paper describes our new estimation algorithms that improve the speed (by using fewer images) and bandwidth of focal plane wavefront estimation. For narrowband estimation, we are testing nonlinear, recursive algorithms such as an iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) to use three images each iteration and build better, more robust estimates. We are also exploring the use of broadband estimation without the need for narrowband sub-filters and measurements. Here we present simulations of these algorithms with realistic noise and small signals to show how they might perform for WFIRST-AFTA. Once validated in simulations, we will test these algorithms experimentally in

  3. X-ray imaging in advanced studies of ophthalmic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Antunes, Andrea; Safatle, Angelica M. V.; Barros, Paulo S. M.; Morelhao, Sergio L.

    2006-07-15

    Microscopic characterization of pathological tissues has one major intrinsic limitation, the small sampling areas with respect to the extension of the tissues. Mapping possible changes on vast tissues and correlating them with large ensembles of clinical cases is not a feasible procedure for studying most diseases, as for instance vision loss related diseases and, in particular, the cataract. Although intraocular lens implants are successful treatments, cataract still is a leading public-health issue that grows in importance as the population increases and life expectancy is extended worldwide. In this work we have exploited the radiation-tissue interaction properties of hard x-rays--very low absorption and scattering--to map distinct lesions on entire eye lenses. At the used synchrotron x-ray photon energy of 20 keV (wavelength {lambda}=0.062 nm), scattering and refraction are angular resolved effects. It allows the employed x-ray image technique to efficiently characterize two types of lesions in eye lenses under cataractogenesis: distributions of tiny scattering centers and extended areas of fiber cell compaction. The data collection procedure is relatively fast; allowing dozens of samples to be totally imaged (scattering, refraction, and mass absorption images) in a single day of synchrotron beam time. More than 60 cases of canine cataract, not correlated to specific causes, were investigated in this first application of x-rays to image entire lenses. Cortical opacity cases, or partial opacity, could be related to the presence of calcificated tissues at the cortical areas, clearly visible in the images, whose elemental contents were verified by micro x-ray fluorescence as very rich in calcium. Calcificated tissues were also observed at nuclear areas in some cases of hypermature cataract. Total opacity cases without distinguishable amount of scattering centers consist in 70% of the analyzed cases, where remarkable fissure marks owing to extended areas of fiber

  4. Advanced synchronous luminescence imaging for chemical and medical diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-09-05

    A diagnostic method and associated system includes the steps of exposing at least one sample location with excitation radiation through a single optical waveguide or a single optical waveguide bundle, wherein the sample emits emission radiation in response to the excitation radiation. The same single optical waveguide or the single optical waveguide bundle receives at least a portion of the emission radiation from the sample, thus providing co-registration of the excitation radiation and the emission radiation. The wavelength of the excitation radiation and emission radiation is synchronously scanned to produce a spectrum upon which an image can be formed. An increased emission signal is generated by the enhanced overlap of the excitation and emission focal volumes provided by co-registration of the excitation and emission signals thus increasing the sensitivity as well as decreasing the exposure time necessary to obtain an image.

  5. Pulse laser imaging amplifier for advanced ladar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir; Tomov, Ivan; Murrell, David

    2016-05-01

    Security measures sometimes require persistent surveillance of government, military and public areas Borders, bridges, sport arenas, airports and others are often surveilled with low-cost cameras. Their low-light performance can be enhanced with laser illuminators; however various operational scenarios may require a low-intensity laser illumination with the object-scattered light intensity lower than the sensitivity of the Ladar image detector. This paper discusses a novel type of high-gain optical image amplifier. The approach enables time-synchronization of the incoming and amplifying signals with accuracy <= 1 ns. The technique allows the incoming signal to be amplified without the need to match the input spectrum to the cavity modes. Instead, the incoming signal is accepted within the spectral band of the amplifier. We have gauged experimentally the performance of the amplifier with a 40 dB gain and an angle of view 20 mrad.

  6. [Status and advances of RGD molecular imaging in lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Yue, Ning; Yuan, Shuanghu; Yang, Guoren

    2014-12-01

    Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides could combine with integrins specifically, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to reflect its changes. The lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article.

  7. Advanced technologies in image-guided radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Balter, James M; Cao, Yue

    2007-10-01

    In addition to rapid developments in the use of stationary radiographs and computed tomography scans in treatment rooms, a variety of additional technologies is on the horizon to aid in guided treatment. Some of these (fluoroscopy and tomosynthesis) are variations on the use of existing hardware, whereas others (electromagnetic localization, magnetic resonance imaging) represent significant departures from recently adopted technologic concepts. This review introduces these methods and explores their potential for initial use in guidance.

  8. DoD Advanced, Image-Evaluation Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    Module 40 14 Two-Port, Image- Evaluation Concept 43 15 Basic Schematic for System Responsivity Measurements 48 16 Basic Schematic for System Spatial...Response Measurements 49 17 Basic Schematic for System Resoltivity Response Measurements 50 18 Example of Point Source Spreading 62 viii TABLES Table...Hybrid Target Generator Component Specifications (Visible) 31 Target Pattern Specifications 32 6 Extended Basic Commands 38-39 Typical Software Supported

  9. Electron Trajectory Reconstruction for Advanced Compton Imaging of Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plimley, Brian Christopher

    Gamma-ray imaging is useful for detecting, characterizing, and localizing sources in a variety of fields, including nuclear physics, security, nuclear accident response, nuclear medicine, and astronomy. Compton imaging in particular provides sensitivity to weak sources and good angular resolution in a large field of view. However, the photon origin in a single event sequence is normally only limited to the surface of a cone. If the initial direction of the Compton-scattered electron can be measured, the cone can be reduced to a cone segment with width depending on the uncertainty in the direction measurement, providing a corresponding increase in imaging sensitivity. Measurement of the electron's initial direction in an efficient detection material requires very fine position resolution due to the electron's short range and tortuous path. A thick (650 mum), fully-depleted charge-coupled device (CCD) developed for infrared astronomy has 10.5-mum position resolution in two dimensions, enabling the initial trajectory measurement of electrons of energy as low as 100 keV. This is the first time the initial trajectories of electrons of such low energies have been measured in a solid material. In this work, the CCD's efficacy as a gamma-ray detector is demonstrated experimentally, using a reconstruction algorithm to measure the initial electron direction from the CCD track image. In addition, models of fast electron interaction physics, charge transport and readout were used to generate modeled tracks with known initial direction. These modeled tracks allowed the development and refinement of the reconstruction algorithm. The angular sensitivity of the reconstruction algorithm is evaluated extensively with models for tracks below 480 keV, showing a FWHM as low as 20° in the pixel plane, and 30° RMS sensitivity to the magnitude of the out-of-plane angle. The measurement of the trajectories of electrons with energies as low as 100 keV have the potential to make electron

  10. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  11. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for liver imaging: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Veronica; Borghi, Alberto; Piscaglia, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), providing relevant informations not available with non-enhanced ultrasonography, greatly impacted the practice of liver imaging. The characterization of focal liver lesions (FLLs), is obtained in a rapid, accurate and safe way and is considered the main hepatic indication; however CEUS offers other established or emergent relevant applications. Metastases detection and assessment of response to locoregional tumor treatment are accepted applications with specific indications. Needle guidance in case of poorly or non visible target lesions at conventional ultrasound is also accepted. The early assessment of response to systemic treatment, and in particular to antiangiogenic ones, by quantification software is an emergent application. The manageability of CEUS determined also its use in the operating theatre, improving the accuracy of intraoperatory US with a significant impact on final surgical strategy. In cirrhotic patients, the role of CEUS was proven highly accurate and sensitive in the characterization of portal vein thrombosis, by identification of contrast arterial enhancement inside the thrombus, that occurs only in case of neoplastic origin. In recent years microbubbles taken up by Kupffer cells, thus possessing a "postvascular" phase, were registered as ultrasound contrast agent in Japan (Sonazoid). During the post-vascular phase tumoral tissue tend to appear as a contrast defect image due to the lack of Kupffer cells, strongly contributing to tumor staging beside characterization. Newly developed techniques, such as fusion imaging or real-time three dimensional US, in addition to other applications of CEUS, in terms of post-transplantation or cholecystitis-related complications, have been recently proposed and will be discussed.

  12. Advanced Thermal Emission Imaging Systems Definition and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, Karl; Nava, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS), Raytheon Company, is pleased to submit this quarterly progress report of the work performed in the third quarter of Year 2 of the Advanced THEMIS Project, July through September 2002. We review here progress in the proposed tasks. During July through September 2002 progress was made in two major tasks, Spectral Response Characterization and Flight Instrument Definition. Because of staffing problems and technical problems earlier in the program we have refocused the remaining time and budget on the key technical tasks. Current technical problems with a central piece of test equipment has lead us to request a 1 quarter extension to the period of performance. This request is being made through a separate letter independent of this report.

  13. Advanced Tomographic Imaging Methods for the Analysis of Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    practical point-of-view, these CT resultg suggest that machining -1.5 m from each side of the 38 mg/cm would produce a foam with a reasonably uniform...NMR spectra of samples taken from the left (closest to the cord) and right sides of the right hand layer show the elastomeric components of these to...12.8 mm. One two-component layer, due to the inner liner of the tire, is barely visible on the right side of the Figure 5. Image (80 x 80 x 500 um

  14. Mueller matrix signature in advanced fluorescence microscopy imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Nirmal; Qiu, Jianjun; Kao, Fu-Jen; Diaspro, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    We have demonstrated the measurement and characterization of the polarization properties of a fluorescence signal using four-channel photon counting based Stokes-Mueller polarization microscopy. Thus, Lu-Chipman decomposition was applied to extract the critical polarization properties such as depolarization, linear retardance and the optical rotation of collagen type I fiber. We observed the spatial distribution of anisotropic and helical molecules of collagen from the reconstructed 2D Mueller images based on the fluorescence signal in a pixel-by-pixel manner.

  15. Advances in non-invasive imaging of intracranial vascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, H. R.; Grieve, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    Intra-arterial catheter angiography has, in the past, been the mainstay for the investigation of intracranial vascular disease. It is, however, invasive, usually requires in-patients admission, and is associated with a rate of neurological complications between 1% and 3%. In recent years, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and CT angiography (CTA) have emerged as non-invasive alternatives for imaging blood vessels and have made a significant impact on neuroradiological investigations. It is the purpose of this article to explain the basic technical principles of these two methods and to give an overview of their current clinical applications. PMID:10700757

  16. Regional Arctic System Model (RASM): A Tool to Address the U.S. Priorities and Advance Capabilities for Arctic Climate Modeling and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslowski, W.; Roberts, A.; Cassano, J. J.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Nijssen, B.; Osinski, R.; Zeng, X.; Brunke, M.; Duvivier, A.; Hamman, J.; Hossainzadeh, S.; Hughes, M.; Seefeldt, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing some of the most coordinated rapid climatic changes currently occurring anywhere on Earth, including the retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, which integrates forcing by, exchanges with and feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and land. While historical reconstructions from Earth System Models (ESMs) are in broad agreement with these changes, the rate of change in ESMs generally remains outpaced by observations. Reasons for that relate to a combination of coarse resolution, inadequate parameterizations, under-represented processes and a limited knowledge of physical interactions. We demonstrate the capability of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) in addressing some of the ESM limitations in simulating observed variability and trends in arctic surface climate. RASM is a high resolution, pan-Arctic coupled climate model with the sea ice and ocean model components configured at an eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12o and the atmosphere and land hydrology model components at 50 km resolution, which are all coupled at 20-minute intervals. RASM is an example of limited-area, process-resolving, fully coupled ESM, which due to the constraints from boundary conditions facilitates detailed comparisons with observational statistics that are not possible with ESMs. The overall goal of RASM is to address key requirements published in the Navy Arctic Roadmap: 2014-2030 and in the Implementation Plan for the National Strategy for the Arctic Region, regarding the need for advanced modeling capabilities for operational forecasting and strategic climate predictions through 2030. The main science objectives of RASM are to advance understanding and model representation of critical physical processes and feedbacks of importance to sea ice thickness and area distribution. RASM results are presented to quantify relative contributions by (i) resolved processes and feedbacks as well as (ii) sensitivity to space dependent sub-grid parameterizations to better

  17. Dawn of Advanced Molecular Medicine: Nanotechnological Advancements in Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaittanis, Charalambos; Shaffer, Travis M.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role not only in our everyday life (with all its benefits and dangers) but also in medicine. Nanoparticles are to date the most intriguing option to deliver high concentrations of agents specifically and directly to cancer cells; therefore, a wide variety of these nanomaterials has been developed and explored. These span the range from simple nanoagents to sophisticated smart devices for drug delivery or imaging. Nanomaterials usually provide a large surface area, allowing for decoration with a large amount of moieties on the surface for either additional functionalities or targeting. Besides using particles solely for imaging purposes, they can also carry as a payload a therapeutic agent. If both are combined within the same particle, a theranostic agent is created. The sophistication of highly developed nanotechnology targeting approaches provides a promising means for many clinical implementations and can provide improved applications for otherwise suboptimal formulations. In this review we will explore nanotechnology both for imaging and therapy to provide a general overview of the field and its impact on cancer imaging and therapy. PMID:25271430

  18. INVITED REVIEW--IMAGE REGISTRATION IN VETERINARY RADIATION ONCOLOGY: INDICATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND FUTURE ADVANCES.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yang; Lawrence, Jessica; Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Forrest, Lisa; Mclaren, Duncan B; McLaughlin, Stephen; Argyle, David J; Nailon, William H

    2016-01-01

    The field of veterinary radiation therapy (RT) has gained substantial momentum in recent decades with significant advances in conformal treatment planning, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and intensity-modulated (IMRT) techniques. At the root of these advancements lie improvements in tumor imaging, image alignment (registration), target volume delineation, and identification of critical structures. Image registration has been widely used to combine information from multimodality images such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) to improve the accuracy of radiation delivery and reliably identify tumor-bearing areas. Many different techniques have been applied in image registration. This review provides an overview of medical image registration in RT and its applications in veterinary oncology. A summary of the most commonly used approaches in human and veterinary medicine is presented along with their current use in IGRT and adaptive radiation therapy (ART). It is important to realize that registration does not guarantee that target volumes, such as the gross tumor volume (GTV), are correctly identified on the image being registered, as limitations unique to registration algorithms exist. Research involving novel registration frameworks for automatic segmentation of tumor volumes is ongoing and comparative oncology programs offer a unique opportunity to test the efficacy of proposed algorithms.

  19. Positron Emission Tomography: Current Challenges and Opportunities for Technological Advances in Clinical and Preclinical Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Juan José; Kinahan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is based on detecting two time-coincident high-energy photons from the emission of a positron-emitting radioisotope. The physics of the emission, and the detection of the coincident photons, give PET imaging unique capabilities for both very high sensitivity and accurate estimation of the in vivo concentration of the radiotracer. PET imaging has been widely adopted as an important clinical modality for oncological, cardiovascular, and neurological applications. PET imaging has also become an important tool in preclinical studies, particularly for investigating murine models of disease and other small-animal models. However, there are several challenges to using PET imaging systems. These include the fundamental trade-offs between resolution and noise, the quantitative accuracy of the measurements, and integration with X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we review how researchers and industry are addressing these challenges.

  20. Positron Emission Tomography: Current Challenges and Opportunities for Technological Advances in Clinical and Preclinical Imaging Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero, Juan José; Kinahan, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is based on detecting two time-coincident high-energy photons from the emission of a positron-emitting radioisotope. The physics of the emission, and the detection of the coincident photons, give PET imaging unique capabilities for both very high sensitivity and accurate estimation of the in vivo concentration of the radiotracer. PET imaging has been widely adopted as an important clinical modality for oncological, cardiovascular, and neurological applications. PET imaging has also become an important tool in preclinical studies, particularly for investigating murine models of disease and other small-animal models. However, there are several challenges to using PET imaging systems. These include the fundamental trade-offs between resolution and noise, the quantitative accuracy of the measurements, and integration with X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we review how researchers and industry are addressing these challenges. PMID:26643024

  1. Adaptation of commercial microscopes for advanced imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brideau, Craig; Poon, Kelvin; Stys, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Today's commercially available microscopes offer a wide array of options to accommodate common imaging experiments. Occasionally, an experimental goal will require an unusual light source, filter, or even irregular sample that is not compatible with existing equipment. In these situations the ability to modify an existing microscopy platform with custom accessories can greatly extend its utility and allow for experiments not possible with stock equipment. Light source conditioning/manipulation such as polarization, beam diameter or even custom source filtering can easily be added with bulk components. Custom and after-market detectors can be added to external ports using optical construction hardware and adapters. This paper will present various examples of modifications carried out on commercial microscopes to address both atypical imaging modalities and research needs. Violet and near-ultraviolet source adaptation, custom detection filtering, and laser beam conditioning and control modifications will be demonstrated. The availability of basic `building block' parts will be discussed with respect to user safety, construction strategies, and ease of use.

  2. Advances in multiscale theoretical analysis and imaging aspects of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shockro, Jennifer

    The work presented in this dissertation is focused on two aspects related to turbulent flow. The first of these is the one-dimensional theoretical analysis of the logarithmic spiral in terms of fractal dimension and spectrum. The second is on imaging methodologies and analysis of turbulent jet scalar interfaces in atmospheric conditions, with broad applicability to various studies where turbulence has a key role, such as urban contaminant dispersion or free space laser communications. The logarithmic spiral is of particular interest to studies of turbulence and natural phenomena as it appears frequently in nature with the "Golden Ratio" and is thought to play an important role in turbulent mixing. It is also an inherently anisotropic geometric structure and therefore provides information towards examining phenomena in which anisotropic properties might be expected to appear and is thought to be present as a structure within the fine scales of the turbulent hierarchy. In this work it is subjected to one-dimensional theoretical analysis, focusing on the development of a probability density function (pdf) for the spiral and the relation of the pdf to its fractal dimension. Results indicate that the logarithmic spiral does not have a constant fractal dimension and thus that it does not exhibit any form of self-similar statistical behavior, supporting previous theoretical suppositions about behavior at the fine scales within the turbulent hierarchy. A signal is developed from the pdf in order to evaluate its power spectrum. Results of this analysis provide information about the manner in which energy is carried at different scales of the spiral. To our knowledge, the logarithmic spiral in particular has not yet been examined in this fashion in literature. In order to further investigate this object, the multiscale minima meshless (M(3) ) method isextended and employed computationally to the two-dimensional logarithmic spiral as well as to experimental images of a

  3. Advanced electron crystallography through model-based imaging

    PubMed Central

    Van Aert, Sandra; De Backer, Annick; Martinez, Gerardo T.; den Dekker, Arnold J.; Van Dyck, Dirk; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need for precise determination of the atomic arrangement of non-periodic structures in materials design and the control of nanostructures explains the growing interest in quantitative transmission electron microscopy. The aim is to extract precise and accurate numbers for unknown structure parameters including atomic positions, chemical concentrations and atomic numbers. For this purpose, statistical parameter estimation theory has been shown to provide reliable results. In this theory, observations are considered purely as data planes, from which structure parameters have to be determined using a parametric model describing the images. As such, the positions of atom columns can be measured with a precision of the order of a few picometres, even though the resolution of the electron microscope is still one or two orders of magnitude larger. Moreover, small differences in average atomic number, which cannot be distinguished visually, can be quantified using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images. In addition, this theory allows one to measure compositional changes at interfaces, to count atoms with single-atom sensitivity, and to reconstruct atomic structures in three dimensions. This feature article brings the reader up to date, summarizing the underlying theory and highlighting some of the recent applications of quantitative model-based transmisson electron microscopy. PMID:26870383

  4. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  5. Advanced 3D polarimetric flash ladar imaging through foliage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, James T.; Moran, Steven E.; Roddier, Nicolas; Vercillo, Richard; Bridges, Robert; Austin, William

    2003-08-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional flash ladar system technologies are under development that enables remote identification of vehicles and armament hidden by heavy tree canopies. We have developed a sensor architecture and design that employs a 3D flash ladar receiver to address this mission. The receiver captures 128×128×>30 three-dimensional images for each laser pulse fired. The voxel size of the image is 3"×3"×4" at the target location. A novel signal-processing algorithm has been developed that achieves sub-voxel (sub-inch) range precision estimates of target locations within each pixel. Polarization discrimination is implemented to augment the target-to-foliage contrast. When employed, this method improves the range resolution of the system beyond the classical limit (based on pulsewidth and detection bandwidth). Experiments were performed with a 6 ns long transmitter pulsewidth that demonstrate 1-inch range resolution of a tank-like target that is occluded by foliage and a range precision of 0.3" for unoccluded targets.

  6. Advanced Image Processing for Defect Visualization in Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotnikov, Yuri A.; Winfree, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a defect visualization process based on pulse infrared thermography are presented. Algorithms have been developed to reduce the amount of operator participation required in the process of interpreting thermographic images. The algorithms determine the defect's depth and size from the temporal and spatial thermal distributions that exist on the surface of the investigated object following thermal excitation. A comparison of the results from thermal contrast, time derivative, and phase analysis methods for defect visualization are presented. These comparisons are based on three dimensional simulations of a test case representing a plate with multiple delaminations. Comparisons are also based on experimental data obtained from a specimen with flat bottom holes and a composite panel with delaminations.

  7. Advanced satellite sensors: Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Imaging of low energy neutral atoms (LENDs) created by electron capture by magnetospheric plasma ions from interactions with cold geocoronal neutrals promises to be a revolutionary technique for providing unprecedented information about the global structure and dynamics of the terrestrial magnetosphere. This has significant implications in space weather forecasting, weather-induced satellite upset diagnostics, and revolutionary insights into global magnetospheric physics. The Los Alamos Space and Atmospheric Sciences Group has completed extensive neutral atom simulations and detailed instrument definition, and we designed a proof-of-concept demonstration prototype and have obtained externally- funded programs for full instrument development

  8. Advanced diagnostic imaging and surgical treatment of an odontogenic retromasseteric abscess in a guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Capello, V; Lennox, A

    2015-02-01

    A two-year-old guinea pig presented for difficulty chewing. Examination and diagnostic imaging, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance, revealed an odontogenic retromasseteric abscess associated with a mandibular cheek tooth. Treatment included removal of the abscess and marsupialisation of the surgical site for repeated debridement and healing by second intention. Unique features of this case included the use of advanced diagnostic imaging and utilisation of marsupialisation for surgical correction.

  9. Approximating tasseled cap values to evaluate brightness, greenness, and wetness for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamamoto, Kristina H.; Finn, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The Tasseled Cap transformation is a method of image band conversion to enhance spectral information. It primarily is used to detect vegetation using the derived brightness, greenness, and wetness bands. An approximation of Tasseled Cap values for the Advanced Land Imager was investigated and compared to the Landsat Thematic Mapper Tasseled Cap values. Despite sharing similar spectral, temporal, and spatial resolution, the two systems are not interchangeable with regard to Tasseled Cap matrices.

  10. Recent Advances in Photoacoustic Imaging for Deep-Tissue Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng; Lin, Jing; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI), a novel imaging modality based on photoacoustic effect, shows great promise in biomedical applications. By converting pulsed laser excitation into ultrasonic emission, PAI combines the advantages of optical imaging and ultrasound imaging, which benefits rich contrast, high resolution and deep tissue penetration. In this paper, we introduced recent advances of contrast agents, applications, and signal enhancement strategies for PAI. The PA contrast agents were categorized by their components, mainly including inorganic and organic PA contrast agents. The applications of PAI were summarized as follows: deep tumor imaging, therapeutic responses monitoring, metabolic imaging, pH detection, enzyme detection, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, metal ions detection, and so on. The enhancement strategies of PA signals were highlighted. In the end, we elaborated on the challenges and provided perspectives of PAI for deep-tissue biomedical applications. PMID:27877243

  11. Correlation between iodine-131 MIBG imaging and biological markers in advanced neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.D.; Helson, L.; Benua, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging was performed in 38 patients with advanced neuroblastoma. Abnormal images were found in patients with elevations of urinary vanillylmandelic acid and dopamine and high serum neuron-specific enolase levels. Normal or minimal elevation of markers was seen in patients with negative images. In follow-up studies after chemotherapy, the disappearance of abnormal uptake was noted in those patients with normal marker values. A persistently abnormal uptake occurred in patients with high marker values. Conversion from a normal image to an abnormal image also occurred in patients whose markers became elevated. I-131 MIBG imaging is sensitive in detecting active foci of a neuroblastoma and is useful in monitoring chemotherapy in these patients.

  12. Completing the Pain Circuit: Recent Advances in Imaging Pain and Inflammation beyond the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Linnman, Clas; Borsook, David

    2013-01-01

    This review describes some of the recent developments in imaging aspects of pain in the periphery. It is now possible to image nerves in the cornea non-invasively, to image receptor level expression and inflammatory processes in injured tissue, to image nerves and alterations in nerve properties, to image astrocyte and glial roles in neuroinflammatory processes, and to image pain conduction functionally in the trigeminal ganglion. These advances will ultimately allow us to describe the pain pathway, from injury site to behavioral consequence, in a quantitative manner. Such a development could lead to diagnostics determining the source of pain (peripheral or central), objective monitoring of treatment progression, and, hopefully, objective biomarkers of pain. PMID:24228169

  13. Recent Advances in Photoacoustic Imaging for Deep-Tissue Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Lin, Jing; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI), a novel imaging modality based on photoacoustic effect, shows great promise in biomedical applications. By converting pulsed laser excitation into ultrasonic emission, PAI combines the advantages of optical imaging and ultrasound imaging, which benefits rich contrast, high resolution and deep tissue penetration. In this paper, we introduced recent advances of contrast agents, applications, and signal enhancement strategies for PAI. The PA contrast agents were categorized by their components, mainly including inorganic and organic PA contrast agents. The applications of PAI were summarized as follows: deep tumor imaging, therapeutic responses monitoring, metabolic imaging, pH detection, enzyme detection, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, metal ions detection, and so on. The enhancement strategies of PA signals were highlighted. In the end, we elaborated on the challenges and provided perspectives of PAI for deep-tissue biomedical applications.

  14. Chapter five--The development of transcription-regulated adenoviral vectors with high cancer-selective imaging capabilities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ziyue Karen; Sato, Makoto; Wu, Lily

    2012-01-01

    A clear benefit of molecular imaging is to enable noninvasive, repetitive monitoring of intrinsic signals within tumor cells as a means to identify the lesions as malignant or to assess the ability of treatment to perturb key pathways within the tumor cells. Due to the promising utility of molecular imaging in oncology, preclinical research to refine molecular imaging techniques in small animals is a blossoming field. We will first discuss the several imaging modalities such as fluorescent imaging, bioluminescence imaging, and positron emission tomography that are now commonly used in small animal settings. The indirect imaging approach, which can be adapted to a wide range of imaging reporter genes, is a useful platform to develop molecular imaging. In particular, reporter gene-based imaging is well suited for transcriptional-targeted imaging that can be delivered by recombinant adenoviral vectors. In this review, we will summarize transcription-regulated strategies used in adenoviral-mediated molecular imaging to visualize metastasis and monitor oncolytic therapy in preclinical models.

  15. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peccenini, E.; Albertin, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Petrucci, F.

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described.

  16. Advanced tools for astronomical time series and image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    The algorithms described here, which I have developed for applications in X-ray and γ-ray astronomy, will hopefully be of use in other ways, perhaps aiding in the exploration of modern astronomy's data cornucopia. The goal is to describe principled approaches to some ubiquitous problems, such as detection and characterization of periodic and aperiodic signals, estimation of time delays between multiple time series, and source detection in noisy images with noisy backgrounds. The latter problem is related to detection of clusters in data spaces of various dimensions. A goal of this work is to achieve a unifying view of several related topics: signal detection and characterization, cluster identification, classification, density estimation, and multivariate regression. In addition to being useful for analysis of data from space-based and ground-based missions, these algorithms may be a basis for a future automatic science discovery facility, and in turn provide analysis tools for the Virtual Observatory. This chapter has ties to those by Larry Bretthorst, Tom Loredo, Alanna Connors, Fionn Murtagh, Jim Berger, David van Dyk, Vicent Martinez & Enn Saar.

  17. Significant advancement of mass spectrometry imaging for food chemistry.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Zaima, Nobuhiro

    2016-11-01

    Food contains various compounds that have an impact on our daily lives. Many technologies have been established to analyze these molecules of interest in foods. However, the analysis of the spatial distribution of these compounds in foods using conventional technology, such as high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is difficult. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is considered an ideal complementary approach. MALDI-MSI is a two-dimensional MALDI-MS technology that can detect compounds in a tissue section without extraction, purification, separation, or labeling. MALDI-MSI can be used to visualize the spatial distribution of chemical compounds or biomolecules in foods. Although the methodology of MALDI-MSI in food science is not yet fully established, the versatility of MALDI-MSI is expected to open a new frontier in food science. Herein, we describe the principles and applications of MALDI-MSI in food science and related fields.

  18. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS)--Science Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Coppi, P.; Digel, S.; Funk, S.; Krennrich, F.; Pohl, M.; Romani, R.; Vassiliev, V.

    2008-12-24

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS), a future gamma-ray telescope consisting of an array of {approx}50 atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes distributed over an area of {approx}1 km{sup 2}, will provide a powerful new tool for exploring the high-energy universe. The order-of-magnitude increase in sensitivity and improved angular resolution could provide the first detailed images of {gamma}-ray emission from other nearby galaxies or galaxy clusters. The large effective area will provide unprecedented sensitivity to short transients (such as flares from AGNs and GRBs) probing both intrinsic spectral variability (revealing the details of the acceleration mechanism and geometry) as well as constraining the high-energy dispersion in the velocity of light (probing the structure of spacetime and Lorentz invariance). A wide field of view ({approx}4 times that of current instruments) and excellent angular resolution (several times better than current instruments) will allow for an unprecedented survey of the Galactic plane, providing a deep unobscured survey of SNRs, X-ray binaries, pulsar-wind nebulae, molecular cloud complexes and other sources. The differential flux sensitivity of {approx}10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} will rival the most sensitive X-ray instruments for these extended Galactic sources. The excellent capabilities of AGIS at energies below 100 GeV will provide sensitivity to AGN and GRBs out to cosmological redshifts, increasing the number of AGNs detected at high energies from about 20 to more than 100, permitting population studies that will provide valuable insights into both a unified model for AGN and a detailed measurement of the effects of intergalactic absorption from the diffuse extragalactic background light. A new instrument with fast-slewing wide-field telescopes could provide detections of a number of long-duration GRBs providing important physical constraints from this new spectral component. The new array will also have excellent

  19. Noncompaction cardiomyopathy: The role of advanced multimodality imaging techniques in diagnosis and assessment.

    PubMed

    Chebrolu, Lakshmi H; Mehta, Anjlee M; Nanda, Navin C

    2017-02-01

    Noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) is a unique cardiomyopathy with a diverse array of genotypic and phenotypic manifestations. Its hallmark morphology consists of a bilayered myocardium with a compact epicardial layer and prominent trabeculations that comprise the noncompacted endocardial layer. The controversial diagnostic criteria for NCCM have been frequently discussed in the literature. This review touches on those diagnostic criteria, delves further into the evolving use of advanced imaging techniques within the major imaging modalities (echocardiography, computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging), and proposes an alternative algorithm incorporating these techniques for aiding with the diagnosis of NCCM.

  20. Imaging heterogeneous absorption distribution of advanced breast cancer by optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhu, Quing

    2010-01-01

    Tumor vascular patterns of advanced breast cancers are complex and heterogeneous. Two typical light absorption patterns of periphery enhancement and posterior shadowing have been observed when imaging these advanced cancers using optical tomography guided by ultrasound. We perform a series simulation and phantom experiments to systemically evaluate the effects of target parameters, target locations, and target optical properties on imaging periphery enhancement absorption distribution using reflection geometry. Large tumors are modeled as concentric semiellipsoidal targets of different outer shell and inner core optical properties. We show that larger targets of more than 3 to 4 cm diameter with outer shell thicknesses less than 1 cm can be resolved at a depth less than 3 cm. A clinical example is given to show the complex vasculature distributions seen from an advanced cancer. PMID:21198181

  1. Advanced endoscopic imaging for gastric cancer assessment: new insights with new optics?

    PubMed

    Serrano, M; Kikuste, I; Dinis-Ribeiro, M

    2014-12-01

    The most immediate strategy for improving survival of gastric cancer patients is secondary prevention through diagnosis of early gastric cancer either through screening or follow-up of individuals at high risk. Endoscopy examination is therefore of paramount importance and two general steps are to be known in assessing gastric mucosa - detection and characterization. Over the past decade, the advent of advanced endoscopic imaging technology led to diverse descriptions of these modalities reporting them to be useful in this setting. In this review, we aim at summarizing the current evidence on the use of advance imaging in individuals at high-risk (i.e., advance stages of gastric atrophy/intestinal metaplasia) and in those harbouring neoplastic lesions, and address its potential usefulness providing the readers a framework to use in daily practice. Further research is also suggested.

  2. MO-C-18A-01: Advances in Model-Based 3D Image Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G; Pan, X; Stayman, J; Samei, E

    2014-06-15

    Recent years have seen the emergence of CT image reconstruction techniques that exploit physical models of the imaging system, photon statistics, and even the patient to achieve improved 3D image quality and/or reduction of radiation dose. With numerous advantages in comparison to conventional 3D filtered backprojection, such techniques bring a variety of challenges as well, including: a demanding computational load associated with sophisticated forward models and iterative optimization methods; nonlinearity and nonstationarity in image quality characteristics; a complex dependency on multiple free parameters; and the need to understand how best to incorporate prior information (including patient-specific prior images) within the reconstruction process. The advantages, however, are even greater – for example: improved image quality; reduced dose; robustness to noise and artifacts; task-specific reconstruction protocols; suitability to novel CT imaging platforms and noncircular orbits; and incorporation of known characteristics of the imager and patient that are conventionally discarded. This symposium features experts in 3D image reconstruction, image quality assessment, and the translation of such methods to emerging clinical applications. Dr. Chen will address novel methods for the incorporation of prior information in 3D and 4D CT reconstruction techniques. Dr. Pan will show recent advances in optimization-based reconstruction that enable potential reduction of dose and sampling requirements. Dr. Stayman will describe a “task-based imaging” approach that leverages models of the imaging system and patient in combination with a specification of the imaging task to optimize both the acquisition and reconstruction process. Dr. Samei will describe the development of methods for image quality assessment in such nonlinear reconstruction techniques and the use of these methods to characterize and optimize image quality and dose in a spectrum of clinical

  3. ADVANCED MR IMAGING METHODS FOR PLANNING AND MONITORING RADIATION THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH HIGH GRADE GLIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Janine M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    This review explores how the integration of advanced imaging methods with high quality anatomic images significantly improves the characterization, target definition, assessment of response to therapy, and overall management of patients with high-grade glioma. Metrics derived from diffusion, perfusion, and susceptibility weighted MR imaging in conjunction with MR spectroscopic imaging, allows us to characterize regions of edema, hypoxia, increased cellularity, and necrosis within heterogeneous tumor and surrounding brain tissue. Quantification of such measures may provide a more reliable initial representation of tumor delineation and response to therapy than changes in the contrast enhancing or T2 lesion alone and have a significant impact on targeting resection, planning radiation, and assessing treatment effectiveness. In the long-term, implementation of these imaging methodologies can also aid in the identification of recurrent tumor and its differentiation from treatment-related confounds and facilitate the detection of radiation-induced vascular injury in otherwise normal appearing brain tissue. PMID:25219809

  4. Basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging of the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR-compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences, and 3-T field strength magnets allow high-quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion, and volumetric MR imaging. These techniques provide quantitative assessment and novel insight of both brain development and brain injury in the immature brain. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in quantitative MR values is also essential to interpret pathologic cases.

  5. Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of early and advanced breast cancer: When, why, and how often?

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Lin, Nancy U

    2017-02-01

    Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of patients with early or advanced breast cancer is an important aspect of cancer care. The role of imaging in breast cancer depends on the goal and should only be performed to guide clinical decisions. Imaging is valuable if a finding will change the course of treatment and improve outcomes, whether this is disease-free survival, overall survival or quality-of-life. In the last decade, imaging is often overused in oncology and contributes to rising healthcare costs. In this context, we review the data that supports the appropriate use of imaging for breast cancer patients. We will discuss: 1) the optimal use of staging imaging in both early (Stage 0-II) and locally advanced (Stage III) breast cancer, 2) the role of surveillance imaging to detect recurrent disease in Stage 0-III breast cancer and 3) how patients with metastatic breast cancer should be followed with advanced imaging.

  6. Use of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Stephane; Renard, Felix; Achard, Sophie; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A; Palace, Jacqueline; Asgari, Nasrin; Klawiter, Eric C; Tenembaum, Silvia N; Banwell, Brenda; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Levy, Michael; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert; Fujihara, Kazuo; Chan, Koon Ho; Schippling, Sven; Paul, Friedemann; Kim, Ho Jin; de Seze, Jerome; Wuerfel, Jens T; Cabre, Philippe; Marignier, Romain; Tedder, Thomas; van Pelt, Danielle; Broadley, Simon; Chitnis, Tanuja; Wingerchuk, Dean; Pandit, Lekha; Leite, Maria Isabel; Apiwattanakul, Metha; Kleiter, Ingo; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Han, May; Hellwig, Kerstin; van Herle, Katja; John, Gareth; Hooper, D Craig; Nakashima, Ichiro; Sato, Douglas; Yeaman, Michael R; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Zamvil, Scott; Stüve, Olaf; Aktas, Orhan; Smith, Terry J; Jacob, Anu; O'Connor, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    Brain parenchymal lesions are frequently observed on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder, but the specific morphological and temporal patterns distinguishing them unequivocally from lesions caused by other disorders have not been identified. This literature review summarizes the literature on advanced quantitative imaging measures reported for patients with NMO spectrum disorder, including proton MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, quantitative MR volumetry, and ultrahigh-field strength MRI. It was undertaken to consider the advanced MRI techniques used for patients with NMO by different specialists in the field. Although quantitative measures such as proton MR spectroscopy or magnetization transfer imaging have not reproducibly revealed diffuse brain injury, preliminary data from diffusion-weighted imaging and brain tissue volumetry indicate greater white matter than gray matter degradation. These findings could be confirmed by ultrahigh-field MRI. The use of nonconventional MRI techniques may further our understanding of the pathogenic processes in NMO spectrum disorders and may help us identify the distinct radiographic features corresponding to specific phenotypic manifestations of this disease.

  7. Advancing multiscale structural mapping of the brain through fluorescence imaging and analysis across length scales

    PubMed Central

    Hogstrom, L. J.; Guo, S. M.; Murugadoss, K.; Bathe, M.

    2016-01-01

    Brain function emerges from hierarchical neuronal structure that spans orders of magnitude in length scale, from the nanometre-scale organization of synaptic proteins to the macroscopic wiring of neuronal circuits. Because the synaptic electrochemical signal transmission that drives brain function ultimately relies on the organization of neuronal circuits, understanding brain function requires an understanding of the principles that determine hierarchical neuronal structure in living or intact organisms. Recent advances in fluorescence imaging now enable quantitative characterization of neuronal structure across length scales, ranging from single-molecule localization using super-resolution imaging to whole-brain imaging using light-sheet microscopy on cleared samples. These tools, together with correlative electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the nanoscopic and macroscopic scales, respectively, now facilitate our ability to probe brain structure across its full range of length scales with cellular and molecular specificity. As these imaging datasets become increasingly accessible to researchers, novel statistical and computational frameworks will play an increasing role in efforts to relate hierarchical brain structure to its function. In this perspective, we discuss several prominent experimental advances that are ushering in a new era of quantitative fluorescence-based imaging in neuroscience along with novel computational and statistical strategies that are helping to distil our understanding of complex brain structure. PMID:26855758

  8. Advanced astigmatism-corrected tandem Wadsworth mounting for small-scale spectral broadband imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Lin, Guan-yu

    2013-01-01

    Tandem gratings of double-dispersion mount make it possible to design an imaging spectrometer for the weak light observation with high spatial resolution, high spectral resolution, and high optical transmission efficiency. The traditional tandem Wadsworth mounting is originally designed to match the coaxial telescope and large-scale imaging spectrometer. When it is used to connect the off-axis telescope such as off-axis parabolic mirror, it presents lower imaging quality than to connect the coaxial telescope. It may also introduce interference among the detector and the optical elements as it is applied to the short focal length and small-scale spectrometer in a close volume by satellite. An advanced tandem Wadsworth mounting has been investigated to deal with the situation. The Wadsworth astigmatism-corrected mounting condition for which is expressed as the distance between the second concave grating and the imaging plane is calculated. Then the optimum arrangement for the first plane grating and the second concave grating, which make the anterior Wadsworth condition fulfilling each wavelength, is analyzed by the geometric and first order differential calculation. These two arrangements comprise the advanced Wadsworth mounting condition. The spectral resolution has also been calculated by these conditions. An example designed by the optimum theory proves that the advanced tandem Wadsworth mounting performs excellently in spectral broadband.

  9. Potential of advanced MR imaging techniques in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Hotter, Anna; Esterhammer, Regina; Schocke, Michael F H; Seppi, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes remains challenging not only for neurologists but also for movement disorder specialists. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) with the visual assessment of T2- and T1-weighted imaging as well as different advanced MRI techniques offer objective measures, which may be a useful tool in the diagnostic work-up of Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs). In clinical practice, cMRI is a well-established method for the exclusion of symptomatic parkinsonism due to other pathologies. Over the past two decades, abnormalities in the basal ganglia and infratentorial structures have been shown especially in APDs not only by cMRI but also by different advanced MRI techniques, including methods to assess regional cerebral atrophy quantitatively such as magnetic resonance volumetry, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetization transfer imaging. This article aims to review recent research findings on the role of advanced MRI techniques in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorders.

  10. Can Imaging Put the “Advanced” Back in Advanced Wound Care?

    PubMed Central

    DaCosta, Ralph S.; Ottolino-Perry, Kathryn; Banerjee, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    An effective, scientifically validated, diagnostic tool helps clinicians make better, timely, and more objective medical decisions in the care of their patients. Today, the need for such tools is especially urgent in the field of wound care where patient-centric care is the goal, under ever tightening clinical budget constraints. In an era of countless “innovative” treatment options, that is, advanced dressings, negative pressure devices, and various debridement instruments available to the wound care clinical team, one area that has arguably languished in the past decade has been innovation in wound diagnostics. Whereas medical imaging is a mainstay in the diagnostic toolkit across many other medical fields (oncology, neurology, gastroenterology, orthopedics, etc.), the field of wound care has yet to realize the full potential that advances in imaging technologies have to offer the clinician. In this issue, the first of a series in wound imaging and diagnostics, four articles have been assembled, highlighting some of the recent advances in wound imaging technologies. PMID:27602251

  11. Where in the Cell Are You? Probing HIV-1 Host Interactions through Advanced Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dirk, Brennan S.; Van Nynatten, Logan R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell–cell transmission and cell–free viral transmission. Moreover, powerful methods such as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) have shed light on the protein-protein interactions HIV-1 engages within the host to hijack the cellular machinery. Specific advancements in live cell imaging in combination with the use of multicolor viral particles have become indispensable to unravelling the dynamic nature of these virus-host interactions. In the current review, we outline novel imaging methods that have been used to study the HIV-1 lifecycle and highlight advancements in the cell culture models developed to enhance our understanding of the HIV-1 lifecycle. PMID:27775563

  12. Where in the Cell Are You? Probing HIV-1 Host Interactions through Advanced Imaging Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dirk, Brennan S; Van Nynatten, Logan R; Dikeakos, Jimmy D

    2016-10-19

    Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell-cell transmission and cell-free viral transmission. Moreover, powerful methods such as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) have shed light on the protein-protein interactions HIV-1 engages within the host to hijack the cellular machinery. Specific advancements in live cell imaging in combination with the use of multicolor viral particles have become indispensable to unravelling the dynamic nature of these virus-host interactions. In the current review, we outline novel imaging methods that have been used to study the HIV-1 lifecycle and highlight advancements in the cell culture models developed to enhance our understanding of the HIV-1 lifecycle.

  13. The advanced Moon micro-imager experiment (AMIE) on SMART-1: Scientific goals and expected results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, P.; Cerroni, P.; Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Chevrel, S.; Muinonen, K.; Langevin, Y.; Barucci, M. A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Shkuratov, Yu.; Shevchenko, V.; Plancke, P.; Hofmann, B. A.; Josset, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Sodnik, Z.; Koschny, D.; Almeida, M.; Foing, B.

    2005-11-01

    The advanced Moon micro-imager experiment (AMIE) is the imaging system on board ESA mission to the Moon SMART-1; it makes use of a miniaturised detector and micro-processor electronics developed by SPACE X in the frame of the ESA technical programme. The AMIE micro-imager will provide high resolution CCD images of selected lunar areas and it will perform colour imaging through three filters at 750, 915 and 960 nm with a maximum resolution of 46 m/pixel at the perilune of 500 km. Specific scientific objectives will include (1) imaging of high latitude regions in the southern hemisphere, in particular the South Pole Aitken basin (SPA) and the permanently shadowed regions close to the South Pole, (2) determination of the photometric properties of the lunar surface from observations at different phase angles (physical properties of the regolith), (3) multi-band imaging for constraining the chemical and mineral composition of the surface, (4) detection and characterisation of lunar non-mare volcanic units, (5) study of lithological variations from impact craters and implications for crustal heterogeneity. The AMIE micro-imager will also support a Laser-link experiment to Earth, an On Board Autonomous Navigation investigation and a Lunar libration experiment coordinated with radio science measurements.

  14. Advances in the Development of Multimodal Imaging Agents for Nuclear/Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S C; Azhdarinia, A

    2015-01-01

    Multimodal imaging agents were first introduced a decade ago and consist of a targeting moiety that is dual-labeled with radioactive and fluorescent contrast. These compounds allow whole-body and intraoperative imaging to be performed through administration of a single agent and provide complementary diagnostic information that can be used to guide tumor resection. Since their initial evaluation, interest in dual-labeled agents has continued to grow and their design has subsequently evolved alongside the development of novel chelating agents, improved fluorophores, and highly selective coupling techniques for bioconjugate formation. In this review, will discuss how changes in the labeling components and schemes for multimodal agent development have impacted imaging performance and will focus on antibody- and peptide-based agents as models for dual labeling. We will also describe the growing role of modular dual labeling strategies as well as direct labeling methods using radiohalogens.

  15. ADVANCED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF CEREBRAL CAVERNOUS MALFORMATIONS: I. HIGH FIELD IMAGING OF EXCISED HUMAN LESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Shenkar, Robert; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai N.; Zhao, Jin-cheng; Batjer, H. Hunt; Wyrwicz, Alice M.; Awad, Issam A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesized that structural details would be revealed in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) through the use of high field magnetic resonance (MR) and confocal microscopy, which have not been described previously. The structural details of CCMs excised from human patients were sought by examination with high field MR imaging, and correlated with confocal microscopy of the same specimens. Novel features of CCM structure are outlined, including methodological limitations, venues for future research and possible clinical implications. Methods CCM lesions excised from four patients were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and subjected to high resolution MR imaging at 9.4 or 14.1 Tesla by spin-echo and gradient recalled echo methods. Histological validation of angioarchitecture was conducted on thick sections of CCM lesions using fluorescent probes to endothelium under confocal microscopy. Results Images of excised human CCM lesions were acquired with proton density-weighted, T1-weighted, T2-weighted spin echo and T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo MR. These images revealed large “bland” regions with thin walled caverns, and “honeycombed” regions with notable capillary proliferation and smaller caverns surrounding larger caverns. Proliferating capillaries and caverns of various sizes were also associated with the wall of apparent larger blood vessels in the lesions. Similar features were confirmed within thick sections of CCMs by confocal microscopy. MR relaxation times in different regions of interest suggested the presence of different states of blood breakdown products in areas with apparent angiogenic proliferative activity. Conclusions The high field MR imaging techniques demonstrate novel features of CCM angioarchitecture, visible at near histological resolution, including regions with apparently different biologic activity. These preliminary observations will motivate future research, correlating lesion biologic and clinical activity with

  16. Design of a scanning probe microscope with advanced sample treatment capabilities: An atomic force microscope combined with a miniaturized inductively coupled plasma source.

    PubMed

    Hund, Markus; Herold, Hans

    2007-06-01

    We describe the design and performance of an atomic force microscope (AFM) combined with a miniaturized inductively coupled plasma source working at a radio frequency of 27.12 MHz. State-of-the-art scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) have limited in situ sample treatment capabilities. Aggressive treatments such as plasma etching or harsh treatments such as etching in aggressive liquids typically require the removal of the sample from the microscope. Consequently, time consuming procedures are required if the same sample spot has to be imaged after successive processing steps. We have developed a first prototype of a SPM which features a quasi in situ sample treatment using a modified commercial atomic force microscope. A sample holder is positioned in a special reactor chamber; the AFM tip can be retracted by several millimeters so that the chamber can be closed for a treatment procedure. Most importantly, after the treatment, the tip is moved back to the sample with a lateral drift per process step in the 20 nm regime. The performance of the prototype is characterized by consecutive plasma etching of a nanostructured polymer film.

  17. Uncovering brain-heart information through advanced signal and image processing.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Gaetano; Toschi, Nicola; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-05-13

    Through their dynamical interplay, the brain and the heart ensure fundamental homeostasis and mediate a number of physiological functions as well as their disease-related aberrations. Although a vast number of ad hoc analytical and computational tools have been recently applied to the non-invasive characterization of brain and heart dynamic functioning, little attention has been devoted to combining information to unveil the interactions between these two physiological systems. This theme issue collects contributions from leading experts dealing with the development of advanced analytical and computational tools in the field of biomedical signal and image processing. It includes perspectives on recent advances in 7 T magnetic resonance imaging as well as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram and cerebrovascular flow processing, with the specific aim of elucidating methods to uncover novel biological and physiological correlates of brain-heart physiology and physiopathology.

  18. Uncovering brain–heart information through advanced signal and image processing

    PubMed Central

    Toschi, Nicola; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Through their dynamical interplay, the brain and the heart ensure fundamental homeostasis and mediate a number of physiological functions as well as their disease-related aberrations. Although a vast number of ad hoc analytical and computational tools have been recently applied to the non-invasive characterization of brain and heart dynamic functioning, little attention has been devoted to combining information to unveil the interactions between these two physiological systems. This theme issue collects contributions from leading experts dealing with the development of advanced analytical and computational tools in the field of biomedical signal and image processing. It includes perspectives on recent advances in 7 T magnetic resonance imaging as well as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram and cerebrovascular flow processing, with the specific aim of elucidating methods to uncover novel biological and physiological correlates of brain–heart physiology and physiopathology. PMID:27044995

  19. Image navigation and registration performance assessment tool set for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.

    2016-05-01

    The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99. 73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24 hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24 hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.

  20. Image Navigation and Registration Performance Assessment Tool Set for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Luccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99.73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24-hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24-hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.