Science.gov

Sample records for advanced in-vessel retention

  1. In-Vessel Retention Technology Development and Use for Advanced PWR Designs in the USA and Korea

    SciTech Connect

    T.G. Theofanous; S.J. Oh; J.H. Scobel

    2004-05-18

    In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of molten core debris by means of external reactor vessel flooding is a cornerstone of severe accident management for Westinghouse's AP600 (advanced passive light water reactor) design. The case for its effectiveness (made in previous work by the PI) has been thoroughly documented, reviewed as part of the licensing certification, and accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A successful IVR would terminate a severe accident, passively, with the core in a stable, coolable configuration (within the lower head), thus avoiding the largely uncertain accident evolution with the molten debris on the containment floor. This passive plant design has been upgraded by Westinghouse to the AP1000, a 1000 MWe plant very similar to the AP600. The severe accident management approach is very similar too, including In-Vessel Retention as the cornerstone feature, and initial evaluations indicated that this would be feasible at the higher power as well. A similar strategy is adopted in Korea for the APR1400 plant. The overall goal of this project is to provide experimental data and develop the necessary basic understanding so as to allow the robust extension of the AP600 In-Vessel Retention strategy for severe accident management to higher power reactors, and in particular, to the AP1000 advanced passive design.

  2. In-Vessel Retention - Recent Efforts and Future Needs

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe

    2004-10-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. However, it is not clear that the external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) proposed for existing and some advanced reactors would provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1400 MWe) without additional enhancements. This paper summarizes recent efforts to enhance IVR and identifies additional needs to demonstrate that there is sufficient margin for successful IVR in high power reactors.

  3. Insights from Investigations of In-Vessel Retention for High Powered Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe

    2005-10-01

    In a three-year U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI), state-of-the-art analytical tools and key U.S. and Korean experimental facilities were used to explore two options, enhanced ERVC performance and the use of internal core catchers, that have the potential to increase the margin for in-vessel retention (IVR) in high power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). This increased margin has the potential to improve plant economics (owing to reduced regulatory requirements) and increase public acceptance (owing to reduced plant risk). Although this program focused upon the Korean Advanced Power Reactor -- 1400 MWe (APR 1400) design, recommentations were developed so that they can easily be applied to a wide range of existing and advanced reactor designs. This paper summarizes new data gained for evaluating the margin associated with various options investigated in this program. Insights from analyses completed with this data are also highlighted.

  4. In-Vessel Retention of Molten Corium: Lessons Learned and Outstanding Issues

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Rempe; K.Y. Suh; F. B. Cheung; S. B. Kim

    2008-03-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Advanced 600 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designed by Westinghouse (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs). However, it is not clear that the ERVC proposed for the AP600 could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe) without additional enhancements. This paper reviews efforts made and results reported regarding the enhancement of IVR in LWRs. Where appropriate, the paper identifies what additional data or analyses are needed to demonstrate that there is sufficient margin for successful IVR in high power thermal reactors.

  5. Potential for AP600 in-vessel retention through ex-vessel flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J.L.; Knudson, D.L.; Allison, C.M.; Thinnes, G.L.; Atwood, C.L.

    1997-12-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) is a new severe accident management strategy that involves flooding the reactor cavity to submerge the reactor vessel in an attempt to cool core debris that has relocated to the vessel lower head. Advanced and existing light water reactors (LWRs) are considering ERVC as an accident management strategy for in-vessel retention (IVR) of relocated debris. In the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for the AP600 design, Westinghouse credits ERVC for preventing vessel failure during postulated severe accidents with successful reactor coolant system (RCS) depressurization and reactor cavity flooding. To support the Westinghouse position on IVR, DOE contracted the University of California--Santa Barbara (UCSB) to produce the peer-reviewed report. To assist in the NRC`s evaluation of IVR of core melt by ex-vessel flooding of the AP6OO, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was tasked to perform: An in-depth critical review of the UCSB study and the model that UCSB used to assess ERVC effectiveness; An in-depth review of the UCSB study peer review comments and of UCSB`s resolution method to identify areas where technical concerns weren`t addressed; and An independent analysis effort to investigate the impact of residual concerns on the margins to failure and conclusions presented in the UCSB study. This report summarizes results from these tasks. As discussed in Sections 1.1 and 1.2, INEEL`s review of the UCSB study and peer reviewer comments suggested that additional analysis was needed to assess: (1) the integral impact of peer reviewer-suggested changes to input assumptions and uncertainties and (2) the challenge present by other credible debris configurations. Section 1.3 summarized the corresponding analysis approach developed by INEEL. The remainder of this report provides more detailed descriptions of analysis methodology, input assumptions, and results.

  6. Margin for In-Vessel Retention in the APR1400 - VESTA and SCDAP/RELAP5-3D Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Joy Rempe; D. Knudson

    2004-12-01

    If cooling is inadequate during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the lower head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with such plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) (AP600), which relied upon external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) for in-vessel retention (IVR), resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing light water reactors (LWRs). IVR of core melt is therefore a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed ERVC without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a three-year, United States (U.S.) -Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was initiated in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) explored options, such as enhanced ERVC performance and an enhanced in-vessel core catcher (IVCC), that have the potential to ensure that IVR is feasible for higher power reactors.

  7. In-vessel coolability and retention of a core melt. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Liu, C.; Additon, S.; Angelini, S.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Salmassi, T.

    1996-10-01

    The efficacy of external flooding of a reactor vessel as a severe accident management strategy is assessed for an AP600-like reactor design. The overall approach is based on the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and the assessment includes consideration of bounding scenarios and sensitivity studies, as well as arbitrary parametric evaluations that allow the delineation of the failure boundaries. Quantification of the input parameters is carried out for an AP600-like design, and the results of the assessment demonstrate that lower head failure is physically unreasonable. Use of this conclusion for any specific application is subject to verifying the required reliability of the depressurization and cavity-flooding systems, and to showing the appropriateness (in relation to the database presented here, or by further testing as necessary) of the thermal insulation design and of the external surface properties of the lower head, including any applicable coatings. The AP600 is particularly favorable to in-vessel retention. Some ideas to enhance the assessment basis as well as performance in this respect, for applications to larger and/or higher power density reactors are also provided.

  8. Evaluation of in-vessel corium retention through external reactor vessel cooling for integral reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R. J.; Lee, J. R.; Kim, S. B.; Jin, Y.; Kim, H. Y.

    2012-07-01

    In-vessel corium retention through external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) for a small integral reactor has been evaluated to determine the thermal margin for the prevention of a reactor vessel failure. A thermal load analysis from the corium pool to the outer reactor vessel wall in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel has been performed to determine the heat flux distribution. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the outer reactor vessel wall has been determined to fix the maximum heat removal rate through the external coolant between the outer reactor vessel and the insulation of the reactor vessel. Finally, the thermal margin has been evaluated by comparison of the thermal load with the maximum heat removal rate of the CHF on the outer reactor vessel wall. The maximum heat flux from the corium pool to the outer reactor vessel is estimated at approximately 0.25 MW/m{sup 2} in the metallic layer because of the focusing effect. The CHF of the outer reactor vessel is approximately 1.1 MW/m{sup 2} because of a two phase natural circulation mass flow. Since the thermal margin for the IVR-ERVC is sufficient, the reactor vessel integrity is maintained during a severe accident of a small integral reactor. (authors)

  9. In-vessel coolability and retention of a core melt. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Liu, C.; Additon, S.; Angelini, S.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Salmassi, T.

    1996-10-01

    The efficacy of external flooding of a reactor vessel as a severe accident management strategy is assessed for an AP600-like reactor design. The overall approach is based on the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and the assessment includes consideration of bounding scenarios and sensitivity studies, as well as arbitrary parametric evaluations that allow the delineation of the failure boundaries. Quantification of the input parameters is carried out for an AP600-like design, and the results of the assessment demonstrate that lower head failure is physically unreasonable. Use of this conclusion for any specific application is subject to verifying the required reliability of the depressurization and cavity-flooding systems, and to showing the appropriateness (in relation to the database presented here, or by further testing as necessary) of the thermal insulation design and of the external surface properties of the lower head, including any applicable coatings. The AP600 is particularly favorable to in-vessel retention. Some ideas to enhance the assessment basis as well as performance in this respect, for applications to larger and/or higher power density reactors are also provided.

  10. In-vessel melt retention as a severe accident management strategy for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kymaelaeinen, O.; Tuomisto, H.; Theofanous, T.G.

    1997-02-01

    The concept of lower head coolability and in-vessel retention of corium has been approved as a basic element of the severe accident management strategy for IVO`s Loviisa Plant (VVER-440) in Finland. The selected approach takes advantage of the unique features of the plant such as low power density, reactor pressure vessel without penetrations at the bottom and ice-condenser containment which ensures flooded cavity in all risk significant sequences. The thermal analyses, which are supported by experimental program, demonstrate that in Loviisa the molten corium on the lower head of the reactor vessel is coolable externally with wide margins. This paper summarizes the approach and the plant modifications being implemented. During the approval process some technical concerns were raised, particularly with regard to thermal loadings caused by contact of cool cavity water and hot corium with the reactor vessel. Resolution of these concerns is also discussed.

  11. Wireless, in-vessel neutron monitor for initial core-loading of advanced breeder reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delorenzo, J. T.; Kennedy, E. J.; Blalock, T. V.; Rochelle, J. M.; Chiles, M. M.; Valentine, K. H.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental wireless, in-vessel neutron monitor was developed to measure the reactivity of an advanced breeder reactor as the core is loaded for the first time to preclude an accidental critically incident. The environment is liquid sodium at a temperature of approx. 220 C, with negligible gamma or neutron radiation. With ultrasonic transmission of neutron data, no fundamental limitation was observed after tests at 230 C for 2000 h. The neutron sensitivity was approx. 1 count/s-nv, and the potential data transmission rate was approx. 10,000 counts/s.

  12. In-vessel Retention Strategy for High Power Reactors - K-INERI Final Report (includes SBLB Test Results for Task 3 on External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) Boiling Data and CHF Enhancement Correlations)

    SciTech Connect

    F. B. Cheung; J. Yang; M. B. Dizon; J. Rempe

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe PWR (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a collaborative, three-year, U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was completed in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) investigated the performance of ERVC and an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) to determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe.

  13. Mentoring for retention and advancement in the multigenerational clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Laudicina, R J

    2001-01-01

    Retention of recent graduates and other laboratory practitioners in the workplace will play a key role in addressing current and projected shortages of clinical laboratory scientists (CLS) and technicians (CLT). In addition, with overrepresentation of the aging Baby Boomer generation in laboratory supervisory and management positions, it is crucial not only to retain younger practitioners, but to prepare them for assuming these important functions in the future. Mentoring, a practice commonly employed in other professions, is widely considered to be useful in employee retention and career advancement. Mentoring has probably been used in the clinical laboratory profession, but has not been well documented. In the clinical laboratory environment, potential mentors are in the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations, and new practitioners who could benefit from mentoring are in Generation X. Generational differences among these groups may present challenges to the use of mentoring. This article will attempt to provide a better understanding of generational differences and show how mentoring can be applied in the setting of the clinical laboratory in order to increase retention and promote career advancement of younger practitioners. A panel of five laboratory managers provided examples of mentoring strategies. Definitions, benefits, and examples of mentoring are addressed in the accompanying article, "Passing the Torch: Mentoring the Next Generation of Laboratory Professionals". PMID:15633495

  14. Mentoring for retention and advancement in the multigenerational clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Laudicina, R J

    2001-01-01

    Retention of recent graduates and other laboratory practitioners in the workplace will play a key role in addressing current and projected shortages of clinical laboratory scientists (CLS) and technicians (CLT). In addition, with overrepresentation of the aging Baby Boomer generation in laboratory supervisory and management positions, it is crucial not only to retain younger practitioners, but to prepare them for assuming these important functions in the future. Mentoring, a practice commonly employed in other professions, is widely considered to be useful in employee retention and career advancement. Mentoring has probably been used in the clinical laboratory profession, but has not been well documented. In the clinical laboratory environment, potential mentors are in the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations, and new practitioners who could benefit from mentoring are in Generation X. Generational differences among these groups may present challenges to the use of mentoring. This article will attempt to provide a better understanding of generational differences and show how mentoring can be applied in the setting of the clinical laboratory in order to increase retention and promote career advancement of younger practitioners. A panel of five laboratory managers provided examples of mentoring strategies. Definitions, benefits, and examples of mentoring are addressed in the accompanying article, "Passing the Torch: Mentoring the Next Generation of Laboratory Professionals".

  15. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could…

  16. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could…

  17. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: How Effective Are Different Approaches Aiming to Increase Employment Retention and Advancement? Final Impacts for Twelve Models. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendra, Richard; Dillman, Keri-Nicole; Hamilton, Gayle; Lundquist, Erika; Martinson, Karin; Wavelet, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the final impact results for the national Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project. This project tested, using a random assignment design, the effectiveness of numerous programs intended to promote steady work and career advancement. All the programs targeted current and former welfare recipients and other low-wage…

  18. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project. Results from the Texas ERA Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Karin; Hendra, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of the implementation and the two-year impacts of a program in Texas that aimed to promote job placement, employment retention, and advancement among applicants and recipients to the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The program in Texas is part of the Employment Retention and Advancement…

  19. Advancing the Science of Recruitment and Retention of Ethnically Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Anna M.; Chadiha, Letha A.

    2011-01-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse…

  20. Recent Advances on Hydrogenic Retention in ITER's Plasma-Facing Materials: BE, C, W.

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C H; Alimov, Kh; Bekris, N; Causey, R A; Clark, R.E.H.; Coad, J P; Davis, J W; Doerner, R P; Mayer, M; Pisarev, A; Roth, J

    2008-03-29

    Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy and the choice of plasma-facing materials is a key factor for in-vessel tritium retention. The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency organized a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the overall topic of tritium inventory in fusion reactors during the period 2001-2006. This dealt with hydrogenic retention in ITER's plasma-facing materials, Be, C, W, and in compounds (mixed materials) of these elements as well as tritium removal techniques. The results of the CRP are summarized in this article together with recommendations for ITER. Basic parameters of diffusivity, solubility and trapping in Be, C and W are reviewed. For Be, the development of open porosity can account for transient hydrogenic pumping but long term retention will be dominated by codeposition. Codeposition is also the dominant retention mechanism for carbon and remains a serious concern for both Be and C containing layers. Hydrogenic trapping in unirradiated tungsten is low but will increase with ion and neutron damage. Mixed materials will be formed in a tokamak and these can also retain significant amounts of hydrogen isotopes. Oxidative and photon-based techniques for detritiation of plasma-facing components are described.

  1. Removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products from reverse osmosis retentate using advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Abdelmelek, Sihem Ben; Greaves, John; Ishida, Kenneth P; Cooper, William J; Song, Weihua

    2011-04-15

    The application of reverse osmosis (RO) in water intended for reuse is promising for assuring high water quality. However, one significant disadvantage is the need to dispose of the RO retentate (or reject water). Studies focusing on Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) have raised questions concerning their concentrations in the RO retentate. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives for destroying these compounds in retentate that contains high concentration of effluent organic matter (EfOM) and other inorganic constituents. Twenty-seven PPCPs were screened in a RO retentate using solid phase extraction (SPE) and UPLC-MS/MS, and detailed degradation studies for 14 of the compounds were obtained. Based on the absolute hydroxyl radical (HO•) reaction rate constants for individual pharmaceutical compounds, and that of the RO retentate (EfOM and inorganic constituents), it was possible to model their destruction. Using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, the HO• oxidation of the EfOM could be observed through decreases in the retentate fluorescence. The decrease in the peak normally associated with proteins correlated well with the removal of the pharmaceutical compounds. These results suggest that fluorescence may be a suitable parameter for monitoring the degradation of PPCPs by AOPs in RO retentates. PMID:21384915

  2. Effects of an Oral Advanced Organizer on Immediate and Delayed Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, Grace; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comparative advance organizer in an oral format on learners' immediate and delayed retention of subject matter related to food and nutrition when controlling for learners' prior knowledge level. Another area of interest was to investigate whether paraphrasing the comparative advance…

  3. Validating Student Satisfaction Related to Persistence, Academic Performance, Retention and Career Advancement within ODL Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sembiring, Maximus Gorky

    2015-01-01

    Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual) dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was…

  4. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  5. Advancing the science of recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Nápoles, Anna M; Chadiha, Letha A

    2011-06-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse populations and the inadequacy of funding to advance systematically this field. We describe strategies used by the Resource Centers on Minority Aging Research and other National Institute of Aging-funded programs to advance the science of recruitment of ethnically diverse older adults. Finally, we propose a set of broad recommendations designed to generate a body of evidence on successful methods of recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse populations in health research. To eliminate health disparities and better understand aging processes in ethnically diverse populations, much more research is needed on effective strategies for increasing minority enrollment in health research. Comparative effectiveness research on more intensive recruitment and retention methods, which are often needed for including diverse populations, will require dedicated funding and concerted efforts by investigators.

  6. A Combination Appliance for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Effectiveness of Mandibular Advancement and Tongue Retention

    PubMed Central

    Dort, Leslie; Remmers, John

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea would experience increasing treatment effect when a tongue retention component was added to a mandibular repositioning appliance. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sleep clinic. Patients: Forty-four sequentially recruited patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Interventions: Subjects were sleep tested at 4 treatment stages of oral appliance therapy. The 4 stages were: 6-mm mandibular protrusion, 8-mm protrusion, 6-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb, and 8-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb. Measurements and Results: Forty-one of 44 subjects completed the protocol. There was a decrease in mean respiratory disturbance index from 33.5 events/h at baseline to 18.1 events/h at stage 4 (p = 0.001). Mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) decreased from 12.3 at baseline to 9.0 at stage 4 (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: A combined approach utilizing both mandibular protrusion and tongue retention can provide effective treatment for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. The addition of a tongue bulb may provide further treatment effect when mandibular protrusion is limited. Appliance designs that allow for convenient combination therapy need to be developed for this purpose. Citation: Dort L; Remmers J. A combination appliance for obstructive sleep apnea: the effectiveness of mandibular advancement and tongue retention. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):265-269. PMID:22701383

  7. The pathophysiological mechanism of fluid retention in advanced cancer patients treated with docetaxel, but not receiving corticosteroid comedication

    PubMed Central

    Béhar, A.; Pujade-Lauraine, E.; Maurel, A.; Brun, M. D.; Lagrue, G.; Feuilhade De Chauvin, F.; Oulid-Aissa, D.; Hille, D.

    1997-01-01

    Aims Fluid retention is a phenomenon associated with taxoids. The principal objective of this study was to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism of docetaxel-induced fluid retention in advanced cancer patients. Methods Docetaxel was administered as a 1 h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks, for at least 4–6 consecutive cycles, to patients with advanced breast (n=21) or ovarian (n=3) carcinoma, who had received previous chemotherapy, 21 for advanced disease. Phase II clinical trials have shown that 5 day corticosteroid comedication, starting 1 day before docetaxel infusion, significantly reduces the incidence and severity of fluid retention. This prophylactic corticosteroid regimen is currently recommended for patients receiving docetaxel but was not permitted in this study because of its possible interference with the underlying pathophysiology of the fluid retention. Results Fluid retention occurred in 21 of the 24 patients but was mainly mild to moderate, with only five patients experiencing severe fluid retention. Eighteen patients received symptomatic flavonoid treatment, commonly prescribed after the last cycle. Specific investigations for fluid retention confirmed a relationship between cumulative docetaxel dose and development of fluid retention. Capillary filtration test analysis showed a two-step process for fluid retention generation, with progressive congestion of the interstitial space by proteins and water starting between the second and the fourth cycle, followed by insufficient lymphatic drainage. Conclusions A vascular protector such as micronized diosmine hesperidine with recommended corticosteroid premedication and benzopyrones may be useful in preventing and treating docetaxel-induced fluid retention. PMID:9205828

  8. In vitro retention of a new thermoplastic titratable mandibular advancement device

    PubMed Central

    Braem, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Oral appliance (OA) therapy with a mandibular advancement device (OAm) is a non-invasive, alternative approach to maintaining upper airway patency. The main requirement for an OAm to be effective is the adequate retention on the teeth while the patient is asleep. We evaluated the retentive forces of a new low-cost, customizable, titratable, thermoplastic OAm (BluePro ®; BlueSom, France). Dental impressions and casts were made for one patient with complete upper and lower dental arches including the third molars and class II bite proportions. A setup based on Frasaco ANA-4 models was also used. Two protrusive positions of the mandible were investigated: 3 mm and 8 mm, representing respectively 25% and 65% of the maximal protrusion. The forces required to remove the BluePro ® device from the carriers were recorded continuously over 730 cycles (=365 days, twice a day) to simulate 1 year of clinical use. At 8 mm protrusion the BluePro ® device showed retentive forces of ~27N. There was a slight but non-significant decrease in retentive forces in the tests on the epoxified carriers which was not found on the ANA-4 carriers. There were no significant differences between the carriers as a function of protrusion. The BluePro ® device tested in the present study possesses sufficient retention forces to resist initial jaw opening forces and full mouth opening forces estimated to be ~20N. It could therefore broaden the indications for use of thermoplastic OAms. It could provide a temporary OAm while a custom-made OAm is being manufactured or repaired. Patients could be provided with a low-cost try-out device capable of reliable titration, providing an indication of effectiveness and of patient acceptance of an OAm, although the effect of device shape and size on therapeutic outcome is not yet known. Finally it could provide an affordable OAm solution in resource-restricted healthcare settings. PMID:25901281

  9. Large-scale Advanced Prop-fan (LAP) hub/blade retention design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    The Large-scale Advanced Prop-fan (LAP) hub assembly forms a semi-rigid link between the blades, which provide the thrust, and the engine shaft, which provides the torque. The hub and tailshaft is a one piece partially forged part which is carburized, heat treated and machined. A single row ball bearing restrains each of the eight blades in the hub, while the tailshaft secures the propeller to the engine shaft with two cone seats that are preloaded against each other by the Prop-fan retaining nut. The hub also forms the support for the pitch change actuator system, the control and the spinner. The retention transmits the loads from the blades to the hub while allowing the changes in blade pitch. The single row ball bearing retention provides ease of maintenance by allowing individual blade replacement without dissassembly of the hub. It has a through hardened inner race which seats against the aluminum blade shank and an outer race which is integral with the barrel. The outer race area is carburized to achieve the hardness necessary to support the ball loads. The balls are kept from contact with each other by a separator. The rotational speed of the propeller keeps the retention submerged in the oil which is contained in the hub by a seal. Stress and strain analysis, material hardness requirements, weight predictions, and stiffness characteristics are discussed.

  10. New Strategies To Promote Stable Employment and Career Progression: An Introduction to the Employment Retention and Advancement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Anderson, Jacquelyn; Wavelet, Melissa; Gardiner, Karen N.; Fishman, Michael E.

    The Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project was undertaken to identify effective strategies for helping low-income parents work more steadily and advance in the labor market. The 15 ERA demonstration projects that were operating in nine states (California, Florida, Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, South Carolina; Tennessee, and…

  11. Use It or Lose It: Advances in Our Understanding of Terrestrial Nitrogen Retention and Loss (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, W. L.; Yang, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding of the terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycle has grown over the last decade to include a variety of pathways that have the potential to either retain N in the ecosystem or result in losses to the atmosphere or groundwater. Early work has described the mechanics of these N transformations, but the relevance of these processes to ecosystem, regional, or global scale N cycling has not been well quantified. In this study, we review advances in our understanding of the terrestrial N cycle, and focus on three pathways with particular relevance to N retention and loss: dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite reduction to ammonium (DNRA), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (annamox), and anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction (Feammox). We discuss the role of these processes in the microbial N economy (sensu Burgin et al. 2011) of the terrestrial N cycle, the environmental and ecological constraints, and relationships with other key biogeochemical cycles. We also discuss recent advances in analytical approaches that have improved our ability to detect these and related N fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Finally, we present a scaling exercise that identifies the potential importance of these pathways for N retention and loss across a range of spatial and temporal scales, and discuss their significance in terms of N limitation to net primary productivity, N leaching to groundwater, and the release of reactive N gases to the atmosphere.

  12. MS PHD'S: Effective Strategies for the Retention and Advancement of URM Students in ESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalera, J.; Burgess, A. K.; Pace, L.; Scott, O.; Strickland, J.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ithier-Guzman, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program in Earth system science (ESS) is a model initiative for improving the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students in STEM fields. Entering its ninth cohort, MS PHD'S remains committed to helping URM undergraduate and graduate students achieve outstanding careers in ESS. MS PHD'S facilitates URM student achievement through a three-phase program designed to increase student exposure to the ESS community. By engaging in a series of professional development and skill building exercises, peer-to-peer community building activities, participation in scientific society conferences and workshops, mentoring by URM and other scientists, and a virtual community, URM students gain the confidence and support necessary to achieve their academic goals and enter the ESS workforce. Since its inception, MS PHD'S continues to support 189 participants. Of these 189 participants, 35 have advanced from undergraduate and graduate academic pathways to completion of their PhD and another 60 are currently enrolled in doctoral programs. MS PHD'S maintains close ties with program alumni to further support retention, inclusivity, and broadening participation of URM students and graduates in STEM activities. Its model is built on reengaging alumni to become mentors and leaders for each new cohort as well as facilitating valuable opportunities for alumni to advance in their ESS related academic and professional career pathways.

  13. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward.

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.; Grandy, C.; Chang, Y.; Khalil, H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition from normal high

  14. Strategies To Enhance Job Retention and Career Advancement in Rehabilitation. Report from the Study Group, Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (21st, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Robert C.; Rice, B. Douglas

    This document identifies program planning, development, and evaluation issues related to delivering vocational rehabilitation services designed to promote job retention and career advancement for individuals with disabilities. The seven chapters cover the following topics: (1) implications of major work trends for job placement, retention, and…

  15. Effect of simulation on knowledge of advanced cardiac life support, knowledge retention, and confidence of nursing students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Tawalbeh, Loai I; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of simulation on nursing students' knowledge of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), knowledge retention, and confidence in applying ACLS skills. An experimental, randomized controlled (pretest-posttest) design was used. The experimental group (n = 40) attended an ACLS simulation scenario, a 4-hour PowerPoint presentation, and demonstration on a static manikin, whereas the control group (n = 42) attended the PowerPoint presentation and a demonstration only. A paired t test indicated that posttest mean knowledge of ACLS and confidence was higher in both groups. The experimental group showed higher knowledge of ACLS and higher confidence in applying ACLS, compared with the control group. Traditional training involving PowerPoint presentation and demonstration on a static manikin is an effective teaching strategy; however, simulation is significantly more effective than traditional training in helping to improve nursing students' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and confidence about ACLS.

  16. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Results from the Valuing Individual Success and Increasing Opportunities Now (VISION) Program in Salem, Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Frieda; Cheng, Wan-Lae; Hendra, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project is the most comprehensive effort thus far to ascertain which approaches help welfare recipients and other low-income people stay steadily employed and advance in their jobs. Launched in 1999 and slated to end in 2009, the ERA project encompasses more than a dozen demonstration programs and…

  17. Larval retention and connectivity among populations of corals and reef fishes: history, advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. P.; Almany, G. R.; Russ, G. R.; Sale, P. F.; Steneck, R. S.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Willis, B. L.

    2009-06-01

    The extent of larval dispersal on coral reefs has important implications for the persistence of coral reef metapopulations, their resilience and recovery from an increasing array of threats, and the success of protective measures. This article highlights a recent dramatic increase in research effort and a growing diversity of approaches to the study of larval retention within (self-recruitment) and dispersal among (connectivity) isolated coral reef populations. Historically, researchers were motivated by alternative hypotheses concerning the processes limiting populations and structuring coral reef assemblages, whereas the recent impetus has come largely from the need to incorporate dispersal information into the design of no-take marine protected area (MPA) networks. Although the majority of studies continue to rely on population genetic approaches to make inferences about dispersal, a wide range of techniques are now being employed, from small-scale larval tagging and paternity analyses, to large-scale biophysical circulation models. Multiple approaches are increasingly being applied to cross-validate and provide more realistic estimates of larval dispersal. The vast majority of empirical studies have focused on corals and fishes, where evidence for both extremely local scale patterns of self-recruitment and ecologically significant connectivity among reefs at scales of tens of kilometers (and in some cases hundreds of kilometers) is accumulating. Levels of larval retention and the spatial extent of connectivity in both corals and fishes appear to be largely independent of larval duration or reef size, but may be strongly influenced by geographic setting. It is argued that high levels of both self-recruitment and larval import can contribute to the resilience of reef populations and MPA networks, but these benefits will erode in degrading reef environments.

  18. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project Early Results from Four Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Hendra, Richard; Martinson, Karin; Scrivener, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Millions of welfare recipients have entered the labor force in the past decade, but surveys show that many remain in unstable, low-paying jobs that offer few opportunities for advancement. This report presents early evidence on the effectiveness of four diverse programs designed to help current or former welfare recipients work more steadily and…

  19. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  20. Retention and Advancement in the Retail Industry: A Career Ladder Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heath J.

    Retailing is the largest industry in the United States, employing roughly 18 percent of the total labor force. However, high turnover resulting from low wages in entry-level positions and the perceptions of retail workers that job security is far from certain and that advancement potential is limited have resulted in low levels of employee…

  1. What Are the Consequences of the Newly Implemented 24+Advanced Learning Loans on Retention of Adult Access to Higher Education Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Jane Marie; Slack, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the previous literature on student retention in the post-compulsory education sector and the "24+Advanced Learning Loan". Adult students participating in an Access to Higher Education course are at particularly high risk of non-completion. Literature indicates that whilst stakeholders may require factual statistics…

  2. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor.

    PubMed

    Strayer, R F; Finger, B W; Alazraki, M P; Cook, K; Garland, J L

    2002-09-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  3. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.; Cook, K.; Garland, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  4. In-vessel coolability and retention of a core melt

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Liu, C.; Additon, S.

    1997-02-01

    The efficacy of external flooding of a reactor vessel as a severe accident management strategy is assessed for an AP600-like reactor design. The overall approach is based on the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and the assessment includes consideration of bounding scenarios and sensitivity studies, as well as arbitrary parametric evaluations that allow the delineation of the failure boundaries. The technical treatment in this assessment includes: (a) new data on energy flow from either volumetrically heated pools or non-heated layers on top, boiling and critical heat flux in inverted, curved geometries, emissivity of molten (superheated) samples of steel, and chemical reactivity proof tests, (b) a simple but accurate mathematical formulation that allows prediction of thermal loads by means of convenient hand calculations, (c) a detailed model programmed on the computer to sample input parameters over the uncertainty ranges, and to produce probability distributions of thermal loads and margins for departure from nucleate boiling at each angular position on the lower head, and (d) detailed structural evaluations that demonstrate that departure from nucleate boiling is a necessary and sufficient criterion for failure. Quantification of the input parameters is carried out for an AP600-like design, and the results of the assessment demonstrate that lower head failure is {open_quotes}physically unreasonable.{close_quotes} Use of this conclusion for any specific application is subject to verifying the required reliability of the depressurization and cavity-flooding systems, and to showing the appropriateness (in relation to the database presented here, or by further testing as necessary) of the thermal insulation design and of the external surface properties of the lower head, including any applicable coatings.

  5. Design and Evaluation of an Enhanced In-Vessel Core Catcher

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe

    2004-06-01

    An enhanced in-vessel core catcher is being designed and evaluated as part of a joint United States (U.S.) - Korean International Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (INERI) investigating methods to insure In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of core materials that may relocate under severe accident conditions in advanced reactors. To reduce cost and simplify manufacture and installation, this new core catcher design consists of several interlocking sections that are machined to fit together when inserted into the lower head. If needed, the core catcher can be manufactured with holes to accommodate lower head penetrations. Each section of the core catcher consists of two material layers with an option to add a third layer (if deemed necessary): a base material, which has the capability to support and contain the mass of core materials that may relocate during a severe accident; an oxide coating material on top of the base material, which resists interactions with high-temperature core materials; and an optional coating on the bottom side of the base material to prevent any potential oxidation of the base material during the lifetime of the reactor. This paper summarizes the status of core catcher design and evaluation efforts, including analyses, materials interaction tests, and prototypic testing efforts.

  6. Large-scale testing of in-vessel debris cooling through external flooding of the reactor pressure vessel in the CYBL facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Bentz, J.H.; Bergeron, K.D.; Slezak, S.E.; Simpson, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    The possibility of achieving in-vessel core retention by flooding the reactor cavity, or the ``flooded cavity``, is an accident management concept currently under consideration for advanced light water reactors (ALWR), as well as for existing light water reactors (LWR). The CYBL (CYlindrical BoiLing) facility is a facility specifically designed to perform large-scale confirmatory testing of the flooded cavity concept. CYBL has a tank-within-a-tank design; the inner 3.7 m diameter tank simulates the reactor vessel, and the outer tank simulates the reactor cavity. The energy deposition on the bottom head is simulated with an array of radiant heaters. The array can deliver a tailored heat flux distribution corresponding to that resulting from core melt convection. The present paper provides a detailed description of the capabilities of the facility, as well as results of recent experiments with heat flux in the range of interest to those required for in-vessel retention in typical ALWRs. The paper concludes with a discussion of other experiments for the flooded cavity applications.

  7. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-11-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  8. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  9. Managing retention.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990). PMID:18453139

  10. The ITER in-vessel system

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    The overall programmatic objective, as defined in the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) Agreement, is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes. The ITER EDA Phase, due to last until July 1998, will encompass the design of the device and its auxiliary systems and facilities, including the preparation of engineering drawings. The EDA also incorporates validating research and development (R&D) work, including the development and testing of key components. The purpose of this paper is to review the status of the design, as it has been developed so far, emphasizing the design and integration of those components contained within the vacuum vessel of the ITER device. The components included in the in-vessel systems are divertor and first wall; blanket and shield; plasma heating, fueling, and vacuum pumping equipment; and remote handling equipment.

  11. Large-scale boiling experiments of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Slezak, S.E.; Bentz, J.H.; Pasedag, W.F.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents results of ex-vessel boiling experiments performed in the CYBL (CYlindrical BoiLing) facility. CYBL is a reactor-scale facility for confirmatory research of the flooded cavity concept for accident management. CYBL has a tank-within-a-tank design; the inner tank simulates the reactor vessel and the outer tank simulates the reactor cavity. Experiments with uniform and edge-peaked heat flux distributions up to 20 W/cm{sup 2} across the vessel bottom were performed. Boiling outside the reactor vessel was found to be subcooled nucleate boiling. The subcooling is mainly due to the gravity head which results from flooding the sides of the reactor vessel. The boiling process exhibits a cyclic pattern with four distinct phases: direct liquid/solid contact, bubble nucleation and growth, coalescence, and vapor mass dispersion (ejection). The results suggest that under prototypic heat load and heat flux distributions, the flooded cavity in a passive pressurized water reactor like the AP-600 should be capable of cooling the reactor pressure vessel in the central region of the lower head that is addressed by these tests.

  12. The Effect of Advance Organizers on the Learning and Retention of Learning Disabled Adolescents within the Context of a Cooperative Planning Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, B. Keith; Alley, Gordon R.

    This investigation examined whether advance organizers would help learning disabled (LD) adolescents to more efficiently process information on selected academic tasks. There were three phases: First, 51 LD and 63 normally achieving (NA) subjects participated in the development of a test to measure important and unimportant information. Second,…

  13. The NSF-Supported ADVANCE Initiative at the University of Michigan Aimed at Successful Recruitment and Retention of Women Faculty in Science and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukasa, S. B.; Committee, S.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Michigan obtained funding from the NSF ADVANCE Program for 2001-2006 to devise and implement strategies to improve representation and climate for its tenure-track women faculty in the natural sciences departments and the College of Engineering. In addition to increased representation and an improved campus environment for women faculty in science and engineering, the initiative aims to positively affect - through exposure to role models - the expectations and attitudes of the many women and men who are graduate and undergraduate students in these fields who make a sizeable pool from which future faculty are going to be drawn. This initiative was launched with a campus-wide survey to pinpoint problem areas, followed by the appointment of a committee of senior faculty now known as "Science and Technology Recruiting to Improve Diversity and Excellence" or STRIDE to provide information and advice about practices that will maximize the likelihood that well-qualified female and minority candidates for faculty positions will be identified, and, if selected for offers, recruited, retained, and promoted at the University of Michigan. The principal activities of STRIDE have so far included (i) helping in the development of an easy-to-navigate website with information about the ADVANCE project (URL: http://www.umich.edu/~advproj/index.html); (ii) development of a data-based PowerPoint presentation about non-conscious bias and the low numbers of women faculty in science and engineering; (iii) producing a handbook that offers guidelines for improving recruitment of women and minorities; and (iv) giving presentations in a variety of formats and providing advice to department chairs and other recruitment leaders on search committee composition and search practices. More recently, STRIDE has expanded its scope to include facilitation of departmental climate studies and informal discussions with women faculty about the importance of networking and receiving career

  14. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2012-09-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  15. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2011-01-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  16. Measuring Graduate Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual and technical problems that need to be considered when studying graduate student retention and degree progress are examined, and practical suggestions for the institutional researcher are offered. Terms are defined, retention measures are explained, and different types of analysis are outlined. Ideas are given for database…

  17. Incorporating carbon saturation concepts and nitrogen retention theory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in soil C saturation concepts have increased our understanding of soil C storage and mineralization without explicit links to N retention and saturation theories. Here, we exploit a soil texture gradient to test hypotheses that link C saturation with soil 15N retention and nitrifica...

  18. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  19. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  20. Retention in Tough Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Beverly; Jordan-Evans, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 25 global talent leaders discuss keeping good people and the challenges and emerging practices for retaining employees. Sidebars discuss retention tips and what keeps people on the job. (JOW)

  1. Fuel retention in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loarer, T.

    2009-06-01

    Tritium retention constitutes an outstanding problem for ITER operation and future fusion reactors, particularly for the choice of the first wall materials. In present day tokamaks, fuel retention is evaluated by two complementary methods. The in situ gas balance allows evaluation of how much fuel is retained during a discharge and, typically, up to one day of experiments. Post-mortem analysis is used to determine where the fuel is retained, integrated over an experimental campaign. In all the carbon clad devices, using the two methods, the retention is demonstrated to be very closely related to the carbon net erosion. This results from plasma-wall interaction with ion and charge-exchange fluxes, ELMs and is proportional to the pulse duration. The fuel retention by implantation saturates at high wall temperatures and limits the D/C ratio in the deposited layers but, as far as a carbon source exists, the dominant retention process remains the co-deposition of carbon with deuterium. In full metallic device, in the absence of wall conditioning with boron, co-deposition is strongly reduced and fuel retention below 1% can be achieved. Extrapolation to ITER shows that removing the carbon from the plasma-facing components would increase the number of discharges to 2500 before reaching the maximum tritium limit of 700 g.

  2. Sorting, Supporting, Connecting, and Transforming: Student Retention Strategies at Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty-Guenter, P.

    Drawing from an analysis of the literature on student attrition and retention at community colleges, this paper presents a typology of retention strategies as a structure by which further research can advance. Introductory material explains the typology, which categorizes retention strategies according to whether their purposes are to: (1) sort…

  3. Principals Retention. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Many districts are struggling with the problem of administrator retention. Hoffman (2004) identifies some of the reasons for this: (1) Increased accountability expectations; (2) Diminished or static levels of resources to support reform efforts; (3) Greater administrator vulnerability to sanctions; (4) The complex demands of government and the…

  4. Improving College Freshman Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Winnie Y.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, access to higher education was greatly improved through public funding. This improvement is not matched by a similar increase in graduation rate. The purpose of this study is to examine what postsecondary institutions can do to improve college freshman retention. The conceptual framework was based on research on college student…

  5. Data Show Retention Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee J.; Robelen, Erik W.; Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    New nationwide data collected by the U.S. Department of Education's civil rights office reveal stark racial and ethnic disparities in student retentions, with black and Hispanic students far more likely than white students to repeat a grade, especially in elementary and middle school. The contrast is especially strong for African-Americans. In the…

  6. DESIGN OF THE ITER IN-VESSEL COILS

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C; Bryant, L; Chrzanowski, J; Feder, R; Gomez, M; Heitzenroeder, P; Kalish, M; Lipski, A; Mardenfeld, M; Simmons, R; Titus, P; Zatz, I; Daly, E; Martin, A; Nakahira, M; Pillsbury, R; Feng, J; Bohm, T; Sawan, M; Stone, H; Griffiths, I; Schaffer, M

    2010-11-27

    The ITER project is considering the inclusion of two sets of in-vessel coils, one to mitigate the effect of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and another to provide vertical stabilization (VS). The in-vessel location (behind the blanket shield modules, mounted to the vacuum vessel inner wall) presents special challenges in terms of nuclear radiation (~3000 MGy) and temperature (100oC vessel during operations, 200oC during bakeout). Mineral insulated conductors are well suited to this environment but are not commercially available in the large cross section required. An R&D program is underway to demonstrate the production of mineral insulated (MgO or Spinel) hollow copper conductor with stainless steel jacketing needed for these coils. A preliminary design based on this conductor technology has been developed and is presented herein.

  7. Mobile Learning and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Kumar, Lalita S.

    2007-01-01

    Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL) is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not…

  8. The Principles of Effective Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinto, Vincent

    An overview is provided of the problem of student attrition and the essential components of effective retention programs. Following introductory arguments that the secret of retention is in the development of communities committed to education rather than retention, the paper discusses several major causes of student attrition, including academic…

  9. Floating nut retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

  10. Boulder Valley Kindergarten Study: Retention Practices and Retention Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie A.; Smith, Mary Lee

    Having implemented a policy that allowed schools to retain children in kindergarten an extra year, the Boulder Valley Public School District in Colorado conducted a study to determine the cognitive and emotional benefits of retention in kindergarten and the characteristics that led to decisions about retention. The study involved a research review…

  11. Studies on in-vessel debris coolability in ALPHA program

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Yu; Yamano, Norihiro; Moriyama, Kiyofumi

    1997-02-01

    In-vessel debris coolability experiments have been performed in ALPHA Program at JAERI. Aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) produced by a thermite reaction was applied as a debris simulant. Two scoping experiments using approximately 30 kg or 50 kg of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were conducted. In addition to post-test observations, temperature histories of the debris simulant and the lower head experimental vessel were evaluated. Rapid temperature reduction observed on the outer surface of the experimental vessel may imply that water penetration into a gap between the solidified debris and the experimental vessel occurred resulting in an effective cooling of once heated vessel wall. Preliminary measurement of a gap width was made with an ultrasonic device. Signals to show the existence of gaps, ranging from 0.7 mm to 1.4 mm, were detected at several locations.

  12. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  13. Research Synopsis: Spring 1983 Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    An analysis of spring 1983 retention rates and grade distributions within the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) revealed: (1) College of Alameda had the highest successful retention rate in the PCCD, defined as the total of all students who completed the term with a grade of A, B, C, D, or CR (credit); (2) the PCCD's successful retention…

  14. Toward a Record Retention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

  15. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  16. Determining the Outcomes of an Innovative Solution for at Risk Students: Using the Tri-Squared Test as Advanced Statistical Analysis to Verify the Impact of Ninth Grade Freshman Academies, Centers, and Center Models upon Minority Student Retention and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, James Edward; Waden, Carl

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of the Tri-Squared Test as one of many advanced statistical measures used to verify and validate the outcomes of an initial study on academic professional's perspectives on the use, success, and viability of 9th Grade Freshman Academies, Centers, and Center Models. The initial research investigation…

  17. In-vessel activation monitors in JET: Progress in modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, Georges; Lengar, I.; Syme, B.; Popovichev, S.; Arnold, Dirk; Laubenstein, Matthias

    2008-10-15

    Activation studies were performed in JET with new in-vessel activation monitors. Though primarily dedicated to R and D in the challenging issue of lost {alpha} diagnostics for ITER, which is being addressed at JET with several techniques, these monitors provide for both neutron and charged particle fluences. A set of samples with different orientation with respect to the magnetic field is transported inside the torus by means of a manipulator arm (in contrast with the conventional JET activation system with pneumatic transport system). In this case, radionuclides with longer half-life were selected and ultralow background gamma-ray measurements were needed. The irradiation was closer to the plasma and this potentially reduces the neutron scattering problem. This approach could also be of interest for ITER, where the calibration methods have yet to be developed. The MCNP neutron transport model for JET was modified to include the activation probe and so provide calculations to help assess the new data. The neutron induced activity on the samples are well reproduced by the calculations.

  18. In-vessel composting at the Hidden Valley Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, C.

    1998-01-01

    Yard waste composting is a simple and natural process. But left alone, natural decomposition takes years. With commercial composting, on the other hand, the process must be accelerated by workers and equipment. Moreover, it has to be accomplished in a relatively small space, it has to be accessible to trucks and other vehicles, it is subject to quality control standards, and it has to be free or relatively free of objectionable odor. Most importantly, for economic feasibility, it must find an end market. One facility that apparently has met those criteria is Land Recovery, Inc.`s (LRI, Tacoma, Wash.) Hidden Valley Landfill site in Puyallup, Wash., south of Tacoma. LRI is a fully integrated solid waste management company that operates a landfill, intermodal transfer site, and a recycling center. The Purdy facility has surpassed its designed average capacity of 80 tpd and designed peak capacity of 120 tpd, with peaks running as high as 200 tpd. LRI needed to expand, but there was very little room to do so at the Purdy site. LRI`s solution was to start an in-vessel composting operation adjacent to the Hidden Valley Landfill, using 50-cu.yd. modified roll-off containers as the composting enclosure and 20-cu.yd. containers to filter the odorous exhaust from the decomposing materials. The compost facility is a temporary measure until a new, fully enclosed facility is built in about another year.

  19. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  20. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  1. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  2. Laser in vessel-viewing system for nuclear fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, Luciano; Bordone, Andrea; Coletti, Alberto; Ferri De Collibus, Mario; Fornetti, Giorgio G.; Lupini, S.; Neri, Carlo; Poggi, Claudio; Riva, Marco; Semeraro, Luigi; Talarico, Carlo

    2000-11-01

    An amplitude modulated laser radar has been developed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) for periodic in-vessel inspection in large fusion machines. Its overall optical design has been developed taking into account the extremely high radiation levels and operating temperatures foreseen in large European fusion machines such as JET (Joint European Torus) and ITER (International Thermo- nuclear Experimental Reactor). The viewing system is based on a transceiving optical radar using a RF modulated single mode 840 nm wavelength laser beam. The sounding beam is transmitted through a coherent optical fiber and a focusing optic to the inner part of the nuclear reactor vessel by a stainless steel probe on the tip of which a suitable scanning silica prism steers the laser beam along a linear raster spanning a -90 degree(s) to +60 degree(s) in elevation and 360 degree(s) in azimuth for a complete mapping of the vessel itself. All the electronics, including the laser source, avalanche photodiode and all the active components are located outside the bioshield, while passive components (receiving optics, transmitting collimator, fiber optics), located in the torus hall, are made of fused silica so that the overall laser radar is radiation resistant. The signal is acquired, the raster lines being synchronized with the aid of optical encoders linked to the scanning prism, thus yielding a TV like image. Preliminary results have been obtained scanning large sceneries including several real targets having different backscattering properties, colors and surface reflectivity ranging over several decades to simulate the expected dynamic range of the video signals incoming from the vessel.

  3. Retention of laryngoscopy skills in medical students: a randomised, cross-over study of the Macintosh, A.P. Advance(™) , C-MAC(®) and Airtraq(®) laryngoscopes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, I; Ramanathan, V; Balasubramanian, P; Evans, D A; Hardman, J G; McCahon, R A

    2016-10-01

    In addition to being effective and easy to learn how to use, the ideal laryngoscope should be associated with minimal reduction in skill performance during gaps in practice over time. We compared the time taken to intubate the trachea of a manikin by novice medical students immediately after training, and then after 1 month, with no intervening practice. We designed a two-period, four-group, randomised, cross-over trial to compare the Macintosh, Venner(™) A.P. Advance(™) with difficult airway blade, C-MAC(®) with D-Blade and Airtraq(®) with wireless video-viewer. A bougie was used to aid intubation with the Macintosh and the C-MAC. After training, there was no significant difference in median (IQR [range]) intubation time using the videolaryngoscopes compared with the Macintosh, which took 30 (26.5-35 [12-118])s. One month later, the intubation time was longer using the C-MAC (41 (29.5-52 [20-119])s; p = 0.002) and A.P. Advance (40 (28.5-57.5 [21-107])s; p = 0.0003)m compared with the Macintosh (27 (21-29 [16-90])s); there was no difference using the Airtraq (27 (20.5-32.5 [15-94])s; p = 0.258) compared with the Macintosh. While skill acquisition after a brief period of learning and practice was equal for each laryngoscope, performance levels differed after 1 month without practice. In particular, the consistency of performance using the C-MAC and A.P. Advance was worse compared with the Macintosh and the Airtraq. While the clinical significance of this is doubtful, we believe that reliable and consistent performance at laryngoscopy is desirable; for the devices that we tested, this requires regular practice.

  4. Retention of laryngoscopy skills in medical students: a randomised, cross-over study of the Macintosh, A.P. Advance(™) , C-MAC(®) and Airtraq(®) laryngoscopes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, I; Ramanathan, V; Balasubramanian, P; Evans, D A; Hardman, J G; McCahon, R A

    2016-10-01

    In addition to being effective and easy to learn how to use, the ideal laryngoscope should be associated with minimal reduction in skill performance during gaps in practice over time. We compared the time taken to intubate the trachea of a manikin by novice medical students immediately after training, and then after 1 month, with no intervening practice. We designed a two-period, four-group, randomised, cross-over trial to compare the Macintosh, Venner(™) A.P. Advance(™) with difficult airway blade, C-MAC(®) with D-Blade and Airtraq(®) with wireless video-viewer. A bougie was used to aid intubation with the Macintosh and the C-MAC. After training, there was no significant difference in median (IQR [range]) intubation time using the videolaryngoscopes compared with the Macintosh, which took 30 (26.5-35 [12-118])s. One month later, the intubation time was longer using the C-MAC (41 (29.5-52 [20-119])s; p = 0.002) and A.P. Advance (40 (28.5-57.5 [21-107])s; p = 0.0003)m compared with the Macintosh (27 (21-29 [16-90])s); there was no difference using the Airtraq (27 (20.5-32.5 [15-94])s; p = 0.258) compared with the Macintosh. While skill acquisition after a brief period of learning and practice was equal for each laryngoscope, performance levels differed after 1 month without practice. In particular, the consistency of performance using the C-MAC and A.P. Advance was worse compared with the Macintosh and the Airtraq. While the clinical significance of this is doubtful, we believe that reliable and consistent performance at laryngoscopy is desirable; for the devices that we tested, this requires regular practice. PMID:27530359

  5. Long Term Retention of Deuterium and Tritium in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    FIORE,C.; LABOMBARD,B.; LIPSCHULTZ,B.; PITCHER,C.S.; SKINNER,C.H.; WAMPLER,WILLIAM R.

    1999-11-03

    We estimate the total in-vessel deuterium retention in Alcator C-Mod from a run campaign of about 1090 plasmas. The estimate is based on measurements of deuterium retained on 22 molybdenum tiles from the inner wall and divertor. The areal density of deuterium on the tiles was measured by nuclear reaction analysis. From these data, the in-vessel deuterium inventory is estimated to be about 0.1 gram, assuming the deuterium coverage is toroidally symmetric. Most of the retained deuterium is on the walls of the main plasma chamber, only about 2.5% of the deuterium is in the divertor. The D coverage is consistent with a layer saturated by implantation with ions and charge-exchange neutrals from the plasma. This contrasts with tokamaks with carbon plasma-facing components (PFC's) where long-term retention of tritium and deuterium is large and mainly in the divertor due to codeposition with carbon eroded by the plasma. The low deuterium retention in the C-Mod divertor is mainly due to the absence of carbon PFC's in C-Mod and the low erosion rate of Mo.

  6. A model of application system for man-machine-environment system engineering in vessels based on IDEF0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhen; Qiu, Changhua; Zhu, Shifan

    2011-09-01

    Applying man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) in vessels is a method to improve the effectiveness of the interaction between equipment, environment, and humans for the purpose of advancing operating efficiency, performance, safety, and habitability of a vessel and its subsystems. In the following research, the life cycle of vessels was divided into 9 phases, and 15 research subjects were also identified from among these phases. The 15 subjects were systemized, and then the man-machine-environment engineering system application model for vessels was developed using the ICAM definition method 0 (IDEF0), which is a systematical modeling method. This system model bridges the gap between the data and information flow of every two associated subjects with the major basic research methods and approaches included, which brings the formerly relatively independent subjects together as a whole. The application of this systematic model should facilitate the application of man-machine-environment system engineering in vessels, especially at the conceptual and embodiment design phases. The managers and designers can deal with detailed tasks quickly and efficiently while reducing repetitive work.

  7. In situ monitoring hydrogen isotope retention in ITER first wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhin, E. E.; Andrew, P.; Anthoine, A. D.; Bazhenov, A. N.; Barnsley, R.; Bukreev, I. M.; Bukhovets, V. L.; Chernakov, A. P.; Gorodetsky, A. E.; Kochergin, M. M.; Koval, A. N.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Kurskiev, G. S.; Levashova, M. G.; Litvinov, A. E.; Litunovsky, V. N.; Markin, A. V.; Mazul, I. V.; Masyukevich, S. V.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Nemov, A. S.; Novokhatsky, A. N.; Razdobarin, A. G.; Sherstnev, E. V.; Samsonov, D. S.; Semenov, V. V.; Smirnov, A. S.; De Temmerman, G.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Zalavutdinov, R. Kh.; Walsh, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Tritium retention inside the vacuum vessel is a potentially serious constraint in the operation of large-scale fusion machines like ITER. An in situ diagnostics for first wall H/D/T retention by laser induced desorption spectroscopy (LIDS) is proposed for use between plasma discharges. The technique is based on local baking of the first wall by laser irradiation and subsequent analysis of the in-vessel gas by optical emission spectroscopy of plasma radiation. The local heating implementation, kinetics of H/D/T thermal extraction and the accuracy of optical emission spectroscopy measurements are analysed. To resolve the H/D/T lines spectroscopically, their thermal broadening should be minimized to prevent overlapping of the line shapes. A comparative performance analysis of several types of plasma sources with relatively cold ions is made including the following types of discharges: Penning, RF multipactor, laser torch and ECR. All these radiation sources require rather low power and could be used for remote in situ measurements of relative densities of the thermally extracted hydrogen isotopes.

  8. In-vessel core debris heat transfer experiments: COPO II-AP experiments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kymaelaeinen, O.; Helle, M.; Pessa, E.

    1998-03-01

    The COPO II-AP experiments are part of the cooperative effort by EPRI, DOE, ENEL and IVO on in-vessel retention technology. The purpose of the COPO II-AP experiments is to contribute in the understanding of the convective behavior in a molten corium pool on the reactor pressure vessel lower head in order to be able to predict the heat flux distribution from the pool, especially in an AP600-like geometry. The specific features of the COPO II-AP are the large scale of the facility (1:2 linear scale), the large temperature differences between the pool boundary and the bulk of the fluid (tens of degrees C) and the strictly isothermal pool boundaries (due to freezing). The facility is two-dimensional and uses water-zincsulfate solution as simulant for the corium. This report contains a description of the COPO II-AP facility and presents the results. The main observations on the results could be summarized as follows: (1) The average upward heat transfer coefficients from the pool were higher than predicted by the widely used correlation by Steinberner and Reineke. (2) The heat flux profile on the upper surface was relatively flat. (3) The average heat transfer coefficients downward were found to be higher than predicted by a widely used correlation by Jahn and Mayinger based on experiments in a small 2D-slice geometry. (4) The heat flux profile on the curved boundary was flatter than in experiments with lower Ra{prime}. The error bands in some of the results remained relatively wide in the experiments due to uncertainties related among others to heat losses, uniformity of the heat fluxes in the wall, and to some extent the thermal conductivity of aluminum (wall material used). Comparing to the draft version of this report of May 1996, in this final version, new data available on thermal conductivity of the aluminum cooling units has been used which has changed some of the heat flux values reported.

  9. Volatile species retention during metallic fuel casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, and although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Based on these results it is very probable that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  10. Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  11. In-Vessel and Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Programs in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Choon Sung; Kim, Byoung Chul; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2016-02-01

    In Korea, 20 PWRs are operating and 4 more PWRs are under construction. The in-vessel neutron dosimetry programs have been designed and implemented since each plant began operation. In addition to the in-vessel dosimetry program, ex-vessel neutron dosimetry systems have been installed for 16 PWRs. The objective of this paper is to describe the in-vessel and ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program of the PWRs in Korea and to compare in-vessel and ex-vessel dosimetry evaluation results. For this purpose plant and cycle specific forward neutron transport calculations and dosimetry measurement evaluations were carried out according to Regulatory Guide 1.190. Comparisons between the calculations and measurements were also performed for the reaction rates of each dosimetry sensor and the results show good agreement.

  12. Course Retention Analysis. Focus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    A study was conducted at Mount San Antonio College (MSAC), California, to analyze patterns in credit course retention between fall 1986 and spring 1989. The study investigated the development of course prerequisites based on faculty perceptions of the skills necessary for success and minimal skill levels associated with success; student assessment…

  13. Retention-Oriented Curricular Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanovic, Ivana; Eppes, Tom A.; Girouard, Janice; Townsend, Lee

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a retention-oriented approach to the educational value stream within the STEM undergraduate area. Faced with several strategic challenges and opportunities, a Flex Advantage Plan was developed to enhance the undergraduate engineering technology programs and better utilize the curricular flexibilities inherent in the current…

  14. A Successful College Retention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Paul M.

    This study assessed the impact of the HORIZONS Student Support Program on participating college freshmen at Purdue University (Indiana). HORIZONS is a federally funded program designed to increase retention of first generation, low income, or physically disabled students. The cornerstone of the project and the vehicle through which most services…

  15. Classroom Management for Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    This guidebook recommends methods for teachers to use to improve teacher-student interaction in the classroom, as a means of increasing student retention. Chapter I introduces eight major systems of classroom management which teachers may use as their values and the classroom situation dictate: "Behavior Modification,""Reality Therapy,""Discipline…

  16. Teacher Retention: An Appreciative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento-Conway, Jennifer Jean

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, the problem of teacher retention compounds the unstable nature of the educational situation, especially in urban, high-needs schools. Much of the instability of urban schools is due to teacher movement, the migration of teachers from school to another school within or between school districts, particularly from high-needs schools.…

  17. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  18. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Mendoza, D.P.; Miller, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns regarding double-shell tanks (DSTs) containing waste slurries. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry that has settled at the bottom of the DST. However, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. In addition, the presence of retained gas bubbles is expected to affect the physical properties of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of these bubbles. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to gas bubble retention and release from sludge such as is in Tank 241-SY-101, understand how the bubbles affect the physical properties of the sludge, develop correlations of these physical properties to include in computer models, and collect experimental data on the physical properties of simulated sludges with bubbles. This report presents a theory and experimental observations of bubble retention in simulated sludge and gives correlations and new data on the effect of gas bubbles on sludge yield strength.

  19. A Research Study in Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knibbe, Marie Vannozzi; Dusewicz, Russell A.

    A study of the Center for Literacy's (CFL) program was conducted to provide information on retention and attrition in an urban, open-entry/open-exit, individualized, goal-based literacy program. An exploratory analysis that used student and tutor records from 1985 through 1989 provided a summary of demographics and attendance patterns. This…

  20. Exploring General Education Development Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    According to the instructors and administrators at a local adult education (AE) program in Houston, Texas, retaining and graduating general education development (GED) students has been a constant challenge. Locating GED attendance barriers could enable AE programs to develop techniques that increase student retention and graduation rates. The…

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  2. A survey of trauma registrars: job requirements, responsibilities, recruitment, and retention.

    PubMed

    Day, Suzanne; Fox, Jolene; Cookman, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Study purpose was to describe trauma registrar job requirements, responsibilities, and recruitment/retention practices. An online survey was used. One-third required a high school diploma; two-thirds required a college degree. Most required skills were medical terminology (66%), database management (65%), anatomy (64%), Word (63%). Data responsibilities included abstracting, entry, coding, and validating. Few employers required certification. Twenty-six percent reported problems with recruitment, and 35% with retention. Salary and lack of advancement were primary reasons for employee turnover. Certifications were less relevant than skills; the primary focus was data management. Recommendations for recruitment/retention include job flexibility, educational opportunities, and recognition as a profession.

  3. A survey of trauma registrars: job requirements, responsibilities, recruitment, and retention.

    PubMed

    Day, Suzanne; Fox, Jolene; Cookman, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Study purpose was to describe trauma registrar job requirements, responsibilities, and recruitment/retention practices. An online survey was used. One-third required a high school diploma; two-thirds required a college degree. Most required skills were medical terminology (66%), database management (65%), anatomy (64%), Word (63%). Data responsibilities included abstracting, entry, coding, and validating. Few employers required certification. Twenty-six percent reported problems with recruitment, and 35% with retention. Salary and lack of advancement were primary reasons for employee turnover. Certifications were less relevant than skills; the primary focus was data management. Recommendations for recruitment/retention include job flexibility, educational opportunities, and recognition as a profession. PMID:22415506

  4. Designing Online Courses to Promote Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Fisher, Amy; Han, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Although the issue of student retention is a campus-wide one, it is of special interest in online distance learning courses, where retention rates are reported to be lower than in face-to-face classes. Among the explanations and theories of retention rates in online courses, one that struck us as most useful is a structural one, namely, course…

  5. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report offers information on student persistence and retention rates for 2009-2013. It offers data on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year Private Nonprofit Institutions; (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year…

  6. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This snapshot report provides information on student persistence and retention rates for Spring 2014. Data is presented in tabular format on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Starting Enrollment Intensity (all institutional sectors); (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Age at College Entry (all…

  7. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be released from a competitive level under this part, the agency shall establish a separate retention register for... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section...

  8. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Zucker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Over 35 years of retention theory and literature have acknowledged the importance of institutional and student profiles in accounting for cross-sectional differences in retention and completion rates between types of colleges and universities. The first "P" within a 4 Ps framework of student retention--"profile"--recognizes that an institution's…

  9. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spittle, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Few words have dominated the vocabulary of college retention as has the word "persistence." Many institutions still struggle to engage faculty and administrators in building campuswide retention efforts, to find the organizational levers that translate the abstractions and complexities of retention theory into scalable and durable initiatives, and…

  10. Acute urinary retention among astronauts.

    PubMed

    Stepaniak, Philip C; Ramchandani, Suneil R; Jones, Jeffrey A

    2007-04-01

    Although acute urinary retention (AUR) is not commonly thought of as a life-threatening condition, its presentation in orbit can lead to a number of medical complications that could compromise a space mission. We report on a middle-aged astronaut who developed urinary retention during two spaceflights. On the first mission of note, the astronaut initially took standard doses of promethazine and scopolamine before launch, and developed AUR immediately after entering orbit. For the first 3 d, the astronaut underwent intermittent catheterizations with a single balloon-tipped catheter. Due to the lack of iodine solution on board and the need for the astronaut to complete certain duties without interruption, the catheter was left in place for a total of 4 d. Although the ability to void returned after day 7, a bout of AUR reemerged on day 10, 1 d before landing. On return to Earth, a cystometrogram was unremarkable. During the astronaut's next mission, AUR again recurred for the first 24 h of microgravity exposure, and the astronaut was subsequently able to void spontaneously while in space. This report details the presentation of this astronaut, the precautions that were taken for space travel subsequent to the initial episode of AUR, and the possible reasons why space travel can predispose astronauts to urinary retention while in orbit. The four major causes of AUR--obstructive, pharmacologic, psychogenic, and neurogenic-are discussed, with an emphasis on how these may have played a role in this case.

  11. Identification and initial assessment of candidate BWR late-phase in-vessel accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1991-04-15

    Work sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to identify and perform preliminary assessments of candidate BWR (boiling water reactor) in-vessel accident management strategies was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during fiscal year 1990. Mitigative strategies for containment events have been the subject of a companion study at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The focus of this Oak Ridge effort was the development of new strategies for mitigation of the late phase events, that is, the events that would occur in-vessel after the onset of significant core damage. The work began with an investigation of the current status of BWR in-vessel accident management procedures and proceeded through a preliminary evaluation of several candidate new strategies. The steps leading to the identification of the candidate strategies are described. The four new candidate late-phase (in-vessel) accident mitigation strategies identified by this study and discussed in the report are: (1) keep the reactor vessel depressurized; (2) restore injection in a controlled manner; (3) inject boron if control blade damage has occurred; and (4) containment flooding to maintain core and structural debris in-vessel. Additional assessments of these strategies are proposed.

  12. The impact of microwave stray radiation to in-vessel diagnostic components

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Hathiramani, D.; Baldzuhn, J.; Biedermann, C.; Cardella, A.; Erckmann, V.; König, R.; Köppen, M.; Zhang, D.; Oosterbeek, J.; Brand, H. von der; Parquay, S.; Jimenez, R. [Centro de Investigationes Energeticas, Medioambientales y Technológicas, Association EURATOM Collaboration: W7-X Teasm

    2014-08-21

    Microwave stray radiation resulting from unabsorbed multiple reflected ECRH / ECCD beams may cause severe heating of microwave absorbing in-vessel components such as gaskets, bellows, windows, ceramics and cable insulations. In view of long-pulse operation of WENDELSTEIN-7X the MIcrowave STray RAdiation Launch facility, MISTRAL, allows to test in-vessel components in the environment of isotropic 140 GHz microwave radiation at power load of up to 50 kW/m{sup 2} over 30 min. The results show that both, sufficient microwave shielding measures and cooling of all components are mandatory. If shielding/cooling measures of in-vessel diagnostic components are not efficient enough, the level of stray radiation may be (locally) reduced by dedicated absorbing ceramic coatings on cooled structures.

  13. The impact of microwave stray radiation to in-vessel diagnostic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Hathiramani, D.; Oosterbeek, J.; Baldzuhn, J.; Biedermann, C.; v d Brand, H.; Cardella, A.; Erckmann, V.; Jimenez, R.; König, R.; Köppen, M.; Parquay, S.; Zhang, D.; W7-X Team

    2014-08-01

    Microwave stray radiation resulting from unabsorbed multiple reflected ECRH / ECCD beams may cause severe heating of microwave absorbing in-vessel components such as gaskets, bellows, windows, ceramics and cable insulations. In view of long-pulse operation of WENDELSTEIN-7X the MIcrowave STray RAdiation Launch facility, MISTRAL, allows to test in-vessel components in the environment of isotropic 140 GHz microwave radiation at power load of up to 50 kW/m2 over 30 min. The results show that both, sufficient microwave shielding measures and cooling of all components are mandatory. If shielding/cooling measures of in-vessel diagnostic components are not efficient enough, the level of stray radiation may be (locally) reduced by dedicated absorbing ceramic coatings on cooled structures.

  14. Multidimensional shielding analysis of the JASPER in-vessel fuel storage experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    The In-Vessel Fuel Storage (IVFS) experiments analyzed in this report were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR) as part of the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER). These IVFS experiments were designed to study source multiplication and three-dimensional effects related to in-vessel storage of spent fuel elements in liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. The present report describes the 2-D and 3-D models, analyses, and calculated results corresponding to a limited subset of those IVFS experiments in which the US LMR program has a particular interest.

  15. Shielding analysis of the LMR in-vessel fuel storage experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The In-Vessel Fuel Storage (IVFS) experiments analyzed in this paper were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR) as part of the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER). These IVFS experiments were designed to study source multiplication and three-dimensional effects related to in-vessel storage of spent fuel elements in liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. The present paper describes the 2- and 3-D calculations and results corresponding to a limited subset of those IVFS experiments in which the US LMR program had a particular interest.

  16. Plasma wall interaction and tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Amarescu, E.; Ascione, G.; Synakowski, E.

    1996-05-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been operating safely and routinely with deuterium-tritium fuel for more than two years. In this time, TFTR has produced an impressive number of record breaking results including core fusion power, ~ 2 MW/m³, comparable to that expected for ITER. Advances in wall conditioning via lithium pellet injection have played an essential role in achieving these results. Deuterium-tritium operation has also provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium recycling and retention. Tritium retention over two years of operation was approximately 40%. Recently, the in-torus tritium inventory was reduced by half through a combination of glow discharge cleaning, moist-air soaks, and plasma discharge cleaning. The tritium inventory is not a constraint in continued operations. The authors present recent results from TFTR in the context of plasma wall interactions and deuterium-tritium issues.

  17. Pathways to URM Retention: IBP's Professional Development and Mentoring Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.; Detrick, L.; Siegfried, D.; Fauver, A.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Thomas, S. H.; Valaitis, S.

    2013-05-01

    As a not for profit organization, the Institute for Broadening Participation (IBP) hosts a variety of initiatives designed to increase the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students pursuing pathways in STEM. IBP also assists with formative program evaluation design and implementation to help strengthen URM recruitment and retention elements. Successful initiatives include virtual and face-to-face components that bring together URM students with established URM and other scientists in academia, government and industry. These connections provide URMs with mentoring, networking opportunities, and professional skill development contributing to an improved retention rate of URM students. IBP's initiatives include the NASA One Stop Shopping Initiative (NASA OSSI), Pathways to Ocean Science and Engineering, and the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Earth System Science (ESS) Professional Development Program. The NASA OSSI recruits and facilitates student engagement in NASA education and employment opportunities. Pathways to Ocean Science connects and supports URM students with Ocean Science REU programs and serves as a resource for REU program directors. Pathways to Engineering has synthesized mentoring resources into an online mentoring manual for URM students that has been extensively vetted by mentoring experts throughout the country. The mentoring manual, which is organized by roles, provides undergraduates, graduates, postdocs, faculty and project directors with valuable resources. MS PHD'S, one of IBP's longest running and most successful initiatives, focuses on increasing the retention rate of URM students receiving advanced degrees in ESS. The program addresses barriers to retention in ESS including isolation, lack of preparation and professional development, and lack of mentoring. Program activities center on peer-to-peer community building, professional development exercises, networking experiences, one

  18. Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

    2015-02-01

    A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained. PMID:25078789

  19. Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

    2015-02-01

    A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained.

  20. In-Vessel Composting of Simulated Long-Term Missions Space-Related Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Carias, Abner A.; Sager, John; Krumins, Valdis; Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Roberts, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Reduction and stabilization of solid wastes generated during space missions is a major concern for the Advanced Life Support - Resource Recovery program at the NASA, Kennedy Space Center. Solid wastes provide substrates for pathogen proliferation, produce strong odor, and increase storage requirements during space missions. A five periods experiment was conducted to evaluate the Space Operation Bioconverter (SOB), an in vessel composting system, as a biological processing technology to reduce and stabilize simulated long-term missions space related solid-wastes (SRSW). For all periods, SRSW were sorted into components with fast (FBD) and slow (SBD) biodegradability. Uneaten food and plastic were used as a major FBD and SBD components, respectively. Compost temperature (C), CO2 production (%), mass reduction (%), and final pH were utilized as criteria to determine compost quality. In period 1, SOB was loaded with a 55% FBD: 45% SBD mixture and was allowed to compost for 7 days. An eleven day second composting period was conducted loading the SOB with 45% pre-composted SRSW and 55% FBD. Period 3 and 4 evaluated the use of styrofoam as a bulking agent and the substitution of regular by degradable plastic on the composting characteristics of SRSW, respectively. The use of ceramic as a bulking agent and the relationship between initial FBD mass and heat production was investigated in period 5. Composting SRSW resulted in an acidic fermentation with a minor increase in compost temperature, low CO2 production, and slightly mass reduction. Addition of styrofoam as a bulking agent and substitution of regular by biodegradable plastic improved the composting characteristics of SRSW, as evidenced by higher pH, CO2 production, compost temperature and mass reduction. Ceramic as a bulking agent and increase the initial FBD mass (4.4 kg) did not improve the composting process. In summary, the SOB is a potential biological technology for reduction and stabilization of mission space

  1. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  2. Acute Urinary Retention: Risks and Management

    PubMed Central

    Roehrborn, Claus G

    2005-01-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia has in the past represented an immediate indication for surgery, and today most patients failing to void after an attempt at catheter removal still undergo surgery. The concept that this disease is in fact progressive in nature is slowly being accepted. Descriptive and analytical epidemiological data have shown that the incidence rate per 1000 person-years is less variable in the community than previously assumed; however, the risk is cumulative and increases with advancing age. The risk for patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia is naturally higher, and analytical epidemiology has identified several strong risk factors, the most important one being serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In addition, prostate volume, maximum flow rate, and symptom severity should be considered when counseling patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms and clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia who are considering a course of watchful waiting. Efforts toward primary prevention of AUR should be directed to patients at increased risk, ie, those who are older and have more severe symptoms, larger glands, and higher PSA values. Risk reduction with finasteride has been demonstrated, and α-blockers have been shown to aid patients in achieving spontaneous voiding after an episode of AUR. PMID:16986053

  3. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.

  4. On The Problem Of In-vessel Mirrors For Diagnostic Systems Of ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsenya, V. S.; Litnovsky, A.

    2008-03-12

    The present status of the investigations with ITER-candidate mirror materials and directed on solution of the in-vessel mirror problem, are presented in the paper. The current tasks in the R and D of diagnostic mirrors and outstanding questions are discussed.

  5. How work environment impacts retention.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Work environment is a major aspect of the day-to-day grind that drives the retention (or turnover) of RNs. When opportunities abound, it is easy to jump ship, and when turnover begins, it is usually the best and brightest who are first to depart. Recent research reported a whopping 27.1% average voluntary turnover rate among new graduate nurses during their first year of employment. Aging of the nurse workforce may be the largest factor impacting health care work environments, as employers struggle to diminish the physical effect of lifting thousands of pounds and walking several miles during each shift. Every influence on the work environment (management, peer behavior, patient acuity, equipment availability, the physical plant) should be assessed for impact on the workforce. While we cannot hope to create paradise in each work setting, we can promote an environment that is healing both to patient and to caregiver. PMID:18979696

  6. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  7. How work environment impacts retention.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Work environment is a major aspect of the day-to-day grind that drives the retention (or turnover) of RNs. When opportunities abound, it is easy to jump ship, and when turnover begins, it is usually the best and brightest who are first to depart. Recent research reported a whopping 27.1% average voluntary turnover rate among new graduate nurses during their first year of employment. Aging of the nurse workforce may be the largest factor impacting health care work environments, as employers struggle to diminish the physical effect of lifting thousands of pounds and walking several miles during each shift. Every influence on the work environment (management, peer behavior, patient acuity, equipment availability, the physical plant) should be assessed for impact on the workforce. While we cannot hope to create paradise in each work setting, we can promote an environment that is healing both to patient and to caregiver.

  8. Assessing the use of HIV surveillance data to help gauge patient retention-in-care

    PubMed Central

    Lubelchek, Ronald J.; Finnegan, Katelynne J.; Hotton, Anna L.; Hazen, Ronald; Murphy, Patricia; Prachand, Nikhil G.; Benbow, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Background Improved retention-in-care may enhance health outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). While laboratory surveillance data may be used to gauge retention, no previous reports have compared surveillance lab vs. clinic visit-based measures of retention-in-care. We compared lab surveillance vs. clinic visit-based approaches for identifying retention status for PLWHA. Methods We examined 2011 patient visit data from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center, Cook County's HIV clinic. We defined retained patients as those with visits every 6 months over 2 years and matched patients classified via visit data against HIV surveillance labs reported to the Chicago Department of Health. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and receiver operator characteristics of varying lab surveillance vs. clinic visit measures of retention. Results Of patients classified via clinic visit data, 91% of 1,714 in-care vs. 22% of 200 out-of-care patients met our most stringent surveillance based retention definition – having ≥ 2 viral load/CD4s performed 90 days apart reported by the same laboratory in 2011. Of surveillance lab-based definitions for retention, having ≥ 2 HIV viral load and/or CD4 values at least 3 months apart reported from the same facility possessed the best receiver operator parameters and the receiver operator characteristics curve comparing several surveillance lab vs. clinic-visit based retention measures had an area under the curve of 0.95. Discussion Our findings demonstrate that surveillance laboratory data can be used to assess retention-in-care for PLWHA. These data suggest that bi-directional data sharing between public health entities and care providers could advance re-engagement efforts. PMID:25867775

  9. Retention of New Teachers in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah; Rueben, Kim S.; Barbour, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    In the continuing effort to raise the academic performance of public schools, improving teacher retention could be an important strategy for California. Keeping new teachers in the classroom could improve academic performance, because experienced teachers are, on average, more effective at raising student test scores. Better retention of teachers…

  10. Positive Youth Development and Undergraduate Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Cynthia; Powell, Candice

    2014-01-01

    The primary theoretical tradition in the study of college retention has been sociological. A review and synthesis of common themes of development among traditional-age, college students suggests that a developmental perspective on the retention of youth in college may have more to offer than the dominant sociological paradigm. This article argues…

  11. 10 CFR 37.103 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 37.103 Section 37.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Records § 37.103 Record retention. Licensees shall maintain the records that are required by...

  12. The Psychology Underlying Successful Retention Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, John; Eaton, Shevawn Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    Describes the psychological processes that lead to academic and social integration based on a retention model proposed by the authors. Describes how successful retention programs such as learning communities, freshman interest groups, tutoring, and orientation rely on psychological processes. Four psychological theories form the basis for…

  13. The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    1985-01-01

    This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating…

  14. Measuring Student Retention: A National Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Peri

    1988-01-01

    The authors analyzed class-by-class enrollment data from the 1985-86 annual survey of nursing education programs to report retention rates in different types of nursing education programs nationwide. They also present results from a survey addendum in which program directors were asked which factors contribute to their retention problems. (CH)

  15. Faculty Personality: A Factor of Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Wu, Xiaodong; Irwin, Kathleen C.; Patrizi, L. A. Chad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student retention and faculty personality as it was hypothesized that faculty personality has an effect on student retention. The methodology adopted for this study was quantitative and in two parts 1) using linear regression models to examine the impact or causality of faculty…

  16. 7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum retention. 4280.136 Section 4280.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum retention. Minimum...

  17. 7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum retention. 4280.136 Section 4280.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum retention. Minimum...

  18. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  19. A Model for Freshman Engineering Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Cindy P.; Dey, Eric L.; Herrin, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    With the current concern over the growing need for more engineers, there is an immediate need to improve freshman engineering retention. A working model for freshman engineering retention is needed. This paper proposes such a model based on Tinto's Interactionalist Theory. Emphasis in this model is placed on pre-college characteristics as…

  20. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention schedule. 293.511 Section 293.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records § 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records...

  1. Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlKandari, Nabila

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

  2. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  3. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

  4. Black Student Retention in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Marvel, Ed.; Ford, Clinita A., Ed.

    This collection focuses on problems in the recruitment, enrollment and retention of Blacks in higher education in America. The following chapters are provided: "The Black Student Retention Problem in Higher Education: Some Introductory Perspectives" (Marvel Lang); "Early Acceptance and Institutional Linkages in a Model Program of Recruitment,…

  5. Effective Teacher Retention Bonuses: Evidence From Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Swain, Walker A.; Rodriguez, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    We report findings from a quasi-experimental evaluation of the recently implemented US$5,000 retention bonus program for effective teachers in Tennessee's Priority Schools. We estimate the impact of the program on teacher retention using a fuzzy regression discontinuity design by exploiting a discontinuity in the probability of treatment…

  6. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

  7. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  8. Managing human resources to improve employee retention.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    Managers face increased challenges as the demand for health care services increases while the supply of employees with the requisite skills continues to lag. Employee retention will become more important in the effort to service health care needs. Appropriate human resource management strategies and policies implemented effectively can significantly assist managers in dealing with the employee retention challenges ahead.

  9. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

  10. Measuring Up: Benchmarking Graduate Retention. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyers, C.; Perryman, S.; Barber, L.

    Retention of college graduates by employers across the United Kingdom was examined. Data were collected through a survey of 362 organizations and interviews with 36 employers and their graduate employees. Most employers were unworried by their levels of graduate retention; two-thirds expected to keep new recruits for the foreseeable future. Rates…

  11. Retention Revisited: R=E, Id+E & In, Iv.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Recent research on college student attrition is examined for trends, and it is suggested that the common perspective on retention and attrition is too narrow; it should be viewed from three perspectives: within-course retention; program retention; and institutional retention rate. Recommended for retention (R) is early (E) identification (Id) plus…

  12. 5 CFR 536.201 - Mandatory grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.201 Mandatory grade retention. (a) Subject to the requirements in this section and in §§ 536.102 and 536.203, an agency must provide grade retention to an employee... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory grade retention....

  13. It's Not How Much; It's How: Characteristics of Practice Behavior and Retention of Performance Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Robert A.; Simmons, Amy L.; Cash, Carla Davis

    2009-01-01

    We observed 17 graduate and advanced-undergraduate piano majors practicing a difficult, three-measure keyboard passage from a Shostakovich concerto. Participants' instructions were to practice until they were confident they could play the passage accurately at a prescribed tempo in a retention test session the following day. We analyzed the…

  14. Let's Talk Learning Analytics: A Framework for Implementation in Relation to Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Deborah; Heath, David; Huijser, Henk

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a dialogical tool for the advancement of learning analytics implementation for student retention in Higher Education institutions. The framework was developed as an outcome of a project commissioned and funded by the Australian Government's "Office for Learning and Teaching". The project took a mixed-method approach…

  15. In-Vessel Coil Material Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2013-01-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design for construction of this large tokamak fusion experiment. One of the design issues is ensuring proper control of the fusion plasma. In-vessel magnet coils may be needed for plasma control, especially the control of edge localized modes (ELMs) and plasma vertical stabilization (VS). These coils will be lifetime components that reside inside the ITER vacuum vessel behind the blanket modules. As such, their reliability is an important design issue since access will be time consuming if any type of repair were necessary. The following chapters give the research results and estimates of failure rates for the coil conductor and jacket materials to be used for the in-vessel coils. Copper and CuCrZr conductors, and stainless steel and Inconel jackets are examined.

  16. Identification and evaluation of PWR in-vessel severe accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Dukelow, J S; Harrison, D G; Morgenstern, M

    1992-03-01

    This reports documents work performed the NRC/RES Accident Management Guidance Program to evaluate possible strategies for mitigating the consequences of PWR severe accidents. The selection and evaluation of strategies was limited to the in-vessel phase of the severe accident, i.e., after the initiation of core degradation and prior to RPV failure. A parallel project at BNL has been considering strategies applicable to the ex-vessel phase of PWR severe accidents.

  17. The modeling of core melting and in-vessel corium relocation in the APRIL code

    SciTech Connect

    Kim. S.W.; Podowski, M.Z.; Lahey, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling of severe accident phenomena in boiling water reactors (BWR). New models of core melting and in-vessel corium debris relocation are presented, developed for implementation in the APRIL computer code. The results of model testing and validations are given, including comparisons against available experimental data and parametric/sensitivity studies. Also, the application of these models, as parts of the APRIL code, is presented to simulate accident progression in a typical BWR reactor.

  18. Stress and Thermal Analysis of the In-Vessel RMP Coils in HL-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Yishun; Li, Qiang; Ding, Yonghua; Cai, Lijun; Jiang, Jiaming; Li, Guangsheng; Liu, Yi

    2013-09-01

    A set of in-vessel resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) coils for MHD instability suppression is proposed for the design of a HL-2M tokamak. Each coil is to be fed with a current of up to 5 kA, operated in a frequency range from DC to about 1 kHz. Stainless steel (SS) jacketed mineral insulated cables are proposed for the conductor of the coils. In-vessel coils must withstand large electromagnetic (EM) and thermal loads. The support, insulation and vacuum sealing in a very limited space are crucial issues for engineering design. Hence finite element calculations are performed to verify the design, optimize the support by minimizing stress caused by EM forces on the coil conductors and work out the temperature rise occurring on the coil in different working conditions, the corresponding thermal stress caused by the thermal expansion of materials is evaluated to be allowable. The techniques to develop the in-vessel RMP coils, such as support, insulation and cooling, are discussed.

  19. Application of a quantitative structure retention relationship approach for the prediction of the two-dimensional gas chromatography retention times of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycle compounds.

    PubMed

    Gieleciak, Rafal; Hager, Darcy; Heshka, Nicole E

    2016-03-11

    Information on the sulfur classes present in petroleum is a key factor in determining the value of refined products and processing behavior in the refinery. A large part of the sulfur present is included in polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), which in turn are difficult to desulfurize. Furthermore, some PASHs are potentially more mutagenic and carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs. All of this calls for improved methods for the identification and quantification of individual sulfur species. Recent advances in analytical techniques such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) have enabled the identification of many individual sulfur species. However, full identification of individual components, particularly in virgin oil fractions, is still out of reach as standards for numerous compounds are unavailable. In this work, a method for accurately predicting retention times in GC×GC using a QSRR (quantitative structure retention relationship) method was very helpful for the identification of individual sulfur compounds. Retention times for 89 saturated, aromatic, and polyaromatic sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds were determined using two-dimensional gas chromatography. These retention data were correlated with molecular descriptors generated with CODESSA software. Two independent QSRR relationships were derived for the primary as well as the secondary retention characteristics. The predictive ability of the relationships was tested by using both independent sets of compounds and a cross-validation technique. When the corresponding chemical standards are unavailable, the equations developed for predicting retention times can be used to identify unknown chromatographic peaks by matching their retention times with those of sulfur compounds of known molecular structure.

  20. Survival Analysis of Faculty Retention and Promotion in the Social Sciences by Gender

    PubMed Central

    Varbanov, Roumen A.; Hoh, Yee Shwen; Knisley, Margaret L.; Holmes, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of talent is central to the research performance of universities. Existing research shows that, while men are more likely than women to be promoted at the different stages of the academic career, no such difference is found when it comes to faculty retention rates. Current research on faculty retention, however, focuses on careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We extend this line of inquiry to the social sciences. Methods We follow 2,218 tenure-track assistant professors hired since 1990 in seven social science disciplines at nineteen U.S. universities from time of hire to time of departure. We also track their time to promotion to associate and full professor. Using survival analysis, we examine gender differences in time to departure and time to promotion. Our methods account for censoring and unobserved heterogeneity, as well as effect heterogeneity across disciplines and cohorts. Results We find no statistically significant differences between genders in faculty retention. However, we do find that men are more likely to be granted tenure than women. When it comes to promotion to full professor, the results are less conclusive, as the effect of gender is sensitive to model specification. Conclusions The results corroborate previous findings about gender patterns in faculty retention and promotion. They suggest that advances have been made when it comes to gender equality in retention and promotion, but important differences still persist. PMID:26580565

  1. Retention force measurement of telescopic crowns.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Stefan; Stark, Helmut; Mues, Sebastian; Keilig, Ludger; Schrader, Anja; Enkling, Norbert

    2010-10-01

    This study deals with the determination of the retentive force between primary and secondary telescopic crowns under clinical conditions. Forty-three combined fixed-removable prostheses with a total of 140 double crowns were used for retention force measurement of the telescopic crowns prior to cementation. The crowns had a preparation of 1-2°. A specifically designed measuring device was used. The retentive forces were measured with and without lubrication by a saliva substitute. The measured values were analyzed according to the type of tooth (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars). Additionally, a comparison between lubricated and unlubricated telescopic crowns was done. As maximum retention force value 29.98 N was recorded with a telescopic crown on a molar, while the minimum of 0.08 N was found with a specimen on a canine. The median value of retention force of all telescopic crowns reached 1.93 N with an interquartile distance of 4.35 N. No statistically significant difference between lubricated and unlubricated specimens was found. The results indicate that retention force values of telescopic crowns, measured in clinical practice, are often much lower than those cited in the literature. The measurements also show a wide range. Whether this proves to be a problem for the patient's quality of life or not can however only be established by a comparison of the presented results with a follow-up study involving measurement of intraoral retention and determination by e.g. oral health impact profile.

  2. Clay particle retention in small constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Braskerud, B C

    2003-09-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used to mitigate non-point source pollution from arable fields. Previous investigations have shown that the relative soil particle retention in small CWs increases when hydraulic load increases. This paper investigates why this phenomenon occurs, even though common retention models predict the opposite, by studying clay and silt particle retention in two Norwegian CWs. Retention was measured with water flow proportional sampling systems in the inlet and outlet of the wetlands, and the texture of the suspended solids was analyzed. The surface area of the CWs was small compared to the watershed area (approximately 0.07%), giving high average hydraulic loads (1.1 and 2.0 md(-1)). One of the watersheds included only old arable land, whereas the other included areas with disturbed topsoil after artificial land leveling. Clay particle retention was 57% for the CW in the first watershed, and 22% for the CW in the disturbed watershed. The different behavior of the wetlands could be due to differences in aggregate size and stability of the particles entering the wetlands. Results showed that increased hydraulic loads did affect CW retention negatively. However, as runoff increased, soil particles/aggregates with higher sedimentation velocities entered the CWs (e.g., the clay particles behaved as silt particles). Hence, clay particle settling velocity is not constant as assumed in many prediction models. The net result was increased retention.

  3. Fractal processes in soil water retention

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, S.W.; Wheatcraft, S.W. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors propose a physical conceptual model for soil texture and pore structure that is based on the concept of fractal geometry. The motivation for a fractal model of soil texture is that some particle size distributions in granular soils have already been shown to display self-similar scaling that is typical of fractal objects. Hence it is reasonable to expect that pore size distributions may also display fractal scaling properties. The paradigm that they used for the soil pore size distribution is the Sierpinski carpet, which is a fractal that contains self similar holes (or pores) over a wide range of scales. The authors evaluate the water retention properties of regular and random Sierpinski carpets and relate these properties directly to the Brooks and Corey (or Campbell) empirical water retention model. They relate the water retention curves directly to the fractal dimension of the Sierpinski carpet and show that the fractal dimension strongly controls the water retention properties of the Sierpinski carpet soil. Higher fractal dimensions are shown to mimic clay-type soils, with very slow dewatering characteristics and relatively low fractal dimensions are shown to mimic a sandy soil with relatively rapid dewatering characteristics. Their fractal model of soil water retention removes the empirical fitting parameters from the soil water retention models and provides paramters which are intrinsic to the nature of the fractal porous structure. The relative permeability functions of Burdine and Mualem are also shown to be fractal directly from fractal water retention results.

  4. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the distribution of the infant... the shelf life of the infant formula....

  5. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer... monitor recalls of the formula. Such records shall be retained for at least 1 year after the expiration...

  6. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer... monitor recalls of the formula. Such records shall be retained for at least 1 year after the expiration...

  7. Gage measures electrical connector pin retention force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The retention force of a female connector pin is measured by observing the action of a calibrated spring in a gage consisting of housing, a plunger terminating in a male subminiature connector pin, and the tension spring.

  8. Taking a Holistic Approach to Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how, at the University of Kansas, many students of color are excelling at a rate that has outpaced their peers. Campus officials credit the HAWK Link program and its comprehensive approach to retention. (EV)

  9. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer... formula through any establishment owned or operated by such manufacturer as may be necessary to effect...

  10. Spinal morphine anesthesia and urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Mahan, K T; Wang, J

    1993-11-01

    Spinal anesthetic is a common form of surgical anesthetic used in foot and ankle surgery. Spinal morphine anesthetic is less common, but has the advantage of providing postoperative analgesia for 12 to 24 hr. A number of complications can occur with spinal anesthesia, including urinary retention that may be a source of severe and often prolonged discomfort and pain for the patient. Management of this problem may require repeated bladder catheterization, which may lead to urinary tract infections or impairment of urethrovesicular function. This study reviews the incidence of urinary retention in 80 patients (40 after general anesthesia and 40 after spinal anesthesia) who underwent foot and ankle surgery at Saint Joseph's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Twenty-five percent of the patients who had spinal anesthesia experienced urinary retention, while only 7 1/2% of the group who had general anesthesia had this complication. Predisposing factors, treatment regimen, and recommendations for the prevention and management of urinary retention are presented.

  11. Retention of pharmaceutical residues and microorganisms at the Altendorf retention soil filter.

    PubMed

    Christoffels, E; Mertens, F M; Kistemann, T; Schreiber, C

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted on a retention soil filter (RSF) to test its effectiveness in removing pharmaceutical residues and microorganisms from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Efficient removal of solids, nutrients and heavy metals has already been proven. The possibility that organic micropollutants and microorganisms are also retained by the use of RSFs has been identified, but data are lacking. Results obtained in this study, in which testing for removal by a RSF of numerous micro-pollutant substances was performed, are most promising. The pharmaceuticals diclofenac and ibuprofen are presented in detail as examples of such micropollutants. Both showed a reduction in positive samples of more than 55% as well as a significant reduction in median and maximum concentrations. For microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, coliphages and Giardia lamblia (cysts), an average reduction in concentrations by three logarithmic steps (99.9%) was achieved. These results add to the evidence that using a RSF in the advanced treatment of wastewater from CSOs reduces the exposure of water-courses to pharmaceutical residues and microbial contamination. PMID:25401314

  12. Validation of the in-vessel energy balance module in SSC for natural circulation transients. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.; Guppy, J.G.; Kennett, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, the in-vessel energy module of the Super System Code (SSC) which calculates the fuel pin, coolant, and stucture temperatures, was changed from an explicit finite difference procedure to an implicit weighted residuals procedure. SSC is a computer code for the analysis of plant wide transients in reactor systems. SSC is designed to be fast running, i.e., faster than real time, while providing detailed information if desired. Therefore, it was necessary to show that the new procedure was computationally efficient, i.e., provide high accuracy and short computational times.

  13. Performance assessment of the antenna setup for the ITER plasma position reflectometry in-vessel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, P.; Belo, J. H.; Quental, P. B.

    2016-11-01

    The design of the in-vessel antennas for the ITER plasma position reflectometry diagnostic is very challenging due to the need to cope both with the space restrictions inside the vacuum vessel and with the high mechanical and thermal loads during ITER operation. Here, we present the work carried out to assess and optimise the design of the antenna. We show that the blanket modules surrounding the antenna strongly modify its characteristics and need to be considered from the early phases of the design. We also show that it is possible to optimise the antenna performance, within the design restrictions.

  14. Optimization and Update of EAST In-Vessel Components in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiang; Song, Yuntao; Shen, Guang; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Zibo; Xu, Tiejun; Liu, Xufeng; Xu, Weiwei; Peng, Xuebing; Wang, Shengming; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Ning; Dai, Yu; Liu, Zhihong; Wu, Jiefeng; Gao, Daming; Gong, Xianzu; Fu, Peng; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang

    2013-03-01

    For safe operation with active water cooling plasma facing components (PFCs) to handle a large input power over a long pulse discharge, some design optimization, R&D and maintenance were accomplished to improve the in-vessel components. For the purpose of large plasma current (1 MA) operation, the previous separated top and bottom passive stabilizers in the low field were electrical connected to stabilize plasma in the case of vertical displace events (VDEs). The design and experiments are described in this paper

  15. Strategies for Tailoring the Pore-Size Distribution of Virus Retention Filter Papers.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Simon; Mihranyan, Albert

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this work is to demonstrate how the pore-size distribution of the nanocellulose-based virus-retentive filter can be tailored. The filter paper was produced using cellulose nanofibers derived from Cladophora sp. green algae using the hot-press drying at varying drying temperatures. The produced filters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and N2 gas sorption analysis. Further, hydraulic permeability and retention efficiency toward surrogate 20 nm model particles (fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene spheres) were assessed. It was shown that by controlling the rate of water evaporation during hot-press drying the pore-size distribution can be precisely tailored in the region between 10 and 25 nm. The mechanism of pore formation and critical parameters are discussed in detail. The results are highly valuable for development of advanced separation media, especially for virus-retentive size-exclusion filtration. PMID:27144657

  16. Strategies for Tailoring the Pore-Size Distribution of Virus Retention Filter Papers.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Simon; Mihranyan, Albert

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this work is to demonstrate how the pore-size distribution of the nanocellulose-based virus-retentive filter can be tailored. The filter paper was produced using cellulose nanofibers derived from Cladophora sp. green algae using the hot-press drying at varying drying temperatures. The produced filters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and N2 gas sorption analysis. Further, hydraulic permeability and retention efficiency toward surrogate 20 nm model particles (fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene spheres) were assessed. It was shown that by controlling the rate of water evaporation during hot-press drying the pore-size distribution can be precisely tailored in the region between 10 and 25 nm. The mechanism of pore formation and critical parameters are discussed in detail. The results are highly valuable for development of advanced separation media, especially for virus-retentive size-exclusion filtration.

  17. Improving Student Retention in Ontario Secondary Schools. Student Retention and Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, A. J. C.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retention efforts in Ontario (Canada) secondary schools in order to develop policy and support initiatives designed to reduce dropouts and improve retention rates. The study had four parts: (1) an analysis of credit accumulation for four cohorts and academic achievement patterns over 4 years in 16 schools;…

  18. Considering Student Retention as a Complex System: A Possible Way forward for Enhancing Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Jonas; van den Bogaard, Maartje; Linder, Cedric; Fraser, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    This study uses multilayer minimum spanning tree analysis to develop a model for student retention from a complex system perspective, using data obtained from first-year engineering students at a large well-regarded institution in the European Union. The results show that the elements of the system of student retention are related to one another…

  19. Nursing Student Retention in Associate Degree Nursing Programs Utilizing a Retention Specialist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Ronna A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine specific variables associated with nursing student retention in Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Programs. Jeffreys (2004) Nursing Undergraduate Retention and Success (NURS) conceptual model provided the framework for this descriptive correlational study. One hundred sixty eight pre-licensure associate degree…

  20. Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

    2002-05-01

    Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal

  1. Retention Projection Enables Accurate Calculation of Liquid Chromatographic Retention Times Across Labs and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Freund, Dana M.; Ma, Yan; Simón-Manso, Yamil; Hollender, Juliane; Broeckling, Corey D.; Huhman, David V.; Krokhin, Oleg V.; Stoll, Dwight R.; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver; Schymanski, Emma L.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Boswell, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of small molecules by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be greatly improved if the chromatographic retention information is used along with mass spectral information to narrow down the lists of candidates. Linear retention indexing remains the standard for sharing retention data across labs, but it is unreliable because it cannot properly account for differences in the experimental conditions used by various labs, even when the differences are relatively small and unintentional. On the other hand, an approach called “retention projection” properly accounts for many intentional differences in experimental conditions, and when combined with a “back-calculation” methodology described recently, it also accounts for unintentional differences. In this study, the accuracy of this methodology is compared with linear retention indexing across eight different labs. When each lab ran a test mixture under a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates they selected independently, retention projections averaged 22-fold more accurate for uncharged compounds because they properly accounted for these intentional differences, which were more pronounced in steep gradients. When each lab ran the test mixture under nominally the same conditions, which is the ideal situation to reproduce linear retention indices, retention projections still averaged 2-fold more accurate because they properly accounted for many unintentional differences between the LC systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most successful study to date aiming to calculate (or even just to reproduce) LC gradient retention across labs, and it is the only study in which retention was reliably calculated under various multi-segment gradients and flow rates chosen independently by labs. PMID:26292625

  2. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gallucci, Nicholas; Poe, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  3. Variables affecting athletes' retention of coaches' feedback.

    PubMed

    Januário, Nuno M S; Rosado, Antonio F; Mesquita, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    Athletes' retention of information conveyed in coaches' feedback during training was examined, considering the nature of the information transmitted by each coach (extensions, total number of ideas transmitted, and total number of repeated ideas), athletes' characteristics, (ages, genders, school levels, and practice levels), and athletes' perceptions (relevance and acceptance of coaches' information, task motivational levels, and athletes' attention levels). Participants were 193 athletes (79 boys, 114 girls; 9 to 13 years of age) and 6 coaches. Feedback was both audio and video recorded and all athletes were interviewed. All coaches' feedback and athletes' recollections were subjected to content analysis. Information was completely retained in 31.60% of feedback episodes. Athletes' mean per-episode information retention was 63.0%. Three variables appeared to b e predictiveathletes' retention: athletes' practice levels (p = -.25), attention to coaches' provision of feedback (P = .17), and the number of different ideas transmitted by each coach (P = -.90).

  4. Deuterium Retention in NSTX with Lithium Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, J.P. Allain, W. Blanchard, H.W. Kugel, R. Maingi, L. Roquemore, V. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor

    2010-06-02

    High (≈ 90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both withand without lithiumization of the carbon plasma facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gasonly pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis showed that the binding of D atoms is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix.

  5. Magnetic retention of LO2 in an accelerating environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetta, Jeffrey G.; Simmons, Benjamin D.; Hochstein, John I.

    2008-04-01

    Recent advances in magnet technology suggest that magnetic positive positioning of liquids may become a viable technology for future spacecraft systems. Preliminary simulation results for a subscale tank are presented which illustrate that a magnet of sufficient strength can retain liquid oxygen (LO2) in an accelerating environment. Development of a new computational model for simulating equilibrium free surface shapes in the presence of a magnetic field is presented. Comparisons of equilibrium simulation predictions to known solutions for simple configurations support the conclusion that the computational model is suitable for continuing the investigation of magnetic propellant storage. Results obtained using the equilibrium simulation are presented to further demonstrate the feasibility of using magnetic retention to manage cryogenic propellants onboard spacecraft.

  6. JT8D engine performance retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, A. D.; Weisel, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The attractive performance retention characteristics of the JT8D engine are described. Because of its moderate bypass ratio and turbine temperature, and stiff structural design, the performance retention versus flight cycles of the JT8D engine sets a standard that is difficult for other engines to equal. In addition, the significant benefits of refurbishment of the JT8D engine are presented. Cold section refurbishment offers thrust specific fuel consumption improvements of up to 2 percent and payback in less than a year, making a very attractive investment option for the airlines.

  7. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  8. Seed Implant Retention Score Predicts the Risk of Prolonged Urinary Retention After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoon K.; Adams, Marc T.; Shi, Qiuhu; Basillote, Jay; LaMonica, Joanne; Miranda, Luis; Motta, Joseph

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To risk-stratify patients for urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy according to a novel seed implant retention score (SIRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 835 patients underwent transperineal prostate seed implant from March 1993 to January 2007; 197 patients had {sup 125}I and 638 patients had {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy. Four hundred ninety-four patients had supplemental external-beam radiation. The final downsized prostate volume was used for the 424 patients who had neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Retention was defined as reinsertion of a Foley catheter after the implant. Results: Retention developed in 7.4% of patients, with an average duration of 6.7 weeks. On univariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation (10% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.02), neoadjuvant hormone therapy (9.4% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02), baseline alpha-blocker use (12.5% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.008), and increased prostate volume (13.4% vs. 6.9% vs. 2.9%, >45 cm{sup 3}, 25-45 cm{sup 3}, <25 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.0008) were significantly correlated with increased rates of retention. On multivariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, baseline alpha-blocker use, and increased prostate volume were correlated with retention. A novel SIRS was modeled as the combined score of these factors, ranging from 0 to 5. There was a significant correlation between the SIRS and retention (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention were 0, 4%, 5.6%, 9%, 20.9%, and 36.4% for SIRS of 0 to 5, respectively. Conclusions: The SIRS may identify patients who are at high risk for prolonged retention after prostate brachytherapy. A prospective validation study of the SIRS is planned.

  9. TECHcitement: Advances in Technology Education, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Madeline

    2008-01-01

    This publication presents the following articles: (1) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Develops Student Recruitment and Retention Strategies; (2) Marketer Advises Tech Educators Appeal to Teens' Emotions, Desires to Do Something Important; (3) Digital Bridge Academy Gets At-Risk Students on Paths to Knowledge-Based Careers; (4) Project…

  10. Building a peer mentor home health aide program: implications for home health aide retention.

    PubMed

    Kreiser, Athena Lu; Adamski, Tom; Gallagher, Bridget

    2010-09-01

    The Home Health Aide (HHA) industry is challenged with low wages, little possibility of career advancement, and high turnover rates. Jewish Home Lifecare, Home Assistance Personnel Inc. (HAPI) is a home care aide agency that has developed a Peer Mentor HHA program. Peer Mentor HHAs mentor newly hired/trained HHAs within our agency. This career path leads to higher paying work that allows for growth of our workforce for the identified growing care need and positively impacts HHA retention. PMID:20811183

  11. In-vessel Zircaloy oxidation/hydrogen generation behavior during severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Cronenberg, A.W. )

    1990-09-01

    In-vessel Zircaloy oxidation and hydrogen generation data from various US Nuclear Regulatory Commission severe-fuel damage test programs are presented and compared, where the effects of Zircaloy melting, bundle reconfiguration, and bundle quenching by reflooding are assessed for common findings. The experiments evaluated include fuel bundles incorporating fresh and previously irradiated fuel rods, as well as control rods. Findings indicate that the extent of bundle oxidation is largely controlled by steam supply conditions and that high rates of hydrogen generation continued after melt formation and relocation. Likewise, no retardation of hydrogen generation was noted for experiments which incorporated control rods. Metallographic findings indicate extensive oxidation of once-molten Zircaloy bearing test debris. Such test results indicate no apparent limitations to Zircaloy oxidation for fuel bundles subjected to severe-accident coolant-boiloff conditions. 46 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Design Analysis and Manufacturing Studies for ITER In-Vessel Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Kalish, M.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Neumeyer, C.; Titus, P.; Zhai, Y.; Zatz, I.; Messineo, M.; Gomez, M.; Hause, C.; Daly, E.; Martin, A.; Wu, Y.; Jin, J.; Long, F.; Song, Y.; Wang, Z.; Yun, Zan; Hsiao, J.; Pillsbury, J. R.; Bohm, T.; Sawan, M.; Jiang, NFN

    2014-07-01

    ITER is incorporating two types of In Vessel Coils (IVCs): ELM Coils to mitigate Edge Localized Modes and VS Coils to provide Vertical Stabilization of the plasma. Strong coupling with the plasma is required so that the ELM and VS Coils can meet their performance requirements. Accordingly, the IVCs are in close proximity to the plasma, mounted just behind the Blanket Shield Modules. This location results in a radiation and temperature environment that is severe necessitating new solutions for material selection as well as challenging analysis and design solutions. Fitting the coil systems in between the blanket shield modules and the vacuum vessel leads to difficult integration with diagnostic cabling and cooling water manifolds.

  13. Physics design of the in-vessel collection optics for the ITER electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, W. L.; Houshmandyar, S.; Phillips, P. E.; Austin, M. E.; Beno, J. H.; Hubbard, A. E.; Khodak, A.; Ouroua, A.; Taylor, G.

    2016-11-01

    Measurement of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is one of the primary diagnostics for electron temperature in ITER. In-vessel, in-vacuum, and quasi-optical antennas capture sufficient ECE to achieve large signal to noise with microsecond temporal resolution and high spatial resolution while maintaining polarization fidelity. Two similar systems are required. One views the plasma radially. The other is an oblique view. Both views can be used to measure the electron temperature, while the oblique is also sensitive to non-thermal distortion in the bulk electron distribution. The in-vacuum optics for both systems are subject to degradation as they have a direct view of the ITER plasma and will not be accessible for cleaning or replacement for extended periods. Blackbody radiation sources are provided for in situ calibration.

  14. Quantitative measurement of in-vessel dust velocity and its correlation with toroidal rotation of plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Suk-Ho; Kim, Kyung-Rae; Ko, Won-Ha; Nam, YongUn

    2015-08-01

    In-vessel dust velocity and its distribution have been evaluated by using dedicated software developed at KSTAR. The dust velocities are well described by log-normal distribution function in a range from ∼10 m/s up to ∼460 m/s. The peak velocity of the distribution increases through three campaigns from 2010 to 2012, mainly due to the increase of the input energy level. From the force balance, it is expected that the dust velocity is strongly correlated with the toroidal plasma flow due to the ion drag force acting on dusts. To confirm this, toroidal rotation velocity is measured by using charge exchange spectroscopy (CES) as a function of normalized stored energy (W/Ip), which is similar with Rice scaling. As a consequence, it is found that the dust velocity is linearly proportional to W/Ip, thus to the toroidal rotation velocity of the plasmas.

  15. Silicon dioxide particles deposited in vessels and cartilage of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Qing, Meiying; Peng, Dan

    2014-09-01

    Silicosis had been considered for decades as an illness with manifestations of lung fibrosis due to inhalation of overconcentrated SiO₂ dust. To the best of our knowledge, studies have yet to report SiO₂ deposits in any other tissues and organs. In the present case, while performing bilateral artificial total hip arthroplasty for one patient, we found that the articular cartilage of the bilateral femoral head was black. Therefore, specimens thereof were sent for pathological examination. Pathological examination (immunohistochemistry) and polarized light microscopy revealed the presence of considerable brown, acicular, rhombic, and crumb-like crystals. The crystals were mainly composed of SiO₂. SiO₂ could deposit in vessels and femoral head cartilage via blood circulation.

  16. Long- and short-term trends in vessel conditioning of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, P.H.; Dylla, H.F.; Bell, M.G.; Boody, F.P.; Bush, C.E.; Groebuer, R.J.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Mueller, D.; Owens, D.K.

    1986-10-01

    We have investigated trends in the conditioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel during the May 1984 to April 1985 run period. The initial conditioning of the vessel, consisting of glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and pulse discharge cleaning (PDC) in concert with a 150/sup 0/C vessel bakeout, is necessary to assure plasma operation after atmospheric venting. A long-term conditioning process, ascribed to limiter conditioning, effectively improves operational conditions during the course of the run. Over several thousand high power plasma discharges, the improvement was documented by using standard parameter (fiducial) plasma discharges. Several techniques demonstrated short-term improvements in vessel conditioning during this time period, including: Cr gettering and programming the plasma position relative to the limiter contact area.

  17. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  18. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  19. 7 CFR 400.412 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers § 400.412 Record retention. (a) FCIC... years from the date of final action on a policy for the crop year, unless further maintenance of specific records is requested by FCIC. Final actions on insurance policies include conclusion of...

  20. Predicting Student Retention in Teacher Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vare, Jonatha W.; Dewalt, Mark W.; Dockery, E. Ray

    This paper describes the preliminary results from a longitudinal study of student teacher attrition and retention. The sample consisted of 316 students in an initial course in teacher education. Data collection included the following: high school grade point ratio (GPR); SAT scores; other demographic information, such as education of father and…

  1. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  2. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  3. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  4. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  5. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  6. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  7. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  8. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  9. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  10. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  11. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  12. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  13. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  14. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  15. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  16. Freshman Learning Communities, College Performance, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Moore, Robert E.; Pitts, M. Melinda

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies a standard treatment effects model to determine that participation in Freshman Learning Communities improves academic performance and retention. Not controlling for individual self-selection into Freshman Learning Communities participation leads one to incorrectly conclude that the impact is the same across race and gender…

  17. 1978-79 Recruitment & Retention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard

    The Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) 1978-79 Recruitment Program seeks to increase the pool of students who wish to attend college rather than compete more aggressively for those students who have already decided to participate in higher education. A special adjunct Retention Program has been developed to enhance the entire recruitment…

  18. Online Student Retention: Can It Be Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Barbara S.; Renner, Alice L.

    Retention has been indicated as one of the greatest weaknesses in online instruction. While a preponderance of literature about online instruction is available, concrete ideas about how to retain students are lacking. A DHHS grant for over one million dollars made it possible for the Wright State University College of Nursing and Health (Dayton,…

  19. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  20. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records § 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be disposed of...

  1. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Records Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6705 Records retention. (a) Applicability... Cooperative Agreement, or are otherwise reasonably considered as pertinent to program regulations or...

  2. 7 CFR 56.38 - Retention authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.38 Retention authorities. A grader may... identification and control of shell eggs which are not in compliance with the regulations or are held for...

  3. Illinois Valley Industry Retention Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John P.

    The Illinois Valley Industry Retention Program was conceived with the goals of retaining existing industries in the area and saving presently available jobs for the area's citizens. A program committee, formed in March 1982 of representatives from state government, Illinois Valley Community College (IVCC), and local businesses, undertook a survey…

  4. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  5. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  6. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  7. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  8. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  9. Recruitment and Retention with a Spin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Rita; Hixson, Carla Braun

    2010-01-01

    Strategic planning and innovation at Bismarck State College (BSC) found common ground in the college's goal to recruit and retain employees in an environment of low unemployment and strong competition for skilled employees. BSC's strategic plan for 2007-09 included the objective "to increase retention of employees." One of the strategies connected…

  10. Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sherryl W.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention…

  11. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  12. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  13. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  14. Relationship of Personality Traits to Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out…

  15. 14 CFR 291.23 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 291.23 Record retention. (a) The provisions of 14 CFR part 249, Preservation of air carrier accounts... the Department. Each carrier shall retain for 1 year a copy of any formula based on standard weight... Management and Budget under control number 3024-0022)...

  16. 16 CFR 437.7 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 437.7 Section 437.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY RULE § 437.7 Record... opportunity sellers and their principals must prepare, retain, and make available for inspection by...

  17. 16 CFR 437.7 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 437.7 Section 437.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY RULE § 437.7 Record... opportunity sellers and their principals must prepare, retain, and make available for inspection by...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  20. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.10 Record retention. Records regarding property subject to this part will be retained for a period of 3 years following return of the property to its owner or a determination that the property is abandoned....

  1. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.10 Record retention. Records regarding property subject to this part will be retained for a period of 3 years following return of the property to its owner or a determination that the property is abandoned....

  2. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.10 Record retention. Records regarding property subject to this part will be retained for a period of 3 years following return of the property to its owner or a determination that the property is abandoned....

  3. Tallahassee Community College Retention Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Archie B.

    A retention study was conducted at Tallahassee Community College (TCC) to determine reasons student withdrew from TCC prior to meeting their educational objectives. The survey population consisted of all students, apart from graduates and those who had been academically suspended, who were enrolled in winter 1981 but had not returned by winter…

  4. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.356 Pay retention. (a) Subject to...

  5. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  6. 5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Performance File System Records § 293.404 Retention schedule. (a)(1) Except as provided... in this system, including transfer with the employee who changes positions, shall be as agencies... performance-related documents five years old or less shall be forwarded in the Employee Performance File...

  7. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concerning Federal Government records (36 CFR parts 1220 through 1234) and EPA records management... the starting dates for records retention described in 40 CFR 31.42(c) (1) and (2). ... been started before the expiration of the ten-year period, the records must be retained...

  8. 76 FR 34010 - Credit Risk Retention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ..., 2011, at 76 FR 24090, is extended. Comments on the Credit Risk NPR must be received on or before August... 76 FR 24090. The Credit Risk NPR would specify credit risk retention requirements for securitizers of...-AA43 DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 267 RIN 2501-AD53 Credit Risk...

  9. 78 FR 57927 - Credit Risk Retention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... proposal, as described in more detail below. \\5\\ Credit Risk Retention; Proposed Rule, 76 FR 24090 (April... legislation.''). \\24\\ See 78 FR 6408 (January 30, 2013), as amended by 78 FR 35430 (June 12, 2013). These two... Federal Register. See 76 FR 27390 (May 11, 2011). The Board had initial responsibility for...

  10. Procurement and Retention of Black Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Clarence A., Jr.

    A study was made of the history of the black officer in the Army, the sources and procedures the Army uses to procure black officers and the retention of black officers in the Army. Data was gathered by interviews with Department of Army personnel and black junior officers; questionnaires were used to gather information from professors of Military…

  11. Retention--A Pseudo-Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geis, George L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses retention of learning; training methods; maintenance issues; the effect of punishment; reinforcement; the performance environment; transfer of training; forgetting; implications for designers of instructional materials or designers of training programs; and the division between training and on-the-job performance. (LRW)

  12. Metals Retention in Constructed Wetland Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    KNOX, ANNA

    2004-10-27

    The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) was designed to remove metals from the effluent at the A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. Sequential extraction data was used to evaluate remobilization and retention of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe in the wetland sediment. Remobilization of metals was determined by the Potentially Mobile Fraction (PMF) and metal retention by the Recalcitrant Factor (RF). The PMF, which includes water soluble, exchangeable, and oxides fractions, is the contaminant fraction that has the potential to enter into the mobile aqueous phase under changeable environmental conditions. PMF values were low for Cu, Zn and Pb (about 20 percent) and high for Fe and Mn (about 60 to 70 percent). The RF, which includes crystalline oxides, sulfides or silicates and aluminosilicates, is the ratio of strongly bound fractions to the total concentration of elements in sediment. RF values were about 80 percent for Cu, Zn and Pb, indicating high retention in the sediment and 30 percent to above 40 percent for Fe and Mn indication low retention.

  13. Does Retention Help? Perspectives after Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Nancy Baenen

    The Austin Independent School District Office of Research and Evaluation (AISD-ORE) has recently completed a three year study of the effects of retention on elementary students. As in other studies comparing the academic achievement of elementary retainees and similar students not retained, findings indicated that promoted students generally show…

  14. Retention of Electronic Fundamentals: Differences Among Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kirk A.

    Criterion-referenced tests were used to measure the learning and retention of a sample of material taught by means of programed instruction in the Avionics Fundamentals Course, Class A. It was found that the students knew about 30 percent of the material before reading the programs, that mastery rose to a very high level on the immediate posttest,…

  15. COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

  16. Foster Family Resources, Psychosocial Functioning, and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Kathryn W.; Orme, John G.; Cox, Mary Ellen; Buehler, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of family resources and psychosocial problems on retention for foster families. Almost 50 percent of families who started preservice training did not complete it. Families with more psychosocial problems and fewer resources were more likely to express uncertainly about continuing. These results have…

  17. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  18. Retention of First Year Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Melissa H.

    2012-01-01

    Although close to half of all community college students leave before obtaining their stated goals, most retention studies are still being conducted at the four-year college and university level. There is still little research conducted at the community college level. In order to determine what student characteristics increase community college…

  19. Personnel Recruitment and Retention in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris; Marrs, Lawrence W.

    Recruitment and retention of special education teachers and related services staff have been persistent problems of rural school districts nationwide. High teacher attrition rates have serious ramifications for personnel development and program stability. Effective recruitment strategies for rural areas have four main components: (1) emphasis on…

  20. Effective Retention Strategies for Diverse Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Linda R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses methods to determine why employees leave or stay, based on experiences at Pennsylvania State University libraries. Considers retention tools that work best to retain diverse employees, including mentoring, networking, career and learning opportunities, balance between work and home life, a welcoming climate, and support for research.…

  1. Employee Retention: A Challenge of the Nineties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiss, Tony

    1990-01-01

    Considers ways in which community colleges can help employers implement programs to improve the work environment and retain trained workers. Presents a model for employee retention that has worked effectively in Pueblo, Colorado. Describes Pueblo Community College's cooperative program with the Wats Marketing Group to help reduce employee…

  2. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    When institutions engage in discussions regarding improving retention and graduation rates, invariably the conversation focuses on entering student characteristics, especially ACT and SAT scores and high school grades. Clearly, attracting and enrolling well-prepared and motivated high-ability students will certainly improve institutional measures…

  3. An Examination of Master's Student Retention & Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Mathies, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at a research-extensive public university in the southeastern United States. It examined the retention and completion of master's degree students across numerous disciplines. Results were derived from a series of descriptive statistics, T-tests, and a series of binary logistic regression models. The findings from binary…

  4. Alternatives to Social Promotion and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that retention negatively impacts students' behavior, attitude, and attendance, but it is still practiced in schools around the country. Social promotion undermines students' futures when they fail to develop critical study and job-related skills; however, it too is still practiced in many schools throughout the United…

  5. High temperature ceramic composition for hydrogen retention

    DOEpatents

    Webb, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    A ceramic coating for H retention in fuel elements is described. The coating has relatively low thermal neutron cross section, is not readily reduced by H at 1500 deg F, is adherent to the fuel element base metal, and is stable at reactor operating temperatures. (JRD)

  6. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Record retention. 946.10 Section 946.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE RELATING TO THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.10...

  7. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Record retention. 946.10 Section 946.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE RELATING TO THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.10...

  8. ORTHODONTIC RETENTION. Studies of retention capacity, cost-effectiveness and long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Tynelius, Gudrun Edman

    2014-01-01

    Retention strategies, cost-effectiveness and long-term stability of treatment outcome are essential aspects of orthodontic treatment planning. The overall aim of this thesis was to compare and evaluate three different retention strategies, with special reference to short- and long-term clinical stability and cost-effectiveness. The approach was evidence-based, hence randomized controlled methodology was used in order to generate high levels of evidence. This thesis is based on four studies: Papers I and II are based on randomized controlled trials, evaluating the stability of treatment outcome after one and two years of retention, using three different retention strategies: a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with a mandibular canine-to-canine retainer; a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth and a prefabricated positioner. Paper III presents a cost-minimization analysis of two years of retention treatment. Paper IV is based on a randomized controlled trial documenting the results five years post-retention. The following conclusions were drawn: Papers I and II. From a clinical perspective, asssessment after one year of retention disclosed that the three retention methods were successful in retaining the orthodontic treatment results. After two years of retention, all three retention methods were equally effective in controlling relapse at a clinically acceptable level. Most of the relapse occurred during the first year of retention; only minor or negligible changes were found during the second year. The subjects were grouped according to the level of compliance (excellent or good). After two years of retention there was a negative correlation between growth in body height and relapse of mandibular LII in the group of subjects with excellent compliance. The group with good compliance showed a positive correlation (Paper II, Figure 3). After two years of retention, growth in body height, initial crowding and

  9. Reliability of in-stream retention metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savickis, Jevgenijs; Zaramella, Mattia; Marion, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The temporary solute retention within transient storage zones (TSZs) has been shown to have a large effect on the transport of solute. This retention can significantly increase the overall in-stream residence time and as consequence increase the contact time of solute with aquatic interfaces (biota, sediment) and living species. An important question that arises is whether the currently available metrics adequately represent retention mechanism. This work attempts to investigate the reliability of two existing measures, the hydrological retention factor (Rh) and the fraction of median travel time due to transient storage zone (Fmed200). For this purpose, five conservative tracer tests were conducted in four European streams with distinct morphological, sediment composition, vegetation and hydraulic characteristics. The obtained breakthrough curves (BTCs) were used to derive storage zone parameters (storage zone area, storage zone exchange coefficient and mean residence time), which then were used for comparison and in the metric expressions. The storage zone parameters were computed using a single TSZ model OTIS-P and a multiple TSZ model STIR. The STIR model was applied to BTCs as an additional tool to separate TSZs into short timescale (ST) and long timescale (LT). The study results reveal correlation between Fmed200 and LT residence time T2 values, where the streams with the lowest Fmed200 (0.01-0.96) have the smallest long timescale storage zones T2 values, ranging from 912 s to 1402 s. The findings also demonstrate an influence of discharge rate on both retention metrics. The greatest Fmed200 (6.19) and Rh (0.938) values are calculated for the streams with low discharge rates (0.08-0.10 m3s‑1) and a relatively high ST storage zone residence times T1 (159 s to 351 s). Results show that the Fmed200 and Rh metrics are strongly affected by the short timescale transient storage zones, whereas the LT storage zones (hyporheic) effects are not taken into account.

  10. Reliability of in-stream retention metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savickis, Jevgenijs; Zaramella, Mattia; Marion, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The temporary solute retention within transient storage zones (TSZs) has been shown to have a large effect on the transport of solute. This retention can significantly increase the overall in-stream residence time and as consequence increase the contact time of solute with aquatic interfaces (biota, sediment) and living species. An important question that arises is whether the currently available metrics adequately represent retention mechanism. This work attempts to investigate the reliability of two existing measures, the hydrological retention factor (Rh) and the fraction of median travel time due to transient storage zone (Fmed200). For this purpose, five conservative tracer tests were conducted in four European streams with distinct morphological, sediment composition, vegetation and hydraulic characteristics. The obtained breakthrough curves (BTCs) were used to derive storage zone parameters (storage zone area, storage zone exchange coefficient and mean residence time), which then were used for comparison and in the metric expressions. The storage zone parameters were computed using a single TSZ model OTIS-P and a multiple TSZ model STIR. The STIR model was applied to BTCs as an additional tool to separate TSZs into short timescale (ST) and long timescale (LT). The study results reveal correlation between Fmed200 and LT residence time T2 values, where the streams with the lowest Fmed200 (0.01-0.96) have the smallest long timescale storage zones T2 values, ranging from 912 s to 1402 s. The findings also demonstrate an influence of discharge rate on both retention metrics. The greatest Fmed200 (6.19) and Rh (0.938) values are calculated for the streams with low discharge rates (0.08-0.10 m3s-1) and a relatively high ST storage zone residence times T1 (159 s to 351 s). Results show that the Fmed200 and Rh metrics are strongly affected by the short timescale transient storage zones, whereas the LT storage zones (hyporheic) effects are not taken into account.

  11. Calculation of Retention Time Tolerance Windows with Absolute Confidence from Shared Liquid Chromatographic Retention Data

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Paul G.; Abate-Pella, Daniel; Hewitt, Joshua T.

    2015-01-01

    Compound identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a tedious process, mainly because authentic standards must be run on a user’s system to be able to confidently reject a potential identity from its retention time and mass spectral properties. Instead, it would be preferable to use shared retention time/index data to narrow down the identity, but shared data cannot be used to reject candidates with an absolute level of confidence because the data are strongly affected by differences between HPLC systems and experimental conditions. However, a technique called “retention projection” was recently shown to account for many of the differences. In this manuscript, we discuss an approach to calculate appropriate retention time tolerance windows for projected retention times, potentially making it possible to exclude candidates with an absolute level of confidence, without needing to have authentic standards of each candidate on hand. In a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates run among seven different labs, the new approach calculated tolerance windows that were significantly more appropriate for each retention projection than global tolerance windows calculated for retention projections or linear retention indices. Though there were still some small differences between the labs that evidently were not taken into account, the calculated tolerance windows only needed to be relaxed by 50% to make them appropriate for all labs. Even then, 42% of the tolerance windows calculated in this study without standards were narrower than those required by WADA for positive identification, where standards must be run contemporaneously. PMID:26292624

  12. Applications of Cost Effectiveness to Counseling Center Retention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Steven J.; Giddan, Norman S.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a framework for considering cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis of college counseling centers and retention activities. Results indicated that careful evaluation techniques can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of student retention programs. (Author/BL)

  13. Effect of aging on temporary cement retention in vitro.

    PubMed

    Millstein, P L; Hazan, E; Nathanson, D

    1991-06-01

    Retention of restorations cemented with temporary cement varies. Some cements are adhesive and others are weak in retention. In addition, cement retention may vary over time. This study determined (1) the retentive properties of four temporary cements, and (2) the effects of aging on temporary cement retention. Cylindrical amalgam cores and mated stainless steel retainers with a 0.05 mm cement space were used in the study. Cores were cemented into the retainers and stored in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C until tested. Retention was measured by applying a compressive force to the cores through a rod in an Instron machine. Half the samples were tested after 1 week and half were tested after 6 weeks. The results indicate a significant difference in retentive value among the four cements, including a significant decrease in retention for one cement over the 6-week aging period.

  14. Nutrient retention in riparian floodplains on landscape scale, the necessity for a monthly retention approach.

    PubMed

    Natho, S; Venohr, M

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the computed nitrogen retention, the distribution and the extent of riparian floodplains of three German rivers, as input data and application of the retention model has not been carried out on landscape scale so far. The Software FLYS 2.1.3 was used for the calculation of the floodplain extent and depth at certain discharges. Thus a first empirical approach is suggested to quantify the share of load that enters the floodplain (incoming load) and the extent of floodplain as variables depending on discharge ratios. Measured loads have subsequently been applied to the presented approach to calculate incoming loads on a monthly and yearly basis for the years 1999 and 2002. Finally, linear and exponential yearly retention models were applied, obtained from the literature. Large variations in the retention results were found between the years and the models and between monthly and yearly calculations. In hydrologically average years, calculated retention rates are in the range of reported values (440-670 kg N ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹), whereas for wet years, retention values account for 1,400 kg N ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹. Consequently, this approach needs to be improved to reduce overestimation by considering more complex characteristics of the floodplain, but generally its application is possible on the landscape scale.

  15. Participant Retention in the Parents Matter! Program: Strategies and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lisa P.; Clark, Heather; Barber, C. Nekol; Dorsey, Shannon; Hughley, Jennifer; Favors, Marcia; Wyckoff, Sarah C.

    2004-01-01

    We present a discussion of the literature addressing retention of ethnic minority samples in longitudinal studies. In addition, we describe the retention procedures implemented in the Parents Matter! Program (PMP), a community-based sexual risk reduction intervention for African American families. Finally, the results of PMP's retention strategies…

  16. Retention Initiatives Used by Professional Master's Athletic Training Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Many professional master's athletic training program directors believe retention is a problem facing athletic training education. However, it remains unknown what steps, if any, are taken to improve retention. Objective: To inquire with program directors about their respective methods and interventions aimed at increasing retention rates.…

  17. Policies and Practice: A Focus on Higher Education Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    This book, based on a discussion at an interactive videoconference, examines student diversity issues and retention strategies in the context of the Sallie Mae National Retention Project that addressed state expectations for more accountability and federal reporting requirements on graduation and retention. The eight chapters focus on equity as it…

  18. Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

  19. 48 CFR 4.704 - Calculation of retention periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of retention periods. 4.704 Section 4.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 4.704 Calculation of retention periods. (a) The...

  20. 49 CFR 239.203 - Retention of emergency preparedness plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of emergency preparedness plan. 239.203... Retention of Emergency Preparedness Plans § 239.203 Retention of emergency preparedness plan. Each passenger...), shall each retain one copy of the emergency preparedness plan required by § 239.201 and one copy of...

  1. 49 CFR 239.203 - Retention of emergency preparedness plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of emergency preparedness plan. 239.203... Retention of Emergency Preparedness Plans § 239.203 Retention of emergency preparedness plan. Each passenger...), shall each retain one copy of the emergency preparedness plan required by § 239.201 and one copy of...

  2. A Review of the Elementary School Promotion/Retention Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossing, Lewis; Brien, Phyl

    The purpose of this paper is to present different aspects of the effects of grade retention on students and to consider what is best for the total development of the child. Studies show that grade retention does not ensure significant gains in achievement. However, studies seem to be less conclusive regarding retention due to the immaturity of…

  3. Grade Retention: What are the Costs and Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Eric R.; Goldhaber, Dan D.

    2005-01-01

    Grade retention is a common practice used when students fail to meet required benchmarks. Therefore, it is important that we understand the relative benefits and costs associated with students repeating a grade. In this article we analyze the costs and benefits of grade retention. In our examination of retention, we obtain our calculations of the…

  4. Measuring Student Retention at an Online Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Wallace E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Student persistence or retention has been a documented issue in higher education in the United States since the late 1800s. While much has been written about the topic of retention at the more traditional types of institutions, little has been written about retention at the online institutions of higher learning that have developed since the early…

  5. Education for Sustainable Development and Retention: Unravelling a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the question of what education for sustainable development (ESD) research might signify when linked to the concept of "retention", and how this relation (ESD and retention) might be researched. It considers two different perspectives on retention, as revealed through educational research trajectories, drawing on existing…

  6. 48 CFR 1604.705 - Specific retention periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Specific retention periods... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 1604.705 Specific retention periods. Unless the contracting officer determines that there exists...

  7. 5 CFR 351.401 - Determining retention standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.401 Determining retention standing. Each agency shall determine the retention standing of each competing employee on the basis of the factors in this subpart and... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining retention standing....

  8. 5 CFR 536.208 - Termination of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 531, subpart B, for GS positions). An employee is not entitled to pay retention under subpart... grade retention benefits (except that, if an employee's election specifically provides that the... grade retention terminates under this section, the employee's rate of basic pay must be set...

  9. 5 CFR 351.506 - Effective date of retention standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the performance factor as provided in § 351.504: (a) The retention standing of each employee released... is so released. (b) The retention standing of each employee retained in a competitive level as an... been released had the exception not been used. The retention standing of each employee retained...

  10. 5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....102 and this section, an authorized agency official may provide pay retention to an employee not... employee to pay retention under paragraph (a) of this section, the agency must apply the geographic... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional pay retention. 536.302...

  11. 5 CFR 575.309 - Payment of retention incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a retention incentive is subject to the aggregate limitation on pay under 5 CFR part 530, subpart B. ... retention incentive rate may not exceed— (1) 25 percent, if authorized for an individual employee; or (2) 10... example, an agency establishes a retention incentive percentage rate of 10 percent for an employee....

  12. 5 CFR 536.202 - Optional grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... §§ 536.102 and 536.203, an authorized agency official may provide grade retention to an employee moving... lower-graded position. (c) When an employee is offered a position with grade retention under this... entitlement to grade retention under § 536.201 if the agency actually moves the employee to the...

  13. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta

    2013-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to reduce loss to follow-up and improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. Objectives To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the proportion of participants retained in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial strategy and trial setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CINAHL, Campbell Collaboration's Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register, and ERIC. We handsearched conference proceedings and publication reference lists for eligible retention trials. We also surveyed all UK Clinical Trials Units to identify further studies. Selection criteria We included eligible retention trials of randomised or quasi-randomised evaluations of strategies to increase retention that were embedded in 'host' randomised trials from all disease areas and healthcare settings. We excluded studies aiming to increase treatment compliance. Data collection and analysis We contacted authors to supplement or confirm data that we had extracted. For retention trials, we recorded data on the method of randomisation, type of strategy evaluated, comparator, primary outcome, planned sample size, numbers randomised and numbers retained. We used risk ratios (RR) to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of strategies to improve retention. We assessed heterogeneity between trials using the Chi2 and I2 statistics. For main trials that hosted retention trials, we extracted data on disease area, intervention, population, healthcare setting, sequence generation and allocation concealment. Main results We identified 38 eligible retention trials. Included trials evaluated six broad types of strategies to improve retention. These

  14. Tritium Retention and Removal in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2009-02-19

    Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy. Tritium is an important source term in safety assessments, it is expensive and in short supply. Tritium can be continuously retained in a tokamak by codeposition with eroded carbon or beryllium and JET and TFTR with carbon plasma facing components showed a tritium retention level that would be unacceptable in ITER or future fusion reactors. Asdex-U and Alcator C-mod have shown reduced hydrogenic retention with tungsten clad and molybdenum plasma facing components. Once the tritium inventory approaches the administrative limit, tritium must be removed to permit continued D-T plasma operations. Several candidate techniques are being considered and need to be proven at a relevant speed and efficiency in contemporary tokamaks. Projections for ITER are discussed.

  15. Retention technique #1. Developing managerial warmth.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R

    1989-01-01

    A manager who has interpersonal warmth is not simply gullible or naive, but instead possesses a valuable skill in reaching others. In most manager-employee relationships, some degree of limit-setting and judgment are necessary; however, warmth integrated with limit-setting is more satisfying for both employee and manager. Although warmth as an interpersonal phenomenon is affected by the employee's perception, certain managerial actions can increase the likelihood of being perceived as warm; yet, in spite of careful adherence to the guidelines for communicating warmth, managerial warmth will still be rejected in some situations. As is true of any managerial technique, the effective use of warmth requires an assessment of the employee's personality and the approach most appropriate for the situation at hand. The excellent manager is able to quickly adapt, matching the level of warmth to the situation. See Nurse Manager Retention Factors for viewpoints from nurses themselves. Interpersonal management style is an important retention factor.

  16. Improving student retention in computer engineering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierozinski, Russell Ivan

    The purpose of this research project was to improve student retention in the Computer Engineering Technology program at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology by reducing the number of dropouts and increasing the graduation rate. This action research project utilized a mixed methods approach of a survey and face-to-face interviews. The participants were male and female, with a large majority ranging from 18 to 21 years of age. The research found that participants recognized their skills and capability, but their capacity to remain in the program was dependent on understanding and meeting the demanding pace and rigour of the program. The participants recognized that curriculum delivery along with instructor-student interaction had an impact on student retention. To be successful in the program, students required support in four domains: academic, learning management, career, and social.

  17. A model of nursing student retention.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Elisabeth N

    2012-03-18

    A model of nursing student retention was studied in nontraditional, associate degree nursing students. Student retention was defined as persistence, or choosing to continue in a nursing program, and successful academic performance, or meeting the necessary academic standards to continue in a nursing program. The model shows the interaction of background variables, internal psychological processes, and external supports, and their relationships to persistence and academic performance. Participants were 458 nontraditional associate degree nursing students. There were significant differences in background variables between students who persisted and those who withdrew voluntarily or failed academically. Perceived faculty support was related to both persistence and academic performance, such that students with higher perceived faculty support were more likely to continue in a nursing program until graduation and were more likely to be successful academically. Students with higher perceived faculty support also had higher outcome expectations of earning an associate degree in nursing.

  18. Selective Surface Modification on Lubricant Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-11-01

    While surface patterns are effective in improving tribological properties, nevertheless they alter the surface wettability, which will in turn affect the surface-lubricant interactions. When there is a shortage of lubricant on a patterned surface, the lubricant stored inside the cavities will be extracted to compensate the surface lubricant dissipation. Additionally, the lubricant retention effect provided by the cavities is competing with the release of the lubricant. With weak surface-lubricant interaction, the retention is limited. Therefore, the lubrication will have a sudden failure, giving a dramatic transition to abrasive wear. To improve the performance of polar lubricants on hydrophobic polymer surfaces, both topographical and selective surface modifications were incorporated on injection molded polypropylene surfaces. Distinctive lubrication improvement was observed when the surface structure density for the lubricant storage was high, and the release of the lubricant was controlled by the interaction with the selectively modified surfaces.

  19. Staff retention and empowerment: functions of leadership.

    PubMed

    Mass, Diana

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of any organization's structure and technology, the most potent leverage for exceptional performance and quality assurance resides within personnel. Retention of empowered, committed staff who believe in their organization's purpose and leadership is important to an organization's success. The Clinical Laboratory Sciences (CLS) profession faces a different kind of crisis, not only one of economics, but also one of quality because of lost professional expertise. This dilemma is because of profound neglect of the organization's greatest asset--its CLS professionals. Retention of expert CLS professionals requires a dramatic change in management's belief system regarding the value of their assets. Laboratory leaders must create a culture of empowered people with the freedom to exhibit self-direction toward achieving the organization's mission and goals. Managers must consider employees valuable enough to invest in their professional growth. A laboratory's long-term sustainability and economic performance will depend on a committed workforce.

  20. The Effect of Advanced Placement and Concurrent Enrollment on Post Secondary Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremers, Angela L.

    2010-01-01

    Unprepared postsecondary students and poor high school retention rates emphasize a significant issue with education in the U.S. Although there have been increases in the number of programs to address retention and matriculation to degree attainment, little research has been completed to examine outcomes of these programs. Advanced placement and…

  1. Nursing workforce retention: challenging a bullying culture.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Stella

    2002-01-01

    Discussions surrounding nursing shortages typically focus on recruitment, but retention is also a problem. Emerging research suggests that intimidation in the nursing workforce is a problem that planners need to deal with as part of an overall strategy aimed at maintaining a balance between supply and demand. This paper explores issues surrounding intimidation in the nursing workforce and looks at how one major teaching hospital in Australia attempted to address the problem. PMID:12224882

  2. 300 Area Building Retention Evaluation Mitigation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. McBride

    2007-07-03

    Evaluate the long-term retention of several facilities associated with the PNNL Capability Replacement Laboratory and other Hanfor mission needs. WCH prepared a mitigation plan for three scenarios with different release dates for specific buildings. The evaluations present a proposed plan for providing utility services to retained facilities in support of a long-term (+20 year) lifespan in addition to temporary services to buildings with specified delayed release dates.

  3. Improved motor sequence retention by motionless listening.

    PubMed

    Lahav, Amir; Katz, Tal; Chess, Roxanne; Saltzman, Elliot

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of listening to a newly learned musical piece on subsequent motor retention of the piece. Thirty-six non-musicians were trained to play an unfamiliar melody on a piano keyboard. Next, they were randomly assigned to participate in three follow-up listening sessions over 1 week. Subjects who, during their listening sessions, listened to the same initial piece showed significant improvements in motor memory and retention of the piece despite the absence of physical practice. These improvements included increased pitch accuracy, time accuracy, and dynamic intensity of key pressing. Similar improvements, though to a lesser degree, were observed in subjects who, during their listening sessions, were distracted by another task. Control subjects, who after learning the piece had listened to nonmusical sounds, showed impaired motoric retention of the piece at 1 week from the initial acquisition day. These results imply that motor sequences can be established in motor memory without direct access to motor-related information. In addition, the study revealed that the listening-induced improvements did not generalize to the learning of a new musical piece composed of the same notes as the initial piece learned, limiting the effects to musical motor sequences that are already part of the individual's motor repertoire. PMID:22434336

  4. Why does atorvastatin inhibit renal crystal retention?

    PubMed

    Tsujihata, Masao; Yoshioka, Iwao; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-10-01

    Recently, we reported that atorvastatin prevents renal tubular cell injury by oxalate and inhibits renal crystal retention. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which atorvastatin inhibits renal crystal retention. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four experimental groups, and the ethylene glycol model of hyperoxaluria and the atorvastatin treatment model were analyzed. To clarify the mechanism by which atorvastatin inhibits renal crystal retention, the removed kidneys were used for the quantitative analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The subunits of the NADPH oxidase system were evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, the level of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in kidney tissue was compared in each group. Atorvastatin treatment increased the SOD and catalase level compared with the stone-forming control group. Atorvastatin treatment decreased the expression of NOX-1 mRNA. Furthermore, the level of TGF-β was suppressed by atorvastatin treatment. We found that atorvastatin have inhibited calcium oxalate (CaOX) urolithiasis formation. We hypothesize that the mechanism of action of atorvastatin involves inhibiting TGF-β and NADPH oxidase, and increasing the SOD and catalase level. We believe that atorvastatin will be helpful in the treatment of CaOX urolithiasis.

  5. Maternal Stress Predicts Postpartum Weight Retention

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Kara; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  6. Testing to enhance retention in human anatomy.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jessica M; Thompson, Andrew J; Marshak, David W

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the nervous system, were developed. The quizzes were optional, and no credit was awarded. They were posted online using Blackboard, which provided feedback, and they were very popular. To determine whether the quizzes had any effect on retention, they were given in a controlled setting to 21 future medical and dental students. The weekly quizzes included questions on regional anatomy and an expanded set of questions on the nervous system. Each question about the nervous system was given three times, in a slightly different form each time. The second quiz was given approximately half an hour after the first one, and the third was given one week after the second to assess retention. The quizzes were unpopular, but students showed robust improvement on the questions about the nervous system. The scores increased by almost 9% on the second quiz, with no intervention except viewing the correct answers. The scores were 29% higher on the third quiz than on the first, and there was also a positive correlation between the grades on the quizzes and the final examination. Thus, repeated testing is an effective strategy for learning and retaining information about human anatomy. PMID:21805688

  7. Measuring the value of customer retention

    SciTech Connect

    Monts, K.; Bonevac, B.; Lauer, J.; Tessema, D.

    1997-05-01

    Competition will require changes in how market research is conducted and how customers are pursued. The question remains: How does one approach customer retention in a way that provides meaningful guidelines? The conventional wisdom is that {open_quotes}the business of business is selling.{close_quotes} There is some truth to this, but the key question today is: What bearing does this have on how to run a business in a competitive environment? A recent article in the Harvard Business Review noted that, {open_quotes}Increasingly, companies are less focused on selling products and more interested in keeping customers.{close_quotes} Indeed, some observers have posited a natural societal evolutionary trend toward a shift of emphasis toward customer retention vis-a-vis customer acquisition, as a consequence of the primary marketing communication technology shifting from {open_quotes}broadcast{close_quotes} (where messages are sent out to inchoate masses) to {open_quotes}interactive{close_quotes} (where relationships are cultivated with precisely defined market niches or individual customers). The business of growing a business, then, can be framed as a matter of getting customers and keeping them so as to grow the value of the customer base to its fullest potential. In these terms, setting a marketing budget becomes the task of balancing what is spent on customer acquisition with what is spent on retention.

  8. Retention of perceptual generalization of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Pappens, Meike; Schroijen, Mathias; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

    2015-12-01

    Fear reduction obtained during a fear extinction procedure can generalize from the extinction stimulus to other perceptually similar stimuli. Perceptual generalization of fear extinction typically follows a perceptual gradient, with increasing levels of fear reduction the more a stimulus resembles the extinction stimulus. The current study aimed to investigate whether perceptual generalization of fear extinction can be observed also after a retention interval of 24h. Fear was acquired to three geometrical figures of different sizes (CS(+), CS1(+) and CS2(+)) by consistently pairing them with a short-lasting suffocation experience (US). Three other geometrical figures that were never followed by the US served as control stimuli (CS(-), CS1(-), CS2(-)). Next, only the CS(+) was extinguished by presenting it in the absence of the US. One day later, fear responses to all stimuli were assessed without any US-presentation. Outcome measures included startle blink EMG, skin conductance, US expectancy, respiratory rate and tidal volume. On day 2 spontaneous recovery of fear was observed in US expectancy and tidal volume, but not in the other outcomes. Evidence for the retention of fear extinction generalization was present in US expectancy and skin conductance, but a perceptual gradient in the retention of generalized fear extinction could not be observed.

  9. DRAM Weak Cell Characterization for Retention Time.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jonghyuk; Lee, Sungho; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2016-05-01

    This work proposes a sequence of tests for detecting refresh weak cells based on data retention time distribution in the main cell array of DRAMs and verify the feasibility of the proposed method through analysis of 30 nm design-rule DRAM cells with Recess Channel Array Transistor (RCAT) and Buried Channel Array Transistor (BCAT). Basic idea of the proposed mechanism is to test with different bias conditions and break down retention failures based on their root causes such as Gate Induced Drain Leakage, sub-threshold leakage and junction leakage. This categorization helps to determine the physical locations of each failure group, enabling precise Physical Failure Analysis (PFA). The characterization of data retention weak cells for 30 nm design rule DRAMs with BCAT and RCAT has been investigated. Most weak cells were classified as GIDL leaky cells in both cases. In the case of BCAT, the distance between the word line and the storage node, caused by the process distribution, is the main origin of weak cells. In the case of RCAT, the sharp corner of the active layer in the storage node is the main cause of weak cells. PMID:27483878

  10. Deuterium Retention in NSTX with Lithium Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Allain, J. P.; Blanchard, W.; Kugel, H. W.; Maingi, Rajesh; Roquemore, L.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Taylor, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    High (approximate to 90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both with- and without lithiumization of the carbon plasma-facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gas-only pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis demonstrated that binding of D atoms in graphite is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix. This is in contrast to the strong ionic bonding that occurs between D and pure Li. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Generic BWR-4 degraded core in-vessel study. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Original intent of this project was to produce a phenomenological study of the in-vessel degradation which occurs during the TQUX and TQUV sequences for a generic BWR-4 from the initiation of the FSAR Chapter 15 operational transient through core debris bed formation to the failure of the primary pressure boundary. Bounding calculations were to be performed for the two high pressure and low pressure non-LOCA scenarios to assess the uncertainties in the current state of knowledge regarding the source terms for containment integrity studies. Source terms as such were defined in terms of hydrogen generation, unreacted metal, and coolant inventroy, and in terms of the form, sequencing and mode of dispersal through the primary vessel boundary. Fission product release was not to be considered as part of this study. Premature termination of the project, however, led to the dicontinuation of work on an as is basis. Work on the in-core phase from the point of scram to core debris bed formation was largely completed. A preliminary scoping calculation on the debris bed phase had been initiated. This report documents the status of the study at termination.

  12. DESIGN, FABRICATION, INSTALLATION AND TESTING OF IN-VESSEL CONTROL COILS FOR DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON, PM; BAXI, CB; KELLMAN, AG; REIS, EE; ROBINSON, JI

    2002-10-01

    OAK A271 DESIGN, FABRICATION, INSTALLATION AND TESTING OF IN-VESSEL CONTROL COILS FOR DIII-D. Since 1995, DIII-D has performed correction of magnetic field imperfections using a set of six external picture frame coils located on the vessel mid-plane. Recently, these coils have also demonstrated significant benefits when used for feedback of the resistive wall mode, an instability that limits the plasma performance at high beta. Modeling has shown that substantial performance improvements can be achieved by installing new coils inside the vessel and expanding the poloidal coverage above and below the mid-plane. Two prototype internal coils were installed in 2001 and have been tested successfully. installation of a set of twelve internal coils and magnetic sensors in the DIII-D tokamak is to be completed in December 2002. The design requirement for the new coil system was to maximize the magnetic field at the plasma edge, operate with a frequency range of dc to 1000 Hz, and fit behind the existing graphite wall tiles. The coil design adopted and installed is a water-cooled hollow copper conductor insulated with polyamide and housed inside a stainless steel tube that forms a vacuum boundary. The coil is rigidly mounted to the inside of the vacuum vessel. The primary challenge in the design of these coils was in joining of both the copper conductor and the stainless tube without overheating the polyamide insulator.

  13. Compact ECEI system with in-vessel reflective optics for WEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Y. B.; Park, H. K.; Lee, W.; Yun, G. S.; Kim, M.; Sabot, R.; Elbeze, D.; Lotte, P.; Shen, J.

    2016-11-01

    An electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) diagnostic system for WEST (W Environment for Steady state Tokamak) is under development to study the MHD instabilities affected by tungsten impurities. The system will provide 2-D Te fluctuation images (width × height = ˜18 cm × ˜ 34 cm at low field side and ˜13 cm × ˜ 39 cm at high field side) from a poloidal cross section with high spatial (≤1.7 cm) and temporal (≤2 μs) resolutions. While the key concept and electronic structure are similar to that of prior ECEI systems on other tokamak devices such as KSTAR, DIII-D, or ASDEX-U, part of the imaging optics have to be placed inside the vacuum vessel in order to resolve issues on limited installation space and longer beam path to the detector position. The in-vessel optics consisting of two large curvature-radius mirrors are expected to withstand the extreme heating on long-pulse operation scenario (˜1000 s). The out-vessel optical housing is constructed as compact as possible to remove easily from the installation site in case of necessity. Commissioning of the system is scheduled on the second experimental WEST campaign end of 2017.

  14. In-vessel ITER tubing failure rates for selected materials and coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, T.D.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    Several materials have been suggested for fabrication of ITER in-vessel coolant tubing: beryllium, copper, Inconel, niobium, stainless steel, titanium, and vanadium. This report generates failure rates for the materials to identify the best performer from an operational safety and availability perspective. Coolant types considered in this report are helium gas, liquid lithium, liquid sodium, and water. Failure rates for the materials are generated by including the influence of ITER`s operating environment and anticipated tubing failure mechanisms with industrial operating experience failure rates. The analyses define tubing failure mechanisms for ITER as: intergranular attack, flow erosion, helium induced swelling, hydrogen damage, neutron irradiation embrittlement, cyclic fatigue, and thermal cycling. K-factors, multipliers, are developed to model each failure mechanism and are applied to industrial operating experience failure rates to generate tubing failure rates for ITER. The generated failure rates identify the best performer by its expected reliability. With an average leakage failure rate of 3.1e-10(m-hr){sup {minus}1}and an average rupture failure rate of 3.1e-11(m-hr){sup {minus}1}, titanium proved to be the best performer of the tubing materials. The failure rates generated in this report are intended to serve as comparison references for design safety and optimization studies. Actual material testing and analyses are required to validate the failure rates.

  15. In-vessel fluid flow measurements using thermocouples cross-correlation.

    SciTech Connect

    NguyenLe, Q.

    1998-05-08

    Fluid flow rate in high temperature and pressure vessels can be difficult to measure due to the associated harsh environment, inaccessible locations and pressure boundary integrity concerns. However, by using quick response miniature thermocouples to measure the naturally occurring temperature variations within the flow, the fluid velocity can be inferred from the transit time analysis. This flow measurement technique has other advantages such as the flow profile is not significantly disturbed, no additional flow restrictions introduced and the system fiction factor is not increased. Furthermore, since the measured flow rate is generally unaffected by the global system dynamics, such as heat increases or losses, as well as changes in the flow regimes, the location of the thermocouple pairs is extremely flexible. Due to the mentioned advantages, the thermocouple cross-correlation flow measurement method has been developed for use at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA). Currently, thermocouple cross-correlation technique is used to measure the Reactor Pressure Vessel downcomer fluid velocity and the suppression pool in-vessel natural circulation velocity.

  16. TCV heating and in-vessel upgrades for addressing DEMO physics issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasoli, A.; TCV Team

    2015-04-01

    TCV is presently undergoing major heating upgrades, installing a neutral beam for direct ion heating and increasing the electron cyclotron (EC) power injected in X-mode at the third harmonic (X3). The neutral beam is under construction at BINP-Plasma LLC (Russia), with energies of 18-35 keV and power up to 1 MW for 2 s. The injection of 1 MW 30 keV D-beam will allow access to regimes with Ti/Te > 1 and βN ˜ 2.8 in L- and H-mode, with densities compatible with X3 EC heating. A lower energy and power (20 keV, 0.5 MW) D NBI is suitable for lower densities with X2 EC heating and current drive. The vacuum vessel has been modified to allow for the beam tangential injection, necessary for beam access and to minimize shine through and orbit losses. The X3 upgrade consists of adding two dual-frequency gyrotrons (X2/X3, 126 GHz/84 GHz) with a total power of 2 MW. In addition, to explore solutions to the exhaust problem in tokamaks and test innovative solutions like the snowflake divertor in the presence of a closed divertor chamber, we are considering inserting new in-vessel modular structures, generating a divertor aperture with variable closure.

  17. Responding to nursing's agenda for the future. Where do we stand on recruitment and retention?

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Christine; Williams, Richard; Page, Nancy E; Worral, Priscilla Sandford

    2003-01-01

    How can the nursing profession address the escalating shortage of registered professional nurses? A multifaceted approach is important to ensure success. One domain of Nursing's Agenda for the Future (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2002) is recruitment and retention. Through the Agenda, creative strategies are being sought to attract and retain qualified nurses. This article describes one institution's response to addressing this critical shortage. Strategies were developed to present a continuum of learning and advancement opportunities across the career span of the professional nurse. They include recruiting student nurses, increasing NCLEXRN pass rates, providing financial support for further education or specialty certification, and using shared governance to increase retention. Institutions must look to their own resources as well as federal and state resources to offer these opportunities to nursing staff. The goal is to build an environment that both attracts nurses and supports them in their career and life goals. PMID:14997689

  18. Nanomedicine for drug targeting: strategies beyond the enhanced permeability and retention effect

    PubMed Central

    Nehoff, Hayley; Parayath, Neha N; Domanovitch, Laura; Taurin, Sebastien; Greish, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    The growing research interest in nanomedicine for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory-related pathologies is yielding encouraging results. Unfortunately, enthusiasm is tempered by the limited specificity of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Factors such as lack of cellular specificity, low vascular density, and early release of active agents prior to reaching their target contribute to the limitations of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, improved nanomedicine designs are creating opportunities to overcome these problems. In this review, we present examples of the advances made in this field and endeavor to highlight the potential of these emerging technologies to improve targeting of nanomedicine to specific pathological cells and tissues. PMID:24904213

  19. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta

    2013-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to reduce loss to follow-up and improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. Objectives To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the proportion of participants retained in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial strategy and trial setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CINAHL, Campbell Collaboration's Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register, and ERIC. We handsearched conference proceedings and publication reference lists for eligible retention trials. We also surveyed all UK Clinical Trials Units to identify further studies. Selection criteria We included eligible retention trials of randomised or quasi-randomised evaluations of strategies to increase retention that were embedded in 'host' randomised trials from all disease areas and healthcare settings. We excluded studies aiming to increase treatment compliance. Data collection and analysis We contacted authors to supplement or confirm data that we had extracted. For retention trials, we recorded data on the method of randomisation, type of strategy evaluated, comparator, primary outcome, planned sample size, numbers randomised and numbers retained. We used risk ratios (RR) to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of strategies to improve retention. We assessed heterogeneity between trials using the Chi2 and I2 statistics. For main trials that hosted retention trials, we extracted data on disease area, intervention, population, healthcare setting, sequence generation and allocation concealment. Main results We identified 38 eligible retention trials. Included trials evaluated six broad types of strategies to improve retention. These

  20. Identification of recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals in Ontario, Canada: results from expert panels

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diem; Hall, Linda McGillis; Davis, Aileen; Landry, Michel D; Burnett, Dawn; Berg, Katherine; Jaglal, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background Demand for rehabilitation services is expected to increase due to factors such as an aging population, workforce pressures, rise in chronic and complex multi-system disorders, advances in technology, and changes in interprofessional health service delivery models. However, health human resource (HHR) strategies for Canadian rehabilitation professionals are lagging behind other professional groups such as physicians and nurses. The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify recruitment and retention strategies of rehabilitation professionals including occupational therapists, physical therapists and speech language pathologists from the literature; and 2) to investigate both the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies using expert panels amongst HHR and education experts. Methods A review of the literature was conducted to identify recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. Two expert panels, one on Recruitment and Retention and the other on Education were convened to determine the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies. A modified-delphi process was used to gain consensus and to rate the identified strategies along these two dimensions. Results A total of 34 strategies were identified by the Recruitment and Retention and Education expert panels as being important and feasible for the development of a HHR plan for recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals. Seven were categorized under the Quality of Worklife and Work Environment theme, another seven in Financial Incentives and Marketing, two in Workload and Skill Mix, thirteen in Professional Development and five in Education and Training. Conclusion Based on the results from the expert panels, the three major areas of focus for HHR planning in the rehabilitation sector should include strategies addressing Quality of Worklife and Work Environment, Financial Incentives and Marketing and Professional Development. PMID:19068134

  1. Design and testing of an experimental in-vessel composting system

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, C.L.; Glaser, J.A.; Dosani, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Composting has received much attention as a potential technology for treating solid waste. Most of that attention has been focused on treatment of municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, yard trimmings, and agricultural wastes. More recently, composting has been investigated as a remediation technology for hazardous wastes. Laboratory and field-scale work has been conducted to determine the fate of pesticides, hydrocarbons, and explosives in the composting environment. Currently, commercial compost operations are operated as black-box systems where optimization is largely achieved through trial and error. Large-scale treatment of hazardous waste will require optimal controls to meet the specified end points. We have designed and tested closed bench-scale compost reactors to evaluate composting processes using contaminated soils. This research program is designed to develop a thorough engineering analysis and optimization of composting as a process to treat soil contaminated with hazardous waste. Bench-scale composters serve as diagnostic tools to predict treatment effectiveness of larger systems. Fully enclosed, insulated reactors permit reliable data collection on microbial population dynamics and fate of toxic chemicals during soil composting. The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential use of compost systems in remediation of soils contaminated with hazardous chemicals. We have developed bench-scale composters to model large-scale systems. We are currently studying the ability of compost microorganisms to biodegrade polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in in-vessel reactors located at the U.S. EPA Test & Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati, OH. Soils contaminated with PAHs have been obtained from the Reilly Tar Pit Superfund site in St. Louis Park, MN for use in these studies.

  2. On the relation between motivation and retention in educational contexts: The role of intentional and unintentional mind wandering.

    PubMed

    Seli, Paul; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Highly motivated students often exhibit better academic performance than less motivated students. However, to date, the specific cognitive mechanisms through which motivation increases academic achievement are not well understood. Here we explored the possibility that mind wandering mediates the relation between motivation and academic performance, and additionally, we examined possible mediation by both intentional and unintentional forms of mind wandering. We found that participants reporting higher motivation to learn in a lecture-based setting tended to engage in less mind wandering, and that this decrease in mind wandering was in turn associated with greater retention of the lecture material. Critically, we also found that the influence of motivation on retention was mediated by both intentional and unintentional types of mind wandering. Not only do the present results advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relation between motivation and academic achievement, they also provide insights into possible methods of intervention that may be useful in improving student retention in educational settings.

  3. Workforce Challenges and Retention Success Stories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document discusses the current and future challenges in building and retaining the required workforce of scientist and engineers for NASA. Specifically, the talk reviews the current situation at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Several programs at NASA for high school and college students to assist in inspiring the next generation of scientist and engineers are reviewed. The issue of retention of the best of the young scientists and engineers is also reviewed, with a brief review of several young engineers and their success with and for NASA.

  4. Nitrogen retention in urban lawns and forests.

    PubMed

    Raciti, S M; Groffman, P M; Fahey, T J

    2008-10-01

    Lawns are a dominant cover type in urban ecosystems, and there is concern about their impacts on water quality. However, recent watershed-level studies suggest that these pervious areas might be net sinks, rather than sources, for nitrogen (N) in the urban environment. A 15N pulse-labeling experiment was performed on lawn and forest plots in the Baltimore (Maryland, U.S.A.) metropolitan area to test the hypothesis that lawns are a net sink for atmospheric-N deposition and to compare and contrast mechanisms of N retention in these vegetation types. A pulse of 15N-NO3-, simulating a precipitation event, was followed through mineral soils, roots, Oi-layer/thatch, aboveground biomass, microbial biomass, inorganic N, and evolved N2 gas over a one-year period. The 15N label was undetectable in gaseous samples, but enrichment of other pools was high. Gross rates of production and consumption of NO3- and NH4+ were measured to assess differences in internal N cycling under lawns and forests. Rates of N retention were similar during the first five days of the experiment, with lawns showing higher N retention than forests after 10, 70, and 365 days. Lawns had larger pools of available NO3- and NH4+; however, gross rates of mineralization and nitrification were also higher, leading to no net differences in NO3- and NH4+ turnover times between the two systems. Levels of 15N remained steady in forest mineral soils from day 70 to 365 (at 23% of applied 15N), but continued to accumulate in lawn mineral soils over this same time period, increasing from 20% to 33% of applied 15N. The dominant sink for N in lawn plots changed over time. Immobilization in mineral soils dominated immediately (one day) after tracer application (42% of recovered 15N); plant biomass dominated the short term (10 days; 51%); thatch and mineral-soil pools together dominated the medium term (70 days; 28% and 36%, respectively); and the mineral-soil pool alone dominated long-term retention (one year; 70% of

  5. LARES Mission: Separation and Retention Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bursi, Alessandro; Camilli, Pierluigi; Piredda, Claudio; Babini, Gianni; Mangraviti, Elio

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Lares (LAser RElativity Satellite) mission, an all-Italian scientific mission launched with the Vega maiden flight in February 2012, a mechanical separation and retention subsystem (SSEP) has been developed to retain the LARES satellite during launch and release it in the final orbit. The design flow was based on the identification of the driving requirements and critical areas to guide the trade-off, design, analysis and test activities. In particular, the SSEP had to face very high environmental loads and to minimize the contact areas with the satellite that had a spherical shape. The test activity overview is provided.

  6. Survey on workforce retention and attrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-03-01

    The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) is conducting a survey to gather information on why technical professionals change jobs or quit working. The survey, prompted by concern about the retention of skilled workers, aims to provide information to employers that can assist them in addressing practices that can lead to significant workforce attrition. To participate in the survey, which is open to everyone (including those who are not SPE members), go to http://research.spe.org/se.ashx?s=705E3F1335720258 through 15 May 2013. For more information, contact speresearch@spe.org.

  7. Retention, Helpful or Harmful? A Look at How or If Grade Retention Affects Children in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Vivian L.

    Noting that the rate of grade retention has risen nearly 40 percent over the past 20 years, this case study examines whether being retained for 1 school year helps children academically by giving them more practice and time to succeed or harms their self-esteem and causes them to eventually drop out of school. Participating in the study were five…

  8. Reframing Retention: New Evidence from within the Elementary School Classroom on Post-Retention Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes a novel perspective on grade retention by empirically examining how classroom composition relates to the standardized-testing performance of grade-retained students in their post-retained years. This evaluation employed a sample of entire cohorts of urban elementary school children in the Philadelphia School District over 6…

  9. Football and Freshmen Retention: Examining the Impact of College Football on Institutional Retention Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2010-01-01

    Student retention has been one of the more researched topics in the study of American higher education over the past 20 years (Braxton, Hirschy, & McClendon, 2004; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). Very little of this research, however, has attempted to examine the impact of college athletics on an institution's ability to retain students. This…

  10. Gender differences in problem severity at assessment and treatment retention.

    PubMed

    Arfken, C L; Klein, C; di Menza, S; Schuster, C R

    2001-01-01

    Women in treatment for substance abuse have been reported to have more severe problems at assessment than men but not to differ in treatment retention. To examine gender differences in problems at assessment, 30-day retention, and treatment completion, data from Detroit's publicly funded substance abuse treatment system were used. Women had significantly more severe problems at assessment, lower 30-day retention, and lower treatment completion rates than men. These gender differences in retention remained significant even after controlling for problem severity, primary drug of abuse, and referred treatment setting. There was no evidence of improvements in women's problems at assessment or retention over time during this period. Women presented with more severe problems at assessment and were less likely to stay in treatment for 30 days or to complete treatment than men. Monitoring gender differences in problems at presentation and retention outcomes is recommended to assess local need for interventions.

  11. Fluence dependence of deuterium retention in oxidized SS-316

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Suzuki, Sachiko; Matsuyama, Masao; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Asakura, Yamato; Okuno, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    The ion fluence dependence of deuterium retention in SS-316 during oxidation at a temperature of 673 K was studied to evaluate the dynamics of deuterium retention in the oxide layer of SS-316. The correlation between the chemical state of stainless steel and deuterium retention was evaluated using XPS and TDS. It was found that the major deuterium desorption temperatures were located at around 660 K and 935 K, which correspond to the desorption of deuterium trapped as hydroxide. The deuterium retention increased with increasing deuterium ion fluence, since the deuterium retention as hydroxide increased significantly. However, retention saturated at an ion fluence of ˜2.5 × 10 21 D + m -2. The XPS result showed that FeOOD was formed on the surface, although pure Fe also remained in the oxide layer. These facts indicate the nature of the oxide layer have a key role in deuterium trapping behavior.

  12. Mechanistic failure mode investigation and resolution of parvovirus retentive filters.

    PubMed

    LaCasse, Daniel; Lute, Scott; Fiadeiro, Marcus; Basha, Jonida; Stork, Matthew; Brorson, Kurt; Godavarti, Ranga; Gallo, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Virus retentive filters are a key product safety measure for biopharmaceuticals. A simplistic perception is that they function solely based on a size-based particle removal mechanism of mechanical sieving and retention of particles based on their hydrodynamic size. Recent observations have revealed a more nuanced picture, indicating that changes in viral particle retention can result from process pressure and/or flow interruptions. In this study, a mechanistic investigation was performed to help identify a potential mechanism leading to the reported reduced particle retention in small virus filters. Permeate flow rate or permeate driving force were varied and analyzed for their impact on particle retention in three commercially available small virus retentive filters. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:959-970, 2016.

  13. Hydrogen retention in ion irradiated steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, J.D.; Lewis, M.B.; Lee, E.H.

    1998-11-01

    In the future 1--5 MW Spallation Neutron Source, target radiation damage will be accompanied by high levels of hydrogen and helium transmutation products. The authors have recently carried out investigations using simultaneous Fe/He,H multiple-ion implantations into 316 LN stainless steel between 50 and 350 C to simulate the type of radiation damage expected in spallation neutron sources. Hydrogen and helium were injected at appropriate energy and rate, while displacement damage was introduced by nuclear stopping of 3.5 MeV Fe{sup +}, 1 {micro}m below the surface. Nanoindentation measurements showed a cumulative increase in hardness as a result of hydrogen and helium injection over and above the hardness increase due to the displacement damage alone. TEM investigation indicated the presence of small bubbles of the injected gases in the irradiated area. In the current experiment, the retention of hydrogen in irradiated steel was studied in order to better understand its contribution to the observed hardening. To achieve this, the deuterium isotope ({sup 2}H) was injected in place of natural hydrogen ({sup 1}H) during the implantation. Trapped deuterium was then profiled, at room temperature, using the high cross-section nuclear resonance reaction with {sup 3}He. Results showed a surprisingly high concentration of deuterium to be retained in the irradiated steel at low temperature, especially in the presence of helium. There is indication that hydrogen retention at spallation neutron source relevant target temperatures may reach as high as 10%.

  14. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Thomas F.; Benson, David K.; Burch, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  15. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOEpatents

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  16. Global phosphorus retention by river damming.

    PubMed

    Maavara, Taylor; Parsons, Christopher T; Ridenour, Christine; Stojanovic, Severin; Dürr, Hans H; Powley, Helen R; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2015-12-22

    More than 70,000 large dams have been built worldwide. With growing water stress and demand for energy, this number will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Damming greatly modifies the ecological functioning of river systems. In particular, dam reservoirs sequester nutrient elements and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to floodplains, lakes, wetlands, and coastal marine environments. Here, we quantify the global impact of dams on the riverine fluxes and speciation of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P), using a mechanistic modeling approach that accounts for the in-reservoir biogeochemical transformations of P. According to the model calculations, the mass of total P (TP) trapped in reservoirs nearly doubled between 1970 and 2000, reaching 42 Gmol y(-1), or 12% of the global river TP load in 2000. Because of the current surge in dam building, we project that by 2030, about 17% of the global river TP load will be sequestered in reservoir sediments. The largest projected increases in TP and reactive P (RP) retention by damming will take place in Asia and South America, especially in the Yangtze, Mekong, and Amazon drainage basins. Despite the large P retention capacity of reservoirs, the export of RP from watersheds will continue to grow unless additional measures are taken to curb anthropogenic P emissions.

  17. Retention of Halogens in Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2010-05-01

    In spite of their potential roles as melting rate accelerators and foam breakers, halogens are generally viewed as troublesome components for glass processing. Of five halogens, F, Cl, Br, I, and At, all but At may occur in nuclear waste. A nuclear waste feed may contain up to 10 g of F, 4 g of Cl, and ≤100 mg of Br and I per kg of glass. The main concern is halogen volatility, producing hazardous fumes and particulates, and the radioactive iodine 129 isotope of 1.7x10^7-year half life. Because F and Cl are soluble in oxide glasses and tend to precipitate on cooling, they can be retained in the waste glass in the form of dissolved constituents or as dispersed crystalline inclusions. This report compiles known halogen-retention data in both high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glasses. Because of its radioactivity, the main focus is on I. Available data on F and Cl were compiled for comparison. Though Br is present in nuclear wastes, it is usually ignored; no data on Br retention were found.

  18. Global phosphorus retention by river damming

    PubMed Central

    Maavara, Taylor; Parsons, Christopher T.; Ridenour, Christine; Stojanovic, Severin; Dürr, Hans H.; Powley, Helen R.; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    More than 70,000 large dams have been built worldwide. With growing water stress and demand for energy, this number will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Damming greatly modifies the ecological functioning of river systems. In particular, dam reservoirs sequester nutrient elements and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to floodplains, lakes, wetlands, and coastal marine environments. Here, we quantify the global impact of dams on the riverine fluxes and speciation of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P), using a mechanistic modeling approach that accounts for the in-reservoir biogeochemical transformations of P. According to the model calculations, the mass of total P (TP) trapped in reservoirs nearly doubled between 1970 and 2000, reaching 42 Gmol y−1, or 12% of the global river TP load in 2000. Because of the current surge in dam building, we project that by 2030, about 17% of the global river TP load will be sequestered in reservoir sediments. The largest projected increases in TP and reactive P (RP) retention by damming will take place in Asia and South America, especially in the Yangtze, Mekong, and Amazon drainage basins. Despite the large P retention capacity of reservoirs, the export of RP from watersheds will continue to grow unless additional measures are taken to curb anthropogenic P emissions. PMID:26644553

  19. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  20. Global phosphorus retention by river damming.

    PubMed

    Maavara, Taylor; Parsons, Christopher T; Ridenour, Christine; Stojanovic, Severin; Dürr, Hans H; Powley, Helen R; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2015-12-22

    More than 70,000 large dams have been built worldwide. With growing water stress and demand for energy, this number will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Damming greatly modifies the ecological functioning of river systems. In particular, dam reservoirs sequester nutrient elements and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to floodplains, lakes, wetlands, and coastal marine environments. Here, we quantify the global impact of dams on the riverine fluxes and speciation of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P), using a mechanistic modeling approach that accounts for the in-reservoir biogeochemical transformations of P. According to the model calculations, the mass of total P (TP) trapped in reservoirs nearly doubled between 1970 and 2000, reaching 42 Gmol y(-1), or 12% of the global river TP load in 2000. Because of the current surge in dam building, we project that by 2030, about 17% of the global river TP load will be sequestered in reservoir sediments. The largest projected increases in TP and reactive P (RP) retention by damming will take place in Asia and South America, especially in the Yangtze, Mekong, and Amazon drainage basins. Despite the large P retention capacity of reservoirs, the export of RP from watersheds will continue to grow unless additional measures are taken to curb anthropogenic P emissions. PMID:26644553

  1. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  2. Modeling structural influences on soil water retention

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A new model quantities the effect of soil structure, considered as the arrangement of particles in the soil, on soil water retention. The model partitions the pore space into texture-related and structure-related components, the textural component being what can be deduced to exist if the arrangement of the particles were random, and the structural component being the remainder. An existing model, based on particle-size distributions, represents the textural component, and a new model, based on aggregate-size distributions, represents the structural component. This new model makes use of generalized properties that vary little from one medium to another, thereby eliminating any need for empirically tilted parameters. It postulates a particular character of the structural pore space that in same ways resembles texture-related pore space, but with pore shape related to the breadth of the aggregate-size distribution. To predict a soil water retention curve, this model requires the soil's porosity and particle- and aggregate-size distributions. Tested with measurements for 17 samples from two sources, it fits the data much better than does a model based on texture alone. Goodness of fit indicated by correlation coefficients ranged from 0.908 to 0.998 for the new model, compared with a range of 0.686 in 0.955 for the texture-based model.

  3. High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

  4. Job embeddedness as a nurse retention strategy for rural hospitals.

    PubMed

    Stroth, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    RN turnover is expensive and disruptive for rural hospitals, constraining finances, impacting patient care, and stressing remaining nurses. Recent investigations have described a promising new construct related to employee retention: job embeddedness. Leaders in nonhealthcare organizations have adopted a job-embeddedness model to guide retention strategies and experienced a subsequent reduction in turnover. The author explores job embeddedness as an effective retention plan strategy for rural hospitals. PMID:20010375

  5. Manager impact on retention of hospital staff: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Taunton, R L; Krampitz, S D; Woods, C Q

    1989-04-01

    This is the second article in a two-part series based on a study of the impact of middle managers on retention of 71 hospital professionals. Research design, methods, and descriptive results were presented in Part 1 (March 1989). In Part 2, the impact of managers' motivation to manage, power, influence, and leadership style on retention is detailed. Recommendations for improving retention include interventions to increase employee job satisfaction and intent to stay, and to improve managers' performance and leadership.

  6. Advance care directives

    MedlinePlus

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  7. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  8. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan; Enns, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn's disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  9. Secondary retention of rubber dam: effective moisture control access considerations.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W H

    1995-04-01

    Primary rubber dam retention affects attachment of the latex sheet to the anchor teeth bordering the isolated working field. Secondary rubber dam retention is the provision of an effective seal at the dam-tooth junction, which is essential to the maintenance of adequate access and moisture control within the working field. Practical hints are offered to optimize access and moisture control through well-planned and properly executed secondary retention of classic rubber dam applications. In addition, innovative solutions to the limitations of general field isolation, which pertain mostly to secondary retention of the unrestrained buccal and lingual curtains of the slit dam, are introduced.

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 749 - Record Retention Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RECORDS PRESERVATION PROGRAM AND APPENDICES-RECORD RETENTION GUIDELINES; CATASTROPHIC ACT PREPAREDNESS... microfilm, microfiche, or in an electronic format, the stored records must be accurate, reproducible...

  11. Retention Indices for Frequently Reported Compounds of Plant Essential Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babushok, V. I.; Linstrom, P. J.; Zenkevich, I. G.

    2011-12-01

    Gas chromatographic retention indices were evaluated for 505 frequently reported plant essential oil components using a large retention index database. Retention data are presented for three types of commonly used stationary phases: dimethyl silicone (nonpolar), dimethyl silicone with 5% phenyl groups (slightly polar), and polyethylene glycol (polar) stationary phases. The evaluations are based on the treatment of multiple measurements with the number of data records ranging from about 5 to 800 per compound. Data analysis was limited to temperature programmed conditions. The data reported include the average and median values of retention index with standard deviations and confidence intervals.

  12. Mechanical retention versus bonding of amalgam and gallium alloy restorations.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Staninec, M; Yip, R L; Chavez, M A

    1994-10-01

    The retention of amalgam and gallium alloy restorations in proximal box forms was measured in vitro, and three different adhesives to conventional undercuts were compared. For control, restorations were placed without undercuts or adhesives. No significant difference was found between amalgam and gallium alloys with each of the five methods of retention used. Alloys placed without retention or adhesives were significantly less retentive than all other groups. When Tytin alloy was used, no difference was found in retention among the restorations retained with Panavia or All-Bond adhesive or an occlusal dovetail and retention grooves, but Amalgambond adhesive was less retentive than all three of these methods. When gallium alloy was used, both Panavia and All-Bond adhesive were more retentive than undercuts, but the effect of Amalgambond adhesive was more retentive than undercuts, but the effect of Amalgambond adhesive was comparable to that of undercuts. The results of this study indicate that adhesives could be used in place of traditional undercuts to retain amalgam and gallium alloys, thus saving a considerable amount of tooth structure. PMID:7990038

  13. Advanced Construction of Compact Containment BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Maruyama, T.; Mori, H.; Hoshino, K.; Hijioka, Y.; Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Hoshi, T.

    2006-07-01

    The reactor concept considered in this paper has a mid/small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. Compact Containment BWR (CCR) is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, will provide attractiveness for the energy market in the world due to its flexibility in energy demands as well as in site conditions, its high potential in reducing investment risk and its safety feature facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's mid/small power output of 400 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). The high investment potential is expected from CCR's simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, top mounted upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified safety system with high pressure resistible primary containment vessel (PCV) concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps as well as needs for maintenance of such pumps. The top mounted upper entry CRDs enable the bottom located short core in RPV. The safety feature mainly consists of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), high pressure resistible PCV and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response time in case of design base accidents including loss of coolant accidents. The IC suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without any AC power. Cooling the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability could attain the IVR. CCR's specific self-standing steel high pressure resistible PCV is designed to contain minimum piping and valves inside with reactor pressure vessel (RPV), only 13 m in diameter and 24 m in height. This compact PCV makes it possible to

  14. Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the

  15. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan et al., 2014), the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals' fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals' fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals' retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals' retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals' language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words. PMID:25324789

  16. Retention of Cationic Starch onto Cellulose Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missaoui, Mohamed; Mauret, Evelyne; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2008-08-01

    Three methods of cationic starch titration were used to quantify its retention on cellulose fibres, namely: (i) the complexation of CS with iodine and measurement of the absorbency of the ensuing blue solution by UV-vis spectroscopy; (ii) hydrolysis of the starch macromolecules followed by the conversion of the resulting sugars to furan-based molecules and quantifying the ensuing mixture by measuring their absorbance at a Ι of 490 nm, using the same technique as previous one and; finally (iii) hydrolysis of starch macromolecules by trifluoro-acetic acid and quantification of the sugars in the resulting hydrolysates by high performance liquid chromatography. The three methods were found to give similar results within the range of CS addition from 0 to 50 mg per g of cellulose fibres.

  17. Quantitative structure-chromatographic retention relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Kaliszan, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging overview of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR). It brings together a great deal of information that previously was scattered in various parts of the literature. Although the book covers a lot of material, it provides the reader with sufficient background to read the related literature. In addition to QSRR, the book covers some topics related to quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), where activity refers to biological activity. Overall, the book is well written and easy to understand. It would have been helpful to the reader if the chapter numbers had been included in the running heads. The book is divided by subject into 12 chapters, each with references. Works published through 1985 are included; hence, some recent literature is not covered. However, the book is heavily referenced, and each reference has the full title of the work as well as source and author information.

  18. Recruitment and Retention of LGBTIQ Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William Van Dyke

    2012-01-01

    While lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or questioning (LGBTIQ) astronomers face many of the same workplace challenges as women and racial/ethnic minorities, from implicit bias to overt discrimination, other challenges are unique to this group. An obvious example is the absence at many institutions of health insurance and other benefits for the same-sex domestic partners of their employees. More subtle is the psychological toll paid by LGBTIQ astronomers who remain "in the closet," self-censoring every statement about their personal lives. Paradoxically, the culture of the physical sciences, in which sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression are considered irrelevant, can discourage their discussion, further isolating LGBTIQ researchers. Addressing these challenges is not just a matter of fairness; it is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of the brightest researchers and in assuring their productivity. We will discuss these issues and what individuals and departments can to make their institutions more welcoming to their LGBTIQ colleagues.

  19. Building 310 retention tanks characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Sholeen, C.M.; Geraghty, D.C.

    1996-12-01

    The Health Physics Section of ANL performed a characterization of the Building 310 Service Floor Retention Tank Facility during the months of July and August, 1996. The characterization included measurements for radioactivity, air sampling for airborne particles and sampling to determine the presence and quantity of hazardous materials requiring remediation. Copies of previous lead and asbestos sampling information was obtained from ESH-IH. The facility consists of ten retention tanks located in rooms, A-062A, A-050A, A-038A, A-026A, and an entry room A-068A which contained miscellaneous pumps and other scrap material. Significant contamination was found in each room except room A-068A which had two contaminated spots on the floor and a discarded contaminated pump. Room A-062A: This room had the highest radiation background. Therefore, beta readings reflected the background readings. The floor, west wall, and the exterior of tank No. 1 had areas of alpha contamination. The piping leading from the tank had elevated gamma readings. There were low levels of smearable contamination on the west wall-Room A-050A: Alpha and Beta contamination is wide spread on the floor, west wall and the lower portion of the north wall. An area near the electrical box on the west wall had alpha and beta loose contamination. The exterior of tank No. 4 also had contaminated areas. The grate in front of tank No. 4 was contaminated. The piping leading from tanks No. 2, 3, and 4 had elevated gamma readings. There were low levels of smearable contamination on tank No. 4 and on the tar paper that is glued to the floor.

  20. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: How Effective Are Different Approaches Aiming to Increase Employment Retention and Advancement? Final Impacts for Twelve Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendra, Richard; Dillman, Keri-Nicole; Hamilton, Gayle; Lundquist, Erika; Martinson, Karin; Wavelet, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Research completed since the 1980s has yielded substantial knowledge about how to help welfare recipients and other low-income individuals prepare for and find jobs. Many participants in these successful job preparation and placement programs, however, ended up in unstable, low-paying jobs, and little was known about how to effectively help them…

  1. The retention of first-generation college students in STEM: An extension of Tinto's longitudinal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uche, Ada Rosemary

    In the current technologically advanced global economy, the role of human capital and education cannot be over-emphasized. Since almost all great inventions in the world have a scientific or technological foundation, having a skilled workforce is imperative for any nation's economic growth. Currently, large segments of the United States' population are underrepresented in the attainment of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) degrees, and in the STEM professions. Scholars, educators, policy-makers, and employers are concerned about the decline in student enrollment and graduation from STEM disciplines. This trend is especially problematic for first-generation college students. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the factors that predict the retention of first-generation college students in the STEM majors. It employs Tinto's longitudinal model (1993) as a conceptual framework to predict STEM retention for first-generation college students. The analysis uses the Beginning Post-secondary Students study (BPS 04/09) data and Roots of STEM qualitative data to investigate the role of first-generation status in STEM major retention. Results indicate that upper levels of achievement in high school math have a significant effect on first-generation status in STEM outcomes.

  2. NASA records retention schedules: Procedures governing the retention, retirement, and destruction of agency records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This handbook sets forth the minimum retention periods of official records of NASA. Its provisions are applicable to NASA Headquarters and all field installations. This revised edition has been correlated to the 'NASA Uniform Files Index (UFI) (NHB 1442.1B), the General Records Schedules' produced by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and has been enlarged in scope to cover Privacy Act Systems of Records and record series previously omitted. Guidance is provided in the areas of record retirement, transfer, and retrieval from Federal Record Centers (FRC) and disposal actions. Included are provisions for making changes to these schedules by addition of new items or revision of current items. The NASA Records Retention Schedules (NRRS) were approved for NASA use by NARA, the General Services Administration, and the General Accounting Office.

  3. Genetic programming based quantitative structure-retention relationships for the prediction of Kovats retention indices.

    PubMed

    Goel, Purva; Bapat, Sanket; Vyas, Renu; Tambe, Amruta; Tambe, Sanjeev S

    2015-11-13

    The development of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) aims at constructing an appropriate linear/nonlinear model for the prediction of the retention behavior (such as Kovats retention index) of a solute on a chromatographic column. Commonly, multi-linear regression and artificial neural networks are used in the QSRR development in the gas chromatography (GC). In this study, an artificial intelligence based data-driven modeling formalism, namely genetic programming (GP), has been introduced for the development of quantitative structure based models predicting Kovats retention indices (KRI). The novelty of the GP formalism is that given an example dataset, it searches and optimizes both the form (structure) and the parameters of an appropriate linear/nonlinear data-fitting model. Thus, it is not necessary to pre-specify the form of the data-fitting model in the GP-based modeling. These models are also less complex, simple to understand, and easy to deploy. The effectiveness of GP in constructing QSRRs has been demonstrated by developing models predicting KRIs of light hydrocarbons (case study-I) and adamantane derivatives (case study-II). In each case study, two-, three- and four-descriptor models have been developed using the KRI data available in the literature. The results of these studies clearly indicate that the GP-based models possess an excellent KRI prediction accuracy and generalization capability. Specifically, the best performing four-descriptor models in both the case studies have yielded high (>0.9) values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) and low values of root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for training, test and validation set data. The characteristic feature of this study is that it introduces a practical and an effective GP-based method for developing QSRRs in gas chromatography that can be gainfully utilized for developing other types of data-driven models in chromatography science

  4. Genetic programming based quantitative structure-retention relationships for the prediction of Kovats retention indices.

    PubMed

    Goel, Purva; Bapat, Sanket; Vyas, Renu; Tambe, Amruta; Tambe, Sanjeev S

    2015-11-13

    The development of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) aims at constructing an appropriate linear/nonlinear model for the prediction of the retention behavior (such as Kovats retention index) of a solute on a chromatographic column. Commonly, multi-linear regression and artificial neural networks are used in the QSRR development in the gas chromatography (GC). In this study, an artificial intelligence based data-driven modeling formalism, namely genetic programming (GP), has been introduced for the development of quantitative structure based models predicting Kovats retention indices (KRI). The novelty of the GP formalism is that given an example dataset, it searches and optimizes both the form (structure) and the parameters of an appropriate linear/nonlinear data-fitting model. Thus, it is not necessary to pre-specify the form of the data-fitting model in the GP-based modeling. These models are also less complex, simple to understand, and easy to deploy. The effectiveness of GP in constructing QSRRs has been demonstrated by developing models predicting KRIs of light hydrocarbons (case study-I) and adamantane derivatives (case study-II). In each case study, two-, three- and four-descriptor models have been developed using the KRI data available in the literature. The results of these studies clearly indicate that the GP-based models possess an excellent KRI prediction accuracy and generalization capability. Specifically, the best performing four-descriptor models in both the case studies have yielded high (>0.9) values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) and low values of root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for training, test and validation set data. The characteristic feature of this study is that it introduces a practical and an effective GP-based method for developing QSRRs in gas chromatography that can be gainfully utilized for developing other types of data-driven models in chromatography science.

  5. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  6. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  7. What Works in Student Retention? All Survey Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habley, Wesley R.; McClanahan, Randy

    2004-01-01

    This report reflects ACT's commitment to assist colleges and universities to better understand the impact of campus practices on college student retention and degree completion. Survey findings indicate that: (1) Only 51.7% of campuses have identified an individual responsible for coordinating retention strategies; (2) Only 47.2% of campuses have…

  8. Effects of Targeted Sales Messages on Subscription Sales and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamst, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the effects of targeted sales messages on newspaper subscription sales and retention by combining two large research projects--a demographic market segmentation scheme, and a readership-lifestyle survey. Proposes that the content of sales messages influences new subscriptions but does not affect retention. (MM)

  9. 7 CFR 7.38 - Retention of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of authority. 7.38 Section 7.38 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.38 Retention of authority. Nothing in this part...

  10. 7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section 274....5 Record retention and forms security. (a) Availability of records. (1) The State agency shall.... (2) In lieu of the records themselves, easily retrievable microfilm, microfiche, or computer...

  11. 7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section 274....5 Record retention and forms security. (a) Availability of records. (1) The State agency shall.... (2) In lieu of the records themselves, easily retrievable microfilm, microfiche, or computer...

  12. 7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section 274.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.5 Record retention and forms security....

  13. 7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section 274....5 Record retention and forms security. (a) Availability of records. (1) The State agency shall.... (2) In lieu of the records themselves, easily retrievable microfilm, microfiche, or computer...

  14. Student Retention and Graduation, University System of Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University System of Georgia, Atlanta. Office of Research and Planning.

    Describing outcomes related to student retention and graduation in the University System of Georgia, this six-part report discusses definitions and assumptions pertaining to retention and compares success rates for black, white, developmental studies, and regularly-admitted freshmen students in USG senior and two-year colleges. Section 1 provides…

  15. Predictors of First-Year Retention in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertes, Scott J.; Hoover, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Retention is a complex issue of great importance to community colleges. Several retention models have been developed to help explain this phenomenon. However, these models typically have used four-year college and university environments to build their foundations. Several researchers have attempted to identify predictor variables using…

  16. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…

  17. Clomipramine-induced urinary retention in a cat.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, E; Guy, N; Cribb, A

    1999-04-01

    A 10-year-old, female, spayed shorthair with presumed psychogenic alopecia was treated with clomipramine (1 mg/kg body weight/day). The cat developed urinary retention within 2 days. Clomipramine was discontinued. Clinical signs resolved over the next 7 days. The urinary retention was attributed to the anticholinergic effects of clomipramine.

  18. 24 CFR 990.305 - Retention of excess revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of excess revenues. 990... Resident Management Corporations (RMCs) § 990.305 Retention of excess revenues. (a) Any income generated by... by the PHA under the management contract. (c) Any revenues retained by an RMC under this section...

  19. Mapping a Retention Index across the Student Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Merwe, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Student retention is the field of institutional research that has (deservedly) had the most attention. Besides the models proposed by Tinto (1975, 1993), there have been many theoretical and applied papers on many aspects of student retention. These include demographic characteristics, scholastic scores, financial and residential considerations,…

  20. 19 CFR 111.23 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retention of records. 111.23 Section 111.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.23 Retention of records. (a) Place and period of retention—(1)...

  1. Please, Not Another Push to Get Tough on Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, M. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized academic testing, under-performing schools, demands for high standards in America's schools and current levels of student dropouts have resulted in renewed calls for "getting tough on student retention." The push for student retention is demanded by school boards and others in spite of the overwhelming research evidence that student…

  2. 27 CFR 28.45 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of records. 28.45 Section 28.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Miscellaneous Provisions Retention of Records §...

  3. 27 CFR 28.45 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retention of records. 28.45 Section 28.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Miscellaneous Provisions Retention of Records §...

  4. Annotated Bibliography: Black Student Retention in Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunston, F. Myron; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of 105 publications (1961-1982) on the retention of black college students is presented. Topics include: retention programs for low income and minority undergraduates; the interrelatedness of curriculum and cultural/economic reproduction; predicting academic performance in college; dropout prevention and reasons…

  5. 21 CFR 320.63 - Retention of bioequivalence samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retention of bioequivalence samples. 320.63... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.63 Retention of bioequivalence...

  6. 21 CFR 320.63 - Retention of bioequivalence samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retention of bioequivalence samples. 320.63... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.63 Retention of bioequivalence...

  7. 21 CFR 320.63 - Retention of bioequivalence samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retention of bioequivalence samples. 320.63... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.63 Retention of bioequivalence...

  8. 44 CFR 321.5 - Retention of industrial facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Retention of industrial..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.5 Retention of industrial facilities. (a) Industrial..., shall be retained in the Industrial reserves (National Industrial Reserve, Departmental...

  9. 44 CFR 321.5 - Retention of industrial facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of industrial..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.5 Retention of industrial facilities. (a) Industrial..., shall be retained in the Industrial reserves (National Industrial Reserve, Departmental...

  10. 44 CFR 321.5 - Retention of industrial facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of industrial..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.5 Retention of industrial facilities. (a) Industrial..., shall be retained in the Industrial reserves (National Industrial Reserve, Departmental...

  11. 46 CFR 4.05-15 - Voyage records, retention of.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Voyage records, retention of. 4.05-15 Section 4.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-15 Voyage records, retention of. (a) The owner, agent, master, or...

  12. Retention of crowns cemented on implant abutments with temporary cements.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Yuko; Hibino, Yasushi; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    This study was to examine the retentive force of crowns to implant abutments with commercial temporary cements. Six different temporary cements were investigated. Cast crowns were cemented to the abutments using each cement and their retentive forces to abutments were determined 7 or 28 days after cementing (n=10). The retentive force of the cements to abutments varied widely among the products [27-109 N (7-day), 18-80 N (28-days)]. The retentive force of all the cements was not reduced as the time elapsed, except for two products tested. The polycarboxylate cements and paste-mixing type eugenol-free cements revealed comparable retentive force after 28 days of storage. The powder-liquid type cements showed a positive correlation (p<0.05) between the retentive force and the shear strength, while a negative correlation (p<0.05) was obtained for paste-mixing type cement between the retentive force and compressive strength. Mechanical strength of temporary cements could not be a prominent predicting factor for retention of the crowns on the abutments.

  13. Neuropathic urinary retention in the absence of neurological signs.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, P A; McLoughlin, J; Sibley, G N; Dorman, P J; Kabala, J; Ormerod, I E

    1995-12-01

    We present two cases of painless urinary retention secondary to central intervertebral disc prolapse. In neither case were there signs or symptoms suggesting an underlying neurological insult. Both patients voided spontaneously following neurosurgical intervention. The classical features of acute cauda equina compression may be absent in patients with central lumbar disc protrusion. Painless urinary retention may be the only physical sign.

  14. Study Abroad Programming: A 21st Century Retention Strategy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Christy A.

    2006-01-01

    Preparing the workforce for an increasingly global economy is among the leading concerns in higher education, and retention of students is vital to successfully managing this economic shift. Study abroad programming consistently yields positive outcomes that span these three levels and may very well be a retention strategy that has been previously…

  15. 16 CFR 312.10 - Data retention and deletion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data retention and deletion requirements. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.10 Data retention and deletion requirements....

  16. Retention Issues: A Study of Alabama Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plash, Shawn; Piotrowski, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated issues that impact attrition, migration and retention of special education teachers in Alabama. The sample comprised 70 teachers designated as "highly-qualified" who responded to a job satisfaction instrument, with a focus on retention issues, developed by Levine (2001). The results indicated that the major reasons for…

  17. 24 CFR 590.25 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of records. 590.25 Section 590.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN HOMESTEADING § 590.25 Retention of records. The LUHA...

  18. The Retention Factor: Retaining the Distance Education Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is focused upon retaining distance education learners. Many adult learners are returning to higher education but may not complete their chosen curriculum. Fike and Fike (2008) stated that retention is important for a variety of reasons: (a) from the institution's perspective, the retention of students is necessary for…

  19. Teacher Induction, Mentoring, and Retention: A Summary of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the research literature on new teacher mentoring, focusing on issues of definition, why teachers quit, and the effects of mentoring on retention. Conclusions call for more scientific studies on the relationship between mentoring and retention, more research on the relation between mentoring and other educational outcomes, and a…

  20. Grade Retention and School Adjustment: An Explanatory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    Studied effects at grade 4 of early grade retention for 1,255 low-income mostly African-American children (20.4 percent had been retained from kindergarten to grade 3). Retention negatively affected cognitive reading and mathematics achievement, had no relation to teacher ratings of school adjustment, and positively affected children's perceived…

  1. A Data-Mining Approach to Differentiate Predictors of Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong Ho; DiGangi, Samuel A.; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; Lo, Wenjuo; Kaprolet, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Student retention is an important issue for all university administrators and faculty due to the potential negative impact of student attrition. In this study, retention rates will be studied with data from sophomore students who initially enrolled in the 2002 academic year at Arizona State University, following these students through their junior…

  2. 49 CFR 1244.6 - Retention of files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of files. 1244.6 Section 1244.6... PROPERTY-RAILROADS § 1244.6 Retention of files. (a) Subject railroads which submit waybill sample data by... transit waybills, for a minimum period of four years. (b) This file of retained waybills shall...

  3. 32 CFR 536.69 - Retention of file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Retention of file. 536.69 Section 536.69 National... UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.69 Retention of file. After final action has been taken, the settlement authority will retain the file until at least one month after either...

  4. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from which the second reduction in grade was made for 2 years following the effective date of the second reduction in grade. (c) Notwithstanding § 536.207(a)(1), grade retention continues to apply to an... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Period of grade retention....

  5. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... from which the second reduction in grade was made for 2 years following the effective date of the second reduction in grade. (c) Notwithstanding § 536.207(a)(1), grade retention continues to apply to an... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Period of grade retention....

  6. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... from which the second reduction in grade was made for 2 years following the effective date of the second reduction in grade. (c) Notwithstanding § 536.207(a)(1), grade retention continues to apply to an... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Period of grade retention....

  7. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... from which the second reduction in grade was made for 2 years following the effective date of the second reduction in grade. (c) Notwithstanding § 536.207(a)(1), grade retention continues to apply to an... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Period of grade retention....

  8. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... from which the second reduction in grade was made for 2 years following the effective date of the second reduction in grade. (c) Notwithstanding § 536.207(a)(1), grade retention continues to apply to an... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Period of grade retention....

  9. 40 CFR 160.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retention of records. 160.195 Section 160.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Records and Reports § 160.195 Retention of records. (a) Record...

  10. Catholic School Principal Job Satisfaction: Keys to Retention and Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jennifer; Brock, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a study on principal retention in New South Wales, Australia. Factors in job retention included economic security, role enjoyment, and the opportunity to contribute. Disincentives to the principalship included lack of support from the employing authority, inadequate pay, isolation, growing responsibilities, difficult parents,…

  11. 21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retentive and splinting pin. 872.3740 Section 872.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3740 Retentive and splinting pin....

  12. 21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retentive and splinting pin. 872.3740 Section 872.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3740 Retentive and splinting pin....

  13. Background or Experience? Using Logistic Regression to Predict College Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synco, Tracee M.

    2012-01-01

    Tinto, Astin and countless others have researched the retention and attrition of students from college for more than thirty years. However, the six year graduation rate for all first-time full-time freshmen for the 2002 cohort was 57%. This study sought to determine the retention variables that predicted continued enrollment of entering freshmen…

  14. Assessing Retention in Online Learning: An Administrative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Wallace E.; Ice, Phil

    2011-01-01

    As the growth of online programs continues to rapidly accelerate, concern over the retention of the online learner is increasing. Educational administrators at institutions offering online courses, those fully online or brick and mortars, are eager to promote student achievement. Retention is critically important, not just for student success, but…

  15. Comprehensive Assessment of Student Retention in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Wallace E.; Ice, Phil; Gibson, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    As the growth of online programs continues to rapidly accelerate, concern over the retention of the online learner is increasing. Educational administrators at institutions offering online courses, those fully online or brick and mortars, are eager to promote student achievement. Retention is critically important, not just for student success, but…

  16. Know when to Hold 'Em: Data Retention Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jason

    2007-01-01

    While the need for a data retention policy is rapidly becoming clear to schools, little guidance is available for crafting one. Most schools depend on backup and recovery plans that generally focus on individual servers or devices. However, retention policies also need to focus on the type of data contained on those servers and how it will be…

  17. 4 CFR 5.2 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 5.2 Section 5.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.2 Grade and pay retention. (a) Change of... pay system. (4) For such other purposes as the Comptroller General may provide by regulation....

  18. 10 CFR 36.81 - Records and retention periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records and retention periods. 36.81 Section 36.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Records § 36.81 Records and retention periods. The licensee shall maintain the following records at the irradiator for the periods specified. (a) A copy of...

  19. 13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861... Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one Job Opportunity per an amount of 504 loan funding that will be...

  20. 13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861... Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one Job Opportunity per an amount of 504 loan funding that will be...

  1. 13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861... Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one Job Opportunity per an amount of 504 loan funding that will be...

  2. 13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861... Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one Job Opportunity per an amount of 504 loan funding that will be...

  3. 13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861... Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one Job Opportunity per an amount of 504 loan funding that will be...

  4. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  5. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  6. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  7. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  8. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  9. A Year-Round Recruitment and Retention Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monetti-Souply, Marta

    Catholic school educators are recognizing the necessity of marketing research for the effective planning of a long-range, proactive recruitment and retention program. A successful plan involves marketing, recruitment and retention, and public relations. Part I of this booklet outlines steps for the initiation of a marketing plan and provides…

  10. Retention Initiative for Unscheduled Sophomores and Unscheduled Readmits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Rashelle; Logue, Rose

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to increase student retention, phone calls were made by a university to non-returning sophomores and students who had applied for readmission after a hiatus. The purpose was to facilitate students' registration for classes, and thus, their return to campus. The strategy proved effective as a retention device and provided useful…

  11. 50 CFR 635.22 - Recreational retention limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Atlantic EEZ, to a shark taken from or possessed in the Atlantic Ocean including the Gulf of... boundary of the EEZ. (c) Sharks. (1) The recreational retention limit for sharks applies to any person who... commercial shark vessel permit under § 635.4. The retention limit can change depending on the species...

  12. Knowledge Retention as a Latent Outcome Measure in Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisher, Robert A.; Curnow, Christina K.; Seidel, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes two experiments that investigated the retention of knowledge as a latent measure of learning outcome in video teletraining courses, one for air traffic controllers and one for military training. Discusses the merits of knowledge retention as a construct for examining initial evidence of learning, especially for training related to the…

  13. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  14. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  15. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  16. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  17. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suture retention device. 878.4930 Section 878.4930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suture retention device. 878.4930 Section 878.4930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suture retention device. 878.4930 Section 878.4930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suture retention device. 878.4930 Section 878.4930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suture retention device. 878.4930 Section 878.4930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention...

  3. Recruitment, Retention, and Mentoring Faculty of Color: The Chronicle Continues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Chasity Q.

    2008-01-01

    Faculty of color continue to face challenges with recruitment, retention, and mentoring in academe. This article addresses issues that faculty of color in academe often face. It explores recruitment efforts and barriers and addresses issues associated with retention and obstructions to promotion and tenure. The article culminates with an…

  4. Improving Student Retention in Higher Education: Improving Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosling, Glenda; Heagney, Margaret; Thomas, Liz

    2009-01-01

    As a key performance indicator in university quality assurance processes, the retention of students in their studies is an issue of concern world-wide. Implicit in the process of quality assurance is quality improvement. In this article, we examine student retention from a teaching and learning perspective, in terms of teaching and learning…

  5. 47 CFR 68.326 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of records. 68.326 Section 68.326... TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.326 Retention....326(a) for at least ten years after the manufacture of said equipment has been...

  6. 47 CFR 68.326 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of records. 68.326 Section 68.326... TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.326 Retention....326(a) for at least ten years after the manufacture of said equipment has been...

  7. 47 CFR 68.326 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of records. 68.326 Section 68.326... TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.326 Retention....326(a) for at least ten years after the manufacture of said equipment has been...

  8. 47 CFR 68.326 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of records. 68.326 Section 68.326... TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.326 Retention....326(a) for at least ten years after the manufacture of said equipment has been...

  9. Enrollment Management: Perspectives on Student Retention (Part I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Hossler, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Among the earliest principles and premises of enrollment management as it evolved in concept and practice was that student retention is as critical as new student recruitment in achieving an institution's preferred enrollment profile. Over recent decades, student retention has been one of the most studied aspects of college enrollment dynamics,…

  10. Teacher Beliefs regarding Grade Retention in an Urban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore-Hook, Toni

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to a research-based presentation on grade retention, including the academic, socio-emotional and behavioral outcomes, would yield a change in teacher beliefs regarding retention as an intervention strategy. Teachers from a small urban school district were asked to complete a pre-survey, view a…

  11. 12 CFR 707.9 - Enforcement and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enforcement and record retention. 707.9 Section 707.9 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS TRUTH IN SAVINGS § 707.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a) Administrative enforcement. Section 270...

  12. 12 CFR 230.9 - Enforcement and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enforcement and record retention. 230.9 Section 230.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a)...

  13. 44 CFR 321.5 - Retention of industrial facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of industrial..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.5 Retention of industrial facilities. (a)...

  14. 12 CFR 230.9 - Enforcement and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement and record retention. 230.9 Section 230.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a)...

  15. 12 CFR 707.9 - Enforcement and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement and record retention. 707.9 Section 707.9 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS TRUTH IN SAVINGS § 707.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a) Administrative enforcement. Section 270...

  16. 19 CFR 111.23 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of records. 111.23 Section 111.23... TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.23 Retention of records. (a) Place and period of retention—(1) Place. Records must be retained by a broker in accordance with...

  17. 44 CFR 321.5 - Retention of industrial facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of industrial facilities. 321.5 Section 321.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.5 Retention of industrial facilities. (a)...

  18. 19 CFR 163.4 - Record retention period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record retention period. 163.4 Section 163.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.4 Record retention period. (a) General. Except as...

  19. 19 CFR 163.4 - Record retention period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record retention period. 163.4 Section 163.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.4 Record retention period. (a) General. Except as...

  20. 19 CFR 163.4 - Record retention period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Record retention period. 163.4 Section 163.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.4 Record retention period. (a) General. Except as...

  1. 19 CFR 163.4 - Record retention period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record retention period. 163.4 Section 163.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.4 Record retention period. (a) General. Except as...

  2. The Effects of Visual Materials on Attitudes, Credibility, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, William J.

    1971-01-01

    This study compares the relative effectiveness of two types of visual materials used alone and in combination in a persuasive speech on attitude change, credibility, and retention. Concludes that such aids can affect attitude change and speaker credibility even though they may have little or no effect on retention of content. (Author/JB)

  3. Informing Institutional Management: Institutional Strategies and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth; Frolich, Nicoline; Aamodt, Per Olaf

    2013-01-01

    European universities are facing demands for better student retention, especially in countries where state funding is no longer based on the number of students, but on the number of graduates. An extensive literature on retention focuses on the characteristics of students who leave higher education without a degree. Much less is known about the…

  4. SPARK: Student Participation And Retention Keys. Demonstration Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Rick

    The Student Participation And Retention Keys (SPARK) project at Blue Ridge Community College sought to determine why adult basic education (ABE) and General Educational Development (GED) students dropped out of the college's basic skills program and how student retention could be improved. With input from current and former students, a survey form…

  5. Recruitment and Retention of Latino Children in a Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Angelica; Richardson, Irma M.; Gesell, Sabina; Barkin, Shari L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe promising recruitment and retention strategies for transient Latino populations, assisting investigators who work with this population in their research design and implementation. Methods: Strategies in recruitment and retention from a year-long intervention in children and their families are described. Results: Of the 159…

  6. 28 CFR 345.67 - Retention of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retention of benefits. 345.67 Section 345.67 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.67 Retention of benefits. (a)...

  7. Systemwide Student Tracking and Retention Programs. A Special Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrian, Albert H., Ed.; Bonas, John E., Ed.

    Presentations at a seminar on systemwide tracking that grew out of efforts to promote implementation of South Carolina's desegregation plan are included. Two subjects were the focus: retention and the use of monitored developmental programs as a means of retention and of safeguarding quality. Essays include "Systemwide Student Tracking" (Delores…

  8. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    PubMed

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-01

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality. PMID:23565723

  9. 20 CFR 726.319 - Retention of official record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of official record. 726.319 Section 726.319 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE... INSURANCE Civil Money Penalties § 726.319 Retention of official record. The official record of...

  10. 9 CFR 325.14 - Certificates, retention by carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificates, retention by carrier. 325.14 Section 325.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION TRANSPORTATION § 325.14 Certificates, retention by carrier. All...

  11. Perceptions of the Impact of School Administrators on Teacher Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Zsa Zsa L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the behaviors of administrators and their impact on teacher retention. Teachers' perceptions were obtained in order to gain further understanding of the impact that administrators have on teachers' job satisfaction as well as of administrators' motivation to increase teacher retention. According…

  12. 48 CFR 2115.071 - Specific retention periods: Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Specific retention periods: Contract clause. 2115.071 Section 2115.071 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 2115.071 Specific retention periods: Contract clause. Unless...

  13. 49 CFR 199.227 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... defined in 49 CFR part 40) shall be maintained for a minimum of one year. (c) Types of records. The... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of records. 199.227 Section 199.227... Prevention Program § 199.227 Retention of records. (a) General requirement. Each operator shall...

  14. 49 CFR 225.27 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....27 Retention of records. (a) Each railroad shall retain the Railroad Employee Injury and/or Illness... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of records. 225.27 Section 225.27... year to which it relates. Each railroad must retain the Employee Human Factor Attachments required...

  15. 5 CFR 532.419 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 532.419 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.419 Grade and pay retention. (a) In accordance with section 9(a)(1) of Public Law 92-392 (86 Stat. 564, 573), an employee's initial rate of pay on conversion to...

  16. 21 CFR 54.6 - Recordkeeping and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recordkeeping and record retention. 54.6 Section 54.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE BY CLINICAL INVESTIGATORS § 54.6 Recordkeeping and record retention. (a) Financial records of clinical investigators to be...

  17. 29 CFR 404.7 - Maintenance and retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance and retention of records. 404.7 Section 404.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICER AND EMPLOYEE REPORTS § 404.7 Maintenance and retention...

  18. 27 CFR 20.265 - Retention of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of invoices. 20....265 Retention of invoices. (a) Any person required to keep records under this part shall retain copies of invoices which will enable appropriate TTB officers to readily obtain the details regarding:...

  19. 27 CFR 20.265 - Retention of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retention of invoices. 20....265 Retention of invoices. (a) Any person required to keep records under this part shall retain copies of invoices which will enable appropriate TTB officers to readily obtain the details regarding:...

  20. 27 CFR 20.265 - Retention of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retention of invoices. 20....265 Retention of invoices. (a) Any person required to keep records under this part shall retain copies of invoices which will enable appropriate TTB officers to readily obtain the details regarding:...

  1. 27 CFR 20.265 - Retention of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retention of invoices. 20....265 Retention of invoices. (a) Any person required to keep records under this part shall retain copies of invoices which will enable appropriate TTB officers to readily obtain the details regarding:...

  2. 27 CFR 20.265 - Retention of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retention of invoices. 20....265 Retention of invoices. (a) Any person required to keep records under this part shall retain copies of invoices which will enable appropriate TTB officers to readily obtain the details regarding:...

  3. Logit Analysis of Graduate Student Retention and Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Mary Diederich; Markewich, Theodore S.

    Logit analysis coupled with the BMDP4F computer program (Brown, 1983) was used to derive an appropriate model for the study of student retention and graduation. The model was then applied to graduate student retention and graduation data from the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP). Logit analysis is a method of determining what effects…

  4. Retention Initiatives Used by Professional Bachelor's Athletic Training Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Retaining athletic training students has been identified as problematic by approximately half of athletic training program (ATP) directors. It is unknown what ATP directors do to improve athletic training student retention. Objective: To identify initiatives that ATP directors use to improve the retention rates of athletic training…

  5. IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for the National Children's Study
    Danelle T Lobdell1, Suzanne Gilboa2, Pauline Mendola1 (1US EPA, NHEERL; 2UNC Chapel Hill)

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, co...

  6. Leadership and nurse retention: the pivotal role of nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Mary K; Standing, Theresa S; Glick, JoAnn; Duffy, Martha; Paschall, Fran; Sauer, Mary R; Sweeney, Denise Kosty; Modic, Mary Beth; Dumpe, Michelle L

    2005-03-01

    As the link between executives and bedside nurses, nurse managers assume roles that bridge both organizational and professional goals. Nurse retention is one of the many responsibilities that characterize the nurse manager's work. To better understand the pivotal role of nurse managers, the authors describe the views of 32 nurse managers regarding their roles and the characteristics they need to promote retention.

  7. Water retention and gas relative permeability of two industrial concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wei; Liu Jian; Brue, Flore; Skoczylas, Frederic; Davy, C.A.; Bourbon, Xavier; Talandier, Jean

    2012-07-15

    This experimental study aims at identifying the water retention properties of two industrial concretes to be used for long term underground nuclear waste storage structures. Together with water retention, gas transfer properties are identified at varying water saturation level, i.e. relative gas permeability is assessed directly as a function of water saturation level S{sub w}. The influence of the initial de-sorption path and of the subsequent re-saturation are analysed both in terms of water retention and gas transfer properties. Also, the influence of concrete microstructure upon water retention and relative gas permeability is assessed, using porosity measurements, analysis of the BET theory from water retention properties, and MIP. Finally, a single relative gas permeability curve is proposed for each concrete, based on Van Genuchten-Mualem's statistical model, to be used for continuous modelling approaches of concrete structures, both during drying and imbibition.

  8. Water retention curve for hydrate-bearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Sheng; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2013-11-01

    water retention curve plays a central role in numerical algorithms that model hydrate dissociation in sediments. The determination of the water retention curve for hydrate-bearing sediments faces experimental difficulties, and most studies assume constant water retention curves regardless of hydrate saturation. This study employs network model simulation to investigate the water retention curve for hydrate-bearing sediments. Results show that (1) hydrate in pores shifts the curve to higher capillary pressures and the air entry pressure increases as a power function of hydrate saturation; (2) the air entry pressure is lower in sediments with patchy rather than distributed hydrate, with higher pore size variation and pore connectivity or with lower specimen slenderness along the flow direction; and (3) smaller specimens render higher variance in computed water retention curves, especially at high water saturation Sw > 0.7. Results are relevant to other sediment pore processes such as bioclogging and mineral precipitation.

  9. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  10. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  11. Advanced Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarantos, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    This is an excerpt from a course for advanced students, designed to teach proficiency in English composition by providing activities specifically geared to the elimination of native language interference. (LG)

  12. Computer game-based and traditional learning method: a comparison regarding students’ knowledge retention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Educational computer games are examples of computer-assisted learning objects, representing an educational strategy of growing interest. Given the changes in the digital world over the last decades, students of the current generation expect technology to be used in advancing their learning requiring a need to change traditional passive learning methodologies to an active multisensory experimental learning methodology. The objective of this study was to compare a computer game-based learning method with a traditional learning method, regarding learning gains and knowledge retention, as means of teaching head and neck Anatomy and Physiology to Speech-Language and Hearing pathology undergraduate students. Methods Students were randomized to participate to one of the learning methods and the data analyst was blinded to which method of learning the students had received. Students’ prior knowledge (i.e. before undergoing the learning method), short-term knowledge retention and long-term knowledge retention (i.e. six months after undergoing the learning method) were assessed with a multiple choice questionnaire. Students’ performance was compared considering the three moments of assessment for both for the mean total score and for separated mean scores for Anatomy questions and for Physiology questions. Results Students that received the game-based method performed better in the pos-test assessment only when considering the Anatomy questions section. Students that received the traditional lecture performed better in both post-test and long-term post-test when considering the Anatomy and Physiology questions. Conclusions The game-based learning method is comparable to the traditional learning method in general and in short-term gains, while the traditional lecture still seems to be more effective to improve students’ short and long-term knowledge retention. PMID:23442203

  13. Feasibility of underwater welding of highly irradiated in-vessel components of boiling-water reactors: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, A.L.

    1997-11-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), initiated a literature review to assess the state of underwater welding technology. In particular, the objective of this literature review was to evaluate the viability of underwater welding in-vessel components of boiling water reactor (BWR) in-vessel components, especially those components fabricated from stainless steels that are subjected to high neutron fluences. This assessment was requested because of the recent increased level of activity in the commercial nuclear industry to address generic issues concerning the reactor vessel and internals, especially those issues related to repair options. This literature review revealed a preponderance of general information about underwater welding technology, as a result of the active research in this field sponsored by the U.S. Navy and offshore oil and gas industry concerns. However, the literature search yielded only a limited amount of information about underwater welding of components in low-fluence areas of BWR in-vessel environments, and no information at all concerning underwater welding experiences in high-fluence environments. Research reported by the staff of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site and researchers from the DOE fusion reactor program proved more fruitful. This research documented relevant experience concerning welding of stainless steel materials in air environments exposed to high neutron fluences. It also addressed problems with welding highly irradiated materials, and primarily attributed those problems to helium-induced cracking in the material. (Helium is produced from the neutron irradiation of boron, an impurity, and nickel.) The researchers found that the amount of helium-induced cracking could be controlled, or even eliminated, by reducing the heat input into the weld and applying a compressive stress perpendicular to the weld path.

  14. STARR (Student Tutoring, Tournament, Attendance Monitoring, Relaxation Training, Retention Goals): A Student Oriented Curriculum Designed with Retention in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, J. E.

    A student-oriented curriculum approach was developed at Edison Community College to encourage retention and sustain students' interest in classes. The five elements of the program are student tutoring, a tournament, attendance monitoring, relaxation training, and retention goals (STARR). The tutorial component involves study teams of four or five…

  15. 45 CFR 95.610 - Submission of advance planning documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... will comply with all State and Federal requirements including the retention of software ownership... conversion, vendor and state personnel, computer capacity planning, supplies, training, hardware, software... contained at §§ 1355.54 through 1355.57, § 307.15 and 42 CFR subchapter C, part 433. (c) Advance...

  16. 45 CFR 95.610 - Submission of advance planning documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... will comply with all State and Federal requirements including the retention of software ownership... conversion, vendor and state personnel, computer capacity planning, supplies, training, hardware, software... contained at §§ 1355.54 through 1355.57, § 307.15 and 42 CFR subchapter C, part 433. (c) Advance...

  17. 45 CFR 95.610 - Submission of advance planning documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... will comply with all State and Federal requirements including the retention of software ownership... conversion, vendor and state personnel, computer capacity planning, supplies, training, hardware, software... contained at §§ 1355.54 through 1355.57, § 307.15 and 42 CFR subchapter C, part 433. (c) Advance...

  18. 45 CFR 95.610 - Submission of advance planning documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... will comply with all State and Federal requirements including the retention of software ownership... conversion, vendor and state personnel, computer capacity planning, supplies, training, hardware, software... contained at §§ 1355.54 through 1355.57, § 307.15 and 42 CFR subchapter C, part 433. (c) Advance...

  19. The Determinants of College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Adam A.

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to add to the college student dropout literature by examining persistence decisions at private, non-selective university using previously unstudied explanatory variables and advanced econometric methods. Three main contributions are provided. First, proprietary data obtained from a type of university that is underrepresented in…

  20. Biofilm Roughness Determines Cryptosporidium parvum Retention in Environmental Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, B. R.; Jellison, K. L.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium is a group of waterborne protozoan parasites that have been implicated in significant outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections throughout the world. Biofilms trap these pathogens and can contaminate water supplies through subsequent release. Biofilm microbial assemblages were collected seasonally from three streams in eastern Pennsylvania and used to grow biofilms in laboratory microcosms. Daily oocyst counts in the influx and efflux flow allowed the calculation of daily oocyst retention in the biofilm. Following the removal of oocysts from the influx water, oocyst attachment to the biofilm declined to an equilibrium state within 5 days that was sustained for at least 25 days. Varying the oocyst loading rate for the system showed that biofilm retention could be saturated, suggesting that discrete binding sites determined the maximum number of oocysts retained. Oocyst retention varied seasonally but was consistent across all three sites; however, seasonal oocyst retention was not consistent across years at the same site. No correlation between oocyst attachment and any measured water quality parameter was found. However, oocyst retention was strongly correlated with biofilm surface roughness and roughness varied among seasons and across years. We hypothesize that biofilm roughness and oocyst retention are dependent on environmentally driven changes in the biofilm community rather than directly on water quality conditions. It is important to understand oocyst transport dynamics to reduce risks of human infection. Better understanding of factors controlling biofilm retention of oocysts should improve our understanding of oocyst transport at different scales. PMID:22492449