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Sample records for advanced industrial gas

  1. Advanced Seal Development for Large Industrial Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts are in progress to develop advanced sealing for large utility industrial gas turbine engines (combustion turbines). Such seals have been under developed for some time for aero gas turbines. It is desired to transition this technology to combustion turbines. Brush seals, film riding face and circumferential seals, and other dynamic and static sealing approaches are being incorporated into gas turbines for aero applications by several engine manufacturers. These seals replace labyrinth or other seals with significantly reduced leakage rates. For utility industrial gas turbines, leakage reduction with advanced sealing can be even greater with the enormous size of the components. Challenges to transitioning technology include: extremely long operating times between overhauls; infrequent but large radial and axial excursions; difficulty in coating larger components; and maintenance, installation, and durability requirements. Advanced sealing is part of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) engine development being done under a cooperative agreement between Westinghouse and the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. Seal development focuses on various types of seals in the 501ATS engine both at dynamic and static locations. Each development includes rig testing of candidate designs and subsequent engine validation testing of prototype seals. This presentation gives an update of the ongoing ATS sealing efforts with special emphasis on brush seals.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  3. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.; Stetson, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    A program was conducted with the objective of developing advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Coating application was by plasma spray. Duplex, triplex and graded coatings were tested. Coating systems incorporated both NiCrAly and CoCrAly bond coats. Four ceramic overlays were tested: ZrO2.82O3; CaO.TiO2; 2CaO.SiO2; and MgO.Al2O3. The best overall results were obtained with a CaO.TiO2 coating applied to a NiCrAly bond coat. This coating was less sensitive than the ZrO2.8Y2O3 coating to process variables and part geometry. Testing with fuels contaminated with compounds containing sulfur, phosphorus and alkali metals showed the zirconia coatings were destabilized. The calcium titanate coatings were not affected by these contaminants. However, when fuels were used containing 50 ppm of vanadium and 150 ppm of magnesium, heavy deposits were formed on the test specimens and combustor components that required frequent cleaning of the test rig. During the program Mars engine first-stage turbine blades were coated and installed for an engine cyclic endurance run with the zirconia, calcium titanate, and calcium silicate coatings. Heavy spalling developed with the calcium silicate system. The zirconia and calcium titanate systems survived the full test duration. It was concluded that these two TBC's showed potential for application in gas turbines.

  4. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  5. Government/industry partnership: A revolutionary approach in global leadership of advanced gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Zeh, C.M.

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established a government/industry partnership program to greatly improve the capabilities of U.S. gas turbine technology. A new and challenging program named the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) has been initiated by DOE. The technical and business objectives of this initiative are to challenge the bounds of high performance capabilities of gas turbines, meet stringent environmental requirements, and produce lower cost electric power and cogeneration steam. This program will also yield greater societal benefits through continued expansion of high skilled U.S. jobs and export of U.S. products world wide. A progress report on the ATS program pertaining to program status at DOE will be presented and reviewed in this paper. A preliminary design of an industrial advanced turbine system configuration will also be outlined in the paper. The technical challenges; advanced critical technologies incorporation, analytical and experimental solutions, and test results of an advanced gas turbine meeting the DOE goals will be described and discussed.

  6. System definition and analysis gas-fired industrial advanced turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, G.M.

    1997-05-01

    The objective is to define and analyze an engine system based on the gas fuel Advanced Turbine from Task 3. Using the cycle results of Task 3, a technical effort was started for Task 6 which would establish the definition of the engine flowpath and the key engine component systems. The key engine systems are: gas turbine engine overall flowpath; booster (low pressure compressor); intercooler; high pressure compressor; combustor; high pressure turbine; low pressure turbine and materials; engine system packaging; and power plant configurations. The design objective is to use the GE90 engine as the platform for the GE Industrial Advanced Turbine System. This objective sets the bounds for the engine flowpath and component systems.

  7. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composites for Shrouds and Combustor Liners of Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra; Jill Jonkowski; Joseph Mavec; Paul Bakke; Debbie Haught; Merrill Smith

    2011-01-07

    This report covers work performed under the Advanced Materials for Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines (AMAIGT) program by GE Global Research and its collaborators from 2000 through 2010. A first stage shroud for a 7FA-class gas turbine engine utilizing HiPerComp{reg_sign}* ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material was developed. The design, fabrication, rig testing and engine testing of this shroud system are described. Through two field engine tests, the latter of which is still in progress at a Jacksonville Electric Authority generating station, the robustness of the CMC material and the shroud system in general were demonstrated, with shrouds having accumulated nearly 7,000 hours of field engine testing at the conclusion of the program. During the latter test the engine performance benefits from utilizing CMC shrouds were verified. Similar development of a CMC combustor liner design for a 7FA-class engine is also described. The feasibility of using the HiPerComp{reg_sign} CMC material for combustor liner applications was demonstrated in a Solar Turbines Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) engine test where the liner performed without incident for 12,822 hours. The deposition processes for applying environmental barrier coatings to the CMC components were also developed, and the performance of the coatings in the rig and engine tests is described.

  8. Selection of an industrial natural-gas-fired advanced turbine system - Task 3A

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, G.M.

    1997-05-01

    TASK OBJECTIVES: Identify a gas-fueled turbine and steam system which will meet the program goals for efficiency - and emissions. TECHNICAL GOALS AND REQUIREMENTS: Goals for the Advanced Turbine System Program (ATS) where outlined in the statement of work for five basic categories: Cycle Efficiency - System heat rate to have a 15% improvement over 1991 vintage systems being offered to the market. Environmental No post-combustion devices while meeting the following parameter targets: (1) Nitrous Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions to equal 8 parts per million dry (ppmd) with 15% oxygen. (2) Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions to equal 20 parts per million(ppmd) each. Cost of electricity to be 10 percent less when compared to similar 1991 systems. Fuel Flexibility Have to ability to burn coal or coal derived fuels without extensive redesign. Reliability, Availability, Maintainability Reliability, availability and maintainability must be comparable to modern advanced power generation systems. For all cycle and system studies, analyses were done for the following engine system ambient conditions: Temperature - 59F; Altitude - Sea Level; Humidity - 60%. For the 1991 reference system, GE Aircraft Engines used its LM6OOO engine product offering for comparison of the Industrial System parameters developed under this program.

  9. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  10. Advanced industrial gas turbine technology readiness demonstration program. Phase II. Final report: compressor rig fabrication assembly and test

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, J. K.; Smith, J. D.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a component technology demonstration program to fabricate, assemble and test an advanced axial/centrifugal compressor are presented. This work was conducted to demonstrate the utilization of advanced aircraft gas turbine cooling and high pressure compressor technology to improve the performance and reliability of future industrial gas turbines. Specific objectives of the compressor component testing were to demonstrate 18:1 pressure ratio on a single spool at 90% polytropic efficiency with 80% fewer airfoils as compared to current industrial gas turbine compressors. The compressor design configuration utilizes low aspect ratio/highly-loaded axial compressor blading combined with a centrifugal backend stage to achieve the 18:1 design pressure ratio in only 7 stages and 281 axial compressor airfoils. Initial testing of the compressor test rig was conducted with a vaneless centrifugal stage diffuser to allow documentation of the axial compressor performance. Peak design speed axial compressor performance demonstrated was 91.8% polytropic efficiency at 6.5:1 pressure ratio. Subsequent documentation of the combined axial/centrifugal performance with a centrifugal stage pipe diffuser resulted in the demonstration of 91.5% polytropic efficiency and 14% stall margin at the 18:1 overall compressor design pressure ratio. The demonstrated performance not only exceeded the contract performance goals, but also represents the highest known demonstrated compressor performance in this pressure ratio and flow class. The performance demonstrated is particularly significant in that it was accomplished at airfoil loading levels approximately 15% higher than that of current production engine compressor designs. The test results provide conclusive verification of the advanced low aspect ratio axial compressor and centrifugal stage technologies utilized.

  11. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system: Hot End Simulation Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Galica, M.A.

    1994-02-01

    This Hot End Simulation Rig (HESR) was an integral part of the overall Solar/METC program chartered to prove the technical, economic, an environmental feasibility of a coal-fueled gas turbine, for cogeneration applications. The program was to culminate in a test of a Solar Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal slurry fuel throughput the engine design operating range. This particular activity was designed to verify the performance of the Centaur Type H engine hot section materials in a coal-fired environment varying the amounts of alkali, ash, and sulfur in the coal to assess the material corrosion. Success in the program was dependent upon the satisfactory resolution of several key issues. Included was the control of hot end corrosion and erosion, necessary to ensure adequate operating life. The Hot End Simulation Rig addressed this important issue by exposing currently used hot section turbine alloys, alternate alloys, and commercially available advanced protective coating systems to a representative coal-fueled environment at turbine inlet temperatures typical of Solar`s Centaur Type H. Turbine hot end components which would experience material degradation include the transition duct from the combustor outlet to the turbine inlet, the shroud, nozzles, and blades. A ceramic candle filter vessel was included in the system as the particulate removal device for the HESR. In addition to turbine material testing, the candle material was exposed and evaluated. Long-term testing was intended to sufficiently characterize the performance of these materials for the turbine.

  12. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    SciTech Connect

    G.E. Fuchs

    2007-12-31

    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials science has become a

  13. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  14. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  15. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump & Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  16. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in partnership with industry, has set new performance standards for industrial gas turbines through the creation of the Industrial Advanced Turbine System Program. Their leadership will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in this size class (3-to-20 MW). The DOE has already created a positive effect by encouraging gas turbine system manufacturers to reassess their product and technology plans using the new higher standards as the benchmark. Solar Turbines has been a leader in the industrial gas turbine business, and is delighted to have joined with the DOE in developing the goals and vision for this program. We welcome the opportunity to help the national goals of energy conservation and environmental enhancement. The results of this program should lead to the U.S. based gas turbine industry maintaining its international leadership and the creation of highly paid domestic jobs.

  17. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and progress of the Advanced Gas Turbine engine program is examined. An analysis of the role of ceramics in the design and major engine components is included. Projected fuel economy, emissions and performance standards, and versatility in fuel use are also discussed.

  18. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Zeh, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of the utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.

  19. Benefits of advanced technology in industrial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    This broad study is aimed at identifying the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration for the 1985 to 2000 time period and assessing the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to using today's commercially available technology. Energy conversion systems being studied include those using steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, closed cycle gas turbines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Specific cases using today's commercially available technology are being included to serve as a baseline for assessing the advantages of advanced technology.

  20. Baseline Industry Analysis, Advance Ceramics Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Commerce , Department of Defense, and the National Critical Technologies Panel. Advanced Ceramics, which include ceramic matrix composites, are found in...ceramics and materials industry being identified as a National Critical Technology, Commerce Emerging Technology, and Defense Critical Technology.’ There is...total procurement cost in advanced systems, and as much as ten percent of the electronics portion of those weapons. Ceramic capacitors are almost as

  1. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  2. Selected technology for the gas industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A number of papers were presented at a conference concerned with the application of technical topics from aerospace activities for the gas industry. The following subjects were covered: general future of fossil fuels in America, exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes, technology for liquefied gas, safety considerations relative to fires, explosions, and detonations, gas turbomachinery technology, fluid properties, fluid flow, and heat transfer, NASA information and documentation systems, instrumentation and measurement, materials and life prediction, reliability and quality assurance, and advanced energy systems (including synthetic fuels, energy storage, solar energy, and wind energy).

  3. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    DOE`s ATS Program will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in the 3 to 20 MW class. Market studies were conducted for application of ATS to the dispersed/distributed electric power generation market. The technology studies have led to the design of a gas-fired, recuperated, industrial size gas turbine. The Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program continues. In the High Performance Steam Systems program, a 100 hour development test to prove the advanced 1500 F, 1500 psig system has been successfully completed. A market transformation will take place: the customer will be offered a choice of energy conversion technologies to meet heat and power generation needs into the next century.

  4. Restructuring Energy Industries: Lessons from Natural Gas

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the natural gas industry has been undergoing a restructuring similar to the transition now confronting the electric power industry. This article presents a summary of some of these gas industry experiences to provide a basis for some insights into energy industry restructuring.

  5. Development of Advanced Seals for Industrial Turbine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Aksit, Mahmut F.; Ghasripoor, Farshad; Turnquist, Norman A.; Dinc, Saim; Mortzheim, Jason; Demiroglu, Mehmet

    2002-10-01

    A critical area being addressed to improve industrial turbine performance is reducing the parasitic leakage flows through the various static and dynamic seals. Implementation of advanced seals into General Electric (GE) industrial turbines has progressed well over the last few years with significant operating performance gains achieved. Advanced static seals have been placed in gas turbine hot gas-path junctions and steam turbine packing ring segment end gaps. Brush seals have significantly decreased labyrinth seal leakages in gas turbine compressors and turbine interstages, steam turbine interstage and end packings, industrial compressor shaft seals, and generator seals. Abradable seals are being developed for blade-tip locations in various turbine locations. This presentation summarizes the status of advanced seal development for industrial turbines at GE.

  6. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  7. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  8. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  9. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    York, William; Hughes, Michael; Berry, Jonathan; Russell, Tamara; Lau, Y. C.; Liu, Shan; Arnett, Michael; Peck, Arthur; Tralshawala, Nilesh; Weber, Joseph; Benjamin, Marc; Iduate, Michelle; Kittleson, Jacob; Garcia-Crespo, Andres; Delvaux, John; Casanova, Fernando; Lacy, Ben; Brzek, Brian; Wolfe, Chris; Palafox, Pepe; Ding, Ben; Badding, Bruce; McDuffie, Dwayne; Zemsky, Christine

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  10. Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, L.P.

    1992-12-31

    An unregulated conventional power station based on the Rankine Cycle typically bums pulverized coal in a boiler that exports steam for expansion through a steam turbine which ultimately drives an electric generator. The flue gases are normally cleaned of particulates by an electrostatic precipitator or bag house. A basic cycle such as this will have an efficiency of approximately 35% with 10% of the energy released through the stack and 55% to cooling water. Advanced gas turbine based combustion systems have the potential to be environmentally and commercially superior to existing conventional technology. however, to date, industry, academic, and government groups have not coordinated their effort to commercialize these technologies. The Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research will provide the medium to support effective commercialization of this technology. Several cycles or concepts for advanced gas turbine systems that could be fired on natural gas or could be adapted into coal based systems have been proposed (for examples, see Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7) (2) all with vary degrees of complexity, research needs, and system potential. Natural gas fired power systems are now available with 52% efficiency ratings; however, with a focused base technology program, it is expected that the efficiency levels can be increased to the 60% level and beyond. This increase in efficiency will significantly reduce the environmental burden and reduce the cost of power generation.

  11. Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    An unregulated conventional power station based on the Rankine Cycle typically bums pulverized coal in a boiler that exports steam for expansion through a steam turbine which ultimately drives an electric generator. The flue gases are normally cleaned of particulates by an electrostatic precipitator or bag house. A basic cycle such as this will have an efficiency of approximately 35% with 10% of the energy released through the stack and 55% to cooling water. Advanced gas turbine based combustion systems have the potential to be environmentally and commercially superior to existing conventional technology. however, to date, industry, academic, and government groups have not coordinated their effort to commercialize these technologies. The Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research will provide the medium to support effective commercialization of this technology. Several cycles or concepts for advanced gas turbine systems that could be fired on natural gas or could be adapted into coal based systems have been proposed (for examples, see Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7) (2) all with vary degrees of complexity, research needs, and system potential. Natural gas fired power systems are now available with 52% efficiency ratings; however, with a focused base technology program, it is expected that the efficiency levels can be increased to the 60% level and beyond. This increase in efficiency will significantly reduce the environmental burden and reduce the cost of power generation.

  12. GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate

  13. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  14. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  15. Application of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabhani, Nader; Emami, Milad; Moghadam, A. B. Taghavi

    2011-12-01

    Micro and nano technologies have already contributed significantly to technological advances in a number of industries, including electronics, biomedical, pharmaceutical, materials and manufacturing, aerospace, photography and more recently the energy industries. Micro and nanotechnologies have the potential to introduce revolutionary changes in several areas of the oil and gas industries such as exploration, drilling, production, refining and distribution. For example, nanosensors might provide more detailed and accurate information about reservoirs and smart fluids for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling. This paper examines and documents applicable nanotechnology base products that can improve the competitiveness of the oil and gas industry. The future challenges of nanotechnology application in the oil and gas industry are also discussed.

  16. Unnatural monopoly: natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Copulos, M.

    1984-07-01

    There appears to be no change in position despite the annual congressional debate over natural gas issues. A fresh look is needed, particularly at the idea that interstate gas pipelines are a natural monopoly that require a government franchise. The Natural Gas Act of 1938 giving the Federal Power Commission jurisdiction over gas pipelines was intended to correct abuses, but resulted in encouraging the pipelines to assume a monopolistic behavior. This was not a serous problem until natural gas prices began rising and shortages appeared due to uneven distribution. The Natural Gas Policy Act reinforced the monopolistic behavior by extending federal controls to the intrastate market. Contract carriage is a remedy that would allow firms and utilities to contract for gas on their own. They would pay pipelines for transport costs only. Competition would increase because there would be new buyers and sellers, and pipelines would have an incentive to seek lower wellhead prices for their contract gas.

  17. AGT (Advanced Gas Turbine) technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An overall summary documentation is provided for the Advanced Gas Turbine Technology Project conducted by the Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors. This advanced, high risk work was initiated in October 1979 under charter from the U.S. Congress to promote an engine for transportation that would provide an alternate to reciprocating spark ignition (SI) engines for the U.S. automotive industry and simultaneously establish the feasibility of advanced ceramic materials for hot section components to be used in an automotive gas turbine. As this program evolved, dictates of available funding, Government charter, and technical developments caused program emphases to focus on the development and demonstration of the ceramic turbine hot section and away from the development of engine and powertrain technologies and subsequent vehicular demonstrations. Program technical performance concluded in June 1987. The AGT 100 program successfully achieved project objectives with significant technology advances. Specific AGT 100 program achievements are: (1) Ceramic component feasibility for use in gas turbine engines has been demonstrated; (2) A new, 100 hp engine was designed, fabricated, and tested for 572 hour at operating temperatures to 2200 F, uncooled; (3) Statistical design methodology has been applied and correlated to experimental data acquired from over 5500 hour of rig and engine testing; (4) Ceramic component processing capability has progressed from a rudimentary level able to fabricate simple parts to a sophisticated level able to provide complex geometries such as rotors and scrolls; (5) Required improvements for monolithic and composite ceramic gas turbine components to meet automotive reliability, performance, and cost goals have been identified; (6) The combustor design demonstrated lower emissions than 1986 Federal Standards on methanol, JP-5, and diesel fuel. Thus, the potential for meeting emission standards and multifuel capability has been initiated

  18. Natural Gas Industry and Markets

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

  19. 2001 Industry Studies: Advanced Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    oriented, 19 and manufacturers are employing the Internet and associated information technologies to better integrate supply chains and form extended...producers, and suppliers. Focus will shift from within the enterprise to the entire market, with business- to-business ( B2B ) e-commerce becoming a...sufficiently disruptive (e.g. the Internet ), alter the course of industries and the broader economy. The transformation of manufacturing has involved

  20. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  1. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  2. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the final in a series of Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorizrd under NASA Contract DEN3-167 and sponsored by the DOE. The project was administered by NASA-Lewis Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio. Plans and progress are summarized for the period October 1979 through June 1987. This program aims to provide the US automotive industry the high risk, long range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption and reduce environmental impact. The intent is that this technology will reach the marketplace by the 1990s. The Garrett/Ford automotive AGT was designated AGT101. The AGT101 is a 74.5 kW (100 shp) engine, capable of speeds to 100,000 rpm, and operates at turbine inlet temperatures to 1370 C (2500 F) with a specific fuel consumption level of 0.18 kg/kW-hr (0.3 lbs/hp-hr) over most of the operating range. This final report summarizes the powertrain design, power section development and component/ceramic technology development.

  3. Gas insulated substation equipment for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kenedy, J.J.

    1984-11-01

    Until recently the only available method for construction of high voltage systems was to use exposed air insulated equipment supported on porcelain columns. The past decade has witnessed the introduction and wide acceptance of compressed gas insulated equipment as a viable alternative to the conventional substation system. The characteristics of gas insulated substations (GIS) and their application for industrial use at service voltages at 69 kV and above are discussed.

  4. Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.C.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.

  5. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  6. An assessment of advanced technology for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N.

    1983-01-01

    The potential of advanced fuel utilization and energy conversion technologies to enhance the outlook for the increased use of industrial cogeneration was assessed. The attributes of advanced cogeneration systems that served as the basis for the assessment included their fuel flexibility and potential for low emissions, efficiency of fuel or energy utilization, capital equipment and operating costs, and state of technological development. Over thirty advanced cogeneration systems were evaluated. These cogeneration system options were based on Rankine cycle, gas turbine engine, reciprocating engine, Stirling engine, and fuel cell energy conversion systems. The alternatives for fuel utilization included atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustors, gasifiers, conventional combustion systems, alternative energy sources, and waste heat recovery. Two advanced cogeneration systems with mid-term (3 to 5 year) potential were found to offer low emissions, multi-fuel capability, and a low cost of producing electricity. Both advanced cogeneration systems are based on conventional gas turbine engine/exhaust heat recovery technology; however, they incorporate advanced fuel utilization systems.

  7. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    given to methods appropriate to low-income countries, where strategies are needed for getting robust data with extremely limited resources in order to support national mitigation planning within widely accepted standards and thus provide access to essential international support, including climate funding. Managing agricultural emissions needs to occur in tandem with managing for agricultural productivity, resilience to climate change, and ecosystem impacts. Management decisions and priorities will require measures and information that identify GHG efficiencies in production and reduce inputs without reducing yields, while addressing climate resilience and maintaining other essential environmental services, such as water quality and support for pollinators. Another set of papers in this issue considers the critical synergies and tradeoffs possible between these multiple objectives of mitigation, resilience, and production efficiency to help us understand how we need to tackle these in our quantification systems. Significant capacity to quantify greenhouse gases is already built, and with some near-term strategic investment, could become an increasingly robust and useful tool for planning and development in the agricultural sector around the world. Acknowledgments The Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security Program of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, the Technical Working Group on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (T-AGG) at Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have come together to guide the development of this focus issue and associated activities and papers, given their common desire to improve our understanding of the state of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification and to advance ideas for building data and methods that will help mitigation policy and programs move forward around the world. We thank the David and Lucile Packard

  8. NASA/industry advanced turboprop technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemianski, Joseph A.; Whitlow, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and analytical effort shows that use of advanced turboprop (propfan) propulsion instead of conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program was formulated to address the key technologies required for these thin, swept-blade propeller concepts. A NASA, industry, and university team was assembled to develop and validate applicable design codes and prove by ground and flight test the viability of these propeller concepts. Some of the history of the ATP project, an overview of some of the issues, and a summary of the technology developed to make advanced propellers viable in the high-subsonic cruise speed application are presented. The ATP program was awarded the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aeronautics and astronautics in America in 1987.

  9. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Boyer II; Ronald J. MacDonald P.G.

    2002-01-01

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger-Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have continued to enhance and streamline our software, and we are testing the final stages of our new Microsoft{trademark} Access/Excel based software. We are continuing to process the information and are identifying potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, preparation of the final technical report is underway. During this quarter, we have presented our project and discussed the software to numerous Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) workshops located in various regions of the United States.

  10. Senate Forum on Shale Gas Development Explores Environmental and Industry Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources brought together industry and environmental leaders for a 23 May forum that focused on industry best practices and environmental concerns related to the current shale gas boom. The boom in shale gas development has been brought about in large part through advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") to increase shale oil and gas production.

  11. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew R. June; John L. Hurley; Mark W. Johnson

    1999-04-01

    Iron aluminide hot gas filters have been developed using powder metallurgy techniques to form seamless cylinders. Three alloys were short-term corrosion tested in simulated IGCC atmospheres with temperatures between 925 F and 1200 F with hydrogen sulfide concentrations ranging from 783 ppm{sub v} to 78,300 ppm{sub v}. Long-term testing was conducted for 1500 hours at 925 F with 78,300 ppm{sub v}. The FAS and FAL alloys were found to be corrosion resistant in the simulated environments. The FAS alloy has been commercialized.

  12. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  13. Proceedings: BMDO Advance Planning Briefing For Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1 si If 0« a o P o Q CQ Accession Number: 5575 Title: Proceedings: BMDO Advance Planning Briefing For Industry Report...Threat TMD PEO ABM Treaty ACTD Contract NMD CO LU O _CD X! JO CO «2 p 1 C « 0 c o> t *"* QQ g i§ ■S is O. CD O c O O o Ul...C 45 CD Q c 8 c CD E <=c +~^ c -8 i-^ 0) CO JC CD Q. en It •si c< o . ■sen a- 1 "Ö >-- O CD k. x liS <°E

  14. Industrial fuel gas plant project. Phase II. Memphis industrial fuel gas plant. Final report. [U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial Fuel Gas Plant produces a nominal 50 billion Btu/day of product gas. The entire IFG production will be sold to MLGW. Under normal conditions, 20% of the output of the plant will be sold by MLGW to the local MAPCO refinery and exchanged for pipeline quality refinery gas. The MAPCO refinery gas will be inserted into the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System. A portion (normally 10%) of the IFG output of the plant will be diverted to a Credit Generation Unit, owned by MLGW, where the IFG will be upgraded to pipeline quality (950 Btu/SCF). This gas will be inserted into MLGW's Natural Gas Distribution System. The remaining output of the IFG plant (gas with a gross heating value of 300 Btu/SCF) will be sold by MLGW as Industrial Fuel Gas. During periods when the IFG plant is partially or totally off-stream, natural gas from the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System will be sent to an air mixing unit where the gas will be diluted to a medium Btu content and distributed to the IFG customers. Drawing 2200-1-50-00104 is the plant block flow diagram showing the process sequence and process related support facilities of this industrial plant. Each process unit as well as each process-related support facility is described briefly.

  15. Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine Program: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbacher, R.; Kesser, K.; Beishon, D.

    1994-12-01

    The Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine (CAGT) Program is an advanced gas turbine research and development program whose goal is to accelerate the commercial availability, to within the turn of the century, of high efficiency aeroderivative gas turbines for electric power generating applications. In the first project phase, research was conducted to prove or disprove the research hypothesis that advanced aeroderivative gas turbine systems can provide a promising technology alternative, offering high efficiency and good environmental performance characteristics in modular sizes, for utility applications. This $5 million, Phase 1 research effort reflects the collaborative efforts of a broad and international coalition of industries and organizations, both public and private, that have pooled their resources to assist in this research. Included in this coalition are: electric and gas utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the principal aircraft engine manufacturers. Additionally, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission have interacted with the CAGT on both technical and executive levels as observers and sources of funding. The three aircraft engine manufacturer-led research teams participating in this research include: Rolls-Royce, Inc., and Bechtel; the Turbo Power and Marine Division of United Technologies and Fluor Daniel; and General Electric Power Generation, Stewart and Stevenson, and Bechtel. Each team has investigated advanced electric power generating systems based on their high-thrust (60,000 to 100,000 pounds) aircraft engines. The ultimate goal of the CAGT program is that the community of stakeholders in the growing market for natural-gas-fueled, electric power generation can collectively provide the right combination of market-pull and technology-push to substantially accelerate the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency aeroderivative technologies.

  16. Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

  17. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An

    2016-03-01

    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development.

  18. Advances in gas-liquid flows 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.M. . Nuclear Reactor Lab.); Rohatgi, U.S. ); Hashemi, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Gas-liquid two-phase flows commonly occur in nature and industrial applications. Rain, clouds, geysers, and waterfalls are examples of natural gas-liquid flow phenomena, whereas industrial applications can be found in nuclear reactors, steam generators, boilers, condensers, evaporators, fuel atomization, heat pipes, electronic equipment cooling, petroleum engineering, chemical process engineering, and many others. The household-variety phenomena such as garden sprinklers, shower, whirlpool bath, dripping faucet, boiling tea pot, and bubbling beer provide daily experience of gas-liquid flows. The papers presented in this volume reflect the variety and richness of gas-liquid two-phase flow and the increasing role it plays in modern technology. This volume contains papers dealing with some recent development in gas-liquid flow science and technology, covering basic gas-liquid flows, measurements and instrumentation, cavitation and flashing flows, countercurrent flow and flooding, flow in various components and geometries liquid metals and thermocapillary effects, heat transfer, nonlinear phenomena, instability, and other special and general topics related to gas-liquid flows.

  19. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  20. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    RICHARD A. WAGNER

    1998-09-04

    This report describes the fabrication and testing of continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) based hot gas filters. The fabrication approach utilized a modified filament winding method that combined both continuous and chopped fibers into a novel microstructure. The work was divided into five primary tasks. In the first task, a preliminary set of compositions was fabricated in the form of open end tubes and characterized. The results of this task were used to identify the most promising compositions for sub-scale filter element fabrication and testing. In addition to laboratory measurements of permeability and strength, exposure testing in a coal combustion environment was performed to asses the thermo-chemical stability of the CFCC materials. Four candidate compositions were fabricated into sub-scale filter elements with integral flange and a closed end. Following the 250 hour exposure test in a circulating fluid bed combustor, the retained strength ranged from 70 t 145 percent of the as-fabricated strength. The post-test samples exhibited non-catastrophic failure behavior in contrast to the brittle failure exhibited by monolithic materials. Filter fabrication development continued in a filter improvement and cost reduction task that resulted in an improved fiber architecture, the production of a net shape flange, and an improved low cost bond. These modifications were incorporated into the process and used to fabricate 50 full-sized filter elements for testing in demonstration facilities in Karhula, Finland and at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. After 581 hours of testing in the Karhula facility, the elements retained approximately 87 percent of their as-fabricated strength. In addition, mechanical response testing at Virginia Tech provided a further demonstration of the high level of strain tolerance of the vacuum wound filter elements. Additional testing in the M. W. Kellogg unit at the PSDF has accumulated over 1800 hours of

  1. Advances in Thermal Spray Coatings for Gas Turbines and Energy Generation: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwicke, Canan U.; Lau, Yuk-Chiu

    2013-06-01

    Functional coatings are widely used in energy generation equipment in industries such as renewables, oil and gas, propulsion engines, and gas turbines. Intelligent thermal spray processing is vital in many of these areas for efficient manufacturing. Advanced thermal spray coating applications include thermal management, wear, oxidation, corrosion resistance, sealing systems, vibration and sound absorbance, and component repair. This paper reviews the current status of materials, equipment, processing, and properties' aspects for key coatings in the energy industry, especially the developments in large-scale gas turbines. In addition to the most recent industrial advances in thermal spray technologies, future technical needs are also highlighted.

  2. Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory D. Gillispie

    1997-12-01

    This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not described or

  3. Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS developments.

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Mesa P.; Bower, Ward Isaac; Mills-Price, Michael A.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-03-01

    The Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) initiative is a three-year, three-stage project that includes conceptual design and market analysis (Stage 1), prototype development/testing (Stage 2), and commercialization (Stage 3). Projects focus on system development of solar technologies, expansion of intelligent renewable energy applications, and connecting large-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations into the electric grid. As documented in this report, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. (AE), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully collaborated to complete the final stage of the SEGIS initiative, which has guided new technology development and development of methodologies for unification of PV and smart-grid technologies. The combined team met all deliverables throughout the three-year program and commercialized a broad set of the developed technologies.

  4. Physics-Driven Innovation In the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitzsch, Martin

    2014-03-01

    In terms of sheer scale and financial investment and geographical footprint, nothing is bigger than the oil and gas industry. This ``mature industry'' employs a bewildering mix of technologies dating from the 19th century to the 21th. Oil well construction represents one of the largest volume markets for steel tubulars, Portland cement, and high-quality sand. On the other hand, advanced 3D seismic data processing, shaped-charge perforating, and nuclear well logging have consistently driven forward the state of the art in their respective areas of applied science, as much or more so than defense or other industries. Moreover, a surprising number of physicists have made their careers in the oil industry. To succeed at introducing new technology requires understanding which problems most need to be solved. The most esoteric technology can take off in this industry if it honestly offers the best solution to a key problem that is costing millions of dollars in risk or inefficiency. When the right breakthrough solution emerges, the resources to implement it can be almost limitless. However, the prevailing culture is conservative and brutally cost-driven: any cheaper or simpler solution that performs as well will prevail, no matter how inelegant!

  5. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2001-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL. As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  6. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2000-05-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in the quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL. As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  7. The AGT 101 advanced automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A development program is described whose goal is the accumulation of the technology base needed by the U.S. automotive industry for the production of automotive gas turbine powertrains. Such gas turbine designs must exhibit reduced fuel consumption, a multi-fuel capability, and low exhaust emissions. The AGT101 powertrain described is a 74.6 kW, regenerated single-shaft gas turbine, operating at a maximum inlet temperature of 1644 K and coupled to a split differential gearbox and automatic overdrive transmission. The engine's single stage centrifugal compressor and single stage radial inflow turbine are mounted on a common shaft, and will operate at a maximum rotor speed of 100,000 rpm. All high temperature components, including the turbine rotor, are ceramic.

  8. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  9. Computational sciences in the upstream oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Thomas C

    2016-10-13

    The predominant technical challenge of the upstream oil and gas industry has always been the fundamental uncertainty of the subsurface from which it produces hydrocarbon fluids. The subsurface can be detected remotely by, for example, seismic waves, or it can be penetrated and studied in the extremely limited vicinity of wells. Inevitably, a great deal of uncertainty remains. Computational sciences have been a key avenue to reduce and manage this uncertainty. In this review, we discuss at a relatively non-technical level the current state of three applications of computational sciences in the industry. The first of these is seismic imaging, which is currently being revolutionized by the emergence of full wavefield inversion, enabled by algorithmic advances and petascale computing. The second is reservoir simulation, also being advanced through the use of modern highly parallel computing architectures. Finally, we comment on the role of data analytics in the upstream industry.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'.

  10. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  11. GHGRP Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles contain detailed analyses for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems.

  12. GHGRP Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids Suppliers Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Natural Gas and Natural Gas Suppliers indust

  13. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Kaufeld, J.; Kordes, R.

    1981-01-01

    A 74.5 kW(100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine engine is described. A design iteration to improve the weight and production cost associated with the original concept is discussed. Major rig tests included 15 hours of compressor testing to 80% design speed and the results are presented. Approximately 150 hours of cold flow testing showed duct loss to be less than the design goal. Combustor test results are presented for initial checkout tests. Turbine design and rig fabrication is discussed. From a materials study of six methods to fabricate rotors, two have been selected for further effort. A discussion of all six methods is given.

  14. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2003-05-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for the reporting period October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002 are described in this quarterly report. No new membership, workshops, research projects, internships, faculty fellowships or special studies were initiated during this reporting period. Contract completion is set for June 30, 2003. During the report period, six research progress reports were received (3 final reports and 3 semi-annual reports). The University of Central Florida contract SR080 was terminated during this period, as UCF was unable to secure research facilities. AGTSR now projects that it will under spend DOE obligated funds by approximately 340-350K$.

  15. Advanced Hot-Gas Desulfurization Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents for relatively low temperature application that show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343 to 538 {degrees}C. A number of zinc-based formulations will be prepared and screened for testing in a fixed-bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel gases. One of the superior formulations will be tested for long- term durability and chemical reactivity in the reactor. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives will be investigated, which would promote a lower regeneration temperature.

  16. Final Scientific Report - Wireless and Sensing Solutions Advancing Industrial Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Budampati, Rama; McBrady, Adam; Nusseibeh, Fouad

    2009-09-28

    The project team's goal for the Wireless and Sensing Solution Advancing Industrial Efficiency award (DE-FC36-04GO14002) was to develop, demonstrate, and test a number of leading edge technologies that could enable the emergence of wireless sensor and sampling systems for the industrial market space. This effort combined initiatives in advanced sensor development, configurable sampling and deployment platforms, and robust wireless communications to address critical obstacles in enabling enhanced industrial efficiency.

  17. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  18. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-11

    Program. BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS Technology and Competitiveness Interest in technology development and industrial innovation increased as concern...against goods and services developed by foreign industries from research performed in the United States. Thus, there has been increased IB91132 02-11-05...an industrial policy to develop a coordinated approach on issues of economic growth and industrial competitiveness. Technological advance is both one

  19. Explore Your Future: Careers in the Natural Gas Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    This career awareness booklet provides information and activities to help youth prepare for career and explore jobs in the natural gas industry. Students are exposed to career planning ideas and activities; they learn about a wide variety of industry jobs, what workers say about their jobs, and how the industry operates. Five sections are…

  20. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  1. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  2. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  3. Venezuela`s gas industry poised for long term growth

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, G.D.

    1995-06-19

    Venezuela`s enormous gas resource, combined with a new willingness to invite outside investment, could result in rapid growth in that industry into the next century. The development of liquefied natural gas exports will depend on the future course of gas prices in the US and Europe, but reserves are adequate to supply additional projects beyond the proposed Cristobal Colon project. Venezuela`s gas reserves are likely to increase if exploration for nonassociated gas is undertaken on a larger scale. The paper discusses gas reserves in Venezuela, internal gas markets, the potential for exports, competition from Trinidad, LNG export markets, and the encouragement of foreign investment in the gas industry of Venezuela.

  4. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2003-05-01

    The quarterly activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter as dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading. No new memberships, workshops, research projects, internships, faculty fellowships or special studies were initiated during this reporting period. Contract completion is set for June 30, 2003. During the report period, nine subcontractor reports were received (5 final reports and 4 semi-annual reports). The report technology distribution is as follows: 3--aero-heat transfer, 2--combustion and 4--materials. AGTSR continues to project that it will under spend DOE obligated funds by approximately $329K.

  5. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  6. ADVANCED DEHYDRATOR DESIGN SAVES GAS AND REDUCES HAP EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glycol dehydrators remove water from gas pipe lines. An advanced dehydrator by Engineered Concepts, Farmington, NM, saves a significant amount of gas, while reducing hazardous air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and CO2 air pollutants

  7. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the eleventh in the series of Technical Summary reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorized under NASA Contract DEN3-167, and sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by Garrett Turbine Engine Company, A Division of the Garrett Corporation, and includes information provided by Ford Motor Company, the Standard Oil Company, and AiResearch Casting Company. This report covers plans and progress for the period July 1, 1985 through June 30, 1986. Technical progress during the reported period was highlighted by the 85-hour endurance run of an all-ceramic engine operating in the 2000 to 2250 F temperature regime. Component development continued in the areas of the combustion/fuel injection system, regenerator and seals system, and ceramic turbine rotor attachment design. Component rig testing saw further refinements. Ceramic materials showed continued improvements in required properties for gas turbine applications; however, continued development is needed before performance and reliability goals can be set.

  8. Advanced bristle seals for gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabe, Jerry L.

    1993-01-01

    A seven month proof-of-concept program was conducted for an advanced bristle seal, called a bush seal, for use in gas turbine engines. This program was performed as a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 project. Bush seal specimen and a full ring bush seal were designed, evaluated, and manufactured for testing. An analytical study of the potential of the bush seal relative to a labyrinth seal was conducted. Static and dynamic testing of the bush seal was performed to determine the behavior of the bristles under pressurization and during contact with a rotating labyrinth tooth. Stable behavior of the bristle elements was observed during static pressurization of a full ring bush seal. The dynamic testing of various configurations of bush seal against a rotating labyrinth tooth showed minimal wear of the bristles relative to a conventional labyrinth seal. The development and application of the bush seal concept to gas turbine engines has the potential of improving the engine's performance while decreasing the degradation of the seal performance over time.

  9. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  10. Advanced Metals (Industrial Arts) Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1750.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide contains materials for a 13-unit course in advanced metals, the second metals course in the industrial arts curriculum for grades 10-12. It is intended for use by industrial arts teachers, supervisors, counselors, administrators, and teacher educators. A two-page course overview provides a brief course description; indicates…

  11. Responding to Industry Demands: Advanced Technology Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth Brient

    1991-01-01

    Discusses characteristics identified by the Center for Occupational Research and Development as indicative of fully functioning advanced technology centers, including the provision of training and retraining in such areas as design, manufacturing, materials science, and electro-optics; technology transfer; demonstration sites; needs assessment;…

  12. Rapid medical advances challenge the tooling industry.

    PubMed

    Conley, B

    2008-01-01

    The requirement for greater performance in smaller spaces has increased demands for product and process innovation in tubing and other medical products. In turn, these developments have placed greater demands on the producers of the advanced tooling for these products. Tooling manufacturers must now continuously design equipment with much tighter tolerances for more sophisticated coextrusions and for newer generations of multilumen and multilayer tubing.

  13. Molecular engineering of industrial enzymes: recent advances and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiquan; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Many enzymes are efficiently produced by microbes. However, the use of natural enzymes as biocatalysts has limitations such as low catalytic efficiency, low activity, and low stability, especially under industrial conditions. Many protein engineering technologies have been developed to modify natural enzymes and eliminate these limitations. Commonly used protein engineering strategies include directed evolution, site-directed mutagenesis, truncation, and terminal fusion. This review summarizes recent advances in the molecular engineering of industrial enzymes and discusses future prospects in this field. We expect this review to increase interest in and advance the molecular engineering of industrial enzymes.

  14. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector

  15. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  16. Modeling Innovations Advance Wind Energy Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    In 1981, Glenn Research Center scientist Dr. Larry Viterna developed a model that predicted certain elements of wind turbine performance with far greater accuracy than previous methods. The model was met with derision from others in the wind energy industry, but years later, Viterna discovered it had become the most widely used method of its kind, enabling significant wind energy technologies-like the fixed pitch turbines produced by manufacturers like Aerostar Inc. of Westport, Massachusetts-that are providing sustainable, climate friendly energy sources today.

  17. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  18. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  19. Terahertz Tools Advance Imaging for Security, Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Picometrix, a wholly owned subsidiary of Advanced Photonix Inc. (API), of Ann Arbor, Michigan, invented the world s first commercial terahertz system. The company improved the portability and capabilities of their systems through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Langley Research Center to provide terahertz imaging capabilities for inspecting the space shuttle external tanks and orbiters. Now API s systems make use of the unique imaging capacity of terahertz radiation on manufacturing floors, for thickness measurements of coatings, pharmaceutical tablet production, and even art conservation.

  20. [Occupational deafness in workers of gas-processing industry].

    PubMed

    Raĭtselis, I V

    2009-01-01

    A total of 1121 workers serving processing unit operators, including operators (n = 673), drivers (n = 201), and fitters (n = 247), were examined at a gas-processing plant (GPP). A complex of negative industrial factors in the gas-processing industry workers was ascertained to be formed due to their exposure to high noise along with class 3.2 hard work. The total rate of the working conditions at the GPP in terms of the intensity of negative industrial factors corresponds to Class 3.3-3.4, which determines the increased likelihood of occupational deafness in the workers.

  1. Advanced gas turbine systems research. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the major accomplishments and reports issued by Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) during October 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995, reports on changes in the AGTSR membership, describes 1993, 1994 and 1995 subcontract progress, third combustion workshop, first combustion specialty meeting, materials workshop, industrial internship, research topics highlighted, and seminar sponsorship.

  2. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  3. Natural gas consumption prediction in Slovenian industry - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačič, Miha; Šarler, Božidar; Župerl, Uroš

    2016-09-01

    In accordance with the regulations of the Energy Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, each natural gas supplier regulates and determines the charges for the differences between the ordered (predicted) and the actually supplied quantities of natural gas. Yearly charges for these differences represent up to 2% of supplied natural gas costs. All the natural gas users, especially industry, have huge problems finding the proper method for efficient natural gas consumption prediction and, consequently, the decreasing of mentioned costs. In this study, prediction of the natural gas consumption in Štore Steel Ltd. (steel plant) is presented. On the basis of production data, several models for natural gas consumption have been developed using linear regression, genetic programming and artificial neural network methods. The genetic programming approach outperformed linear regression and artificial neural networks.

  4. Industrial Inspection with Open Eyes: Advance with Machine Vision Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zheng; Ukida, H.; Niel, Kurt; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2015-10-01

    Machine vision systems have evolved significantly with the technology advances to tackle the challenges from modern manufacturing industry. A wide range of industrial inspection applications for quality control are benefiting from visual information captured by different types of cameras variously configured in a machine vision system. This chapter screens the state of the art in machine vision technologies in the light of hardware, software tools, and major algorithm advances for industrial inspection. The inspection beyond visual spectrum offers a significant complementary to the visual inspection. The combination with multiple technologies makes it possible for the inspection to achieve a better performance and efficiency in varied applications. The diversity of the applications demonstrates the great potential of machine vision systems for industry.

  5. Gas Conversion Systems Reclaim Fuel for Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    A human trip to Mars will require astronauts to utilize resources on the Red Planet to generate oxygen and fuel for the ride home, among other things. Lakewood, Colorado-based Pioneer Energy has worked under SBIR agreements with Johnson Space Center to develop technology for those purposes, and now uses a commercialized version of the technology to recover oil and gas that would otherwise be wasted at drilling sites.

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  7. Strategic alliances for the future of the gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Catell, R.B.

    1993-12-31

    The natural gas industry is in a position to benefit significantly from the inherent environmental advantages of natural gas and access to a large reserves base. Concurrently, the domestic natural gas industry will be undergoing extensive regulatory and structural changes in the coming years as a result of the implementation of FERC Order 636. The competition between fuels is intensifying, and the number of new market players and consumer demands are rising. As all sectors of the industry are facing new risk resulting from changes in access to storage, balancing, excess capacity, capacity release programs, and from the entry of gas marketers and aggregators, companies must increasingly rely on strategic alliances to remain competitive and stable. Strategic alliances are cooperative relationships between gas companies, pipelines, end-users, producers, marketers, as well as government bodies and labor unions. The principal goals of strategic alliances are to reduce risks, leverage resources and competitiveness, achieve long-term objectives, and build flexibility. Brooklyn Union has been involved in strategic alliances in the areas of (1) exploration, production, and supply; (2) transportation and storage; (3) marketing and market development; (4) regulatory and legislative activities; and (5) environmental activities. These alliances have allowed Brooklyn Union to diversify its gas supply, cooperatively support new pipelines, introduce new products and services, retain customers, generate new business, and assist in the enactment of reasonable Federal and State regulations and energy policies. Brooklyn Union recognizes that in the future the natural gas industry must continue to form strategic alliances to better serve the customer. Through strategic alliances the industry can increase the value and importance of natural gas as America`s premier energy source.

  8. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  9. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is

  10. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  11. Engineering industrial yeast for renewable advanced biofuels applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a candidate for the next-generation biocatalyst development due to its unique genomic background and robust performance in fermentation-based production. In order to meet challenges of renewable and sustainable advanced biofuels conversion including ...

  12. Advanced Woodworking (Industrial Arts) Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1752.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide contains materials for a 12-unit course in advanced woodworking for grades 11-12. It is intended for use by industrial arts teachers, supervisors, counselors, administrators, and teacher educators. A two-page course overview provides a brief course description; indicates target grade level, prerequisites, course goals, and…

  13. The Rural Advanced Industrial Society: Social and Economic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ted K.

    The decline of rural areas caused by agricultural mechanization may now have run its course with the rise of post- or advanced-industrialism which is offering a new set of opportunities and problems for the development of many rural areas. Instead of the pastoral subsistence farm of the past, rural America is becoming primarily non-agricultural…

  14. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Technical work on the design and effort leading to the testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine engine is reviewed. Development of the engine compressor, gasifier turbine, power turbine, combustor, regenerator, and secondary system is discussed. Ceramic materials development and the application of such materials in the gas turbine engine components is described.

  15. Membrane Distillation Bioreactor (MDBR) - A lower Green-House-Gas (GHG) option for industrial wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Goh, Shuwen; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Yu; Fane, Anthony G

    2015-12-01

    A high-retention membrane bioreactor system, the Membrane Distillation Bioreactor (MDBR) is a wastewater reclamation process which has the potential to tap on waste heat generated in industries to produce high quality product water. There are a few key factors which could make MDBR an attractive advanced treatment option, namely tightening legal requirements due to increasing concerns on the micropollutants in industrial wastewater effluents as well as concerns over the electrical requirement of pressurized advanced treatment processes and greenhouse gas emissions associated with wastewater reclamation. This paper aims to provide a consolidated review on the current state of research for the MDBR system and to evaluate the system as a possible lower Green House Gas (GHG) emission option for wastewater reclamation using the membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) system as a baseline for comparison. The areas for potential applications and possible configurations for MDBR applications are discussed.

  16. The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program office of industrial technologies fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrell, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in FY95 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven `Vision Industries` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: aluminium; chemical; forest products; glass; metal casting; refineries; and steel. OIT is working with these industries, through appropriate organizations, to develop Visions of the desired condition of each industry some 20 to 25 years in the future and then to prepare Road Maps and Implementation Plans to enable them to reach their goals. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to `Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`

  17. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This report describes progress and work performed during January through June 1984 to develop technology for an Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) engine for automotive applications. Work performed during the first eight periods initiated design and analysis, ceramic development, component testing, and test bed evaluation. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System Program. This program is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the high-risk long-range techology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. Technology resulting from this program is intended to reach the marketplace by the early 1990s.

  18. Advancing Greenhouse Gas Reductions through Affordable Housing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    James City County, Virginia, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  19. Water retention and gas relative permeability of two industrial concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wei; Liu Jian; Brue, Flore; Skoczylas, Frederic; Davy, C.A.; Bourbon, Xavier; Talandier, Jean

    2012-07-15

    This experimental study aims at identifying the water retention properties of two industrial concretes to be used for long term underground nuclear waste storage structures. Together with water retention, gas transfer properties are identified at varying water saturation level, i.e. relative gas permeability is assessed directly as a function of water saturation level S{sub w}. The influence of the initial de-sorption path and of the subsequent re-saturation are analysed both in terms of water retention and gas transfer properties. Also, the influence of concrete microstructure upon water retention and relative gas permeability is assessed, using porosity measurements, analysis of the BET theory from water retention properties, and MIP. Finally, a single relative gas permeability curve is proposed for each concrete, based on Van Genuchten-Mualem's statistical model, to be used for continuous modelling approaches of concrete structures, both during drying and imbibition.

  20. Value of Underground Storage in Today's Natural Gas Industry, The

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This report explores the significant and changing role of storage in the industry by examining the value of natural gas storage; short-term relationships between prices, storage levels, and weather; and some longer term impacts of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 636.

  1. Assessment of Industrial VOC Gas-Scrubber Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, H

    2004-02-13

    Gas scrubbers for air-pollution control of volatile organic compounds (VOC) cover a wide range of technologies. In this review, we have attempted to evaluate the single-pass scrubber destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for a range of gas-scrubber technologies. We have focused primarily on typical industrial DREs for the various technologies, typical problems, and any DRE-related experiential information available. The very limited literature citations found suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. The potentially significant role of maintenance in maintaining DREs was also investigated for those technologies. An in-depth portrayal of the entire gas scrubbing industry is elusive. Available literature sources suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. Lack of scrubber system maintenance can contribute to even larger variances. ''Typical'' industrial single-pass performance of commonly used VOC gas scrubbers generally ranged from {approx}80 to 99%. Imperfect solid and/or liquid particulates capture (possibly as low as 95% despite design for 99+% capture efficiency) can also lead to VOC releases. Changing the VOC composition in the gas stream without modifying scrubber equipment or operating conditions could also lead to significant deterioration in attainable destruction and removal efficiencies.

  2. Preliminary assessment of industrial needs for an advanced ocean technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Maher, K. M.; Balon, J. E.; Coyle, A. G.; Henkener, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A quick-look review of selected ocean industries is presented for the purpose of providing NASA OSTA with an assessment of technology needs and market potential. The size and growth potential, needs and problem areas, technology presently used and its suppliers, are given for industries involved in deep ocean mining, petrochemicals ocean energy conversion. Supporting services such as ocean bottom surveying; underwater transportation, data collection, and work systems; and inspection and diving services are included. Examples of key problem areas that are amenable to advanced technology solutions are included. Major companies are listed.

  3. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Freeway, Katy; Rogers, R.E.; DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D.

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  4. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Enterprise Risk Management in the Oil and Gas Industry: An Analysis of Selected Fortune 500 Oil and Gas Companies' Reaction in 2009 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Violet C.; Ethridge, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, four of the top ten Fortune 500 companies were classified within the oil and gas industry. Organizations of this size typically have an advanced Enterprise Risk Management system in place to mitigate risk and to achieve their corporations' objectives. The companies and the article utilize the Enterprise Risk Management Integrated…

  6. Performance evaluation of advanced industrial SPECT system with diverging collimator.

    PubMed

    Park, Jang Guen; Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Moon, Jinho; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2014-12-01

    An advanced industrial SPECT system with 12-fold-array diverging collimator was developed for flow visualization in industrial reactors and was discussed in the previous study. The present paper describes performance evaluation of the SPECT system under both static- and dynamic- flow conditions. Under static conditions, the movement of radiotracer inside the test reactor was compared with that of color tracer (blue ink) captured with a high-speed camera. The comparison of the reconstructed images obtained with the radiotracer and the SPECT system showed fairly good agreement with video-frames of the color tracer obtained with the camera. Based on the results of the performance evaluation, it is concluded that the SPECT system is suitable for investigation and visualization of flows in industrial flow reactors.

  7. Advanced Technologies For Stripper Gas Well Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald J. MacDonald; Charles M. Boyer; Joseph H. Frantz Jr; Paul A. Zyglowicz

    2005-04-01

    Stripper gas and oil well operators frequently face a dilemma regarding maximizing production from low-productivity wells. With thousands of stripper wells in the United States covering extensive acreage, it is difficult to identify easily and efficiently marginal or underperforming wells. In addition, the magnitude of reviewing vast amounts of data places a strain on an operator's work force and financial resources. Schlumberger DCS, in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has created software and developed in-house analysis methods to identify remediation potential in stripper wells relatively easily. This software is referred to as Stripper Well Analysis Remediation Methodology (SWARM). SWARM was beta-tested with data pertaining to two gas fields located in northwestern Pennsylvania and had notable results. Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC (Great Lakes) and Belden & Blake Corporation (B&B) both operate wells in the first field studied. They provided data for 729 wells, and we estimated that 41 wells were candidates for remediation. However, for reasons unbeknownst to Schlumberger these wells were not budgeted for rework by the operators. The second field (Cooperstown) is located in Crawford, Venango, and Warren counties, Pa and has more than 2,200 wells operated by Great Lakes. This paper discusses in depth the successful results of a candidate recognition study of this area. We compared each well's historical production with that of its offsets and identified 339 underperformers before considering remediation costs, and 168 economically viable candidates based on restimulation costs of $50,000 per well. From this data, we prioritized a list based on the expected incremental recoverable gas and 10% discounted net present value (NPV). For this study, we calculated the incremental gas by subtracting the volumes forecasted after remediation from the production projected at its current

  8. GE power generation technology challenges for advanced gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.S.; Nourse, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    The GE Utility ATS is a large gas turbine, derived from proven GEPG designs and integrated GEAE technology, that utilizes a new turbine cooling system and incorporates advanced materials. This system has the potential to achieve ATS objectives for a utility sized machine. Combined with use of advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC`s), the new cooling system will allow higher firing temperatures and improved cycle efficiency that represents a significant improvement over currently available machines. Developing advances in gas turbine efficiency and emissions is an ongoing process at GEPG. The third generation, ``F`` class, of utility gas turbines offers net combined cycle efficiencies in the 55% range, with NO{sub x} programs in place to reduce emissions to less than 10 ppM. The gas turbines have firing temperatures of 2350{degree}F, and pressure ratios of 15 to 1. The turbine components are cooled by air extracted from the cycle at various stages of the compressor. The heat recovery cycle is a three pressure steam system, with reheat. Throttle conditions are nominally 1400 psi and 1000{degree}F reheat. As part of GEPG`s ongoing advanced power generation system development program, it is expected that a gas fired advanced turbine system providing 300 MW power output greater than 58% net efficiency and < 10 ppM NO{sub x} will be defined. The new turbine cooling system developed with technology support from the ATS program will achieve system net efficiency levels in excess of 60%.

  9. Novel industrial application: flammable and toxic gas monitoring in the printing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Esther; Spector, Yechiel

    1999-12-01

    The present paper describes an Open Path Electro-Optical Gas Monitoring System specifically designed for in-situ on-line monitoring of flammable and toxic atmospheres in the Printing Industry in general, and for air-duct applications in particular. The printing industry posies unique fire hazards due to the variety of toxic and flammable chemical employed in the various printing process. Flammable material such as paper, ink, solvents, thinners, metal powders, cornstarch powders, cloth, synthetic materials are frequently used in the printing industry in several processes such as letter-pressing, lithography, screen printing etc.

  10. Advanced Sorbents as a Versatile Platform for Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Stephenson

    2003-09-30

    The program objective was to develop materials and processes for industrial gas separations to reduce energy use and enable waste reduction. The approach chosen combined novel oxygen selective adsorbents and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes. Preliminary materials development and process simulation results indicated that oxygen selective adsorbents could provide a versatile platform for industrial gas separations. If fully successful, this new technology offered the potential for reducing the cost of producing nitrogen/oxygen co-products, high purity nitrogen, argon, and possibly oxygen. The potential energy savings for the gas separations are appreciable, but the end users are the main beneficiaries. Lowering the cost of industrial gases expands their use in applications that can employ them for reducing energy consumption and emissions.

  11. Training using multimedia in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bihn, G.C.

    1997-02-01

    Multimedia is becoming a widely used and accepted tool in general education. From preschool to the university, multimedia is promising and delivering some very impressive results. Its application in specific industry segments, like oil and gas, is expected to proliferate within the very near future. In fact, many titles are already on the market or in development. The objective of this article is to present an overview of the current state of multimedia as used in petroleum industry training and to provide managers with a feel for not only the technology but, more importantly, what benefit the technology is expected to bring to their organization.

  12. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija; Talcis, Normunds; Laicane, Ilze

    2012-12-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S "Imanta" where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through the economizer; heat, produced by the economizer and water boilers. The work summarizes the data from 2010-2011.

  13. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  14. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Zurlo, James

    2012-04-05

    The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs

  15. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems: Development and Demonstration. Annual report, September 14, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program for advanced turbine systems (ATS) that will serve industrial power generation markets. The objective of the cooperative agreements granted under the program is to join the DOE with industry in research and development that will lead to commercial offerings in the private sector. The ATS will provide ultra-high efficiency, environmental superiority, and cost competitiveness. The ATS will foster (1) early market penetration that enhances the global competitiveness of U.S. industry, (2) public health benefits resulting from reduced exhaust gas emissions of target pollutants, (3) reduced cost of power used in the energy-intensive industrial marketplace and (4) the retention and expansion of the skilled U.S. technology base required for the design, development and maintenance of state-of-the-art advanced turbine products. The Industrial ATS Development and Demonstration program is a multi-phased effort. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar) has participated in Phases 1 and 2 of the program. On September 14, 1995 Solar was awarded a Cooperative Agreement for Phases 3 and 4 of the program (DE-FC21-95MC31173) by the DOE`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). Technical administration of the Cooperative Agreement will be provided from EE`s Chicago Operations Office. Contract administration of the Cooperative Agreement will be provided from DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC).

  16. Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology" project will investigate newly developed optic gas sensors delivered from a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase II effort. A ventilation test rig will be designed and fabricated to test the sensors while integrated with a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus (SMTA). Once the sensors are integrated, a series of test points will be completed to verify that the sensors can withstand Advanced Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) environments and associated human metabolic profiles for changes in pressure and levels of Oxygen (ppO2), carbon dioxide (ppCO2), and humidity (ppH2O).

  17. A guide for the gas and oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This guide has been prepared to assist those in the natural gas and oil industry who may not be familiar with how the Federal government, particularly the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or Department), does business with private sector companies. Basic information is provided on what DOE is trying to do, why it wants to work with the natural gas and oil industry, how it can work with companies, who to contact, and where to inquire for further information. This last item is noteworthy because it is important for users of this guide to be able to access information about subjects that may interest them. Selected other Federal agencies and their activities related to those of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (FE or Fossil Energy) also are included in this document as Appendix A. This guide provides an address and/or phone number for every topic covered to prevent any information impasse. If a question is not adequately answered by the guide, please do not hesitate to contact the appropriate person or office. It is hoped that the information provided in this guide will lead to a better understanding of the mission, roles, and procedures of DOE and result in more and better cooperative working relationships between the natural gas and oil industry and DOE. Such relationships will provide a significant benefit to our Nation`s economic, technological, and energy security.

  18. Advanced liner-cooling techniques for gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Component research for advanced small gas turbine engines is currently underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. As part of this program, a basic reverse-flow combustor geometry was being maintained while different advanced liner wall cooling techniques were investigated. Performance and liner cooling effectiveness of the experimental combustor configuration featuring counter-flow film-cooled panels is presented and compared with two previously reported combustors featuring: splash film-cooled liner walls; and transpiration cooled liner walls (Lamilloy).

  19. Can a more competitive natural gas industry provide stability

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.; Jennings, T.V.; Lemon, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the question, ''Can a more competitive natural gas industry provide stability.'' When we discuss a free gas market here, we are primarily referring to a market in which flexible, accurate prices are free to adjust to achieve market equilibrium -- a balance of supply and demand. Implied is the lack of wellhead price regulations and the transmission of accurate price signals to both suppliers and end-users. Economic efficiency requires that prices respond to changes in conditions such as the world oil price, such as the world oil price, regional demands (for example, those of the Northeast US), sectoral demands (e.g., those of the electric utilities), and environmental policy (select use of gas for emission control, for example). 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Applications of Nanotechnology in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    Nanotechnology could be used to enhance the possibilities of developing conventional and stranded gas resources and to improve the drilling process and oil and gas production by making it easier to separate oil and gas in the reservoir. Nanotechnology can make the oil and gas industry considerably greener. There are numerous areas in which nanotechnology can contribute to more-efficient, less-expensive, and more-environmentally sound technologies than those that are readily available. We identified the following possibilities of nanotechnology in the petroleum industry: 1-Nanotechnology-enhanced materials that provide strength to increase performance in drilling, tubular goods, and rotating parts. 2- Designer properties to enhance hydro-phobic to enhance materials for water flooding applications. 3- Nano-particulate wetting carried out using molecular dynamics 4- Lightweight materials that reduce weight requirements on offshore platforms 5- Nano-sensors for improved temperature and pressure ratings 6- New imaging and computational techniques to allow better discovery, sizing, and characterization of reservoirs.

  1. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  2. Biology and Industrial Applications of Chlorella: Advances and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella represents a group of eukaryotic green microalgae that has been receiving increasing scientific and commercial interest. It possesses high photosynthetic ability and is capable of growing robustly under mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions as well. Chlorella has long been considered as a source of protein and is now industrially produced for human food and animal feed. Chlorella is also rich in oil, an ideal feedstock for biofuels. The exploration of biofuel production by Chlorella is underway. Chlorella has the ability to fix carbon dioxide efficiently and to remove nutrients of nitrogen and phosphorous, making it a good candidate for greenhouse gas biomitigation and wastewater bioremediation. In addition, Chlorella shows potential as an alternative expression host for recombinant protein production, though challenges remain to be addressed. Currently, omics analyses of certain Chlorella strains are being performed, which will help to unravel the biological implications of Chlorella and facilitate the future exploration of industrial applications.

  3. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The combustion system discussed here incorporates a modular three- stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; also in the first stage, sulfur is captured with sorbent; coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed from the combustion gases by inertial means in the second stage by the use of an impact separator and slagging cyclone separator in series. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The objective of this contract is to establish the technology required for subsequent commercial development and application by the private sector of utility-size direct coal-fueled gas turbines. Emissions from these units are to meet or be lower than the Environment Protection Agency's (EPA's) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for a pulverized coal-=fired steam turbine generator plant.

  4. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine was evaluated. The engine structure, bearings, oil system, and electronics were demonstrated and no shaft dynamics or other vibration problem were encountered. Areas identified during the five tests are the scroll retention features, and transient thermal deflection of turbine backplates. Modifications were designed. Seroll retention is addressed by modifying the seal arrangement in front of the gasifier turbine assembly, which will increase the pressure load on the scroll in the forward direction and thereby increase the retention forces. the backplate thermal deflection is addressed by geometric changes and thermal insulation to reduce heat input. Combustor rig proof testing of two ceramic combustor assemblies was completed. The combustor was modified to incorporate slots and reduce sharp edges, which should reduce thermal stresses. The development work focused on techniques to sinter these barrier materials onto the ceramic rotors with successes for both material systems. Silicon carbide structural parts, including engine configuration gasifier rotors (ECRs), preliminary gasifier scroll parts, and gasifier and power turbine vanes are fabricated.

  5. Advanced Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Emerson; Thomas Vanderspurt; Susanne Opalka; Rakesh Radhakrishnan; Rhonda Willigan

    2009-01-07

    The overall objectives for this project were: (1) to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane with high stability and commercially relevant hydrogen permeation in the presence of trace amounts of carbon monoxide and sulfur; and (2) to identify and synthesize a water gas shift catalyst with a high operating life that is sulfur and chlorine tolerant at low concentrations of these impurities. This work successfully achieved the first project objective to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane composition, Pd{sub 0.47}Cu{sub 0.52}G5{sub 0.01}, that was selected based on atomistic and thermodynamic modeling alone. The second objective was partially successful in that catalysts were identified and evaluated that can withstand sulfur in high concentrations and at high pressures, but a long operating life was not achieved at the end of the project. From the limited durability testing it appears that the best catalyst, Pt-Re/Ce{sub 0.333}Zr{sub 0.333}E4{sub 0.333}O{sub 2}, is unable to maintain a long operating life at space velocities of 200,000 h{sup -1}. The reasons for the low durability do not appear to be related to the high concentrations of H{sub 2}S, but rather due to the high operating pressure and the influence the pressure has on the WGS reaction at this space velocity.

  6. Liquefied-petroleum-gas industry profile. Volume 1. An overview of the industry (1944-1980). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gazda, W.; Forman, C.; Zebe, P.

    1985-11-01

    The report provides a broad, factual description of the U.S. liquefied petroleum gas (LP-gas) industry. The basic purpose of the report is to provide analysts and policymakers in government and industry with a comprehensive overview of the LP-gas industry that can be used as a tool in the decision-making process. The report is contained in two volumes: Volume I provides the basic discussion of the LP-gas industry. Volume II supplements the presentation of Volume I with appendices containing additional detail on selected topics.

  7. Recent advances in industrial application of tannases: a review.

    PubMed

    Beniwal, Vikas; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, Jitender; Chhokar, Vinod

    2013-12-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase (E.C. 3.1.1.20) commonly referred as tannase, is a hydrolytic enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of ester bonds present in gallotannins, ellagitannins, complex tannins and gallic acid esters. Tannases are the important group of botechnologically relevant enzymes distributed throughout the animal, plant and microbial kingdoms. However, microbial tannases are currently receiving a great deal of attention. Tannases are extensively used in food, feed, pharmaceutical, beverage, brewing and chemical industries. Owing to its diverse area of applications, a number of patents have been appeared in the recent past. The present review pretends to present the advances and perspectives in the industrial application of tannase with special emphasis on patents.

  8. Degradation of wine industry wastewaters by photocatalytic advanced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Navarro, P; Sarasa, J; Sierra, D; Esteban, S; Ovelleiro, J L

    2005-01-01

    Wine industry wastewaters contain a high concentration of organic biodegradable compounds as well as a great amount of suspended solids. These waters are difficult to treat by conventional biological processes because they are seasonal and a great flow variation exists. Photocatalytic advanced oxidation is a promising technology for waters containing high amounts of organic matter. In this study we firstly investigated the application of H2O2 as oxidant combined with light (artificial or natural) in order to reduce the organic matter in samples from wine industry effluents. Secondly, we studied its combination with heterogeneous catalysts: titanium dioxide and clays containing iron minerals. The addition of photocatalysts to the system reduces the required H2O2 concentration. Although the H2O2/TiO2 system produces higher efficiencies, the H2O2/clays system requires a H2O2 dosage between three and six times lower.

  9. Human resource needs and development for the gas industry of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Klass, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The natural gas industry will confront many challenges in the 1990s and beyond, one of which is the development of human resources to meet future needs. An efficient, trained work force in this era of environmental concern, high technology, and alternative fuels is essential for the industry to continue to meet the competition and to safely deliver our product and service to all customers. Unfortunately, during this period there will be an increasing shortfall of technical personnel to replace those lost to attrition and a steady decline in the availability of new employees who are able to read, write, and perform simple math. Technological and government developments that will impact the industry and the skill levels needed by the industry employees are reviewed. In-house and external training of professional and nonprofessional personnel and the benefits and disadvantages of selected advanced training methods are discussed. Recommendations are presented that can help improve the training of gas industry employees to meet future needs. 22 refs.

  10. Brayton cycle solarized advanced gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Described is the development of a Brayton Engine/Generator Set for solar thermal to electrical power conversion, authorized under DOE/NASA Contract DEN3-181. The objective was to design, fabricate, assemble, and test a small, hybrid, 20-kW Brayton-engine-powered generator set. The latter, called a power conversion assembly (PCA), is designed to operate with solar energy obtained from a parobolic dish concentrator, 11 meters in diameter, or with fossil energy supplied by burning fuels in a combustor, or by a combination of both (hybrid model). The CPA consists of the Brayton cycle engine, a solar collector, a belt-driven 20-kW generator, and the necessary control systems for automatic operation in solar-only, fuel-only, and hybrid modes to supply electrical power to a utility grid. The original configuration of the generator set used the GTEC Model GTP36-51 gas turbine engine for the PCA prime mover. However, subsequent development of the GTEC Model AGT101 led to its selection as the powersource for the PCA. Performance characteristics of the latter, thermally coupled to a solar collector for operation in the solar mode, are presented. The PCA was successfully demonstrated in the fuel-only mode at the GTEC Phoenix, Arizona, facilities prior to its shipment to Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for installation and testing on a test bed concentractor (parabolic dish). Considerations relative to Brayton-engine development using the all-ceramic AGT101 when it becomes available, which would satisfy the DOE heat engine efficiency goal of 35 to 41 percent, are also discussed in the report.

  11. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 15: GAS-ASSISTED GLYCOL PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  12. NORM management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Cowie, M; Mously, K; Fageeha, O; Nassar, R

    2012-01-01

    It has been established that naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil and gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become contaminated with NORM, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings, and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, the general public, and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines, and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management that aim to enhance NORM monitoring; control of NORM-contaminated equipment; control of NORM waste handling and disposal; and protection, awareness, and training of workers. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice, and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy, and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  13. Advanced ammonia (NH3) monitoring system for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Oded; Jacobson, Esther

    1999-12-01

    The present paper describes an Electro-Optical Monitoring System developed for the real time in-situ monitoring of Ammonia (NH3) emissions, at very low concentrations in air, well below the hazardous levels. Ammonia is the starting chemical for almost all industrially produced nitrogen compounds and is therefore one of the most important inorganic raw materials. Due to its unique chemical and physical characteristics, the Ammonia (NH3) anhydrous gas is used in various industrial applications such as: Air Conditioning, Refrigeration (including space shuttles), Agriculture and Chemical Processing. NH3 gas, being a highly irritant toxic and flammable gas with a pungent odor detectable by human perception at 53 ppm, has a TLV-TWA of 25 ppm (TLV-STEL of 35 ppm) and a lower explosive limit (LEL) of 15% in air. Being extremely corrosive and irritating to the skin, eyes, nose and respiratory tract, (irritation begins at 130 - 200 ppm), exposures to high concentrations (above 2500 ppm) are life threatening, thus early detection of Ammonia at concentrations up to 50 ppm is essential to prevent its toxic influence. Existing detection methods for NH3 rely mainly on chemical sensors and analytical methods that require the gas to be sampled and introduced into the detection system via a probe, compared to various standards (for determining the concentration) and the result is not always reflecting the actual gas concentration. The emerging optical open path remote sensing technology that analyzes the specific 'finger print' absorption characteristics of NH3 in various narrow spectral bands, specifically in the UV solar blind band, is discussed including the rationale of the detection algorithm and system design. The system offers warning and alarm signals set at the above low concentration detection sensitivity, (10 - 50 ppm(DOT)m) thus providing reliable Ammonia detection over an air path from 3 (including air-duct applications) to 400 ft (1 - 120 m). Typical installations of

  14. Partnering with Industry to Advance Biofuels and Bioproducts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility, a biochemical pilot plant and partnership facility containing equipment and lab space for pretreatement, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, compositional analysis, and downstream processing. For more than 30 years, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been at the leading edge of research and technology advancements to develop renewable fuels and bioproducts. NREL works to develop cost-competitive alternatives to conventional transportation fuels and value-added biobased chemicals that can be used to manufacture clothing, plastics, lubricants, and other products. NREL is developing technologies and processes to produce a range of sustainable, energy-dense advanced biofuels that are compatible with our existing transportation fuel infrastructure. As part of that effort, NREL's National Bioenergy Center has entered into more than 90 collaborations in the past five years with companies ranging in size from start-ups to those that appear on Fortune magazine's Fortune 100 list. The new Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) showcases NREL's commitment to collaboration and to meeting the nation's biofuels and bioproducts development and deployment goals. Designed to speed the growth of the biofuels and bioproducts industries, the IBRF is a unique $33.5 million pilot facility capable of supporting a variety of projects. The IBRF is available to industry partners who work with NREL through cooperative research and development, technical, and analytical service agreements. With 27,000 ft2 of high bay space, the IBRF provides industry partners with the opportunity to operate, test, and develop their own biorefining technology and equipment.

  15. Radial inflow gas turbine engine with advanced transition duct

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J

    2015-03-17

    A gas turbine engine (10), including: a turbine having radial inflow impellor blades (38); and an array of advanced transition combustor assemblies arranged circumferentially about the radial inflow impellor blades (38) and having inner surfaces (34) that are adjacent to combustion gases (40). The inner surfaces (34) of the array are configured to accelerate and orient, for delivery directly onto the radial inflow impellor blades (38), a plurality of discrete flows of the combustion gases (40). The array inner surfaces (34) define respective combustion gas flow axes (20). Each combustion gas flow axis (20) is straight from a point of ignition until no longer bound by the array inner surfaces (34), and each combustion gas flow axis (20) intersects a unique location on a circumference defined by a sweep of the radial inflow impellor blades (38).

  16. Full hoop casing for midframe of industrial gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Gerald A.; Charron, Richard C.

    2015-12-01

    A can annular industrial gas turbine engine, including: a single-piece rotor shaft spanning a compressor section (82), a combustion section (84), a turbine section (86); and a combustion section casing (10) having a section (28) configured as a full hoop. When the combustion section casing is detached from the engine and moved to a maintenance position to allow access to an interior of the engine, a positioning jig (98) is used to support the compressor section casing (83) and turbine section casing (87).

  17. Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Lingbo; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn

    2012-11-01

    The pulp and paper industry ranks fourth in terms of energy consumption among industries worldwide. Globally, the pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total world industrial final energy consumption in 2007, and contributed 2 percent of direct carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industry. Worldwide pulp and paper demand and production are projected to increase significantly by 2050, leading to an increase in this industry’s absolute energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and GHG mitigation technologies and their deployment in the market will be crucial for the pulp and paper industry’s mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report describes the industry’s processes and compiles available information on the energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for 36 emerging technologies to reduce the industry’s energy use and GHG emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies that have already been commercialized for the pulp and paper industry, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. The purpose of this report is to provide engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured resource of information on these technologies.

  18. Update on DOE Advanced IGCC/H2 Gas Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Cooling Flow Reduction: a) Focus on improving turbine hot gas path part cooling efficiency. b) Applicable to current metallic turbine components and synergistic with advanced materials. c) Address challenges of IGCC/hydrogen fuel environment (for example, possible cooling hole plugging). Leakage Flow Reduction: a) Focus on decreasing turbine parasitic leakages, i.e. between static-to-static, static-to-rotating turbine parts. b) Develop improved seal designs in a variety of important areas. Purge Flow Reduction: a) Focus on decreasing required flows to keep rotor disk cavities within temperature limits. b) Develop improved sealing at the cavity rims and modified flow geometries to minimize hot gas ingestion and aerodynamic impact.

  19. Remote Sensing Application in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, Oleg; Aloltsov, Alexander; Rubtsova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    The main environmental problems of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (a federal subject of Russia) related to the activities of oil and gas industry (82 active companies which hold 77,000 oil wells). As on the 1st of January 2013 the subject produces more than 50% of all oil in Russia. The principle of environmental responsibility makes it necessary to minimize human impact and ecological impact. One of the most effective tools for environmental monitoring is remote sensing. The main advantages of such approach are: wide coverage of areas of interest, high temporal resolution, precise location, automatic processing, large set of extracted parameters, etc. Authorities of KhMAO are interested in regular detection of the impact on the environment by processing satellite data and plan to increase the coverage from 434.9 to 659.9 square kilometers with resolution not less than 10 m/pixel. Years of experience of our company shows the significant potential to expand the use of such remote sensing data in the solution of environmental problems. The main directions are: monitoring of rational use of associated petroleum gas (detection of all gas flares and volumes of burned gas), monitoring of soil pollution (detection of areas of oil pollution, assess of the extent of pollution, planning of reclamation activities and assessment of their efficiency, detection of potential areas of pipelines corrosion), monitoring of status of sludge pits (inventory of all sludge pits, assessment of their liquidation), monitoring of technogenic impact (detection of changes), upgrading of a geospatial database (topographic map of not less than 1:50000 scale). Implementation of modeling, extrapolation and remote analysis techniques based on satellite images will help to reduce unnecessary costs for instrumental methods. Thus, the introduction of effective remote monitoring technology to the activity of oil and gas companies promotes environmental responsibility of these companies.

  20. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further.

  1. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Wyung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gas hydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gas hydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP Leg II effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  2. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  3. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  4. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  5. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  6. Industrial Raman gas sensing for real-time system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buric, M.; Mullen, J.; Chorpening, B.; Woodruff, S.

    2014-06-01

    Opportunities exist to improve on-line process control in energy applications with a fast, non-destructive measurement of gas composition. Here, we demonstrate a Raman sensing system which is capable of reporting the concentrations of numerous species simultaneously with sub-percent accuracy and sampling times below one-second for process control applications in energy or chemical production. The sensor is based upon a hollow-core capillary waveguide with a 300 micron bore with reflective thin-film metal and dielectric linings. The effect of using such a waveguide in a Raman process is to integrate Raman photons along the length of the sample-filled waveguide, thus permitting the acquisition of very large Raman signals for low-density gases in a short time. The resultant integrated Raman signals can then be used for quick and accurate analysis of a gaseous mixture. The sensor is currently being tested for energy applications such as coal gasification, turbine control, well-head monitoring for exploration or production, and non-conventional gas utilization. In conjunction with an ongoing commercialization effort, the researchers have recently completed two prototype instruments suitable for hazardous area operation and testing. Here, we report pre-commercialization testing of those field prototypes for control applications in gasification or similar processes. Results will be discussed with respect to accuracy, calibration requirements, gas sampling techniques, and possible control strategies of industrial significance.

  7. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  8. An advanced oxidation process using ionized gas for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Chung, Paul Gene; Kwak, Dong Heui; Kim, Lee Hyung; Kim, Min Jeong

    2010-01-01

    This study on removing non-degradable materials in wastewater focused primarily on advanced oxidation methods such as ozone, ozone/UV and ozone/H2O2. Wastewater treatment using an ionized gas from plasma has been actively progressing. The ionized gas involves reactive species such as O2+, O2- cluster, O radical and OH radical. Since the ionized gas method has such outstanding characteristics as relatively simple structures, non-calorification, non-toxicity and low electricity consumption, it evidently of interest as a new process. A series of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of ionized gas as a useful element for the diminution of nondegradable organic matters. On the other hand, a large amount of organic matters were changed to hydrophilic and the compounds containing aromatic functional group gradually decreased. The results implied that the ionized gas has been able to degrade the non-biodegradable organic matters. Therefore, the oxidation process by using an ionized gas process could be considered as an effective alternative unit in water and wastewater treatment plants.

  9. RE: Request for Correction, Technical Support Document, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Industrial Energy Consumers of America (IECA) joins the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in its request for correction of information developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a background technical support document titled Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

  10. Industrial advanced turbine systems: Development and demonstration. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program for advanced turbine systems (ATS) that will serve industrial power generation markets. The objective of the cooperative agreements granted under the program is to join the DOE with industry in research and development that will lead to commercial offerings in the private sector. The ATS will provide ultra-high efficiency, environmental superiority, and cost competitiveness. The ATS will foster (1) early market penetration that enhances the global competitiveness of US industry, (2) public health benefits resulting from reduced exhaust gas emissions of target pollutants, (3) reduced cost of power used in the energy-intensive industrial marketplace, and (4) the retention and expansion of the skilled US technology base required for the design, development and maintenance of state-of-the-art advanced turbine products. The Industrial ATS Development and Demonstration program is a multi-phased effort. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar) has participated in Phases 1 and 2 of the program. On September 14, 1995 Solar was awarded a Cooperative Agreement for Phases 3 and 4 of the program. Phase 3 of the work is separated into two subphases: Phase 3A entails Component Design and Development; Phase 3B will involve Integrated Subsystem Testing. Phase 4 will cover Host Site Testing. As of the end of the reporting period work on the program is 29.1% complete (24.7% last quarter). Work on the Mercury 50 development and ATS technology development portions of the program (WBS 10000 et seq) is 48.9% complete (41.6% last quarter). Estimates of percent complete are based upon milestones completed. In order to maintain objectivity in assessing schedule progress, Solar uses a 0/100 percent complete assumption for milestones rather than subjectively estimating progress toward completion of milestones. Cost and schedule variance information is provided in Section 4.0 Program Management.

  11. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  12. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  13. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  14. Coal gasification via the Lurgi process: Topical report: Volume 2, Production of IFG (industrial fuel gas)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnstecher, L.W.

    1984-12-01

    A Lurgi baseline study was requested by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee of the Joint Coal Gasification Program for the purpose of updating the economics of earlier Lurgi coal gasification plant studies for the production of industrial fuel gas (IFG) based on commercially advanced technologies. The current study incorporates the recent experience with large size Lurgi plants in an effort to improve capital and operating costs of earlier plant designs. The present coal gasification study is based upon a plant producing 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of IFG using the Lurgi dry bottom coal gasification technology. A Western subbituminous coal was designated as the plant feed, obtained from the Rosebud seam at Colstrip, Montana. This study presents the detailed description of an integrated facility which utilizes coal, air, and water to produce 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of industrial fuel gas. The plant consists of coal handling and preparation, seven Lurgi dry bottom gasifiers, acid gas removal, sulfur recovery, phenol and ammonia recovery, as well as necessary support facilities. The plant is a grass roots facility located in the area of Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Lurgi Corporation assisted in this study, under subcontract to Foster Wheeler, by supplying the heat and material balances, flow sheets, utilities, catalysts and chemical requirements, and cost data for Lurgi designed process sections. Details of material supplied by Lurgi Corporation are presented in Appendix A. 39 refs., 33 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Thermal barrier coating on high temperature industrial gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, N.; Stoner, B. L.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal barrier coating used was a yttria stabilized zirconia material with a NiCrAlY undercoat, and the base engine used to establish improvements was the P&WA FT50A-4 industrial gas turbine engine. The design benefits of thermal barrier coatings include simplified cooling schemes and the use of conventional alloys in the engine hot section. Cooling flow reductions and improved heating rates achieved with thermal barrier coating result in improved performance. Economic benefits include reduced power production costs and reduced fuel consumption. Over the 30,000 hour life of the thermal barrier coated parts, fuel savings equivalent to $5 million are projected and specific power (megawatts/mass of engine airflow) improvements on the order of 13% are estimated.

  16. Tempo of Argentinian oil and gas industry quickens

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1988-08-01

    Exploration and production programs that the Argentinian Government has set in motion are making the country, which will host the next World Petroleum Congress, a more active and visible member of the international oil industry. A high, but possibly diminishing, inflation rate of about 15%/month, external financial debt, and the depressed price of oil are still drags on progress. But there are positive factors at work too. The government has recognized that it is in the country's self interest to entice technologically experienced foreign oil companies to search for and exploit its probably abundant oil and gas resources. The government's primary objective is to add enough output to its some 430,000 b/d production to eliminate crude oil imports. A good start on this will be made early next year when the country's first offshore field begins production.

  17. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  18. Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation.

    PubMed

    Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved.

  19. Distribution robotics in the gas industry: Issues and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sweetwood, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The new engineering field of ''Distribution Robotics'' is emerging in the gas industry. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the gas utility managers and engineers to take notice to this new technology and start factoring it into their planning strategies. The defined goal of distribution robotics is to improve the quality of service, lower operating costs, reduce work hazards, and perform in situ tasks. Applications of the distribution robotic system range from internal leak detection and repair to pipe condition assessment and cleaning; as stated, these applications are performed in a live system. To achieve the desired application missions, the robotic system requires robots of different designs along with appropriate tools, peripherals, and external support systems. The robot consists of several subsystems that allow motion, sensory perception, action and reaction, communication, and entering or existing the system. Each subsystem has several choices for robot configurations with advantages and trade-offs for the purpose, mode, range, and speed required by each mission. External support systems are required for a complete distribution robotic system. An external computer and human operator are needed as well as the physical hardware necessary to support a robot operation. Finally, issues raised by a distribution robotic system need consideration for proper planning. The major issues raised are robot miniaturization, obstacles, safety, coverage, and control.

  20. Industry disputes administration report on oil and gas leasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Despite the Obama administration's efforts to make millions of acres of public lands available for oil and gas development, most of the acreage onshore and offshore of the contiguous United States remains idle, according to “Oil and gas lease utilization, onshore and offshore,” a 15 May report issued by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The report, which is being disputed by industry representatives, notes that 72% of the nearly 36 million leased offshore acres currently are inactive and that 50.6% of onshore leased acres (about 20.8 million acres) also are idle. “As part of the Obama administration's all-of- the-above energy strategy, we continue to make millions of acres of public lands available for safe and responsible domestic energy production on public lands and in federal waters,” said DOI secretary Ken Salazar. “These lands and waters belong to the American people, and they expect those energy supplies to be developed in a timely and responsible manner and with a fair return to taxpayers. We will continue to encourage companies to diligently bring production online quickly and safely on public lands already under lease.”

  1. Leakage Currents and Gas Generation in Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Currently, military grade, established reliability wet tantalum capacitors are among the most reliable parts used for space applications. This has been achieved over the years by extensive testing and improvements in design and materials. However, a rapid insertion of new types of advanced, high volumetric efficiency capacitors in space systems without proper testing and analysis of degradation mechanisms might increase risks of failures. The specifics of leakage currents in wet electrolytic capacitors is that the conduction process is associated with electrolysis of electrolyte and gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure in the parts. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. In this work, in Part I, leakages currents in various types of tantalum capacitors have been analyzed in a wide range of voltages, temperatures, and time under bias. Gas generation and the level of internal pressure have been calculated in Part II for different case sizes and different hermeticity leak rates to assess maximal allowable leakage currents. Effects related to electrolyte penetration to the glass seal area have been studied and the possibility of failures analyzed in Part III. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  2. Withdrawal of 2016 Information Request for the Oil and Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is providing notice that it is withdrawing its requests that owners and operators in the oil and natural gas industry provide information on equipment and emissions at existing oil and gas operations.

  3. Toxic legacy: the environmental impact of the manufactured gas industry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    The manufactured gas industry provided cities in the United States with energy for light and power during much of the period from approximately 1850 to 1950. This article explores the history of the effects of this industry on air, land, and water environments; it also examines attempts by the courts and municipal and state governments to regulate gas-waste pollution and the industry's response. The article concludes by exploring the heritage of badly contaminated sites that the manufactured gas industry left to the nation after it was replaced by natural gas after World War II.

  4. Industrial advanced turbine systems: Development and demonstration. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The US DOE has initiated a program for advanced turbine systems (ATS) that will serve industrial power generation markets. The ATS will provide ultra-high efficiency, environmental superiority, and cost competitiveness. The ATS will foster (1) early market penetration that enhances the global competitiveness of US industry, (2) public health benefits resulting from reduced exhaust gas emissions of target pollutants, (3) reduced cost of power used in the energy-intensive industrial marketplace and (4) the retention and expansion of the skilled US technology base required for the design, development and maintenance of state-of-the-art advanced turbine products. The Industrial ATS Development and Demonstration program is a multi-phased effort. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar) has participated in Phases 1 and 2 of the program. On September 14, 1995 Solar was awarded a Cooperative Agreement for Phases 3 and 4 of the program. Phase 3 of the work is separated into two subphases: Phase 3A entails Component Design and Development Phase 3B will involve Integrated Subsystem Testing. Phase 4 will cover Host Site Testing. Forecasts call for completion of the program within budget as originally estimated. Scheduled completion is forecasted to be approximately 3 years late to original plan. This delay has been intentionally planned in order to better match program tasks to the anticipated availability of DOE funds. To ensure the timely realization of DOE/Solar program goals, the development schedule for the smaller system (Mercury 50) and enabling technologies has been maintained, and commissioning of the field test unit is scheduled for May of 2000. As of the end of the reporting period work on the program is 22.80% complete based upon milestones completed. This measurement is considered quite conservative as numerous drawings on the Mercury 50 are near release. Variance information is provided in Section 4.0-Program Management.

  5. Industrial advanced turbine systems: Development and demonstration. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The US DOE has initiated a program for advanced turbine systems (ATS) that will serve industrial power generation markets. The ATS will foster (1) early market penetration that enhances the global competitiveness of US industry, (2) public health benefits resulting from reduced exhaust gas emissions of target pollutants, (3) reduced cost of power used in the energy-intensive industrial marketplace and (4) the retention and expansion of the skilled US technology base required for the design, development and maintenance of state-of-the-art advanced turbine products. The Industrial ATS Development and Demonstration program is a multi-phased effort. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar) has participated in Phases 1 and 2 of the program. On September 14, 1995 Solar was awarded a Cooperative Agreement for Phases 3 and 4 of the program. Phase 3 of the work is separated into two subphases: Phase 3A entails Component Design and Development; Phase 3B will involve Integrated Subsystem Testing. Phase 4 will cover Host Site Testing. Forecasts call for completion of the program within budget as originally estimated. Scheduled completion is forecasted to be approximately 3 years late to original plan. Significant efforts were spent this quarter to reforecast and control expenditures due to Solar`s and DOE`s current funding and resource constraints. Selective reductions and delays in program activities were identified and implemented. Although these actions will increase technical risk and the attainment of stretch goals, it is not anticipated that the schedule for initial test units or the attainment of basic program performance requirements will be impacted. As of the end of the reporting period work on the program is 22.80% complete based upon milestones completed. This measurement is considered quite conservative as numerous drawings on the Mercury 50 are near release. Variance information is provided in Section 4.0-Program Management.

  6. Recent Advances in Fungal Hydrophobin Towards Using in Industry.

    PubMed

    Khalesi, Mohammadreza; Gebruers, Kurt; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2015-08-01

    Fungal hydrophobin is a family of low molecular weight proteins consisting of four disulfide bridges and an extraordinary hydrophobic patch. The hydrophobic patch of hydrophobins and the molecules of gaseous CO2 may interact together and form the stable CO2-nanobubbles covered by an elastic membrane in carbonated beverages. The nanobubbles provide the required energy to provoke primary gushing. Due to the hydrophobicity of hydrophobin, this protein is used as a biosurfactant, foaming agent or encapsulating agent in food products and medicine formulations. Increasing demands for using of hydrophobins led to a challenge regarding production and purification of this product. However, the main issue to use hydrophobin in the industry is the regulatory affairs: yet there is no approved legislation for using hydrophobin in food and beverages. To comply with the legislation, establishing a consistent method for obtaining pure hydrophobins is necessary. Currently, few research teams in Europe are focusing on different aspects of hydrophobins. In this paper, an up-to-date collection of highlights from those special groups about the bio-chemical and physicochemical characteristics of hydrophobins have been studied. The recent advances of those groups concerning the production and purification, positive applications and negative function of hydrophobin are also summarised.

  7. Gas-turbine critical research and advanced technology support project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. S.; Hodge, P. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Anderson, D. N.; Schultz, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    A technology data base for utility gas turbine systems capable of burning coal derived fuels was developed. The following areas are investigated: combustion; materials; and system studies. A two stage test rig is designed to study the conversion of fuel bound nitrogen to NOx. The feasibility of using heavy fuels in catalytic combustors is evaluated. A statistically designed series of hot corrosion burner rig tests was conducted to measure the corrosion rates of typical gas turbine alloys with several fuel contaminants. Fuel additives and several advanced thermal barrier coatings are tested. Thermal barrier coatings used in conjunction with low critical alloys and those used in a combined cycle system in which the stack temperature was maintained above the acid corrosion temperature are also studied.

  8. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop hot-gas desulfurization sorbent formulations for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343--538 C. The candidate sorbents include highly dispersed mixed metal oxides of zinc, iron, copper, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum. The specific objective was to develop suitable sorbents, that would have high and stable surface area and are sufficiently reactive and regenerable at the relatively lower temperatures of interest in this work. Stability of surface area during regeneration was achieved by adding stabilizers. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives that promote the light-off of the regeneration reaction at lower temperature was considered. Another objective of this study was to develop attrition-resistant advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents which show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343 to 538 C and regenerability at lower temperatures than leading first generation sorbents.

  9. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  10. Feasibility of magnetic bearings for advanced gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, David; Rosado, Lewis

    1992-01-01

    The application of active magnetic bearings to advanced gas turbine engines will provide a product with major improvements compared to current oil lubricated bearing designs. A rethinking of the engine rotating and static structure design is necessary and will provide the designer with significantly more freedom to meet the demanding goals of improved performance, increased durability, higher reliability, and increased thrust to weight ratio via engine weight reduction. The product specific technology necessary for this high speed, high temperature, dynamically complex application has been defined. The resulting benefits from this approach to aircraft engine rotor support and the complementary engine changes and improvements have been assessed.

  11. Feasibility of magnetic bearings for advanced gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibner, David; Rosado, Lewis

    1992-05-01

    The application of active magnetic bearings to advanced gas turbine engines will provide a product with major improvements compared to current oil lubricated bearing designs. A rethinking of the engine rotating and static structure design is necessary and will provide the designer with significantly more freedom to meet the demanding goals of improved performance, increased durability, higher reliability, and increased thrust to weight ratio via engine weight reduction. The product specific technology necessary for this high speed, high temperature, dynamically complex application has been defined. The resulting benefits from this approach to aircraft engine rotor support and the complementary engine changes and improvements have been assessed.

  12. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project annual report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the tenth in a series of Technical Summary reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorized under NASA Contract DEN3-167, and sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by Garrett Turbine Engine Company, A Division of the Garrett Corporation, and includes information provided by Ford Motor Company, the Carborundum Company, and AiResearch Casting Company. The Project is administered by Mr. Thomas N. Strom, Project Manager, NASA-Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. This report covers plans and progress for the period July 1, 1984 through June 30, 1985.

  13. Advanced controls for airbreathing engines, volume 3: Allison gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bough, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two-phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 3 of these reports describes the studies performed by the Allison Gas Turbine Division.

  14. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  15. Vermicomposting as an advanced biological treatment for industrial waste from the leather industry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ramom R; Bontempi, Rhaissa M; Mendonça, Giovane; Galetti, Gustavo; Rezende, Maria Olímpia O

    2016-01-01

    The leather industry (tanneries) generates high amounts of toxic wastes, including solid and liquid effluents that are rich in organic matter and mineral content. Vermicomposting was studied as an alternative method of treating the wastes from tanneries. Vermicompost was produced from the following tannery residues: tanned chips of wet-blue leather, sludge from a liquid residue treatment station, and a mixture of both. Five hundred earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added to each barrel. During the following 135 days the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), C:N ratio, and chromium content as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). The results for pH, TOC and OM contents showed decreases in their values during the composting process, whereas values for CEC and total nitrogen rose, indicating that the vermicompost reached maturity. For chromium, at 135 days, all values of Cr (VI) were below the detectable level. Therefore, the Cr (VI) content had probably been biologically transformed into Cr (III), confirming the use of this technique as an advanced biological treatment. The study reinforces the idea that vermicomposting could be introduced as an effective technology for the treatment of industrial tannery waste and the production of agricultural inputs.

  16. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  17. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep; Pfefferle, William

    2010-04-01

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE's goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar Turbines

  18. Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Alex D.; Bergerson, Joule A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and upgrading (SM&Up) or in situ and upgrading (IS&Up) processes is reported to result in emissions ranging from 62 to 164 and 99 to 176 kgCO2eq/bbl SCO, respectively (or 9.2-26.5 and 16.2-28.7 gCO2eq MJ-1 SCO, respectively), compared to 27-58 kgCO2eq/bbl (4.5-9.6 gCO2eq MJ-1) of crude for conventional oil production. The difference in emissions intensity between SCO and conventional crude production is primarily due to higher energy requirements for extracting bitumen and upgrading it into SCO. On a 'well-to-wheel' basis, GHG emissions associated with producing reformulated gasoline from oil sands with current SM&Up, IS&Up, and in situ (without upgrading) technologies are 260-320, 320-350, and 270-340 gCO2eq km-1, respectively, compared to 250-280 gCO2eq km-1 for production from conventional oil. Some variation between studies is expected due to differences in methods, technologies studied, and operating choices. However, the magnitude of the differences presented suggests that a consensus on the characterization of life cycle emissions of the oil sands industry has yet to be reached in the public literature. Recommendations are given for future studies for informing industry and government decision making.

  19. SCALE-UP OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    K. JOTHIMURUGESAN; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop advanced regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective was to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high sulfidation activity at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F). Twenty sorbents were synthesized in this work. Details of the preparation technique and the formulations are proprietary, pending a patent application, thus no details regarding the technique are divulged in this report. Sulfidations were conducted with a simulated gas containing (vol %) 10 H{sub 2}, 15 CO, 5 CO{sub 2}, 0.4-1 H{sub 2}S, 15 H{sub 2}O, and balance N{sub 2} in the temperature range of 343-538 C. Regenerations were conducted at temperatures in the range of 400-600 C with air-N{sub 2} mixtures. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives were investigated that promote regeneration at lower temperatures. Characterization were performed for fresh, sulfided and regenerated sorbents.

  20. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. A survey of gas-side fouling in industrial heat-transfer equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Gas-side fouling and corrosion problems occur in all of the energy intensive industries including the chemical, petroleum, primary metals, pulp and paper, glass, cement, foodstuffs, and textile industries. Topics of major interest include: (1) heat exchanger design procedures for gas-side fouling service; (2) gas-side fouling factors which are presently available; (3) startup and shutdown procedures used to minimize the effects of gas-side fouling; (4) gas-side fouling prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques; (5) economic impact of gas-side fouling on capital costs, maintenance costs, loss of production, and energy losses; and (6) miscellaneous considerations related to gas-side fouling. The present state-of-the-art for industrial gas-side fouling is summarized by a list of recommendations for further work in this area.

  2. A survey of gas-side fouling in industrial heat-transfer equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.

    1983-11-01

    Gas-side fouling and corrosion problems occur in all of the energy intensive industries including the chemical, petroleum, primary metals, pulp and paper, glass, cement, foodstuffs, and textile industries. Topics of major interest include: (1) heat exchanger design procedures for gas-side fouling service; (2) gas-side fouling factors which are presently available; (3) startup and shutdown procedures used to minimize the effects of gas-side fouling; (4) gas-side fouling prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques; (5) economic impact of gas-side fouling on capital costs, maintenance costs, loss of production, and energy losses; and (6) miscellaneous considerations related to gas-side fouling. The present state-of-the-art for industrial gas-side fouling is summarized by a list of recommendations for further work in this area.

  3. GIS and visualization: Environmental applications for the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, S.R.J.; Rubertis, C. de

    1995-04-01

    As practitioners in the imperfect world of environmental and engineering studies, we see the current pace of rapid change in computer applications to our business as an opportunity to improve our more basic skills, rather than necessarily adopting whatever is the latest and greatest. In the oil and gas industry, for example, there have long been centers of computing excellence and sophistication, in areas such as remote sensing, exploration geology and process engineering. However, a wide suite of newly available, simple PC-based tools offer to revolutionize our routine work across the disciplines, and democratize what was hitherto the domain of the advanced computer specialist. Appropriately applied, such systems can vastly improve our efficiency and communications abilities. This paper suggests ways in which basic, low-cost computer tools such as user-friendly GIS and 3-D data visualization, can benefit a wide variety of applications, through examples and case studies drawn primarily from the oil and gas industry. These include: (1) facility siting for E&P operations, (2) emergency response and crisis management, (3) GIS-based data management for refineries, (4) contaminated site remediation and risk assessment. Examples of GIS studies using databases derived from remote sensing and other typical sources, will include links to environmental models and image libraries; 3-D modelling and computer animation techniques will also be illustrated.

  4. Results of Laboratory and Industrial Tests of Periodic-Type Gas Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, I. N.; P‧yanykh, K. E.; Antoshchuk, T. A.; Lysenko, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Results of laboratory and industrial tests of periodic-type gas generators burning various solid biofuels have been presented. The tests were carried out with the aim of obtaining producer gas which could totally or partly replace natural gas in power equipment burning gaseous fuel. The energy and environmental characteristics of a boiler unit burning a mixture of producer gas and natural gas have been assessed.

  5. 76 FR 20657 - Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 1, 2011, Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg) filed a revised Statement...

  6. 76 FR 78640 - Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 9, 2011, Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg) filed in PR12-8-000...

  7. 75 FR 56092 - Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C; Notice of Filing September 8, 2010. Take notice that on September 1, 2010, Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg) filed...

  8. 78 FR 21929 - Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 1, 2013, Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg) filed to cancel...

  9. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  11. Natural Gas for Advanced Dual-Fuel Combustion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nicholas Ryan

    Natural gas fuels represent the next evolution of low-carbon energy feedstocks powering human activity worldwide. The internal combustion engine, the energy conversion device widely used by society for more than one century, is capable of utilizing advanced combustion strategies in pursuit of ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions. Yet many emerging advanced combustion strategies depend upon traditional petroleum-based fuels for their operation. In this research the use of natural gas, namely methane, is applied to both conventional and advanced dual-fuel combustion strategies. In the first part of this work both computational and experimental studies are undertaken to examine the viability of utilizing methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel in reactivity controlled compression ignition, a leading advanced dual-fuel combustion strategy. As a result, methane is shown to be capable of significantly extending the load limits for dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition in both light- and heavy-duty engines. In the second part of this work heavy-duty single-cylinder engine experiments are performed to research the performance of both conventional dual-fuel (diesel pilot ignition) and advanced dual-fuel (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion strategies using methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel. Both strategies are strongly influenced by equivalence ratio; diesel pilot ignition offers best performance at higher equivalence ratios and higher premixed methane ratios, whereas reactivity controlled compression ignition offers superior performance at lower equivalence ratios and lower premixed methane ratios. In the third part of this work experiments are performed in order to determine the dominant mode of heat release for both dual-fuel combustion strategies. By studying the dual-fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition and single-fuel spark ignition, strategies representative of autoignition and flame propagation

  12. Natural gas in the energy industry of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Cuttica, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a gas industry perspective on the impacts of restructuring the natural gas and electric industries. The four main implications discussed are: (1) market trends, (2) strategic positioning, (3) significant market implications, and (4) issues for the future. Market trends discussed include transitioning rate of return to market competition and regulatory impacts. Significant market implications for gas-fired generation identified include limited new generation investment, extension of existing plants, and an opportunity for distributed power generation. 12 tabs.

  13. Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stooksbury, F.

    1994-06-01

    Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  14. The role of advanced technology in the future of the power generation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.

    1994-10-01

    This presentation reviews the directions that technology has given the power generation industry in the past and how advanced technology will be the key for the future of the industry. The topics of the presentation include how the industry`s history has defined its culture, how today`s economic and regulatory climate has constrained its strategy, and how certain technology options might give some of the players an unfair advantage.

  15. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) power-train system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Johnson, R. A.; Gibson, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    Technical work on the design and component testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine is described. Selected component ceramic component design, and procurement were tested. Compressor tests of a modified rotor showed high speed performance improvement over previous rotor designs; efficiency improved by 2.5%, corrected flow by 4.6%, and pressure ratio by 11.6% at 100% speed. The aerodynamic design is completed for both the gasifier and power turbines. Ceramic (silicon carbide) gasifier rotors were spin tested to failure. Improving strengths is indicated by burst speeds and the group of five rotors failed at speeds between 104% and 116% of engine rated speed. The emission results from combustor testing showed NOx levels to be nearly one order of magnitude lower than with previous designs. A one piece ceramic exhaust duct/regenerator seal platform is designed with acceptable low stress levels.

  16. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  17. Natural Gas Compression Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5311.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Natural Gas Compression Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to install, commission, maintain and repair equipment used to gather store and transmit natural gas. Advanced Education and Technology has prepared this course outline in partnership with the Natural Gas Compression…

  18. 77 FR 70434 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement Take notice that on November 8, 2012, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) and Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg), filed a Stipulation and Agreement...

  19. 77 FR 34031 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 21, 2012, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) and Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg), 9 Greenway Plaza, Suite 2800, Houston, Texas 77046, filed...

  20. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  1. Hot gas cleanup and gas turbine aspects of an advanced PFBC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A. ); Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E. . Science and Technology Center)

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the second-generation PFBC development program is to advance this concept to a commercial status. Three major objectives of the current Phase 2 program activities are to: Separately test key components of the second-generation PFBC power plant at sub-scale to ascertain their performance characteristics, Revise the commercial plant performance and economic predictions where necessary, Prepare for a 1.6 MWe equivalent Phase 3 integrated subsystem test of the key components. The key components of the plant, with respect to development risk, are the carbonizer, the circulating PFBC unit, the ceramic barrier filter, and the topping combustor. This paper reports on the development and testing of one key component -- the ceramic barrier filter for the carbonizer fuel gas. The objective of the Phase 2 carbonizer ceramic barrier filter testing has been to confirm filter performance and operability in the carbonizer fuel gas environment.

  2. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This report contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Subject areas covered are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  3. Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Reserves and Natural Gas Division has undertaken an in-depth reevaluation of its programs in an effort to improve the focus and quality of the natural gas data that it gathers and reports. This article is to inform natural gas data users of proposed changes and of the opportunity to provide comments and input on the direction that EIA is taking to improve its data.

  4. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  5. Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Tyminski, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew; Pawelec, Andrzej; Licki, Janusz

    2003-08-01

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants, like SO2, NOx, HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however, the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First, using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture, and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan, the USA, Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland, third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany, Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators, 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world, nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

  6. Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Tyminski, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew; Pawelec, Andrzej; Licki, Janusz

    2003-08-26

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants, like SO2, NOx, HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however, the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First, using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture, and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan, the USA, Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland, third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany, Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators, 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world, nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

  7. Advances in industrial microbiome based on microbial consortium for biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Li; Zhou, Jin-Jie; Quan, Chun-Shan; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2017-01-01

    One of the important targets of industrial biotechnology is using cheap biomass resources. The traditional strategy is microbial fermentations with single strain. However, cheap biomass normally contains so complex compositions and impurities that it is very difficult for single microorganism to utilize availably. In order to completely utilize the substrates and produce multiple products in one process, industrial microbiome based on microbial consortium draws more and more attention. In this review, we first briefly described some examples of existing industrial bioprocesses involving microbial consortia. Comparison of 1,3-propanediol production by mixed and pure cultures were then introduced, and interaction relationships between cells in microbial consortium were summarized. Finally, the outlook on how to design and apply microbial consortium in the future was also proposed.

  8. Initial Results of Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Program Leg II Logging-While-Drilling Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, R. M.; Collett, T. S.; Frye, M.; McConnell, D.; Shedd, W.; Shelander, D.; Dai, J.; Mrozewski, S.; Guerin, G.; Cook, A.; Dufrene, R.; Godfriaux, P. D.; Roy, R.; Jones, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico gas hydrates Joint Industry Project (the JIP), a cooperative research program between the US Department of Energy and an international industrial consortium under the leadership of Chevron, conducted its “Leg II” logging-while-drilling operations in April and May of 2009. JIP Leg II was intended to expand the existing JIP work from previous emphasis on fine-grained sedimentary systems to the direct evaluation of gas hydrate in sand-dominated reservoirs. The selection of the locations for the JIP Leg II drilling were the result of a geological and geophysical prospecting approach that integrated direct geophysical evidence of gas hydrate-bearing strata with evidence of gas sourcing and migration and occurrence of sand reservoirs within the gas hydrate stability zone. Logging-while-drilling operations included the drilling of seven wells at three sites. The expedition experienced minimal operational problems with the advanced LWD tool string, and successfully managed a number of shallow drilling challenges, including borehole breakouts, and shallow gas and water flows. Two wells drilled in Walker Ridge block 313 (WR-313) confirmed the pre-drill predictions by discovering gas hydrates at high saturations in multiple sand horizons with reservoir thicknesses up to 50 ft. In addition, drilling in WR-313 discovered a thick, strata-bound interval of grain-displacing gas hydrate in shallow fine-grained sediments. Two of three wells drilled in Green Canyon block 955 (GC-955) confirmed the pre-drill prediction of extensive sand occurrence with gas hydrate fill along the crest of a structure with positive indications of gas source and migration. In particular, well GC955-H discovered ~100 ft of gas hydrate in sand at high saturations. Two wells drilled in Alaminos Canyon block 21 (AC-21) confirmed the pre-drill prediction of potential extensive occurrence of gas hydrates in shallow sand reservoirs at low to moderate saturations; however, further data

  9. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven {open_quotes}Vision Industries{close_quotes} that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: (1) Aluminum; (2) Chemical; (3) Forest Products; (4) Glass; (5) Metal Casting; (6) Refineries; and (7) Steel. This report is a compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments on materials.

  10. Advances in integrated system heath management system technologies : overview of NASA and industry collaborative activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixit, Sunil; Brown, Steve; Fijany, Amir; Park, Han; Mackey, Ryan; James, Mark; Baroth, Ed

    2005-01-01

    This paper will describe recent advances in ISHM technologies made through collaboration between NASA and industry. In particular, the paper will focus on past, present, and future technology development and maturation efforts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and its industry partner, Northrop Grumman lntegrated Systems (NGIS).

  11. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Introduction to Industrial Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenhunt, James E.

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour introduction to industrial physics that explains and demonstrates to industrial maintenance mechanics the direct relationship of physics to machinery. Project TEAM is intended to upgrade basic technical competencies of…

  12. [Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research]. Technical Quarterly Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Major Accomplishments by Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) during this reporting period are highlighted below and amplified in later sections of this report: AGTSR distributed 50 proposals from the 98RFP to the IRB for review, evaluation and rank-ordering during the summer; AGTSR conducted a detailed program review at DOE-FETC on July 24; AGTSR organized the 1998 IRB proposal review meeting at SCIES on September 15-16; AGTSR consolidated all the IRB proposal scores and rank-orderings to facilitate the 98RFP proposal deliberations; AGTSR submitted meeting minutes and proposal short-list recommendation to the IRB and DOE for the 98RFP solicitation; AGTSR reviewed two gas turbine related proposals as part of the CU RFP State Project for renovating the central energy facility; AGTSR reviewed and cleared research papers with the IRB from the University of Pittsburgh, Wisconsin, and Minnesota; AGTSR assisted GTA in obtaining university stakeholder support of the ATS program from California, Pennsylvania, and Colorado; AGTSR assisted GTA in distributing alert notices on potential ATS budget cuts to over 150 AGTSR performing university members; AGTSR submitted proceedings booklet and organizational information pertaining to the OAI hybrid gas turbine workshop to DOE-FETC; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR updated the university consortium poster to include new members and research highlights; For DOE-FETC, the general AGTSR Fact Sheet was updated to include new awards, workshops, educational activity and select accomplishments from the research projects; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR prepared three fact sheets highlighting university research supported in combustion, aero-heat transfer, and materials; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted pictures on materials research for inclusion in the ATS technology brochure; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted a post-2000 roadmap showing potential technology paths AGTSR could pursue in the next decade; AGTSR distributed the ninth newsletter UPDATE to DOE, the

  13. Advanced Electronics Systems 1, Industrial Electronics 3: 9327.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The 135 clock-hour course for the 12th year consists of outlines for blocks of instruction on transistor applications to basic circuits, principles of single sideband communications, maintenance practices, preparation for FCC licenses, application of circuits to advanced electronic systems, nonsinusoidal wave shapes, multivibrators, and blocking…

  14. Ready for Takeoff: China’s Advancing Aerospace Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    percent of the 12,700 civil helicopters projected for delivery worldwide between 2010 and 2017 (Xia, 2009, p. 58). 2 The figures for Australia, the United...engine light helicopter with a maxi - mum takeoff weight of approximately 1,700 kg. Its design is con- sidered highly advanced, with extensive use of

  15. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  16. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, ceramic component developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teneyck, M. O.; Macbeth, J. W.; Sweeting, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    The ceramic component technology development activity conducted by Standard Oil Engineered Materials Company while performing as a principal subcontractor to the Garrett Auxiliary Power Division for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project (NASA Contract DEN3-167) is summarized. The report covers the period October 1979 through July 1987, and includes information concerning ceramic technology work categorized as common and unique. The former pertains to ceramic development applicable to two parallel AGT projects established by NASA contracts DEN3-168 (AGT100) and DEN3-167 (AGT101), whereas the unique work solely pertains to Garrett directed activity under the latter contract. The AGT101 Technology Development Project is sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA-Lewis. Standard Oil directed its efforts toward the development of ceramic materials in the silicon-carbide family. Various shape forming and fabrication methods, and nondestructive evaluation techniques were explored to produce the static structural components for the ceramic engine. This permitted engine testing to proceed without program slippage.

  17. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  18. Gas turbine critical research and advanced technology (CRT) support project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, E. R.; Anderson, D. N.; Gedwill, M. A.; Lowell, C. E.; Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    The technical progress to provide a critical technology base for utility gas turbine systems capable of burning coal-derived fuels is summarized. Project tasks include the following: (1) combustion - to investigate the combustion of coal-derived fuels and the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NOx; (2) materials - to understand and prevent the hot corrosion of turbine hot section materials; and (3) system studies - to integrate and guide the technological efforts. Technical accomplishments include: an extension of flame tube combustion testing of propane - Toluene Fuel Mixtures to vary H2 content from 9 to 18 percent by weight and the comparison of results with that predicted from a NASA Lewis General Chemical Kinetics Computer Code; the design and fabrication of combustor sector test section to test current and advanced combustor concepts; Testing of Catalytic combustors with residual and coal-derived liquid fuels; testing of high strength super alloys to evaluate their resistance to potential fuel impurities using doped clean fuels and coal-derived liquids; and the testing and evaluation of thermal barrier coatings and bond coatings on conventional turbine materials.

  19. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  20. Fracture behavior of advanced ceramic hot gas filters: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Majumdar, S.; Sutaria, M.; Bielke, W.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of mechanical/microstructural evaluation, thermal shock/fatigue testing, and stress analyses of advanced hot-gas filters obtained from different manufacturers. These filters were fabricated from both monolithic ceramics and composites. The composite filters, made of both oxide and nonoxide materials, were in both as-fabricated and exposed conditions, whereas the monolithic filters were made only of nonoxide materials. Mechanical property measurement of composite filters included diametral compression testing with O-ring specimens and burst-testing of short filter segments with rubber plugs. In-situ strength of fibers in the composite filters was evaluated by microscopic technique. Thermal shock/fatigue resistance was estimated by measuring the strengths of filter specimens before and after thermal cycling from an air environment at elevated temperatures to a room temperature oil bath. Filter performance during mechanical and thermal shock/fatigue loadings was correlated with microstructural observations. Micromechanical models were developed to derive properties of composite filter constituents on the basis of measured mechanical properties of the filters. Subsequently, these properties were used to analytically predict the performance of composite filters during thermal shock loading.

  1. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

  2. Pulse plasma carburizing and high pressure gas quenching -- Industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Preisser, F.; Schnatbaum, F.

    1995-12-31

    Pulse plasma carburizing with high pressure gas quenching up to 20 bar is the newly developed case hardening process now available in production size equipment. The first part of results demonstrates the tremendous potential of high pressure gas quenching for successful hardening of case hardening steels. The second part opens a window to glance at the pulse plasma carburizing of complex shaped parts. Both processes improve economical data and performance of carburizing processes.

  3. Optimization of industrial microorganisms: recent advances in synthetic dynamic regulators.

    PubMed

    Min, Byung Eun; Hwang, Hyun Gyu; Lim, Hyun Gyu; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2017-01-01

    Production of biochemicals by industrial fermentation using microorganisms requires maintaining cellular production capacity, because maximal productivity is economically important. High-productivity microbial strains can be developed using static engineering, but these may not maintain maximal productivity throughout the culture period as culture conditions and cell states change dynamically. Additionally, economic reasons limit heterologous protein expression using inducible promoters to prevent metabolic burden for commodity chemical and biofuel production. Recently, synthetic and systems biology has been used to design genetic circuits, precisely controlling gene expression or influencing genetic behavior toward a desired phenotype. Development of dynamic regulators can maintain cellular phenotype in a maximum production state in response to factors including cell concentration, oxygen, temperature, pH, and metabolites. Herein, we introduce dynamic regulators of industrial microorganism optimization and discuss metabolic flux fine control by dynamic regulators in response to metabolites or extracellular stimuli, robust production systems, and auto-induction systems using quorum sensing.

  4. Two Decades of Laccases: Advancing Sustainability in the Chemical Industry.

    PubMed

    Cannatelli, Mark D; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2017-01-01

    Given the current state of environmental affairs and that our future on this planet as we know it is in jeopardy, research and development into greener and more sustainable technologies within the chemical and forest products industries is at its peak. Given the global scale of these industries, the need for environmentally benign practices is propelling new green processes. These challenges are also impacting academic research and our reagents of interest are laccases. These enzymes are employed in a variety of biotechnological applications due to their native function as catalytic oxidants. They are about as green as it gets when it comes to chemical processes, requiring O2 as their only co-substrate and producing H2 O as the sole by-product. The following account will review our twenty year journey on the use of these enzymes within our research group, from their initial use in biobleaching of kraft pulps and for fiber modification within the pulp and paper industry, to their current application as green catalytic oxidants in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.

  5. Two decades of laccases: Advancing sustainability in the chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-07-01

    Given the current state of environmental affairs and that our future on this planet as we know it is in jeopardy, research and development into greener and more sustainable technologies within the chemical and forest products industries is at its peak. Given the global scale of these industries, the need for environmentally benign practices is propelling new green processes. These challenges are also impacting academic research and our reagents of interest are laccases. These enzymes are employed in a variety of biotechnological applications due to their native function as catalytic oxidants. They are about as green as it gets when it comes to chemical processes, requiring O2 as their only co-substrate and producing H2O as the sole by-product. Furthermore, the following account will review our twenty year journey on the use of these enzymes within our research group, from their initial use in biobleaching of kraft pulps and for fiber modification within the pulp and paper industry, to their current application as green catalytic oxidants in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.

  6. Two decades of laccases: Advancing sustainability in the chemical industry

    DOE PAGES

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-07-01

    Given the current state of environmental affairs and that our future on this planet as we know it is in jeopardy, research and development into greener and more sustainable technologies within the chemical and forest products industries is at its peak. Given the global scale of these industries, the need for environmentally benign practices is propelling new green processes. These challenges are also impacting academic research and our reagents of interest are laccases. These enzymes are employed in a variety of biotechnological applications due to their native function as catalytic oxidants. They are about as green as it gets whenmore » it comes to chemical processes, requiring O2 as their only co-substrate and producing H2O as the sole by-product. Furthermore, the following account will review our twenty year journey on the use of these enzymes within our research group, from their initial use in biobleaching of kraft pulps and for fiber modification within the pulp and paper industry, to their current application as green catalytic oxidants in the field of synthetic organic chemistry.« less

  7. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-5/6/7 Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    A. Joseph Palmer; David A. Petti; S. Blaine Grover

    2014-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which each consist of at least five separate capsules, are being irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gases also have on-line fission product monitoring the effluent from each capsule to track performance of the fuel during irradiation. The first two experiments (designated AGR-1 and AGR-2), have been completed. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2014. The design of the fuel qualification experiment, designated AGR-5/6/7, is well underway and incorporates lessons learned from the three previous experiments. Various design issues will be discussed with particular details related to selection of thermometry.

  8. ESTIMATE OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE U.S. NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global methane from the fossil fuel industries have been poorly quantified and, in many cases, emissions are not well-known even at the country level. Historically, methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry have been based on sparse data, incorrect assumptions, or both. As a r...

  9. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  10. Environmental and industrial policy study on converting coal into city gas in China

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, D.; Chen, Y.; Teng, T.

    1994-12-31

    Because coal firing directly causes serious pollution, developing city gas has become inevitable trend in China. In this paper, large scale city gas projected and revamping medium and small scale ammonia plants are evaluated and the principle of environmental and industrial policy are proposed through typical technical and economic analysis.

  11. Mobile monitoring of fugitive methane emissions from natural gas consumer industries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural gas is used as a feedstock for major industrial processes, such as ammonia and fertilizer production. However, fugitive methane emissions from many major end-use sectors of the natural gas supply chain have not yet been well quantified. This presentation introduces new m...

  12. The Mobile Monitoring of fugitive methane emissions from natural gas consumer industries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural gas is used as a feedstock for major industrial processes, such as ammonia and fertilizer production. However, fugitive methane emissions from many major end-use sectors of the natural gas supply chain have not been quantified yet. This presentation introduces new tools ...

  13. Role of gas cooling in tomorrow`s energy services industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    This article discusses the marketing approach and opportunities for suppliers and manufacturers of gas cooling equipment to partner with energy service companies (ESCOs). The author`s viewpoint is that in educating and partnering with ESCOs the gas cooling industry enables their technology to reach its potential in the projects that the ESCOs develop.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF INDUSTRIAL FLARES: INFLUENCE OF GAS COMPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot-scale evaluation of the efficiency of industrial flares. The work (1) evaluated the effects of additional gas mixtures on flare stability and efficiency with and without pilot assist and (2) correlated flame stability for the different gas mixt...

  15. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2009-10-01

    This report is a preliminary comparison of conventional and potential HTGR-integrated processesa in several common industrial areas: ? Producing electricity via a traditional power cycle ? Producing hydrogen ? Producing ammonia and ammonia-derived products, such as fertilizer ? Producing gasoline and diesel from natural gas or coal ? Producing substitute natural gas from coal, and ? Steam-assisted gravity drainage (extracting oil from tar sands).

  16. Competency Based Education Curriculum for the Orientation and Safety Program of the Oil and Gas Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Career Center, Clarksburg, WV.

    This competency-based education curriculum for teaching the orientation and safety program for the oil and gas industry in West Virginia is organized into seven units. These units cover the following topics: introduction to oil and gas, first aid, site preparation, drilling operations, equipment familiarity, well completion, and preparation for…

  17. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  18. [Organization of nutrition and nutritional status in major jobs workers engaged in gas-processing industry].

    PubMed

    Beĭlin, S M; Fateeva, T A

    2009-01-01

    The workers of gas-processing industry are exposed to a complex of industrial factors throughout their labor activity. Curative diet is in full measure unable to neutralize reactants and to optimize metabolic processes so there is a need for warranting, designing, and introducing a functional diet. The nutrition of major jobs workers engaged in gas-processing industry is inadequate, improper, and unbalanced, which leads to an excess nutritional status in the majority of workers. It is necessary to develop a functional nutrition concept that makes it possible to correct the intake of essential nutrients and to normalize the nutritional status of the workers, by including functional foods into their diet.

  19. Recent advances on filamentous fungal biofilms for industrial uses.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; Ludeña, Yvette; Ramage, Gordon; Villena, Gretty K

    2012-07-01

    Industrial enzymes are produced by submerged fermentation (SF) and by solid-state fermentation (SSF) to a lesser extent. Although SSF has several advantages, its scale-up is difficult. The role of physiological and genetic properties of microorganisms growing attached to surfaces could explain the advantages of SSF. Filamentous fungi are naturally adapted to growth on surfaces and in these conditions they show a particular physiological behavior which is different from that in SF; thus, they also form biofilms. Fermentation by filamentous fungal biofilms (FFB) is a homogeneous production system within a liquid environment based on the infrastructure of the SF process with the productive efficiency of the SSF. Enzyme production levels of FFB are much higher than those obtained in SF and they are also amenable of mixed fungal cultivation. Transcriptomic and proteomic tools are used to uncover the fundamental biological issues behind FFB. Several genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes are either differentially expressed or overexpressed in FFB. Moreover, our proteomic studies of Aspergillus niger biofilms compared to SF indicate that many intracellular proteins are either differentially expressed or overexpressed. Clinically important fungi like A. fumigatus also form biofilms when they infect lungs and recent studies demonstrate same gene expression features. These results support our hypothesis of cell adhesion and its role in the new schemes for improved fermentative production of industrial enzymes.

  20. Defining the needs for gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Ianakiev, Kiril; Marlow, Johnna B

    2010-04-05

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared UF{sub 6} containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. In verifying declared LEU production, the inspectors also take samples for off-site destructive assay (DA) which provide accurate data, with 0.1% to 0.5% measurement uncertainty, on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, taking samples of UF{sub 6} for off-site analysis is a much more labor and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of results and interruptions to the continuity of knowledge (CofK) of the samples during their storage and transit. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems such as process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements and provide more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also introduce examples advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation.

  1. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 10: METERING AND PRESSURE REGULATING STATIONS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSIONS AND DISTRIBUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  2. Environmental Conservation. The Oil and Gas Industries, Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Petroleum Council, Washington, DC.

    Prepared in response to a Department of the Interior request, this report is a comprehensive study of environmental conservation problems as they relate to or have impact on the petroleum industry. It contains the general comments and conclusions of The National Petroleum Council based on an analysis of detailed data. For presentation of key…

  3. The impact of internet-connected control systems on the oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Ruth T.

    In industry and infrastructure today, communication is a way of life. In the oil and gas industry, the use of devices that communicate with the network at large is both commonplace and expected. Unfortunately, security on these devices is not always best. Many industrial control devices originate from legacy devices not originally configured with security in mind. All infrastructure and industry today has seen an increase in attacks on their networks and in some cases, a very dramatic increase, which should be a cause for alarm and action. The purpose of this research was to highlight the threat that Internet-connected devices present to an organization's network in the oil and gas industry and ultimately, to the business and possibly even human life. Although there are several previous studies that highlight the problem of these Internet-connected devices, there remains evidence that security response has not been adequate. The analysis conducted on only one easily discovered device serves as an example of the ongoing issue of the security mindset in the oil and gas industry. The ability to connect to a network through an Internet-connected device gives a hacker an anonymous backdoor to do great damage in that network. The hope is that the approach to security in infrastructure and especially the oil and gas industry, changes before a major catastrophe occurs involving human life.

  4. Transfer of advanced manufacturing technologies to eastern Kentucky industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gillies, J.A.; Kruzich, R.

    1988-05-01

    This study concludes that there are opportunities to provide assistance in the adoption of manufacturing technologies for small- and medium-sized firms in eastern Kentucky. However, the new markets created by Toyota are not adequate to justify a directed technology transfer program targeting the auto supply industry in eastern Kentucky because supplier markets have been determined for some time, and manufacturers in eastern Kentucky were not competitive in this early selection process. The results of the study strongly reinforce a reorientation of state business-assistance programs. The study also concludes that the quality and quantity of available labor is a pervasive problem in eastern Kentucky and has particular relevance as the economy changes. The study also investigated what type of technology-transfer programs would be appropriate to assist manufacturing firms in eastern Kentucky and if there were a critical number of firms to make such a program feasible.

  5. Is the pipeline's certificate obligation an impediment to competition in the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of facilitating competition in the natural gas industry enjoys widespread support, and public policy is likely to continue industry movement in that general direction. As the industry makes its inevitable transition, however, care must be taken not to confuse the valuable, but ultimately limited, competition that is possible in the natural gas industry with competition in unregulated markets. Industry structure and the traditional, still valid underpinnings of pipeline regulation caution against such facile comparisons. Greater freedom of entry does not inexorably compel equal freedom of exit. Relaxation of the pipeline's service obligation under conditions of increased competition is neither inherently reasonable nor unfair, but ultimately must be justified in each case by evidence that it will serve the public interest. 35 references.

  6. Radon concentrations in Algerian oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Hamlat, M S; Kadi, H; Djeffal, S; Brahimi, H

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of 222Rn in produced water, crude oil, natural gas (NG) and natural gas liquids (NGL) in on-shore Algeria were measured using scintillation cell techniques (Lucas cells) and electret ion chamber (EIC). The first method, active, is based on the use of a Lucas-type scintillation chamber in conjunction with a portable monitor (model Pylon AB-5); the second method, passive, using an EIC with a 4 l glass analysis bottle. The activities of 222Rn were in the range of 0.98-18.50 Bq/l for produced water, 0.02-0.3 Bq/g for crude oil, 40-1000 Bq/m(3) for NG and 300-2500 Bq/m(3) for NGL, respectively. These values are compared with concentrations reported for other countries.

  7. Ethane: A Key to Evaluating Natural Gas Industrial Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Agnese, M.; Roscioli, J. R.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Knighton, W. B.; Pusede, S. E.; Diskin, G. S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Sachse, G. W.; Eichler, P.; Mikoviny, T.; Müller, M.; Wisthaler, A.; Conley, S. A.; Petron, G.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne and mobile-surface measurements of ethane at 1Hz in the Denver-Julesberg oil and gas production basin in NE Colorado reveal a rich set of emission sources and magnitudes. Although ethane has only a mild influence on hemispheric ozone levels, it is often co-emitted with larger hydrocarbons including hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and ozone precursors that impact local and regional air quality. Ethane/methane enhancement ratios provide a map of expected emission source types in different areas around greater Denver. Links are drawn between the ethane content of isolated methane emission plumes and the prevalence of concomitant HAP and ozone precursor species. The efficacy of using ethane as a dilution tracer specific to the oil & gas footprint will be demonstrated.

  8. Fee electricity - a new headache for the gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.

    1980-01-01

    Stray current from underground primary electric cables and electric grounds can occasionally cause unusually high voltages at certain points along gas-distribution systems. Because of the parallel paths and many sources of stray neutral currents, the circuitry and voltage drops are complex. Washington Power's experience shows that (1) bare gas pipe systems remain relatively free of neutral currents because they are grounded along their entire length, (2) plastic and coated-steel pipe systems pick up stray neutral currents through holidays, bare valves, etc., and develop hazardous voltages because the steel pipe or the tracer wire of the plastic pipe is insulated from the soil, (3) pipeline voltages occur in areas having very high soil resistivities because of the poor return circuit for neutral currents back to the electric substation, and (4) the pipelines most distant from the substation experience the highest voltages because those areas contain the greatest imbalance of primary currents.

  9. Advanced Nanostructured Molecular Sieves for Energy Efficient Industrial Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Kunhao Li, Michael Beaver

    2012-01-18

    performance of an adsorptive separation unit for propane/propylene separation compared with traditional zeolite adsorbents. The enhanced transport will allow for more efficient utilization of a given adsorbent inventory by reducing process cycle time, allowing a faster production rate with a fixed amount of adsorbent or smaller adsorbent inventory at a fixed production rate. Smaller adsorbent inventory would also lead to significant savings in the capital cost due to smaller footprint of the equipment. Energy consumption calculation, based on the pulse test results for rived NaX zeolite adsorbent, of a hypothetical moderate-scale SMB propane/propylene separation plant that processes 6000 BPSD refinery grade propylene (70% propylene) will consume about 60-80% less energy (both re-boiler and condenser duties) compared to a C3 splitter that process the same amount of feed. This energy saving also translates to a reduction of 30,000-35,000 tons of CO2 emission per year at this moderate processing rate. The enhancement of mass transport achievable by introduction of controlled mesoporosity to the zeolite also opens the door for the technology to be applied to several other adsorption separation processes such as the separation of xylene isomers by SMB, small- and large scale production of O2/N2 from air by pressure swing adsorption, the separation of CO2 from natural gas at natural gas wellheads, and the purification of ultra-high purity H2 from the off gas produced by steam-methane-reforming.

  10. New projects developed by COMOTI in gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitulescu, Marian; Silivestru, Valentin; Toma, Niculae; Slujitoru, Cristian; Petrescu, Valentin; Leahu, Mihai; Oniga, Ciprian; Ulici, Gheorghe

    2015-08-01

    The paper aims to present two new projects developed by the Romanian Research and Development Institute for Gas Turbines (COMOTI) in partnership with City University of London and GHH-Rand Germany, in the field of screw compressors/expanders. COMOTI passed, in recent years, from being a GHH-Rand licensed manufacturer for a range of oil-injected screw compressors, of CU type, to a new phase of range diversification, approaching screw compressors with a maximum discharge pressure of 45 bara. So, in cooperation with City University and GHH-Rand we design, manufacture and test, with air, in COMOTI test bench the new type of screw compressor named CHP 220. Also, the cooperation with GHH-Rand has resulted in the design, manufacture and air testing on the test bench, and then gas testing - in a gas compression station - for an electric generator driven by a screw expander. This paper presents how the tests were carried out, the experimental data and the interpretation of results

  11. Advanced degrees in astronautical engineering for the space industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, Mike

    2014-10-01

    Ten years ago in the summer of 2004, the University of Southern California established a new unique academic unit focused on space engineering. Initially known as the Astronautics and Space Technology Division, the unit operated from day one as an independent academic department, successfully introduced the full set of degrees in Astronautical Engineering, and was formally renamed the Department of Astronautical Engineering in 2010. The largest component of Department's educational programs has been and continues to be its flagship Master of Science program, specifically focused on meeting engineering workforce development needs of the space industry and government space research and development centers. The program successfully grew from a specialization in astronautics developed in mid-1990s and expanded into a large nationally-visible program. In addition to on-campus full-time students, it reaches many working students on-line through distance education. This article reviews the origins of the Master's degree program and its current status and accomplishments; outlines the program structure, academic focus, student composition, and enrollment dynamics; and discusses lessons learned and future challenges.

  12. Developing Advanced Weather Technologies for the Power Industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, Charles L.; Howard, Kenneth W.; Maddox, Robert A.; Phillips, Daniel H.

    1998-06-01

    The National Severe Storms Laboratory, the Salt River Project (SRP), and the Electric Power Research Institute have been involved in a multiyear tailored collaboration (TC) research project. The project was jointly supported by all three agencies and had the goal of exploring potential benefits that the power industry could realize by incorporating new weather information, resulting from the National Weather Service's modernization program, into their operational decision-making process. The SRP, which is one of the nation's largest public utilities and located in the greater Phoenix metropolitan area, served as a test bed for a variety of experimental techniques that could easily be emulated in the future. Activities during this TC were focused upon weather-related problems experienced during the summer monsoon months when thunderstorms can threaten or impact SRP's operations on a daily basis. Weather information and special forecasts were introduced to and shared with several of SRP's operational divisions through the course of this TC; their degree of utilization and subsequent improvements to SRP's operational efficiency are summarized in this paper.

  13. Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  14. Advances in Energy Conservation of China Steel Industry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980–2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011–2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics. PMID:23533344

  15. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot gas desulfurization technology

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  16. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  17. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H2S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct. The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading process for producing an elemental sulfur byproduct in hot-gas desulfurization systems, incurs a coal gas use penalty, because coal gas is required to reduce the SO2 in regeneration off-gas to elemental sulfur. Alternative regeneration schemes, which avoid coal gas use and produce elemental sulfur, will be evaluated. These include (i) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using SO2 ; (ii) partial oxidation of sulfided sorbent in an O2 starved environment; and (iii) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using steam to produce H2S followed by direct oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur. Known regenerable sorbents will be modified to improve the feasibility of the above alternative regeneration approaches. Performance characteristics of the modified sorbents and processes will be obtained through lab- and bench-scale testing. Technical and economic evaluation of the most promising processes concept(s) will be carried out.

  18. Advance Notice of Proposed Rule Making for Minor Source Permitting in Indian Country - Oil and Gas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to solicit broad feedback on the most effective and efficient means of implementing the EPA's Indian Country Minor New Source Review program for sources in the oil and natural gas production segment.

  19. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-07-01

    To use slurries efficiently in a process, engineers must be able to determine the particle size distribution. A new particle size sensor is under development, based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical modeling. A field test prototype is being installed at a pilot facility for manufacturing pigments. The mathematical model has also been modified. The sensor is expected to enhance process control in the chemicals industry.

  20. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  1. FIRST OPERATING RESULTS OF A DYNAMIC GAS BEARING TURBINE IN AN INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN LIQUEFIER

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, S.; Decker, L.

    2010-04-09

    Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

  2. Natural gas from seaweed: is near-term R and D funding by the US gas industry warranted

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, C.

    1985-10-01

    This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R and D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (MBP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable. The paper develops a macroanalytic framework for R and D decision making in an innovative but high-cost and high-risk method of natural gas production. It identifies and analyzes principal factors having significant bearing on the US natural gas industry and against this background examines implications for R and D funding of the MBP. The study is based on an extensive review of secondary data sources on the economics and technology of natural gas production supplemented by personal discussions with a number of experts. This paper suggests that decisions on near-term R and D funding of the MBP should be based on careful study of the current, continuing, and projected developments in the US natural gas industry as a whole rather than on narrow and short-term considerations. 16 references, 6 tables.

  3. Occupational Exposures in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry: State of the Science and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Roxana Z.; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  4. Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations.

    PubMed

    Witter, Roxana Z; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S

    2014-07-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example.

  5. A biological process effective for the conversion of CO-containing industrial waste gas to acetate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Wan; Bae, Seung Seob; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Sung-Mok; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kang, Sung Gyun

    2016-07-01

    Acetogens have often been observed to be inhibited by CO above an inhibition threshold concentration. In this study, a two-stage culture consisting of carboxydotrophic archaea and homoacetogenic bacteria is found to be effective in converting industrial waste gas derived from a steel mill process. In the first stage, Thermococcus onnurineus could grow on the Linz-Donawitz converter gas (LDG) containing ca. 56% CO as a sole energy source, converting the CO into H2 and CO2. Then, in the second stage, Thermoanaerobacter kivui could grow on the off-gas from the first stage culture, consuming the H2 and CO in the off-gas completely and producing acetate as a main product. T. kivui alone could not grow on the LDG gas. This work represents the first demonstration of acetate production using steel mill waste gas by a two-stage culture of carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic microbes and homoacetogenic bacteria.

  6. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and anaylsis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrateJointIndustryProjectLegII (GOM JIP LegII) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gashydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gashydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gashydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gashydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gashydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gashydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gashydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gashydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gashydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP LegII effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  7. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

  8. Outlook for the Development of Oil and Gas Industry in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Pham, V. A.; Aikina, T. Yu

    2016-09-01

    Oil and gas industry makes a significant contribution to Gross Domestic Product of Vietnam. In 2015 it appeared to be in an intricate situation under the conditions of fall in oil prices caused by excess of supply over demand in the oil market. On the one hand, low prices for oil enable Vietnam as an importer to purchase more oil in the world market. On the other hand, the state company PetroVietnam loses a part of its customers in the domestic market. This tendency can lead to stagnation of the oil and gas industry in Vietnam under weak oil prices if the government does not take timely action.

  9. Money Talks: Why Nigeria’s Petroleum Industry Bill will Fail to End Gas Flaring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    Industry Bill ( PIB ) that if enacted would ban gas flaring. However, as currently written the PIB will not end flaring for the same reasons that...previous legislation failed. Loopholes in the PIB combined with corruption, lack of effective enforcement mechanisms and lack of incentives to develop...Bill ( PIB ) that if enacted would ban gas flaring. However, as currently written, the PIB will not end flaring for the same reasons that previous

  10. Ambient Laboratory Coater for Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Duane D. Bruns; Robert M. Counce; Irma D. Lima Rojas

    2010-06-09

    this research is targeted at developing improved experimentally-based scaling relationships for the hydrodynamics of shallow, gas-spouted beds of dense particles. The work is motivated by the need to more effctively scale up shallow spouted beds used in processes such as in the coating of nuclear fuel particles where precise control of solids and gas circulation is critically important. Experimental results reported here are for a 50 mm diameter spouted bed containing two different types of bed solids (alumina and zirconia) at different static bed depths and fluidized by air and helium. Measurements of multiple local average pressures, inlet gas pressure fluctuations, and spout height were used to characterize the bed hydrodynamics for each operating condition. Follow-on studies are planned that include additional variations in bed size, particle properties, and fluidizing gas. The ultimate objective is to identify the most important non-dimensional hydrodynamic scaling groups and possible spouted-bed design correlations based on these groups.

  11. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Compressor development, turbine, combustion, regenerator system, gearbox/transmission, ceramic material and component development, foil gas bearings, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics development, and controls and accessories are discussed.

  12. Retention and Advancement in the Retail Industry: A Career Ladder Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heath J.

    Retailing is the largest industry in the United States, employing roughly 18 percent of the total labor force. However, high turnover resulting from low wages in entry-level positions and the perceptions of retail workers that job security is far from certain and that advancement potential is limited have resulted in low levels of employee…

  13. A Vehicle for Science and Exploration: Bringing Offshore Industry Advances and Experience to the Oceanographic Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    institutions, this vehicle system design represents a collaborative effort between the science community and a subsea industry technological leader to...develop an exploration vehicle employing the latest advances in subsea technology. II. SURVEY OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES DEDICATED TO SCIENCE...Engineering work class system designed for subsea intervention and inspection duties. Since that time there has been a hiatus on the further

  14. ESL for Hotel/Hospitality Industry. Level: Advanced Beginner/Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Suffolk County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Northport, NY.

    This document contains 16 lesson plans for an advanced beginning and intermediate course in work-related English for non-English- or limited-English-speaking entry-level employees in the hotel and hospitality industry. Course objectives are as follows: helping participants understand and use job-specific vocabulary; receive and understand…

  15. [Advances in research on neuroprotective effects of inert gas].

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Guo, Song-xue; Hong, Yuan; Zhang, Jian-min

    2011-01-01

    Inert gas is a group of rare gases with very low activity, their application in medical field has increasingly drawn attentions. It is known that inert gases helium, xenon and argon have protective effects on nervous system and the mechanisms are related to eradicating free radicals, anti-inflammation, suppressing apoptosis, influencing ion channels and so on. Further study on the neuroprotective effect of inert gas will shed light on a new approach to treat neurological diseases.

  16. Advanced technology cogeneration system conceptual design study: Closed cycle gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mock, E. A. T.; Daudet, H. C.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a three task study performed for the Department of Energy under the direction of the NASA Lewis Research Center are documented. The thermal and electrical energy requirements of three specific industrial plants were surveyed and cost records for the energies consumed were compiled. Preliminary coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed heated closed cycle gas turbine and steam turbine cogeneration system designs were developed for each industrial plant. Preliminary cost and return-on-equity values were calculated and the results compared. The best of the three sites was selected for more detailed design and evaluation of both closed cycle gas turbine and steam turbine cogeneration systems during Task II. Task III involved characterizing the industrial sector electrical and thermal loads for the 48 contiguous states, applying a family of closed cycle gas turbine and steam turbine cogeneration systems to these loads, and conducting a market penetration analysis of the closed cycle gas turbine cogeneration system.

  17. Thermophysical properties of fluids for the gas industry. Final report, February 1, 1988-August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, T.J.; Haynes, W.M.

    1993-11-01

    The U.S. gas industry standard for computing thermophysical properties is the A.G.A. Transmission Measurement Committee Report No. 8 equation of state (AGA 8). The report summarized the results from several experimental, theoretical, and modeling programs directed at the extensive evaluation of the accuracy with which various types of natural gas physical properties can be calculated using AGA 8 and related methods. The most important results were the assembly of benchmark data sets for speed of sound, viscosity, fugacity, heat capacity, critical region PVT, mixture compressibilities, and vapor pressure measurements for natural gas fluids.

  18. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Stimulated by public demand and state and federal legislation, industry has begun to develop bio- and photo- degradable plastics. so far, however, none of these degradable plastics meets all of the criteria for success - adequate physical and mechanical properties for the desired use, cost-effectiveness, and 100% degradability. Polylactic acid (PLA) plastic is one degradable plastic that shows promise. It has the desired properties and is 100% degradable. However, PLA plastic made by conventional techniques is not cost effective. Made from lactic acid, which is typically made form petroleum using a very costly synthesis process. Lactic acid can also be made from carbohydrates (starches), found in food processing wastes such as potato wastes, cheese whey, and sorghum. Conversion of starch to simple sugars, and fermentation of these sugars can produce lactic acid.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of a Typical High-End Industrial Park in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; He, Guoxuan; Qi, Jing; Zhou, Shiyi; Jiang, Meiming

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which severely limits the development of human society and threatens the survival of humanity, has drawn the international community's long-term attention. Gathering the most important production factors in the region, an industrial park usually represents the development level of specific industries in the region. Therefore, the industrial park should be regarded as the base unit for developing a low-carbon economy and reducing GHG emissions. Focusing on a typical high-end industrial park in Beijing, we analyze the carbon sources within the system boundary and probe into the emission structure in view of life-cycle analysis. A GHG inventory is thereby set up to calculate all GHG emissions from the concerned park. Based on the results, suggestions are presented to guide the low-carbon development of the high-end industrial park. PMID:23431258

  20. Greenhouse gas inventory of a typical high-end industrial park in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; He, Guoxuan; Qi, Jing; Su, Meirong; Zhou, Shiyi; Jiang, Meiming

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which severely limits the development of human society and threatens the survival of humanity, has drawn the international community's long-term attention. Gathering the most important production factors in the region, an industrial park usually represents the development level of specific industries in the region. Therefore, the industrial park should be regarded as the base unit for developing a low-carbon economy and reducing GHG emissions. Focusing on a typical high-end industrial park in Beijing, we analyze the carbon sources within the system boundary and probe into the emission structure in view of life-cycle analysis. A GHG inventory is thereby set up to calculate all GHG emissions from the concerned park. Based on the results, suggestions are presented to guide the low-carbon development of the high-end industrial park.

  1. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development of a gas turbine engine to improve fuel economy, reduce gaseous emissions and particulate levels, and compatible with a variety of alternate fuels is reported. The powertrain is designated AGT101 and consists of a regenerated single shaft gas turbine engine, a split differential gearbox and a Ford Automatic Overdrive production transmission. The powertrain is controlled by an electronic digital microprocessor and associated actuators, instrumentation, and sensors. Standard automotive accessories are driven by engine power provided by an accessory pad on the gearbox. Component/subsystem development progress is reported in the following areas: compressor, turbine, combustion system, regenerator, gearbox/transmission, structures, ceramic components, foil gas bearing, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics, and controls and accessories.

  2. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A gas turbine powertrain for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact is investigated. The automotive gas turbine, when installed in an automobile (3000 pounds inertia weight), provides a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on EPA test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT powered vehicle substantially gives the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system. The emissions are less than federal standards, and a variety of fuels can be used.

  3. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2011-09-01

    This report is a summary of analyses performed by the NGNP project to determine whether it is technically and economically feasible to integrate high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) technology into industrial processes. To avoid an overly optimistic environmental and economic baseline for comparing nuclear integrated and conventional processes, a conservative approach was used for the assumptions and calculations.

  4. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 13: CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  5. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 9: UNDERGROUND PIPELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  6. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 12: PNEUMATIC DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  7. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 5: ACTIVITY FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  8. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  9. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  10. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  11. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 3: GENERAL METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  12. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 6: VENTED & COMBUSTION SOURCE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  13. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 8: EQUIPMENT LEAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  14. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 14: GLYCOL DEHYDRATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  15. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn K; Lu, Hongyou; Liu, Xu; Tsen, Katherine; Xiangyang, Wei; Yunpeng, Zhang; Jian, Guan; Rui, Hou; Junfeng, Zhang; Yuqun, Zhuo; Shumao, Xia; Yafeng, Han; Manzhi, Liu

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  16. [Evaluating efficiency of influenza vaccinal prevention among oil and gas industry workers].

    PubMed

    Bulanov, V E; Ivanov, A V; Shostak, G R

    2013-01-01

    Explore information about the incidence of employees of enterprises of the oil and gas industry with the influenza (SARS). The degree of influence of vaccination on the incidence of influenza, the number and structure of complications as a result of vaccination and their impact on efficiency. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of vaccination.

  17. Derivatives and Risk Management in the Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Electricity Industries

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    In February 2002 the Secretary of Energy directed the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare a report on the nature and use of derivative contracts in the petroleum, natural gas, and electricity industries. Derivatives are contracts ('financial instruments') that are used to manage risk, especially price risk.

  18. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 7: BLOW AND PURGE ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  19. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 4: STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  20. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  1. Factors Of Environmental Safety And Environmentally Efficient Technologies Transportation Facilities Gas Transportation Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Bogdan U.

    2017-01-01

    The stable development of the European countries depends on a reliable and efficient operation of the gas transportation system (GTS). With high reliability of GTS it is necessary to ensure its industrial and environmental safety. In this article the major factors influencing on an industrial and ecological safety of GTS are analyzed, sources of GTS safety decreasing is revealed, measures for providing safety are proposed. The article shows that use of gas-turbine engines of gas-compressor units (GCU) results in the following phenomena: emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere; pollution by toxic waste; harmful noise and vibration; thermal impact on environment; decrease in energy efficiency. It is shown that for the radical problem resolution of an industrial and ecological safety of gas-transmission system it is reasonable to use gas-compressor units driven by electric motors. Their advantages are shown. Perspective technologies of these units and experience of their use in Europe and the USA are given in this article.

  2. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include the AGT 101 engine test; compressor design modification; cold air turbine testing; Mod 1 alloy turbine rotor fabrication; combustion aspects; regenerator development; and thermal screening tests for ceramic materials. The foil gas bearings, rotor dynamics, and AGT controls and accessories are also considered.

  3. Designing advanced biochar products for maximizing greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural operations continue to increase. Carbon enriched char materials like biochar have been described as a mitigation strategy. Utilization of biochar material as a soil amendment has been demonstrated to provide potentially further soil GHG suppression du...

  4. Non-Intrusive, Distributed Gas Sensing Technology for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Jesus; Phillips, Straun; Rubtsov, Vladimir; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Chemical sensors for monitoring gas composition, including oxygen, humidity, carbon dioxide, and trace contaminants, are needed to characterize and validate spacesuit design and operating parameters. This paper reports on the first prototypes of a non-intrusive gas sensing technology based on flexible sensitive patches positioned inside spacesuit prototypes and interrogated via optical fibers routed outside the suit, taking advantage of the transparent materials of the suit prototypes. The sensitive patches are based on luminescent materials whose emission parameters vary with the partial pressure of a specific gas. Patches sensitive to carbon dioxide, humidity, and temperature have been developed, and their preliminary laboratory characterization in Mark III-like helmet parts is described. The first prototype system consists of a four-channel fiber optic luminescent detector that can be used to monitor any of the selected target gases at four locations. To switch from one gas to another we replace the (disposable) sensor patches and adjust the system settings. Repeatability among sensitive patches and of sensor performance from location to location has been confirmed, assuring that suit engineers will have flexibility in selecting multiple sensing points, fitting the sensor elements into the spacesuit, and easily repositioning the sensor elements as desired. The evaluation of the first prototype for monitoring carbon dioxide during washout studies in a spacesuit prototype is presented.

  5. Non-Intrusive, Distributed Gas Sensing Technology for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Jesus; Phillips, Straun; Rubtsov, Vladimir; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Chemical sensors for monitoring gas composition, including oxygen, humidity, carbon dioxide, and trace contaminants are needed to characterize and validate spacesuit design and operating parameters. This paper reports on the first prototypes of a non-intrusive gas sensing technology based on flexible sensitive patches positioned inside spacesuit prototypes and interrogated by optical fibers routed outside the suit, taking advantage of the transparent materials of the suit prototypes. The sensitive patches are based on luminescent materials whose emission parameters vary with the partial pressure of a specific gas. Patches sensitive to carbon dioxide, humidity, oxygen, and ammonia have been developed, and their preliminary characterization in the laboratory using Mark III-like helmet parts is described. The first prototype system consists of a four-channel fiber optic luminescent detector that can be used to monitor any of the selected target gases at four locations. To switch from one gas to another we replace the (disposable) sensor patches and adjust the system settings. Repeatability among sensitive patches and of sensor performance from location to location has been confirmed, assuring that suit engineers will have flexibility in selecting multiple sensing points, fitting the sensor elements into the spacesuit, and easily repositioning the sensor elements as desired. The evaluation of the first prototype for monitoring carbon dioxide during washout studies in a space suit prototype is presented.

  6. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical issues in tight gas fracturing, in

  7. Trends in high performance compressors for petrochemical and natural gas industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Li, Liansheng

    2015-08-01

    Compressors are the key equipment in the petrochemical and natural gas industry system. The performance and reliability of them are very important for the process system. The application status of petrochemical & natural gas compressors in China is presented in this paper. The present status of design and operating technologies of compressors in China are mentioned in this paper. The turbo, reciprocating and twin screw compressors are discussed. The market demands for different structure compressors in process gas industries are analysed. This paper also introduces the research and developments for high performance compressors in China. The recent research results on efficiency improvement methods, stability improvement, online monitor and fault diagnosis will also be presented in details.

  8. Industrialization study, phase 2. [assessment of advanced photovoltaic technologies for commerical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The potentials and requirements of advanced photovoltaic technologies still in their early developmental stages were evaluated and compared to the present day single crystal silicon wafer technology and to each other. The major areas of consideration include polycrystalline and amorphous silicon, single crystal and polycrystalline gallium arsenide, and single crystal and polycrystalline cadmium sulfide. A rank ordering of the advanced technologies is provided. The various ranking schemes were based upon present-day efficiency levels, their stability and long-term reliability prospects, material availability, capital investments both at the laboratory and production level, and associated variable costs. An estimate of the timing of the possible readiness of these advanced technologies for technology development programs and industrialization is presented along with a set of recommended government actions concerning the various advanced technologies.

  9. Manufacturing Improvement Program for the Oil and Gas Industry Supply Chain and Marketing Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Robert

    2016-09-28

    This project supported upgrades for manufacturing companies in the oil and natural gas supply chain in Oklahoma. The goal is to provide assistance that will lead to the improved efficiency advancement of the manufacturing processes currently used by the existing manufacturing clients. The basis for the work is to improve the economic environment for the clients and the communities they serve.

  10. Human factors engineering in oil and gas--a review of industry guidance.

    PubMed

    Robb, Martin; Miller, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production activities are carried out in hazardous environments in many parts of the world. Recent events in the Gulf of Mexico highlight those risks and underline the importance of considering human factors during facility design. Ergonomic factors such as machinery design, facility and accommodation layout and the organization of work activities have been systematically considered over the past twenty years on a limited number of offshore facility design projects to a) minimize the occupational risks to personnel, b) support operations and maintenance tasks and c) improve personnel wellbeing. During this period, several regulators and industry bodies such as the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), and Norway's Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) have developed specific HFE design standards and guidance documents for the application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) to the design and operation of Oil and Gas projects. However, despite the existence of these guidance and recommended design practise documents, and documented proof of their value in enhancing crew safety and efficiency, HFE is still not well understood across the industry and application across projects is inconsistent. This paper summarizes the key Oil and Gas industry bodies' HFE guidance documents, identifies recurring themes and current trends in the use of these standards, provides examples of where and how these HFE standards have been used on past major offshore facility design projects, and suggests criteria for selecting the appropriate HFE strategy and tasks for future major oil and gas projects. It also provides a short history of the application of HFE to the offshore industry, beginning with the use of ASTM F 1166 to a major operator's Deepwater Gulf of Mexico facility in 1990 and the application of HFE to diverse world regions. This

  11. The industrial RB211-24 gas engine: initial experience in service offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Soinne, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial RB211 gas engine is derived from the RB211 turbofan aero engine which in its various marks powers all Lockheed Tristars and a proportion of Boeing 747 airliners. The design and development programme of the industrial engine commenced in 1972. It arose out of an earlier feasibility study for a second generation marine propulsion engine. The industrial programme was specifically aimed at the production of a gas-fuelled base load machine for gas pumping and transmission applications. The engine was designated the Industrial RB211-22, being derived from the RB211-22 aero engine, the single mark of engine available at that time. The first field trials gas generator entered service in late 1974 in a transmission pipeline gas pumping application in Canada. Since then the RB211-22 engine has accumulated over 140,000 hours of operation in twelve onshore installations. Design and development of an uprated version of the engine began in early 1976. This was designated RB211-24, since it utilized the improved turbine technology of the RB211-524 aero engine introduced for the Boeing 747 and later versions of Tristar. With offshore applications in mind, the validation of improved corrosion resistant turbine materials was an integral part of the development programme. In consequence of this, the engine was available for both offshore and onshore applications as released for production. The first RB211-24 engines entered service in late 1980 in offshore applications on the Leman AK platform and another North Sea Gas production platform. There are now a total of fifteen RB211-24 installations which have accumulated over 53,000 hours of operation both onshore and offshore.

  12. Gas Foil Bearing Technology Advancements for Closed Brayton Cycle Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Bruckner, Robert J.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) turbine systems are under consideration for future space electric power generation. CBC turbines convert thermal energy from a nuclear reactor, or other heat source, to electrical power using a closed-loop cycle. The operating fluid in the closed-loop is commonly a high pressure inert gas mixture that cannot tolerate contamination. One source of potential contamination in a system such as this is the lubricant used in the turbomachine bearings. Gas Foil Bearings (GFB) represent a bearing technology that eliminates the possibility of contamination by using the working fluid as the lubricant. Thus, foil bearings are well suited to application in space power CBC turbine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center is actively researching GFB technology for use in these CBC power turbines. A power loss model has been developed, and the effects of a very high ambient pressure, start-up torque, and misalignment, have been observed and are reported here.

  13. Fundamentals of gas flow in shale; What the unconventional reservoir industry can learn from the radioactive waste industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuss, Robert; Harrington, Jon; Graham, Caroline

    2013-04-01

    Tight formations, such as shale, have a wide range of potential usage; this includes shale gas exploitation, hydrocarbon sealing, carbon capture & storage and radioactive waste disposal. Considerable research effort has been conducted over the last 20 years on the fundamental controls on gas flow in a range of clay-rich materials at the British Geological Survey (BGS) mainly focused on radioactive waste disposal; including French Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, Belgian Boom Clay, Swiss Opalinus Clay, British Oxford Clay, as well as engineered barrier material such as bentonite and concrete. Recent work has concentrated on the underlying physics governing fluid flow, with evidence of dilatancy controlled advective flow demonstrated in Callovo-Oxfordian claystone. This has resulted in a review of how advective gas flow is dealt with in Performance Assessment and the applicability of numerical codes. Dilatancy flow has been shown in Boom clay using nano-particles and is seen in bentonite by the strong hydro-mechanical coupling displayed at the onset of gas flow. As well as observations made at BGS, dilatancy flow has been shown by other workers on shale (Cuss et al., 2012; Angeli et al. 2009). As well as experimental studies using cores of intact material, fractured material has been investigated in bespoke shear apparatus. Experimental results have shown that the transmission of gas by fractures is highly localised, dependent on normal stress, varies with shear, is strongly linked with stress history, is highly temporal in nature, and shows a clear correlation with fracture angle. Several orders of magnitude variation in fracture transmissivity is seen during individual tests. Flow experiments have been conducted using gas and water, showing remarkably different behaviour. The radioactive waste industry has also noted a number of important features related to sample preservation. Differences in gas entry pressure have been shown across many laboratories and these may be

  14. The advanced light source: America`s brightest light for science and industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Lawler, G.

    1994-03-01

    America`s brightest light comes from the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national facility for scientific research, product development, and manufacturing. Completed in 1993, the ALS produces light in the ultraviolet and x-ray regions of the spectrum. Its extreme brightness provides opportunities for scientific and technical progress not possible anywhere else. Technology is poised on the brink of a major revolution - one in which vital machine components and industrial processes will be drastically miniaturized. Industrialized nations are vying for leadership in this revolution - and the huge economic rewards the leaders will reap.

  15. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  16. Advances in Ammonia Removal from Hot Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    Nitrogen occurs in coal in the form of tightly bound organic ring compounds, typically at levels of 1 to 2 wt%. During coal gasification, this fuel bound nitrogen is released principally as ammonia (NH{sub 3}). When hot coal gas is used to generate electricity in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, NH{sub 3} is converted to nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) which are difficult to remove and are highly undesirable as atmospheric pollutants. Similarly, while the efficiency of integrated gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (IGFC) power plants is not affected by NH{sub 3}, NO{sub x} is generated during combustion of the anode exhaust gas. Thus NH{sub 3} must be removed from hot coal gas before it can be burned in a turbine or fuel cell. The objective of this study is to develop a successful combination of an NH{sub 3} decomposition catalyst with a zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent so that the sorbent-catalyst activity remains stable for NH{sub 3} decomposition in addition to H{sub 2}S removal under cycle sulfidation-regeneration conditions in the temperature range of 500 to 750{degrees}C.

  17. Progress towards the Advanced Cryogenic Gas Stopper at NSCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Kasey; Bollen, Georg; Villiari, Antonio; Lawton, Don; Morrissey, Dave; Otterson, Jack; Ringle, Ryan; Schwarz, Stefan; Sumithrarachchi, Chandana; Yurkon, John; Advanced Cryogenic Gas Stopper Design Team

    2016-09-01

    Beam stopping is the key to performing experiments with low-energy beams of rare isotopes produced by projectile fragmentation. Linear gas stoppers filled with helium have become reliable tools to accomplish this task. Further developments are underway to maximize efficiency and beam rate capability in order to increase scientific reach. Improvements include increasing extraction efficiency, lowering decay losses due to slow transport time, reducing molecular combination of the isotope of interest with background impurity gases, and minimizing space charge effects. The ACGS under construction at NSCL is designed to increase performance by overcoming some of the more common issues. The use of a 4-phase RF wire carpet to generate an electrical traveling wave speeds up the ion transport times. Cryogenic cooling of the helium gas chamber reduces molecular ion information. A geometry that puts the RF carpet in the mid-plane of the gas stopper alleviates space charge effects. Prototype testing of important ACGS components has been completed, specifically ion transport tests of the newly designed RF wire carpets. Transport efficiencies up to 95% were demonstrated as well as transport speeds up to 100 m/s. RC104100.7301.

  18. Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project

    SciTech Connect

    John Wozniak

    1999-02-16

    The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

  19. Residual gas analysis for long-pulse, advanced tokamak operation.

    PubMed

    Klepper, C C; Hillis, D L; Bucalossi, J; Douai, D; Oddon, P; Vartanian, S; Colas, L; Manenc, L; Pégourié, B

    2010-10-01

    A shielded residual gas analyzer (RGA) system on Tore Supra can function during plasma operation and is set up to monitor the composition of the neutral gas in one of the pumping ducts of the toroidal pumped limited. This "diagnostic RGA" has been used in long-pulse (up to 6 min) discharges for continuous monitoring of up to 15 masses simultaneously. Comparison of the RGA-measured evolution of the H(2)/D(2) isotopic ratio in the exhaust gas to that measured by an energetic neutral particle analyzer in the plasma core provides a way to monitor the evolution of particle balance. RGA monitoring of corrective H(2) injection to maintain proper minority heating is providing a database for improved ion cyclotron resonance heating, potentially with RGA-base feedback control. In very long pulses (>4 min) absence of significant changes in the RGA-monitored, hydrocarbon particle pressures is an indication of proper operation of the actively cooled, carbon-based plasma facing components. Also H(2) could increase due to thermodesorption of overheated plasma facing components.

  20. Flue gas treatability studies: a tool for techno-economic control of industrial air pollution.

    PubMed

    Rao, B Padma S; Rao, B Shrinivas; Manthapurwar, N S; Hasan, M Z

    2003-02-01

    Air pollution problems in developing countries have gained larger fraction in the last decade especially due to non functioning and non implementation of effective air pollution control devices in industries. In industrial wastewater management, adequate treatability studies are conducted to arrive at a techno-economic treatment option. However no such studies were done for reducing air pollution or emission from industries until now in India. Little information was available about such studies in other countries. This article provides information about a novel technique known as flue gas treatability studies and to undertake such studies, a pilot scale system is installed in Air Pollution Control Division of M/s National Environmental Engineering research Institute, NEERI, Nagpur-20, India. This study is a tool for techno-economic selection of air pollution control systems specially for small/medium scale industrial emissions.

  1. The shale gas revolution from the viewpoint of a former industry insider.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert

    2015-02-01

    This is an interview conducted with an oil and gas worker who was employed in the industry from 1993 to 2012. He requested that his name not be used. From 2008 to 2012, he drilled wells for a major operator in Bradford County, Pennsylvania. Bradford County is the center of the Marcellus shale gas boom in Northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2012, he formed a consulting business to assist clients who need information on the details of gas and oil drilling operations. In this interview, the worker describes the benefits and difficulties of the hard work involved in drilling unconventional gas wells in Pennsylvania. In particular, he outlines the safety procedures that were in place and how they sometimes failed, leading to workplace injuries. He provides a compelling view of the trade-offs between the economic opportunities of working on a rig and the dangers and stresses of working long hours under hazardous conditions.

  2. SEASAT demonstration experiments with the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.; Balon, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Despite its failure, SEASAT-1 acquired a reasonable volume of data that can be used by industrial participants on a non-real-time basis to prove the concept of microwave sensing of the world's oceans from a satellite platform. The amended version of 8 experimental plans are presented, along with a description of the satellite, its instruments, and the data available. Case studies are summarized for the following experiments: (1) Beaufort Sea oil, gas, and Arctic operations; (2) Labrador Sea oil, gas, and sea ice; (3) Gulf of Mexico pipelines; (4) U.S. East Coast offshore oil and gas; (5) worldwide offshore drilling and production operations; (6) Equatorial East Pacific Ocean mining; (7) Bering Sea ice project; and (8) North Sea oil and gas.

  3. AMT GDL: power-supply-independent mobile gas-dynamic laser for industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, Victor V.; Drosdov, P. A.; Favorsky, O. N.; Feofilaktov, V. A.; Ikonnikov, Valerii K.; Kuznetsov, A. B.; Malyavin, V. P.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.; Suzdaltsev, A. G.; Vagin, Yu S.

    1998-09-01

    A brief comparison of various types of lasers of 50 - 100 kW power range for industrial use is presented, taking into account the most important technical and economic details. Listed is consumption of fuel, gas components, water, atmospheric air, also electric power required for some of lasers described. Its emphasized that the most prospective is high power laser of gas-dynamic type. It is featured by the outstanding weight-dimensions and specific characteristics. Essential advantage of the proposed gas-dynamic mobile laser is independence of stationary supply of electric power generally required for other types. Combined with independence of electric power plant, the totality of its technical properties, reliability and relatively low operation expenses makes it especially attractive solution of wide range of technological problems like worn reactors utilization, heavy- gauge metal cutting, thin oil films water pollution, etc., namely by means of autonomous mobile technological gas-dynamic laser (AMT GDL).

  4. The role of bioremediation in the treatment of gas industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Paterek, J.R.

    1993-12-31

    Bioremediation is a technology that integrates microbiology, ecology, chemistry, geology, and engineering in order to solve a major problem in today`s society, restoration of our environment This is not a collection of abstract disciplines, but a new and functional technology based on processes with a long, successful history, that is, biological waste treatment. Sewage and wastewater treatment, composting, and landfills are mature sources and starting points of this technology, but the complexity of manmade or man-released hazardous wastes in the heterogeneous matrices of contaminated water, soil, and sediment requires diligent research and development for successful application of bioremediation. The technology is being applied to various sites contaminated by organic and inorganic toxic compounds or elements, and these processes, techniques, and data can be tested and applied to the gas industry`s contaminated environments. An immediate opportunity for the application of this technology is manufactured town gas sites. Ongoing research into the remediation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and cyanides - which are common gas industry associated wastes - is leading to an awareness of limitations of biodegradation of these compounds and to possible technical and engineering paradigms required to overcome or minimize them. Future research in microbiology, ecology, and engineering of bioremediation should lead to effective remediation technologies for present and future challenges facing this industry.

  5. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  6. Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

  7. Advanced combustion technologies for gas turbine power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vandsburger, U.; Roe, L.A.; Desu, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    Objectives are to develop actuators for enhancing the mixing between gas streams, increase combustion stability, and develop hgih-temperature materials for actuators and sensors in combustors. Turbulent kinetic energy maps of an excited jet with co-flow in a cavity with a partially closed exhaust end are given with and without a longitudinal or a transverse acoustic field. Dielectric constants and piezoelectric coefficients were determined for Sr{sub 2}(Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics.

  8. Gas-turbine critical research and advanced technology support project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. S.; Lowell, C. E.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Nainiger, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The technical progress made during the first 15 months of a planned 40-month project to provide a critical-technology data base for utility gas-turbine systems capable of burning coal-derived fuels is summarized. Tasks were included in the following areas: (1) combustion, to study the combustion of coal-derived fuels and conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NOx; (2) materials, to understand and prevent hot corrosion; and (3) system studies, to integrate and guide the other technologies. Significant progress was made.

  9. Advanced H2-HCl Gas Dynamic Laser, Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    available in limited quantities on a special order basis, but synthesis is a straightforward and a well-known process. Three candidate propellant...oxidizers. Both oxides react significantly with HL and HC1 at high temperatures to yield H20 and other contaminants (Ca, Mg, CaOH , MgOH, CaCl, CaCl2, MgCip...quantities. However, synthesis of this compound is straight forward and results in a product of good yield and high purity. It is the best H„ gas generator

  10. Solid waste generation from oil and gas industries in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Elshorbagy, Walid; Alkamali, Abdulqader

    2005-04-11

    Solid wastes generated from oil and gas industrial activities are very diverse in their characteristics, large in their amounts and many of which are hazardous in nature. Thus, quantifying and characterizing the generated amounts in association with their types, classes, sources, industrial activities, and their chemical and biological characteristics is an obvious mandate when evaluating the possible management practices. This paper discusses the types, amounts, generation units, and the factors related to solid waste generation from a major oil and gas field in the United Arab Emirates (Asab Field). The generated amounts are calculated based on a 1-year data collection survey and using a database software specially developed and customized for the current study. The average annual amount of total solid waste generated in the studied field is estimated at 4061 t. Such amount is found equivalent to 650 kg/capita, 0.37 kg/barrel oil, and 1.6 kg/m3 of extracted gas. The average annual amount of hazardous solid waste is estimated at 55 t and most of which (73%) is found to be generated from gas extraction-related activities. The majority of other industrial non-hazardous solid waste is generated from oil production-related activities (41%), The present analysis does also provide the estimated generation amounts per waste type and class, amounts of combustible, recyclable, and compostable wastes, and the amounts dumped in uncontrolled way as well as disposed into special hazardous landfill facilities. The results should help the decision makers in evaluating the best alternatives available to manage the solid wastes generated from the oil and gas industries.

  11. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  12. [Mental health of gas and gas-transport industry workers as an indispensable condition of their efficient occupational activity].

    PubMed

    Polozhiĭ, B S

    2013-01-01

    Mental health workers in industry is a major health and social resource of any developed country. Unfortunately, Russia's level of mental health workers is unfavorable level. We have conducted a survey of employees psychoprophylactic mass of the gas industry, which occupies a leading position in the economy. Found that the prevalence of mental disorders in this professional group is 187 per 1,000 workers. In this case, 99.3% of employees with mental health problems of mentally ill for a long time, they do not receive appropriate treatment. Leading position in the structure occupy disorder with anxious and depressive symptoms, about 75% of all cases. In the treatment of these patients showed the highest efficiency Luvox, which is one of the most appropriate products in a production environment.

  13. Advanced Gas Sensors Using SERS-Activated Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascola, Robert; McWhorter, Scott; Murph, Simona Hunyadi

    2010-08-01

    This contribution describes progress towards the development and testing of a functionalized capillary that will provide detection of low-concentration gas-phase analytes through SERS. Measurement inside a waveguide allows interrogation of a large surface area, potentially overcoming the short distance dependence of the SERS effect. The possible use of Raman spectroscopy for gas detection is attractive for IR-inactive molecules or scenarios where infrared technology is inconvenient. However, the weakness of Raman scattering limits the use of the technique to situations where low detection limits are not required or large gas pressures are present. With surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), signal enhancements of 106 are often claimed, and higher values are seen in specific instances. However, most of the examples of SERS analysis are on liquid-phase samples, where the molecular density is high, usually combined with some sort of sample concentration at the surface. Neither of these factors is present in gas-phase samples. Because the laser is focused to a small point in the typical experimental setup, and the spatial extent of the effect above the surface is small (microns), the excitation volume is miniscule. Thus, exceptionally large enhancements are required to generate a signal comparable to that obtained by conventional Raman measurements. A reflective waveguide offers a way to increase the interaction volume of the laser with a SERS-modified surface. The use of a waveguide to enhance classical Raman measurements was recently demonstrated by S.M. Angel and coworkers, who obtained 12- to 30-fold sensitivity improvements for nonabsorbing gases (CO2, CH4) with a silvered capillary (no SERS enhancement). Shi et al.. demonstrated 10-to 100-fold enhancement of aqueous Rhodamine 6G in a capillary coated with silver nanoparticles. They observed enhancements of 10- to 100-fold compared to direct sampling, but this relied on a "double substrate", which required

  14. Sensor for performance monitoring of advanced gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latvakoski, Harri M.; Markham, James R.; Harrington, James A.; Haan, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced thermal coating materials are being developed for use in the combustor section of high performance turbine engines to allow for higher combustion temperatures. To optimize the use of these thermal barrier coatings (TBC), accurate surface temperature measurements are required to understand their response to changes in the combustion environment. Present temperature sensors, which are based on the measurement of emitted radiation, are not well studied for coated turbine blades since their operational wavelengths are not optimized for the radiative properties of the TBC. This work is concerned with developing an instrument to provide accurate, real-time measurements of the temperature of TBC blades in an advanced turbine engine. The instrument will determine the temperature form a measurement of the radiation emitted at the optimum wavelength, where the TBC radiates as a near-blackbody. The operational wavelength minimizes interference from the high temperature and pressure environment. A hollow waveguide is used to transfer the radiation from the engine cavity to a high-speed detector and data acquisition system. A prototype of this system was successfully tested at an atmospheric burner test facility, and an on-engine version is undergoing testing for installation on a high-pressure rig.

  15. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Douglas C.

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  16. Recent advances and industrial viewpoint for biological treatment of wastewaters by oleaginous microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Luo, Mu-Tan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Xiong, Lian; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Xin-De

    2017-02-20

    Recently, technology of using oleaginous microorganisms for biological treatment of wastewaters has become one hot topic in biochemical and environmental engineering for its advantages such as easy for operation in basic bioreactor, having potential to produce valuable bio-products, efficient wastewaters treatment in short period, etc. To promote its industrialization, this article provides some comprehensive analysis of this technology such as its advances, issues, and outlook especially from industrial viewpoint. In detail, the types of wastewaters can be treated and the kinds of oleaginous microorganisms used for biological treatment are introduced, the potential of industrial application and issues (relatively low COD removal, low lipid yield, cost of operation, and lack of scale up application) of this technology are presented, and some critical outlook mainly on co-culture method, combination with other treatments, process controlling and adjusting are discussed systematically. By this article, some important information to develop this technology can be obtained.

  17. Recent advances in engineering the central carbon metabolism of industrially important bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the recent advances in engineering the central carbon metabolism of the industrially important bacteria Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Corynobacterium glutamicum, Streptomyces spp., Lactococcus lactis and other lactic acid bacteria. All of them are established producers of important classes of products, e.g. proteins, amino acids, organic acids, antibiotics, high-value metabolites for the food industry and also, promising producers of a large number of industrially or therapeutically important chemicals. Optimization of existing or introduction of new cellular processes in these microorganisms is often achieved through manipulation of targets that reside at major points of central metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle with the glyoxylate shunt. Based on the huge progress made in recent years in biochemical, genetic and regulatory studies, new fascinating engineering approaches aim at ensuring an optimal carbon and energy flow within central metabolism in order to achieve optimized metabolite production. PMID:22545791

  18. An electromagnetic cavity sensor for multiphase measurement in the oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hajeri, S.; Wylie, S. R.; Stuart, R. A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2007-07-01

    The oil and gas industry require accurate sensors to monitor fluid flow in pipelines in order to manage wells efficiently. The sensor described in this paper uses the different relative permittivity values for the three phases: oil, gas and water to help determine the fraction of each phase in the pipeline, by monitoring the resonant frequencies that occur within an electromagnetic cavity. The sensor has been designed to be non-intrusive. This is advantageous, as it will prevent the sensor being damaged by the flow through the pipeline and allow pigging, the technique used for cleaning rust and wax from the inside of the pipeline using blades or brushes.

  19. Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

  20. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Ventura, S.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The process will generate only marketable by-products. Our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water-soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI as well as polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media. The final novelty of our approach is the arrangement of the absorbers in cassette (stackable) form so that the NO{sub x} absorber can be on top of the SO{sub x} absorber. This arrangement is possible only because of the high efficiency of the hollow fiber scrubbing devices, as indicated by our preliminary laboratory data. This arrangement makes it possible for the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing chambers to be separate without incurring the large ducting and gas pressure drop costs necessary if a second conventional absorber vessel were used. Because we have separate scrubbers, we will have separate liquor loops and simplify the chemical complexity of simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing.

  1. Analytical investigation of thermal barrier coatings on advanced power generation gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical investigation of present and advanced gas turbine power generation cycles incorporating thermal barrier turbine component coatings was performed. Approximately 50 parametric points considering simple, recuperated, and combined cycles (including gasification) with gas turbine inlet temperatures from current levels through 1644K (2500 F) were evaluated. The results indicated that thermal barriers would be an attractive means to improve performance and reduce cost of electricity for these cycles. A recommended thermal barrier development program has been defined.

  2. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An automotive gas turbine powertrain system which, when installed in a 1985 production vehicle (3000 pounds inertia weight), is being developed with a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT-powered vehicle shall give substantially the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable 1985 production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system (baseline system). Gaseous emissions and particulate levels less than: NOx = 0.4 gm/mile, HC = 0.41 gm/mile, and CO = 3.4 gm/mile, and a total particulate of 0.2 gm/mile, using the same fuel as used for fuel economy measurements is expected, along with the ability to use a variety of alternate fuels.

  3. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system initial development report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    The powertrain consists of a single shaft regenerated gas turbine engine utilizing ceramic hot section components, coupled to a slit differential gearbox with an available variable stator torque converter and an available Ford intergral overdrive four-speed automatic transmission. Predicted fuel economy using gasoline fuel over the combined federal driving cycle (CFDC) is 15.3 km/1, which represents a 59% improvement over the spark-ignition-powered baseline vehicle. Using DF2 fuel, CFDC mileage estimates are 17.43 km/1. Zero to 96.6 km/hr acceleration time is 11.9 seconds with a four-second accleration distance of 21.0 m. The ceramic radial turbine rotor is discussed along with the control system for the powertrain.

  4. Swirling midframe flow for gas turbine engine having advanced transitions

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Charron, Richard C.; Rodriguez, Jose L.; Kusters, Bernhard W.; Morrison, Jay A.; Beeck, Alexander R.

    2016-12-27

    A gas turbine engine can-annular combustion arrangement (10), including: an axial compressor (82) operable to rotate in a rotation direction (60); a diffuser (100, 110) configured to receive compressed air (16) from the axial compressor; a plenum (22) configured to receive the compressed air from the diffuser; a plurality of combustor cans (12) each having a combustor inlet (38) in fluid communication with the plenum, wherein each combustor can is tangentially oriented so that a respective combustor inlet is circumferentially offset from a respective combustor outlet in a direction opposite the rotation direction; and an airflow guiding arrangement (80) configured to impart circumferential motion to the compressed air in the plenum in the direction opposite the rotation direction.

  5. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system initial development report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The powertrain consists of a single shaft regenerated gas turbine engine utilizing ceramic hot section components, coupled to a slit differential gearbox with an available variable stator torque converter and an available Ford intergral overdrive four-speed automatic transmission. Predicted fuel economy using gasoline fuel over the combined federal driving cycle (CFDC) is 15.3 km/1, which represents a 59% improvement over the spark-ignition-powered baseline vehicle. Using DF2 fuel, CFDC mileage estimates are 17.43 km/1. Zero to 96.6 km/hr acceleration time is 11.9 seconds with a four-second accleration distance of 21.0 m. The ceramic radial turbine rotor is discussed along with the control system for the powertrain.

  6. Development of advanced inert-gas ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Inert gas ion thruster technology offers the greatest potential for providing high specific impulse, low thrust, electric propulsion on large, Earth orbital spacecraft. The development of a thruster module that can be operated on xenon or argon propellant to produce 0.2 N of thrust at a specific impulse of 3000 sec with xenon propellant and at 6000 sec with argon propellant is described. The 30 cm diameter, laboratory model thruster is considered to be scalable to produce 0.5 N thrust. A high efficiency ring cusp discharge chamber was used to achieve an overall thruster efficiency of 77% with xenon propellant and 66% with argon propellant. Measurements were performed to identify ion production and loss processes and to define critical design criteria (at least on a preliminary basis).

  7. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Rotor dynamic instability investigations were conducted. Forward ball bearing hydraulic mount configurations were tested with little effect. Trial assembly of S/N 002 ceramic engine was initiated. Impeller design activities were completed on the straight line element (SLE) blade definition to address near-net-shape powder metal die forging. Performance characteristics of the Baseline Test 2A impeller were closely preserved. The modified blading design has been released for tooling procurement. Developmental testing of the diffusion flame combustor (DFC) for initial use in the S/N 002 2100 F ceramic structures engine was completed. A natural gas slave preheater was designed and fabricated. Preliminary regenerator static seal rig testing showed a significant reduction in leakage and sensitivity to stack height. Ceramic screening tests were completed and two complete sets of ceramic static structures were qualified for engine testing. Efforts on rotor dynamics development to resolve subsynchronous motion were continued.

  8. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this study is to develop hot-gas cleanup sorbents for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature applications, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343--538 C. A number of formulations will be prepared and screened for testing in a 1/2-inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel-gases. Screening criteria will include, chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343 C to 538 C. Each formulation will be tested for up to 5 cycles of absorption and regeneration. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives will be investigated, which would promote a lower ignition of the regeneration. Selected superior formulation will be tested for long term (up to at least 30 cycles) durability and chemical reactivity in the reactor. Zinc oxide based sorbents were prepared and characterized as fresh, sulfided, and regenerated sorbents. Results are presented.

  9. Oil & Natural Gas Technology A new approach to understanding the occurrence and volume of natural gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico using petroleum industry well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Ann; Majumdar, Urmi

    2016-03-31

    The northern Gulf of Mexico has been the target for the petroleum industry for exploration of conventional energy resource for decades. We have used the rich existing petroleum industry well logs to find the occurrences of natural gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We have identified 798 wells with well log data within the gas hydrate stability zone. Out of those 798 wells, we have found evidence of gas hydrate in well logs in 124 wells (15% of wells). We have built a dataset of gas hydrate providing information such as location, interval of hydrate occurrence (if any) and the overall quality of probable gas hydrate. Our dataset provides a wide, new perspective on the overall distribution of gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico and will be the key to future gas hydrate research and prospecting in the area.

  10. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary layouts were made for the exhaust system, air induction system, and battery installation. Points of interference were identified and resolved by altering either the vehicle or engine designs. An engine general arrangement evolved to meet the vehicle engine compartment constraints while minimizing the duct pressure losses and the heat rejection. A power transfer system (between gasifier and power turbines) was developed to maintain nearly constant temperatures throughout the entire range of engine operation. An advanced four speed automatic transmission was selected to be used with the engine. Performance calculations show improvements in component efficiencies and an increase in fuel economy. A single stage centrifugal compressor design was completed and released for procurement. Gasifier turbine, power turbine, combustor, generator, secondary systems, materials, controls, and transmission development are reported.

  11. An innovative gas-solid torbed reactor for the recycling industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, C. E.; Lakshmanan, V. I.

    1998-07-01

    Gas-solid Torbed reactors have been developed for processing a wide range of materials. The reactors have facilitated several novel recycling projects in countries where they are used. One of the major advantages of these reactors when applied to the recycling industries is the compactness of the plant and its inherent ability to be scaled down and fully automated to better match the volume requirements of this sector.

  12. Prospects of Applying Vibration-Resistant Pressure Gauges in the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirogov, S. P.; Cherentsov, D. A.; Gulyaev, B. A.

    2016-10-01

    The article presents justification for improving vibration protection of pressure gauges used in the oil and gas industry. A mathematical model of manometric tubular spring oscillations in a viscous medium is viewed. By the developed model, the authors have determined the impact of manometric spring geometric characteristics and damping fluid viscosity on oscillation attenuation parameters, as well as provided evaluation of the impact of the cross-sectional shape on the oscillation attenuation rate.

  13. Water Use by Texas Oil and Gas Industry: A Look towards the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicot, J.; Ritter, S. M.; Hebel, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    The Barnett Shale gas play, located in North Texas, has seen a relatively quick growth in the past decade with the development of new “frac” (aka, fracture stimulation) technologies needed to create pathways to produce gas from the very low permeability shales. This technology uses a large amount of fresh water (millions of gallons in a day or two on average) to develop a gas well. Now operators are taking aim at other shale gas plays in Texas including the Haynesville, Woodford, and Pearsall-Eagle Ford shales and at other tight formation such as the Bossier Sand. These promising gas plays are likely to be developed at an even steeper growth rate. There are currently over 12,000 wells producing gas from the Barnett Shale with many more likely to be drilled in the next couple of decades as the play expands out of its core area. Despite the recent gas price slump, thousands more wells may be drilled across the state to access the gas resource in the next few years. As an example, a typical vertical and horizontal well completion in the Barnett Shale consumes approximately 1.2 and 3.0 to 3.5 millions gallons of fresh water, respectively. This could raise some concerns among local communities and other surface water and groundwater stakeholders. We present a preliminary analysis of future water use by the Texas oil and gas industry and compare it to projections of total water use, including municipal use and irrigation. Maps showing large increase in total number of well completions in the Barnett Shale (black dots) from 1998 to 2008. Operators avoided the DFW metro area (center right on the map) until recently. Also shown are the structural limits of the Barnett Shale on its eastern boundaries.

  14. Development of advanced magnetic resonance sensor for industrial applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    De Los Santos, A.

    1997-06-01

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and various subcontractors, in a cooperative agreement with the DOE, have developed and tested an advanced magnetic resonance (MR) sensor for several industrial applications and made various market surveys. The original goal of the program was to develop an advanced moisture sensor to allow more precise and rapid control of drying processes so that energy and/or product would not be wasted. Over the course of the program, it was shown that energy savings were achievable but in many processes the return in investment did not justify the cost of a magnetic resonance sensor. However, in many processes, particularly chemical, petrochemical, paper and others, the return in investment can be very high as to easily justify the cost of a magnetic resonance sensor. In these industries, substantial improvements in product yield, quality, and efficiency in production can cause substantial energy savings and reductions in product wastage with substantial environmental effects. The initial applications selected for this program included measurement of corn gluten at three different points and corn germ at one point in an American Maize corn processing plant. During the initial phases (I and II) of this program, SwRI developed a prototype advanced moisture sensor utilizing NMR technology capable of accurately and reliably measuring moisture in industrial applications and tested the sensor in the laboratory under conditions simulating on-line products in the corn wet milling industry. The objective of Phase III was to test the prototype sensor in the plant environment to determine robustness, reliability and long term stability. Meeting these objectives would permit extended field testing to improve the statistical database used to calibrate the sensor and subject the sensor to true variations in operating conditions encountered in the process rather than those which could only be simulated in the laboratory.

  15. Spontaneous anti-Stokes Raman probe for gas temperature measurements in industrial furnaces.

    PubMed

    Zikratov, G; Yueh, F Y; Singh, J P; Norton, O P; Kumar, R A; Cook, R L

    1999-03-20

    A compact, pulsed Nd:YAG laser-based instrument has been built to measure in situ absolute gas temperatures in large industrial furnaces by use of spontaneous anti-Stokes Raman scattering. The backscattering configuration was used to simplify the optics alignment and increase signal-to-noise ratios. Gated signal detection significantly reduced the background emission that is found in combustion environments. The anti-Stokes instead of the Stokes component was used to eliminate contributions to spectra from cold atmospheric nitrogen. The system was evaluated in a methane/air flame and in a bench-top oven, and the technique was found to be a reliable tool for nonintrusive absolute temperature measurements with relatively clean gas streams. A water-cooled insertion probe was integrated with the Raman system for measurement of the temperature profiles inside an industrial furnace. Gas temperatures near 1500-1800 K at atmospheric pressure in an industrial furnace were inferred by fitting calculated profiles to experimental spectra with a standard deviation of less than 1% for averaging times of approximately 200 s. The temperatures inferred from Raman spectra are in good agreement with data recorded with a thermocouple probe.

  16. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  17. Method of long-term corrosion-mechanical tests of metal of gas industry pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Gutman, E.M.; Zainullin, R.S.

    1987-10-01

    The resistance of the metal of gas industry pipes to hydrogen-sulfide (sulfide) cracking is usually evaluated on the basis of the results of long-term corrosion-mechanical tests on cylindrical specimens (diameter 6 mm) in the conditions of uniaxial tensile loading generated by the force constant with time. Because of the comparatively large dimensions of devices for producing the stress state in these specimens, it is difficult to carry out large-scale corrosion-mechanical tests. The authors assume that it is more advantageous to evaluate the hydrogen-sulfide cracking resistance of gas industry pipes on the basis of the results of corrosion-mechanical tests on semicircular specimens compressed or tensile-loaded at the ends. The method proposed was used in long-term corrosion-mechanical tests on the metal of seamless pipes made of low-alloy (08G2SFT) and low-carbon (St20) steels. The steel with the lower ratio of the yield stress to ultimate strength k/sub TB/ is characterized by a higher limit of the long-term corrosion strength expressed in the fractions of the yield stress of the metal. This indicates that it is useful to take into account the k/sub TB/ ratio in determining the safety factor of the strength of the gas industry pipes.

  18. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT): Power-train system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Johnson, R. A.; Gibson, R. K.; Smith, L. B.

    1983-01-01

    Technical work on the design and effort leading to the testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine is described. The general effort was concentrated on building an engine for test starting in July. The buildup progressed with only routine problems and the engine was delivered to the test stand 9 July. In addition to the engine build effort, work continued in selected component areas. Ceramic turbine parts were built and tested. Burst tests of ceramic rotors show strengths are approaching that achieved in test bars; proof testing is required for acceptable strength ceramic vanes. Over 25 hours was accumulated on the combustor rig in three test modes: pilot nozzle only, start nozzle, and main nozzle operation. Satisfactory ignition was achieved for a wide range of starting speeds and the lean blowout limit was as low as 0.06 kg/b (0.14 lb/hr). Lean blowout was more a function of nozzle atomization than fuel/air ratio. A variety of cycle points were tested. Transition from start nozzle flow to main nozzle flow was done manually without difficulty. Regenerator parts were qualification tested without incident and the parts were assembled on schedule. Rig based performance matched first build requirements. Repeated failures in the harmonic drive gearbox during rig testing resulted in that concept being abandoned for an alternate scheme.

  19. Recent Advances in Water Analysis with Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacAskill, John A.; Tsikata, Edem

    2014-01-01

    We report on progress made in developing a water sampling system for detection and analysis of volatile organic compounds in water with a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS). Two approaches are described herein. The first approach uses a custom water pre-concentrator for performing trap and purge of VOCs from water. The second approach uses a custom micro-volume, split-splitless injector that is compatible with air and water. These water sampling systems will enable a single GC-based instrument to analyze air and water samples for VOC content. As reduced mass, volume, and power is crucial for long-duration, manned space-exploration, these water sampling systems will demonstrate the ability of a GCMS to monitor both air and water quality of the astronaut environment, thereby reducing the amount of required instrumentation for long duration habitation. Laboratory prototypes of these water sampling systems have been constructed and tested with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer as well as a thermal conductivity detector. Presented herein are details of these water sampling system with preliminary test results.

  20. Advanced gas turbine systems research. Technical quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Major accomplishments by AGTSR during this reporting period are highlighted and then amplified in later sections of this report. Main areas of research are combustion, heat transfer, and materials. Gas turbines are used for power generation by utilities and industry and for propulsion.

  1. Advanced gas turbine systems research. Technical quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    Major accomplishments by AGTSR during this reporting period are highlighted and then amplified in later sections of this report. Main areas of research are combustion, heat transfer, and materials. Gas turbines are used for power generation by utilities and industry and for propulsion.

  2. Advanced Low NOx Combustors for Aircraft Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; White, D. J.; Shekleton, J. R.; Butze, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    A test rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating and minimizing the exhaust emissions, in particular NOx, of two advanced aircraft combustor concepts at a simulated high-altitude cruise condition. The two pre-mixed, lean-reaction designs are known as the Jet Induced Circulation (JIC) combustor and the Vortex Air Blast (VAB) combustor and were rig tested in the form of reverse flow can combustors in the 0.13 ni (5.0 in. ) size range. Various configuration modifications were applied to the JIC and VAB combustor designs in an effort to reduce the emissions levels. The VAB combustor demonstrated a NOx level of 1.11 gm NO2/kg fuel with essentially 100 percent combustion efficiency at the simulated cruise combustor condition of 507 kPa (5 atm), 833 K (1500 R), inlet pressure and temperature respectively, and 1778 K (3200 R) outlet temperature on Jet-Al fuel. These configuration screening tests were carried out on essentially reaction zones only, in order to simplify the construction and modification of the combustors and to uncouple any possible effects on the emissions produced by the dilution flow. Tests were also conducted however at typical engine idle conditions on both combustors equipped with dilution ports in order to better define the problem areas involved in the operation of such concepts over a complete engine operational envelope. Versions of variable-geometry, JIC and VAB annular combustors are proposed.

  3. Life prediction of advanced materials for gas turbine application

    SciTech Connect

    Zamrik, S.Y.; Ray, A.; Koss, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    Most of the studies on the low cycle fatigue life prediction have been reported under isothermal conditions where the deformation of the material is strain dependent. In the development of gas turbines, components such as blades and vanes are exposed to temperature variations in addition to strain cycling. As a result, the deformation process becomes temperature and strain dependent. Therefore, the life of the component becomes sensitive to temperature-strain cycling which produces a process known as {open_quotes}thermomechanical fatigue, or TMF{close_quotes}. The TMF fatigue failure phenomenon has been modeled using conventional fatigue life prediction methods, which are not sufficiently accurate to quantitatively establish an allowable design procedure. To add to the complexity of TMF life prediction, blade and vane substrates are normally coated with aluminide, overlay or thermal barrier type coatings (TBC) where the durability of the component is dominated by the coating/substrate constitutive response and by the fatigue behavior of the coating. A number of issues arise from TMF depending on the type of temperature/strain phase cycle: (1) time-dependent inelastic behavior can significantly affect the stress response. For example, creep relaxation during a tensile or compressive loading at elevated temperatures leads to a progressive increase in the mean stress level under cyclic loading. (2) the mismatch in elastic and thermal expansion properties between the coating and the substrate can lead to significant deviations in the coating stress levels due to changes in the elastic modulii. (3) the {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} corrosion resistance coatings applied to the substrate may act as primary crack initiation sites. Crack initiation in the coating is a function of the coating composition, its mechanical properties, creep relaxation behavior, thermal strain range and the strain/temperature phase relationship.

  4. Current and future water needs of the shale gas industry in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicot, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Barnett Shale gas play, located in North Texas, has seen a relatively quick growth in the past decade with the development of new “frac” technologies needed to create pathways to produce gas from the very low permeability shales. More plays such as the Haynesville, Woodford, and Eagle Ford are coming online at a steeper rate than the Barnett did, even including the small dip in activity due to the recent economic slowdown. A typical horizontal well completion consumes over 3 millions gallons of fresh water in a very short time (days). The trend in the industry is to increase the length of laterals with an increased water use. Vertical well completion also typically consumes in excess of 1 million gallons. There are currently over 14,000 completed shale gas wells in the State of Texas and many more will be drilled in the next decades. If tight-gas completions are included, the volume of water used is even larger, raising some concerns among local communities and other groundwater stakeholders. However, the volume remains low on average compared to irrigation demand, although locally it can lead to conflicts. Nevertheless, the industry is improving its water footprint by increased recycling, developing alternative sources of water (brackish, treatment plants) and more efficient additives, and other innovative strategies. This paper presents current shale gas water use in Texas compiled from various sources as well as water use projections for the next decades based on recent data and our understanding of shale gas geology. The map shows the 30,000+ wells frac'ed in the past 5 years in Texas

  5. Application of ESP for gas cleaning in cement industry--with reference to India.

    PubMed

    Bapat, J D

    2001-02-16

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are used for gas cleaning in almost every section of cement manufacture. Application of ESP is studied, keeping in view Indian conditions. The characterisation of dust emissions has been done for different units, such as rotary kiln and raw mill, alkali by-pass, clinker cooler, cement and coal mill, in terms of exit gas quantity, temperature, dew point, dust content and particle size. It is seen that all these characteristics have a wide range of variance. The ESP system must effectively deal with these variations. The fundamental analytical expression governing the performance of ESP, i.e. the Deutsch equation, and that for particle migration velocity, were analysed to predict the effect of major operating parameters, namely particle size, temperature and applied voltage. Whereas the migration velocity (and the efficiency) varies directly with the particle size, it is proportional to the square and square root of applied voltage and absolute temperature of the gas, respectively. The increase in efficiency due to temperature is not seen in dc based ESP, perhaps due to more pronounced negative effect on the applied voltage due to the increase in dust resistivity at higher temperatures. The effect of gas and dust characteristics on the collection efficiency of ESP, as seen in the industrial practice, is summarised. Some main process and design improvements effectively dealing with the problem of gas and dust characteristics have been discussed. These are gas conditioning, pulse energization, ESP-fabric filter (FF) combination, improved horizontal flow as well as open top ESP.Generally, gas conditioning entails higher operating and maintenance costs. Pulse energization allows the use of hot gas, besides reducing the dust emission and power consumption. The improved horizontal flow ESP has been successfully used in coal dust cleaning. The open top or vertical flow ESP has a limitation on collection efficiency as it provides for only

  6. Advanced combustion technologies for gas turbine power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vandsburger, U.; Desu, S.B.; Roe, L.A.

    1995-10-01

    During the second half of fiscal year 1995 progress was made in all three funded subject areas of the project as well as in a new area. Work in the area of mixing and combustion management through flow actuation was transferred into an enclosed facility. Jet mixing in a ducted co-flow was examined. The same jets were also subjected to a strong acoustic field established in the duct. Excitation of the jet with static spatial modes was shown to be effective even in the presence of co-flow and the acoustic field. Only when a wall is placed at the jet exit plane did the acoustic field dominate the jet dispersion (as expected due to reflective boundary conditions and the jet shear layer receptivity). This case is, however, not the most relevant to gas turbine combustors since it precludes co-flow. In the area of combustor testing, the design, fabrication, and assembly of a modular combustor test rig for project has been completed at the University of Arkansas. In the area of high temperature piezoceramic actuator materials development, Sr{sub 2}(Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} powders have been synthesized, and bulk samples and thick films sintered. These materials have a curie temperature of about 1400{degrees}C compared with 300{degrees}C for the commercially available PZT. While at room temperature the new materials show a piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) which is a factor of 100 lower than PZT, at high temperatures they can exhibit significant action. A new area of non-linear, neural-net based, controllers for mixing and combustion control has been added during the second contract year. This work is not funded by the contract. Significant progress was made in this area. Neural nets with up to 15 neurons in the hidden layer were trained with experimental data and also with data generated using linear stability theory. System ID was performed successfully. The network was then used to predict the behavior of jets excited at other modes not used for the training.

  7. New Paradigms in International University/Industry/Government Cooperation. Canada-China Collaboration in Advanced Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgak, Akif Asil; Liquan, He

    1996-01-01

    A Chinese university and a Canadian university collaborated on an advanced manufacturing technologies project designed to address human resource development needs in China. The project featured university/industry/government partnership and attention to environmental issues. (SK)

  8. High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurement for the applications of industrial emission online monitoring and air pollution source tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fengzhong; Zhang, Zhirong; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Pang, Tao; Wu, Bian; Chen, Weidong; Sigrist, Markus

    2015-04-01

    High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurements have been widely employed in the industrial and safety production. The recent progress made by our group on high sensitive gas detection with technologies of TDLAS, off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) will be briefly summarized in this report. Some works for field applications of industrial emission online monitoring and gas leakage detection in oil tank farm with TDLAS are first presented, and then part of our most recent researches on isotopic gas detection with OA-ICOS and CRDS for tracking of pollution sources are also introduced.

  9. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  10. Toward industrial scale synthesis of ultrapure singlet nanoparticles with controllable sizes in a continuous gas-phase process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jicheng; Biskos, George; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Continuous gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles is associated with rapid agglomeration, which can be a limiting factor for numerous applications. In this report, we challenge this paradigm by providing experimental evidence to support that gas-phase methods can be used to produce ultrapure non-agglomerated “singlet” nanoparticles having tunable sizes at room temperature. By controlling the temperature in the particle growth zone to guarantee complete coalescence of colliding entities, the size of singlets in principle can be regulated from that of single atoms to any desired value. We assess our results in the context of a simple analytical model to explore the dependence of singlet size on the operating conditions. Agreement of the model with experimental measurements shows that these methods can be effectively used for producing singlets that can be processed further by many alternative approaches. Combined with the capabilities of up-scaling and unlimited mixing that spark ablation enables, this study provides an easy-to-use concept for producing the key building blocks for low-cost industrial-scale nanofabrication of advanced materials.

  11. Toward industrial scale synthesis of ultrapure singlet nanoparticles with controllable sizes in a continuous gas-phase process

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jicheng; Biskos, George; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Continuous gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles is associated with rapid agglomeration, which can be a limiting factor for numerous applications. In this report, we challenge this paradigm by providing experimental evidence to support that gas-phase methods can be used to produce ultrapure non-agglomerated “singlet” nanoparticles having tunable sizes at room temperature. By controlling the temperature in the particle growth zone to guarantee complete coalescence of colliding entities, the size of singlets in principle can be regulated from that of single atoms to any desired value. We assess our results in the context of a simple analytical model to explore the dependence of singlet size on the operating conditions. Agreement of the model with experimental measurements shows that these methods can be effectively used for producing singlets that can be processed further by many alternative approaches. Combined with the capabilities of up-scaling and unlimited mixing that spark ablation enables, this study provides an easy-to-use concept for producing the key building blocks for low-cost industrial-scale nanofabrication of advanced materials. PMID:26511290

  12. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  13. Optical fiber evanescent wave adsorption sensors for high-temperature gas sensing in advanced coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Buric, M.; Ohodnicky, P.; Duy, J.

    2012-01-01

    Modern advanced energy systems such as coal-fired power plants, gasifiers, or similar infrastructure present some of the most challenging harsh environments for sensors. The power industry would benefit from new, ultra-high temperature devices capable of surviving in hot and corrosive environments for embedded sensing at the highest value locations. For these applications, we are currently exploring optical fiber evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy (EWAS) based sensors consisting of high temperature core materials integrated with novel high temperature gas sensitive cladding materials. Mathematical simulations can be used to assist in sensor development efforts, and we describe a simulation code that assumes a single thick cladding layer with gas sensitive optical constants. Recent work has demonstrated that Au nanoparticle-incorporated metal oxides show a potentially useful response for high temperature optical gas sensing applications through the sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption peak to ambient atmospheric conditions. Hence, the simulation code has been applied to understand how such a response can be exploited in an optical fiber based EWAS sensor configuration. We demonstrate that interrogation can be used to optimize the sensing response in such materials.

  14. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  15. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, W.H.

    1997-06-30

    This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  16. Energy efficient--advanced oxidation process for treatment of cyanide containing automobile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mudliar, R; Umare, S S; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2009-05-30

    Destruction of cyanide (CN) from an automobile industry wastewater by advance oxidation process (AOP) has been evaluated. The operating conditions (in an indigenously designed photoreactor) for three different treatment strategies have been optimized. The treatment strategies involved use of, ultra violet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ozone (O(3)) in various combinations. Treatment of automobile industry wastewater (250 mg/L CN) showed fastest CN destruction, which was significantly (P<0.05) faster than that observed with synthetic wastewater (with similar CN concentration). A combined application of H(2)O(2)/O(3) was found to be the best option for maximum CN destruction. This treatment allows CN to reach the regional/international limit (of 0.02 mg/L) for safe industrial wastewater discharges to the receiving water bodies. The specific energy consumption by the photoreactor following this treatment was comparable to that obtained by conventional treatments, which use photocatalyst. Since the present treatment does not use catalyst, it provides an excellent energy efficient and economical option for treatment and safe disposal of CN containing industrial wastewater.

  17. Advanced Membrane Separation Technologies for Energy Recovery from Industrial Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J. R.; Wang, D.; Bischoff, B.; Ciora,; Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S. B.

    2013-01-14

    Recovery of energy from relatively low-temperature waste streams is a goal that has not been achieved on any large scale. Heat exchangers do not operate efficiently with low-temperature streams and thus require such large heat exchanger surface areas that they are not practical. Condensing economizers offer one option for heat recovery from such streams, but they have not been widely implemented by industry. A promising alternative to these heat exchangers and economizers is a prototype ceramic membrane system using transport membrane technology for separation of water vapor and recovery of heat. This system was successfully tested by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) on a natural gas fired boiler where the flue gas is relatively clean and free of contaminants. However, since the tubes of the prototype system were constructed of aluminum oxide, the brittle nature of the tubes limited the robustness of the system and even limited the length of tubes that could be used. In order to improve the robustness of the membrane tubes and make the system more suitable for industrial applications, this project was initiated with the objective of developing a system with materials that would permit the system to function successfully on a larger scale and in contaminated and potentially corrosive industrial environments. This required identifying likely industrial environments and the hazards associated with those environments. Based on the hazardous components in these environments, candidate metallic materials were identified that are expected to have sufficient strength, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance to permit production of longer tubes that could function in the industrial environments identified. Tests were conducted to determine the corrosion resistance of these candidate alloys, and the feasibility of forming these materials into porous substrates was assessed. Once the most promising metallic materials were identified, the ability to form an alumina

  18. Development of advanced electron holographic techniques and application to industrial materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Tanji, Takayoshi

    2013-06-01

    The development of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a field emission gun paved the way for electron holography to be put to practical use in various fields. In this paper, we review three advanced electron holography techniques: on-line real-time electron holography, three-dimensional (3D) tomographic holography and phase-shifting electron holography, which are becoming important techniques for materials science and device engineering. We also describe some applications of electron holography to the analysis of industrial materials and devices: GaAs compound semiconductors, solid oxide fuel cells and all-solid-state lithium ion batteries.

  19. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-09-02

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge.

  20. Advanced Systems development: New materials/systems for interior gas distribution. Phase 1. Advanced Systems Specifications. Final report, January 1989-May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.; Scocca, M.; Topping, R.

    1991-05-01

    As part of the Gas Research Institute's overall program to develop safe, low cost, semi rigid gas piping systems, their project is aimed at identifying and evaluating advanced high performance materials and components suitable for interior gas piping by the year 2000 and beyond. The report summarizes the results of Phase I - Advanced Systems Specifications Studies, which developed performance criteria, installed cost goals and a database of promising new metallic and non-metallic piping materials. Several candidate materials and systems are identified as well as the current status of gas monitoring, sensing and control technologies.

  1. Advanced Process Heater for the Steel, Aluminum and Chemical Industries of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Briselden

    2007-10-31

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: “Improved performance of high temperature materials; improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer”. Radiant tubes are used in almost every industry of the future. Examples include Aluminum re-heat furnaces; Steel strip annealing furnaces, Petroleum cracking/ refining furnaces, Metal Casting/Heat Treating in atmosphere and fluidized bed furnaces, Glass lair annealing furnaces, Forest Products infrared paper driers, Chemical heat exchangers and immersion heaters, and the indirect grain driers in the Agriculture Industry. Several common needs among the industries are evident: (1) Energy Reductions, (2) Productivity Improvements, (3) Zero Emissions, and (4) Increased Component Life. The Category I award entitled “Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future” met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) doubling the heat transfer rates (2) improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) improving temperature uniformity by 100oF (38 oC) and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH addresses EERE’s primary mission of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. The primary goal of this project was to design, manufacture and test a commercial APH prototype by integrating three components: (1) Helical Heat Exchanger, (2) Shared Wall Radiant U-tube, and (3) Helical Flame Stabilization Element. To accomplish the above, a near net shape powder ceramic Si-SiC low-cost forming process was used to manufacture the components. The project defined the methods for making an Advanced Process Heater that produced an efficiency between 70% to 80% with temperature uniformities of less than 5oF/ft (9oC/m). Three spin-off products resulted from this

  2. EPA compromises consistency in its coastal oil and gas industry cost-effectiveness analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts a cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis to estimate the cost of complying with each newly proposed set of industrial effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs). CE is defined as the incremental annualized cost of a pollution control option in an industry per incremental pound equivalent (PE) of pollutant removed annually by that control options. EPA`s guidelines for conducting the CE analysis require that all costs be expressed in 1981 dollars so that comparison to other industries can be done on a consistent basis. In the results of its CE analyses, EPA presents information showing $/PE values for all the industries for which it has done the CE analysis. These examples indicate that EPA is interested in maintaining consistency and comparability. EPA is not legally bound by the results of a CE analysis; however, if the $/PE for a proposed ELG is calculated to be significantly higher than the $/PEs for other comparable ELGs, EPA might reconsider its proposal. EPA`s approach of using an expanded pollutant list and revised weighting factors probably generates a more accurate estimate of the PEs removed for the coastal oil and gas industry, but in doing so, EPA loses the ability to equitably compare this CE analysis to the CE analyses that have been done for other industries. This shortcoming is particularly obvious since the offshore Ce analysis, evaluating a nearly identical waste stream, was completed just two years earlier. Given EPA`s concern over consistency and comparability to other industries, it may be appropriate to modify this approach for the coastal CE analysis. Another alternative that would allow EPA to reflect the newest toxicological information and still preserve consistency and comparability would be to recalculate all earlier CE analyses whenever new weighting factors are developed.

  3. Active load management with advanced window wall systems: Research and industry perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Levi, Mark S.; Blanc, Steven L.; McConahey, Erin; McClintock, Maurya; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Sbar, Neil L.; Myser, Michael P.

    2002-06-01

    Advanced window wall systems have the potential to provide demand response by reducing peak electric loads by 20-30% in many commercial buildings through the active control of motorized shading systems, switchable window coatings, operable windows, and ventilated double-skin facade systems. These window strategies involve balancing daylighting and solar heat gains, heat rejection through ventilation, and night-time natural ventilation to achieve space-conditioning and lighting energy use reductions without the negative impacts on occupants associated with other demand responsive (DR) strategies. This paper explores conceptually how advanced window systems fit into the context of active load management programs, which cause customers to directly experience the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Technological options are suggested. We present pragmatic criteria that building owners use to determine whether to deploy such strategies. A utility's perspective is given. Industry also provides their perspectives on where the technology is today and what needs to happen to implement such strategies more broadly in the US. While there is significant potential for these advanced window concepts, widespread deployment is unlikely to occur with business-as-usual practice. Technologically, integrated window-lighting-HVAC products are underdeveloped. Implementation is hindered by fragmented labor practices, non-standard communication protocols, and lack of technical expertise. Design tools and information products that quantify energy performance, occupant impacts, reliability, and other pragmatic concerns are not available. Interest within the building industry in sustainability, energy-efficiency, and increased occupant amenity, comfort, and productivity will be the driving factors for these advanced facades in the near term--at least until the dust settles on the deregulated electricity market.

  4. Compound heat pump gas turbine: an approach to energy conservation for process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Fejer, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A compound heat pump gas turbine engine is proposed to achieve energy conservation in industrial processes that require cooling or refrigeration as well as electric power and process heat. This novel machine is basically the combination of a reversed cycle Brayton engine driven by a gas tubine, with the two engines having a common compressor. Because of this arrangement, the machine is very compact and should be relatively inexpensive to produce. Also, it can be adapted to a variety of fuels. The thermodynamic cycle and some performance characteristics of the compound engine are presented and the potential of such a machine for a meat packing plant is demonstrated. It was concluded from this study that this engine layout will result in significant reductions in engine cost, compared with systems consisting of separate components for power generation, refrigeration, and process heating. In addition, significant savings in energy consumption may be realized. Furthermore, it appears that engines of this type can be made to meet widely differing specifications as far as the split between process heat refrigeration and shaftpower is concerned. Finally, the engine can be made up of compressors, turbine stages, and heat exchangers of relatively simple design without penalties in economy, because the energy savings are achieved in this type of engine by reduction or complete elimination of waste heat, rather than high efficiencies of engine components. The possible energy savings for the meat packing industry indicate that the compound heat pump gas turbine deserves further study, including its cost, operating expenses, and environmental aspects. (LCL)

  5. Materials and structural aspects of advanced gas-turbine helicopter engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Acurio, J.

    1979-01-01

    The key to improved helicopter gas turbine engine performance lies in the development of advanced materials and advanced structural and design concepts. The modification of the low temperature components of helicopter engines (such as the inlet particle separator), the introduction of composites for use in the engine front frame, the development of advanced materials with increased use-temperature capability for the engine hot section, can result in improved performance and/or decreased engine maintenance cost. A major emphasis in helicopter engine design is the ability to design to meet a required lifetime. This, in turn, requires that the interrelated aspects of higher operating temperatures and pressures, cooling concepts, and environmental protection schemes be integrated into component design. The major material advances, coatings, and design life-prediction techniques pertinent to helicopter engines are reviewed; the current state-of-the-art is identified; and when appropriate, progress, problems, and future directions are assessed.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-10-15

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO{sub 2}e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO{sub 2}e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO{sub 2}e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO{sub 2}e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy

  7. An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Kraussler, Michael; Schindler, Philipp; Hofbauer, Hermann

    2017-03-11

    This work presents an experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of H2 and CH4, which should serve as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Therefore, a lab-scale process chain employing a water gas shift unit, scrubbing units, and a pressure swing adsorption unit was operated with tar-rich product gas extracted from a commercial dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant. A gas mixture with a volumetric fraction of about 80% H2 and 19% CH4 and with minor fractions of CO and CO2 was produced by employing carbon molecular sieve as adsorbent. Moreover, the produced gas mixture had a lower heating value of about 15.5MJ·m(-3) and a lower Wobbe index of about 43.4MJ·m(-3), which is similar to the typical Wobbe index of natural gas.

  8. Development and Application of Advanced Weather Prediction Technologies for the Wind Energy Industry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, W. P.; Wiener, G.; Liu, Y.; Myers, W.; Johnson, D.

    2010-12-01

    Wind energy decision makers are required to make critical judgments on a daily basis with regard to energy generation, distribution, demand, storage, and integration. Accurate knowledge of the present and future state of the atmosphere is vital in making these decisions. As wind energy portfolios expand, this forecast problem is taking on new urgency because wind forecast inaccuracies frequently lead to substantial economic losses and constrain the national expansion of renewable energy. Improved weather prediction and precise spatial analysis of small-scale weather events are crucial for renewable energy management. In early 2009, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) began a collaborative project with Xcel Energy Services, Inc. to perform research and develop technologies to improve Xcel Energy's ability to increase the amount of wind energy in their generation portfolio. The agreement and scope of work was designed to provide highly detailed, localized wind energy forecasts to enable Xcel Energy to more efficiently integrate electricity generated from wind into the power grid. The wind prediction technologies are designed to help Xcel Energy operators make critical decisions about powering down traditional coal and natural gas-powered plants when sufficient wind energy is predicted. The wind prediction technologies have been designed to cover Xcel Energy wind resources spanning a region from Wisconsin to New Mexico. The goal of the project is not only to improve Xcel Energy’s wind energy prediction capabilities, but also to make technological advancements in wind and wind energy prediction, expand our knowledge of boundary layer meteorology, and share the results across the renewable energy industry. To generate wind energy forecasts, NCAR is incorporating observations of current atmospheric conditions from a variety of sources including satellites, aircraft, weather radars, ground-based weather stations, wind profilers, and even wind sensors on

  9. Corporate Diversity Programs and Gender Inequality in the Oil and Gas Industry.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christine L; Kilanski, Kristine; Muller, Chandra

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1980s, major U.S. corporations have embraced diversity as a management strategy to increase the number of women in top jobs. Diversity management programs include targeted recruitment, hiring, and promotions policies; mentoring programs; affinity groups; and diversity training. Few of these programs have proven effective in achieving gender diversity in the corporate world, despite their widespread popularity. To explore the reasons for this, the authors investigate the experiences of women scientists in the oil and gas industry who are targeted by these programs. In-depth interviews reveal possible reasons why these programs fail to achieve their intended goals. The authors find that these programs can paradoxically reinforce gender inequality and male dominance in the industry. The authors discuss alternative approaches for addressing gender inequality in work organizations and conclude with implications of their findings for corporate approaches to promoting diversity and for future research.

  10. Industrial applications of electron beam flue gas treatment—From laboratory to the practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-08-01

    The electron beam technology for flue gas treatment (EBFGT) has been developed in Japan in the early 1980s. Later on, this process was investigated in pilot scale in the USA, Germany, Japan, Poland, Bulgaria and China. The new engineering and process solutions have been developed during the past two decades. Finally industrial plants have been constructed in Poland and China. The high efficiency of SO x and NO x removal was achieved (up to 95% for SO x and up to 70% for NO x) and by-product is a high quality fertilizer. Since the power of accelerators applied in industrial installation is over 1 MW and requested operational availability of the plant is equal to 8500 h in year, it is a new challenge for radiation processing applications.

  11. Corporate Diversity Programs and Gender Inequality in the Oil and Gas Industry

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christine L.; Kilanski, Kristine; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, major U.S. corporations have embraced diversity as a management strategy to increase the number of women in top jobs. Diversity management programs include targeted recruitment, hiring, and promotions policies; mentoring programs; affinity groups; and diversity training. Few of these programs have proven effective in achieving gender diversity in the corporate world, despite their widespread popularity. To explore the reasons for this, the authors investigate the experiences of women scientists in the oil and gas industry who are targeted by these programs. In-depth interviews reveal possible reasons why these programs fail to achieve their intended goals. The authors find that these programs can paradoxically reinforce gender inequality and male dominance in the industry. The authors discuss alternative approaches for addressing gender inequality in work organizations and conclude with implications of their findings for corporate approaches to promoting diversity and for future research. PMID:25558125

  12. Strategies implemented by the textile industry in response to natural-gas curtailments

    SciTech Connect

    Schreibeis, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of specific activities undertaken by textile firms in North and South Carolina and Georgia to insulate themselves against production losses resulting from natural gas curtailments. Results of the research effort focusing on investigating patterns or trends of precautionary activities undertaken by the textile industry in response to fuel interruptions are presented. Chapter II delineates the scope of the project, research design, and nature of the textile industry. One hundred candidate firms for detailed study were identified and 34 discussed their alternate fuel strategies. Information obtained was analyzed by means of two statistical analysis techniques. Methods employed and results are described in Chapter III. Overall results are presented in Chapter IV. Variations in the strategies implemented by various concerns were accounted for in terms of geographic location, plant size, plant type, and the duration and extent of curtailment impacts. Ranges of expenditures for short- and long-term strategies are identified.

  13. Industrial fuel gas demonstration plant program. License agreements for proprietary processes. (Deliverable No. 30)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The proprietary processes included within the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant are listed. Draft license agreements covering the use of these processes, with the exception of the Westfield Process (Conoco), have been included at the end of this document. Except for the Claus Process (Amoco) all draft license agreements will be executed directly between MLGW and the licensor. All the draft license agreements provided have been prepared by the licensors after preliminary discussions. Presently these agreements are being reviewed by MLGW for acceptability. As stated above, the Amoco Sulfur Recovery Process will be covered by an existing agreement between Standard Oil and FWEC. Suitable clauses have been provided under Tab V. These clauses will be incorporated into the MLGW/FWEC subcontract for the protection of MLGW, FWEC, and licensor. At this writing the Industrial Team has no secrecy agreement executed with Conoco Methanation Company (Westfield Methanation Process) nor has any draft license agreement been transmitted by Conoco.

  14. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite.

  15. Review: gas-phase ion chemistry of the noble gases: recent advances and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Grandinetti, Felice

    2011-01-01

    This review article surveys recent experimental and theoretical advances in the gas-phase ion chemistry of the noble gases. Covered issues include the interaction of the noble gases with metal and non-metal cations, the conceivable existence of covalent noble-gas anions, the occurrence of ion-molecule reactions involving singly-charged xenon cations, and the occurrence of bond-forming reactions involving doubly-charged cations. Research themes are also highlighted, that are expected to attract further interest in the future.

  16. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  17. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices.

  18. Synthetic drilling fluids - a pollution prevention opportunity for the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Burke, C.J.; Moses, D.O.

    1995-12-31

    Offshore oil and gas operators use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as {open_quotes}muds,{close_quotes} to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

  19. [The preserving-health model of employees of oil and gas industry].

    PubMed

    Tsaĭzer, D V; Poteriaeva, E L; Antipov, S A

    2012-01-01

    The state of occupational health problem and occupational rate of accident in Russia has been studied. It has been set forward the innovation model of health care of employees in oil and gas industry based on integrated approach, which combines the medical examination practice, the objective appraisal of workplaces on working condition, use of new saving production technologies, providing the employees with the means of individual protection, teaching the personnel to occupational safety and health culture and the first medical aid. The received results approve the efficiency of application of this model.

  20. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, M; Ali, H M; Abu, M P; Kontol, K M; Ahmad, Z; Ahmad, S H S S; Sulaiman, I; Hamzah, R

    2004-05-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.

  1. The role of IRP in the natural gas industry: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.A.; Brockman, L.; Herman, P.

    1994-09-29

    The natural gas industry has changed radically over the last decade. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Order 636 completed plans to unbundle interstate pipeline services and create open access for distribution companies and their customers. There has also been increasing competition for local distribution companies (LDCs) from fuel oil, electricity and unregulated energy service companies. Meanwhile, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes provisions that encourage energy efficiency and promote reliance on competitive forces. In response to these changes, coupled with growing environmental concerns and the need for increased energy efficiency, a number of state public utility commissions and LDCs took an interest in integrated resource planning (IRP) for gas utilities. Gas IRP was in its formative stages and a variety of regulatory approaches were being considered when this project began. In response, this project originated with the total project scope being to define, implement and institutionalize an IRP process for the Gas Customer Service Business Unit of Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMGas).

  2. Thermophysical properties of fluids for the gas industry. Annual report, January-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, T.J.; Haynes, W.M.

    1993-05-01

    The US gas industry standard for computing thermophysical properties is the A.G.A. Transmission Measurement Committee Report No. 8 equation of state (AGA 8). The report summarized the results from several experimental, theoretical, and modeling programs directed at the extensive evaluation of the accuracy with which various types of natural gas physical properties can be calculated using AGA 8 and related methods. The most important results were the assembly of benchmark data sets for speed of sound, viscosity, fugacity, heat capacity, critical region PVT, mixture compressibilities, and vapor pressure measurements for natural gas fluids. When tested against these benchmark properties data, the AGA 8 equation of state model was found to be generally accurate within + or - 0.1% for sound speeds (and densities) and within + or - 0.03% for compressibilities over the ranges of pressure, temperature, and composition that encompass the major region of custody transfer for natural gas. Work was also completed on the fabrication and testing of a prototype catalytic cracking detector for the selective detection of hydrocarbons; a US patent was awarded for this invention with the assignment to GRI.

  3. A technology development summary for the AGT101 advanced gas turbine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Gary L.; Kidwell, James R.; Kreiner, Daniel M.

    1987-01-01

    A summary is presented of significant technology developments that have been made in the AGT101 advanced gas turbine program. The AGT101 design features are reviewed, and the power section testing and results are addressed in detail. The results of component testing and evaluation are described for the compressor, turbine, regenerator, and foil bearing. Ceramic component development is discussed, including that of the static seal, turbine shroud seal, regenerator shield planar seal, regenerator shield piston ring, stator rig, ceramic combustor, and turbine rotor. Important areas to be addressed by the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project now in the planning stage at DOE and NASA are briefly reviewed.

  4. Emerging applications of low temperature gas plasmas in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alex; Shama, Gilbert; Iza, Felipe

    2015-06-16

    The global burden of foodborne disease due to the presence of contaminating micro-organisms remains high, despite some notable examples of their successful reduction in some instances. Globally, the number of species of micro-organisms responsible for foodborne diseases has increased over the past decades and as a result of the continued centralization of the food processing industry, outbreaks now have far reaching consequences. Gas plasmas offer a broad range of microbicidal capabilities that could be exploited in the food industry and against which microbial resistance would be unlikely to occur. In addition to reducing the incidence of disease by acting on the micro-organisms responsible for food spoilage, gas plasmas could also play a role in increasing the shelf-life of perishable foods and thereby reduce food wastage with positive financial and environmental implications. Treatment need not be confined to the food itself but could include food processing equipment and also the environment in which commercial food processing occurs. Moreover, gas plasmas could also be used to bring about the degradation of undesirable chemical compounds, such as allergens, toxins, and pesticide residues, often encountered on foods and food-processing equipment. The literature on the application of gas plasmas to food treatment is beginning to reveal an appreciation that attention needs also to be paid to ensuring that the key quality attributes of foods are not significantly impaired as a result of treatment. A greater understanding of both the mechanisms by which micro-organisms and chemical compounds are inactivated, and of the plasma species responsible for this is forming. This is significant, as this knowledge can then be used to design plasma systems with tailored compositions that will achieve maximum efficacy. Better understanding of the underlying interactions will also enable the design and implementation of control strategies capable of minimizing variations in

  5. Advanced oxidation treatment of physico-chemically pre-treated olive mill industry effluent.

    PubMed

    Gomec, Cigdem Y; Erdim, Esra; Turan, Ilknur; Aydin, Ali F; Ozturk, Izzet

    2007-08-01

    In this study, the applicability of physico-chemical methods was investigated for the pre-treatment of the olive mill effluents prior to the discharge into the common sewerage ending with a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The samples were taken from an olive oil industry operated as three-phase process located in Turkey. Various pre-treatment methods including acid craking, polyelectrolyte and lime additions were applied. Advanced oxidation study using Fenton's process was also investigated following pre-treatment by acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte. Acid cracking alone gave satisfactory treatment efficiencies and polyelectrolite additions to the acid-cracked samples enhanced treatment efficiency. Since a complete treatment plant is available at the end of the sewer system, results indicated that the effluents of the investigated industry could be discharged into the municipal sewerage in the case of total chemical oxygen demand (COD(tot)), suspended solid (SS) and volatile suspended solid (VSS) concentrations according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation after pre-treatment with 5 ppm anionic polyelectrolyte following acid cracking. The minimum COD(tot), SS and VSS removals were observed when raw wastewater was pre-treated with lime and the discharge standards to the municipal sewer system could not be met. Advanced oxidation with Fenton's process was applied after acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte treatment in order to investigate further reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration for minimizing the influence of this industrial discharge on the existing municipal wastewater treatment plant. Results indicated that COD(tot) removal increased up to 89% from 74% after Fenton's oxidation for the acid cracked samples in which cationic polyelectrolite (10 ppm) was added.

  6. Advancement and application of gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques for atmospheric trace gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Brian M.

    2011-12-01

    The use of gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) for compound specific stable isotope analysis is an underutilized technique because of the complexity of the instrumentation and high analytical costs. However stable isotopic data, when coupled with concentration measurements, can provide additional information on a compounds production, transformation, loss, and cycling within the biosphere and atmosphere. A GC-IRMS system was developed to accurately and precisely measure delta13C values for numerous oxygenated volatile organic compounds having natural and anthropogenic sources. The OVOCs include methanol, ethanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, 2-pentanone, and 3-pentanone. Guided by the requirements for analysis of trace components in air, the GC-IRMS system was developed with the goals of increasing sensitivity, reducing dead-volume and peak band broadening, optimizing combustion and water removal, and decreasing the split ratio to the IRMS. The technique relied on a two-stage preconcentration system, a low-volume capillary reactor and water trap, and a balanced reference gas delivery system. Measurements were performed on samples collected from two distinct sources (i.e. biogenic and vehicle emissions) and ambient air collected from downtown Miami and Everglades National Park. However, the instrumentation and the method have the capability to analyze a variety of source and ambient samples. The measured isotopic signatures that were obtained from source and ambient samples provide a new isotopic constraint for atmospheric chemists and can serve as a new way to evaluate their models and budgets for many OVOCs. In almost all cases, OVOCs emitted from fuel combustion were enriched in 13C when compared to the natural emissions of plants. This was particularly true for ethanol gas emitted in vehicle exhaust, which was observed to have a uniquely enriched isotopic signature that was attributed to ethanol's corn origin and use as an alternative

  7. Creating conditions for the success of the French industrial advanced therapy sector.

    PubMed

    Lirsac, Pierre Noel; Blin, Olivier; Magalon, Jérémy; Angot, Pierre; de Barbeyrac, Estelle; Bilbault, Pascal; Bourg, Elisabeth; Damour, Odile; Faure, Patrick; Ferry, Nicolas; Garbil, Bénédicte; Larghero, Jérôme; Nguon, Marina; Pattou, François; Thumelin, Stéphane; Yates, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Although the European Union merely followed the initiatives of the United States and Japan by introducing special regimes for orphan medicinal products, it has introduced a special status for a new category of biological medicinal products, advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), adopting specific associated regulations. European Regulation (which constitutes the highest legal instrument in the hierarchy of European law texts) [EC] No. 1394/2007, published in 2007, uses this term to define somatic cell therapy medicinal products, tissue-engineered products, and gene therapy medicinal products, possibly combined with medical devices. The stated objective was two-fold: both to promote their industrialization and market access, while guaranteeing a high level of health protection for patients. Since publication of the regulation, few marketing authorizations have been granted in Europe, and these have not been accompanied by commercial success. However, certain recent studies show that this is a growing sector and that France remains the leading European nation in terms of clinical trials. This round table brought together a panel of representatives of French public and private protagonists from the advanced therapy sector. The discussions focused on the conditions to ensure the success of translational research and, more generally, the French advanced therapy sector. These enabled a number of obstacles to be identified, which once lifted, by means of recommendations, would facilitate the development and success of this sector.

  8. How a Physicist Can Add Value In the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitzsch, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The talk will focus on some specific examples of innovative and fit-for-purpose physics applied to solve real-world oil and gas exploration and production problems. In addition, links will be made to some of the skills and areas of practical experience acquired in physics education and research that can prove invaluable for success in such an industrial setting with a rather distinct and unique culture and a highly-collaborative working style. The oil and gas industry is one of the largest and most geographically and organizationally diverse areas of business activity on earth; and as a `mature industry,' it is also characterized by a bewildering mix of technologies dating from the 19th century to the 21st. Oil well construction represents one of the largest volume markets for steel tubulars, Portland cement, and high-quality sand. On the other hand, 3D seismic data processing, shaped-charge perforating, and nuclear well logging have consistently driven forward the state of the art in their respective areas of applied science, as much or more so than defense or other industries. Moreover, a surprising number of physicists have made their careers in the oil industry. To be successful at introducing new technology requires understanding which problems most need to be solved. The most exotic or improbable technologies can take off in this industry if they honestly offer the best solution to a real problem that is costing millions of dollars in risk or inefficiency. On the other hand, any cheaper or simpler solution that performs as well would prevail, no matter how inelegant! The speaker started out in atomic spectroscopy (Harvard), post-doc'ed in laser cooling and trapping of ions for high-accuracy time and frequency metrology (NIST), and then jumped directly into Drilling Engineering with Schlumberger Corp. in Houston. Since then, his career has moved through applied electromagnetics, geological imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance logging, some R and D portfolio

  9. Advanced gas turbine systems research. Quarterly report, January--March, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy is sponsoring a series of studies related to advanced gas turbine systems. Ten universities participated in the first round studies, and an additional 13 studies have been funded this year. The five areas being covered are heat transfer, aerodynamics, materials, combustion, and dynamics. Summaries are given for the 6-month progress on the 1993 subcontract studies and on the planned research for the new subcontract studies.

  10. Infrared spectroscopy study of electrochromic nanocrystalline tungsten oxide films made by reactive advanced gas deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, J. L.; Hoel, A.; Lantto, V.; Granqvist, C. G.

    2001-03-01

    Nanocrystalline W oxide films were produced by advanced reactive gas deposition. The material consisted of ˜6 nm diameter tetragonal crystallites, as found from x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Optoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated electrochromism upon Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, and infrared absorption spectroscopy gave clear evidence for longitudinal and transversal optical modes being modified following the lithiation. Our data were consistent with ionic transport predominantly in disordered grain boundaries and intercrystalline regions and with electrochromism being associated with small polaron formation.

  11. High performance fibers for structurally reliable metal and ceramic composites. [advanced gas turbine engine materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Very few of the commercially available high performance fibers with low densities, high Young's moduli, and high tensile strengths possess all the necessary property requirements for providing either metal matrix composites (MMC) or ceramic matrix composites (CMC) with high structural reliability. These requirements are discussed in general and examples are presented of how these property guidelines are influencing fiber evaluation and improvement studies at NASA aimed at developing structurally reliable MMC and CMC for advanced gas turbine engines.

  12. An analysis of flaring and venting activity in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew R; Coderre, Adam R

    2011-02-01

    Alberta, Canada, is an important global producer of petroleum resources. In association with this production, large amounts of gas (1.14 billion m3 in 2008) are flared or vented. Although the amount of flaring and venting has been measurably reduced since 2002, data from 2005 reveal sharp increases in venting, which have important implications in terms of resource conservation and greenhouse gas emissions (which exceeded 8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2008). With use of extensive monthly production data for 18,203 active batteries spanning the years 2002-2008 obtained in close cooperation with the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, a detailed analysis has been completed to examine activity patterns of flaring and venting and reasons behind these trends in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry. In any given year, approximately 6000 batteries reported flaring and/or venting, but the distribution of volumes flared and vented at individual sites was highly skewed, such that small numbers of sites handled large fractions of the total gas flaring and venting in the Province. Examination of month-to-month volume variability at individual sites, cast in terms of a nominal turndown ratio that would be required for a compressor to capture that gas and direct it into a pipeline, further revealed that volumes at a majority of sites were reasonably stable and there was no evidence that larger or more stable sites had been preferentially reduced, leaving potential barriers to future mitigation. Through linking of geospatial data with production data coupled with additional statistical analysis, the 31.2% increase in venting volumes since 2005 was revealed to be predominantly associated with increased production of heavier oils and bitumen in the Lloydminster region of the Province. Overall, the data suggest that quite significant reductions in flaring and venting could be realized by seeking mitigation solutions for only the largest batteries in

  13. Assessing drivers of export orientation in the subsea oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Aarstad, Jarle; Pettersen, Inger Beate; Jakobsen, Stig-Erik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this short study was to identify the drivers of export orientation of firms in the subsea oil and gas industry in Western Norway. As the oil fields in the North Sea are approaching a stage of maturity, gaining knowledge of these drivers is crucial. An online survey was conducted of firms operating in the subsea oil and gas industry in the region. Consistent with previous research, the data reveal that product innovation and a majority share of international ownership increase firms' export rates. The use of instrumental variables indicates that both product innovation and international ownership are causes of subsea petroleum exports. The study moreover finds that subcontractors have a lower rate of direct exports than system providers, but international ownership in particular boosts subcontractors' export rates, probably by decreasing their market dependency on regional system providers. A clear recommendation for managers and stakeholders is that they should encourage foreign investments throughout the value chain. The results of such a strategy appear to be especially positive for subcontractors.

  14. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  15. Mobile monitoring of fugitive methane emissions from natural gas consumer industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Albertson, J. D.; Gaylord, A.; von Fischer, J.; Rudek, J.; Thoma, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas is used as a feedstock for major industrial processes, such as ammonia and fertilizer production. However, fugitive methane emissions from many major end-use sectors of the natural gas supply chain have not been quantified yet. This presentation introduces new tools for estimating emission rates from mobile methane measurements, and examines results from recent field measurements conducted downwind of several industrial plants using a specialized vehicle equipped with fast response methane sensor. Using these data along with local meteorological data measured by a 3-D sonic anemometer, a Bayesian approach is applied to probabilistically infer methane emission rates based on a modified Gaussian dispersion model. Source rates are updated recursively with repeated traversals of the downwind methane plume when the vehicle was circling around the targeted facilities. Data from controlled tracer release experiments are presented and used to validate the approach. With access via public roads, this mobile monitoring method is able to quickly assess the emission strength of facilities along the sensor path. This work is developing the capacity for efficient regional coverage of potential methane emission rates in support of leak detection and mitigation efforts.

  16. A thermodynamic approach for advanced fuels of gas-cooled reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéneau, C.; Chatain, S.; Gossé, S.; Rado, C.; Rapaud, O.; Lechelle, J.; Dumas, J. C.; Chatillon, C.

    2005-09-01

    For both high temperature reactor (HTR) and gas cooled fast reactor (GFR) systems, the high operating temperature in normal and accidental conditions necessitates the assessment of the thermodynamic data and associated phase diagrams for the complex system constituted of the fuel kernel, the inert materials and the fission products. A classical CALPHAD approach, coupling experiments and thermodynamic calculations, is proposed. Some examples of studies are presented leading with the CO and CO 2 gas formation during the chemical interaction of [UO 2± x/C] in the HTR particle, and the chemical compatibility of the couples [UN/SiC], [(U, Pu)N/SiC], [(U, Pu)N/TiN] for the GFR system. A project of constitution of a thermodynamic database for advanced fuels of gas-cooled reactors is proposed.

  17. Completion of the first NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiment, AGR-1, in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover; John Maki; David Petti

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and completed a very successful irradiation in early November 2009. The design of AGR-1 test train and support systems used to monitor and control the experiment during

  18. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the research is to provide databases and design criteria to assist in the selection of optimum alloys for construction of components needed to contain process streams in advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems. Typical components include: steam line piping and superheater tubing for low emission boilers (600 to 700{degrees}C), heat exchanger tubing for advanced steam cycles and topping cycle systems (650 to 800{degrees}C), foil materials for recuperators, on advanced turbine systems (700 to 750{degrees}C), and tubesheets for barrier filters, liners for piping, cyclones, and blowback system tubing for hot-gas cleanup systems (850 to 1000{degrees}C). The materials being examined fall into several classes, depending on which of the advanced heat recovery concepts is of concern. These classes include martensitic steels for service to 650{degrees}C, lean stainless steels and modified 25Cr-30Ni steels for service to 700{degrees}C, modified 25Cr-20Ni steels for service to 900{degrees}C, and high Ni-Cr-Fe or Ni-Cr-Co-Fe alloys for service to 1000{degrees}C.

  19. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction

  20. Implications of deregulation in natural gas industry on utility risks and returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addepalli, Rajendra P.

    This thesis examines the changes in risk and required return on capital for local distribution utility companies in the increasingly competitive natural gas industry. The deregulation in the industry impacts the LDCs in several ways. First, with the introduction of competition consumers have been given choices among suppliers besides the traditional monopoly, the local utility, for purchasing their natural gas supply needs. Second, with the introduction of competition, some of the interstate pipelines were stuck with 'Take Or Pay' contracts and other costs that resulted in 'stranded costs', which have been passed on to customers of the pipeline including the LDCs. Third, the new obligation for the LDCs to purchase gas from the market, as opposed to buying it from pipelines and passing on the costs to its customers, brought opportunities and risks as well. Finally, with the introduction of competition, in some states LDCs have been allowed to enter into unregulated ventures to increase their profits. In the thesis we first develop a multifactor model (MFM) to explain historical common stock returns of individual utilities and of utility portfolios. We use 'rolling regression' analysis to analyze how different variables explain the variation in stock returns over time. Second, we conduct event studies to analyze the events in the deregulation process that had significant impacts on the LDC returns. Finally we assess the changes in risk and required return on capital for the LDCs over a 15 year time frame, covering the deregulation period. We employ four aspects in the examination of risk and return profile of the utilities: measuring (a) changes in required return on common equity and Weighted Average Cost of Capital, (b) changes in risk premium (WACC less an interest rate proxy), (c) changes in utility bond ratings, and (d) changes in dividend payments, new debt and equity issuances. We perform regression analysis to explain the changes in the required WACC using

  1. Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee O. Nelson

    2011-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540°C and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625–925°C. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

  2. Gas composition influence on ion energy distribution functions in an industrial ICP reactor with biased cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Shannon, Steven; Coumou, David; White, Scott

    2016-09-01

    An industrial ICP reactor consisting of a top planar coil and RF biased lower electrode has been characterized using a hairpin resonator probe and gridded ion energy analyzer to measure electron density in the bulk plasma and ion energy distribution function (IEDF) at the surface of the biased cathode. Argon and oxygen were run at constant total flow with 20mTorr downstream pressure control with varying flow ratios between the two gases ranging from 0% to 100% oxygen content. ICP and bias power were adjusted to maintain constant electron density and sheath bias over this mixing matrix at four different setpoints reflecting high density / high bias, high density / low bias, low density / high bias, and low density / low bias. Although the fundamental parameters governing RF sheath behavior were held constant, several trends in ion energy distribution are observed with respect to gas composition (aside from the obvious influence of ion mass) that show considerable variation in measured IEDF particularly that can be attributed to ion collisions in the sheath as well as gas heating variation due to gas composition.

  3. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Power Plate Transducers in Dense Gas Extraction and Aerosol Agglomeration Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, E.; Cardoni, A.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.; Acosta, V. M.; Blanco, A.; Rodríguez, G.; Blasco, M.; Herranz, L. E.

    Power ultrasound (PU) is an emerging, innovative, energy saving and environmental friendly technology that is generating a great interest in sectors such as food and pharmaceutical industries, green chemistry, environmental pollution, and other processes, where sustainable and energy efficient methods are required to improve and/or produce specific effects. Two typical effects of PU are the enhancement of mass transfer in gases and liquids, and the induction of particle agglomeration in aerosols. These effects are activated by a variety of mechanisms associated to the nonlinear propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves such as diffusion, agitation, entrainment, turbulence, etc. During the last years a great effort has been jointly made by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the company Pusonics towards introducing novel processes into the market based on airborne ultrasonic plate transducers. This technology was specifically developed for the treatment of gas and multiphasic media characterized by low specific acoustic impedance and high acoustic absorption. Different strategies have been developed to mitigate the effects of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of such ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers in order to enhance and stabilize their response at operational power conditions. This work deals with the latter advances in the mitigation of nonlinear problems found in power transducers; besides it describes two applications assisted by ultrasound developed at semi-industrial and laboratory scales and consisting in extraction via dense gases and particle agglomeration. Dense Gas Extraction (DGE) assisted by PU is a new process with a potential to enhance the extraction kinetics with supercritical CO2. Acoustic agglomeration of fine aerosol particles has a great potential for the treatment of air pollution problems generated by particulate materials. Experimental and numerical results in both processes will be shown and discussed.

  4. The advances of Chinese non-ferrous metal mineral industry and its environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Miao Zewei; Gao Lin; Zhou Xiaoyuan

    1998-12-31

    With the steady growth of Chinese economy, the nonferrous metal industry of China was also developed quickly. The gross output of ten main nonferrous metals 4.25 million tons in 1995 so that China ranks the fourth in the world. However, a series of environmental problems also occurred, which relate to characteristics of mineral resources, techniques for mining, dressing, smelting and processing, equipment and their management level. The major pollutants include sulphur dioxide, industrial powder-dust and smoke-dust, water containing heavy metal ions as well as solid wastes. Air, water body, soil, vegetation and people`s health were polluted and damaged to different extent due to the above pollutants. For the purpose of environmental management and pollution control, some measures must be taken: (1) to strengthen environmental planning, accelerate and perfect environmental laws and related regulations as well as spread the consciousness of environmental protection energetically; (2) to extend cleaner production and adopt advanced technologies so as to reduce environmental pollution; (3) to turn the concept of the end-of-pipe management to the whole-process control; (4) to recovery or reuse the wastes fully. In addition, general situation and policies on reclamation of mining land as well as theory, methods and techniques of restoration of waste land were also stated in the paper.

  5. Cattle and the oil and gas industry in Alberta: A literature review with recommendations for environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to bring together a review of published information on the potential effects of upstream oil and gas industry operations on the cattle industry in Alberta, some indication of the probability of occurrence of these effects, and recommendations on how they might be avoided or mitigated. Based on reviews of scientific papers and industry good-practice manuals, the report describes: The sources and quantities of environmental contaminants generated by Alberta`s oil and gas industry, including normal operations, accidental releases, and the effects of aging infrastructure; the chemical composition of the products, materials, and wastes associated with the industry; the fate and transport of the contaminants through air, water, and soil; cattle operations in Alberta; the toxicology of oil and gas industry contaminants in cattle; and selected Alberta case studies of accidental releases and planned experiments. Conclusions and recommendations deal with critical information gaps and strategies for the sustainable management of cattle and oil/gas operations in the province.

  6. Through the Past Decade: How Advanced Energy Design Guides have influenced the Design Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Athalye, Rahul A.

    2015-07-31

    Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs) were originally developed intended to provide a simple approach to building professionals seeking energy efficient building designs better than ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Since its first book was released in 2004, the AEDG series provided inspiration for the design industry and were seen by designers as a starting point for buildings that wished to go beyond minimum codes and standards. In addition, U.S. Department of Energy’s successful Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program leveraged many of the recommendations from the AEDGs to achieve 50% energy savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 for prototypical designs of large commercial entities in the retail, banking and lodging sectors. Low-energy technologies and strategies developed during the CBP process have been applied by commercial partners throughout their national portfolio of buildings. Later, the AEDGs served as the perfect platform for both Standard 90.1 and ASHRAE’s high performance buildings standard, Standard 189.1. What was high performance a few years ago, however, has become minimum code today. Indeed, most of the prescriptive envelope component requirements in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 are values recommended in the 50% AEDGs several years ago. Similarly, AEDG strategies and recommendations have penetrated the lighting and HVAC sections of both Standard 189.1 and Standard 90.1. Finally, as we look to the future of codes and standards, the AEDGs are serving as a blueprint for how minimum code requirements could be expressed. By customizing codes to specific building types, design strategies tailored for individual buildings could be prescribed as minimum code, just like in the AEDGs. This paper describes the impact that AEDGs have had over the last decade on the design industry and how they continue to influence the future of codes and Standards. From design professionals to code officials, everyone in the building industry has been affected by the AEDGs.

  7. On-line combustion monitoring on dry low NOx industrial gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, S.; James, S.; Goy, C.; Colechin, M. J. F.

    2003-07-01

    To reduce the NOx emissions levels produced by industrial gas turbines most manufacturers have adopted a lean premixed approach to combustion. Such combustion systems are susceptible to combustion-driven oscillations, and much of the installed modern gas turbines continue to suffer from reduced reliability due to instability-related problems. The market conditions which now exist under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements provide a strong driver for power producers to improve the reliability and availability of their generating units. With respect to low-emission gas turbines, such improvements can best be achieved through a combination of sophisticated monitoring, combustion optimization and, where appropriate, plant modifications to reduce component failure rates. On-line combustion monitoring (OLCM) provides a vital contribution to each of these by providing the operator with increased confidence in the health of the combustion system and also by warning of the onset of combustion component deterioration which could cause significant downstream damage. The OLCM systems installed on Powergen's combined cycle gas turbine plant utilize high-temperature dynamic pressure transducers mounted close to the combustor to enable measurement of the fluctuating pressures experienced within the combustion system. Following overhaul, a reference data set is determined over a range of operating conditions. Real-time averaged frequency spectra are then compared to the reference data set to enable identification of abnormalities. Variations in the signal may occur due to changes in ambient conditions, fuel composition, operating conditions, and the onset of component damage. The systems on Powergen's plant have been used successfully to detect each of the above, examples of which are presented here.

  8. Advances in Inhalation Gas Dosimetry for Derivation of a Reference Concentration (RfC) and Use in Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This status report provides a review of advances in the state of the science for interspecies inhalation gas dosimetry related to extrathoracic (ET) or upper respiratory tract (URT), tracheobronchial (TB), pulmonary (PU), and extrarespiratory (systemic, SYS) effects.

  9. Reduction of organic trace compounds and fresh water consumption by recovery of advanced oxidation processes treated industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bierbaum, S; Öller, H-J; Kersten, A; Klemenčič, A Krivograd

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O(3)) has been used successfully in advanced wastewater treatment in paper mills, other sectors and municipalities. To solve the water problems of regions lacking fresh water, wastewater treated by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can substitute fresh water in highly water-consuming industries. Results of this study have shown that paper strength properties are not impaired and whiteness is slightly impaired only when reusing paper mill wastewater. Furthermore, organic trace compounds are becoming an issue in the German paper industry. The results of this study have shown that AOPs are capable of improving wastewater quality by reducing organic load, colour and organic trace compounds.

  10. Radiological impact of NORM generated by oil and gas industries in the kingdom of Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Husain, Husain; Sakhnini, Lama

    2017-02-01

    A study of the external background radiation in areas affected by NORM generated by oil and gas industrial activities has been performed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. In this framework, two experimental residential areas, Awali and Riffa Views, were selected due to the presence of extensive oil and gas exploration and transportation. Additionally, two control residential areas, Isa Town and Al-Budaiya Village, were selected as they lack any industrial activities that would disrupt the radiation profile. The radiation dose rates were measured using Colibri Very Low Dose radiation survey meter with a built-in GPS. A total of 317 dose rates with their GPS coordinates were acquired. The lowest dose rate was 0.02 μSv/h acquired in Isa Town while the highest dose rate was 0.37 μSv/h acquired in Awali. Since there were no studies performed in the Kingdom to measure the average background radiation, the average external background radiation calculated from the control areas was used in this study which is 0.75 ± 0.31 mSv/y. The measured mean annual equivalent doses above the background radiation levels in Isa Town, Al-Budaiya, Riffa Views and Awali were -0.05 ± 0.05 mSv/y, 0.04 ± 0.04 mSv/y, 0.62 ± 0.13 mSv/y and 1.32 ± 0.35 mSv/y respectively. In other words, the radiation measurements were notably higher in the experimental areas. This was particularly true in south and southwestern Awali where the annual equivalent dose in some areas reached 2.49 mSv/y above average background levels. The geological constituent of the earth crust could be one source that contribute to overall background radiation. However, presence of NORM generated by extensive oil and gas operations and transportation is stronger justification for the higher radiation readings in the experimental areas than geological characteristic factor. Such high radiation values were found only near oil and gas installations and not in other locations of the same areas.

  11. Integration of magnetic bearings in the design of advanced gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Storace, A.F.; Sood, D.; Lyons, J.P.; Preston, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Active magnetic bearings provide revolutionary advantages for gas turbine engine rotor support. These advantages include tremendously improved vibration and stability characteristics, reduced power loss, improved reliability, fault tolerance, and greatly extended bearing service life. The marriage of these advantages with innovative structural network design and advanced materials utilization will permit major increases in thrust-to-weight performance and structural efficiency for future gas turbine engines. However, obtaining the maximum payoff requires two key ingredients. The first is the use of modern magnetic bearing technologies such as innovative digital control techniques, high-density power electronics, high-density magnetic actuators, fault-tolerant system architecture, and electronic (sensorless) position estimation. This paper describes these technologies and the test hardware currently in place for verifying the performance of advanced magnetic actuators, power electronics, and digital controls. The second key ingredient is to go beyond the simple replacement of rolling element bearings with magnetic bearings by incorporating magnetic bearings as an integral part of the overall engine design. This is analogous to the proper approach to designing with composites, whereby the designer tailors the geometry and load-carrying function of the structural system or component for the composite instead of simply substituting composites in a design originally intended for metal material. This paper describes methodologies for the design integration of magnetic bearings in gas turbine engines.

  12. Industry tests of NASA ceramic thermal barrier coating. [for gas turbine engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Stepka, F. S.

    1979-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) system was tested by industrial and governmental organizations for a variety of aeronautical, marine, and ground-based gas turbine engine applications. This TBC is a two-layer system with a bond coating of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.6Y, in wt. percent) and a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-12Y2O3, in wt. percent). Seven tests evaluated the system's thermal protection and durability. Five other tests determined thermal conductivity, vibratory fatigue characteristics, and corrosion resistance of the system. The information presented includes test results and photographs of the coated parts. Recommendations are made for improving the coating procedures.

  13. Applications of Seasat to the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA satellite Seasat-A (to be launched in 1978) has applications to the offshore oil, gas, and mining industries including: (1) improvements in weather and wave forecasting, (2) studies of past wind and wave statistics for planning design requirements, and (3) monitoring ice formation, breakup, and movement in arctic regions. The primary geographic areas which will be monitored by Seasat-A include: the Beaufort Sea, the Labrador Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. east coast, West Africa, Equatorial East Pacific, the Gulf of Alaska, and the North Sea. Seasat-A instrumentation used in ocean monitoring consists of a radar altimeter, a radar scatterometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a microwave radiometer, and a visible and infrared radiometer. The future outlook of the Seasat program is planned in three phases: measurement feasibility demonstration (1978-1980), data accessibility/utility demonstration (1980-1983), and operational system demonstration (1983-1985).

  14. CAIS standard manual. System number 26. Industrial gas storage and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Industrial Gas Storage and Distribution System.

  15. Applicability issues and compliance strategies for the proposed oil and gas industry hazardous air pollutant standards

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, N.; Winborn, K.A.; Grygar, W.W. II

    1999-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has targeted oil and natural gas transmission and storage facilities located across the United States for regulation under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) program (proposed in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63 [40 CFR 63], Subparts HH and HHH). The proposed NESHAP were published in the February 6, 1998 Federal Register and are expected to be promulgated in May 1999. These rules are intended to reduce Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) emitted from oil and gas facilities. It is expected that these rules will require more than 400 major sources and more than 500 non-major sources (also referred to as area sources) to meet maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards defined in the NESHAP. The rules would regulate HAP emission from glycol dehydration units, storage vessels and various fugitive leak sources. This technical paper addresses the applicability issues and compliance strategies related to the proposed NESHAP. The applicability criteria for both rules differ from those promulgated for other source categories under 40 CFR 63. For example, individual unit throughput and/or HAP emission thresholds may exempt specific units from the MACT standards in the NESHAP. The proposed Subpart HH would apply not only to major sources, but also to triethylene glycol (TEC) dehydration units at area sources located in urban areas. For both proposed NESHAP all 199 HAP must be considered for the major source determinations, but only 15 specific HAP are targeted for control under the proposed standards. An overview of the HAP control requirements, exemption criteria, as well as initial and continued compliance determination strategies are presented. Several industry examples are included to assist industry develop compliance strategies.

  16. Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke

    2005-10-01

    ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

  17. Timing and Institutions: Determinants of the Ownership Structure in the Oil and Gas Industry in Canada and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didier, Thomas

    In response to 1973 oil shock, both the Canadian and Norwegian states expanded public corporate ownership in the oil and gas industry. This thesis questions why the public share of total corporate ownership in the oil industry was greater in Norway than in Canada, and why Petro-Canada was privatized completely while Statoil was not. Two hypotheses are tested from a historical institutionalist perspective. First, the timing of oil development determined whether the private sector would establish itself as the dominant player in the oil and gas industry (in Canada) or not (in Norway) before the 1973 oil shock triggered government interest in public corporate ownership. Second, overlapping jurisdiction over oil resources (in Canada) undermined the effectiveness of mechanisms of reproduction of public corporate ownership. In Norway, the later discovery of oil thus gave the state a stronger bargaining position relative to the oil industry, and in a unitary state the uncontroversial redistributional activities of Statoil attracted more vested interests.

  18. Measurement of gas bremsstrahlung from the insertion device beamlines of the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Magill, S.

    1997-03-01

    High energy electron storage rings generate energetic bremsstrahlung photons through radiative interaction of the electrons (or positrons) with the residual gas molecules inside the storage ring. The resulting radiation exits at an average emittance angle of (m{sub 0}c{sub 2}/E) radian with respect to the electron beam path, where m{sub 0}c{sup 2} is the rest mass of E the electron and E its kinetic energy. Thus, at straight sections of the storage rings, moving electrons will produce a narrow and intense monodirectional photon beam. At synchrotron radiation facilities, where beamlines are channeled out of the storage ring, a continuous gas bremsstrahlung spectrum, with a maximum energy of the electron beam, will be present. There are a number of compelling reasons that a measurement of the bremsstrahlung characteristics be conducted at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Although the number of residual gas molecules present in the storage ring at typical nTorr vacuum is low, because of the long straight paths of the electrons in the storage ring at APS, significant production of bremsstrahlung will be produced. This may pose a radiation hazard. It is then imperative that personnel be shielded from dose rates due to this radiation. There are not many measurements available for gas bremsstrahlung, especially for higher electron beam energies. The quantitative estimates of gas bremsstrahlung from storage rings as evaluated by Monte Carlo codes also have several uncertainties. They are in general calculated for air at atmospheric pressure, the results of which are then extrapolated to typical storage ring vacuum values (of the order of 10{sup -9} Torr). Realistically, the actual pressure profile can vary inside the narrow vacuum chamber. Also, the actual chemical composition of the residual gas inside the storage ring is generally different from that of air.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-10-01

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO2e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO2e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO2e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO2e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO2e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy from crop residues, and promotion of organic

  20. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  1. Gas-phase advanced oxidation for effective, efficient in situ control of pollution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew S; Nilsson, Elna J K; Svensson, Erik A; Langer, Sarka

    2014-01-01

    In this article, gas-phase advanced oxidation, a new method for pollution control building on the photo-oxidation and particle formation chemistry occurring in the atmosphere, is introduced and characterized. The process uses ozone and UV-C light to produce in situ radicals to oxidize pollution, generating particles that are removed by a filter; ozone is removed using a MnO2 honeycomb catalyst. This combination of in situ processes removes a wide range of pollutants with a comparatively low specific energy input. Two proof-of-concept devices were built to test and optimize the process. The laboratory prototype was built of standard ventilation duct and could treat up to 850 m(3)/h. A portable continuous-flow prototype built in an aluminum flight case was able to treat 46 m(3)/h. Removal efficiencies of >95% were observed for propane, cyclohexane, benzene, isoprene, aerosol particle mass, and ozone for concentrations in the range of 0.4-6 ppm and exposure times up to 0.5 min. The laboratory prototype generated a OH(•) concentration derived from propane reaction of (2.5 ± 0.3) × 10(10) cm(-3) at a specific energy input of 3 kJ/m(3), and the portable device generated (4.6 ± 0.4) × 10(9) cm(-3) at 10 kJ/m(3). Based on these results, in situ gas-phase advanced oxidation is a viable control strategy for most volatile organic compounds, specifically those with a OH(•) reaction rate higher than ca. 5 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s. Gas-phase advanced oxidation is able to remove compounds that react with OH and to control ozone and total particulate mass. Secondary pollution including formaldehyde and ultrafine particles might be generated, depending on the composition of the primary pollution.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems, Volume 1: Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This is the first annual technical progress report for The Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems Program. Two semi-annual technical progress reports were previously issued. This program was initially by the Department of Energy as an R D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular three-stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO/sub x/ formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; coal ash and sulfur is subsequently removed from the combustion gases by an impact separator in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage. 27 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. First-principles thermochemistry for gas phase species in an industrial rutile chlorinator.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Raphael; Phadungsukanan, Weerapong; Kraft, Markus; Downing, Jim; Day, Nick E; Murray-Rust, Peter

    2010-11-04

    This work presents thermochemical data for possible gas phase intermediate species in an industrial rutile chlorinator. An algorithm developed for previous work is employed to ensure that all possible species are considered, reducing the number of important species neglected. Thermochemical data and enthalpies of formation are calculated for 22 new species using density functional theory, post Hartree-Fock coupled cluster calculations, and statistical mechanics. Equilibrium calculations are performed to identify whether any Ti/C intermediates are likely to be important to the high temperature industrial process. These new species are not present at high concentration in the exit stream. It is therefore likely that the two chemical processes do not interact. Rather, the Cl₂ rapidly reacts with the solid TiO₂ to form TiCl₄ and O₂. The latter then reacts with the solid C to form CO and CO₂ and provide the heat. Data for all the new species is provided as Supporting Information. Finally, a new methodology for data collaboration is investigated in which the data is made openly accessible using the resource description framework. Example scripts are provided to demonstrate how to query and retrieve the data automatically.

  4. Greenhouse gas and carbon profile of the u.s. Forest products industry value chain.

    PubMed

    Heath, Linda S; Maltby, Van; Miner, Reid; Skog, Kenneth E; Smith, James E; Unwin, Jay; Upton, Brad

    2010-05-15

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004-2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO(2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity generation) emissions from manufacturing and methane emissions from landfilled products. Forest carbon stocks in forests supplying wood to the industry were found to be stable or increasing. Increases in the annual amounts of carbon removed from the atmosphere and stored in forest products offset about half of the total value chain emissions. Overall net transfers to the atmosphere totaled 91.8 and 103.5 TgCO(2)-eq. in 1990 and 2005, respectively, although the difference between these net transfers may not be statistically significant. Net transfers were higher in 2005 primarily because additions to carbon stored in forest products were less in 2005. Over this same period, energy-related manufacturing emissions decreased by almost 9% even though forest products output increased by approximately 15%. Several types of avoided emissions were considered separately and were collectively found to be notable relative to net emissions.

  5. Greenhouse Gas and Carbon Profile of the U.S. Forest Products Industry Value Chain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004−2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity generation) emissions from manufacturing and methane emissions from landfilled products. Forest carbon stocks in forests supplying wood to the industry were found to be stable or increasing. Increases in the annual amounts of carbon removed from the atmosphere and stored in forest products offset about half of the total value chain emissions. Overall net transfers to the atmosphere totaled 91.8 and 103.5 TgCO2-eq. in 1990 and 2005, respectively, although the difference between these net transfers may not be statistically significant. Net transfers were higher in 2005 primarily because additions to carbon stored in forest products were less in 2005. Over this same period, energy-related manufacturing emissions decreased by almost 9% even though forest products output increased by approximately 15%. Several types of avoided emissions were considered separately and were collectively found to be notable relative to net emissions. PMID:20355695

  6. The feasibility of effluent trading in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing wastewater effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to promote additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This paper evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry. The evaluation leads to the conclusion that potential for effluent trading is very low in the exploration and production and distribution and marketing sectors; trading potential is moderate for the refining sector except for intraplant trades, for which the potential is high. Good potential also exists for other types of water-related trades that do not directly involve effluents (e.g., wetlands mitigation banking). The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries and in other sectors would be enhanced if Congress amended the Clean Water Act (CWA) to formally authorize such trading.

  7. Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

    2010-01-01

    Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1).

  8. Dry deposition and soil-air gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an industrial area.

    PubMed

    Bozlaker, Ayse; Odabasi, Mustafa; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2008-12-01

    Ambient air and dry deposition, and soil samples were collected at the Aliaga industrial site in Izmir, Turkey. Atmospheric total (particle+gas) Sigma(41)-PCB concentrations were higher in summer (3370+/-1617 pg m(-3), average+SD) than in winter (1164+/-618 pg m(-3)), probably due to increased volatilization with temperature. Average particulate Sigma(41)-PCBs dry deposition fluxes were 349+/-183 and 469+/-328 ng m(-2) day(-1) in summer and winter, respectively. Overall average particulate deposition velocity was 5.5+/-3.5 cm s(-1). The spatial distribution of Sigma(41)-PCB soil concentrations (n=48) showed that the iron-steel plants, ship dismantling facilities, refinery and petrochemicals complex are the major sources in the area. Calculated air-soil exchange fluxes indicated that the contaminated soil is a secondary source to the atmosphere for lighter PCBs and as a sink for heavier ones. Comparable magnitude of gas exchange and dry particle deposition fluxes indicated that both mechanisms are equally important for PCB movement between air and soil in Aliaga.

  9. Applications of Gas Imaging Micro-Well Detectors to an Advanced Compton Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloser, P. F.; Hunter, S. D.; Ryan, J. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Miller, R. S.; Jackson, T. N.; Bai, B.; Jung, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a concept for an Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) based on the use of pixelized gas micro-well detectors to form a three-dimensional electron track imager. A micro-well detector consists of an array of individual micro-patterned proportional counters opposite a planar drift electrode. When combined with thin film transistor array readouts, large gas volumes may be imaged with very good spatial and energy resolution at reasonable cost. The third dimension is determined by timing the drift of the ionization electrons. The primary advantage of this approach is the excellent tracking of the Compton recoil electron that is possible in a gas volume. Such good electron tracking allows us to reduce the point spread function of a single incident photon dramatically, greatly improving the imaging capability and sensitivity. The polarization sensitivity, which relies on events with large Compton scattering angles, is particularly enhanced. We describe a possible ACT implementation of this technique, in which the gas tracking volume is surrounded by a CsI calorimeter, and present our plans to build and test a small prototype over the next three years.

  10. Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation System for Desalination Using Waste Heat fromGas Brayton Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2012-10-01

    Generation IV high temperature reactor systems use closed gas Brayton Cycles to realize high thermal efficiency in the range of 40% to 60%. The waste heat is removed through coolers by water at substantially greater average temperature than in conventional Rankine steam cycles. This paper introduces an innovative Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation (AMED) design that can enable the production of substantial quantities of low-cost desalinated water using waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles. A reference AMED design configuration, optimization models, and simplified economics analysis are presented. By using an AMED distillation system the waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles can be fully utilized to desalinate brackish water and seawater without affecting the cycle thermal efficiency. Analysis shows that cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water can increase net revenues for several Brayton cycles while generating large quantities of potable water. The AMED combining with closed gas Brayton cycles could significantly improve the sustainability and economics of Generation IV high temperature reactors.

  11. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Jia; Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Kai

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n=6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n=142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg(-1) in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg(-1) in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P<0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r(2)=0.944, P<0.01) and the industrialized area (r(2)=0.860, P<0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization.

  12. Health Impact Assessments, Regulation, and the Unconventional Gas Industry in the UK: Exploiting Resources, Ideology, and Expertise?

    PubMed

    Watterson, Andrew; Dinan, William

    2016-02-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) across the globe may be used by governments and industries to secure approval for unconventional gas extraction developments. HIA is an umbrella term that covers an array of health review and assessment practices, ranging from the very general to quite specific and technical health studies. Our concern in this paper is principally with the specialist end of the HIA continuum and particularly its application to unconventional gas extraction in the UK. We outline the context within which HIAs in unconventional gas extraction may be conducted. We then explain what HIAs may do. HIAs are often commissioned from consultancy companies to assess unconventional gas extraction project risks and benefits and propose mitigation measures. Communities can rarely afford HIAs in the planning process and may consider them biased when commissioned by vested interests. The oil and gas industry uses these techniques for its own ends. Hiring experts, be they specialist consultants, researchers, lobbyists, ex-government officials, or regulators, to influence planning and regulation is a well-tried tactic and structural advantage exploited by industry in seeking license to operate. Equitable and ethical HIA principles are urgently needed in the UK in relation to unconventional gas to secure the integrity and probity of the emerging regulatory system and address concerns regarding unregulated practitioners.

  13. Treatment of real industrial wastewater using the combined approach of advanced oxidation followed by aerobic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, Lokeshkumar P; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Fenton oxidation and ultrasound-based pretreatment have been applied to improve the treatment of real industrial wastewater based on the use of biological oxidation. The effect of operating parameters such as Fe(2+) loading, contact time, initial pH, and hydrogen peroxide loading on the extent of chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and change in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD ratio has been investigated. The optimum operating conditions established for the pretreatment were initial pH of 3.0, Fe(2+) loading of 2.0, and 2.5 g L(-1) for the US/Fenton/stirring and Fenton approach, respectively, and temperature of 25 °C with initial H2O2 loading of 1.5 g L(-1). The use of pretreatment resulted in a significant increase in the BOD5/COD ratio confirming the production of easily digestible intermediates. The effect of the type of sludge in the aerobic biodegradation was also investigated based on the use of primary activated sludge (PAS), modified activated sludge (MAS), and activated sludge (AS). Enhanced removal of the pollutants as well as higher biomass yield was observed for MAS as compared to PAS and AS. The use of US/Fenton/stirring pretreatment under the optimized conditions followed by biological oxidation using MAS resulted in maximum COD removal at 97.9 %. The required hydraulic retention time for the combined oxidation system was also significantly lower as compared to only biological oxidation operation. Kinetic studies revealed that the reduction in the COD followed a first-order kinetic model for advanced oxidation and pseudo first-order model for biodegradation. The study clearly established the utility of the combined technology for the effective treatment of real industrial wastewater.

  14. Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chetan; Kaur, Amarjeet; Thind, S S; Singh, Baljit; Raina, Shiveta

    2015-12-01

    The global food industry is expected to increase more than US $ 7 trillion by 2014. This rise in processed food sector shows that more and more people are diverging towards modern processed foods. As modern diets are largely heat processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds which are known as brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances such as pentosidine, non-fluorescent cross-linking products such as methylglyoxal-lysine dimers (MOLD), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (a pyrrole aldehyde). The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and ageing discussed. The concept of AGEs receptor - RAGE is mentioned. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different methods of detection and quantification along with types of agents used for the treatment of AGEs are reviewed. Generally, ELISA or LC-MS methods are used for analysis of foods and body fluids, however lack of universally established method highlighted. The inhibitory effect of bioactive components on AGEs by trapping variety of chemical moieties discussed. The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs.

  15. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In

  16. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage

  17. Investigation of advanced propulsion technologies: The RAM accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Knowlen, C.; Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1992-01-01

    The two principal areas of advanced propulsion investigated are the ram accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater. The concept of the ram accelerator is presented as a hypervelocity launcher for large-scale aeroballistic range applications in hypersonics and aerothermodynamics research. The ram accelerator is an in-bore ramjet device in which a projectile shaped like the centerbody of a supersonic ramjet is propelled in a stationary tube filled with a tailored combustible gas mixture. Combustion on and behind the projectile generates thrust which accelerates it to very high velocities. The acceleration can be tailored for the 'soft launch' of instrumented models. The distinctive reacting flow phenomena that have been observed in the ram accelerator are relevant to the aerothermodynamic processes in airbreathing hypersonic propulsion systems and are useful for validating sophisticated CFD codes. The recently demonstrated scalability of the device and the ability to control the rate of acceleration offer unique opportunities for the use of the ram accelerator as a large-scale hypersonic ground test facility. The flowing gas radiation receiver is a novel concept for using solar energy to heat a working fluid for space power or propulsion. Focused solar radiation is absorbed directly in a working gas, rather than by heat transfer through a solid surface. Previous theoretical analysis had demonstrated that radiation trapping reduces energy loss compared to that of blackbody receivers, and enables higher efficiencies and higher peak temperatures. An experiment was carried out to measure the temperature profile of an infrared-active gas and demonstrate the effect of radiation trapping. The success of this effort validates analytical models of heat transfer in this receiver, and confirms the potential of this approach for achieving high efficiency space power and propulsion.

  18. [Advanced Treatment of Effluent from Industrial Park Wastewater Treatment Plant by Ferrous Ion Activated Sodium Persulfate].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-mei; Zhou, Zhen; Gu, Ling-yun; Jiang, Hai-tao; Ren, Jia-min; Wang, Luo-chun

    2016-01-15

    Fe(II) activated sodium persulfate (PS) technology was used for advanced treatment of effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plant. Separate and combined effects of PS/COD, Fe(II)/PS and pH on COD and TOC removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology. Variations of organic substances before and after Fe(II)-PS oxidation were characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, gel chromatography and three-dimensional fluorescence. PS/COD and Fe(II)/PS had significant effect on COD removal, while all the three factors had significant effect on TOC removal. The combined effect of PS/COD and pH had significant effect on COD removal. COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 50.7% and 60.6% under optimized conditions of PS/COD 3.47, Fe(II)/PS 3.32 and pH 6.5. Fe(II)-PS oxidation converted macromolecular organic substances to small ones, and reduced contents of protein-, humic- and fulvic-like substances.

  19. The advancement of probiotics research and its application in fish farming industries.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Goutam; Ray, Arun Kumar

    2017-01-23

    Fish are always susceptible to a variety of lethal diseases caused by different types of bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic agents. The unscientific management practises such as, over feeding, high stock densities and destructive fishing techniques increase the probability of disease symptoms in aquaculture industries. According to Food and Agriculture Association (FAO), each and every year several countries such as China, India, Norway, Indonesia, etc. face a huge loss in aquaculture production due to mainly bacterial and viral diseases. The use of antibiotics is a common practise in fish farming sectors to control the disease outbreak. However, the antibiotics are not long term friend because it creates selective pressure for emergence of drug resistant bacteria. Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer several beneficial effects to host (enhances immunity, helps in digestion, protects from pathogens, improves water quality, promotes growth and reproduction) and can be used as an alternative of antibiotics. In recent year, a wide range of bacteria have reported as potential probiotics candidates in fish farming sectors, however, Lactobacillus sp. and Bacillus sp. gain special attention due to their high antagonistic activities, extracellular enzyme production and availability. In this present review, we have summarized the recent advancement in aquaculture probiotics research and its impact on fish health, nutrition, immunity, reproduction and water quality.

  20. Advances in the industrial production of halal and kosher red meat.

    PubMed

    Farouk, Mustafa M

    2013-12-01

    The worldwide volume and value of trade in halal and kosher meat and co-products are huge. Muslim countries alone consumed meat estimated to be worth USD 57.2 billion in 2008. The halal and kosher principles that govern the production of red meat have many similarities, as well as some fundamental differences. Perhaps the most significant difference is that at the time of slaughter, the animal needs only to be alive to meet the minimum halal requirement, but must be both alive and conscious for kosher. It is for this reason that reversible pre-slaughter stunning is acceptable only for halal meat, although a compromise form of post-slaughter stunning is now considered kosher in some countries. Extensive research on animal physiology and welfare has characterised and optimised the methods for stunning livestock, and enabled advancement in associated technologies. This forms the basis for harmonising the religious and secular requirements for the protection of animal welfare at slaughter. These technologies and the associated processing practices for the industrial production of halal and kosher meat are reviewed in this paper.

  1. Advanced latent heat storage media for high-temperature industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1984-03-01

    Several advanced thermal energy storage (TES) media are being developed for high temperature industrial applications. One of the concepts involves a composite medium consisting of a phase-change carbonate salt supported and immobilized within a submicro sized capillary structure of a particulate ceramic matrix or porous sintered ceramic. Immobilization of the molten salt within the ceramic structure permits operation of the composite pellets, bricks, or other shapes in direct contact with compatible fluids. Energy storage occurs in both sensible and latent forms with the composite providing higher energy storage densities than standard sensible heat storage systems. The second concept centers on the development of a self-encapsulating metallic eutectic. This work focuses on metallic eutectics containing silicon. Starting with a silicon-rich mixture, it is feasible to develop a self-encapsulating pellet by cooling the liquid drops at a controlled rate. A solid of nearly pure silicon will form on the exterior of the pellet leaving a eutectic, phase change media in the interior. The concept are described and information concerning current development activities is presented.

  2. Advances in industrial prospective of cellulosic macromolecules enriched banana biofibre resources: A review.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Asokan; Patil, Vikas; Jain, Sonal; Mahindrakar, Amit; Haque, Ruhi; Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Biological macromolecules enriched resources are rapidly emerging as sustainable, cost effective and environmental friendly materials for several industrial applications. Among different biological macromolecules enriched resources, banana fibres are one of the unexplored high potential bio-resources. Compared to various natural fibres such as jute, coir, palm etc., the banana fibres exhibits a better tensile strength i.e. 458 MPa with 17.14 GPa tensile modulus. Traditionally used petroleum based synthetic fibres have been proven to be toxic, non-biodegradable and energy intensive for manufacturing. Cellulosic banana fibres are potential engineering materials having considerable scope to be used as an environmental friendly reinforcing element for manufacturing of polymer based green materials. This paper summarizes the world scenario of current production of biological macromolecules rich banana residues and fibres; major user's of banana fibres. The quality and quantity of biological macromolecules especially the cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, wax, engineering and mechanical properties of banana biofibre resources are reported and discussed. Subsequently, the findings of the recent research on bio resource composites, materials performance and opportunities have been discussed which would be a real challenge for the tomorrow world to enhance the livelihood environmental friendly advancement.

  3. Low-Engine-Friction Technology for Advanced Natural-Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; G. Smedley; L. Moughon; Rosalind Takata; J. Jocsak

    2006-11-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis has been followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. In this program, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been adapted and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed ring-pack friction reduction of 30-40%, which translates to total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. The study on surface textures, including roughness characteristics, cross hatch patterns, dimples and grooves have shown that even relatively small-scale changes can have a large effect on ring/liner friction, in some cases reducing FMEP by as much as 30% from a smooth surface case. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Testing of low-friction lubricants showed that total engine FMEP reduced by up to {approx}16.5% from the commercial reference oil without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. Piston friction studies

  4. Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.; Elkins, R. H.; Camara, E. H.; Bulicz, T.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure is presented. The advanced concepts include adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. High surface area carbons with high packing density are the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model is used to compare adsorption storage on a state of the art carbon with compression storage. The model indicates that a vehicle using adsorption storage of natural gas at 3.6 MPa will have 36 percent of the range, on the EPA city cycle, of a vehicle operating on a compression storage system having the same physical size and a peak storage pressure of 21 MPa. Preliminary experiments and current literature suggest that the storage capacity of state of the art carbons could be improved by as much as 50 percent, and that adsorption systems having a capacity equal to compression storage at 14 MPa are possible without exceeding a maximum pressure of 3.6 MPa.

  5. Advanced High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites for Gas Turbine Engines Program Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, David; Carella, John

    1999-01-01

    This document, submitted by AlliedSignal Engines (AE), a division of AlliedSignal Aerospace Company, presents the program final report for the Advanced High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites for Gas Turbine Engines Program Expansion in compliance with data requirements in the statement of work, Contract No. NAS3-97003. This document includes: 1 -Technical Summary: a) Component Design, b) Manufacturing Process Selection, c) Vendor Selection, and d) Testing Validation: 2-Program Conclusion and Perspective. Also, see the Appendix at the back of this report. This report covers the program accomplishments from December 1, 1996, to August 24, 1998. The Advanced High Temperature PMC's for Gas Turbine Engines Program Expansion was a one year long, five task technical effort aimed at designing, fabricating and testing a turbine engine component using NASA's high temperature resin system AMB-21. The fiber material chosen was graphite T650-35, 3K, 8HS with UC-309 sizing. The first four tasks included component design and manufacturing, process selection, vendor selection, component fabrication and validation testing. The final task involved monthly financial and technical reports.

  6. Characterization of industrial waste from a natural gas distribution company and management strategies: a case study of the East Azerbaijan Gas Company (Iran).

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Hassan; Aslhashemi, Ahmad; Assadi, Mohammad; Khodaei, Firoz; Mardangahi, Baharak; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Roshani, Babak

    2012-10-01

    Although a fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation of any waste management plan is the availability of sufficient and accurate data, there are few available studies regarding the characterization and management of gas distribution company waste (GDCW). This study aimed to characterize the industrial waste generated by the East Azerbaijan Gas Distribution Company (EAGDC) and to present environmental management strategies. The EAGDC serves 57 cities and 821 villages with a total population of more than 2.5 million as well as numerous industrial units. The methodology of this study was based on a checklist of data collected from each zone of the company, site visits (observation), and quantity and quality analysis according to the formal data available from different zones. The results indicate that more than 35 different kinds of industrial solid waste are generated in different industrial installations. The most important types of generated waste include empty barrels (including mercaptans, diesel fuel, deionized waters and oil), faulty gas meters and regulators, a variety of industrial oils, sleeves, filter elements and faulty pipes, valves and fittings. The results indicated that, currently, GDCW is generally handled and disposed of with domestic waste, deposited in companies' installation yards and stores or, sometimes, recycled through non-scientific approaches that can create health risks to the public and the environment, even though most of the GDCW was determined to be recyclable or reusable materials. This study concludes that gas distribution companies must pay more attention to source reduction, recycling and reusing of waste to preserve natural resources, landfill space and the environment.

  7. Assessment of research opportunities for advanced gas-fired systems in agriculture. Final report Feb 82-Jun 83

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, J.F.; Brady, J.A.

    1982-06-01

    An investigation of energy consumption in the U. S. agricultural sector reveals that natural gas is used on farms for a variety of purposes wherever a supply system is in place. However, only a small fraction of U. S. farms have access to gas, thus severely limiting the market for advanced natural gas-fired systems. While there is room for energy efficiency improvements in many equipment types, there is little justification for initiating a major RandD effort aimed exclusively at agricultural applications. Advanced equipment systems such as gas-fired dairy refrigeration equipment and gas-fired mobile apparatus have potential on-farm markets, but economic and technological constraints limit their potential in the near future.

  8. Proceedings of the Department of Energy advanced gas turbine central power systems workshop

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, S.

    1980-04-01

    The basic objective of the DOE Central Power Systems group is the development of technology for increasing the use of coal in central station electric power generation in an economical and environmentally acceptable manner. The two major research and development areas of this program are the Open Cycle Gas Turbine System and the Closed Cycle Gas Turbine System. Recognizing that the ultimate success of the DOE program is measured by end-user acceptance of the technology developed, the workshop was held to obtain utility industry comments and suggestions on the development of these systems and their potential use by electric power utilities. Representatives of equipment manufacturers, architect and engineering firms, and universities were also invited as participants to provide a comprehensive review of the technology development and implementation process. The 65 participants and observers examined the following topics: technical considerations of the Open Cycle and of the Closed Cycle Gas Turbine program; commercialization of both systems; and regulatory impacts on the development of both systems. Each group evaluated the existing program, indicating R and D objectives that they supported and cited recommendations for modifications and expansion of future R and D work.

  9. The DOE Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Gary Bell

    2005-05-01

    The Department of Energy has established the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program to address the following overall goals: Provide a baseline fuel qualification data set in support of the licensing and operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). Gas-reactor fuel performance demonstration and qualification comprise the longest duration research and development (R&D) task for the NGNP feasibility. The baseline fuel form is to be demonstrated and qualified for a peak fuel centerline temperature of 1250°C. Support near-term deployment of an NGNP by reducing market entry risks posed by technical uncertainties associated with fuel production and qualification. Utilize international collaboration mechanisms to extend the value of DOE resources. The Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program consists of five elements: fuel manufacture, fuel and materials irradiations, postirradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing, fuel performance modeling, and fission product transport and source term evaluation. An underlying theme for the fuel development work is the need to develop a more complete fundamental understanding of the relationship between the fuel fabrication process, key fuel properties, the irradiation performance of the fuel, and the release and transport of fission products in the NGNP primary coolant system. Fuel performance modeling and analysis of the fission product behavior in the primary circuit are important aspects of this work. The performance models are considered essential for several reasons, including guidance for the plant designer in establishing the core design and operating limits, and demonstration to the licensing authority that the applicant has a thorough understanding of the in-service behavior of the fuel system. The fission product behavior task will also provide primary source term data needed for licensing. An overview of the program and recent progress will be presented.

  10. Thermal barrier coatings issues in advanced land-based gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, W. P.; Lee, W. Y.; Wright, I. G.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program is aimed at forecasting the development of a new generation of land-based gas turbine systems with overall efficiencies significantly beyond those of current state-of-the-art machines, as well as greatly increased times between inspection and refurbishment, improved environmental impact, and decreased cost. The proposed duty cycle of ATS turbines will require the use of different criteria in the design of the materials for the critical hot gas path components. In particular, thermal barrier coatings will be an essential feature of the hot gas path components in these machines. While such coatings are routinely used in high-performance aircraft engines and are becoming established in land-based turbines, the requirements of the ATS turbine application are sufficiently different that significant improvements in thermal barrier coating technology will be necessary. In particular, it appears that thermal barrier coatings will have to function on all airfoil sections of the first stage vanes and blades to provide the significant temperature reduction required. In contrast, such coatings applied to the blades and vances of advanced aircraft engines are intended primarily to reduce air cooling requirements and extend component lifetime; failure of those coatings can be tolerated without jeopardizing mechanical or corrosion performance. A major difference is that in ATS turbines these components will be totally reliant on thermal barrier coatings which will, therefore, need to be highly reliable even over the leading edges of first stage blades. Obviously, the ATS program provides a very challenging opportunity for TBC's, and involves some significant opportunities to extend this technology.

  11. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) sensor based on infrared absorption spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Version 1.0 prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The prototypes were upgraded with more sophisticated communications and faster response times to version 2.0 and delivered to JSC in July 2012. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with an field-programmable gate array microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the iterative instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments were performed leveraging the lessons learned where feasible. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware for the advanced PLSS 2.5 prototypes for testing at JSC. The prototypes provide significantly enhanced accuracy for water vapor measurement and eliminate wavelength drift affecting the earlier versions. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are currently being advanced including the companion development of engineering development units that will ultimately be capable of radiation tolerance. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength

  12. Exploring Advanced Technology Gas Turbine Engine Design and Performance for the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nautical miles at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper explores gas turbine component performance and cycle parameters to quantify performance gains possible for additional improvements in component and material performance beyond those identified in previous LCTR2 propulsion studies and to identify additional research areas. The vehicle-level characteristics from this advanced technology generation 2 propulsion architecture will help set performance levels as additional propulsion and power systems are conceived to meet ever-increasing requirements for mobility and comfort, while reducing energy use, cost, noise and emissions. The Large Civil Tiltrotor vehicle and mission will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. A few, relevant engine and component technology studies, including previous LCTR2 engine study results will be summarized to help orient the reader on gas turbine engine architecture, performance and limitations. Study assumptions and methodology used to explore engine design and performance, as well as assess vehicle sizing and mission performance will then be discussed. Individual performance for present and advanced engines, as well as engine performance effects on overall vehicle size and mission fuel usage, will be given. All results will be summarized to facilitate understanding the importance and interaction of various component and system performance on overall vehicle characteristics.

  13. Integration of magnetic bearings in the design of advanced gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storace, Albert F.; Sood, Devendra K.; Lyons, James P.; Preston, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings provide revolutionary advantages for gas turbine engine rotor support. These advantages include tremendously improved vibration and stability characteristics, reduced power loss, improved reliability, fault-tolerance, and greatly extended bearing service life. The marriage of these advantages with innovative structural network design and advanced materials utilization will permit major increases in thrust to weight performance and structural efficiency for future gas turbine engines. However, obtaining the maximum payoff requires two key ingredients. The first key ingredient is the use of modern magnetic bearing technologies such as innovative digital control techniques, high-density power electronics, high-density magnetic actuators, fault-tolerant system architecture, and electronic (sensorless) position estimation. This paper describes these technologies. The second key ingredient is to go beyond the simple replacement of rolling element bearings with magnetic bearings by incorporating magnetic bearings as an integral part of the overall engine design. This is analogous to the proper approach to designing with composites, whereby the designer tailors the geometry and load carrying function of the structural system or component for the composite instead of simply substituting composites in a design originally intended for metal material. This paper describes methodologies for the design integration of magnetic bearings in gas turbine engines.

  14. Integration of magnetic bearings in the design of advanced gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storace, Albert F.; Sood, Devendra K.; Lyons, James P.; Preston, Mark A.

    1994-05-01

    Active magnetic bearings provide revolutionary advantages for gas turbine engine rotor support. These advantages include tremendously improved vibration and stability characteristics, reduced power loss, improved reliability, fault-tolerance, and greatly extended bearing service life. The marriage of these advantages with innovative structural network design and advanced materials utilization will permit major increases in thrust to weight performance and structural efficiency for future gas turbine engines. However, obtaining the maximum payoff requires two key ingredients. The first key ingredient is the use of modern magnetic bearing technologies such as innovative digital control techniques, high-density power electronics, high-density magnetic actuators, fault-tolerant system architecture, and electronic (sensorless) position estimation. This paper describes these technologies. The second key ingredient is to go beyond the simple replacement of rolling element bearings with magnetic bearings by incorporating magnetic bearings as an integral part of the overall engine design. This is analogous to the proper approach to designing with composites, whereby the designer tailors the geometry and load carrying function of the structural system or component for the composite instead of simply substituting composites in a design originally intended for metal material. This paper describes methodologies for the design integration of magnetic bearings in gas turbine engines.

  15. Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali

    Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a

  16. Hot corrosion of ceramic-coating materials for industrial/utility gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Barkalow, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Furnace hot corrosion tests of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and other candidate ceramic coating materials were run under combinations of temperature, salt deposits, and gaseous environments know to cause severe hot corrosion of state-of-the-art metallic coatings for industrial/utility gas turbines. Specimens were free-standing ceramic coupons and ceramic-coated IN 792. X-ray fluorescence and diffraction data on free-standing YSZ coupons showed surface yttrium loss and cubic-to-monoclinic transformation as a result of exposure to liquid salt and SO/sub 3/. Greater destabilization was observed at the lower of two test temperatures (704 and 982/sup 0/C), and destabilization increased with increasing SO/sub 3/ pressure and V-containing salt deposits. The data suggest that hot corrosion of YSZ can occur by a type of acidic dissolution of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ from the ZrO/sub 2/ solid solution. In spite of the greater surface destabilization at 704/sup 0/C, the bond coat and substrate of YSZ-coated IN 792 were not attacked at 704/sup 0/C but severely corroded at 982/sup 0/C. These results show that degradation of ceramic-coated metallic components can be more strongly influenced by the porosity of the microstructure and fluidity of the liquid salt than by the chemical stability of the ceramic coating material in the reactive environment. Other ceramic materials (SiO/sub 2/, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, ZrSiO/sub 2/, and mullite), concurrently exposed to the same conditions which produced significant destabilization of YSZ, showed no evidence of reaction at 704/sup 0/C but noticeable corrosion at 982/sup 0/C. Also, the high temperature corrosion was greater in air than in SO/sub 3/-containing gases. These trends suggest that hot corrosion of the silicon-containing ceramics was basic in nature, and such materials have potential for good resistance to chemical decomposition under the acidic conditions characteristics of industrial/utility gas turbines.

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF GAS PIPLINES SURVEY OF OPERATOR EXPERIENCE AND INDUSTRY NEEDS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Ian D. Harris

    2003-09-01

    A repair method that can be applied from the inside of a gas transmission pipeline (i.e., a trenchless repair) is an attractive alternative to conventional repair methods since the need to excavate the pipeline is precluded. This is particularly true for pipelines in environmentally sensitive and highly populated areas. The objectives of the project are to evaluate, develop, demonstrate, and validate internal repair methods for pipelines; develop a functional specification for an internal pipeline repair system; and prepare a recommended practice for internal repair of pipelines. The purpose of this survey is to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. A total of fifty-six surveys were sent to pipeline operators. A total of twenty completed surveys were returned, representing a 36% response rate, which is considered very good given the fact that tailored surveys are known in the marketing industry to seldom attract more than a 10% response rate. The twenty survey responses produced the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water (e.g., lakes and swamps) in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. All these areas tend to be very difficult and very costly if, and where, conventional excavated repairs may be currently used. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem in a water/river crossing. (3) The typical travel distances required can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). In concept, these groups require pig-based systems; despooled umbilical systems could be considered for the first two groups

  18. Design of a Gas Test Loop Facility for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    C. A. Wemple

    2005-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE-NE) has identified the need for irradiation testing of nuclear fuels and materials, primarily in support of the Generation IV (Gen-IV) and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) programs. These fuel development programs require a unique environment to test and qualify potential reactor fuel forms. This environment should combine a high fast neutron flux with a hard neutron spectrum and high irradiation temperature. An effort is presently underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to modify a large flux trap in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to accommodate such a test facility [1,2]. The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project Conceptual Design was initiated to determine basic feasibility of designing, constructing, and installing in a host irradiation facility, an experimental vehicle that can replicate with reasonable fidelity the fast-flux test environment needed for fuels and materials irradiation testing for advanced reactor concepts. Such a capability will be needed if programs such as the AFCI, Gen-IV, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), and space nuclear propulsion are to meet development objectives and schedules. These programs are beginning some irradiations now, but many call for fast flux testing within this decade.

  19. Failing to Fix What is Found: Risk Accommodation in the Oil and Gas Industry.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse, Madelynn R D; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The present program of research synthesizes the findings from three studies in line with two goals. First, the present research explores how the oil and gas industry is performing at risk mitigation in terms of finding and fixing errors when they occur. Second, the present research explores what factors in the work environment relate to a risk-accommodating environment. Study 1 presents a descriptive evaluation of high-consequence incidents at 34 oil and gas companies over a 12-month period (N = 873), especially in terms of those companies' effectiveness at investigating and fixing errors. The analysis found that most investigations were fair in terms of quality (mean = 75.50%), with a smaller proportion that were weak (mean = 11.40%) or strong (mean = 13.24%). Furthermore, most companies took at least one corrective action for high-consequence incidents, but few of these corrective actions were confirmed as having been completed (mean = 13.77%). In fact, most corrective actions were secondary interim administrative controls (e.g., having a safety meeting) rather than fair or strong controls (e.g., training, engineering elimination). Study 2a found that several environmental factors explain the 56.41% variance in safety, including management's disengagement from safety concerns, finding and fixing errors, safety management system effectiveness, training, employee safety, procedures, and a production-over-safety culture. Qualitative results from Study 2b suggest that a compliance-based culture of adhering to liability concerns, out-group blame, and a production-over-safety orientation may all impede safety effectiveness.

  20. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.