Science.gov

Sample records for advanced instrumental analysis

  1. Integrating Advanced High School Chemistry Research with Organic Chemistry and Instrumental Methods of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the unique chemistry course opportunities beyond the advanced placement-level available at a science and technology magnet high school. Students may select entry-level courses such as honors and advanced placement chemistry; they may also take electives in organic chemistry with instrumental methods of analysis;…

  2. Planck focal plane instruments: advanced modelization and combined analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Andrea; Mennella, Aniello

    2012-08-01

    This thesis is the result of my work as research fellow at IASF-MI, Milan section of the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, part of INAF, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. This work started in January 2006 in the context of the PhD school program in Astrophysics held at the Physics Department of Universita' degli Studi di Milano under the supervision of Aniello Mennella. The main topic of my work is the software modelling of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers. The LFI is one of the two instruments on-board the European Space Agency Planck Mission for high precision measurements of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I was also selected to participate at the International Doctorate in Antiparticles Physics, IDAPP. IDAPP is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and coordinated by Giovanni Fiorentini (Universita' di Ferrara) with the objective of supporting the growing collaboration between the Astrophysics and Particles Physics communities. It is an international program in collaboration with the Paris PhD school, involving Paris VI, VII and XI Universities, leading to a double French-Italian doctoral degree title. My work was performed with the co-tutoring of Jean-Michel Lamarre, Instrument Scientist of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), the bolometric instrument on-board Planck. Thanks to this collaboration I had the opportunity to work with the HFI team for four months at the Paris Observatory, so that the focus of my activity was broadened and included the study of cross-correlation between HFI and LFI data. Planck is the first CMB mission to have on-board the same satellite very different detection technologies, which is a key element for controlling systematic effects and improve measurements quality.

  3. Advanced sensors and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Zimmerman, Joe E.; Douglas, Kevin R.; Morrison, Rusty

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating the readiness of Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation to meet the requirements of new initiatives in space. The following technical objectives and technologies are briefly discussed: smart and nonintrusive sensors; onboard signal and data processing; high capacity and rate adaptive data acquisition systems; onboard computing; high capacity and rate onboard storage; efficient onboard data distribution; high capacity telemetry; ground and flight test support instrumentation; power distribution; and workstations, video/lighting. The requirements for high fidelity data (accuracy, frequency, quantity, spatial resolution) in hostile environments will continue to push the technology developers and users to extend the performance of their products and to develop new generations.

  4. Advanced optical instruments technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-01-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  5. Advances in Instrumental Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to highlight the recent advances and methodological improvements in instrumental techniques applied for the analysis of different brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The literature search strategy was based on the recent analytical reviews published on BFRs. The main selection criteria involved the successful development and application of analytical methods for determination of the target compounds in various environmental matrices. Different factors affecting chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection of brominated analytes were evaluated and discussed. Techniques using advanced instrumentation to achieve outstanding results in quantification of different BFRs and their metabolites/degradation products were highlighted. Finally, research gaps in the field of BFR analysis were identified and recommendations for future research were proposed. PMID:27433482

  6. Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection Instrumentation Development and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; Steele, Andrew; Amashukeli, Xenia; Fisher, Anita; Grunthaner, Frank; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeff; Chiesl, Tom; Stockton, Amanda; Mathies, Rich

    2008-01-01

    Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight instrumentation and for the development of advanced instrumentation technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight instrumentation including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instruments on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer instruments under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help calibrate current spaceflight instrumentation, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.

  7. ECLSS Integration Analysis: Advanced ECLSS Subsystem and Instrumentation Technology Study for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In his July 1989 space policy speech, President Bush proposed a long range continuing commitment to space exploration and development. Included in his goals were the establishment of permanent lunar and Mars habitats and the development of extended duration space transportation. In both cases, a major issue is the availability of qualified sensor technologies for use in real-time monitoring and control of integrated physical/chemical/biological (p/c/b) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). The purpose of this study is to determine the most promising instrumentation technologies for future ECLSS applications. The study approach is as follows: 1. Precursor ECLSS Subsystem Technology Trade Study - A database of existing and advanced Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) and Water Recovery and Management (WRM) ECLSS subsystem technologies was created. A trade study was performed to recommend AR and WRM subsystem technologies for future lunar and Mars mission scenarios. The purpose of this trade study was to begin defining future ECLSS instrumentation requirements as a precursor to determining the instrumentation technologies that will be applicable to future ECLS systems. 2. Instrumentation Survey - An instrumentation database of Chemical, Microbial, Conductivity, Humidity, Flowrate, Pressure, and Temperature sensors was created. Each page of the sensor database report contains information for one type of sensor, including a description of the operating principles, specifications, and the reference(s) from which the information was obtained. This section includes a cursory look at the history of instrumentation on U.S. spacecraft. 3. Results and Recommendations - Instrumentation technologies were recommended for further research and optimization based on a consideration of both of the above sections. A sensor or monitor technology was recommended based on its applicability to future ECLS systems, as defined by the ECLSS Trade Study (1), and on whether its

  8. Technician Program Uses Advanced Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    Describes various aspects of a newly-developed computer-assisted drafting/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) facility in the chemical engineering technology department at Broome Community College, Binghamton, New York. Stresses the use of new instruments such as microcomputers and microprocessor-equipped instruments. (CS)

  9. Advanced Light Source instrumentation overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.H.; Hinkson, J.

    1992-10-01

    The accelerator instrumentation played a vital role in commissioning the ALS injector accelerator. It helped us to see whether electron dynamics agreed with our theoretical predictions and important beam parameters met the design specifications. It helped us to see where beam losses occurred and why. In this paper we will start with a brief description of the ALS accelerator complex and the expected performance of it. Then we will describe each diagnostics instrument by its construction, operational principle, requirements, and our experiences with it. We will describe the wall current monitor, the scintillator, the Faraday cup, the beam collimator, the beam position monitor, the direct-current current transformer (DCCT), the traveling wave electrodes the Sabersky finger, and other special instruments. Finally, we will go into some detail on how we measured the beam emittances, the closed orbit, and the betatron tunes.

  10. Laser light scattering instrument advanced technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this advanced technology development (ATD) project has been to provide sturdy, miniaturized laser light scattering (LLS) instrumentation for use in microgravity experiments. To do this, we assessed user requirements, explored the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware, and both coordinated and participated in the hardware and software advances needed for a flight hardware instrument. We have successfully breadboarded and evaluated an engineering version of a single-angle glove-box instrument which uses solid state detectors and lasers, along with fiber optics, for beam delivery and detection. Additionally, we have provided the specifications and written verification procedures necessary for procuring a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument which will be used by the flight hardware project which resulted from this work and from this project's interaction with the laser light scattering community.

  11. Advanced Instrumentation for Extreme Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Melin, Alexander M; Kisner, Roger; Fugate, David L

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is pursuing embedded instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology for next generation nuclear power generation applications. Embedded systems encompass a wide range of configurations and technologies; we define embedding in this instance as the integration of the sensors and the control system design into the component design using a systems engineering process. Embedded I&C systems are often an essential part of developing new capabilities, improving reliability, enhancing performance, and reducing operational costs. The new intrinsically safe, more efficient, and cost effective reactor technologies (Next Generation Nuclear Plant and Small Modular Reactors) require the development and application of new I&C technologies. These new designs raise extreme environmental challenges such as high temperatures (over 700 C) and material compatibility (e.g., molten salts). The desired reliability and functionality requires measurements in these extreme conditions including high radiation environments which were not previously monitored in real time. The DOE/NE Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program currently has several projects investigating I&C technologies necessary to make these reactor designs realizable. The project described in this paper has the specific goal of investigating embedded I&C with the following objectives: 1.Explore and quantify the potential gains from embedded I&C improved reliability, increased performance, and reduced cost 2.Identify practical control, sensing, and measurement techniques for the extreme environments found in high-temperature reactors 3.Design and fabricate a functional prototype high-temperature cooling pump for molten salts represents target demonstration of improved performance, reliability, and widespread usage There are many engineering challenges in the design of a high-temperature liquid salt cooling pump. The pump and motor are in direct contact with

  12. Instrumentation to Enhance Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; J. E. Daw; S. C. Taylor

    2009-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors has been completed. Based on this review, recommendations are made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR and a strategy has been developed for obtaining these sensors. Progress toward implementing this strategy is reported in this document. It is anticipated that this report will be updated on an annual basis.

  13. Instrumenting the Intelligence Analysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, Ernest; Cowley, Paula J.

    2005-05-02

    The Advanced Research and Development Activity initiated the Novel Intelligence from Massive Data (NIMD) program to develop advanced analytic technologies and methodologies. In order to support this objective, researchers and developers need to understand what analysts do and how they do it. In the past, this knowledge generally was acquired through subjective feedback from analysts. NIMD established the innovative Glass Box Analysis (GBA) Project to instrument a live intelligence mission and unobtrusively capture and objectively study the analysis process. Instrumenting the analysis process requires tailor-made software hooks that grab data from a myriad of disparate application operations and feed into a complex relational database and hierarchical file store to collect, store, retrieve, and distribute analytic data in a manner that maximizes researchers’ understanding. A key to success is determining the correct data to collect and aggregate low-level data into meaningful analytic events. This paper will examine how the GBA team solved some of these challenges, continues to address others, and supports a growing user community in establishing their own GBA environments and/or studying the data generated by GBA analysts working in the Glass Box.

  14. New Instrumental Tools for Advanced Astrochemical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steber, Amanda; Zinn, Sabrina; Schnell, Melanie; Rijs, Anouk

    2015-06-01

    Astrochemistry has been a growing field over the past several years. As the data from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) becomes publicly available, new and fast techniques for the analysis of the data will need to be developed, as well as fast, sensitive laboratory techniques. This lab is in the process of building up instrumentation that will be dedicated to the measurement of astrochemically relevant species, both in the microwave and the millimeter wave regimes. Discharge experiments, laser ablation experiments, as well as time of flight measurements will be possible with this instrumentation. Coupled with instrumentation capabilities will be new software aimed at a speeding up the analysis. The laboratory data will be used to search for new molecular signatures in the interstellar medium (ISM), and help to elucidate molecular reaction pathways occurring in the ISM.

  15. Workshop on advanced technologies for planetary instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, J. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's robotic solar system exploration program requires a new generation of science instruments. Design concepts are now judged against stringent mass, power, and size constraints--yet future instruments must be highly capable, reliable, and, in some applications, they must operate for many years. The most important single constraint, however, is cost: new instruments must be developed in a tightly controlled design-to-cost environment. Technical innovation is the key to success and will enable the sophisticated measurements needed for future scientific exploration. As a fundamental benefit, the incorporation of breakthrough technologies in planetary flight hardware will contribute to U.S. industrial competitiveness and will strengthen the U.S. technology base. The Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments was conceived to address these challenges, to provide an open forum in which the NASA and DoD space communities could become better acquainted at the working level, and to assess future collaborative efforts. Over 300 space scientists and engineers participated in the two-and-a-half-day meeting held April 28-30, 1993, in Fairfax, Virginia. It was jointly sponsored by NASA's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), within the Office of Space Science (OSS); NASA's Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT); DoD's Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), now called the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO); and the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI). The meeting included invited oral and contributed poster presentations, working group sessions in four sub-disciplines, and a wrap-up panel discussion. On the first day, the planetary science community described instrumentation needed for missions that may go into development during the next 5 to 10 years. Most of the second day was set aside for the DoD community to inform their counterparts in planetary science about their interests and capabilities, and to describe the

  16. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  17. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-06-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  18. Instrumental Analysis in Environmental Chemistry - Gas Phase Detection Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Donald H.; Meyers, Philip A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses advances made in chemical analysis instrumentation used in environmental monitoring. This first of two articles is concerned with analytical instrumentation in which detection and dispersion depend ultimately on the properties of gaseous molecules. (JR)

  19. Advances in handheld FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Cardillo, Len; Judge, Kevin; Frayer, Maxim; Frunzi, Michael; Hetherington, Paul; Levy, Dustin; Oberndorfer, Kyle; Perec, Walter; Sauer, Terry; Stein, John; Zuidema, Eric

    2012-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenges of ConOps (Concepts of Operation) in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the advances resulting from a project designed to overcome the challenges associated with miniaturizing FT-IR instruments. The project team developed a disturbance-corrected permanently aligned cube corner interferometer for improved robustness and optimized opto-mechanical design to maximize optical throughput and signal-to-noise ratios. Thermal management and heat flow were thoroughly modeled and studied to isolate sensitive components from heat sources and provide the widest temperature operation range. Similarly, extensive research on mechanical designs and compensation techniques to protect against shock and vibration will be discussed. A user interface was carefully created for military and emergency response applications to provide actionable information in a visual, intuitive format. Similar to the HazMatID family of products, state-of-the-art algorithms were used to quickly identify the chemical composition of complex samples based on the spectral information. This article includes an overview of the design considerations, tests results, and performance validation of the mechanical ruggedness, spectral, and thermal performance.

  20. Writing Instrument Profiles for Mastery of Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel; Fernandez, Jorge; Nalliah, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Because of the rapidly changing nature of chemical instrumentation, students must be trained in how to learn and understand new instruments. Toward this end, students are asked to create small instrument manuals, or instrument profiles, for the major pieces of equipment studied during an instrumental analysis course. This writing-intensive process…

  1. Ethnic Studies Materials Analysis Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    An instrument for analyzing ethnic studies curriculum materials for grades K-12 is presented. The Social Science Education Consortium (SSEC), Inc. staff designed the analysis instrument to check ethnic accuracy of materials as an aid to classroom teachers who are preparing ethnic studies curriculum. The booklet is divided into two main sections.…

  2. Career Education Materials Analysis Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedstrom, Judith E.; Williams, Constance M.

    An instrument for analyzing career education curriculum materials for grades K-12 is presented. The Social Science Education Consortium (SSEC), Inc. staff designed the analysis instrument to check the educational soundness and accuracy of career education materials. The booklet is divided into two main sections. Part I is a modified version of the…

  3. Modular Approach to Instrumental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Richard L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    To remedy certain deficiencies, an instrument analysis course was reorganized into six one-unit modules: optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance, separations, electrochemistry, radiochemistry, and computers and interfacing. Selected aspects of the course are discussed. (SK)

  4. Latest Advancement In Airborne Relative Gravity Instrumentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne gravity surveying has been performed with widely varying degrees of success since early experimentation with the Lacoste and Romberg dynamic meter in the 1950s. There are a number of different survey systems currently in operation including relative gravity meters and gradiometers. Airborne gravity is ideally suited to rapid, wide coverage surveying and is not significantly more expensive in more remote and inhospitable terrain which makes airborne measurements one of the few viable options available for cost effective exploration. As improved instrumentation has become available, scientific applications have also been able to take advantage for use in determining sub surface geologic structures, for example under ice sheets in Antarctica, and more recently direct measurement of the geoid to improve the vertical datum in the United States. In 2004, Lacoste and Romberg (now Micro-g Lacoste) decided to build on their success with the newly developed AirSea II dynamic meter and use that system as the basis for a dedicated airborne gravity instrument. Advances in electronics, timing and positioning technology created the opportunity to refine both the hardware and software, and to develop a truly turnkey system that would work well for users with little or no airborne gravity experience as well as those with more extensive experience. The resulting Turnkey Airborne Gravity System (TAGS) was successfully introduced in 2007 and has since been flown in applications from oil, gas and mineral exploration surveys to regional gravity mapping and geoid mapping. The system has been mounted in a variety of airborne platforms including depending on the application of interest. The development experience with the TAGS enabled Micro-g Lacoste to embark on a new project in 2010 to completely redesign the mechanical and electronic components of the system rather than continuing incremental upgrades. Building on the capabilities of the original TAGS, the objectives for the

  5. Advances in Miniaturized Instruments for Genomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of demonstrations of the miniaturized instruments were reported for genomic applications. They provided the advantages of miniaturization, automation, sensitivity, and specificity for the development of point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to report on recent developments on miniaturized instruments for genomic applications. Based on the mature development of microfabrication, microfluidic systems have been demonstrated for various genomic detections. Since one of the objectives of miniaturized instruments is for the development of point-of-care device, impedimetric detection is found to be a promising technique for this purpose. An in-depth discussion of the impedimetric circuits and systems will be included to provide total consideration of the miniaturized instruments and their potential application towards real-time portable imaging in the “-omics” era. The current excellent demonstrations suggest a solid foundation for the development of practical and widespread point-of-care genomic diagnostic devices. PMID:25114919

  6. Advances in instrumentation for nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, S. D.

    2014-04-15

    The study of the nuclear physics properties which govern energy generation and nucleosynthesis in the astrophysical phenomena we observe in the universe is crucial to understanding how these objects behave and how the chemical history of the universe evolved to its present state. The low cross sections and short nuclear lifetimes involved in many of these reactions make their experimental determination challenging, requiring developments in beams and instrumentation. A selection of developments in nuclear astrophysics instrumentation is discussed, using as examples projects involving the nuclear astrophysics group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These developments will be key to the instrumentation necessary to fully exploit nuclear astrophysics opportunities at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams which is currently under construction.

  7. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  8. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  9. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Advanced PFBC transient analysis

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Bonk, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Transient modeling and analysis of advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems is a research area that is currently under investigation by the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The object of the effort is to identify key operating parameters that affect plant performance and then quantify the basic response of major sub-systems to changes in operating conditions. PC-TRAX{trademark}, a commercially available dynamic software program, was chosen and applied in this modeling and analysis effort. This paper describes the development of a series of TRAX-based transient models of advanced PFBC power plants. These power plants burn coal or other suitable fuel in a PFBC, and the high temperature flue gas supports low-Btu fuel gas or natural gas combustion in a gas turbine topping combustor. When it is utilized, the low-Btu fuel gas is produced in a bubbling bed carbonizer. High temperature, high pressure combustion products exiting the topping combustor are expanded in a modified gas turbine to generate electrical power. Waste heat from the system is used to raise and superheat steam for a reheat steam turbine bottoming cycle that generates additional electrical power. Basic control/instrumentation models were developed and modeled in PC-TRAX and used to investigate off-design plant performance. System performance for various transient conditions and control philosophies was studied.

  11. AMOVA ["Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis"]: An Advanced Statistical Methodology Designed to Measure and Test the Validity, Reliability, and Overall Efficacy of Inquiry-Based Psychometric Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, James Edward, II

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides an epistemological rational for the Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis [also referred by the acronym "AMOVA"] statistical methodology designed to test psychometric instruments. This form of inquiry is a form of mathematical optimization in the discipline of linear stochastic modelling. AMOVA is an in-depth…

  12. Advanced instrumentation for aircraft icing research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, W.; Smith, J.; Rudoff, R.

    1990-01-01

    A compact and rugged probe based on the phase Doppler method was evaluated as a means for characterizing icing clouds using airborne platforms and for advancing aircraft icing research in large scale wind tunnels. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) upon which the new probe was based is now widely recognized as an accurate method for the complete characterization of sprays. The prototype fiber optic-based probe was evaluated in simulated aircraft icing clouds and found to have the qualities essential to providing information that will advance aircraft icing research. Measurement comparisons of the size and velocity distributions made with the standard PDPA and the fiber optic probe were in excellent agreement as were the measurements of number density and liquid water content. Preliminary testing in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) produced reasonable results but revealed some problems with vibration and signal quality at high speeds. The cause of these problems were identified and design changes were proposed to eliminate the shortcomings of the probe.

  13. Advanced packaging for Integrated Micro-Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyke, James L.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between packaging, microelectronics, and micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) is an important one, particularly when the edges of performance boundaries are pressed, as in the case of miniaturized systems. Packaging is a sort of physical backbone that enables the maximum performance of these systems to be realized, and the penalties imposed by conventional packing approaches is particularly limiting for MEMS devices. As such, advanced packaging approaches, such as multi-chip modules (MCM's) have been touted as a true means of electronic 'enablement' for a variety of application domains. Realizing an optimum system of packaging, however, in not as simple as replacing a set of single chip packages with a substrate of interconnections. Research at Phillips Laboratory has turned up a number of integrating options in the two- and three-dimensional rending of miniature systems with physical interconnection structures with intrinsically high performance. Not only do these structures motivate the redesign of integrated circuits (IC's) for lower power, but they possess interesting features that provide a framework for the direct integration of MEMS devices. Cost remains a barrier to the application of MEMS devices, even in space systems. Several innovations are suggested that will result in lower cost and more rapid cycle time. First, the novelty of a 'constant floor plan' MCM which encapsulates a variety of commonly used components into a stockable, easily customized assembly is discussed. Next, the use of low-cost substrates is examined. The anticipated advent of ultra-high density interconnect (UHDI) is suggested as the limit argument of advanced packaging. Finally, the concept of a heterogeneous 3-D MCM system is outlined that allows for the combination of different compatible packaging approaches into a uniformly dense structure that could also include MEMS-based sensors.

  14. Program Instrumentation and Trace Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Goldberg, Allen; Filman, Robert; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several attempts have been made recently to apply techniques such as model checking and theorem proving to the analysis of programs. This shall be seen as a current trend to analyze real software systems instead of just their designs. This includes our own effort to develop a model checker for Java, the Java PathFinder 1, one of the very first of its kind in 1998. However, model checking cannot handle very large programs without some kind of abstraction of the program. This paper describes a complementary scalable technique to handle such large programs. Our interest is turned on the observation part of the equation: How much information can be extracted about a program from observing a single execution trace? It is our intention to develop a technology that can be applied automatically and to large full-size applications, with minimal modification to the code. We present a tool, Java PathExplorer (JPaX), for exploring execution traces of Java programs. The tool prioritizes scalability for completeness, and is directed towards detecting errors in programs, not to prove correctness. One core element in JPaX is an instrumentation package that allows to instrument Java byte code files to log various events when executed. The instrumentation is driven by a user provided script that specifies what information to log. Examples of instructions that such a script can contain are: 'report name and arguments of all called methods defined in class C, together with a timestamp'; 'report all updates to all variables'; and 'report all acquisitions and releases of locks'. In more complex instructions one can specify that certain expressions should be evaluated and even that certain code should be executed under various conditions. The instrumentation package can hence be seen as implementing Aspect Oriented Programming for Java in the sense that one can add functionality to a Java program without explicitly changing the code of the original program, but one rather writes an

  15. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; E. H. Seabury; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; S. M. Watson; J. Wharton

    2009-08-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. 1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. 2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. 3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1 – 4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to be

  16. Instrumentation Guidelines for the Advanced National Seismic System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Working Group on Instrumentation, Siting

    2008-01-01

    This document provides guidelines for the seismic-monitoring instrumentation used by long-term earthquake-monitoring stations that will sense ground motion, digitize and store the resulting signals in a local data acquisition unit, and optionally transmit these digital data. These guidelines are derived from specifications and requirements for data needed to address the nation's emergency response, engineering, and scientific needs as identified in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1188 (1999). Data needs are discussed in terms of national, regional, and urban scales of monitoring in section 3. Functional performance specifications for instrumentation are introduced in section 4.3 and discussed in detail in section 6 in terms of instrument classes and definitions described in section 5. System aspects and testing recommendations are discussed in sections 7 and 8, respectively. Although U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1188 (1999) recommends that the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) include portable instrumentation, performance specifications for this element are not specifically addressed in this document. Nevertheless, these guidelines are largely applicable to portable instrumentation. Volcano monitoring instrumentation is also beyond the scope of this document. Guidance for ANSS structural-response monitoring is discussed briefly herein but details are deferred to the ANSS document by the ANSS Structural Response Monitoring Committee (U.S. Geological Survey, 2005). Aspects of station planning, siting, and installation other than instrumentation are beyond the scope of this document.

  17. Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science at the LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Berrah, Nora

    2015-10-13

    This grant supported a Single Investigator and Small Group Research (SISGR) application to enable multi-user research in Ultrafast Science using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s first hard x-ray free electron laser (FEL) which lased for the first time at 1.5 Å on April 20, 2009. The goal of our proposal was to enable a New Era of Science by requesting funds to purchase and build Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science (AIUS), to utilize the intense, short x-ray pulses produced by the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will allow peer review selected users to probe the ultrasmall and capture the ultrafast. These tools will expand on the investment already made in the construction of the light source and its instrumentation in both the LCLS and LUSI projects. The AIUS will provide researchers in the AMO, Chemical, Biological and Condensed Matter communities with greater flexibility in defining their scientific agenda at the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will complement and significantly augment the present AMO instrument (funded through the LCLS project) through detectors and capabilities not included in the initial suite of instrumentation at the facility. We have built all of the instrumentations and they have been utilized by scientists. Please see report attached.

  18. Impact of new instrumentation on advanced turbine research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of an orderly test program that progresses from the simplest stationary geometry to the more complex, three dimensional, rotating turbine stage. The instrumentation requirements for this evolution of testing are described. The heat transfer instrumentation is emphasized. Recent progress made in devising new measurement techniques has greatly improved the development and confirmation of more accurate analytical methods for the prediction of turbine performance and heat transfer. However, there remain challenging requirements for novel measurement techniques that could advance the future research to be done in rotating blade rows of turbomachines.

  19. LISA Pathfinder Instrument Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtraction techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of preflight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

  20. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  1. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: 1. Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; 2. Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; 3. Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; 4. Identify synergies across different industries; 5. Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; 6. Understand who are the leading experts; 7. Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  2. Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, John F. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This meeting was conceived in response to new challenges facing NASA's robotic solar system exploration program. This volume contains papers presented at the Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments on 28-30 Apr. 1993. This meeting was conceived in response to new challenges facing NASA's robotic solar system exploration program. Over the past several years, SDIO has sponsored a significant technology development program aimed, in part, at the production of instruments with these characteristics. This workshop provided an opportunity for specialists from the planetary science and DoD communities to establish contacts, to explore common technical ground in an open forum, and more specifically, to discuss the applicability of SDIO's technology base to planetary science instruments.

  3. Advanced instrumentation for the collection, retrieval, and processing of urban stormwater data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Jerald B.; Bales, Jerad D.; Young, Wendi S.; ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, has developed a data-collection network that uses advanced instrumentation to automatically collect, retrieve, and process urban stormwater data. Precipitation measurement and water-quality networks provide data for (1) planned watershed simulation models, (2) early warning of possible flooding, (3) computation of material export, and (4) characterization of water quality in relation to basin conditions. Advantages of advanced instrumentation include remote access to real-time data, reduced demands on and more efficient use of limited human resources, and direct importation of data into a geographical information system for display and graphic analysis.

  4. Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Jordan, Scott [Physik Instrumente

    2016-07-12

    Scott Jordan on "Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  5. Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Scott

    2012-06-01

    Scott Jordan on "Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  6. 7 CFR 1780.90 - Multiple advances of Agency funds using temporary debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... debt instruments. 1780.90 Section 1780.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Applicants § 1780.90 Multiple advances of Agency funds using temporary debt instruments. When none of the... temporary debt instrument may be used. The debt instrument will provide for multiple advances of...

  7. Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) science instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dailey, C. C.; Cumings, N. P.; Winkler, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    AXAF is to be equipped with a high performance X-ray telescope for the conduction of detailed astrophysics research. The observatory is to be serviced by the Space Station or the Shuttle, depending on capabilities during the AXAF operational period. The AXAF is to utilize the wavelength band from 1.2 A to 120 A. Attention is given to the AXAF science team, the AXAF observatory characteristics, the AXAF science instrument definition program, the Advanced Charge Coupled Device (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), the High Resolution Camera (HRC), the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS), the X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), the transmission gratings, and the program schedule.

  8. Recent advances in cardiac SPECT instrumentation and system design.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark F

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in clinical cardiac SPECT instrumentation are reviewed from a systems perspective. New hardware technologies include pixelated scintillator and semiconductor detector elements; photodetectors such as position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), avalanche photodiodes (APD) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM); and novel cardiac collimation methods. There are new approaches for positioning detectors and controlling their motion during cardiac imaging. Software technology advances include iterative image reconstruction with modeling of Poisson statistics and depth-dependent collimator response. These new technologies enable faster acquisitions, the lowering of administered activity and radiation dose, and improved image resolution. Higher sensitivity collimators are a significant factor enabling faster acquisitions. Several clinical systems incorporating new technologies are discussed and different system designs can achieve similar performance. With detector elements such as APDs, SiPMs and semiconductors that are insensitive to magnetic fields, the potential for cardiac SPECT imagers that are MRI compatible opens up new frontiers in clinical cardiac research and patient care. PMID:23832650

  9. Recent Advances and Future Progress in PET Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Piotr J; Pan, Tinsu; Germano, Guido

    2016-01-01

    PET is an important and growing imaging modality. PET instrumentation has undergone a steady evolution improving various aspects of imaging. In this review, we discuss recent and future software and hardware technologies for PET/CT. The improvements include new hardware, incorporating designs with digital photomultipliers, and fast electronics, allowing implementation of time-of-flight reconstruction. Manufacturers also improved PET sensitivity with a larger axial field of view and 3D imaging. On the CT side, faster scanners and multislice detectors allow implementation of advanced acquisition protocols such as 4D CT and coronary CT angiography. Significant advances have been also made in the reconstruction software, now integrating resolution recovery with advanced iterative techniques. New PET acquisition protocols have been enabled to include continuous bed motion. Efforts have been undertaken to compensate PET scans for respiratory and also for cardiac patient motion (for cardiac imaging) during PET imaging, which significantly improves overall image quality and resolution. Finally, simultaneous PET/MR systems have been recently deployed clinically and now offer even greater potential of image quality and enhanced clinical utility. PET/MR imaging allows for perfectly registered attenuation maps, clinically important complementary MR information, and potentially superior motion correction. These recent multifaceted advances allow PET to remain as one of the most exciting and relevant imaging technologies. PMID:26687853

  10. Recent Advances and Future Progress in PET Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Piotr J; Pan, Tinsu; Germano, Guido

    2016-01-01

    PET is an important and growing imaging modality. PET instrumentation has undergone a steady evolution improving various aspects of imaging. In this review, we discuss recent and future software and hardware technologies for PET/CT. The improvements include new hardware, incorporating designs with digital photomultipliers, and fast electronics, allowing implementation of time-of-flight reconstruction. Manufacturers also improved PET sensitivity with a larger axial field of view and 3D imaging. On the CT side, faster scanners and multislice detectors allow implementation of advanced acquisition protocols such as 4D CT and coronary CT angiography. Significant advances have been also made in the reconstruction software, now integrating resolution recovery with advanced iterative techniques. New PET acquisition protocols have been enabled to include continuous bed motion. Efforts have been undertaken to compensate PET scans for respiratory and also for cardiac patient motion (for cardiac imaging) during PET imaging, which significantly improves overall image quality and resolution. Finally, simultaneous PET/MR systems have been recently deployed clinically and now offer even greater potential of image quality and enhanced clinical utility. PET/MR imaging allows for perfectly registered attenuation maps, clinically important complementary MR information, and potentially superior motion correction. These recent multifaceted advances allow PET to remain as one of the most exciting and relevant imaging technologies.

  11. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robin L; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-07-15

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing. PMID:27046341

  12. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA Instrument Response

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on calibrating several of these instruments with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and instrument responses in order to inform the instrument calibration procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried out to assess the impacts of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and instrument responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards instruments. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA instrument. This work studies the impacts of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA instrument response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron instrument was selected to illustrate the impact of these uncertainties on NDA instrument response.

  13. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA Instrument Response

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on calibrating several of these instruments with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and instrument responses in order to inform the instrument calibration procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried outmore » to assess the impacts of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and instrument responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards instruments. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA instrument. This work studies the impacts of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA instrument response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron instrument was selected to illustrate the impact of these uncertainties on NDA instrument response.« less

  14. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  15. Small electromagnetically clean satellite platform and advanced space instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Makarov, Oleksander; Belyayev, Serhiy; Lukenyuk, Adolf; Marusenkov, Andriy

    The Ukrainian space program in the branch of space scientific research is based on recent achievements in the development of small microsatellite platforms and advanced onboard instrumentation. The present state of both these activities is outlined in the report. First, the design and composition peculiarities of a new microsatellite platform dedicated to carry the high sensitive electromagnetic sensors and mass-spectrometers are presented. An open nonhermetic construction gives possibilities to divide efficiently service and scientific payload. This feature as well as special measures foreseen by the solar panels and cable harness layout allows electromagnetic interference decreasing and easy introducing of shielding and compensating facilities. Up to 4 booms deployment is foreseen by the platform construction to move away far enough the electromagnetic sensors from the satellite body allow realizing the ultimate sensors sensitivity up to highest international standards. An onboard data collection and processing unit is organized in such a way that it controls efficiently both service and scientific systems. Second, some recent advances are reported in the branch of onboard electromagnetic instrumentation creation. New combined sensor - wave probe - is developed and experimentally tested in laboratory plasma chamber and in spatial experiment. This is a unique device which permits measuring simultaneously in one point three physical values - spatial current density, magnetic field fluctuations and electric potential. Other recent versions of super-light flux-gate and induction coil sensors are described. The performances of both microsatellite platform and mentioned electromagnetic sensors are discussed and the results of experimental verification of their parameters are presented. This works were supported by NSAU contract No 1-02/03 and STCU grant 3165.

  16. Surveillance of instruments by noise analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thie, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    Random fluctuations of neutron flux, temperature, and pressure in a reactor provide multifrequency excitation of the corresponding instrumentation chains. Mathematical descriptors suitable for characterizing the output, or noise, of the instrumentation are reviewed with a view toward using such noise in detecting instrument faults. Demonstrations of the feasibility of this approach in a number of reactors provide illustrative examples. Comparisons with traditional surveillance testing are made, and a number of advantages and some disadvantages of using noise analysis as a supplementary technique are pointed out.

  17. Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Joy Rempe; Darrell Knudson; Joshua Daw; Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Kurt Davis; Robert Schley; Steven Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper provides an update on this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted.

  18. Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rempe; D. Knudson; J. Daw; T. Unruh; B. Chase; K. Condie

    2011-06-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper reports results from this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted.

  19. Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benna, Mehdi; Nolan, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator (SAMSIM) is a numerical model dedicated to plan and validate operations of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the surface of Mars. The SAM instrument suite, currently operating on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), is an analytical laboratory designed to investigate the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. SAMSIM was developed using Matlab and Simulink libraries of MathWorks Inc. to provide MSL mission planners with accurate predictions of the instrument electrical, thermal, mechanical, and fluid responses to scripted commands. This tool is a first example of a multi-purpose, full-scale numerical modeling of a flight instrument with the purpose of supplementing or even eliminating entirely the need for a hardware engineer model during instrument development and operation. SAMSIM simulates the complex interactions that occur between the instrument Command and Data Handling unit (C&DH) and all subsystems during the execution of experiment sequences. A typical SAM experiment takes many hours to complete and involves hundreds of components. During the simulation, the electrical, mechanical, thermal, and gas dynamics states of each hardware component are accurately modeled and propagated within the simulation environment at faster than real time. This allows the simulation, in just a few minutes, of experiment sequences that takes many hours to execute on the real instrument. The SAMSIM model is divided into five distinct but interacting modules: software, mechanical, thermal, gas flow, and electrical modules. The software module simulates the instrument C&DH by executing a customized version of the instrument flight software in a Matlab environment. The inputs and outputs to this synthetic C&DH are mapped to virtual sensors and command lines that mimic in their structure and connectivity the layout of the instrument harnesses. This module executes

  20. Survivorship analysis of pedicle spinal instrumentation.

    PubMed

    McAfee, P C; Weiland, D J; Carlow, J J

    1991-08-01

    Between 1985 and 1989, the senior author performed 120 consecutive pedicle instrumentation cases--78 Steffee (VSP) procedures and 42 procedures using Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation. Posterolateral or posterior fusions using autogenous iliac bone graft were performed across the instrumented vertebrae in all cases. Survivorship analysis was used to calculate a predicted cumulative rate of success for this series of patients over 10 years postoperative follow-up. The criteria of failure of pedicular instrumentation or "death" of an implant were defined as 1) screw bending, 2) screw breakage, 3) infection, 4) loosening of implants, 5) any rod or plate hardware problems, or 6) removal of hardware due to a neurologic complication. Out of 526 pedicle screws (175 Cotrel-Dubousset screws, 351 VSP screws) there were 22 problem screws (22/526 = 4.18%). Six screws had bent, none were infected, 16 screws had broken, and none were loose. The 22 problem screw events occurred in 12 patients. In seven patients, the instrumentation failure was an incidental radiographic finding, in that patients had a solid posterolateral fusion. The remaining five patients had screw breakage in association with a pseudarthrosis. Life table calculations predicted the survivorship of instrumentation without complications would be 80% at 10 years postoperative follow-up. Actuarial analysis predicted the survivorship of solid posterolateral fusion at 90% at 10 years follow-up. This survivorship rate is similar to those predicted at 10 years follow-up for other more widely used orthopedic surgical implants such as total hip arthroplasty components.

  1. Instrumentation of Java Bytecode for Runtime Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Allen; Haveland, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes JSpy, a system for high-level instrumentation of Java bytecode and its use with JPaX, OUT system for runtime analysis of Java programs. JPaX monitors the execution of temporal logic formulas and performs predicative analysis of deadlocks and data races. JSpy s input is an instrumentation specification, which consists of a collection of rules, where a rule is a predicate/action pair The predicate is a conjunction of syntactic constraints on a Java statement, and the action is a description of logging information to be inserted in the bytecode corresponding to the statement. JSpy is built using JTrek an instrumentation package at a lower level of abstraction.

  2. Workshop on Advances in NASA-Relevant, Minimally Invasive Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this meeting is to highlight those advances in instrumentation and methodology that can be applied to the medical problems that will be encountered as the duration of manned space missions is extended. Information on work that is presently being done by NASA as well as other approaches in which NASA is not participating will be exchanged. The NASA-sponsored efforts that will be discussed are part of the overall Space Medicine Program that has been undertaken by NASA to address the medical problems of manned spaceflight. These problems include those that have been observed in the past as well as those which are anticipated as missions become longer, traverse different orbits, or are in any way different. This conference is arranged in order to address the types of instrumentation that might be used in several major medical problem areas. Instrumentation that will help in the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and psychological areas, among others will be presented. Interest lies in identifying instrumentation which will help in learning more about ourselves through experiments performed directly on humans. Great emphasis is placed on non-invasive approaches, although every substantial program basic to animal research will be needed in the foreseeable future. Space Medicine is a rather small affair in what is primarily an engineering organization. Space Medicine is conducted throughout NASA by a very small skeleton staff at the headquarters office in Washington and by our various field centers. These centers include the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, the Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, and the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Throughout these various centers, work is conducted in-house by NASA's own staff scientists, physicians, and engineers. In addition, various universities, industries, and other government laboratories

  3. Experience with the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation system

    PubMed Central

    Perelman, Vsevolod S.; Colapinto, Nicholas D.; Lee, Stephen; Down, Nancy K.; Cook, Dodie M.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To report early experience with the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) system and to compare the results with those of other published studies. Design A nonrandomized case series. Setting An outpatient breast diagnostic centre at a large urban community hospital. Patients Thirty-four women; 27 had suspicious calcifications, 2 had a nonpalpable mass and 5 had both. Intervention The ABBI procedure to excise a breast lesion or obtain a representative sample for histologic examination. Main outcome measures Success of the procedure with respect to diagnosis, sample quality, technical problems, margins of tumour free tissue and patient satisfaction. Results Malignant tissue was diagnosed in 7 women (21%) and atypical ductal hyperplasia in 2 (6%). In all cancers, the obtained samples had malignant cells present at the margins or less than 1 mm away. Technical problems were encountered in 32% of cases. Manual extraction of the specimen was required in 21% of cases. Conclusions The preliminary data correlate well with those of other published results. Although it is possible that a small number of cases and a relatively high proportion of technical difficulties may represent a normal learning curve, there is a definite need for improvement of some ABBI components. ABBI does not appear to provide adequate margins of uninvolved tissue in patients with cancer and thus should not be used with curative intent. ABBI provides excellent quality samples for pathological study and good patient satisfaction. There are not yet enough data for meaningful comparison of ABBI with stereotactic core biopsy and excisional biopsy with needle localization. PMID:11129832

  4. Corner-Cube Retroreflector Instrument for Advanced Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Folkner, William M.; Gutt, Gary M.; Williams, James G.; Somawardhana, Ruwan P.; Baran, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes how, based on a structural-thermal-optical-performance analysis, it has been determined that a single, large, hollow corner cube (170- mm outer diameter) with custom dihedral angles offers a return signal comparable to the Apollo 11 and 14 solid-corner-cube arrays (each consisting of 100 small, solid corner cubes), with negligible pulse spread and much lower mass. The design of the corner cube, and its surrounding mounting and casing, is driven by the thermal environment on the lunar surface, which is subject to significant temperature variations (in the range between 70 and 390 K). Therefore, the corner cube is enclosed in an insulated container open at one end; a narrow-bandpass solar filter is used to reduce the solar energy that enters the open end during the lunar day, achieving a nearly uniform temperature inside the container. Also, the materials and adhesive techniques that will be used for this corner-cube reflector must have appropriate thermal and mechanical characteristics (e.g., silica or beryllium for the cube and aluminum for the casing) to further reduce the impact of the thermal environment on the instrument's performance. The instrument would consist of a single, open corner cube protected by a separate solar filter, and mounted in a cylindrical or spherical case. A major goal in the design of a new lunar ranging system is a measurement accuracy improvement to better than 1 mm by reducing the pulse spread due to orientation. While achieving this goal, it was desired to keep the intensity of the return beam at least as bright as the Apollo 100-corner-cube arrays. These goals are met in this design by increasing the optical aperture of a single corner cube to approximately 170 mm outer diameter. This use of an "open" corner cube allows the selection of corner cube materials to be based primarily on thermal considerations, with no requirements on optical transparency. Such a corner cube also allows for easier pointing requirements

  5. Importance of instrumentation for fast liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Kohler, Isabelle; Rudaz, Serge; Guillarme, Davy

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, an important technical evolution has occurred in pharmaceutical analysis with numerous innovative supports and advanced instruments that have been proposed to achieve fast or ultra-fast separations in LC with an excellent sensitivity and ease of operation. Among the proposed strategies to increase the throughput, the use of short narrow-bore columns packed with sub-3 μm core-shell and porous sub-2 μm particles have emerged as the gold standards. Nevertheless, to take the full benefits of these modern supports, a suitable chromatographic system has to be employed. This review summarizes the instrumental needs and challenges in terms of extra-column variance, dwell volume, maximum system pressure, detector data acquisition rate, and injection cycle time. In addition, because of their reasonable pressure drop, the use of columns packed with sub-3 μm core-shell particles on a conventional LC instrument is discussed in detail. A methodology is proposed to check the compatibility between stationary phase and instrument, and some solutions are proposed to improve the performance of standard instruments. Finally, because the column technology is evolving faster than instrumentation, it is nowadays possible to purchase short, narrow-bore columns packed with 1.3 μm core-shell particles. Micro columns (1 mm I.D.) packed with 1.7-1.9 μm porous particles are also available from several providers, which limit frictional heating effects and reduce solvent and sample consumption. However, it remains difficult to find instruments compatible with such column geometries and a severe loss of performance may be observed due to the system itself.

  6. A Modular and Configurable Instrument Electronics Architecture for "MiniSAR"- An Advanced Smallsat SAR Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jaime; Pastena, Max; Bierens, Laurens

    2013-08-01

    MiniSAR is a Dutch program focused on the development of a commercial smallsat featuring a SAR instrument, led by SSBV as prime contractor. In this paper an Instrument Electronics (IEL) system concept to meet the MiniSAR demands is presented. This system has several specificities wrt similar initiatives in the European space industry, driven by our main requirement: keep it small.

  7. Nimbus-F to carry advanced weather instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Meteorological research instruments launched aboard NASA's Nimbus-F spacecraft are briefly described along with the Nimbus satellite program initiated to develop an observatory system capable of meeting the research and development needs of the nation's atmospheric and earth sciences program. The following aspects of the mission are described: spacecraft design, launch operations, sequence of orbital events, and operations control and tracking. The Global Atmospheric Research program is discussed in terms of the Nimbus-F experiments and atmospheric sounding instruments.

  8. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  9. Uncertainty Analysis of Instrument Calibration and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping

    1999-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic researchers require estimated precision and bias uncertainties of measured physical quantities, typically at 95 percent confidence levels. Uncertainties of final computed aerodynamic parameters are obtained by propagation of individual measurement uncertainties through the defining functional expressions. In this paper, rigorous mathematical techniques are extended to determine precision and bias uncertainties of any instrument-sensor system. Through this analysis, instrument uncertainties determined through calibration are now expressed as functions of the corresponding measurement for linear and nonlinear univariate and multivariate processes. Treatment of correlated measurement precision error is developed. During laboratory calibration, calibration standard uncertainties are assumed to be an order of magnitude less than those of the instrument being calibrated. Often calibration standards do not satisfy this assumption. This paper applies rigorous statistical methods for inclusion of calibration standard uncertainty and covariance due to the order of their application. The effects of mathematical modeling error on calibration bias uncertainty are quantified. The effects of experimental design on uncertainty are analyzed. The importance of replication is emphasized, techniques for estimation of both bias and precision uncertainties using replication are developed. Statistical tests for stationarity of calibration parameters over time are obtained.

  10. Two-phase flow measurements with advanced instrumented spool pieces

    SciTech Connect

    Turnage, K.C.

    1980-09-01

    A series of two-phase, air-water and steam-water tests performed with instrumented piping spool pieces is described. The behavior of the three-beam densitometer, turbine meter, and drag flowmeter is discussed in terms of two-phase models. Results from application of some two-phase mass flow models to the recorded spool piece data are shown. Results of the study are used to make recommendations regarding spool piece design, instrument selection, and data reduction methods to obtain more accurate measurements of two-phase flow parameters. 13 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Student Learning Styles in Advanced Instrumental Music Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2007-01-01

    Despite a large body of research into learning styles from cognitive, personality and activity perspectives, the definition of learning style is still unclear. The assessment instruments commonly in use have methodological problems. The learning styles of conservatorium instrumentalists are scarcely known and are best studied using an…

  12. A PILOT STUDY IN ADVANCED INSTRUMENTATION FOR TECHNICAL INSTRUCTORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LARSON, MILTON E.; O'NEILL, JOHN J.

    A 2-WEEK SUMMER INSTITUTE TO PROVIDE INSERVICE TEACHERS WITH CURRENT INFORMATION ON THE PRACTICES AND CONCEPTS OF INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTATION WAS CONDUCTED AT RUTGERS UNIVERSITY. THE CURRICULUM WAS FOCUSED ON POST-HIGH SCHOOL, 2-YEAR INSTITUTIONAL NEEDS, WITH ADAPTATIONS DRAWN FOR THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL. A LEARNING EVALUATION OF PARTICIPATING…

  13. Recent advances in high temperature instrumentation for hot section applications

    SciTech Connect

    Englund, D.R.; Seasholtz, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Programs to develop research instrumentation for use in turbine engine hot sections are described. These programs were initiated to provide improved measurements capability as support for a multidisciplinary effort to establish technolgy leading to improved hot section durability. Specific measurement systems described here include heat flux sensors, a dynamic gas temperature measuring system, laser anemometry for hot section applications, an optical system for viewing the interior of a combustor during operation, thin film sensors for surface temperature and strain measurements, and high temperature strain measuring systems. The paper describes the state of the development of these sensors and measuring systems and, in some cases, will show examples of measurements made with this instrumentation.The paper covers work done at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at various contract and grant facilities.

  14. MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.

    In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorbs a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., \\citealt{verrecchia07,pittori09,giommi09,massaro11}) and its features and aims will be presented here.

  15. Analysis of key technologies for virtual instruments metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guixiong; Xu, Qingui; Gao, Furong; Guan, Qiuju; Fang, Qiang

    2008-12-01

    Virtual instruments (VIs) require metrological verification when applied as measuring instruments. Owing to the software-centered architecture, metrological evaluation of VIs includes two aspects: measurement functions and software characteristics. Complexity of software imposes difficulties on metrological testing of VIs. Key approaches and technologies for metrology evaluation of virtual instruments are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The principal issue is evaluation of measurement uncertainty. The nature and regularity of measurement uncertainty caused by software and algorithms can be evaluated by modeling, simulation, analysis, testing and statistics with support of powerful computing capability of PC. Another concern is evaluation of software features like correctness, reliability, stability, security and real-time of VIs. Technologies from software engineering, software testing and computer security domain can be used for these purposes. For example, a variety of black-box testing, white-box testing and modeling approaches can be used to evaluate the reliability of modules, components, applications and the whole VI software. The security of a VI can be assessed by methods like vulnerability scanning and penetration analysis. In order to facilitate metrology institutions to perform metrological verification of VIs efficiently, an automatic metrological tool for the above validation is essential. Based on technologies of numerical simulation, software testing and system benchmarking, a framework for the automatic tool is proposed in this paper. Investigation on implementation of existing automatic tools that perform calculation of measurement uncertainty, software testing and security assessment demonstrates the feasibility of the automatic framework advanced.

  16. Advanced ESPI-based medical instruments for otolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castracane, James; Conerty, M.; Cacace, Anthony T.; Gardner, Glendon M.; Miller, Mitchell B.; Parnes, Steven M.

    1993-05-01

    Optical fibers have long been used for visual inspection inside the human body for medical diagnoses and treatment. By making use of sophisticated optical interferometric and ultra- small imaging techniques, combined with automated image processing, it is possible to extract significantly increased information for more accurate medical diagnoses. With support from NIH under the SBIR program, we have been developing a range of such instruments. One of these supported by the NIDCD is capable of providing detailed spatial information on the vibratory response of the tympanic membrane (TM). This instrument involves the examination of the TM by means of high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). This provides a real time view of the vibration patterns of the TM for clinical diagnosis. This Interferometric Otoscope consists of mode conserving fiber optics, miniature diode lasers and high speed solid state detector arrays. We present the current status of the research including holography and ESPI of TM models and excised temporal bone preparations. A second instrument, also developed with support from NIDCD, is for application to the larynx. This system is also ESPI based but will incorporate features for direct vocal cord (VC) examination. By careful examination of the vibratory response of the VC during phonation, the characteristics of the mucosal wave may be examined. Adynamic regions of the cords can signal the start of lesions or cysts. Results of surgery can be evaluated in a quantitative manner. The design of a clinical prototype and preliminary electro-optic experiments on excised larynges and VC models will be presented.

  17. Advanced Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Marc W.; Laing, William

    2013-01-01

    An Economic Analysis (EA) is a systematic approach to the problem of choosing the best method of allocating scarce resources to achieve a given objective. An EA helps guide decisions on the "worth" of pursuing an action that departs from status quo ... an EA is the crux of decision-support.

  18. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  19. Optoelectronic Instruments For Analysis Of Surface Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. David; Mueller, Robert P.; Davis, Richard M.; Gleman, Stuart M.; Hallberg, Carl G.; Thayer, Stephen W.; Thompson, David L.; Thompson, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Family of portable optoelectronic instruments developed to facilitate inspection of surface flaws like gouges, scratches, raised metal, and dents on large metal workpieces subject to surface-finish requirements. Instrument brought to workpiece and semiautomatically makes electronic record of three-dimensional shape of flaw. Entire inspection process takes only minutes. Prototype instrument includes structured-light microscope. Concept involves projection of known pattern of light onto surface inspected. Topography of surface determined from distortion of pattern as viewed through instrument.

  20. New Developments at NASA's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John; Herring, Ellen L.; Brown, Tammy L.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL) has developed new methods to provide an instrument study in one week's engineering time. The final product is recorded in oral presentations, models and the analyses which underlie the models.

  1. Advancements in the safe identification of explosives using a Raman handheld instrument (ACE-ID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Kittredge, Marina; Sparano, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify bulk solid and liquid phase unknown samples without the need to contact the substance. Materials can be identified through transparent and semi-translucent containers such as plastic and glass. ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require the redesign of conventional laboratory units for: field portability; shock, thermal and chemical attack resistance; easy and intuitive use in restrictive gear; reduced size, weight, and power. This article introduces a new handheld instrument (ACE-IDTM) designed to take Raman technology to the next level in terms of size, safety, speed, and analytical performance. ACE-ID is ruggedized for use in severe climates and terrains. It is lightweight and can be operated with just one hand. An intuitive software interface guides users through the entire identification process, making it easy-to-use by personnel of different skill levels including military explosive ordinance disposal technicians, civilian bomb squads and hazmat teams. Through the use of embedded advanced algorithms, the instrument is capable of providing fluorescence correction and analysis of binary mixtures. Instrument calibration is performed automatically upon startup without requiring user intervention. ACE-ID incorporates an optical rastering system that diffuses the laser energy over the sample. This important innovation significantly reduces the heat induced in dark samples and the probability of ignition of susceptible explosive materials. In this article, the explosives identification performance of the instrument will be provided in addition to a quantitative evaluation of the safety improvements derived from the reduced ignition probabilities.

  2. Advanced instrumentation: Technology database enhancement, volume 4, appendix G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to add to the McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company's Sensors Database, including providing additional information on the instruments and sensors applicable to physical/chemical Environmental Control and Life Support System (P/C ECLSS) or Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) which were not previously included. The Sensors Database was reviewed in order to determine the types of data required, define the data categories, and develop an understanding of the data record structure. An assessment of the MDSSC Sensors Database identified limitations and problems in the database. Guidelines and solutions were developed to address these limitations and problems in order that the requirements of the task could be fulfilled.

  3. Adsorption Microcalorimetry: Recent Advances in Instrumentation and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Matthew C.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    Adsorption microcalorimetry measures the energetics of adsorbate-surface interactions and can be performed by use of several different techniques. This review focuses on three methods: single-crystal adsorption calorimetry (SCAC), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and electrochemical adsorption calorimetry. SCAC is a uniquely powerful technique that has been applied to a variety of atoms and molecules that represent a large variety of well-defined adsorbate species on a wide range of single-crystal surfaces. ITC and electrochemical microcalorimetry are useful for studying adsorption energies in liquid solutions (on surfaces of suspended powders) and at the electrode-electrolyte interface, respectively. Knowledge of the energetics of adsorbate formation is valuable to ongoing research in many fields, including catalysis, fuel cells, and solar power. In addition, calorimetric measurements serve as benchmarks for the improvement of computational approaches to understanding surface chemistry. We review instrumentation and applications, emphasizing our own work.

  4. Surgical instrument similarity metrics and tray analysis for multi-sensor instrument identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Bernhard; Schellenberg, Tobias; Franke, Stefan; Dänzer, Stefan; Neumuth, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A robust identification of the instrument currently used by the surgeon is crucial for the automatic modeling and analysis of surgical procedures. Various approaches for intra-operative surgical instrument identification have been presented, mostly based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) or endoscopic video analysis. A novel approach is to identify the instruments on the instrument table of the scrub nurse with a combination of video and weight information. In a previous article, we successfully followed this approach and applied it to multiple instances of an ear, nose and throat (ENT) procedure and the surgical tray used therein. In this article, we present a metric for the suitability of the instruments of a surgical tray for identification by video and weight analysis and apply it to twelve trays of four different surgical domains (abdominal surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedics and urology). The used trays were digitized at the central sterile services department of the hospital. The results illustrate that surgical trays differ in their suitability for the approach. In general, additional weight information can significantly contribute to the successful identification of surgical instruments. Additionally, for ten different surgical instruments, ten exemplars of each instrument were tested for their weight differences. The samples indicate high weight variability in instruments with identical brand and model number. The results present a new metric for approaches aiming towards intra-operative surgical instrument detection and imply consequences for algorithms exploiting video and weight information for identification purposes.

  5. Brain Imaging Using T-Rays Instrumentation Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviño-Palacios, C. G.; Celis-López, M. A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, J. M.; García-Garduño, A.; Zapata-Nava, O. J.; Díaz, A. Orduña; Torres-Jácome, A.; de-la-Hidalga-Wade, J.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    We present the advances on a brain imaging setup using submillimeter detectors and terahertz laser source. Terahertz radiation, known as T-rays, falls in the far infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum close to the microwaves and fraction of millimeter wavelengths. These T-rays are ideal candidates for medical imaging because the wavelength is long enough to be dispersed by molecular structures and sufficient small to produce images with a reasonable resolution, in a non-ionizing way. The millimeter detectors used in this proposal are being developed in parallel to the detectors used in the large Millimeter Telescope (LMT/GTM). Using the non-ionizing water absorption to terahertz radiation by different tissues we study the absorption difference between healthy and tumors in spite of the large absorption by water present in the body.

  6. New Developments at NASA's Instrument Synthesis & Analysis Laboratory (ISAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John; Brown, Tammy L.; Herring, Ellen L.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the work of NASA's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL). The work of the ISAL has substantially reduced the time required to develop an instrument concept. The document reviews the design process in detail and planned interaction with the end user of the instrument.

  7. Assessing Learning Outcomes: An Analysis of the Goals-2 Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbag, Anelise Guimaraes; Zieffler, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The test instrument GOALS-2 was designed primarily to evaluate the effectiveness of the CATALST curriculum. The purpose of this study was to perform a psychometric analysis of this instrument. Undergraduate students from six universities in the United States (n = 289) were administered the instrument. Three measurement models were fit and…

  8. An Analysis of Selected Skinfold Measuring Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of three relatively inexpensive skinfold calipers were compared with that of the Lange Skinfold Caliper. The instruments were used with 800 students ranging from elementary school to the college level. The Fat-O-Meter and Adipometer calipers compared favorably with the Lange instrument for accuracy and wearability while the…

  9. ECLSS evolution: Advanced instrumentation interface requirements. Volume 3: Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An Advanced ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) Technology Interfaces Database was developed primarily to provide ECLSS analysts with a centralized and portable source of ECLSS technologies interface requirements data. The database contains 20 technologies which were previously identified in the MDSSC ECLSS Technologies database. The primary interfaces of interest in this database are fluid, electrical, data/control interfaces, and resupply requirements. Each record contains fields describing the function and operation of the technology. Fields include: an interface diagram, description applicable design points and operating ranges, and an explaination of data, as required. A complete set of data was entered for six of the twenty components including Solid Amine Water Desorbed (SAWD), Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation System (TIMES), Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (EDC), Solid Polymer Electrolysis (SPE), Static Feed Electrolysis (SFE), and BOSCH. Additional data was collected for Reverse Osmosis Water Reclaimation-Potable (ROWRP), Reverse Osmosis Water Reclaimation-Hygiene (ROWRH), Static Feed Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SFSPE), Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), and Multifiltration Water Reclamation - Hygiene (MFWRH). A summary of the database contents is presented in this report.

  10. A Chemical Instrumentation Game for Teaching Critical Thinking and Information Literacy in Instrumental Analysis Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, David E.

    2010-01-01

    A simulation game is used to teach students in instrumental analysis courses to find the latest developments in the field, use the journal literature, and apply critical thinking to determine the relative importance of the work they find. They also learn about the business of chemical instruments and to make oral presentations. The competitive…

  11. Advanced instrumentation for acousto-ultrasonic based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithard, Joel; Galea, Steve; van der Velden, Stephen; Powlesland, Ian; Jung, George; Rajic, Nik

    2016-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems using structurally-integrated sensors potentially allow the ability to inspect for damage in aircraft structures on-demand and could provide a basis for the development of condition-based maintenance approaches for airframes. These systems potentially offer both substantial cost savings and performance improvements over conventional nondestructive inspection (NDI). Acousto-ultrasonics (AU), using structurallyintegrated piezoelectric transducers, offers a promising basis for broad-field damage detection in aircraft structures. For these systems to be successfully applied in the field the hardware for AU excitation and interrogation needs to be easy to use, compact, portable, light and, electrically and mechanically robust. Highly flexible and inexpensive instrumentation for basic background laboratory investigations is also required to allow researchers to tackle the numerous scientific and engineering issues associated with AU based SHM. The Australian Defence Science and Technology Group (DST Group) has developed the Acousto Ultrasonic Structural health monitoring Array Module (AUSAM+), a compact device for AU excitation and interrogation. The module, which has the footprint of a typical current generation smart phone, provides autonomous control of four send and receive piezoelectric elements, which can operate in pitch-catch or pulse-echo modes and can undertake electro-mechanical impedance measurements for transducer and structural diagnostics. Modules are designed to operate synchronously with other units, via an optical link, to accommodate larger transducer arrays. The module also caters for fibre optic sensing of acoustic waves with four intensity-based optical inputs. Temperature and electrical resistance strain gauge inputs as well as external triggering functionality are also provided. The development of a Matlab hardware object allows users to easily access the full hardware functionality of the device and

  12. High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI) data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the Dynamics Explorer mission are to investigate the coupling of energy, mass, and momentum among the earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere. At launch, on August 3, 1981, DE-1 was placed into an elliptical polar orbit having an apogee of 23,130 km to allow global auroral imaging and crossings of auroral field lines at altitudes of several thousand kilometers. At the same time DE-2 was placed into a polar orbit, coplanar with that of DE-1 but with a perigee altitude low enough (309 km) for neutral measurements and an apogee altitude of 1012 km. The DE-1 High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI) provided data on low and medium energy electrons and ions from August 13, 1981 until December 1, 1981, when a high-voltage failure occured. Analysis of HAPI data for the time period of this contract has produced new results on the source mechanisms for electron conical distributions, particle acceleration phenomena in auroral acceleration regions, Birkeland currents throughout the nightside auroral regions, the source region for auroral kilometric radiation (AKR), and plasma injection phenomena in the polar cusp.

  13. Corner-cube retro-reflector instrument for advanced lunar laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Williams, James G.; Folkner, William M.; Gutt, Gary M.; Baran, Richard T.; Hein, Randall C.; Somawardhana, Ruwan P.; Lipa, John A.; Wang, Suwen

    2013-08-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) has made major contributions to our understanding of the Moon's internal structure and the dynamics of the Earth-Moon system. Because of the recent improvements of the ground-based laser ranging facilities, the present LLR measurement accuracy is limited by the retro-reflectors currently on the lunar surface, which are arrays of small corner-cubes. Because of lunar librations, the surfaces of these arrays do not, in general, point directly at the Earth. This effect results in a spread of arrival times, because each cube that comprises the retroreflector is at a slightly different distance from the Earth, leading to the reduced ranging accuracy. Thus, a single, wide aperture corner-cube could have a clear advantage. In addition, after nearly four decades of successful operations the retro-reflectors arrays currently on the Moon started to show performance degradation; as a result, they yield still useful, but much weaker return signals. Thus, fresh and bright instruments on the lunar surface are needed to continue precision LLR measurements. We have developed a new retro-reflector design to enable advanced LLR operations. It is based on a single, hollow corner cube with a large aperture for which preliminary thermal, mechanical, and optical design and analysis have been performed. The new instrument will be able to reach an Earth-Moon range precision of 1-mm in a single pulse while being subjected to significant thermal variations present on the lunar surface, and will have low mass to allow robotic deployment. Here we report on our design results and instrument development effort.

  14. Analytical techniques and instrumentation: A compilation. [analytical instrumentation, materials performance, and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical information is presented covering the areas of: (1) analytical instrumentation useful in the analysis of physical phenomena; (2) analytical techniques used to determine the performance of materials; and (3) systems and component analyses for design and quality control.

  15. Millimeter-Wave Polarimetry Instrumentation and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, Evan M.

    The chapters in this thesis roughly follow a reverse chronological order of my work in graduate school. Chapter 1 is the culmination of work with Dr. Dowell at Caltech, motivated by Professor Keating, to study polarized Galactic emission. Although the main goal of BICEP was to search for CMB B-modes, observation time was also spent on the Galactic plane region. Initially the data were collected to understand Galactic emission as a foreground of CMB polarization; however, the final paper focused on studying Galactic physics and not the CMB. Through comparison of BICEP data to other experiments, different models of the polarization production were explored. This paper also served as the initial instrument paper for the 220 GHz hardware added to BICEP for the second and third observing seasons. Chapter 2 is the software analysis work related to the paper in Chapter 1 that either did not make it into the paper or did not pan out. To explore BICEP's capabilities and produce better maps different scan strategies were explored such as full 360° scans and elevation scanning. BICEP observations are contaminated on large scales by a noise source that has not been fully identified. Different mapmaking methods were explored to remove this systematic as well as 1/ f noise and telescope systematics to maximize recovered signal. Chapter 3 represents a sample of contributions to the BICEP telescope and the UCSD FTS. To characterize the spectral response of the B ICEP telescope and the faraday rotation modulators, I helped design and construct the UCSD including layout and optical design, synthesizing wire grids, integrating the system with our lab's test cryostat, and developing software and analysis tools. My main contribution to the CMB polarization work on BICEP was analysis of calibration data. Specifically I talk about my work to understand the beams and differential pointing from observations of the Moon. Chapter 4 represents my work on Faraday Rotation devices. Initially

  16. Instrumentation advances in emissions characterization from propellant/explosive combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Morrison, D.J.; Mullins, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Results from a chamber study to characterize emissions from combustion of selected pure energetic materials are presented in this paper. The study was carried out as a part of a comprehensive air pathways risk assessment for a propellant and explosive manufacturing facility that engages in open burning methods for manufacturing waste disposal. Materials selected for emissions characterization in this study included both aluminized and non-aluminized composite propellant, a double base propellant and a plastic bonded explosive. Combustion tests in a specialized chamber revealed very low emissions for gaseous products of incomplete combustion such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Analysis of gaseous and aerosol emission products for a pre-selected target analyte list that included both volatile and semi-volatile organics revealed either low or non-detectable emissions for the four energetic types tested. Hydrogen chloride was detected as a major emission product from propellants containing ammonium perchlorate. Results from this work reveal that about one-half of the chlorine in the original material is released as hydrogen chloride. Based on earlier work, the balance of the chlorine emissions is expected to be in the form of chlorine gas.

  17. The Effects of Advanced 'Glass Cockpit' Displayed Flight Instrumentation on In-flight Pilot Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwald, John

    The Cognitive Continuum Theory (CCT) was first proposed 25 years ago to explain the relationship between intuition and analytical decision making processes. In order for aircraft pilots to make these analytical and intuitive decisions, they obtain information from various instruments within the cockpit of the aircraft. Advanced instrumentation is used to provide a broad array of information about the aircraft condition and flight situation to aid the flight crew in making effective decisions. The problem addressed is that advanced instrumentation has not improved the pilot decision making in modern aircraft. Because making a decision is dependent upon the information available, this experimental quantitative study sought to determine how well pilots organize and interpret information obtained from various cockpit instrumentation displays when under time pressure. The population for this study was the students, flight instructors, and aviation faculty at the Middle Georgia State College School of Aviation campus in Eastman, Georgia. The sample was comprised of two groups of 90 individuals (45 in each group) in various stages of pilot licensure from student pilot to airline transport pilot (ATP). The ages ranged from 18 to 55 years old. There was a statistically significant relationship at the p < .05 level in the ability of the participants to organize and interpret information between the advanced glass cockpit instrumentation and the traditional cockpit instrumentation. It is recommended that the industry explore technological solutions toward creating cockpit instrumentation that could match the type of information display to the type of decision making scenario in order to aid pilots in making decisions that will result in better organization of information. Understanding the relationship between the intuitive and analytical decisions that pilots make and the information source they use to make those decisions will aid engineers in the design of instrumentation

  18. Artifacts Of Spectral Analysis Of Instrument Readings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents experimental and theoretical study of some of artifacts introduced by processing outputs of two nominally identical low-frequency-reading instruments; high-sensitivity servo-accelerometers mounted together and operating, in conjunction with signal-conditioning circuits, as seismometers. Processing involved analog-to-digital conversion with anti-aliasing filtering, followed by digital processing including frequency weighting and computation of different measures of power spectral density (PSD).

  19. Advanced near-and mid-infrared laser based instruments for atmospheric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Dirk; Weibring, Petter; Spuler, Scott; Walega, James; Spowart, Mike; Fried, Alan

    2010-05-01

    We present new ground and airborne instruments for atmospheric measurements based on fiber and diode laser sources. This versatile optical technology can be configured to provide high resolution, sensitive, selective, and real-time measurements. In particular we will present current and planned instruments to measure important trace gas species, including isotopes, and 3D wind-speeds from an aircraft platform. All the instruments presented leverage technology advances made in the photonics and optical telecommunication industry. We have developed a set of tools based around these technological building blocks and used them to design a suite of measurement capabilities for use by the atmospheric research community. Optical technologies have been accumulating a proven record of robust performance, and enable one to built more lightweight and compact instrumentation for easy deployment for traditional ground, advanced sea, and airborne measurement platforms. We will present how these enabling optical technologies have served as the foundation for select instruments, and provide a roadmap for future development opportunities.

  20. Status Report on Efforts to Enhance Instrumentation to Support Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; J. E. Daw

    2011-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR NSUF facilitates basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors was completed. Based on this review, recommendations were made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR; and a strategy was developed for obtaining these sensors. In 2009, a report was issued documenting this program’s strategy and initial progress toward accomplishing program objectives. In 2009, a report was issued documenting this instrumentation development strategy and initial progress toward accomplishing instrumentation development program objectives. This document reports progress toward implementing this strategy in 2010.

  1. Analysis of Advanced Rotorcraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Advanced rotorcraft configurations are being investigated with the objectives of identifying vehicles that are larger, quieter, and faster than current-generation rotorcraft. A large rotorcraft, carrying perhaps 150 passengers, could do much to alleviate airport capacity limitations, and a quiet rotorcraft is essential for community acceptance of the benefits of VTOL operations. A fast, long-range, long-endurance rotorcraft, notably the tilt-rotor configuration, will improve rotorcraft economics through productivity increases. A major part of the investigation of advanced rotorcraft configurations consists of conducting comprehensive analyses of vehicle behavior for the purpose of assessing vehicle potential and feasibility, as well as to establish the analytical models required to support the vehicle development. The analytical work of FY99 included applications to tilt-rotor aircraft. Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) wind tunnel measurements are being compared with calculations performed by using the comprehensive analysis tool (Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD 11)). The objective is to establish the wing and wake aerodynamic models that are required for tilt-rotor analysis and design. The TRAM test in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) produced extensive measurements. This is the first test to encompass air loads, performance, and structural load measurements on tilt rotors, as well as acoustic and flow visualization data. The correlation of measurements and calculations includes helicopter-mode operation (performance, air loads, and blade structural loads), hover (performance and air loads), and airplane-mode operation (performance).

  2. Improving bias and coverage in instrumental variable analysis with weak instruments for continuous and binary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Stephen; Thompson, Simon G

    2012-07-10

    Causal estimates can be obtained by instrumental variable analysis using a two-stage method. However, these can be biased when the instruments are weak. We introduce a Bayesian method, which adjusts for the first-stage residuals in the second-stage regression and has much improved bias and coverage properties. In the continuous outcome case, this adjustment reduces median bias from weak instruments to close to zero. In the binary outcome case, bias from weak instruments is reduced and the estimand is changed from a marginal population-based effect to a conditional effect. The lack of distributional assumptions on the posterior distribution of the causal effect gives a better summary of uncertainty and more accurate coverage levels than methods that rely on the asymptotic distribution of the causal estimate. We discuss these properties in the context of Mendelian randomization.

  3. Advances in and uses of gamma-ray field instrumentation at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Smith, S.E.; Ianakiev, K.

    1994-02-01

    We are developing a set of tools to be used by the Safeguards Assay Group to solve problems found in safeguards and the domestic nuclear industry. The tools are also applicable to problems dealing with the environment, defense, and other areas of national and international interest. We have used extensively the advances in hardware and software since our last multichannel analyzer (MCA) development activities over a decade ago. We are also using our experience with and feedback from users of our previous instruments. In analyzing the instrument needs of our constituents and the characteristics of our previous instruments, which we think have inhibited their broader use, we have concluded that uses for an MCA-type instrument are widely varied and fundamentally changing,and that any new instruments should include a versatile, widely used hardware interface, which is as independent as possible of hardware standards, and which is readily interfaced to the computers or controllers rapidly evolving in the commercial sector. In addition, software tools must be provided that allow Los Alamos, users, and third parties to quickly and conveniently develop software specific to the user or the measurement to control the basic instrument we develop. This paper deals mainly with a miniature and modular multi-channel analyzer (M{sup 3}CA) and its applications.

  4. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop: April 5-7, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: (1) Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; (2) Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; (3) Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; (4) Identify synergies across different industries; (5) Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; (6) Understand who are the leading experts; (7) Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  5. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-11-16

    This invention relates to a microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures. The advantages include: minimal specimen handling; smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 {mu}m or greater); micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens; low cost; disposable; fabrication process which renders sterile parts; and ease of use. The cutter is a cheese-grater style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

  6. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

  7. Instrument for Analysis of Greenland's Glacier Mills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Matthews, Jaret B.; Tran, Hung B.; Steffen, Konrad; McGrath, Dan; Phillips, Thomas; Elliot, Andrew; OHern, Sean; Lutz, Colin; Martin, Sujita; Wang, Henry

    2010-01-01

    A new instrument is used to study the inner workings of Greenland s glacier mills by riding the currents inside a glacier s moulin. The West Greenland Moulin Explorer instrument was deployed into a tubular shaft to autonomously record temperature, pressure, 3D acceleration, and location. It is built with a slightly positive buoyancy in order to assist in recovery. The unit is made up of several components. A 3-axis MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer with 0.001-g resolution forms the base of the unit. A pressure transducer is added that is capable of withstanding 500 psi (=3.4 MPa), and surviving down to -40 C. An Iridium modem sends out data every 10 minutes. The location is traced by a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit. This GPS unit is also used for recovery after the mission. Power is provided by a high-capacity lithium thionyl chloride D-sized battery. The accelerometer is housed inside a cylindrical, foot-long (=30 cm) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shell sealed at each end with acrylic. The pressure transducer is attached to one of these lids and a MEMS accelerometer to the other, recording 100 samples per second per axis.

  8. Suggested set-up and layout of instruments and equipment for advanced operative laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Winer, W K; Lyons, T L

    1995-02-01

    Crucial elements that ensure the organization and smoothness of a laparoscopic procedure are clear communication among well-trained endoscopy team members, properly maintained equipment, and a sensible layout of the instruments. The team consists of the surgeon, surgical assistant, circulator, scrub nurse, laser nurse, and anesthesiologist. To promote continuity and interaction and to ensure a systematic, pleasant pace for laparoscopic procedures, the team should establish a specific routine, as well as set-up and layout of tables, equipment, and instruments. Key ingredients for advanced operative laparoscopy to be performed with optimum efficiency and effectiveness are the best organization and placement of the equipment, instrumentation, and team in a particular setting in the operating room. PMID:9050565

  9. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    2001-01-01

    A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate.

  10. Identification of Gas Components in Lighter by Gas Chromatography: An Experiment of the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Which Can Be Used with Distance Learning Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuz, Soner; Morgil, Inci

    2006-01-01

    In the applications of instrumental analysis lessons, advanced instruments with the needed experiments are needed. During the lessons it is a fact that the more experiments are performed, the more learning will be. For this reason, experiments that do not last long and should be performed with more simple instruments and that increase students"…

  11. Advanced techniques in current signature analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

    1992-03-01

    In general, both ac and dc motors can be characterized as weakly nonlinear systems, in which both linear and nonlinear effects occur simultaneously. Fortunately, the nonlinearities are generally well behaved and understood and an be handled via several standard mathematical techniques already well developed in the systems modeling area; examples are piecewise linear approximations and Volterra series representations. Field measurements of numerous motors and motor-driven systems confirm the rather complex nature of motor current spectra and illustrate both linear and nonlinear effects (including line harmonics and modulation components). Although previous current signature analysis (CSA) work at Oak Ridge and other sites has principally focused on the modulation mechanisms and detection methods (AM, PM, and FM), more recent studies have been conducted on linear spectral components (those appearing in the electric current at their actual frequencies and not as modulation sidebands). For example, large axial-flow compressors ({approximately}3300 hp) in the US gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants exhibit running-speed ({approximately}20 Hz) and high-frequency vibrational information (>1 kHz) in their motor current spectra. Several signal-processing techniques developed to facilitate analysis of these components, including specialized filtering schemes, are presented. Finally, concepts for the designs of advanced digitally based CSA units are offered, which should serve to foster the development of much more computationally capable ``smart`` CSA instrumentation in the next several years. 3 refs.

  12. Troubleshooting 101: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitt, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment is described where students troubleshoot a published procedure for the analysis of ethanol. UV-vis spectroscopy is used to measure the change in absorbance upon reaction of dichromate with ethanol. The experiment requires the students to critically evaluate their experimental results to correct a fundamental flaw in the original…

  13. Advances in the use of odour as forensic evidence through optimizing and standardizing instruments and canines

    PubMed Central

    Furton, Kenneth G.; Caraballo, Norma Iris; Cerreta, Michelle M.; Holness, Howard K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the advances made in identifying trace amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that originate from forensic specimens, such as drugs, explosives, live human scent and the scent of death, as well as the probative value for detecting such odours. The ability to locate and identify the VOCs liberated from or left by forensic substances is of increasing importance to criminal investigations as it can indicate the presence of contraband and/or associate an individual to a particular location or object. Although instruments have improved significantly in recent decades—with sensitivities now rivalling that of biological detectors—it is widely recognized that canines are generally still more superior for the detection of odourants due to their speed, versatility, ruggedness and discriminating power. Through advancements in the detection of VOCs, as well as increased standardization efforts for instruments and canines, the reliability of odour as evidence has continuously improved and is likely to continue to do so. Moreover, several legal cases in which this novel form of evidence has been accepted into US courts of law are discussed. As the development and implementation of best practice guidelines for canines and instruments increase, their reliability in detecting VOCs of interest should continue to improve, expanding the use of odour as an acceptable form of forensic evidence. PMID:26101287

  14. Status Report on Efforts to Enhance Instrumentation to Support Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rempe; D. Knudson; J. Daw; T. Unruh; B. Chase; R. Schley; J. Palmer; K. Condie

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support the growth of nuclear science and technology in the United States (US). By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR NSUF facilitates basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to design, develop, and deploy new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors was completed. Based on this initial review, recommendations were made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR, and a strategy was developed for obtaining these sensors. In 2009, a report was issued documenting this program’s strategy and initial progress toward accomplishing program objectives. Since 2009, annual reports have been issued to provide updates on the program strategy and the progress made on implementing the strategy. This report provides an update reflecting progress as of January 2014.

  15. Advances in the use of odour as forensic evidence through optimizing and standardizing instruments and canines.

    PubMed

    Furton, Kenneth G; Caraballo, Norma Iris; Cerreta, Michelle M; Holness, Howard K

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the advances made in identifying trace amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that originate from forensic specimens, such as drugs, explosives, live human scent and the scent of death, as well as the probative value for detecting such odours. The ability to locate and identify the VOCs liberated from or left by forensic substances is of increasing importance to criminal investigations as it can indicate the presence of contraband and/or associate an individual to a particular location or object. Although instruments have improved significantly in recent decades-with sensitivities now rivalling that of biological detectors-it is widely recognized that canines are generally still more superior for the detection of odourants due to their speed, versatility, ruggedness and discriminating power. Through advancements in the detection of VOCs, as well as increased standardization efforts for instruments and canines, the reliability of odour as evidence has continuously improved and is likely to continue to do so. Moreover, several legal cases in which this novel form of evidence has been accepted into US courts of law are discussed. As the development and implementation of best practice guidelines for canines and instruments increase, their reliability in detecting VOCs of interest should continue to improve, expanding the use of odour as an acceptable form of forensic evidence.

  16. Seismic isolation of Advanced LIGO: Review of strategy, instrumentation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matichard, F.; Lantz, B.; Mittleman, R.; Mason, K.; Kissel, J.; Abbott, B.; Biscans, S.; McIver, J.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, S.; Allwine, E.; Barnum, S.; Birch, J.; Celerier, C.; Clark, D.; Coyne, D.; DeBra, D.; DeRosa, R.; Evans, M.; Foley, S.; Fritschel, P.; Giaime, J. A.; Gray, C.; Grabeel, G.; Hanson, J.; Hardham, C.; Hillard, M.; Hua, W.; Kucharczyk, C.; Landry, M.; Le Roux, A.; Lhuillier, V.; Macleod, D.; Macinnis, M.; Mitchell, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D.; Paris, H.; Pele, A.; Puma, M.; Radkins, H.; Ramet, C.; Robinson, M.; Ruet, L.; Sarin, P.; Shoemaker, D.; Stein, A.; Thomas, J.; Vargas, M.; Venkateswara, K.; Warner, J.; Wen, S.

    2015-09-01

    The new generation of gravitational waves detectors require unprecedented levels of isolation from seismic noise. This article reviews the seismic isolation strategy and instrumentation developed for the Advanced LIGO observatories. It summarizes over a decade of research on active inertial isolation and shows the performance recently achieved at the Advanced LIGO observatories. The paper emphasizes the scientific and technical challenges of this endeavor and how they have been addressed. An overview of the isolation strategy is given. It combines multiple layers of passive and active inertial isolation to provide suitable rejection of seismic noise at all frequencies. A detailed presentation of the three active platforms that have been developed is given. They are the hydraulic pre-isolator, the single-stage internal isolator and the two-stage internal isolator. The architecture, instrumentation, control scheme and isolation results are presented for each of the three systems. Results show that the seismic isolation sub-system meets Advanced LIGO’s stringent requirements and robustly supports the operation of the two detectors.

  17. Advanced life support control/monitor instrumentation concepts for flight application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dahlhausen, M. J.; Fell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Development of regenerative Environmental Control/Life Support Systems requires instrumentation characteristics which evolve with successive development phases. As the development phase moves toward flight hardware, the system availability becomes an important design aspect which requires high reliability and maintainability. This program was directed toward instrumentation designs which incorporate features compatible with anticipated flight requirements. The first task consisted of the design, fabrication and test of a Performance Diagnostic Unit. In interfacing with a subsystem's instrumentation, the Performance Diagnostic Unit is capable of determining faulty operation and components within a subsystem, perform on-line diagnostics of what maintenance is needed and accept historical status on subsystem performance as such information is retained in the memory of a subsystem's computerized controller. The second focus was development and demonstration of analog signal conditioning concepts which reduce the weight, power, volume, cost and maintenance and improve the reliability of this key assembly of advanced life support instrumentation. The approach was to develop a generic set of signal conditioning elements or cards which can be configured to fit various subsystems. Four generic sensor signal conditioning cards were identified as being required to handle more than 90 percent of the sensors encountered in life support systems. Under company funding, these were detail designed, built and successfully tested.

  18. RECENT BEAM MEASUREMENTS AND NEW INSTRUMENTATION AT THE ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Baptiste, Kenneth; Barry, Walter; Chin, Michael; Filippetto, Daniele; Jaegerhofer, Lukas; Julian, James; Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Low, Raymond; Plate, David; Portmann, Gregory; Robin, David; Scarvie, Tomas; Stupakov, Gennady; Weber, Jonah; Zolotorev, Max

    2008-05-05

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley was the first of the soft x-ray third generation light source ever built, and since 1993 has been in continuous and successful operation serving a large community of users in the VUV and soft x-ray community. During these years the storage ring underwent through several important upgrades that allowed maintaining the performance of this veteran facility at the forefront. The ALS beam diagnostics and instrumentation have followed a similar path of innovation and upgrade and nowadays include most of the modem and last generation devices and technologies that are commercially available and used in the recently constructed third generation light sources. In this paper we will not focus on such already widely known systems, but we will concentrate our effort in the description of some measurements techniques, instrumentation and diagnostic systems specifically developed at the ALS and used during the last few years.

  19. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. This work involves two major goals: (1) to ensure that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) to implement digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the nuclear power plant operating model. Resolving long-term operational concerns with the II&C systems contributes to the long-term sustainability of the LWR fleet, which is vital to the nation's energy and environmental security.

  20. Recent Beam Measurements and New Instrumentation at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, F.; Baptiste, K.; Barry, W.; Chin, M.; Filippetto, D.; Jaegerhofer, L.; Julian, J.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Low, R.; Plate, D.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.; Scarvie, T.; Stupakov, G.; Weber, J.; Zolotorev, M.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-04-11

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley was the first of the soft x-ray third generation light source ever built, and since 1993 has been in continuous and successful operation serving a large community of users in the VUV and soft x-ray community. During these years the storage ring underwent through several important upgrades that allowed maintaining the performance of this veteran facility at the forefront. The ALS beam diagnostics and instrumentation have followed a similar path of innovation and upgrade and nowadays include most of the modem and last generation devices and technologies that are commercially available and used in the recently constructed third generation light sources. In this paper we will not focus on such already widely known systems, but we will concentrate our effort in the description of some measurements techniques, instrumentation and diagnostic systems specifically developed at the ALS and used during the last few years.

  1. EDITORIAL: Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation Systems for the Food and Beverage Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong

    2006-02-01

    Advanced sensors and instrumentation systems are becoming increasingly important in the classification, characterization, authentication, quality control and safety management of food products and beverages. To bring together industrialists and academic researchers to discuss the latest developments and trends in this particular area, the ISAT (Instrument Science and Technology) Group of the Institute of Physics organized a highly focused one-day technical meeting, which was held at the Rutherford Conference Centre at the Institute of Physics in London on 15 December 2004. The event was co-sponsored by the Measurement, Sensors, Instrumentation and NDT Professional Network of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and the Measurement Science and Technology Panel of the Institute of Measurement and Control. The special feature in this issue (on pages 229 287) brings together a collection of some of the papers that were presented at the event. Also included in the special feature are two relevant papers that were submitted through the usual route. Technical topics covered, though wide ranging as reflected in part by the diversity of the papers, demonstrate recent developments and possible approaches that may offer solutions to a broad range of sensing and measurement problems in the food and beverage industries. The first paper, reported by Sheridan et al, is concerned with the quality monitoring of chicken, sausages and pastry products during their cooking processes using an optical fibre-based sensing system. Carter et al describe how digital imaging and image processing techniques have been applied to achieve the classification and authentication of rice grains. The challenges in the measurement and control of final moisture content in baked food products such as bread and biscuits are addressed and discussed by McFarlane. Juodeikiene et al report their progress in the development of acoustic echolocation-based techniques for the evaluation of porosity and

  2. EDITORIAL: Advances in Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments for Production Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Gao, Yongsheng; Krystek, Michael

    2008-08-01

    . Neuschaefer-Rube et al, also from PTB, present procedures and standards to test tactile and optical microsensors and micro-computed tomography systems, which are similar to the established tests for classical coordinate measuring machines and assess local and global sensor characteristics. The last three papers are related to micro/nano-metrology and intelligent instrumentation. Jiang et al from Tohoku University describe the fabrication of piezoresistive nanocantilevers for ultra-sensitive force detection by using spin-out diffusion, EB lithography and FAB etching, respectively. Y-C Liu et al from National Taiwan University develop an economical and highly sensitive optical accelerometer using a commercial optical pickup head. Michihata et al from Osaka University experimentally investigate the positioning sensing property and accuracy of a laser trapping probe for a nano-coordinate measuring machine. As guest editors, we believe that this special feature presents the newest information on advances in measurement technology and intelligent instruments from basic research to applied systems for Production Engineering. We would like to thank all the authors for their great contributions to this special feature and the referees for their careful reviews of the papers. We would also like to express our thanks and appreciation to Professor P Hauptmann, Editor-in-Chief of MST, for his kind offer to publish selected ISMTII 2007 papers in MST, and to the publishing staff of MST for their dedicated efforts that have made this special feature possible.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy Instrumentation and Controls Technology Research for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, key DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements to their respective research portfolio. This article describes current ICHMI research to support the development of advanced small modular reactors.

  4. Instrumentation for motor-current signature analysis using synchronous sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Castleberry, K.N.

    1996-07-01

    Personnel in the Instrumentation and Controls Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in association with the United States Enrichment Corporation, the U.S. Navy, and various Department of Energy sponsors, have been involved in the development and application of motor-current signature analysis for several years. In that time, innovation in the field has resulted in major improvements in signal processing, analysis, and system performance and capabilities. Recent work has concentrated on industrial implementation of one of the most promising new techniques. This report describes the developed method and the instrumentation package that is being used to investigate and develop potential applications.

  5. Assessment of instrumentation needs for advanced coal power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Lipka, J.V.; Rutkowski, M.D.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify contaminants, identify instrumentation needs, assess available instrumentation and identify instruments that should be developed for controlling and monitoring gas streams encountered in the following power plants: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, and Gasification Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell. Emphasis was placed on hot gas cleanup system gas stream analysis, and included process control, research and environmental monitoring needs. Commercial process analyzers, typical of those currently used for process control purposes, were reviewed for the purpose of indicating commercial status. No instrument selection guidelines were found which were capable of replacing user interaction with the process analyzer vendors. This study leads to the following conclusions: available process analyzers for coal-derived gas cleanup applications satisfy current power system process control and regulatory requirements, but they are troublesome to maintain; commercial gas conditioning systems and in situ analyzers continue to be unavailable for hot gas cleanup applications; many research-oriented gas stream characterization and toxicity assessment needs can not be met by commercially available process analyzers; and greater emphasis should be placed on instrumentation and control system planning for future power plant applications. Analyzers for specific compounds are not recommended other than those needed for current process control purposes. Instead, some generally useful on-line laser-based and inductively coupled plasma methods are recommended for further development because of their potential for use in present hot gas cleanup research and future optimization, component protection and regulation compliance activities. 48 refs., 21 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Advanced Instrumentation and Control Methods for Small and Medium Reactors with IRIS Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    J. Wesley Hines; Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Michael Doster; Robert M. Edwards; Kenneth D. Lewis; Paul Turinsky; Jamie Coble

    2011-05-31

    Development and deployment of small-scale nuclear power reactors and their maintenance, monitoring, and control are part of the mission under the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) program. The objectives of this NERI-consortium research project are to investigate, develop, and validate advanced methods for sensing, controlling, monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis of these reactors, and to demonstrate the methods with application to one of the proposed integral pressurized water reactors (IPWR). For this project, the IPWR design by Westinghouse, the International Reactor Secure and Innovative (IRIS), has been used to demonstrate the techniques developed under this project. The research focuses on three topical areas with the following objectives. Objective 1 - Develop and apply simulation capabilities and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis methods to address sensor deployment analysis and small grid stability issues. Objective 2 - Develop and test an autonomous and fault-tolerant control architecture and apply to the IRIS system and an experimental flow control loop, with extensions to multiple reactor modules, nuclear desalination, and optimal sensor placement strategy. Objective 3 - Develop and test an integrated monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis system for SMRs using the IRIS as a test platform, and integrate process and equipment monitoring (PEM) and process and equipment prognostics (PEP) toolboxes. The research tasks are focused on meeting the unique needs of reactors that may be deployed to remote locations or to developing countries with limited support infrastructure. These applications will require smaller, robust reactor designs with advanced technologies for sensors, instrumentation, and control. An excellent overview of SMRs is described in an article by Ingersoll (2009). The article refers to these as deliberately small reactors. Most of these have modular characteristics, with multiple units deployed at the same plant site. Additionally, the topics focus

  7. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert R. Jensen; Steven A. Benson; Jason D. Laumb

    2001-08-31

    The use of Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) modeling tools and improved analytical methods has provided key information in optimizing advanced power system design and operating conditions for efficiency, producing minimal air pollutant emissions and utilizing a wide range of fossil fuel properties. This project was divided into four tasks: the demonstration of the ash transformation model, upgrading spreadsheet tools, enhancements to analytical capabilities using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and improvements to the slag viscosity model. The ash transformation model, Atran, was used to predict the size and composition of ash particles, which has a major impact on the fate of the combustion system. To optimize Atran key factors such as mineral fragmentation and coalescence, the heterogeneous and homogeneous interaction of the organically associated elements must be considered as they are applied to the operating conditions. The resulting model's ash composition compares favorably to measured results. Enhancements to existing EERC spreadsheet application included upgrading interactive spreadsheets to calculate the thermodynamic properties for fuels, reactants, products, and steam with Newton Raphson algorithms to perform calculations on mass, energy, and elemental balances, isentropic expansion of steam, and gasifier equilibrium conditions. Derivative calculations can be performed to estimate fuel heating values, adiabatic flame temperatures, emission factors, comparative fuel costs, and per-unit carbon taxes from fuel analyses. Using state-of-the-art computer-controlled scanning electron microscopes and associated microanalysis systems, a method to determine viscosity using the incorporation of grey-scale binning acquired by the SEM image was developed. The image analysis capabilities of a backscattered electron image can be subdivided into various grey-scale ranges that can be analyzed separately. Since the grey scale's intensity is

  8. Malaysian English: An Instrumental Analysis of Vowel Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillai, Stefanie; Don, Zuraidah Mohd.; Knowles, Gerald; Tang, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes an instrumental analysis of English vowel monophthongs produced by 47 female Malaysian speakers. The focus is on the distribution of Malaysian English vowels in the vowel space, and the extent to which there is phonetic contrast between traditionally paired vowels. The results indicate that, like neighbouring varieties of English,…

  9. Incorporating Basic Optical Microscopy in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and versatile approach to incorporating basic optical microscopy in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory is described. Attaching a miniature CCD spectrometer to the video port of a standard compound microscope yields a visible microspectrophotometer suitable for student investigations of fundamental spectrometry concepts,…

  10. Advanced system on a chip microelectronics for spacecraft and science instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos P.

    2003-01-01

    instruments, etc. Common measurements that apply to many of these instruments are precise time interval measurement and high resolution read-out of solid state detectors. A precise time interval measurement chip was specially developed that achieves ˜100 ps (×10 improvement) time resolution at a power dissipation ˜20 mW (×50 improvement), dead time ˜1.5 μs (×20 improvement), and chip die size 5 mm×5 mm versus two 20 cm×20 cm doubled sided boards. This device is selected as a key enabling technology for several NASA particle, delay line imaging, and laser range finding instruments onboard (NASA Image, Messenger, etc. missions). Another device with universal application is radiation energy read-out from solid state detectors. Multi-channel low-power and end-to-end sensor input—digital output is key for the new generation instruments. The readout channel comprises of a Charge Sensitive Preamplifier with a target sensitivity of ˜1 KeV FWHM at 20 pf detector capacitance, a Shaper Amplifier with programmable time constant/gain, and an ADC. The read-out chip together with the precise time interval chip comprises the essential elements of a common particle spectroscopy instrument. To mention some more applications fast-signal acquisition—and digitization is a very useful function for a category of instrument such as mass spectroscopy and profile laser rangefinding. The single chip approach includes a high bandwidth preamplifier, fast sampling ˜5 ns, analog memory ˜10K locations, 12-bit ADC and serial/parallel I/Os. The wealth of the applications proves the advanced microelectronics field as a key enabling technology for the new millennium space exploration.

  11. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  12. Comparative study of mobile Raman instrumentation for art analysis.

    PubMed

    Vandenabeele, P; Castro, K; Hargreaves, M; Moens, L; Madariaga, J M; Edwards, H G M

    2007-04-01

    In archaeometry, one of the main concerns is to extract information from an art object, without damaging it. Raman spectroscopy is being applied in this research field with recent developments in mobile instrumentation facilitating more routine analysis. This research paper evaluates the performances of five mobile Raman instruments (Renishaw RA100, Renishaw Portable Raman Analyser RX210, Ocean Optics RSL-1, Delta Nu Inspector Raman, Mobile Art Analyser--MArtA) in three different laboratories. A set of samples were collected, in order to obtain information on the spectral performances of the instruments including: spectral resolution, calibration, laser cut-off, the ability to record spectra of organic and inorganic pigments through varnish layers and on the possibilities to identify biomaterials. Spectra were recorded from predefined regions on a canvas painting to simulate the investigation of artworks and the capabilities to record spectra from hardly accessible areas was evaluated. PMID:17386799

  13. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the GIFTS Instrument Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zomkowski, Paul P.

    2003-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Instrument is the next generation spectrometer for remote sensing weather satellites. The GIFTS instrument will be used to perform scans of the Earth s atmosphere by assembling a series of field-of- views (FOV) into a larger pattern. Realization of this process is achieved by step scanning the instrument FOV in a contiguous fashion across any desired portion of the visible Earth. A 2.3 arc second pointing stability, with respect to the scanning instrument, must be maintained for the duration of the FOV scan. A star tracker producing attitude data at 100 Hz rate will be used by the autonomous pointing algorithm to precisely track target FOV s on the surface of the Earth. The main objective is to validate the pointing algorithm in the presence of spacecraft disturbances and determine acceptable disturbance limits from expected noise sources. Proof of concept validation of the pointing system algorithm is carried out with a full system simulation developed using Matlab Simulink. Models for the following components function within the full system simulation: inertial reference unit (IRU), attitude control system (ACS), reaction wheels, star tracker, and mirror controller. With the spacecraft orbital position and attitude maintained to within specified limits the pointing algorithm receives quaternion, ephemeris, and initialization data that are used to construct the required mirror pointing commands at a 100 Hz rate. This comprehensive simulation will also aid in obtaining a thorough understanding of spacecraft disturbances and other sources of pointing system errors. Parameter sensitivity studies and disturbance analysis will be used to obtain limits of operability for the GIFTS instrument. The culmination of this simulation development and analysis will be used to validate the specified performance requirements outlined for this instrument.

  14. Advanced materials: Information and analysis needs

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Lee, R.; Trumble, D.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the findings of a study to identify the types of information and analysis that are needed for advanced materials. The project was sponsored by the US Bureau of Mines (BOM). It includes a conceptual description of information needs for advanced materials and the development and implementation of a questionnaire on the same subject. This report identifies twelve fundamental differences between advanced and traditional materials and discusses the implications of these differences for data and analysis needs. Advanced and traditional materials differ significantly in terms of physical and chemical properties. Advanced material properties can be customized more easily. The production of advanced materials may differ from traditional materials in terms of inputs, the importance of by-products, the importance of different processing steps (especially fabrication), and scale economies. The potential for change in advanced materials characteristics and markets is greater and is derived from the marriage of radically different materials and processes. In addition to the conceptual study, a questionnaire was developed and implemented to assess the opinions of people who are likely users of BOM information on advanced materials. The results of the questionnaire, which was sent to about 1000 people, generally confirm the propositions set forth in the conceptual part of the study. The results also provide data on the categories of advanced materials and the types of information that are of greatest interest to potential users. 32 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  15. Preliminary analysis of a flexible instrument mount for large instruments on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible instrument mount for large instruments on the space shuttle is analyzed. Concepts for pointing instruments while in orbit, with weights up to 2000 Kg and dimensions of 2 to 3 m were identified and analyzed. A mechanical concept was selected that can accommodate a set class of scientific instruments such as the LAMAR X-ray experiment with 24 LAMAR telescopes.

  16. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W. ); Goldberg, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  17. Advances in field-portable ion trap GC/MS instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diken, Eric G.; Arno, Josep; Skvorc, Ed; Manning, David; Andersson, Greger; Judge, Kevin; Fredeen, Ken; Sadowski, Charles; Oliphant, Joseph L.; Lammert, Stephen A.; Jones, Jeffrey L.; Waite, Randall W.; Grant, Chad; Lee, Edgar D.

    2012-06-01

    The rapid and accurate detection and identification of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals can be critical to the protection of military and civilian personnel. The use of gas chromatography (GC) - mass spectrometry (MS) can provide both the sensitivity and selectivity required to identify unknown chemicals in complex (i.e. real-world) environments. While most widely used as a laboratory-based technique, recent advances in GC, MS, and sampling technologies have led to the development of a hand-portable GC/MS system that is more practical for field-based analyses. The unique toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer (TMS) used in this instrument has multiple benefits related to size, weight, start-up time, ruggedness, and power consumption. Sample separation is achieved in record time (~ 3 minutes) and with high resolution using a state-of-the-art high-performance low-thermal-mass GC column. In addition to providing a system overview highlighting its most important features, the presentation will focus on the chromatographic and mass spectral performance of the system. Results from exhaustive performance testing of the new instrument will be introduced to validate its unique robustness and ability to identify targeted and unknown chemicals.

  18. Advanced earthquake monitoring system for U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs medical buildings--instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Reza, Shahneam; Cheng, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP; http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/) of the U.S. Geological Survey has been installing sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of 28 VA hospital buildings located in seismically active regions of the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico during earthquake shaking. These advanced monitoring systems, which combine the use of sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are designed to determine the structural health of each hospital building rapidly after an event, helping the VA to ensure the safety of patients and staff. This report presents the instrumentation component of this project by providing details of each hospital building, including a summary of its structural, geotechnical, and seismic hazard information, as well as instrumentation objectives and design. The structural-health monitoring component of the project, including data retrieval and processing, damage detection and localization, automated alerting system, and finally data dissemination, will be presented in a separate report.

  19. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  20. Modern Material Analysis Instruments Add a New Dimension to Materials Characterization and Failure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Binayak

    2009-01-01

    Modern analytical tools can yield invaluable results during materials characterization and failure analysis. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) provide significant analytical capabilities, including angstrom-level resolution. These systems can be equipped with a silicon drift detector (SDD) for very fast yet precise analytical mapping of phases, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) units to map grain orientations, chambers that admit large samples, variable pressure for wet samples, and quantitative analysis software to examine phases. Advanced solid-state electronics have also improved surface and bulk analysis instruments: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) can quantitatively determine and map light elements such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron - with their isotopes. Its high sensitivity detects impurities at parts per billion (ppb) levels. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) can determine oxidation states of elements, as well as identifying polymers and measuring film thicknesses on coated composites. This technique is also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAM) combines surface sensitivity, spatial lateral resolution (10 nm), and depth profiling capabilities to describe elemental compositions of near and below surface regions down to the chemical state of an atom.

  1. The CCD/Transit Instrument (CTI) data-analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawson, M. G. M.; Mcgraw, J. T.; Keane, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the Kitt Peak CCD/Transit Instrument's software for the automated archiving, analysis, and interrogation of each observation night's nearly 450 Mbytes of image data. The analysis phase is performed by a pair of linked algorithms, one of which operates on the absolute pixel-values and the other on the spatial derivative of the data, so that both isolated and merged images are reliably detected in a single pass. This is in due course followed by the automatic comparison of each new detection with a set of predefined templates in parameter space, in order to find such interesting objects as supernovae, quasars, and variable stars.

  2. Sneak circuit analysis of instrumentation and control systems. [technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, J. P.; Williams, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The evolvement and implementation is presented of a systematic means for detecting the sneak prone designs of an electrical system which could result in such unplanned modes so that they can be prevented prior to occurrence. Sneak circuit analysis is shown to be a formalized approach based upon topological techniques. The trees employed are produced from manufacturing detail data processed by a computer to orderly completion. The analysis techniques applied on a variety of NASA programs are shown to be particularly applicable to industrial instrumentation and control systems.

  3. Advanced nuclear energy analysis technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Murata, Kenneth K.; Romero, Vicente JosÔe; Young, Michael Francis; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2004-05-01

    A two-year effort focused on applying ASCI technology developed for the analysis of weapons systems to the state-of-the-art accident analysis of a nuclear reactor system was proposed. The Sandia SIERRA parallel computing platform for ASCI codes includes high-fidelity thermal, fluids, and structural codes whose coupling through SIERRA can be specifically tailored to the particular problem at hand to analyze complex multiphysics problems. Presently, however, the suite lacks several physics modules unique to the analysis of nuclear reactors. The NRC MELCOR code, not presently part of SIERRA, was developed to analyze severe accidents in present-technology reactor systems. We attempted to: (1) evaluate the SIERRA code suite for its current applicability to the analysis of next generation nuclear reactors, and the feasibility of implementing MELCOR models into the SIERRA suite, (2) examine the possibility of augmenting ASCI codes or alternatives by coupling to the MELCOR code, or portions thereof, to address physics particular to nuclear reactor issues, especially those facing next generation reactor designs, and (3) apply the coupled code set to a demonstration problem involving a nuclear reactor system. We were successful in completing the first two in sufficient detail to determine that an extensive demonstration problem was not feasible at this time. In the future, completion of this research would demonstrate the feasibility of performing high fidelity and rapid analyses of safety and design issues needed to support the development of next generation power reactor systems.

  4. Advances in clinical analysis 2012.

    PubMed

    Couchman, Lewis; Mills, Graham A

    2013-01-01

    A report on the meeting organized by The Chromatographic Society and the Separation Science Group, Analytical Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry. Over 60 delegates and commercial exhibitors attended this event, held to celebrate the careers of Robert Flanagan and David Perrett, and acknowledge their extensive contributions in the field of clinical analysis. PMID:23330556

  5. Instrumented propellant block test and stress analysis comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Richard E.; Perkins, Steven E.

    1992-02-01

    There is an on-going need to experimentally measure bond stresses in both termination stress and low-gradient stress areas of solid propellant rocket motors employing composite cases and having complex geometries. These measurements are needed to verify the finite element-predicted structural margins and environmental operating limits for these advanced tactical, strategic, and space motors. Chemical Systems Division undertook a program to develop stress transducers usable in low stress gradient regions and in termination, or high stress gradient, regions. The various transducers were evaluated in propellant blocks tested in tension and compression in the laboratory prior to being placed into structural test vehicles. Finite element analyses of the propellant test blocks were also performed to predict transducer response. The results of the instrumented propellant block tests are presented.

  6. Seismic response analysis of an instrumented building structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, H.-J.; Zhu, S.-Y.; Celebi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Sheraton - Universal hotel, an instrumented building lying in North Hollywood, USA is selected for case study in this paper. The finite element method is used to produce a linear time - invariant structural model, and the SAP2000 program is employed for the time history analysis of the instrumented structure under the base excitation of strong motions recorded in the basement during the Northridge, California earthquake of 17 January 1994. The calculated structural responses are compared with the recorded data in both time domain and frequency domain, and the effects of structural parameters evaluation and indeterminate factors are discussed. Some features of structural response, such as the reason why the peak responses of acceleration in the ninth floor are larger than those in the sixteenth floor, are also explained.

  7. Thermal and Alignment Analysis of the Instrument-Level ATLAS Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal analysis and test design performed in preparation for the ATLAS thermal vacuum test. NASA's Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) will be flown as the sole instrument aboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2). It will be used to take measurements of topography and ice thickness for Arctic and Antarctic regions, providing crucial data used to predict future changes in worldwide sea levels. Due to the precise measurements ATLAS is taking, the laser altimeter has very tight pointing requirements. Therefore, the instrument is very sensitive to temperature-induced thermal distortions. For this reason, it is necessary to perform a Structural, Thermal, Optical Performance (STOP) analysis not only for flight, but also to ensure performance requirements can be operationally met during instrument-level thermal vacuum testing. This paper describes the thermal model created for the chamber setup, which was used to generate inputs for the environmental STOP analysis. This paper also presents the results of the STOP analysis, which indicate that the test predictions adequately replicate the thermal distortions predicted for flight. This is a new application of an existing process, as STOP analyses are generally performed to predict flight behavior only. Another novel aspect of this test is that it presents the opportunity to verify pointing results of a STOP model, which is not generally done. It is possible in this case, however, because the actual pointing will be measured using flight hardware during thermal vacuum testing and can be compared to STOP predictions.

  8. Advanced Non-Destructive Assay Systems and Special Instrumentation Requirements for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.; Swinson, B.

    2008-07-01

    drawings and documentation (iii) Lack of compatibility with modern computers, software, data transfer networks, digital protocols and electrical code standards, (iv) Non-compliance with current and future mandatory standards and regulations for nuclear facilities (v) Design focused on measurement and control points that may be specific to the facility process (vi) Lack of utilization of recent technological advances where better performing, less complex and more cost-effective options are now available. Key radiometric measurement drivers and control points for future recycling facilities have been determined and a review of the adequacy of existing instrumentation has been performed. Areas where recent technology improvements may be more effectively deployed and future technology development may be appropriate are identified. (author)

  9. The OMPS Limb Profiler instrument: Data analysis and retrieval algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rault, Didier; Loughman, Robert; Bourassa, Adam; Taha, Ghassan; Jaross, Glen; Flittner, Dave

    The Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS) is scheduled to be launched on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) platform in early 2010. The OMPS will continue monitoring ozone from space, using three instruments, namely the Total Column Mapper (heritage: TOMS, OMI), the Nadir Profiler (heritage: SBUV) and the Limb Profiler (heritage: SOLSE/LORE, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY, SAGE III). The collection of this ozone data is aimed at fulfilling the U.S. treaty obligation to monitor the ozone depletion for the Montreal Protocol to ensure no gaps on ozone coverage. The paper will describe the data analysis method being presently developed to retrieve ozone vertical distribution from the radiance data measured by the Limb Profiler (LP). The OMPS-LP instrument was designed based upon the SOLSE/LORE heritage and is specially conceived to minimize stray light. The sensor simultaneously images the whole vertical extent of the Earth's limb through three vertical slits, each horizontally spaced at 250 km cross-track interval and covering a vertical tangent height range of 100 km. The calibration stability, which is essential to enable long-term ozone monitoring, is maintained by periodic observations of the sun, using a transmissive diffuser to redirect the solar irradiance into the telescope. To satisfy the anticipated science needs, the accuracy/precision requirements imposed upon the OMPS-LP instrument are tight, ranging from 10

  10. Instrument for Analysis of Organic Compounds on Other Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daulton, Riley M.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the Instrument for Solvent Extraction and Analysis of Extraterrestrial Bodies using In Situ Resources (ISEE). Specifically, ISEE will extract and characterize organic compounds from regolith which is found on the surface of other planets or asteroids. The techniques this instrument will use are supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). ISEE aligns with NASA's goal to expand the frontiers of knowledge, capability, and opportunities in space in addition to supporting NASA's aim to search for life elsewhere by characterizing organic compounds. The outcome of this project will be conceptual designs of 2 components of the ISEE instrument as well as the completion of proof-of-concept extraction experiments to demonstrate the capabilities of SFE. The first conceptual design is a pressure vessel to be used for the extraction of the organic compounds from the regolith. This includes a comparison of different materials, geometry's, and a proposition of how to insert the regolith into the vessel. The second conceptual design identifies commercially available fluid pumps based on the requirements needed to generate supercritical CO2. The proof-of-concept extraction results show the percent mass lost during standard solvent extractions of regolith with organic compounds. This data will be compared to SFE results to demonstrate the capabilities of ISEE's approach.

  11. The DARHTAcquisition, Archival, Analysis, And Instrument Control System (DAAAC), And Network Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, Rita Denise; Sanchez, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is the world's most advanced weapons test facility. DARHT contains two linear accelerators for producing flash radiographs of hydrodynamic experiments. High-speed electronics and optical instrumentation are used for triggering the accelerators and collecting accelerator data. Efficient and effective diagnostics provide basic information needed to routinely tune the accelerators for peak radiographic performance, and to successfully monitor the accelerators performance. DARHT's server and network infrastructure is a key element in providing shot related data storage and retrieval for successfully executing radiographic experiments. This paper will outline the elaborate Data Acquisition, Archival, Analysis, and Instrument Control System (DAAAC), as well as the server and network infrastructure for both accelerators.

  12. Accurate Characterization of Winter Precipitation Using In-Situ Instrumentation, CSU-CHILL Radar, and Advanced Scattering Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. J.; Notaros, B. M.; Bringi, V. N.; Kleinkort, C.; Huang, G. J.; Kennedy, P.; Thurai, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel approach to remote sensing and characterization of winter precipitation and modeling of radar observables through a synergistic use of advanced in-situ instrumentation for microphysical and geometrical measurements of ice and snow particles, image processing methodology to reconstruct complex particle three-dimensional (3D) shapes, computational electromagnetics to analyze realistic precipitation scattering, and state-of-the-art polarimetric radar. Our in-situ measurement site at the Easton Valley View Airport, La Salle, Colorado, shown in the figure, consists of two advanced optical imaging disdrometers within a 2/3-scaled double fence intercomparison reference wind shield, and also includes PLUVIO snow measuring gauge, VAISALA weather station, and collocated NCAR GPS advanced upper-air system sounding system. Our primary radar is the CSU-CHILL radar, with a dual-offset Gregorian antenna featuring very high polarization purity and excellent side-lobe performance in any plane, and the in-situ instrumentation site being very conveniently located at a range of 12.92 km from the radar. A multi-angle snowflake camera (MASC) is used to capture multiple different high-resolution views of an ice particle in free-fall, along with its fall speed. We apply a visual hull geometrical method for reconstruction of 3D shapes of particles based on the images collected by the MASC, and convert these shapes into models for computational electromagnetic scattering analysis, using a higher order method of moments. A two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD), collocated with the MASC, provides 2D contours of a hydrometeor, along with the fall speed and other important parameters. We use the fall speed from the MASC and the 2DVD, along with state parameters measured at the Easton site, to estimate the particle mass (Böhm's method), and then the dielectric constant of particles, based on a Maxwell-Garnet formula. By calculation of the "particle-by-particle" scattering

  13. Job/task analysis for I C (Instrumentation and Controls) instrument technicians at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, L.L.

    1989-09-01

    To comply with Department of Energy Order 5480.XX (Draft), a job/task analysis was initiated by the Maintenance Management Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis was applicable to instrument technicians working at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This document presents the procedures and results of that analysis. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  14. AXIS: an instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Zacharias, R; Felker, B; Holder, J P; Allen, F V; Bell, P M; Bradley, D; Montesanti, R; Landen, O L

    2014-11-01

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV-200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition. PMID:25430200

  15. AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G. N. Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Zacharias, R.; Felker, B.; Holder, J. P.; Allen, F. V.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D.; Montesanti, R.; Landen, O. L.

    2014-11-15

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV–200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  16. AXIS: an instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Zacharias, R; Felker, B; Holder, J P; Allen, F V; Bell, P M; Bradley, D; Montesanti, R; Landen, O L

    2014-11-01

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV-200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  17. Advanced Placement: Model Policy Components. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), launched in 1955 by the College Board as a program to offer gifted high school students the opportunity to complete entry-level college coursework, has since expanded to encourage a broader array of students to tackle challenging content. This Education Commission of the State's Policy Analysis identifies key components of…

  18. Advanced superposition methods for high speed turbopump vibration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, C. E.; Campany, A. D.

    1981-01-01

    The small, high pressure Mark 48 liquid hydrogen turbopump was analyzed and dynamically tested to determine the cause of high speed vibration at an operating speed of 92,400 rpm. This approaches the design point operating speed of 95,000 rpm. The initial dynamic analysis in the design stage and subsequent further analysis of the rotor only dynamics failed to predict the vibration characteristics found during testing. An advanced procedure for dynamics analysis was used in this investigation. The procedure involves developing accurate dynamic models of the rotor assembly and casing assembly by finite element analysis. The dynamically instrumented assemblies are independently rap tested to verify the analytical models. The verified models are then combined by modal superposition techniques to develop a completed turbopump model where dynamic characteristics are determined. The results of the dynamic testing and analysis obtained are presented and methods of moving the high speed vibration characteristics to speeds above the operating range are recommended. Recommendations for use of these advanced dynamic analysis procedures during initial design phases are given.

  19. Enabling in-situ observation of organic aerosol speciated composition: Advances in TAG instrumentation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, A. H.; Worton, D. R.; Zhao, Y.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Teng, A. P.; Hering, S. V.; Gorecki, T.; Ranjan, M.; Hennigan, C. J.; Lambe, A.; Nguyen, N.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Jayne, J. T.; Williams, B. J.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The complex chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols, particularly the organic carbon portion, presents unique measurement challenges. We developed the Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (TAG) system for hourly in-situ speciation of a wide range of primary and secondary organic compounds in aerosols. This instrument combines an impactor particle collector with thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric detection to provide separation, identification, and quantification of organic constituents at the molecular level. Observed compounds include alkanes, aldehydes, ketones, PAHs, monocarboxylic acids, and many more. The hourly time resolution measurements provided by TAG capture dynamic and frequent changes in aerosol composition that would not be resolved using traditional filter collection. TAG measurements also provide a much larger data set, facilitating the use of statistical approaches such as positive matrix factorization to identify source categories and their contributions to the total observed aerosol. Because TAG identifies organic compounds at the molecular level, it can build on the extensive work obtained by traditional GC/MS analysis of filter samples on source emission profiles and secondary organic aerosol formation. We report here continued developments in the capabilities of our TAG system. Most recently, we have incorporated a two-dimensional chromatography (GC×GC) capability into TAG, and now have that instrument operating with a time of flight (TOF) MS detector. Two-dimensional chromatography provides two types of compound separation, most typically by volatility and polarity. It uses two columns with different stationary phases connected in series separated by a modulator. The modulator periodically traps analytes eluting from the first column, and injects fractions of this effluent onto the second column in the form of narrow pulses providing additional separation for co-eluting peaks. The approach

  20. Advanced Interval Management: A Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timer, Sebastian; Peters, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)- sponsored task order 'Possible Benefits for Advanced Interval Management Operations.' Under this research project, Architecture Technology Corporation performed an analysis to determine the maximum potential benefit to be gained if specific Advanced Interval Management (AIM) operations were implemented in the National Airspace System (NAS). The motivation for this research is to guide NASA decision-making on which Interval Management (IM) applications offer the most potential benefit and warrant further research.

  1. Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Soft Drinks: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard C.; Robertson, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental procedure for determining trihalomethanes (THMs) in liquids by gas chromatography. Provides recommendations for reactants and supplies to obtain acceptable results. Discusses the analysis of water from various sources: pools, lakes, and drinking water; compares these to three cola drinks. (ML)

  2. Retest of a Principal Components Analysis of Two Household Environmental Risk Instruments.

    PubMed

    Oneal, Gail A; Postma, Julie; Odom-Maryon, Tamara; Butterfield, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Household Risk Perception (HRP) and Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk Reduction (SEERR) instruments were developed for a public health nurse-delivered intervention designed to reduce home-based, environmental health risks among rural, low-income families. The purpose of this study was to test both instruments in a second low-income population that differed geographically and economically from the original sample. Participants (N = 199) were recruited from the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Paper and pencil surveys were collected at WIC sites by research-trained student nurses. Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted, and comparisons were made to the original PCA for the purpose of data reduction. Instruments showed satisfactory Cronbach alpha values for all components. HRP components were reduced from five to four, which explained 70% of variance. The components were labeled sensed risks, unseen risks, severity of risks, and knowledge. In contrast to the original testing, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) items was not a separate component of the HRP. The SEERR analysis demonstrated four components explaining 71% of variance, with similar patterns of items as in the first study, including a component on ETS, but some differences in item location. Although low-income populations constituted both samples, differences in demographics and risk exposures may have played a role in component and item locations. Findings provided justification for changing or reducing items, and for tailoring the instruments to population-level risks and behaviors. Although analytic refinement will continue, both instruments advance the measurement of environmental health risk perception and self-efficacy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27227487

  3. Retest of a Principal Components Analysis of Two Household Environmental Risk Instruments.

    PubMed

    Oneal, Gail A; Postma, Julie; Odom-Maryon, Tamara; Butterfield, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Household Risk Perception (HRP) and Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk Reduction (SEERR) instruments were developed for a public health nurse-delivered intervention designed to reduce home-based, environmental health risks among rural, low-income families. The purpose of this study was to test both instruments in a second low-income population that differed geographically and economically from the original sample. Participants (N = 199) were recruited from the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Paper and pencil surveys were collected at WIC sites by research-trained student nurses. Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted, and comparisons were made to the original PCA for the purpose of data reduction. Instruments showed satisfactory Cronbach alpha values for all components. HRP components were reduced from five to four, which explained 70% of variance. The components were labeled sensed risks, unseen risks, severity of risks, and knowledge. In contrast to the original testing, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) items was not a separate component of the HRP. The SEERR analysis demonstrated four components explaining 71% of variance, with similar patterns of items as in the first study, including a component on ETS, but some differences in item location. Although low-income populations constituted both samples, differences in demographics and risk exposures may have played a role in component and item locations. Findings provided justification for changing or reducing items, and for tailoring the instruments to population-level risks and behaviors. Although analytic refinement will continue, both instruments advance the measurement of environmental health risk perception and self-efficacy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Christopher R.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Arvey, Robert; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; Farley, Rodger; Feng, Steven; Frazier, Gregory; Glavin, Daniel P.; Harpold, Daniel N.; Jordan, Partick; Kellogg, James; Lewis, Jesse; Martin, David K.; Maurer, John; McAdam, Amy C.; McLennan, Douglas; Pavlov, Alexander A.; Raaen, Eric; Schinman, Oren

    2012-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantially to the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essential step in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite located in the interior of MSL's Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupled through solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on the same samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyze volatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In addition to measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conduct a sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction from sieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rover's robotic arm,

  5. The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Chris R.; Cabane, M.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coll, Patrice; Atreya, Sushil K.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Bleacher, L.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Carignan, Daniel; Cascia, Mark; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; Everson, Paula; Franz, Heather; Farley, Rodger; Feng, Steven; Frazier, Gregory; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Harpold, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory(MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatilesextracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantiallyto the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essentialstep in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite locatedin the interior of MSLs Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole massspectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupledthrough solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on thesame samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyzevolatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In additionto measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conducta sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction fromsieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rovers roboticarm.

  6. Optical instrumentation for on-line analysis of chemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Cremers, D.A.; Loree, T.R.; Quigley, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Optical diagnostics provide the capability for nonintrusive, on-line, real time analysis of chemical process streams. Several laser-based methods for monitoring fossil energy processes have been evaluated. Among the instrumentation techniques which appear quite promising are coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). A CARS diagnostic was implemented on a coal gasifier and was successfully employed to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the process stream. The LIBS approach has been used to identify total trace impurities (e.g., Na, K, and S) within a gasifier. Recently, individual components in mixtures of aromatics hydrocarbons have been resolved via the synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. 9 figures.

  7. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

  8. Development of test methodology for dynamic mechanical analysis instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, V. R.

    1982-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical analysis instrumentation was used for the development of specific test methodology in the determination of engineering parameters of selected materials, esp. plastics and elastomers, over a broad range of temperature with selected environment. The methodology for routine procedures was established with specific attention given to sample geometry, sample size, and mounting techniques. The basic software of the duPont 1090 thermal analyzer was used for data reduction which simplify the theoretical interpretation. Clamps were developed which allowed 'relative' damping during the cure cycle to be measured for the fiber-glass supported resin. The correlation of fracture energy 'toughness' (or impact strength) with the low temperature (glassy) relaxation responses for a 'rubber-modified' epoxy system was negative in result because the low-temperature dispersion mode (-80 C) of the modifier coincided with that of the epoxy matrix, making quantitative comparison unrealistic.

  9. Lock Acquisition and Sensitivity Analysis of Advanced LIGO Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, Denis

    Laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) consists of two complex large-scale laser interferometers designed for direct detection of gravitational waves from distant astrophysical sources in the frequency range 10Hz - 5kHz. Direct detection of space-time ripples will support Einstein's general theory of relativity and provide invaluable information and new insight into physics of the Universe. The initial phase of LIGO started in 2002, and since then data was collected during the six science runs. Instrument sensitivity improved from run to run due to the effort of commissioning team. Initial LIGO has reached designed sensitivity during the last science run, which ended in October 2010. In parallel with commissioning and data analysis with the initial detector, LIGO group worked on research and development of the next generation of detectors. Major instrument upgrade from initial to advanced LIGO started in 2010 and lasted until 2014. This thesis describes results of commissioning work done at the LIGO Livingston site from 2013 until 2015 in parallel with and after the installation of the instrument. This thesis also discusses new techniques and tools developed at the 40m prototype including adaptive filtering, estimation of quantization noise in digital filters and design of isolation kits for ground seismometers. The first part of this thesis is devoted to the description of methods for bringing the interferometer into linear regime when collection of data becomes possible. States of longitudinal and angular controls of interferometer degrees of freedom during lock acquisition process and in low noise configuration are discussed in details. Once interferometer is locked and transitioned to low noise regime, instrument produces astrophysics data that should be calibrated to units of meters or strain. The second part of this thesis describes online calibration technique set up in both observatories to monitor the quality of the collected data in

  10. Advanced Analysis Methods in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Pushpalatha C. Bhat

    2001-10-03

    During the coming decade, high energy physics experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron and around the globe will use very sophisticated equipment to record unprecedented amounts of data in the hope of making major discoveries that may unravel some of Nature's deepest mysteries. The discovery of the Higgs boson and signals of new physics may be around the corner. The use of advanced analysis techniques will be crucial in achieving these goals. The author discusses some of the novel methods of analysis that could prove to be particularly valuable for finding evidence of any new physics, for improving precision measurements and for exploring parameter spaces of theoretical models.

  11. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

    2006-12-01

    A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

  12. [Final goal and problems in clinical chemistry examination measured by advanced analytical instruments].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M; Hashimoto, E

    1993-07-01

    In the field of clinical chemistry of Japan, the automation of analytical instruments first appeared in the 1960's with the rapid developments in electronics industry. After a series of improvements and modifications in the past thirty years, these analytical instruments became excellent with multifunctions. From the results of these developments, it is now well recognized that automated analytical instruments are indispensable to manage the modern clinical Laboratory. On the other hand, these automated analytical instruments uncovered the various problems which had been hitherto undetected when the manually-operated instruments were used. For instances, the variation of commercially available standard solutions due to the lack of government control causes the different values obtained in institutions. In addition, there are many problems such as a shortage of medical technologists, a complication to handle the sampling and an increased labor costs. Furthermore, the inadequacies in maintenance activities cause the frequent erroneous reports of laboratory findings in spite of the latest and efficient analytical instruments equipped. Thus, the working process in clinical laboratory must be systematized to create the rapidity and the effectiveness. In the present report, we review the developmental history of automation system for analytical instruments, discuss the problems to create the effective clinical laboratory and explore the ways to deal with these emerging issues for the automation technology in clinical laboratory.

  13. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  14. Instrumentation for automated acquisition and analysis of TLD glow curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, I. J.; Kennett, T. J.; Harvey, J. W.

    1991-04-01

    Instrumentation for the automated and complete acquisition of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) data from a Panasonic UD-702E TLD reader is reported. The system that has been developed consists of both hardware and software components and is designed to operate with an IBM-type personal computer. Acquisition of glow curve, timing, and heating data has been integrated with elementary numerical analysis to permit real-time validity and diagnostic assessments to be made. This allows the optimization of critical parameters such as duration of the heating cycles and the time window for the integration of the dosimetry peak. The form of the Li 2B 4O 7:Cu TLD glow curve has been studied and a mathematical representation devised to assist in the implementation of automated analysis. Differences in the shape of the curve can be used to identify dosimetry peaks due to artifacts or to identify failing components. Examples of the use of this system for quality assurance in the TLD monitoring program at McMaster University are presented.

  15. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  16. Advances in electron microscopy: A qualitative view of instrumentation development for macromolecular imaging and tomography.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Rasmus R

    2015-09-01

    Macromolecular imaging and tomography of ice embedded samples has developed into a mature imaging technology, in structural biology today widely referred to simply as cryo electron microscopy.(1) While the pioneers of the technique struggled with ill-suited instruments, state-of-the-art cryo microscopes are now readily available and an increasing number of groups are producing excellent high-resolution structural data of macromolecular complexes, of cellular organelles, or the morphology of whole cells. Instrumentation developers, however, are offering yet more novel electron optical devices, such as energy filters and monochromators, aberration correctors or physical phase plates. Here we discuss how current instrumentation has already changed cryo EM, and how newly available instrumentation - often developed in other fields of electron microscopy - may further develop the use and applicability of cryo EM to the imaging of single isolated macromolecules of smaller size or molecules embedded in a crowded cellular environment.

  17. Instrument Systems Analysis and Verification Facility (ISAVF) users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. F.; Thomason, J. O.; Wolfgang, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The ISAVF facility is primarily an interconnected system of computers, special purpose real time hardware, and associated generalized software systems, which will permit the Instrument System Analysts, Design Engineers and Instrument Scientists, to perform trade off studies, specification development, instrument modeling, and verification of the instrument, hardware performance. It is not the intent of the ISAVF to duplicate or replace existing special purpose facilities such as the Code 710 Optical Laboratories or the Code 750 Test and Evaluation facilities. The ISAVF will provide data acquisition and control services for these facilities, as needed, using remote computer stations attached to the main ISAVF computers via dedicated communication lines.

  18. Monte Carlo code for neutron scattering instrumentation design and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, L.; Fitzsimmons, M.; Hjelm, R.; Olah, G.; Roberts, J.; Seeger, P.; Smith, G.; Thelliez, T.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The development of next generation, accelerator based neutron sources calls for the design of new instruments for neutron scattering studies of materials. It will be necessary, in the near future, to evaluate accurately and rapidly the performance of new and traditional neutron instruments at short- and long-pulse spallation neutron sources, as well as continuous sources. We have developed a code that is a design tool to assist the instrument designer model new or existing instruments, test their performance, and optimize their most important features.

  19. 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar Instrument Advancements for Tropospheric Wind Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Kavaya, M. J.; Koch, G.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge derived from global tropospheric wind measurement is an important constituent of our overall understanding of climate behavior [1]. Accurate weather prediction saves lives and protects properties from destructions. High-energy 2-micron laser is the transmitter of choice for coherent Doppler wind detection. In addition to the eye-safety, the wavelength of the transmitter suitably matches the aerosol size in the lower troposphere. Although the technology of the 2-micron laser has been maturing steadily, lidar derived wind data is still a void in the global weather database. In the last decade, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have been engaged in this endeavor, contributing to the scientific database of 2-micron lidar transmitters. As part of this effort, an in depth analysis of the physics involved in the workings of the Ho: Tm laser systems have been published. In the last few years, we have demonstrated lidar transmitter with over1Joule output energy. In addition, a large body of work has been done in characterizing new laser materials and unique crystal configurations to enhance the efficiency and output energy of the 2-micron laser systems. At present 2-micron lidar systems are measuring wind from both ground and airborne platforms. This paper will provide an overview of the advancements made in recent years and the technology maturity levels attained.

  20. An Analysis of Several Instruments Measuring "Nature of Science" Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Rodney L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is an investigation of the relationship among three selected instruments based on the responses of a sample of high school students. The instruments were the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS), the Science Support Scale (SSS), and the Test on the Social Aspects of Science (TSAS). All purport to measure "nature of science" objectives. (PEB)

  1. PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques for photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Newmiller, J.; Hutchinson, P.; Townsend, T.; Whitaker, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) project tests two types of PV systems at the main test site in Davis, California: new module technologies fielded as 20-kW Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays and more mature technologies fielded as 70- to 500-kW turnkey Utility-Scale (US) systems. PVUSA members have also installed systems in their service areas. Designed appropriately, data acquisition systems (DASs) can be a convenient and reliable means of assessing system performance, value, and health. Improperly designed, they can be complicated, difficult to use and maintain, and provide data of questionable validity. This report documents PVUSA PV system instrumentation and data analysis techniques and lessons learned. The report is intended to assist utility engineers, PV system designers, and project managers in establishing an objective, then, through a logical series of topics, facilitate selection and design of a DAS to meet the objective. Report sections include Performance Reporting Objectives (including operational versus research DAS), Recommended Measurements, Measurement Techniques, Calibration Issues, and Data Processing and Analysis Techniques. Conclusions and recommendations based on the several years of operation and performance monitoring are offered. This report is one in a series of 1994--1995 PVUSA reports documenting PVUSA lessons learned at the demonstration sites in Davis and Kerman, California. Other topical reports address: five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid support PV plant benefits; construction and safety experience in installing and operating PV systems; balance-of-system design and costs; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  2. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  3. Flight instrumentation specification for parameter identification: Program user's guide. [instrument errors/error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A set of four digital computer programs is presented which can be used to investigate the effects of instrumentation errors on the accuracy of aircraft and helicopter stability-and-control derivatives identified from flight test data. The programs assume that the differential equations of motion are linear and consist of small perturbations about a quasi-steady flight condition. It is also assumed that a Newton-Raphson optimization technique is used for identifying the estimates of the parameters. Flow charts and printouts are included.

  4. Development of simulation techniques suitable for the analysis of air traffic control situations and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A terminal area simulation is described which permits analysis and synthesis of current and advanced air traffic management system configurations including ground and airborne instrumentation and new and modified aircraft characteristics. Ground elements in the simulation include navigation aids, surveillance radars, communication links, air-route structuring, ATC procedures, airport geometries and runway handling constraints. Airborne elements include traffic samples with individual aircraft performance and operating characteristics and aircraft navigation equipment. The simulation also contains algorithms for conflict detection, conflict resolution, sequencing and pilot-controller data links. The simulation model is used to determine the sensitivities of terminal area traffic flow, safety and congestion to aircraft performance characteristics, avionics systems, and other ATC elements.

  5. Advanced Telescopes and Observatories and Scientific Instruments and Sensors Capability Roadmaps: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Dan; Bankston, Perry

    2005-01-01

    Agency objective are: Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  6. The CCD/Transit Instrument (CTI) data-analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawson, M. G. M.; Mcgraw, J. T.; Keane, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    The automated software system for archiving, analyzing, and interrogating data from the CCD/Transit Instrument (CTI) is described. The CTI collects up to 450 Mbytes of image-data each clear night in the form of a narrow strip of sky observed in two colors. The large data-volumes and the scientific aims of the project make it imperative that the data are analyzed within the 24-hour period following the observations. To this end a fully automatic and self evaluating software system has been developed. The data are collected from the telescope in real-time and then transported to Tucson for analysis. Verification is performed by visual inspection of random subsets of the data and obvious cosmic rays are detected and removed before permanent archival is made to the optical disc. The analysis phase is performed by a pair of linked algorithms, one operating on the absolute pixel-values and the other on the spatial derivative of the data. In this way both isolated and merged images are reliably detected in a single pass. In order to isolate the latter algorithm from the effects of noise spikes a 3x3 Hanning filter is applied to the raw data before the analysis is run. The algorithms reduce the input pixel-data to a database of measured parameters for each image which has been found. A contrast filter is applied in order to assign a detection-probability to each image and then x-y calibration and intensity calibration are performed using known reference stars in the strip. These are added to as necessary by secondary standards boot-strapped from the CTI data itself. The final stages involve merging the new data into the CTI Master-list and History-list and the automatic comparison of each new detection with a set of pre-defined templates in parameter-space to find interesting objects such as supernovae, quasars and variable stars. Each stage of the processing from verification to interesting image selection is performed under a data-logging system which both controls the

  7. Advancing Behavior Analysis in Zoos and Aquariums.

    PubMed

    Maple, Terry L; Segura, Valerie D

    2015-05-01

    Zoos, aquariums, and other captive animal facilities offer promising opportunities to advance the science and practice of behavior analysis. Zoos and aquariums are necessarily concerned with the health and well-being of their charges and are held to a high standard by their supporters (visitors, members, and donors), organized critics, and the media. Zoos and aquariums offer unique venues for teaching and research and a locus for expanding the footprint of behavior analysis. In North America, Europe, and the UK, formal agreements between zoos, aquariums, and university graduate departments have been operating successfully for decades. To expand on this model, it will be necessary to help zoo and aquarium managers throughout the world to recognize the value of behavior analysis in the delivery of essential animal health and welfare services. Academic institutions, administrators, and invested faculty should consider the utility of training students to meet the growing needs of applied behavior analysis in zoos and aquariums and other animal facilities such as primate research centers, sanctuaries, and rescue centers.

  8. Advancing Behavior Analysis in Zoos and Aquariums.

    PubMed

    Maple, Terry L; Segura, Valerie D

    2015-05-01

    Zoos, aquariums, and other captive animal facilities offer promising opportunities to advance the science and practice of behavior analysis. Zoos and aquariums are necessarily concerned with the health and well-being of their charges and are held to a high standard by their supporters (visitors, members, and donors), organized critics, and the media. Zoos and aquariums offer unique venues for teaching and research and a locus for expanding the footprint of behavior analysis. In North America, Europe, and the UK, formal agreements between zoos, aquariums, and university graduate departments have been operating successfully for decades. To expand on this model, it will be necessary to help zoo and aquarium managers throughout the world to recognize the value of behavior analysis in the delivery of essential animal health and welfare services. Academic institutions, administrators, and invested faculty should consider the utility of training students to meet the growing needs of applied behavior analysis in zoos and aquariums and other animal facilities such as primate research centers, sanctuaries, and rescue centers. PMID:27540508

  9. The theoretical analysis of an instrument for linear and angular displacements of the steered wheel measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wach, K.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper the theoretical analysis of the measuring instrument for determination of translation and rotation of the stub axle with the steered wheel against car body was presented. The instrument is made of nine links with elongation sensors embedded in it. One of several possible structures of instrument of this kind was presented. Basing on solution of the geometrical constraints system of equations of the device, the numerical analysis of the measurement accuracy was conducted.

  10. The Urey Instrument: An Advanced In Situ Organic and Oxidant Detector for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, Andrew D.; Chalmers, John H.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Amashukeli, Xenia; Willis, Peter; Skelley, Alison M.; Mathies, Richard A.; Quinn, Richard C.; Zent, Aaron P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Amundson, Ron; Glavin Daniel P.; Botta, Oliver; Barron, Laurence; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Coleman, Max; Hofmann, Beda A.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Rettberg, Petra; Ride, Sally; Musée, François Robert; Sephton, Mark A.; Yen, Albert

    2008-06-01

    The Urey organic and oxidant detector consists of a suite of instruments designed to search for several classes of organic molecules in the martian regolith and ascertain whether these compounds were produced by biotic or abiotic processes using chirality measurements. These experiments will also determine the chemical stability of organic molecules within the host regolith based on the presence and chemical reactivity of surface and atmospheric oxidants. Urey has been selected for the Pasteur payload on the European Space Agency's (ESA's) upcoming 2013 ExoMars rover mission. The diverse and effective capabilities of Urey make it an integral part of the payload and will help to achieve a large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of cosmochemistry and the origin of life.

  11. The Urey instrument: an advanced in situ organic and oxidant detector for Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Aubrey, Andrew D; Chalmers, John H; Bada, Jeffrey L; Grunthaner, Frank J; Amashukeli, Xenia; Willis, Peter; Skelley, Alison M; Mathies, Richard A; Quinn, Richard C; Zent, Aaron P; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Amundson, Ron; Glavin, Daniel P; Botta, Oliver; Barron, Laurence; Blaney, Diana L; Clark, Benton C; Coleman, Max; Hofmann, Beda A; Josset, Jean-Luc; Rettberg, Petra; Ride, Sally; Robert, François; Sephton, Mark A; Yen, Albert

    2008-06-01

    The Urey organic and oxidant detector consists of a suite of instruments designed to search for several classes of organic molecules in the martian regolith and ascertain whether these compounds were produced by biotic or abiotic processes using chirality measurements. These experiments will also determine the chemical stability of organic molecules within the host regolith based on the presence and chemical reactivity of surface and atmospheric oxidants. Urey has been selected for the Pasteur payload on the European Space Agency's (ESA's) upcoming 2013 ExoMars rover mission. The diverse and effective capabilities of Urey make it an integral part of the payload and will help to achieve a large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of cosmochemistry and the origin of life. PMID:18680409

  12. The Urey instrument: an advanced in situ organic and oxidant detector for Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Aubrey, Andrew D; Chalmers, John H; Bada, Jeffrey L; Grunthaner, Frank J; Amashukeli, Xenia; Willis, Peter; Skelley, Alison M; Mathies, Richard A; Quinn, Richard C; Zent, Aaron P; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Amundson, Ron; Glavin, Daniel P; Botta, Oliver; Barron, Laurence; Blaney, Diana L; Clark, Benton C; Coleman, Max; Hofmann, Beda A; Josset, Jean-Luc; Rettberg, Petra; Ride, Sally; Robert, François; Sephton, Mark A; Yen, Albert

    2008-06-01

    The Urey organic and oxidant detector consists of a suite of instruments designed to search for several classes of organic molecules in the martian regolith and ascertain whether these compounds were produced by biotic or abiotic processes using chirality measurements. These experiments will also determine the chemical stability of organic molecules within the host regolith based on the presence and chemical reactivity of surface and atmospheric oxidants. Urey has been selected for the Pasteur payload on the European Space Agency's (ESA's) upcoming 2013 ExoMars rover mission. The diverse and effective capabilities of Urey make it an integral part of the payload and will help to achieve a large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of cosmochemistry and the origin of life.

  13. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R D.

  14. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R&D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R&D.

  15. Development of the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE): An Advanced Airborne DIAL Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alvah S., Jr.; Brown, Kevin E.; Hall, William M.; Barnes, James C.; Edwards, William C.; Petway, Larry B.; Little, Alan D.; Luck, William S., Jr.; Jones, Irby W.; Antill, Charles W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Instrument is the first fully-engineered, autonomous Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) System for the measurement of water vapor in the troposphere (aerosol and cloud measurements are included). LASE uses a double-pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser for the transmitter with a 30 ns pulse length and 150 mJ/pulse. The laser beam is "seeded" to operate on a selected water vapor absorption line in the 815-nm region using a laser diode and an onboard absorption reference cell. A 40 cm diameter telescope collects the backscattered signals and directs them onto two detectors. LASE collects DIAL data at 5 Hz while onboard a NASA/Ames ER-2 aircraft flying at altitudes from 16-21 km. LASE was designed to operate autonomously within the environment and physical constraints of the ER-2 aircraft and to make water vapor profile measurements across the troposphere to better than 10% accuracy. LASE has flown 19 times during the development of the instrument and the validation of the science data. This paper describes the design, operation, and reliability of the LASE Instrument.

  16. Advanced sampling techniques for hand-held FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Weber, Chris; Levy, Dustin

    2013-05-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenging ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, extreme reliability, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the HazMatID™ Elite, a FT-IR instrument designed to balance the portability advantages of a handheld device with the performance challenges associated with miniaturization. In this paper, special focus will be given to the HazMatID Elite's sampling interfaces optimized to collect and interrogate different types of samples: accumulated material using the on-board ATR press, dispersed powders using the ClearSampler™ tool, and the touch-to-sample sensor for direct liquid sampling. The application of the novel sample swipe accessory (ClearSampler) to collect material from surfaces will be discussed in some detail. The accessory was tested and evaluated for the detection of explosive residues before and after detonation. Experimental results derived from these investigations will be described in an effort to outline the advantages of this technology over existing sampling methods.

  17. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, Daniel A.; Mankins, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Developing credible mass and cost estimates for space exploration and development architectures require multidisciplinary analysis based on physics calculations, and parametric estimates derived from historical systems. Within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), concurrent engineering environment (CEE) activities integrate discipline oriented analysis tools through a computer network and accumulate the results of a multidisciplinary analysis team via a centralized database or spreadsheet Each minute of a design and analysis study within a concurrent engineering environment is expensive due the size of the team and supporting equipment The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) reduces the cost of architecture analysis by capturing the knowledge of discipline experts into system oriented spreadsheet models. A framework with a user interface presents a library of system models to an architecture analyst. The analyst selects models of launchers, in-space transportation systems, and excursion vehicles, as well as space and surface infrastructure such as propellant depots, habitats, and solar power satellites. After assembling the architecture from the selected models, the analyst can create a campaign comprised of missions spanning several years. The ATLAS controller passes analyst specified parameters to the models and data among the models. An integrator workbook calls a history based parametric analysis cost model to determine the costs. Also, the integrator estimates the flight rates, launched masses, and architecture benefits over the years of the campaign. An accumulator workbook presents the analytical results in a series of bar graphs. In no way does ATLAS compete with a CEE; instead, ATLAS complements a CEE by ensuring that the time of the experts is well spent Using ATLAS, an architecture analyst can perform technology sensitivity analysis, study many scenarios, and see the impact of design decisions. When the analyst is

  18. Comparative Analysis of Instruments Measuring Time Varying Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes; Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Carvalho, Frederico Marques

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the performance of commercial class A and class S power quality (PQ) instruments when measuring time-varying harmonics. By using a high precision programmable voltage and current source, two meters from different manufacturers are analyzed and compared. Three-phase voltage signals are applied to PQ instruments, considering 3 situations of time-varying harmonic distortions, whose harmonic distortion values are in accordance with typical values found in power systems. This work is relevant considering that international standardization documents do not pay much attention to this aspect of harmonic distortion.

  19. The Instrument Synthesis for Analysis Laboratory at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the Instrument Synthesis and Analysis laboratory (ISAL) are to: 1) Provide a rapid and sustainable instrument development environment with clear efficient processes and tools, re-usable models and skilled engineers. 2) Provide a capability for quick and efficient trade studies of instrument architectures and concepts. 3) Streamline and optimize instrument systems design for the entire life cycle, including cost and technology assessment. 4) Provide detailed multi-disciplinary modeling and analysis for phase C/D design validation and for operational investigations.

  20. Conducting Reflective, Hands-On Research with Advanced Characterization Instruments: A High-Level Undergraduate Practical Exploring Solid-State Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, S. J.; Mapp, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    An undergraduate practical exercise has been designed to provide hands-on, instrument-based experience of advanced characterization techniques. A research experience approach is taken, centered around the concept of solid-state polymorphism, which requires a detailed knowledge of molecular and crystal structure to be gained by advanced analytical…

  1. The Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Course: A Survey of Available Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a survey in which 110 universities were selected to respond to questions regarding approximate age and cost of the instruments used in three major areas: separations, spectroscopy, and electroanalysis. Respondents (N=41) also indicated which pieces of equipment were used in undergraduate courses or were used for research. (CS)

  2. A Comparison of seismic instrument noise coherence analysis techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Evans, J.R.; Sandoval, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The self-noise of a seismic instrument is a fundamental characteristic used to evaluate the quality of the instrument. It is important to be able to measure this self-noise robustly, to understand how differences among test configurations affect the tests, and to understand how different processing techniques and isolation methods (from nonseismic sources) can contribute to differences in results. We compare two popular coherence methods used for calculating incoherent noise, which is widely used as an estimate of instrument self-noise (incoherent noise and self-noise are not strictly identical but in observatory practice are approximately equivalent; Holcomb, 1989; Sleeman et al., 2006). Beyond directly comparing these two coherence methods on similar models of seismometers, we compare how small changes in test conditions can contribute to incoherent-noise estimates. These conditions include timing errors, signal-to-noise ratio changes (ratios between background noise and instrument incoherent noise), relative sensor locations, misalignment errors, processing techniques, and different configurations of sensor types.

  3. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

  4. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating materials were tested

  5. Advanced instrumentation for DNP-enhanced MAS NMR for higher magnetic fields and lower temperatures.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Yoh; Idehara, Toshitaka; Fukazawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2016-03-01

    Sensitivity enhancement of MAS NMR using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is gaining importance at moderate fields (B0<9T) and temperatures (T>90K) with potential applications in chemistry and material sciences. However, considering the ever-increasing size and complexity of the systems to be studied, it is crucial to establish DNP under higher field conditions, where the spectral resolution and the basic NMR sensitivity tend to improve. In this perspective, we overview our recent efforts on hardware developments, specifically targeted on improving DNP MAS NMR at high fields. It includes the development of gyrotrons that enable continuous frequency tuning and rapid frequency modulation for our 395 GHz-600 MHz and 460 GHz-700 MHz DNP NMR spectrometers. The latter 700 MHz system involves two gyrotrons and a quasi-optical transmission system that combines two independent sub-millimeter waves into a single dichromic wave. We also describe two cryogenic MAS NMR probe systems operating, respectively, at T ∼ 100K and ∼ 30K. The latter system utilizes a novel closed-loop helium recirculation mechanism, achieving cryogenic MAS without consuming any cryogen. These instruments altogether should promote high-field DNP toward more efficient, reliable and affordable technology. Some experimental DNP results obtained with these instruments are presented.

  6. Implementation of advanced matrix corrections for active interrogation of waste drums using the CTEN instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, S.; Estep, R.; Hollas, C.

    1998-12-31

    The combined thermal/epithermal neutron instrument (CTEN) was designed at Los Alamos to improve measurement accuracy and mitigate self shielding effects inherent in the differential dieaway technique (DDT). A major goal in this research effort has been the development of a calibration technique that incorporates recently developed matrix and self-shielding corrections using data generated from additional detectors and new acquisition techniques. A comprehensive data set containing both active and passive measurements was generated using 26 different matrices and comprising a total of 1,400 measurements. In all, 31 flux-and-matrix-dependent parameters, 24 positional parameters, two dieaway times, and a correlated ratio were determined from each of the over 1,400 measurements. A reduced list of matrix indicators, prioritized using the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm, was used to train a neural network using a generalized regression technique (GRNN) to determine matrix- and position-corrected calibration factors. This paper describes the experimental, analytical, and empirical techniques used to determine the corrected calibration factor for an unknown waste drum. Results from a range of cases are compared with those obtained using a mobile DDT instrument and traditional DDT algorithms.

  7. Advanced instrumentation for DNP-enhanced MAS NMR for higher magnetic fields and lower temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Yoh; Idehara, Toshitaka; Fukazawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2016-03-01

    Sensitivity enhancement of MAS NMR using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is gaining importance at moderate fields (B0 < 9 T) and temperatures (T > 90 K) with potential applications in chemistry and material sciences. However, considering the ever-increasing size and complexity of the systems to be studied, it is crucial to establish DNP under higher field conditions, where the spectral resolution and the basic NMR sensitivity tend to improve. In this perspective, we overview our recent efforts on hardware developments, specifically targeted on improving DNP MAS NMR at high fields. It includes the development of gyrotrons that enable continuous frequency tuning and rapid frequency modulation for our 395 GHz-600 MHz and 460 GHz-700 MHz DNP NMR spectrometers. The latter 700 MHz system involves two gyrotrons and a quasi-optical transmission system that combines two independent sub-millimeter waves into a single dichromic wave. We also describe two cryogenic MAS NMR probe systems operating, respectively, at T ∼100 K and ∼30 K. The latter system utilizes a novel closed-loop helium recirculation mechanism, achieving cryogenic MAS without consuming any cryogen. These instruments altogether should promote high-field DNP toward more efficient, reliable and affordable technology. Some experimental DNP results obtained with these instruments are presented.

  8. Advanced instrumentation for DNP-enhanced MAS NMR for higher magnetic fields and lower temperatures.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Yoh; Idehara, Toshitaka; Fukazawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2016-03-01

    Sensitivity enhancement of MAS NMR using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is gaining importance at moderate fields (B0<9T) and temperatures (T>90K) with potential applications in chemistry and material sciences. However, considering the ever-increasing size and complexity of the systems to be studied, it is crucial to establish DNP under higher field conditions, where the spectral resolution and the basic NMR sensitivity tend to improve. In this perspective, we overview our recent efforts on hardware developments, specifically targeted on improving DNP MAS NMR at high fields. It includes the development of gyrotrons that enable continuous frequency tuning and rapid frequency modulation for our 395 GHz-600 MHz and 460 GHz-700 MHz DNP NMR spectrometers. The latter 700 MHz system involves two gyrotrons and a quasi-optical transmission system that combines two independent sub-millimeter waves into a single dichromic wave. We also describe two cryogenic MAS NMR probe systems operating, respectively, at T ∼ 100K and ∼ 30K. The latter system utilizes a novel closed-loop helium recirculation mechanism, achieving cryogenic MAS without consuming any cryogen. These instruments altogether should promote high-field DNP toward more efficient, reliable and affordable technology. Some experimental DNP results obtained with these instruments are presented. PMID:26920836

  9. Advanced Spectroscopic and Thermal Imaging Instrumentation for Shock Tube and Ballistic Range Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.; Cruden, Brett A.; Bogdanoff, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility and Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF, an aeroballistic range) at NASA Ames support basic research in aerothermodynamic phenomena of atmospheric entry, specifically shock layer radiation spectroscopy, convective and radiative heat transfer, and transition to turbulence. Innovative optical instrumentation has been developed and implemented to meet the challenges posed from obtaining such data in these impulse facilities. Spatially and spectrally resolved measurements of absolute radiance of a travelling shock wave in EAST are acquired using multiplexed, time-gated imaging spectrographs. Nearly complete spectral coverage from the vacuum ultraviolet to the near infrared is possible in a single experiment. Time-gated thermal imaging of ballistic range models in flight enables quantitative, global measurements of surface temperature. These images can be interpreted to determine convective heat transfer rates and reveal transition to turbulence due to isolated and distributed surface roughness at hypersonic velocities. The focus of this paper is a detailed description of the optical instrumentation currently in use in the EAST and HFFAF.

  10. EPRI`s nuclear power plant instrumentation and control program and its applicability to advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J.; Torok, R.; Wilkinson, D.

    1997-12-01

    I&C systems in nuclear power plants need to be upgraded over the lifetime of the plant in a reliable and cost-effective manner to replace obsolete equipment, to reduce O&M costs, to improve plant performance, and to maintain safety. This applies to operating plants now and will apply to advanced reactors in the future. The major drivers for the replacement of the safety, control, and information systems in nuclear power plants are the obsolescence of the existing hardware and the need for more cost-effective power production. Competition between power producers is dictating more cost-effective power production. The increasing O&M costs to maintain systems experiencing obsolescence problems is counter to the needs for more cost-effective power production and improved competitiveness. This need for increased productivity applies to government facilities as well as commercial plants. Increasing competition will continue to be a major factor in the operation of both operating plants and advanced reactors. It will continue to dictate the need for improved productivity and cost-effectiveness. EPRI and its member nuclear utilities are working together on an industry wide I&C Program to address I&C issues and to develop cost-effective solutions. A majority of the I&C products and demonstrations being developed under this program will benefit advanced reactors in both the design and operational phases of their life cycle as well as it will benefit existing plants. 20 refs.

  11. Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing: the PRIMA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Malony, Allen D.; Wolf, Felix G.

    2014-01-31

    The growing number of cores provided by today’s high-end computing systems present substantial challenges to application developers in their pursuit of parallel efficiency. To find the most effective optimization strategy, application developers need insight into the runtime behavior of their code. The University of Oregon (UO) and the Juelich Supercomputing Centre of Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) develop the performance analysis tools TAU and Scalasca, respectively, which allow high-performance computing (HPC) users to collect and analyze relevant performance data – even at very large scales. TAU and Scalasca are considered among the most advanced parallel performance systems available, and are used extensively across HPC centers in the U.S., Germany, and around the world. The TAU and Scalasca groups share a heritage of parallel performance tool research and partnership throughout the past fifteen years. Indeed, the close interactions of the two groups resulted in a cross-fertilization of tool ideas and technologies that pushed TAU and Scalasca to what they are today. It also produced two performance systems with an increasing degree of functional overlap. While each tool has its specific analysis focus, the tools were implementing measurement infrastructures that were substantially similar. Because each tool provides complementary performance analysis, sharing of measurement results is valuable to provide the user with more facets to understand performance behavior. However, each measurement system was producing performance data in different formats, requiring data interoperability tools to be created. A common measurement and instrumentation system was needed to more closely integrate TAU and Scalasca and to avoid the duplication of development and maintenance effort. The PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis) project was proposed over three years ago as a joint international effort between UO and FZJ to accomplish

  12. Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing. The PRIMA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Malony, Allen D.; Wolf, Felix G.

    2014-01-31

    The growing number of cores provided by today’s high-­end computing systems present substantial challenges to application developers in their pursuit of parallel efficiency. To find the most effective optimization strategy, application developers need insight into the runtime behavior of their code. The University of Oregon (UO) and the Juelich Supercomputing Centre of Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) develop the performance analysis tools TAU and Scalasca, respectively, which allow high-­performance computing (HPC) users to collect and analyze relevant performance data – even at very large scales. TAU and Scalasca are considered among the most advanced parallel performance systems available, and are used extensively across HPC centers in the U.S., Germany, and around the world. The TAU and Scalasca groups share a heritage of parallel performance tool research and partnership throughout the past fifteen years. Indeed, the close interactions of the two groups resulted in a cross-­fertilization of tool ideas and technologies that pushed TAU and Scalasca to what they are today. It also produced two performance systems with an increasing degree of functional overlap. While each tool has its specific analysis focus, the tools were implementing measurement infrastructures that were substantially similar. Because each tool provides complementary performance analysis, sharing of measurement results is valuable to provide the user with more facets to understand performance behavior. However, each measurement system was producing performance data in different formats, requiring data interoperability tools to be created. A common measurement and instrumentation system was needed to more closely integrate TAU and Scalasca and to avoid the duplication of development and maintenance effort. The PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis) project was proposed over three years ago as a joint international effort between UO and FZJ to

  13. Inside Single Cells: Quantitative Analysis with Advanced Optics and Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Single cell explorations offer a unique window to inspect molecules and events relevant to mechanisms and heterogeneity constituting the central dogma of biology. A large number of nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites and small molecules are involved in determining and fine-tuning the state and function of a single cell at a given time point. Advanced optical platforms and nanotools provide tremendous opportunities to probe intracellular components with single-molecule accuracy, as well as promising tools to adjust single cell activity. In order to obtain quantitative information (e.g. molecular quantity, kinetics and stoichiometry) within an intact cell, achieving the observation with comparable spatiotemporal resolution is a challenge. For single cell studies both the method of detection and the biocompatibility are critical factors as they determine the feasibility, especially when considering live cell analysis. Although a considerable proportion of single cell methodologies depend on specialized expertise and expensive instruments, it is our expectation that the information content and implication will outweigh the costs given the impact on life science enabled by single cell analysis. PMID:25430077

  14. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  15. MODIS - Advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system. [Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Barnes, W.; Montgomery, H.; Ostrow, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), a key part of the Earth Observing System planned for the 1990's, is described. The complementary MODIS-T (64 channels) and MODIS-N (40 channels) instruments provide a multispectral observing capability that has application to land, ocean, and atmospheric research. The modules have a 500-1000 meter spatial resolution to accompany a swath width sufficient to provide two-day repeat coverage from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, space-station serviceable platform. High signal-to-noise capability (500/1 or better) and 10-12 bit quantization over the dynamic ranges of the various spectral bands will be provided by the two modules.

  16. Advanced two-phase flow instrumentation program. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Turnage, K G; Davis, C E; McCulloch, R W; Anderson, R L; Miller, G N; Rogers, S C

    1981-05-01

    Work performed to develop and evaluate liquid level sensors for in-vessel use in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is described. Thermal-type and acoustic-type devices were tested under conditions similar to a hypothetical PWR loss-of-coolant accident. A heated thermocouple (HTS) and a pressure difference instrument were tested in the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility during high-pressure rod-bundle uncovery and reflood experiments. Both methods provided useful indications of the system coolant inventory. A three-element HTC was fabricated and tested in a pressurizer over a wide range of conditions. Improvements were made in a ribbon-type ultrasonic liquid level device. Data obtained from the ultrasonic device in the pressurizer were reduced and evaluated.

  17. Analysis of Diet Tonic Water Using Capillary Electrophoresis. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Harvey B.; Jezorek, John R.; Tang, Zhe

    2000-06-01

    An experiment for instrumental analysis is described in which components of diet tonic water are determined using capillary electrophoresis. Separation of quinine, saccharin, and benzoate in pH 7 phosphate buffer, with phenol as internal standard, is accomplished in about 12 minutes. The equipment requirements are modest: UV detection on an unmodified column. One of the components, quinine, is quantitated using a four-point standard addition calibration curve.

  18. Does poverty reduce mental health? An instrumental variable analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanandita, Wulung; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2014-07-01

    That poverty and mental health are negatively associated in developing countries is well known among epidemiologists. Whether the relationship is causal or associational, however, remains an open question. This paper aims to estimate the causal effect of poverty on mental health by exploiting a natural experiment induced by weather variability across 440 districts in Indonesia (N = 577,548). Precipitation anomaly in two climatological seasons is used as an instrument for poverty status, which is measured using per capita household consumption expenditure. Results of an instrumental variable estimation suggest that poverty causes poor mental health: halving one's consumption expenditure raises the probability of suffering mental illness by 0.06 point; in terms of elasticity, a 1% decrease in consumption brings about 0.62% more symptoms of common mental disorders. This poverty effect is approximately five times stronger than that obtained prior to instrumenting and is robust to alternative distributional assumption, model specification, sample stratification and estimation technique. An individual's mental health is also negatively correlated with district income inequality, suggesting that income distribution may have a significant influence upon mental health over and above the effect of poverty. The findings imply that mental health can be improved not only by influencing individuals' health knowledge and behaviour but also by implementing a more equitable economic policy.

  19. A multi-instrument analysis of sunspot umbrae

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, F. T.; Penn, M. J.; Livingston, W.

    2014-05-20

    The recent solar minimum and rise phase of solar cycle 24 have been unlike any period since the early 1900s. This article examines some of the properties of sunspot umbrae over the last 17 yr with three different instruments on the ground and in space: MDI, HMI and BABO. The distribution of magnetic fields and their evolution over time is shown and reveals that the field distribution in cycle 24 is fundamentally different from that in cycle 23. The annual average umbral magnetic field is then examined for the 17 yr observation period and shows a small decrease of 375 G in sunspot magnetic fields over the period 1996-2013, but the mean intensity of sunspot umbrae does not vary significantly over this time. A possible issue with sample sizes in a previous study is then explored to explain disagreements in data from two of the source instruments. All three instruments show that the relationship between umbral magnetic fields and umbral intensity agrees with past studies in that the umbral intensity decreases as the field strength increases. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the range of magnetic field values measured for a given umbral intensity being larger than the measured 375 G change in umbral field strength over time.

  20. Pressure-Assisted Chelating Extraction as a Teaching Tool in Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadik, Omowunmi A.; Wanekaya, Adam K.; Yevgeny, Gelfand

    2004-01-01

    A novel instrumental-digestion technique using pressure-assisted chelating extraction (PACE), for undergraduate laboratory is reported. This procedure is used for exposing students to safe sample-preparation techniques, for correlating wet-chemical methods with modern instrumental analysis and comparing the performance of PACE with conventional…

  1. Bias and Bias Correction in Multi-Site Instrumental Variables Analysis of Heterogeneous Mediator Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Unlu, Faith; Zhu, Pei; Bloom, Howard

    2013-01-01

    We explore the use of instrumental variables (IV) analysis with a multi-site randomized trial to estimate the effect of a mediating variable on an outcome in cases where it can be assumed that the observed mediator is the only mechanism linking treatment assignment to outcomes, as assumption known in the instrumental variables literature as the…

  2. Mass Spectrometry Theatre: A Model for Big-Screen Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, John

    2008-01-01

    Teaching lecture or lab courses in instrumental analysis can be a source of frustration since one can only crowd a small number of students around a single instrument, typically leading to round-robin approaches. Round-robin labs can spread students into multiple labs and limit instructor-student interactions. We discuss "Mass Spectrometry…

  3. Development of an Instrument to Measure Student Use of Academic Success Skills: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.

  4. Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

    1999-04-27

    On November 23, 1998, an 18,000-foot-deep wild-cat natural gas well being drilled near Bakersfield, CA blew out and caught fire. All attempts to kill this well failed, and the well continues to flow under limited control, producing large volumes of natural gas, salt water, and some oil. The oil and some of the water is being separated and trucked off site, and the remaining gas and water is being burned at the well head. A relief well is being drilled approximately one-quarter mile away in an attempt to intercept the first well. If the relief well is successful, it will be used to cement in and kill the first well. Epoch Wellsite Services, Inc., the mud-logging company for the initial well and the relief well, requested Sandia's rolling float meter (RFM) for these critical drilling operations. The RFM is being used to measure the mud outflow rate and detect kicks while drilling the relief well, which will undoubtedly encounter reservoir conditions similar to those responsible for the blow out. Based on its prior experience with the RFM, Epoch believes that it is the only instrument capable of providing the level of accuracy and response to mudflow needed to quickly detect kicks and minimize the risk of a blowout on this second critical well. In response to the urgent request from industry, Sandia and Epoch technicians installed the RFM on the relief well return line, and completed its initial calibration. The data from the RFM is displayed in real-time for the driller, the companyman, and the toolpusher via Epochs RIGWATCH Drilling Instmmentation System. The RFM has already detected several small kicks while drilling toward the annulus of the blown out well. A conventional paddle meter is located downstream of the RFM to provide redundancy and the opportunity to compare the two meters in an actual drilling operation, The relief well is nearing 14,000 feet deep, targeting an intercept of the first well near 17,600 feet. The relief well is expected to be completed in

  5. Failure of the ERBE scanner instrument aboard NOAA 10 spacecraft and results of failure analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. B.; Weaver, W. L.; Kopia, L. P.; Howerton, C. E.; Payton, M. G.; Harris, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner instrument on the NOAA 10 spacecraft malfunctioned on May 22, 1989, after more than 4 years of in-flight operation. After the failure, all instrument operational mode commands were tested and the resulting data analyzed. Details of the tests and analysis of output data are discussed therein. The radiometric and housekeeping data appear to be valid. However, the instrument will not correctly execute operational scan mode commands or the preprogrammed calibration sequences. The data indicate the problem is the result of a failure in the internal address decoding circuity in one of the ROM (read only memory) chips of the instrument computer.

  6. Experimental studies in natural groundwater recharge dynamics: Assessment of recent advances in instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Perry, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    To quantify and model the natural groundwater-recharge process, two sites in south-central Kansas, U.S.A., were instrumented with various modern sensors and data microloggers. The atmospheric-boundary layer and the unsaturated and saturated soil zones were monitored as a unified regime. Data from the various sensors were collected using microloggers in combination with magnetic-cassette tape, graphical and digital recorders, analog paper-tape recorders, and direct observations to evaluate and automate data collection and processing. Atmospheric sensors included an anemometer, a tipping-bucket raingage, an air-temperature thermistor, a relative-humidity probe, a net radiometer, and a barometric-pressure transducer. Sensors in the unsaturated zone consisted of soil-temperature thermocouples, tensiometers coupled with pressure transducers and dial gages, gypsum blocks, and a neutron moisture probe operated by an observer. The saturated-zone sensors consisted of a water-level pressure transducer, a conventional float gage connected to a variable potentiometer, soil thermocouples, and a number of multiple-depth piezometers. Evaluation of the operation of these sensors and recorders indicated that certain types of equipment such as pressure transducers are very sensitive to environmental conditions. Extraordinary steps had to be taken to protect some of the equipment, whereas other equipment seemed to be reliable under all conditions. Based on such experiences, a number of suggestions aimed at improving such investigations are outlined. ?? 1984.

  7. MODIS - Advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system. [Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Barnes, W. L.; Maymon, Peter W.; Montgomery, Harry E.; Ostrow, Harvey

    1989-01-01

    The moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) is discussed as an earth-viewing sensor that is planned as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (EOS) scheduled to begin functioning in the mid-1990s. The MODIS is composed of two mutually supporting sensors that cover a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete two-day global coverage from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, serviceable platform. High signal-to-noise ratios are to be provided, e.g., 500 to 1 or greater with 10-12-bit quantization over the dynamic ranges of the spectral bands. MODIS' lifetime is expected to be about ten years. One of the MODIS sensors is termed MODIS-N, where N signifies nadir-viewing. The companion to MODIS-N is MODIS-T, where T signifies a tiltable field-of-view. The development of the MODIS facility from conceptual design studies (Phase-A) into detailed design studies (Phase-B) is discussed.

  8. Multi-Instrument Data Analysis of Thermospheric Density and Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilinski, Marcin

    The Drag and Atmospheric Neutral Density Explorer (DANDE) is a 50 kg, 0.45 meter diameter, spherical spacecraft being developed at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The goal of the DANDE mission is to make in-situ measurements of density, composition, and winds at altitudes between 200 and 350 km. The relationship between these quantities during both disturbed and quiet atmospheric conditions as well as the relative effect of these parameters on satellite drag will be addressed using simultaneous measurements from two instruments. The first is the Wind and Atmospheric Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) and is a miniaturized electrostatic energy analyzer. The second is an experimental acceleration measuring system which takes advantage of the spacecraft spin to modulate the drag acceleration to a known frequency and uses a suite of commercially available accelerometers as detectors. To evaluate this novel method of atmospheric data collection, a comprehensive model of its components is under development. In addition to being a scientific and operational assessment of the spacecraft data products, this work also represents the engineering error model which helps drive the selection and design of system components. The simulation is composed of environmental, spacecraft, and instrument models and, given inputs such as solar F10.7, results in simulated on-orbit data. These data products are compared to model values so that errors can be determined and cataloged statistically. The errors are then compared to those assumed in assimilative thermosphere modeling studies to evaluate how well a spacecraft like DANDE could be used to improve nowcasting and density determination. The spacecraft model is composed of attitude and orbital dynamics, thermal cycling inputs, and variations in the coefficient of drag. WATS instrument simulation is based upon the statistical error descriptions of an ion-optics study conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Modeling of the

  9. Continued Analysis and Restoration of Apollo DTREM Instrument Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, M. J.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.

    2013-12-01

    During the years of 1969 to 1972, NASA sent 12 men to walk on the surface of the Moon. On each mission, on the first lunar extra vehicular activity, the astronauts deployed the Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) (Apollo 11) or the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) (Apollo 12 - 17). The EASEP was a short-lived package that operated for a few months while the ALSEP contained scientific instruments to collect data on the lunar environment long after the astronauts had left the lunar surface. Part of the package on Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 was the Dust, Radiation, Thermal, Engineering Measurement (DTREM), also known as the Lunar Dust Detector. The DTREM was a small fiberglass box that had 3 thermometers and 3 solar cells. The output from the solar cells was used to determine the degradation of the cells from dust, temperature, and radiation on the lunar surface. Over a period of 5-7 years, the DTREM instruments collected data and returned them to Earth through the ALSEP central station housekeeping (Word 33) telemetry stream. The data were in the form of raw digitized telemetry files. The only translated and calibrated data from the instrument that existed were 38 reels of computer printout images archived at the National Space Science Data Center. As part of the lunar data restoration effort, the raw telemetry files from the communications stream have been translated and recalibrated, using the archived microfilm record to determine the correct values in terms of temperature and voltage output. Once they have been properly archived by the Lunar Data Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS) the data sets will be released to the scientific community. The DTREM instrument collected data every 54 seconds for 6 years on the Apollo 14 and 15 missions. The immense size of the data set required that a process be created to convert the raw telemetry fires autonomously. Therefore, we have recreated a digital version of the data from Apollo 14 and 15

  10. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  11. Preliminary Candidate Advanced Avionics System (PCAAS). [reduction in single pilot workload during instrument flight rules flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teper, G. L.; Hon, R. H.; Smyth, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    Specifications which define the system functional requirements, the subsystem and interface needs, and other requirements such as maintainability, modularity, and reliability are summarized. A design definition of all required avionics functions and a system risk analysis are presented.

  12. Technology advancement of the CCD201-20 EMCCD for the WFIRST coronagraph instrument: sensor characterization and radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Leon K.; Demers, Richard T.; Hoenk, Michael; Peddada, Pavani; Nemati, Bijan; Cherng, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Neat, Leo S.; Loc, Anthony; Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew; Reinheimer, Alice; Jorden, Paul R.; Jordan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset (WFIRST-AFTA) mission is a 2.4-m class space telescope that will be used across a swath of astrophysical research domains. JPL will provide a high-contrast imaging coronagraph instrument-one of two major astronomical instruments. In order to achieve the low noise performance required to detect planets under extremely low flux conditions, the electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) has been baselined for both of the coronagraph's sensors-the imaging camera and integral field spectrograph. JPL has established an EMCCD test laboratory in order to advance EMCCD maturity to technology readiness level-6. This plan incorporates full sensor characterization, including read noise, dark current, and clock-induced charge. In addition, by considering the unique challenges of the WFIRST space environment, degradation to the sensor's charge transfer efficiency will be assessed, as a result of damage from high-energy particles such as protons, electrons, and cosmic rays. Science-grade CCD201-20 EMCCDs have been irradiated to a proton fluence that reflects the projected WFIRST orbit. Performance degradation due to radiation displacement damage is reported, which is the first such study for a CCD201-20 that replicates the WFIRST conditions. In addition, techniques intended to identify and mitigate radiation-induced electron trapping, such as trap pumping, custom clocking, and thermal cycling, are discussed.

  13. Worst case uncertainty estimates for routine instrumental analysis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricardo J N Bettencourt; Santos, Júlia R; Camões, M Filomena G F C

    2002-07-01

    A methodology for the worst case measurement uncertainty estimation for analytical methods which include an instrumental quantification step, adequate for routine determinations, is presented. Although the methodology presented should be based on a careful evaluation of the analytical method, the resulting daily calculations are very simple. The methodology is based on the estimation of the maximum value for the different sources of uncertainty and requires the definition of limiting values for certain analytical parameters. The simplification of the instrumental quantification uncertainty estimation involves the use of the standard deviation obtained from control charts relating to the concentrations estimated from the calibration curves for control standards at the highest calibration level. Three levels of simplification are suggested, as alternatives to the detailed approach, which can be selected according to the proximity of the sample results to decision limits. These approaches were applied to the determination of pesticide residues in apples (CEN, EN 12393), for which the most simplified approach showed a relative expanded uncertainty of 37.2% for a confidence level of approximately 95%.

  14. Performance analysis of a proposed tightly-coupled medical instrument network based on CAN protocol.

    PubMed

    Mujumdar, Shantanu; Thongpithoonrat, Pongnarin; Gurkan, D; McKneely, Paul K; Chapman, Frank M; Merchant, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Advances in medical devices and health care has been phenomenal during the recent years. Although medical device manufacturers have been improving their instruments, network connection of these instruments still rely on proprietary technologies. Even if the interface has been provided by the manufacturer (e.g., RS-232, USB, or Ethernet coupled with a proprietary API), there is no widely-accepted uniform data model to access data of various bedside instruments. There is a need for a common standard which allows for internetworking with the medical devices from different manufacturers. ISO/IEEE 11073 (X73) is a standard attempting to unify the interfaces of all medical devices. X73 defines a client access mechanism that would be implemented into the communication controllers (residing between an instrument and the network) in order to access/network patient data. On the other hand, MediCAN™ technology suite has been demonstrated with various medical instruments to achieve interfacing and networking with a similar goal in its open standardization approach. However, it provides a more generic definition for medical data to achieve flexibility for networking and client access mechanisms. The instruments are in turn becoming more sophisticated; however, the operation of an instrument is still expected to be locally done by authorized medical personnel. Unfortunately, each medical instrument has its unique proprietary API (application programming interface - if any) to provide automated and electronic access to monitoring data. Integration of these APIs requires an agreement with the manufacturers towards realization of interoperable health care networking. As long as the interoperability of instruments with a network is not possible, ubiquitous access to patient status is limited only to manual entry based systems. This paper demonstrates an attempt to realize an interoperable medical instrument interface for networking using MediCAN technology suite as an open

  15. Making CHILI (Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization) — A New Tool for the Analysis of Stardust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, T.; Davis, A. M.; Pellin, M. J.; Savina, M. R.; Veryovkin, I. V.; King, A. J.; Liu, N.; Trappitsch, R.; Yokochi, R.

    2011-03-01

    CHILI, a new RIMS instrument, presently under construction at the University of Chicago, will achieve unprecedented sensitivity and <10 nm lateral resolution. It will be applied to the analysis of samples from the Stardust mission and presolar dust.

  16. Lessons Learned From the Analysis of the SAFOD Downhole Instrument Package.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Wade; Mencin, David; Mattioli, Glen

    2013-04-01

    In September of 2008 a downhole instrument package (DIP) consisting of a string of seismometers and tilt meters in isolated pressure vessels (PODs) was installed in the SAFOD main borehole. This package was designed to protect the sensors from the corrosive borehole environment and to operate for two years. The SAFOD borehole is not sealed at the bottom allowing borehole gasses and fluids infiltratration. Previous short-term installations of instruments in the SAFOD main borehole had also failed as a result of corrosion of the wireline cable head. The average failure time for these installations was two weeks. The use of stainless steel tubing connected to the pressure vessels through gas tight fittings was designed to block borehole fluid and gas infiltration of the individual instruments within the PODs. Unfortunately, the DIP completely failed within a month of its installation. In October of 2010, the DIP was removed from the borehole and a failure analysis was performed. This analysis involved to following steps: 1. Analysis of data to understand timeline of failure 2. Remove instrument safely, maintaining integrity of spliced section and documenting any external clues. Test instrument at surface 3. Open PODs in a way that allows for sampling and avoids damaging instruments. 4. Chemical analysis of fluids recovered from splices and PODs. 5. Instrument failure analysis by the instrument manufacturers. The analysis found that there were several design flaws in the DIP. This included the use of motor oil to take up air space in the individual PODs, use of a large number of gas tight seals, lack of internal seals, poorly done solder joints, use of non-temperature rated sensors, and lack of management oversight. The lessons learned from the attempts to instrument the SAFOD borehole are critical to the success of future deep borehole projects.

  17. Two-phase flow characterization based on advanced instrumentation, neural networks, and mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Ye

    1998-12-01

    The major objective of this thesis is focused on theoretical and experimental investigations of identifying and characterizing vertical and horizontal flow regimes in two-phase flows. A methodology of flow regime identification with impedance-based neural network systems and a comprehensive model of vertical slug flow have been developed. Vertical slug flow has been extensively investigated and characterized with geometric, kinematic and hydrodynamic parameters. A multi-sensor impedance void-meter and a multi-sensor magnetic flowmeter were developed. The impedance void-meter was cross-calibrated with other reliable techniques for void fraction measurements. The performance of the impedance void-meter to measure the void propagation velocity was evaluated by the drift flux model. It was proved that the magnetic flowmeter was applicable to vertical slug flow measurements. Separable signals from these instruments allow us to unearth most characteristics of vertical slug flow. A methodology of vertical flow regime identification was developed. Supervised neural network and self-organizing neural network systems were employed. First, they were trained with results from an idealized simulation of impedance in a two-phase mixture. The simulation was mainly based on Mishima and Ishii's flow regime map, the drift flux model, and the newly developed model of slug flow. Then, these trained systems were tested with impedance signals. The results showed that the neural network systems were appropriate classifiers of vertical flow regimes. The theoretical models and experimental databases used in the simulation were reliable. Furthermore, this approach was applied successfully to horizontal flow identification. A comprehensive model was developed to predict important characteristics of vertical slug flow. It was realized that the void fraction of the liquid slug is determined by the relative liquid motion between the Taylor bubble tail and the Taylor bubble wake. Relying on this

  18. ISO Guest Observer Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Smith, Howard A.

    2003-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated infrared filters for use at wavelengths greater than or equal to 15 microns. Unlike conventional dielectric filters used at the short wavelengths, ours are made from stacked metal grids, spaced at a very small fraction of the performance wavelengths. The individual lattice layers are gold, the spacers are polyimide, and they are assembled using integrated circuit processing techniques; they resemble some metallic photonic band-gap structures. We simulate the filter performance accurately, including the coupling of the propagating, near-field electromagnetic modes, using computer aided design codes. We find no anomalous absorption. The geometrical parameters of the grids are easily altered in practice, allowing for the production of tuned filters with predictable useful transmission characteristics. Although developed for astronomical instrumentation, the filters are broadly applicable in systems across infrared and terahertz bands.

  19. Microphysics and Radiative Properties of Cirrus: Instrumentation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallett, John

    2002-01-01

    Work under this grant has involved further development of a new aircraft instrument (the cloudscope) for real time characterization of atmospheric particulates together with field observations of such particulates, both in the form of ice and also as nuclei responsible for nucleation of both ice and water cloud particles. Part of the work involving assessment of the frequency of ice crystal shapes has been carried out in collaboration with the Meteorological Service of Canada; part of the work in a field program with the NCAR C-130. Part of the work has been interpreted in terms of laboratory simulation of ice crystal growth under a wide variety of conditions carried out under a grant from Physical Meteorology Program, National Science Foundation.

  20. Frequency-Zooming ARMA Modeling for Analysis of Noisy String Instrument Tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquef, Paulo A. A.; Karjalainen, Matti; Välimäki, Vesa

    2003-12-01

    This paper addresses model-based analysis of string instrument sounds. In particular, it reviews the application of autoregressive (AR) modeling to sound analysis/synthesis purposes. Moreover, a frequency-zooming autoregressive moving average (FZ-ARMA) modeling scheme is described. The performance of the FZ-ARMA method on modeling the modal behavior of isolated groups of resonance frequencies is evaluated for both synthetic and real string instrument tones immersed in background noise. We demonstrate that the FZ-ARMA modeling is a robust tool to estimate the decay time and frequency of partials of noisy tones. Finally, we discuss the use of the method in synthesis of string instrument sounds.

  1. Advanced In-Situ Detection and Chemical Analysis of Interstellar Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Z.; Gemer, A.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Maute, K.; Postberg, F.; Srama, R.; Williams, E.; O'brien, L.; Rocha, J. R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Ulysses dust detector discovered that interstellar dust particles pass through the solar system. The Hyperdsut instrument is developed for the in-situ detection and analysis of these particles to determine the elemental, chemical and isotopic compositions. Hyperdust builds on the heritage of previous successful instruments, e.g. the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) on Cassini. Hyperdust combines a highly sensitive Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS) and the high mass resolution Chemical Analyzer (CA). The DTS will detect dust particles as small as 0.3 μm in radius, and the velocity vector information is used to confirm the interstellar origin and/or reveal the dynamics from the interactions within the solar system. The effective target area of the CA is > 600 cm2 achieves mass resolution in excess of 200, which is considerably higher than that of CDA, and is acheved by advanced ion optics design. The Hyperdust instrument is in the final phases of development to TRL 6.

  2. Instrumentation and Beam Dynamics Study of Advanced Electron-Photon Facility in Indiana University

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Tianhuan

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced eLectron-PHoton fAcility (ALPHA) is a compact electron accelerator under construction and being commissioned at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). In this thesis, we have studied the refurbished Cooler Injector Synchrotron (CIS) RF cavity using both the transmission line model and SUPERFISH simulation. Both low power and high power RF measurements have been carried out to characterize the cavity. Considering the performance limit of ferrite, we have designed a new ferrite loaded, co-axial quarter wave like cavity with similar structure but a more suitable ferrite material. We have also designed a traveling wave stripline kicker for fast extraction by POISSON and Microwave Studio. The strips geometry is trimmed to maximize the uniformity of the kicking field and match the impedance of the power cables. The time response simulation shows the kicker is fast enough for machine operation. The pulsed power supply requirement has also been specified. For the beam diagnosis in the longitudinal direction, we use a wideband Wall Gap Monitor (WGM) served in CIS. With proper shielding and amplification to get good WGM signal, we have characterized the injected and extracted beam signal in single pass commissioning, and also verified the debunching effect of the ALPHA storage ring. A modulation-demodulation signal processing method is developed to measure the current and longitudinal profile of injected beam. By scanning the dipole strength in the injection line, we have reconstructed the tomography of the longitudinal phase space of the LINAC beam. In the accumulation mode, ALPHA will be operated under a low energy and high current condition, where intra beam scattering (IBS) becomes a dominant effect on the beam emittance. A self consistent simulation, including IBS effect, gas scattering and linear coupling, has been carried out to calculate the emittance of the stored beam.

  3. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  4. Sequential-Injection Analysis: Principles, Instrument Construction, and Demonstration by a Simple Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economou, A.; Tzanavaras, P. D.; Themelis, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The sequential-injection analysis (SIA) is an approach to sample handling that enables the automation of manual wet-chemistry procedures in a rapid, precise and efficient manner. The experiments using SIA fits well in the course of Instrumental Chemical Analysis and especially in the section of Automatic Methods of analysis provided by chemistry…

  5. Primary posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty: analysis of different instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intercondylar femoral bone removal during posterior stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) makes many cruciate substituting implant designs less appealing than cruciate retaining implants. Bone stock conservation is considered fundamental in the prevision of future revision surgeries. The purpose of this study was to compare the quantity of intercondylar bone removable during PS housing preparation using three contemporary PS TKA instrumentations. Method We compared different box cutting jigs which were utilized for the PS housing of three popular PS knee prostheses. The bone removal area from every PS box cutting jig was three-dimensionally measured. Results Independently from the implant size, the cutting jig for a specific PS TKA always resected significantly less bone than the others: this difference was statistically significant, especially for small- to medium-sized total knee femoral components. Conclusion This study does not establish a clinical relevance of removing more or less bone at primary TKA, but suggests that if a PS design is indicated, it is preferable to select a model which possibly resects less distal femoral bone. PMID:25037275

  6. Factor analysis and psychometric properties of the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument for sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Cox, Mary Foster; Fasolino, Tracy K; Tavakoli, Abbas S

    2008-01-01

    Sexual risk behavior is a public health problem among adolescents living at or below poverty level. Approximately 1 million pregnancies and 3 million cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are reported yearly. Parenting plays a significant role in adolescent behavior, with mother-adolescent sexual communication correlated with absent or delayed sexual behavior. This study developed an instrument examining constructs of mother-adolescent communication, the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument. A convenience sample of 99 mothers of middle school children completed the self-administered questionnaires. The original 34-item MASC was reduced to 18 items. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 18-item scale, which resulted in four factors explaining 84.63% of the total variance. Internal consistency analysis produced Cronbach alpha coefficients of .87, .90, .82, and .71 for the four factors, respectively. Convergent validity via hypothesis testing was supported by significant correlations with several subscales of the Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ) with MASC factors, that is, content and style factors with warmth, personal relationships and disciplinary warmth subscales of the PCRQ, the context factor with personal relationships, and the timing factor with warmth. In light of these findings, the psychometric characteristics and multidimensional perspective of the MASC instrument show evidence of usefulness for measuring and advancing knowledge of mother and adolescent sexual communication techniques. PMID:19886470

  7. Contamination analysis of radioactive samples in focused ion beam instruments.

    PubMed

    Evelan, Audrey Ruth; Brey, Richard R

    2013-02-01

    The use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) instrument's to analyze and prepare samples that are radioactive requires attentiveness to the materials that are dislodged and free inside the chamber. Radioactive sputtered material must be understood even when observed at trace concentrations. Measurements using liquid scintillation counting and high purity germanium detectors were used to evaluate contamination on accessible surfaces inside a focused ion beam chamber that was used in the preparation of samples that were radioactive. The maximum removable contamination found was 0.27 0.4 Bq cm(-2), on the focused ion beam wall with 0.24 0.019 Bq cm(-2) on the door. Although these magnitudes of removable contamination are inconsequential for activation products, these same magnitudes of actinides, for example 239Pu, would represent 3.2% of an Annual Limit of Intake. This might be considered significant if one examines the relatively infrequent use of this device for the preparation of radioactive samples. Predicted activities of sputtered material were found using the software Transport of Ions in Matter, estimating that 0.003% of a radioactive samples activity is released into the FIB chamber. A used secondary electron detector's activity was measured to be 383.7 8.1 Bq. Preferential build-up of sputtered materials due to temperature or static charge gradients was considered. No temperature gradients were observed. Static charge gradients were measured inside the chamber varying between 0.057% below the mean to 34% higher than the mean. However, the magnitudes of contamination measured did not correlate to static charge gradients. Deposition in the chamber appears to have no mechanical cause but rather is sporadic however, measureable. Experience to date has been limited to samples of low activity; nevertheless, contamination inside the chamber was observed. Users should anticipate higher levels of readily dispersible radioactive contamination within the FIB as sample activity

  8. The Tuition Advance Fund: An Analysis Prepared for Boston University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botsford, Keith

    Three models for anlayzing the Tuition Advance Fund (TAF) are examined. The three models are: projections by the Institute for Demographic and Economic Studies (IDES), projections by Data Resources, Inc. (DRI), and the Tuition Advance Fund Simulation (TAFSIM) models from Boston University. Analysis of the TAF is based on enrollment, price, and…

  9. Advanced Quadrupole Ion Trap Instrumentation for Low Level Vehicle Emissions Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amendable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methy-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. All of the ions with potential to serve as parent ions in a tandem mass spectrometry experiment were found to yield parent-to-product conversion efficiencies greater than 75%. The flexibility afforded to the ion trap by use of tailored wave-forms applied to the end-caps allows parallel monitoring schemes to be devised that provide many of the advantages of tandem mass spectrometry without major loss in measurement rate. A large loss in measurement rate would ordinarily result from the use of conventional tandem mass spectrometry experiments carried out in series for a large number of targeted components. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of

  10. The design and instrumentation of the Purdue annular cascade facility with initial data acquisition and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauter, R. C.; Fleeter, S.

    1982-01-01

    Three dimensional aerodynamic data, required to validate and/or indicate necessary refinements to inviscid and viscous analyses of the flow through turbomachine blade rows, are discussed. Instrumentation and capabilities for pressure measurement, probe insertion and traversing, and flow visualization are reviewed. Advanced measurement techniques including Laser Doppler Anemometers, are considered. Data processing is reviewed. Predictions were correlated with the experimental data. A flow visualization technique using helium filled soap bubbles was demonstrated.

  11. Overview of clinical flow cytometry data analysis: recent advances and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Pedreira, Carlos E; Costa, Elaine S; Lecrevisse, Quentin; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    Major technological advances in flow cytometry (FC), both for instrumentation and reagents, have emerged over the past few decades. These advances facilitate simultaneous evaluation of more parameters in single cells analyzed at higher speed. Consequently, larger and more complex data files that contain information about tens of parameters for millions of cells are generated. This increasing complexity has challenged pre-existing data analysis tools and promoted the development of new algorithms and tools for data analysis and visualization. Here, we review the currently available (conventional and newly developed) data analysis and visualization strategies that aim for easier, more objective, and robust interpretation of FC data both in biomedical research and clinical diagnostic laboratories.

  12. [MCU selection analysis in portable electronic medical instrument design].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengxing; Ye, Shuming; Xu, Zhi; Chen, Hang

    2014-05-01

    Around the features of low power and high integration of portable electronic medical equipment design, the primary low power MCU series from the current semiconductor manufacturers were compared. The analysis results showed that the 32-bit MCUs based on the low cost and high energy efficient ARM Cortex-M architectures, have comprehensive advantages on power level, operational performance and integrated peripherals obviously.

  13. Advanced Fingerprint Analysis Project Fingerprint Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    GM Mong; CE Petersen; TRW Clauss

    1999-10-29

    The work described in this report was focused on generating fundamental data on fingerprint components which will be used to develop advanced forensic techniques to enhance fluorescent detection, and visualization of latent fingerprints. Chemical components of sweat gland secretions are well documented in the medical literature and many chemical techniques are available to develop latent prints, but there have been no systematic forensic studies of fingerprint sweat components or of the chemical and physical changes these substances undergo over time.

  14. Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

    1987-12-01

    The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

  15. Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis (AMSA) Capability Roadmap Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonsson, Erik; Gombosi, Tamas

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: NASA capability roadmap activity. Advanced modeling, simulation, and analysis overview. Scientific modeling and simulation. Operations modeling. Multi-special sensing (UV-gamma). System integration. M and S Environments and Infrastructure.

  16. Coordination of Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) Science Working Group (SWG) for the study of instrument accommodation and operational requirements on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives are to coordinate the activities of the Science Working Group (SWG) of the Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) for the study of instruments accommodation and operation requirements on board space station. In order to facilitate the progress of the objective, two conferences were organized, together with two small group discussions.

  17. The Instrument for the Analysis of Science Teaching: A System for Measuring Teaching Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    A system of interaction analysis, the Instrument for the Analysis of Science Teaching (IAST, Part 1), and an accompanying sign system (IAST, Part 2) were developed. Originally used to analyze teaching behavior observed in elementary school classrooms where "Science--A Process Approach" was being taught, IAST was later found to be applicable as a…

  18. Advanced smoke meter development survey and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitz, R. W.; Penney, C. M.; Stanforth, C. M.; Shaffernocker, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    Ideal smoke meter characteristics are determined to provide a basis for evaluation of candidate systems. Five promising techniques are analyzed in detail to evaluate compilance with the practical smoke meter requirements. Four of the smoke measurement concepts are optical methods: Modulated Transmission (MODTRAN), Cross Beam Absorption Counter (CBAC), Laser Induced Incandescence (LIN), and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS). A rapid response filter instrument called a Taper Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) is also evaluated. For each technique, the theoretical principles are described, the expected performance is determined, and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed The expected performance is evaluated against each of the smoke meter specifications, and the key questions for further study are given. The most promising smoke meter technique analyzed was MODTRAN, which is a variation on a direct transmission measurement. The soot-laden gas is passed through a transmission cell, and the gas pressure is modulated by a speaker.

  19. Advanced tracking systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potash, R.; Floyd, L.; Jacobsen, A.; Cunningham, K.; Kapoor, A.; Kwadrat, C.; Radel, J.; Mccarthy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an assessment of several types of high-accuracy tracking systems proposed to track the spacecraft in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) are summarized. Tracking systems based on the use of interferometry and ranging are investigated. For each system, the top-level system design and operations concept are provided. A comparative system assessment is presented in terms of orbit determination performance, ATDRSS impacts, life-cycle cost, and technological risk.

  20. Advanced surface design for logistics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tim R.; Hansen, Scott D.

    The development of anthropometric arm/hand and tool models and their manipulation in a large system model for maintenance simulation are discussed. The use of Advanced Surface Design and s-fig technology in anthropometrics, and three-dimensional graphics simulation tools, are found to achieve a good balance between model manipulation speed and model accuracy. The present second generation models are shown to be twice as fast to manipulate as the first generation b-surf models, to be easier to manipulate into various configurations, and to more closely approximate human contours.

  1. Recent advances and trends in the liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, André; Venter, Pieter; Pasch, Harald

    2016-01-22

    Flavonoids have elicited significant attention as a result of their importance in plants, their influence on the properties of natural-product derived commodities and especially as a consequence of their purported health benefits. Research in all of these fields relies heavily on accurate analytical data, and in this LC-MS has come to play an influential role by allowing relatively fast tentative identification and accurate quantification of low levels of flavonoids in a variety of matrices. The field has undergone rapid expansion in the last decade due to important developments in both HPLC and MS instrumentation, which nowadays allow much faster and more accurate analysis of flavonoids. This contribution aims to provide an overview of these developments and their application in flavonoid analysis since 2009. The discussion is focussed first on methodologies which provide improved LC separation of flavonoids in terms of speed and/or resolution, including ultra high pressure LC (UHPLC), monolithic and superficially porous phases, high temperature LC (HTLC) and comprehensive two-dimensional LC (LC×LC). The fundamental background relevant to each of these will be briefly outlined, as well as the implications and promise of their hyphenation to MS. Secondly, the possibilities and limitations of a range of the latest MS instruments available in combination with advanced LC analysis will be discussed, including ion trap, triple quadrupole, time-of-flight, Orbitrap, ion mobility and various hybrid instruments. Examples from the latest literature will be used to illustrate the performance gains achievable in flavonoid analysis by the hyphenation of advanced LC separation and high-end MS instrumentation.

  2. Trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis for pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Methods and technology were developed to analyze 1000 samples/yr of coal and other pollution-related samples. The complete trace element analysis of 20-24 samples/wk averaged 3-3.5 man-hours/sample. The computerized data reduction scheme could identify and report data on as many as 56 elements. In addition to coal, samples of fly ash, bottom ash, crude oil, fuel oil, residual oil, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, filtered air particulates, ore, stack scrubber water, clam tissue, crab shells, river sediment and water, and corn were analyzed. Precision of the method was plus or minus 25% based on all elements reported in coal and other sample matrices. Overall accuracy was estimated at 50%.

  3. Characterization of Leonid meteor head echo data collected using the VHF-UHF Advanced Research Projects Agency Long-Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar (ALTAIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, S.; Hunt, S. M.; McKeen, F. M.; Minardi, M. J.

    2002-02-01

    The Leonid meteor shower, which was predicted to hit storm-like activity on 17 November 1998, was observed using radar and optical sensors at the Kwajalein Missile Range in order to study potential threats to orbiting spacecraft. Meteor head echo data were collected during the predicted peak of the ``storm'' primarily using the Advanced Research Projects Agency Long-Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar (ALTAIR). ALTAIR is a dual-frequency radar at VHF (160 MHz) and UHF (422 MHz) that is uniquely suited for detecting meteor head echoes due to high sensitivity, precise calibration, and the ability to record radar data at a high rate (Gb/min). ALTAIR transmits right-circular (RC) polarized energy and records left-circular (LC) sum, RC sum, LC azimuth angle difference, and LC elevation angle difference channels; these four measurements facilitate the determination of three-dimensional target position and velocity as a function of radar cross section and time. During the predicted peak of the storm, ALTAIR detected 734 VHF head echoes in 29 min of data and 472 UHF head echoes in 17 min of data, as well as numerous specular and nonspecular ionization trails. This paper contains analysis on the head echo data, including dual-frequency statistics and the variability of head echo decelerations. We also include results from the analysis of the radius-density parameter, which shows a strong correlation with deceleration.

  4. Advanced MR moisture sensor market feasibility analysis. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This paper briefly documents activities, background information, and results of marketing studies on the Magnetic Resonance Advanced Moisture Sensor (AMS). The main goals of the study are to identify industrial uses to guide development efforts, to become familiar with the industrial and magnetic resonance research capabilities/resources at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and to develop a summary data sheet describing the AMS product for use with a broad mail survey of potential users. The studies are being performed through an alliance of Quantum Magnetics, US DOE, SwRI, The Townsend Agency, and PAI Partners. Efforts are being focused on NIR, Raman, and other optical spectroscopies as process measurement tools for onstream applications. Domestic and world markets for process analytical instrumentation, process moisture instrumentation, and nuclear magnetic resonance instrumentation are summarized. Three applications are identified as the most promising for magnetic resonance instrumentation: (1) polymer production, (2) pharmaceuticals preparation, and (3) prepared food processing. It is estimated that the process magnetic resonance market could reach $5 to $10 million annually by the end of this decade.

  5. Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility calibration and aircraft dosimetry results from the LIULIN-3M instrument.

    PubMed

    Dachev, Ts P; Stassinopoulous, E G; Tomov, B T; Dimitrov, Pl G; Matviichuk, Yu N; Shurshakov, V A; Petrov, V M

    2003-01-01

    The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, used on the MIR spacestation during the 1988-1994 time period. The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and cm2 area is contained in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used to determine the energy losses in the detector. The final data from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposure time and 256 channels of absorbed dose spectra based on the assumption that the particle flux is normal to the detector. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and had been used for radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. The calibration procedure and some flight results are presented in this paper.

  6. Analysis and prediction of ocean swell using instrumented buoys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettlach, Theodore; Wang, David; Wittmann, Paul

    1994-01-01

    During the period 20-23 September 1990, the remnants of Supertyphoon Flo moved into the central North Pacific Ocean with sustained wind speeds of 28 m/s. The strong wind and large fetch area associated with this storm generated long-period swell that propagated to the west coast of North America. National Data Buoy Center moored-buoy stations, located in a network that ranged from the Gulf of Alaska to the California Bight, provided wave spectral estimates of the swell from this storm. The greatest dominant wave periods measured were approximately 20-25 s, and significant wave heights measured ranged from 3 to 8 m. Wave spectra from an array of three nondirectional buoys are used to find the source of the long-period swell. Directional wave spectra from a heave-pitch-roll buoy are also used to make an independent estimate of the source of the swell. The ridge-line method, using time-frequency contour plots of wave spectral energy density, is used to determine the time of swell generation, which is used with the appropriate surface pressure analysis to infer the swell generation area. The diagnosed sources of the swell are also compared with nowcasts from the Global Spectral Ocean Wave Model of the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center. A simple method of predicting the propagation of ocean swell, by applying a simple kinematic model of wave propagation to the estimated point and time source, is demonstrated.

  7. ISO Guest Observer Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard

    2001-01-01

    The following is an interim annual report. Dr. Smith is currently on an extended TDY to the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) at the Consilio Nazionale delle Richerche (CNR) in Rome, Italy, where he has been working on a related NASA grant in support of analysis of Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) data on star formation in Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies and our galaxy. Work emphasizes development of metal mesh grids for use in spacecraft, and the design and fabrication of test elements by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C. Work has progressed well, but slowly, on that program due to the departure of a key engineer. NASA has been advised of the delay, and granted a no-cost extension, whereby SAO has authorized a delay in the final report from NRL. Nevertheless NRL has continued to make progress. Two papers have been submitted to refereed journals related to this program, and a new design for mesh operating in the 20-40 micron region has been developed. Meetings continue through the summer on these items. A new technical scientist has been made a job offer and hopefully will be on board NRL shortly, although most of the present grant work is already completed. A more complete report, with copies of the submitted papers, designs, and other measures of progress, will be submitted to NASA in September when Dr. Smith returns from his current TDY.

  8. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  9. Recent Advances in Anthocyanin Analysis and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Cara R.; Wu, Qingli; Simon, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of polyphenols responsible for the orange, red, purple and blue colors of many fruits, vegetables, grains, flowers and other plants. Consumption of anthocyanins has been linked as protective agents against many chronic diseases and possesses strong antioxidant properties leading to a variety of health benefits. In this review, we examine the advances in the chemical profiling of natural anthocyanins in plant and biological matrices using various chromatographic separations (HPLC and CE) coupled with different detection systems (UV, MS and NMR). An overview of anthocyanin chemistry, prevalence in plants, biosynthesis and metabolism, bioactivities and health properties, sample preparation and phytochemical investigations are discussed while the major focus examines the comparative advantages and disadvantages of each analytical technique. PMID:19946465

  10. Analysis of an advanced technology subsonic turbofan incorporating revolutionary materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knip, Gerald, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Successful implementation of revolutionary composite materials in an advanced turbofan offers the possibility of further improvements in engine performance and thrust-to-weight ratio relative to current metallic materials. The present analysis determines the approximate engine cycle and configuration for an early 21st century subsonic turbofan incorporating all composite materials. The advanced engine is evaluated relative to a current technology baseline engine in terms of its potential fuel savings for an intercontinental quadjet having a design range of 5500 nmi and a payload of 500 passengers. The resultant near optimum, uncooled, two-spool, advanced engine has an overall pressure ratio of 87, a bypass ratio of 18, a geared fan, and a turbine rotor inlet temperature of 3085 R. Improvements result in a 33-percent fuel saving for the specified misssion. Various advanced composite materials are used throughout the engine. For example, advanced polymer composite materials are used for the fan and the low pressure compressor (LPC).

  11. Analysis of a spacecraft instrument ball bearing assembly lubricated by a perfluoroalkylether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, W.; Jones, W. R., Jr.; Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of a spacecraft instrument ball bearing assembly, subjected to a scanning life test, was performed to determine the possible case of rotational problems involving these units aboard several satellites. The analysis indicated an ineffective transfer of a fluorinated liquid lubricant from a phenolic retainer to the bearing balls. Part of the analysis led to a novel HPLC separation method employing a fluorinated mobile phase in conjunction with silica based size exclusion columns.

  12. [µCT analysis of mandibular molars before and after instrumentation by Reciproc files].

    PubMed

    Ametrano, Gianluca; Riccitiello, Francesco; Amato, Massimo; Formisano, Anna; Muto, Massimo; Grassi, Roberta; Valletta, Alessandra; Simeone, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Cleaning and shaping are important section for the root canal treatment. A number of different methodologies have been developed to overcome these problems, including the introduction of rotary instruments nickel-titanium (NiTi). In endodontics NiTi have been shown to significantly reduce procedural errors compared to manual techniques of instrumentation. The efficiency of files is related to many factor. Although previous investigations that have used µCT analysis were hampered by insufficient resolution or projection incorrect. The new generation of μCT performance best offer, as micron resolution and accurate measurement software for evaluating the accurate anatomy of the root canal. The aim the paper was to evaluate the efficiency of Reciproc files in root canal treatment, evaluated before and after instrumentation by using μ-CT analysis.

  13. Modeling and analysis of advanced binary cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Gawlik, K.

    1997-12-31

    A computer model (Cycle Analysis Simulation Tool, CAST) and a methodology have been developed to perform value analysis for small, low- to moderate-temperature binary geothermal power plants. The value analysis method allows for incremental changes in the levelized electricity cost (LEC) to be determined between a baseline plant and a modified plant. Thermodynamic cycle analyses and component sizing are carried out in the model followed by economic analysis which provides LEC results. The emphasis of the present work is on evaluating the effect of mixed working fluids instead of pure fluids on the LEC of a geothermal binary plant that uses a simple Organic Rankine Cycle. Four resources were studied spanning the range of 265{degrees}F to 375{degrees}F. A variety of isobutane and propane based mixtures, in addition to pure fluids, were used as working fluids. This study shows that the use of propane mixtures at a 265{degrees}F resource can reduce the LEC by 24% when compared to a base case value that utilizes commercial isobutane as its working fluid. The cost savings drop to 6% for a 375{degrees}F resource, where an isobutane mixture is favored. Supercritical cycles were found to have the lowest cost at all resources.

  14. Advancing Usability Evaluation through Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2005-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues.

  15. Recent advances in statistical energy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heron, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has traditionally been developed using modal summation and averaging approach, and has led to the need for many restrictive SEA assumptions. The assumption of 'weak coupling' is particularly unacceptable when attempts are made to apply SEA to structural coupling. It is now believed that this assumption is more a function of the modal formulation rather than a necessary formulation of SEA. The present analysis ignores this restriction and describes a wave approach to the calculation of plate-plate coupling loss factors. Predictions based on this method are compared with results obtained from experiments using point excitation on one side of an irregular six-sided box structure. Conclusions show that the use and calculation of infinite transmission coefficients is the way forward for the development of a purely predictive SEA code.

  16. Progress in Advanced Spectral Analysis of Radioxenon

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Derek A.; Schrom, Brian T.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Ely, James H.; Flory, Adam E.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Suckow, Thomas J.

    2010-09-21

    Improvements to a Java based software package developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for display and analysis of radioxenon spectra acquired by the International Monitoring System (IMS) are described here. The current version of the Radioxenon JavaViewer implements the region of interest (ROI) method for analysis of beta-gamma coincidence data. Upgrades to the Radioxenon JavaViewer will include routines to analyze high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) data, Standard Spectrum Method to analyze beta-gamma coincidence data and calibration routines to characterize beta-gamma coincidence detectors. These upgrades are currently under development; the status and initial results will be presented. Implementation of these routines into the JavaViewer and subsequent release is planned for FY 2011-2012.

  17. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.; Seidleck, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  18. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, J. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.; LaBel, K. A.; Schwank, J. R.; Dodds, N. A.; Castaneda, C. M.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Phan, A. M.; Seidleck, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  19. Advanced Techniques for Root Cause Analysis

    2000-09-19

    Five items make up this package, or can be used individually. The Chronological Safety Management Template utilizes a linear adaptation of the Integrated Safety Management System laid out in the form of a template that greatly enhances the ability of the analyst to perform the first step of any investigation which is to gather all pertinent facts and identify causal factors. The Problem Analysis Tree is a simple three (3) level problem analysis tree whichmore » is easier for organizations outside of WSRC to use. Another part is the Systemic Root Cause Tree. One of the most basic and unique features of Expanded Root Cause Analysis is the Systemic Root Cause portion of the Expanded Root Cause Pyramid. The Systemic Root Causes are even more basic than the Programmatic Root Causes and represent Root Causes that cut across multiple (if not all) programs in an organization. the Systemic Root Cause portion contains 51 causes embedded at the bottom level of a three level Systemic Root Cause Tree that is divided into logical, organizationally based categorie to assist the analyst. The Computer Aided Root Cause Analysis that allows the analyst at each level of the Pyramid to a) obtain a brief description of the cause that is being considered, b) record a decision that the item is applicable, c) proceed to the next level of the Pyramid to see only those items at the next level of the tree that are relevant to the particular cause that has been chosen, and d) at the end of the process automatically print out a summary report of the incident, the causal factors as they relate to the safety management system, the probable causes, apparent causes, Programmatic Root Causes and Systemic Root Causes for each causal factor and the associated corrective action.« less

  20. Advanced automated char image analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Wu; Edward Lester; Michael Cloke

    2006-05-15

    Char morphology is an important characteristic when attempting to understand coal behavior and coal burnout. In this study, an augmented algorithm has been proposed to identify char types using image analysis. On the basis of a series of image processing steps, a char image is singled out from the whole image, which then allows the important major features of the char particle to be measured, including size, porosity, and wall thickness. The techniques for automated char image analysis have been tested against char images taken from ICCP Char Atlas as well as actual char particles derived from pyrolyzed char samples. Thirty different chars were prepared in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 1% oxygen, and 100 ms from 15 different world coals sieved into two size fractions (53-75 and 106-125 {mu}m). The results from this automated technique are comparable with those from manual analysis, and the additional detail from the automated sytem has potential use in applications such as combustion modeling systems. Obtaining highly detailed char information with automated methods has traditionally been hampered by the difficulty of automatic recognition of individual char particles. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieftenbeld, Vincent; Natesan, Prathiba; Eddy, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The mathematics teaching efficacy beliefs of preservice elementary teachers have been the subject of several studies. A widely used measure in these studies is the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MTEBI). The present study provides a detailed analysis of the psychometric properties of the MTEBI using Bayesian item response theory.…

  2. Validating Affordances as an Instrument for Design and a Priori Analysis of Didactical Situations in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollervall, Håkan; Stadler, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the presented case study is to investigate how coherent analytical instruments may guide the a priori and a posteriori analyses of a didactical situation. In the a priori analysis we draw on the notion of affordances, as artefact-mediated opportunities for action, to construct hypothetical trajectories of goal-oriented actions that have…

  3. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  4. Coulometric Titration of Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) with Spectrophotometric Endpoint Detection: An Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Young, Vaneica Y.; Killian, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is commonly used as an anticoagulant in blood-collection procedures. In this experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory, students determine the quantity of EDTA in commercial collection tubes by coulometric titration with electrolytically generated Cu[superscript 2+]. The endpoint is detected…

  5. Flavour Profiling of 'Marion' and Thornless Blackberries by Instrumental and Sensory Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flavour of thornless blackberries grown in Pacific Northwest including 'Thornless Evergreen', 'Black Diamond', 'Black Pearl', 'Nightfall', ORUS 1843-3, 'Waldo', NZ 9351-4, and 'Chester Thornless' as well as 'Marion' was profiled by sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis. Sensory results sh...

  6. Protein Analysis Using Real-Time PCR Instrumentation: Incorporation in an Integrated, Inquiry-Based Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southard, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumentation for real-time PCR is used primarily for amplification and quantitation of nucleic acids. The capability to measure fluorescence while controlling temperature in multiple samples can also be applied to the analysis of proteins. Conformational stability and changes in stability due to ligand binding are easily assessed. Protein…

  7. Bringing in the Bard: Shakespearean Plays as Context for Instrumental Analysis Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloepper, Kathryn D.

    2015-01-01

    Scenes from the works of William Shakespeare were incorporated into individual and group projects for an upper-level chemistry class, instrumental analysis. Students read excerpts from different plays and then viewed a corresponding video clip from a stage or movie production. Guided-research assignments were developed based on these scenes. These…

  8. Bias and Bias Correction in Multisite Instrumental Variables Analysis of Heterogeneous Mediator Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Unlu, Fatih; Zhu, Pei; Bloom, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the use of instrumental variables (IV) analysis with a multisite randomized trial to estimate the effect of a mediating variable on an outcome in cases where it can be assumed that the observed mediator is the only mechanism linking treatment assignment to outcomes, an assumption known in the IV literature as the exclusion restriction.…

  9. Psychometric Analysis of a 5E Learning Cycle Lesson Plan Assessment Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Day, Jeanelle Bland; Sundberg, Cheryl; Dantzler, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the procedures and the analysis of an instrument designed to measure preservice teachers' ability to develop appropriate 5E learning cycle lesson plans. The 5E "inquiry lesson plan" (ILP) rubric is comprised of 12 items with a scoring range of zero to four points per item. Content validity was determined…

  10. Instrument and Survey Analysis Technical Report: Program Implementation Survey. Technical Report #1112

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical document provides guidance to educators on the creation and interpretation of survey instruments, particularly as they relate to an analysis of program implementation. Illustrative examples are drawn from a survey of educators related to the use of the easyCBM learning system. This document includes specific sections on…

  11. Family Background Variables as Instruments for Education in Income Regressions: A Bayesian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoogerheide, Lennart; Block, Joern H.; Thurik, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The validity of family background variables instrumenting education in income regressions has been much criticized. In this paper, we use data from the 2004 German Socio-Economic Panel and Bayesian analysis to analyze to what degree violations of the strict validity assumption affect the estimation results. We show that, in case of moderate direct…

  12. Multichannel capillary electrophoresis microdevice and instrumentation for in situ planetary analysis of organic molecules and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Benhabib, Merwan; Chiesl, Thomas N; Stockton, Amanda M; Scherer, James R; Mathies, Richard A

    2010-03-15

    The Multichannel Mars Organic Analyzer (McMOA), a portable instrument for the sensitive microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis of organic compounds such as amino acid biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is developed. The instrument uses a four-layer microchip, containing eight CE analysis systems integrated with a microfluidic network for autonomous fluidic processing. The McMOA has improved optical components that integrate 405 nm laser excitation with a linear-scanning optical system capable of multichannel real-time fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. The instrumental limit of detection is 6 pM (glycine). Microfluidic programs are executed to perform the automated sequential analysis of an amine-containing sample in each channel as well as eight consecutive analyses of alternating samples on the same channel, demonstrating less than 1% cross-contamination. The McMOA is used to identify the unique fluorescence spectra of nine components in a PAH standard and then applied to the analysis of a sediment sample from Lake Erie. The presence of benzo[a]pyrene and perylene in this sample is confirmed, and a peak coeluting with anthanthrene is disqualified based on spectral analysis. The McMOA exploits lab-on-a-chip technologies to fully integrate complex autonomous operations demonstrating the facile engineering of microchip-CE platforms for the analysis of a wide variety of organic compounds in planetary exploration.

  13. Advanced Orion Optimized Laser System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Contractor shall perform a complete analysis of the potential of the solid state laser in the very long pulse mode (100 ns pulse width, 10-30 hz rep-rate) and in the very short pulse mode (100 ps pulse width 10-30 hz rep rate) concentrating on the operation of the device in the 'hot-rod' mode, where no active cooling the laser operation is attempted. Contractor's calculations shall be made of the phase aberrations which develop during the repped-pulse train, and the results shall feed into the adaptive optics analyses. The contractor shall devise solutions to work around ORION track issues. A final report shall be furnished to the MSFC COTR including all calculations and analysis of estimates of bulk phase and intensity aberration distribution in the laser output beam as a function of time during the repped-pulse train for both wave forms (high-energy/long-pulse, as well as low-energy/short-pulse). Recommendations shall be made for mitigating the aberrations by laser re-design and/or changes in operating parameters of optical pump sources and/or designs.

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil and sediment samples from Siwa Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Wael M.; Ali, Khaled; El-Samman, Hussein M.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.; Gundorina, Svetlana F.; Duliu, Octavian G.

    2015-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study geochemical peculiarities of the Siwa Oasis in the Western Egyptian Desert. A total of 34 elements were determined in soil and sediment samples (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U). For data interpretation Cluster analysis was applied. Comparison with the available literature data was carried out.

  15. Advanced stability analysis for laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orszag, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Five classes of problems are addressed: (1) the extension of the SALLY stability analysis code to the full eighth order compressible stability equations for three dimensional boundary layer; (2) a comparison of methods for prediction of transition using SALLY for incompressible flows; (3) a study of instability and transition in rotating disk flows in which the effects of Coriolis forces and streamline curvature are included; (4) a new linear three dimensional instability mechanism that predicts Reynolds numbers for transition to turbulence in planar shear flows in good agreement with experiment; and (5) a study of the stability of finite amplitude disturbances in axisymmetric pipe flow showing the stability of this flow to all nonlinear axisymmetric disturbances.

  16. Value analysis for advanced technology products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulliere, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Technology by itself can be wondrous, but buyers of technology factor in the price they have to pay along with performance in their decisions. As a result, the ``best'' technology may not always win in the marketplace when ``good enough'' can be had at a lower price. Technology vendors often set pricing by ``cost plus margin,'' or by competitors' offerings. What if the product is new (or has yet to be invented)? Value pricing is a methodology to price products based on the value generated (e.g. money saved) by using one product vs. the next best technical alternative. Value analysis can often clarify what product attributes generate the most value. It can also assist in identifying market forces outside of the control of the technology vendor that also influence pricing. These principles are illustrated with examples.

  17. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Taeho; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective instrument to measure student readiness in online learning with reliable predictors of online learning success factors such as learning outcomes and learner satisfaction. The validity and reliability of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) instrument were tested using exploratory factor…

  18. Portable generator-based XRF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel; Selavka, Carl; Zeosky, Gerald; Gahn, Norman; McClanahan, Timothy; Burbine, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes.

  19. Holographic Spectroscopy for Rapid Electron Bunch Analysis: Development of an Instrument with THZ Resolved Optical Gating

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, Albert

    2011-10-28

    radiation and provided the first step in the development of a self contained THz HFTS for rapid electron bunch shape analysis. Our first experiments confirmed the idea and as a side result made possible a completely new bunch length monitor eliminating any need for an external laser since only radiation produced by the bunch itself is involved. A more advanced instrument was designed to use the incoherent visible radiation pulse from the synchrotron source for sampling the THz interference pattern. It has been built and the first tests are to be conducted in April 2011 at the Jefferson FEL facility.

  20. Multispectral laser imaging for advanced food analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senni, L.; Burrascano, P.; Ricci, M.

    2016-07-01

    A hardware-software apparatus for food inspection capable of realizing multispectral NIR laser imaging at four different wavelengths is herein discussed. The system was designed to operate in a through-transmission configuration to detect the presence of unwanted foreign bodies inside samples, whether packed or unpacked. A modified Lock-In technique was employed to counterbalance the significant signal intensity attenuation due to transmission across the sample and to extract the multispectral information more efficiently. The NIR laser wavelengths used to acquire the multispectral images can be varied to deal with different materials and to focus on specific aspects. In the present work the wavelengths were selected after a preliminary analysis to enhance the image contrast between foreign bodies and food in the sample, thus identifying the location and nature of the defects. Experimental results obtained from several specimens, with and without packaging, are presented and the multispectral image processing as well as the achievable spatial resolution of the system are discussed.

  1. Advanced analysis techniques for uranium assay

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, W. H.; Ensslin, Norbert; Carrillo, L. A.; Beard, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium has a negligible passive neutron emission rate making its assay practicable only with an active interrogation method. The active interrogation uses external neutron sources to induce fission events in the uranium in order to determine the mass. This technique requires careful calibration with standards that are representative of the items to be assayed. The samples to be measured are not always well represented by the available standards which often leads to large biases. A technique of active multiplicity counting is being developed to reduce some of these assay difficulties. Active multiplicity counting uses the measured doubles and triples count rates to determine the neutron multiplication (f4) and the product of the source-sample coupling ( C ) and the 235U mass (m). Since the 35U mass always appears in the multiplicity equations as the product of Cm, the coupling needs to be determined before the mass can be known. A relationship has been developed that relates the coupling to the neutron multiplication. The relationship is based on both an analytical derivation and also on empirical observations. To determine a scaling constant present in this relationship, known standards must be used. Evaluation of experimental data revealed an improvement over the traditional calibration curve analysis method of fitting the doubles count rate to the 235Um ass. Active multiplicity assay appears to relax the requirement that the calibration standards and unknown items have the same chemical form and geometry.

  2. Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garland, J.; Neilson, J.; Laubach, S.E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of innovative techniques and concepts, and the emergence of new plays in carbonate rocks are creating a resurgence of oil and gas discoveries worldwide. The maturity of a basin and the application of exploration concepts have a fundamental influence on exploration strategies. Exploration success often occurs in underexplored basins by applying existing established geological concepts. This approach is commonly undertaken when new basins ‘open up’ owing to previous political upheavals. The strategy of using new techniques in a proven mature area is particularly appropriate when dealing with unconventional resources (heavy oil, bitumen, stranded gas), while the application of new play concepts (such as lacustrine carbonates) to new areas (i.e. ultra-deep South Atlantic basins) epitomizes frontier exploration. Many low-matrix-porosity hydrocarbon reservoirs are productive because permeability is controlled by fractures and faults. Understanding basic fracture properties is critical in reducing geological risk and therefore reducing well costs and increasing well recovery. The advent of resource plays in carbonate rocks, and the long-standing recognition of naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs means that new fracture and fault analysis and prediction techniques and concepts are essential.

  3. New engineering design, instrument modeling, and data analysis techniques for spaceborne mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.

    This work describes technological innovations that can be used to improve upon space-borne mass spectrometers (MS), enabling breakthrough science and the development of the next-generation of sensors. Emphasis is placed on the two classes of MS with the strongest spaceflight heritage: quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MS). For the QMS, higher order auxiliary excitation techniques are modeled and implemented for the first time for both commercial and spaceflight-like sensors. These techniques, through modest modification of instrument electronics, are shown to significantly improve upon the maximum attainable mass resolution, sensitivity, ion rejection efficiency, and stability of measured mass spectra. For the TOF-MS, a complete analysis of instrument noise sources is conducted, and a mathematical framework for instrument measurements is developed. Such a framework results in an end-to-end forward modeling of instrument noise, dataset signal-to-noise estimation, and noise event removal algorithms. The developed noise processing techniques are applied to the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) instrument on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft to enable the first ever mapping of the spatial distribution of heavy ions at Mercury, the first in situ measurements of solar wind heavy ion non-thermal properties in the inner heliosphere, as well as the first in situ measurements made inside of Earth's orbit of ionized helium originating from interstellar space.

  4. Analysis of Solar Spectral Irradiance Measurements from the SBUV/2-Series and the SSBUV Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebula, Richard P.; DeLand, Matthew T.; Hilsenrath, Ernest

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a NOAA-11 SBUV/2 solar spectral irradiance data set which is free from long-term instrument drift, then perform scientific analysis using the data set. During the current period of performance, 29 February 1996 through 31 August 1996, we finalized the NOAA-11 SBUV/2 characterization using internal data. This included updating the instrument's electronic, photomultiplier tube gain, wavelength, diffuser degradation, and goniometric calibrations. We have also completed the SSBUV characterization, 1989-1994, and produced SSBUV irradiances for the first seven SSBUV flights. Both of these steps were needed before the long-term calibration of the NOAA-11 SBUV/2 solar spectral irradiance data set via SSBUV can be undertaken. A second major aspect of this work is to compare solar spectral irradiances from the SBUV/2 instruments and SSBUV with corresponding data from other instruments. In the preceding six months, SSBUV data from the ATLAS-3 (November 1994) mission were compared to coincident SUSIM ATLAS-3 data. The GOME instrument was launched by the European Space Agency in early 1995 and began making solar irradiance measurements in May 1995. Working with GOME scientists, we are using SSBUV data to validate the GOME solar irradiance data. Based in part on those findings, the GOME absolute calibration data were reanalyzed.

  5. Regression Analysis of Long-term Profile Ozone Data Set from BUV Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, Stacey; Taylor, Steve; DeLand, Matt; Ahn, Chang-Woo; Stolarski, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    We have produced a profile merged ozone data set (MOD) based on the SBUV/SBUV2 series of nadir-viewing satellite backscatter instruments, covering the period from November 1978 - December 2003. In 2004, data from the Nimbus 7 SBUV and NOAA 9,11, and 16 SBUV/2 instruments were reprocessed using the Version 8 (V8) algorithm and most recent calibrations. More recently, data from the Nimbus 4 BUV instrument, which operated from 1970 - 1977, were also reprocessed using the V8 algorithm. As part of the V8 profile calibration, the Nimbus 7 and NOAA 9 (1993-1997 only) instrument calibrations have been adjusted to match the NOAA 11 calibration, which was established from comparisons with SSBUV shuttle flight data. Given the level of agreement between the data sets, we simply average the ozone values during periods of instrument overlap to produce the MOD profile data set. We use statistical time-series analysis of the MOD profile data set (1978-2003) to estimate the change in profile ozone due to changing stratospheric chlorine levels. The Nimbus 4 BUV data offer an opportunity to test the physical properties of our statistical model. We extrapolate our statistical model fit backwards in time and compare to the Nimbus 4 data. We compare the statistics of the residuals from the fit for the Nimbus 4 period to those obtained from the 1978-2003 period over which the statistical model coefficients were estimated.

  6. A field instrument for quantitative determination of beryllium by activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughn, William W.; Wilson, E.E.; Ohm, J.M.

    1960-01-01

    A low-cost instrument has been developed for quantitative determinations of beryllium in the field by activation analysis. The instrument makes use of the gamma-neutron reaction between gammas emitted by an artificially radioactive source (Sb124) and beryllium as it occurs in nature. The instrument and power source are mounted in a panel-type vehicle. Samples are prepared by hand-crushing the rock to approximately ?-inch mesh size and smaller. Sample volumes are kept constant by means of a standard measuring cup. Instrument calibration, made by using standards of known BeO content, indicates the analyses are reproducible and accurate to within ? 0.25 percent BeO in the range from 1 to 20 percent BeO with a sample counting time of 5 minutes. Sensitivity of the instrument maybe increased somewhat by increasing the source size, the sample size, or by enlarging the cross-sectional area of the neutron-sensitive phosphor normal to the neutron flux.

  7. Advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W.; Protopopescu, V.A.

    1996-06-01

    The global objective of this effort is to develop advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis, and test the products using a model dataset developed under the joint aegis of the United States` Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and the European Association of Exploration Geophysicists (EAEG). The goal is to enhance the value to the oil industry of the SEG/EAEG modeling project, carried out with US Department of Energy (DOE) funding in FY` 93-95. The primary objective of the ORNL Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is to spearhead the computational innovations techniques that would enable a revolutionary advance in 3-D seismic analysis. The CESAR effort is carried out in collaboration with world-class domain experts from leading universities, and in close coordination with other national laboratories and oil industry partners.

  8. The Development and Implementation of an Instrument to Assess Students’ Data Analysis Skills in Molecular Biology †

    PubMed Central

    Rybarczyk, Brian J.; Walton, Kristen L.W.; Grillo, Wendy Heck

    2014-01-01

    Developing visual literacy skills is an important component of scientific literacy in undergraduate science education. Comprehension, analysis, and interpretation are parts of visual literacy that describe related data analysis skills important for learning in the biological sciences. The Molecular Biology Data Analysis Test (MBDAT) was developed to measure students’ data analysis skills connected with scientific reasoning when analyzing and interpreting scientific data generated from experimental research. The skills analyzed included basic skills, such as identification of patterns and trends in data and connecting a method that generated the data, and advanced skills, such as distinguishing positive and negative controls, synthesizing conclusions, determining if data supports a hypothesis, and predicting alternative or next-step experiments. Construct and content validity were established and calculated statistical parameters demonstrate that the MBDAT is valid and reliable for measuring students’ data analysis skills in molecular and cell biology contexts. The instrument also measures students’ perceived confidence in their data interpretation abilities. As scientific research continues to evolve in complexity, interpretation of scientific information in visual formats will continue to be an important component of scientific literacy. Thus science education will need to support and assess students’ development of these skills as part of students’ scientific training. PMID:25574292

  9. NASTRAN documentation for flutter analysis of advanced turbopropellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elchuri, V.; Gallo, A. M.; Skalski, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An existing capability developed to conduct modal flutter analysis of tuned bladed-shrouded discs was modified to facilitate investigation of the subsonic unstalled flutter characteristics of advanced turbopropellers. The modifications pertain to the inclusion of oscillatory modal aerodynamic loads of blades with large (backward and forward) varying sweep.

  10. METHODS ADVANCEMENT FOR MILK ANALYSIS: THE MAMA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) study was designed by US EPA and CDC investigators to provide data to support the technological and study design needs of the proposed National Children=s Study (NCS). The NCS is a multi-Agency-sponsored study, authorized under the...

  11. Advanced GIS Exercise: Predicting Rainfall Erosivity Index Using Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Christopher J.; Goddard, Megan A.; Mikhailova, Elena A.; Hall, Steven T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate students from a variety of agricultural and natural resource fields are incorporating geographic information systems (GIS) analysis into their graduate research, creating a need for teaching methodologies that help students understand advanced GIS topics for use in their own research. Graduate-level GIS exercises help students understand…

  12. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Dryer Lint: An Advanced Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    2008-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment is described that involves environmental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Students analyze lint from clothes dryers for traces of flame retardant chemicals, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), compounds receiving much attention recently. In a typical experiment, ng/g…

  13. Root canal centering ability of rotary cutting nickel titanium instruments: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gundappa, Mohan; Bansal, Rashmi; Khoriya, Sarvesh; Mohan, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To systematically review articles on canal centering ability of endodontic rotary cutting Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments and subject results to meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search was initiated on canal centering ability of different rotary cutting Ni-Ti files such as Protaper, Hero Shaper, K3, Mtwo, Race, Wave One by selecting articles published in peer reviewed journals during 1991-2013 using “Pub Med” database. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established. A data was created by tabulating: Author name, publication year, sample size, number of experimental groups, methods to evaluate canal centering ability, instrument cross section, taper, tip design, rake angle, mean and standard deviation. The data generated was subjected to meta-analysis. Results: Maximum studies were found to be conducted on mesiobuccal canal of mandibular 1st molar with curvature ranging from 15-60°. The difference in canal centering ability of different rotary cutting Ni-Ti instruments was not statistically significant. Conclusion: All endodontic rotary cutting Ni-Ti instruments are capable of producing centered preparations. Protaper depicted the best centering ability. Computed tomography is an effective method of evaluating canal centering ability. PMID:25506134

  14. The contextual effects of social capital on health: a cross-national instrumental variable analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Baum, Christopher F; Ganz, Michael L; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-12-01

    Past research on the associations between area-level/contextual social capital and health has produced conflicting evidence. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167,344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applying IV and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we estimated the contextual effects of country-level social trust on individual self-rated health. We further explored whether these associations varied by gender and individual levels of trust. Using OLS regression, we found higher average country-level trust to be associated with better self-rated health in both women and men. Instrumental variable analysis yielded qualitatively similar results, although the estimates were more than double in size in both sexes when country population density and corruption were used as instruments. The estimated health effects of raising the percentage of a country's population that trusts others by 10 percentage points were at least as large as the estimated health effects of an individual developing trust in others. These findings were robust to alternative model specifications and instruments. Conventional regression and to a lesser extent IV analysis suggested that these associations are more salient in women and in women reporting social trust. In a large cross-national study, our findings, including those using instrumental variables, support the presence of beneficial effects of higher country-level trust on self-rated health. Previous findings for contextual social capital using traditional regression may have underestimated the true associations. Given the close linkages between self-rated health and all-cause mortality, the public health gains from raising social capital within and across

  15. The contextual effects of social capital on health: a cross-national instrumental variable analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Baum, Christopher F; Ganz, Michael; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Past observational studies of the associations of area-level/contextual social capital with health have revealed conflicting findings. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167 344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applying IV and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we estimated the contextual effects of country-level social trust on individual self-rated health. We further explored whether these associations varied by gender and individual levels of trust. Using OLS regression, we found higher average country-level trust to be associated with better self-rated health in both women and men. Instrumental variable analysis yielded qualitatively similar results, although the estimates were more than double in size in women and men using country population density and corruption as instruments. The estimated health effects of raising the percentage of a country's population that trusts others by 10 percentage points were at least as large as the estimated health effects of an individual developing trust in others. These findings were robust to alternative model specifications and instruments. Conventional regression and to a lesser extent IV analysis suggested that these associations are more salient in women and in women reporting social trust. In a large cross-national study, our findings, including those using instrumental variables, support the presence of beneficial effects of higher country-level trust on self-rated health. Past findings for contextual social capital using traditional regression may have underestimated the true associations. Given the close linkages between self-rated health and all-cause mortality, the public health gains from raising social capital within countries may

  16. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are investigated. Constructions of special elements which containing traction-free circular boundaries are investigated. New versions of mixed variational principle and version of hybrid stress elements are formulated. A method is established for suppression of kinematic deformation modes. semiLoof plate and shell elements are constructed by assumed stress hybrid method. An elastic-plastic analysis is conducted by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  17. Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This three-part document contains a collection of technical papers presented at the Second NASA/Air Force Symposium on Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, held September 28-30, 1988 in Hampton, Virginia. The topics covered include: helicopter design, aeroelastic tailoring, control of aeroelastic structures, dynamics and control of flexible structures, structural design, design of large engineering systems, application of artificial intelligence, shape optimization, software development and implementation, and sensitivity analysis.

  18. Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This three-part document contains a collection of technical papers presented at the Second NASA/Air Force Symposium on Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, held September 28-30, 1988 in Hampton, Virginia. The topics covered include: aircraft design, aeroelastic tailoring, control of aeroelastic structures, dynamics and control of flexible structures, structural design, design of large engineering systems, application of artificial intelligence, shape optimization, software development and implementation, and sensitivity analysis.

  19. Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This three-part document contains a collection of technical papers presented at the Second NASA/Air Force Symposium on Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, held September 28-30, 1988 in Hampton, Virginia. The topics covered include: helicopter design, aeroelastic tailoring, control of aeroelastic structures, dynamics and control of flexible structures, structural design, design of large engineering systems, application of artificial intelligence, shape optimization, software development and implementation, and sensitivity analysis.

  20. Maintaining Instrument Quality while Reducing Items: Application of Rasch Analysis to a Self-Report of Visual Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velozzo, Craig A.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Mallinson, Trudy; Hauselman, Ellyn

    2001-01-01

    Studied how Rasch analysis could be used to reduce the number of items in an instrument while maintaining credible psychometric properties. Applied the approach to the Visual Function-14 developed to measure the need for and outcomes of cataract surgery. Results show how Rasch analysis can be useful in designing modifications of instruments. (SLD)

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  2. Academic Research Equipment in Selected Science/Engineering Fields, 1982-83. An Analysis of Findings from the Baseline National Survey of Academic Research Instruments and Instrumentation Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgdorf, Kenneth; Hausman, Howard J.

    The analysis of data from the baseline cycle of the National Science Foundation instrumentation survey has two principal objectives, namely, to construct and examine a variety of quantitative statistical indicators describing major characteristics of the current national stock of academic research equipment and to document differences among…

  3. [Analysis of the market and future trends of the instrumentation for ambulatory electrocardiography].

    PubMed

    Varanini, M; Taddei, A; Marchesi, C

    1987-12-01

    An inquiry has been made among most manufacturers of ambulatory ECG instrumentation. Both playback and real time systems have been considered. The inquiry, based on a questionnaire, was mainly aimed at identifying possible standard technical solutions emerging from the analysis of various implementations, and at verifying whether techniques for performance evaluation are in common use. Main conclusions of this study include: playback systems are still in competition with real time systems; automatic analysis has not yet reached adequate accuracy; analysis of ST-T interval, while performed by most systems, is not evaluated because common standard of quality is lacking.

  4. Prevalence Estimation and Validation of New Instruments in Psychiatric Research: An Application of Latent Class Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Brian Wells; Miller, William C.; Gaynes, Bradley N.

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence and validation studies rely on imperfect reference standard (RS) diagnostic instruments that can bias prevalence and test characteristic estimates. The authors illustrate 2 methods to account for RS misclassification. Latent class analysis (LCA) combines information from multiple imperfect measures of an unmeasurable latent condition to…

  5. Isolation and analysis of ginseng: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng occupies a prominent position in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support ginseng’s use worldwide. In the past decade, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of ginseng research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the isolation and analysis of ginseng, and to highlight their new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques. The current article reviews the literature between January 2000 and September 2010. PMID:21258738

  6. Mars Geochemical Instrument (MarGI): An instrument for the analysis of the Martian surface and the search for evidence of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Mancinelli, Rocco; Martin, Joe; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Geochemical Instrument, MarGI, was developed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the rocks and surface material on Mars. The instrument combines Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) with miniature Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC-IMS) to identify minerals, the presence and state of water, and organic compounds. Miniature pyrolysis ovens are used to both, conduct DTA analysis of soil or crushed rocks samples, and pyrolyze the samples at temperatures up to 1000 degrees C for GC-IMS analysis of the released gases. This combination of analytical processes and techniques, which can characterize the mineralogy of the rocks and soil, and identify and quantify volatiles released during pyrolysis, has applications across a wide range of target sites including comets, planets, asteroids, and moons such as Titan and Europa. The MarGI analytical approach evolved from the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX) selected to fly on the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby Mission (CRAF).

  7. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  8. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  9. Uncertainty Analysis for Broadband Solar Radiometric Instrumentation Calibrations and Measurements: An Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Reda, I. M.; Wilcox, S. M.; Stoffel, T. L.

    2004-04-01

    The measurement of broadband solar radiation has grown in importance since the advent of solar renewable energy technologies in the 1970's, and the concern about the Earth's radiation balance related to climate change in the 1990's. In parallel, standardized methods of uncertainty analysis and reporting have been developed. Historical and updated uncertainties are based on the current international standardized uncertainty analysis method. Despite the fact that new and sometimes overlooked sources of uncertainty have been identified over the period 1988 to 2004, uncertainty in broadband solar radiometric instrumentation remains at 3% to 5% for pyranometers, and 2% to 3% for pyrheliometers. Improvements in characterizing correction functions for radiometer data may reduce total uncertainty. We analyze the theoretical standardized uncertainty sensitivity coefficients for the instrumentation calibration measurement equation and highlight the single parameter (thermal offset voltages), which contributes the most to the observed calibration responsivities.

  10. Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capabilities Alternatives Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Bryan; Bill Landman; Porter Hill

    2012-12-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for the Advanced Post-Irradiation Capabilities (APIEC) project in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE O 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets”. The Alternatives Analysis considered six major alternatives: ? No Action ? Modify Existing DOE Facilities – capabilities distributed among multiple locations ? Modify Existing DOE Facilities – capabilities consolidated at a few locations ? Construct New Facility ? Commercial Partnership ? International Partnerships Based on the alternatives analysis documented herein, it is recommended to DOE that the advanced post-irradiation examination capabilities be provided by a new facility constructed at the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  11. Neutron xyz - polarization analysis at a time-of-flight instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, Georg; Stewart, John Ross; Andersen, Ken

    2015-01-01

    When implementing a dedicated polarization analysis setup at a neutron time-of-flight instrument with a large area detector, one faces enormous challenges. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made towards this goal over the last few years. This paper addresses systematic limitations of the traditional method that is used to make these measurements, and a possible strategy to overcome these limitations. This will be important, for diffraction as well as inelastic experiments, where the scattering occurs mostly out-of-plane.

  12. "ATLAS" Advanced Technology Life-cycle Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Mankins, John C.; ONeil, Daniel A.

    2004-01-01

    Making good decisions concerning research and development portfolios-and concerning the best systems concepts to pursue - as early as possible in the life cycle of advanced technologies is a key goal of R&D management This goal depends upon the effective integration of information from a wide variety of sources as well as focused, high-level analyses intended to inform such decisions Life-cycle Analysis System (ATLAS) methodology and tool kit. ATLAS encompasses a wide range of methods and tools. A key foundation for ATLAS is the NASA-created Technology Readiness. The toolkit is largely spreadsheet based (as of August 2003). This product is being funded by the Human and Robotics The presentation provides a summary of the Advanced Technology Level (TRL) systems Technology Program Office, Office of Exploration Systems, NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C. and is being integrated by Dan O Neil of the Advanced Projects Office, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, AL

  13. Develop Advanced Nonlinear Signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1997-01-01

    During the development of the SSME, a hierarchy of advanced signal analysis techniques for mechanical signature analysis has been developed by NASA and AI Signal Research Inc. (ASRI) to improve the safety and reliability for Space Shuttle operations. These techniques can process and identify intelligent information hidden in a measured signal which is often unidentifiable using conventional signal analysis methods. Currently, due to the highly interactive processing requirements and the volume of dynamic data involved, detailed diagnostic analysis is being performed manually which requires immense man-hours with extensive human interface. To overcome this manual process, NASA implemented this program to develop an Advanced nonlinear signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System (ATMS) to provide automatic/unsupervised engine diagnostic capabilities. The ATMS will utilize a rule-based Clips expert system to supervise a hierarchy of diagnostic signature analysis techniques in the Advanced Signal Analysis Library (ASAL). ASAL will perform automatic signal processing, archiving, and anomaly detection/identification tasks in order to provide an intelligent and fully automated engine diagnostic capability. The ATMS has been successfully developed under this contract. In summary, the program objectives to design, develop, test and conduct performance evaluation for an automated engine diagnostic system have been successfully achieved. Software implementation of the entire ATMS system on MSFC's OISPS computer has been completed. The significance of the ATMS developed under this program is attributed to the fully automated coherence analysis capability for anomaly detection and identification which can greatly enhance the power and reliability of engine diagnostic evaluation. The results have demonstrated that ATMS can significantly save time and man-hours in performing engine test/flight data analysis and performance evaluation of large volumes of dynamic test data.

  14. Numerical analysis of the V-Y shaped advancement flap.

    PubMed

    Remache, D; Chambert, J; Pauchot, J; Jacquet, E

    2015-10-01

    The V-Y advancement flap is a usual technique for the closure of skin defects. A triangular flap is incised adjacent to a skin defect of rectangular shape. As the flap is advanced to close the initial defect, two smaller defects in the shape of a parallelogram are formed with respect to a reflection symmetry. The height of the defects depends on the apex angle of the flap and the closure efforts are related to the defects height. Andrades et al. 2005 have performed a geometrical analysis of the V-Y flap technique in order to reach a compromise between the flap size and the defects width. However, the geometrical approach does not consider the mechanical properties of the skin. The present analysis based on the finite element method is proposed as a complement to the geometrical one. This analysis aims to highlight the major role of the skin elasticity for a full analysis of the V-Y advancement flap. Furthermore, the study of this technique shows that closing at the flap apex seems mechanically the most interesting step. Thus different strategies of defect closure at the flap apex stemming from surgeon's know-how have been tested by numerical simulations. PMID:26342442

  15. Uncertainty analysis of signal deconvolution using a measured instrument response function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartouni, E. P.; Beeman, B.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hatarik, R.; Moore, A. S.; Munro, D. H.; Phillips, T.; Sayre, D. B.

    2016-11-01

    A common analysis procedure minimizes the ln-likelihood that a set of experimental observables matches a parameterized model of the observation. The model includes a description of the underlying physical process as well as the instrument response function (IRF). In the case investigated here, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers, the IRF is constructed from measurements and models. IRF measurements have a finite precision that can make significant contributions to determine the uncertainty estimate of the physical model's parameters. We apply a Bayesian analysis to properly account for IRF uncertainties in calculating the ln-likelihood function used to find the optimum physical parameters.

  16. Determination of sodium in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, W C; Capar, S G; Anderson, D L

    1997-01-01

    A formalized method for determining sodium in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis is presented. The method includes common procedures from the numerous options available to this historically nonformalized analytical technique. The number of procedural options is restricted to minimize the method's complexity, yet the method is still applicable to a variety of neutron activation facilities. High accuracy and precision are achieved by placing bounds on allowed uncertainty at critical stages of the analysis. Analytical results from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration laboratory and 4 other laboratories demonstrate the method's performance.

  17. Instrumental photon activation analysis using the linear accelerator at the Naval Postgraduate School. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.A.

    1982-10-01

    Charcoal, charcoal residue, potting soil, aluminum foil, bismuth germanate, and petroleum samples have been investigated using instrumental photon activation analysis (i.e., no radiochemistry). The major and minor elements routinely observed by this nondestructive method were: C, C1, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si, and K. A compreshensive review of the principles of IPAA was also included in the study. The principles were applied to a theroetical analysis of an oil sample in which the trace element concentrations were known. It was concluded that IPAA is a highly sensitive technique which could be used to fingerprint oils.

  18. Instrumental photon activation analysis using the linear accelerator at the Naval Postgraduate School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, W. A.

    1982-10-01

    Charcoal, charcoal residue, potting soil, aluminum foil, bismuth germanate, and petroleum samples have been investigated using instrumental photon activation analysis (i.e., no radiochemistry). The major and minor elements routinely observed by this nondestructive method were: C, C1, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si, and K. A comprehensive review of the principles of IPAA was also included in the study. The principles were applied to a theoretical analysis of an oil sample in which the trace element concentrations were known. It was concluded that IPAA is a highly sensitive technique which could be used to fingerprint oils.

  19. Evaluation of homogeneity of a certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, B.; Duke, M.J.M.; Ng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The homogeneity of the marine reference material TORT-1, a spray-dried and acetone-extracted hepatopancreatic material from the lobster, was tested for 26 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Through a one-way analysis of variance based on six analyses on each of six bottles of TORT-1, it was concluded that the between-bottle heterogeneity is no greater than the within-bottle heterogeneity. The analytical results for those elements for which values were provided by NRC agree with the NRC values within 95% confidence limits. 8 references, 6 tables.

  20. Template-directed instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty: cost savings analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Gross, Christopher E; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Levine, Brett R

    2012-11-01

    The use of digital radiography and templating software in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) continues to become more prevalent as the number of procedures performed increases every year. Template-directed instrumentation (TDI) is a novel approach to surgical planning that combines digital templating with limited intraoperative instruments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the financial implications and radiographic outcomes of using TDI to direct instrumentation during primary TKA. Over a 1-year period, 82 consecutive TKAs using TDI were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics and preoperative templated sizes of predicted components were recorded, and OrthoView digital planning software (OrthoView LLC, Jacksonville, Florida was used to determine the 2 most likely tibial and femoral component sizes for each case. This sizing information was used to direct component vendors to prepare 3 lightweight instrument trays based on these sizes. The sizes of implanted components and the number of total trays required were documented. A cost savings analysis was performed to compare TDI and non-TDI surgical expenses for TKA. In 80 (97%) of 82 cases, the prepared sizes determined by TDI using 3 instrument trays were sufficient. Preoperative templating correctly predicted the size of the tibial and femoral component sizes in 90% and 83% of cases, respectively. The average number of trays used with TDI was 3.0 (range, 3-5 trays) compared with 7.5 (range, 6-9 trays) used in 82 preceding non-TDI TKAs. Based on standard fees to sterilize and package implant trays (approximately $26 based on a survey of 10 orthopedic hospitals performing TKA), approximately $9612 was saved by using TDI over the 1-year study period. Overall, digital templating and TDI were a simple and cost-effective approach when performing primary TKA. PMID:23127449

  1. Near Real Time Review of Instrument Performance using the Airborne Data Processing and Analysis Software Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delene, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Research aircraft that conduct atmospheric measurements carry an increasing array of instrumentation. While on-board personnel constantly review instrument parameters and time series plots, there are an overwhelming number of items. Furthermore, directing the aircraft flight takes up much of the flight scientist time. Typically, a flight engineer is given the responsibility of reviewing the status of on-board instruments. While major issues like not receiving data are quickly identified during a flight, subtle issues like low but believable concentration measurements may go unnoticed. Therefore, it is critical to review data after a flight in near real time. The Airborne Data Processing and Analysis (ADPAA) software package used by the University of North Dakota automates the post-processing of aircraft flight data. Utilizing scripts to process the measurements recorded by data acquisition systems enables the generation of data files within an hour of flight completion. The ADPAA Cplot visualization program enables plots to be quickly generated that enable timely review of all recorded and processed parameters. Near real time review of aircraft flight data enables instrument problems to be identified, investigated and fixed before conducting another flight. On one flight, near real time data review resulted in the identification of unusually low measurements of cloud condensation nuclei, and rapid data visualization enabled the timely investigation of the cause. As a result, a leak was found and fixed before the next flight. Hence, with the high cost of aircraft flights, it is critical to find and fix instrument problems in a timely matter. The use of a automated processing scripts and quick visualization software enables scientists to review aircraft flight data in near real time to identify potential problems.

  2. Advances in Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Julian; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2016-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 3–20 μm spectral window has evolved from a routine laboratory technique into a state-of-the-art spectroscopy and sensing tool by benefitting from recent progress in increasingly sophisticated spectra acquisition techniques and advanced materials for generating, guiding, and detecting mid-infrared (MIR) radiation. Today, MIR spectroscopy provides molecular information with trace to ultratrace sensitivity, fast data acquisition rates, and high spectral resolution catering to demanding applications in bioanalytics, for example, and to improved routine analysis. In addition to advances in miniaturized device technology without sacrificing analytical performance, selected innovative applications for MIR spectroscopy ranging from process analysis to biotechnology and medical diagnostics are highlighted in this review.

  3. Advances in Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haas, Julian; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2016-06-12

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 3-20 μm spectral window has evolved from a routine laboratory technique into a state-of-the-art spectroscopy and sensing tool by benefitting from recent progress in increasingly sophisticated spectra acquisition techniques and advanced materials for generating, guiding, and detecting mid-infrared (MIR) radiation. Today, MIR spectroscopy provides molecular information with trace to ultratrace sensitivity, fast data acquisition rates, and high spectral resolution catering to demanding applications in bioanalytics, for example, and to improved routine analysis. In addition to advances in miniaturized device technology without sacrificing analytical performance, selected innovative applications for MIR spectroscopy ranging from process analysis to biotechnology and medical diagnostics are highlighted in this review.

  4. Advances in Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Julian; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2016-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 3-20 μm spectral window has evolved from a routine laboratory technique into a state-of-the-art spectroscopy and sensing tool by benefitting from recent progress in increasingly sophisticated spectra acquisition techniques and advanced materials for generating, guiding, and detecting mid-infrared (MIR) radiation. Today, MIR spectroscopy provides molecular information with trace to ultratrace sensitivity, fast data acquisition rates, and high spectral resolution catering to demanding applications in bioanalytics, for example, and to improved routine analysis. In addition to advances in miniaturized device technology without sacrificing analytical performance, selected innovative applications for MIR spectroscopy ranging from process analysis to biotechnology and medical diagnostics are highlighted in this review.

  5. Advances in urinary proteome analysis and biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Fliser, Danilo; Novak, Jan; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Argilés, Angel; Jankowski, Vera; Girolami, Mark A; Jankowski, Joachim; Mischak, Harald

    2007-04-01

    Noninvasive diagnosis of kidney diseases and assessment of the prognosis are still challenges in clinical nephrology. Definition of biomarkers on the basis of proteome analysis, especially of the urine, has advanced recently and may provide new tools to solve those challenges. This article highlights the most promising technological approaches toward deciphering the human proteome and applications of the knowledge in clinical nephrology, with emphasis on the urinary proteome. The data in the current literature indicate that although a thorough investigation of the entire urinary proteome is still a distant goal, clinical applications are already available. Progress in the analysis of human proteome in health and disease will depend more on the standardization of data and availability of suitable bioinformatics and software solutions than on new technological advances. It is predicted that proteomics will play an important role in clinical nephrology in the very near future and that this progress will require interactive dialogue and collaboration between clinicians and analytical specialists.

  6. Relationship between three cotton trash measurements: High Volume Instrumentation (HVI), Shirley Analyzer (SA), and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of non-lint materials (trashes) in commercial cotton bales at various amounts degrades the market values and further influences the end-use qualities. In order to ensure a fair trading, the USDA’s AMS has introduced the high volume instrument (HVI) measurement as a universal standard index....

  7. Advanced Automation for Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry-New Opportunities for Real-Time Autonomous Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Peter T.; Wong, C. M.; Salmonson, J. D.; Yost, R. A.; Griffin, T. P.; Yates, N. A.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The utility of MS/MS for both target compound analysis and the structure elucidation of unknowns has been described in a number of references. A broader acceptance of this technique has not yet been realized as it requires large, complex, and costly instrumentation which has not been competitive with more conventional techniques. Recent advancements in ion trap mass spectrometry promise to change this situation. Although the ion trap's small size, sensitivity, and ability to perform multiple stages of mass spectrometry have made it eminently suitable for on-line, real-time monitoring applications, advance automation techniques are required to make these capabilities more accessible to non-experts. Towards this end we have developed custom software for the design and implementation of MS/MS experiments. This software allows the user to take full advantage of the ion trap's versatility with respect to ionization techniques, scan proxies, and ion accumulation/ejection methods. Additionally, expert system software has been developed for autonomous target compound analysis. This software has been linked to ion trap control software and a commercial data system to bring all of the steps in the analysis cycle under control of the expert system. These software development efforts and their utilization for a number of trace analysis applications will be described.

  8. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). As-Designed Parts List: Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) As-Built Parts List for the AMSU-A Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the As-Designed Parts List, Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) As-Built Parts Lists For The AMSU-A Instruments, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  9. Advanced gamma ray balloon experiment ground checkout and data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackstone, M.

    1976-01-01

    A software programming package to be used in the ground checkout and handling of data from the advanced gamma ray balloon experiment is described. The Operator's Manual permits someone unfamiliar with the inner workings of the software system (called LEO) to operate on the experimental data as it comes from the Pulse Code Modulation interface, converting it to a form for later analysis, and monitoring the program of an experiment. A Programmer's Manual is included.

  10. Advanced image analysis for the preservation of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Fenella G.; Christens-Barry, William; Toth, Michael B.; Boydston, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    The Library of Congress' Preservation Research and Testing Division has established an advanced preservation studies scientific program for research and analysis of the diverse range of cultural heritage objects in its collection. Using this system, the Library is currently developing specialized integrated research methodologies for extending preservation analytical capacities through non-destructive hyperspectral imaging of cultural objects. The research program has revealed key information to support preservation specialists, scholars and other institutions. The approach requires close and ongoing collaboration between a range of scientific and cultural heritage personnel - imaging and preservation scientists, art historians, curators, conservators and technology analysts. A research project of the Pierre L'Enfant Plan of Washington DC, 1791 had been undertaken to implement and advance the image analysis capabilities of the imaging system. Innovative imaging options and analysis techniques allow greater processing and analysis capacities to establish the imaging technique as the first initial non-invasive analysis and documentation step in all cultural heritage analyses. Mapping spectral responses, organic and inorganic data, topography semi-microscopic imaging, and creating full spectrum images have greatly extended this capacity from a simple image capture technique. Linking hyperspectral data with other non-destructive analyses has further enhanced the research potential of this image analysis technique.

  11. Avionics performance analysis: A historical review and a current assessment of flight instrumentation and control systems in civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The role of flight instrumentation and control systems in the advancement of civil aviation to the safest form of commercial transportation is discussed. Safety, cost reduction, and increased capabilities provided by recent developments are emphasized. Cost/performance considerations are considered in terms of determining the relative values of comparable systems or the absolute worth of a system.

  12. [Advanced data analysis and visualization for clinical laboratory].

    PubMed

    Inada, Masanori; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes visualization techniques that help identify hidden structures in clinical laboratory data. The visualization of data is helpful for a rapid and better understanding of the characteristics of data sets. Various charts help the user identify trends in data. Scatter plots help prevent misinterpretations due to invalid data by identifying outliers. The representation of experimental data in figures is always useful for communicating results to others. Currently, flexible methods such as smoothing methods and latent structure analysis are available owing to the presence of advanced hardware and software. Principle component analysis, which is a well-known technique used to reduce multidimensional data sets, can be carried out on a personal computer. These methods could lead to advanced visualization with regard to exploratory data analysis. In this paper, we present 3 examples in order to introduce advanced data analysis. In the first example, a smoothing spline was fitted to a time-series from the control chart which is not in a state of statistical control. The trend line was clearly extracted from the daily measurements of the control samples. In the second example, principal component analysis was used to identify a new diagnostic indicator for Graves' disease. The multi-dimensional data obtained from patients were reduced to lower dimensions, and the principle components thus obtained summarized the variation in the data set. In the final example, a latent structure analysis for a Gaussian mixture model was used to draw complex density functions suitable for actual laboratory data. As a result, 5 clusters were extracted. The mixed density function of these clusters represented the data distribution graphically. The methods used in the above examples make the creation of complicated models for clinical laboratories more simple and flexible.

  13. Andragogy's Transition into the Future: Meta-Analysis of Andragogy and Its Search for a Measurable Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan; Kroth, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article is a meta-analysis of the theory of andragogy and its search for a measurable instrument. The article explores three areas surrounding andragogy: (a) its concept and history, (b) its assumptions, and (c) its primary criticisms. In examining these three areas, a foundation is established for the creation of an instrument to provide…

  14. Laer-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Instrument for Element Analysis of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacic, J.; Pettit, D.; Cremers, D.; Roessler, N.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most fundamental pieces of information about any planetary body is the elemental and mineralogical composition of its surface materials. We are developing an instrument to obtain such data at ranges of up to several hundreds of meters using the technique of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). We envision our instrument being used from a spacecraft in close rendezvous with small bodies such as comets and asteroids, or deployed on surface-rover vehicles on large bodies such as Mars and the Moon. The elemental analysis is based on atomic emission spectroscopy of a laser-induced plasma or spark. A pulsed, diode pumped Nd:YAG laser of several hundred millijoules optical energy is used to vaporize and electronically excite the constituent elements of a rock surface remotely located from the laser. Light emitted from the excited plasma is collected and introduced to the entrance slit of a small grating spectrometer. The spectrally dispersed spark light is detected with either a linear photo diode array or area CCD array. When the latter detector is used, the optical and spectrometer components of the LIBS instrument can also be used in a passive imaging mode to collect and integrate reflected sunlight from the same rock surface. Absorption spectral analysis of this reflected light gives mineralogical information that provides a remote geochemical characterization of the rock surface. We performed laboratory calibrations in air and in vacuum on standard rock powders to quantify the LIBS analysis. We performed preliminary field tests using commercially available components to demonstrate remote LIBS analysis of terrestrial rock surfaces at ranges of over 25 m, and we have demonstrated compatibility with a six-wheeled Russian robotic rover vehicle. Based on these results, we believe that all major and most minor elements expected on planetary surfaces can be measured with absolute accuracy of 10-15 percent and much higher relative accuracy. We have

  15. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, Theodore H. H.

    1991-01-01

    The following tasks on the study of advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are described: (1) constructions of special elements which contain traction-free circular boundaries; (2) formulation of new version of mixed variational principles and new version of hybrid stress elements; (3) establishment of methods for suppression of kinematic deformation modes; (4) construction of semiLoof plate and shell elements by assumed stress hybrid method; and (5) elastic-plastic analysis by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  16. Advances in Computational Stability Analysis of Composite Aerospace Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Degenhardt, R.; Araujo, F. C. de

    2010-09-30

    European aircraft industry demands for reduced development and operating costs. Structural weight reduction by exploitation of structural reserves in composite aerospace structures contributes to this aim, however, it requires accurate and experimentally validated stability analysis of real structures under realistic loading conditions. This paper presents different advances from the area of computational stability analysis of composite aerospace structures which contribute to that field. For stringer stiffened panels main results of the finished EU project COCOMAT are given. It investigated the exploitation of reserves in primary fibre composite fuselage structures through an accurate and reliable simulation of postbuckling and collapse. For unstiffened cylindrical composite shells a proposal for a new design method is presented.

  17. Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono

    2004-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

  18. Advanced Models for Aeroelastic Analysis of Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Mahajan, Aparajit

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an integrated, multidisciplinary simulation capability for aeroelastic analysis and optimization of advanced propulsion systems. This research is intended to improve engine development, acquisition, and maintenance costs. One of the proposed simulations is aeroelasticity of blades, cowls, and struts in an ultra-high bypass fan. These ducted fans are expected to have significant performance, fuel, and noise improvements over existing engines. An interface program was written to use modal information from COBSTAN and NASTRAN blade models in aeroelastic analysis with a single rotation ducted fan aerodynamic code.

  19. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF).

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A

    2012-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields.

  20. Data Types, Reduction Techniques, and Analysis Tools for the Compton Observatory OSSE Instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, D. C.; Cameron, R. A.; Johnson, W. N.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Starr, C. H.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Matz, S. M.; Purcell, W. R.; Ulmer, M. P.

    1992-12-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) is one of four instruments on board NASA's Arthur Holly Compton Observatory. The OSSE instrument, developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, consists of 4 large, actively-shielded NaI(Tl)--CsI(Na) phoswich detectors each capable of independent orientations. Each detector has a 3.8deg times 11.4deg (FWHM) field of view defined by a passive tungsten collimator. OSSE measures gamma-ray line and continuum spectra in the 0.05 -- 10 MeV energy range, with timing resolution of up to 125 mu sec for variable sources. A summary of the various OSSE data acquisition modes and data product types will be presented. Data analysis techniques will be described, together with examples of such techniques using data reduction and analysis tools in the IGORE (Interactive GRO/OSSE Reduction Environment) software package that have been developed for the processing and analysis of OSSE data. IGORE runs on a VAX/VMS system in an IDL environment. Viewing support and observation planning tools will also be described as well as related instrument and spacecraft observation constraints. OSSE data products and the IGORE analysis software package will be archived at the Compton Observatory Science Support Center (COSSC) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The availability of data products and procedures for their access at the COSSC and NRL will be presented. The COSSC facilities can be utilized locally at GSFC or remotely over the Internet and SPAN/DECnet computer networks.

  1. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  2. Structural Configuration Systems Analysis for Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Welstead, Jason R.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Structural configuration analysis of an advanced aircraft fuselage concept is investigated. This concept is characterized by a double-bubble section fuselage with rear mounted engines. Based on lessons learned from structural systems analysis of unconventional aircraft, high-fidelity finite-element models (FEM) are developed for evaluating structural performance of three double-bubble section configurations. Structural sizing and stress analysis are applied for design improvement and weight reduction. Among the three double-bubble configurations, the double-D cross-section fuselage design was found to have a relatively lower structural weight. The structural FEM weights of these three double-bubble fuselage section concepts are also compared with several cylindrical fuselage models. Since these fuselage concepts are different in size, shape and material, the fuselage structural FEM weights are normalized by the corresponding passenger floor area for a relative comparison. This structural systems analysis indicates that an advanced composite double-D section fuselage may have a relative structural weight ratio advantage over a conventional aluminum fuselage. Ten commercial and conceptual aircraft fuselage structural weight estimates, which are empirically derived from the corresponding maximum takeoff gross weight, are also presented and compared with the FEM- based estimates for possible correlation. A conceptual full vehicle FEM model with a double-D fuselage is also developed for preliminary structural analysis and weight estimation.

  3. Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Spectroscopic Instrumentation for Quantitative Near-Ir Analysis of Organic Materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilert, Arnold James

    1995-01-01

    The utility of near-IR spectroscopy for routine quantitative analyses of a wide variety of compositional, chemical, or physical parameters of organic materials is well understood. It can be used for relatively fast and inexpensive non-destructive bulk material analysis before, during, and after processing. It has been demonstrated as being a particularly useful technique for numerous analytical applications in cereal (food and feed) science and industry. Further fulfillment of the potential of near-IR spectroscopic analysis, both in the process and laboratory environment, is reliant upon the development of instrumentation that is capable of meeting the challenges of increasingly difficult applications. One approach to the development of near-IR spectroscopic instrumentation that holds a great deal of promise is acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. A combination of attributes offered by AOTF spectrometry, including speed, optical throughput, wavelength reproducibility, ruggedness (no -moving-parts operation) and flexibility, make it particularly desirable for numerous applications. A series of prototype (research model) acousto -optic tunable filter instruments were developed and tested in order to investigate the feasibility of the technology for quantitative near-IR spectrometry. Development included design, component procurement, assembly and/or configuration of the optical and electronic subsystems of which each functional spectrometer arrangement was comprised, as well as computer interfacing and acquisition/control software development. Investigation of this technology involved an evolution of several operational spectrometer systems, each of which offered improvements over its predecessor. Appropriate testing was conducted at various stages of development. Demonstrations of the potential applicability of our AOTF spectrometer to quantitative process monitoring or laboratory analysis of numerous organic substances, including food materials, were

  4. The Re-Analysis of Ozone Profile Data from a 41-Year Series of SBUV Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramarova, Natalya; Frith, Stacey; Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard; Labow, Gordon; Taylor, Steven; Fisher, Bradford

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present the validation of ozone profiles from a number of Solar Back Scattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) and SBUV/2 instruments that were recently reprocessed using an updated (Version 8.6) algorithm. The SBUV dataset provides the longest available record of global ozone profiles, spanning a 41-year period from 1970 to 2011 (except a 5-year gap in the 1970s) and includes ozone profile records obtained from the Nimbus-4 BUV and Nimbus-7 SBUV instruments, and a series of SBUV(/2) instruments launched on NOAA operational satellites (NOAA 09, 11, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19). Although modifications in instrument design were made in the evolution from the BUV instrument to the modern SBUV(/2) model, the basic principles of the measurement technique and retrieval algorithm remain the same. The long term SBUV data record allows us to create a consistent, calibrated dataset of ozone profiles that can be used for climate studies and trend analyses. In particular, we focus on estimating the various sources of error in the SBUV profile ozone retrievals using independent observations and analysis of the algorithm itself. For the first time we include in the metadata a quantitative estimate of the smoothing error, defined as the error due to profile variability that the SBUV observing system cannot inherently measure. The magnitude of the smoothing error varies with altitude, latitude, season and solar zenith angle. Between 10 and 1 hPa the smoothing errors for the SBUV monthly zonal mean retrievals are of the order of 1 %, but start to increase above and below this layer. The largest smoothing errors, as large as 15-20%, were detected in in the troposphere. The SBUV averaging kernels, provided with the ozone profiles in version 8.6, help to eliminate the smoothing effect when comparing the SBUV profiles with high vertical resolution measurements, and make it convenient to use the SBUV ozone profiles for data assimilation and model validation purposes. The smoothing error can

  5. Proceedings of the Federal Interagency Sediment Monitoring Instrument and Analysis Research Workshop, September 9-11, 2003, Flagstaff, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Water Information's Subcommittee on Sedimentation sponsored the Federal Interagency Sediment Monitoring Instrument and Analysis Research Workshop on September 9-11, 2003, at the U.S. Geological Survey Flagstaff Field Center, Arizona. The workshop brought together a diverse group representing most Federal agencies whose mission includes fluvial-sediment issues; academia; the private sector; and others with interests and expertise in fluvial-sediment monitoring ? suspended sediment, bedload, bed material, and bed topography ? and associated data-analysis techniques. The workshop emphasized technological and theoretical advances related to measurements of suspended sediment, bedload, bed material and bed topography, and data analyses. This workshop followed and expanded upon part of the 2002 Federal Interagency Workshop on Turbidity and Other Sediment Surrogates (http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ/2003/circ1250/), which initiated a process to provide national standards for measurement and use of turbidity and other sediment-surrogate data. This report provides a description of the salient attributes of the workshop and related information, major deliberations and findings, and principal recommendations. This information is available for evaluation by the Subcommittee on Sedimentation, which may opt to develop an action plan based on the recommendations that it endorses for consideration by the Advisory Committee on Water Information.

  6. Morphometric analysis of root canal cleaning after rotary instrumentation with or without laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesan, Melissa A.; Geurisoli, Danilo M. Z.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Barbin, Eduardo L.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2002-06-01

    The present study examined root canal cleaning, using the optic microscope, after rotary instrumentation with ProFile.04 with or without laser application with different output energies. Cleaning and shaping can be accomplished manually, with ultra-sonic and sub-sonic devices, with rotary instruments and recently, increasing development in laser radiation has shown promising results for disinfection and smear layer removal. In this study, 30 palatal maxillary molar roots were examined using an optic microscope after rotary instrumentation with ProFile .04 with or without Er:YAG laser application (KaVo KeyLaser II, Germany) with different output energies (2940 nm, 15 Hz, 300 pulses, 500 milli-sec duration, 42 J, 140 mJ showed on the display- input, 61 mJ at fiberoptic tip-output and 140 mJ showed on the display-input and 51 mJ at fiberoptic tip-output). Statistical analysis showed no statistical differences between the tested treatments (ANOVA, p>0.05). ANOVA also showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between the root canal thirds, indicating that the middle third had less debris than the apical third. We conclude that: 1) none of the tested treatments led to totally cleaned root canals; 2) all treatments removed debris similarly, 3) the middle third had less debris than the apical third; 4) variation in output energy did not increase cleaning.

  7. Analysis of helium II thermal links for instrument cooling in low gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, G. L.

    2001-11-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is a reusable, cryogenic facility that will accommodate a series of low temperature experiments to be conducted at the International Space Station. The facility will use a He II cryostat to cool the instruments. Some configurations of the science instruments in the cryostat will require an enhanced thermal link between the He II bath and parts of the instruments. Such an enhanced link can be made with plumbing filled with He II. This paper reports the results of analysis that was performed using the BATC proprietary helium flow software called SUPERFLO, on four different concepts for this link. The four concepts analyzed were: a simple tube with the heated end closed, a closed end tube with a porous plug at its entrance, a closed end tube filled with capillary tubes, and a porous plug driven flow loop. It was found that the concepts that used a porous plug were more robust since they were much less prone to boiling. This is due to the low gravity which causes all of the liquid in helium tank and plumbing to be very close to saturated conditions unless a porous plug is used to create a thermomechanical pressure. The effects of varying system parameters such as a acceleration, heat flux, pore size and tube size were also investigated and the results are reported.

  8. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

    PubMed Central

    PASTERNAK-JÚNIOR, Braulio; de SOUSA NETO, Manoel Damião; DIONÍSIO, Valdeci Carlos; PÉCORA, Jesus Djalma; SILVA, Ricardo Gariba

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Material and Methods The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. Results There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. Conclusion The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques. PMID:22437679

  9. Advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of chuanxiong.

    PubMed

    Li, Weixia; Tang, Yuping; Chen, Yanyan; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2012-01-01

    Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX), the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae), is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX's use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques. PMID:22955453

  10. Whole-genome CNV analysis: advances in computational approaches

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Mehdi; Goes, Fernando S.; Zandi, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that DNA copy number variation (CNV) is likely to make a significant contribution to human diversity and also play an important role in disease susceptibility. Recent advances in genome sequencing technologies have enabled the characterization of a variety of genomic features, including CNVs. This has led to the development of several bioinformatics approaches to detect CNVs from next-generation sequencing data. Here, we review recent advances in CNV detection from whole genome sequencing. We discuss the informatics approaches and current computational tools that have been developed as well as their strengths and limitations. This review will assist researchers and analysts in choosing the most suitable tools for CNV analysis as well as provide suggestions for new directions in future development. PMID:25918519

  11. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrument logic diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains all of the block diagrams and internal logic diagrams for the Earth Observation System Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). These diagrams show the signal inputs, outputs, and internal signal flow for the AMSU-A.

  12. Analysis of Solar Spectral Irradiance Measurements from the SBUV/2-Series and the SSBUV Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebula, Richard P.; DeLand, Matthew T.; Hilsenrath, Ernest

    1997-01-01

    During this period of performance, 1 March 1997 - 31 August 1997, the NOAA-11 SBUV/2 solar spectral irradiance data set was validated using both internal and external assessments. Initial quality checking revealed minor problems with the data (e.g. residual goniometric errors, that were manifest as differences between the two scans acquired each day). The sources of these errors were determined and the errors were corrected. Time series were constructed for selected wavelengths and the solar irradiance changes measured by the instrument were compared to a Mg II proxy-based model of short- and long-term solar irradiance variations. This analysis suggested that errors due to residual, uncorrected long-term instrument drift have been reduced to less than 1-2% over the entire 5.5 year NOAA-11 data record. Detailed statistical analysis was performed. This analysis, which will be documented in a manuscript now in preparation, conclusively demonstrates the evolution of solar rotation periodicity and strength during solar cycle 22.

  13. Ancillary operation in coal preparation instrumentation: On-line low cost sulfur and ash analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Progress in reported on ancillary operations in coal preparation instrumentation, and on-line low cost sulfur and ash analysis of coal. This quarter's activities consisted of the following; the assembly of the sample preparation and delivery (SPAD) system was completed and laboratory pretesting performed; the entire system was assembled and debugged at C.Q. Inc.; field tests were executed according to the Field Test Plan with certain modifications necessitated by actual field conditions and C.Q. test schedule; coal slurry samples collected at C.Q. Inc. were either sent to the Homer City Coal Lab or brought back to B W for ICP analysis; and Homer City Coal Lab analysis of field collected slurry samples was completed and results reported to B W.

  14. Ultraviolet television data from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. 1: Instrumentation and analysis techniques for the celescope experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. J.; Deutschman, W. A.; Lundquist, C. A.; Nozawa, Y.; Bass, S. D.

    1972-01-01

    The celescope instrumentation and data analysis system is described, the major problems encountered during orbital operation are summerized, and a few major problems that were anticipated but did not materialize are listed.

  15. Advanced Nuclear Measurements - Sensitivity Analysis Emerging Safeguards, Problems and Proliferation Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.

    1999-07-15

    During the past year this component of the Advanced Nuclear Measurements LDRD-DR has focused on emerging safeguards problems and proliferation risk by investigating problems in two domains. The first is related to the analysis, quantification, and characterization of existing inventories of fissile materials, in particular, the minor actinides (MA) formed in the commercial fuel cycle. Understanding material forms and quantities helps identify and define future measurement problems, instrument requirements, and assists in prioritizing safeguards technology development. The second problem (dissertation research) has focused on the development of a theoretical foundation for sensor array anomaly detection. Remote and unattended monitoring or verification of safeguards activities is becoming a necessity due to domestic and international budgetary constraints. However, the ability to assess the trustworthiness of a sensor array has not been investigated. This research is developing an anomaly detection methodology to assess the sensor array.

  16. An advanced probabilistic structural analysis method for implicit performance functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, H. R.; Cruse, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    In probabilistic structural analysis, the performance or response functions usually are implicitly defined and must be solved by numerical analysis methods such as finite element methods. In such cases, the most commonly used probabilistic analysis tool is the mean-based, second-moment method which provides only the first two statistical moments. This paper presents a generalized advanced mean value (AMV) method which is capable of establishing the distributions to provide additional information for reliability design. The method requires slightly more computations than the second-moment method but is highly efficient relative to the other alternative methods. In particular, the examples show that the AMV method can be used to solve problems involving non-monotonic functions that result in truncated distributions.

  17. Investigating the Origin of Chlorohydrocarbons Detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument at Rocknest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D.; Archer, D.; Brunner, A.; Buch, A.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Conrad, P.; Coscia, D.; Dworkin J.; Eigenbrode, J.; Freissinet, C.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, M.; McKay, C.; Miller, K.; Ming, D.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Summons, R. E.; Sutter, B.; Szopa, C.; Teinturier, S.

    2013-01-01

    The search for organic compounds on Mars, including molecules of either abiotic or biological origin is one of the key goals of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Previously the Viking and Phoenix Lander missions searched for organic compounds, but did not find any definitive evidence of martian organic material in the soils. The Viking pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) instruments did not detect any organic compounds of martian or exogenous origin above a level of a few parts-per-billion (ppb) in the near surface regolith at either landing site [1]. Viking did detect chloromethane and dichloromethane at pmol levels (up to 40 ppb) after heating the soil samples up to 500 C (Table 1), although it was originally argued that the chlorohydrocarbons were derived from cleaning solvents used on the instrument hardware, and not from the soil samples themselves [1]. More recently, it was suggested that the chlorohydrocarbons detected by Viking may have been formed by oxidation of indigenous organic matter during pyrolysis of the soil in the presence of perchlorates [2]. Although it is unknown if the Viking soils contained perchlorates, Phoenix did reveal relatively high concentrations (0.6 wt%) of perchlorate salt in the icy regolith [3], therefore, it is possible that the chlorohydrocarbons detected by Viking were produced, at least partially, during the experiments [2,4]. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on MSL analyzed the organic composition of the soil at Rocknest in Gale Crater using a combination of pyrolysis evolved gas analysis (EGA) and GCMS. One empty cup procedural blank followed by multiple EGA-GCMS analyses of the Rocknest soil were carried out. Here we will discuss the results from these SAM measurements at Rocknest and the steps taken to determine the source of the chlorohydrocarbons.

  18. Passive Tomography for Spent Fuel Verification: Analysis Framework and Instrument Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    White, Timothy A.; Svard, Staffan J.; Smith, Leon E.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Jansson, Peter; Davour, Anna; Grape, Sophie; Trellue, H.; Deshmukh, Nikhil S.; Wittman, Richard S.; Honkamaa, Tapani; Vaccaro, Stefano; Ely, James

    2015-05-18

    The potential for gamma emission tomography (GET) to detect partial defects within a spent nuclear fuel assembly is being assessed through a collaboration of Support Programs to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In the first phase of this study, two safeguards verification objectives have been identified. The first is the independent determination of the number of active pins that are present in the assembly, in the absence of a priori information. The second objective is to provide quantitative measures of pin-by-pin properties, e.g. activity of key isotopes or pin attributes such as cooling time and relative burnup, for the detection of anomalies and/or verification of operator-declared data. The efficacy of GET to meet these two verification objectives will be evaluated across a range of fuel types, burnups, and cooling times, and with a target interrogation time of less than 60 minutes. The evaluation of GET viability for safeguards applications is founded on a modelling and analysis framework applied to existing and emerging GET instrument designs. Monte Carlo models of different fuel types are used to produce simulated tomographer responses to large populations of “virtual” fuel assemblies. Instrument response data are processed by a variety of tomographic-reconstruction and image-processing methods, and scoring metrics specific to each of the verification objectives are defined and used to evaluate the performance of the methods. This paper will provide a description of the analysis framework and evaluation metrics, example performance-prediction results, and describe the design of a “universal” GET instrument intended to support the full range of verification scenarios envisioned by the IAEA.

  19. Recent Advances in Water Analysis with Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacAskill, John A.; Tsikata, Edem

    2014-01-01

    We report on progress made in developing a water sampling system for detection and analysis of volatile organic compounds in water with a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS). Two approaches are described herein. The first approach uses a custom water pre-concentrator for performing trap and purge of VOCs from water. The second approach uses a custom micro-volume, split-splitless injector that is compatible with air and water. These water sampling systems will enable a single GC-based instrument to analyze air and water samples for VOC content. As reduced mass, volume, and power is crucial for long-duration, manned space-exploration, these water sampling systems will demonstrate the ability of a GCMS to monitor both air and water quality of the astronaut environment, thereby reducing the amount of required instrumentation for long duration habitation. Laboratory prototypes of these water sampling systems have been constructed and tested with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer as well as a thermal conductivity detector. Presented herein are details of these water sampling system with preliminary test results.

  20. Composite Structure Modeling and Analysis of Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Sorokach, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project and the Boeing Company are collabrating to advance the unitized damage arresting composite airframe technology with application to the Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft. The testing of a HWB fuselage section with Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) construction is presently being conducted at NASA Langley. Based on lessons learned from previous HWB structural design studies, improved finite-element models (FEM) of the HWB multi-bay and bulkhead assembly are developed to evaluate the performance of the PRSEUS construction. In order to assess the comparative weight reduction benefits of the PRSEUS technology, conventional cylindrical skin-stringer-frame models of a cylindrical and a double-bubble section fuselage concepts are developed. Stress analysis with design cabin-pressure load and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement in each case. Alternate analysis with stitched composite hat-stringers and C-frames are also presented, in addition to the foam-core sandwich frame and pultruded rod-stringer construction. The FEM structural stress, strain and weights are computed and compared for relative weight/strength benefit assessment. The structural analysis and specific weight comparison of these stitched composite advanced aircraft fuselage concepts demonstrated that the pressurized HWB fuselage section assembly can be structurally as efficient as the conventional cylindrical fuselage section with composite stringer-frame and PRSEUS construction, and significantly better than the conventional aluminum construction and the double-bubble section concept.

  1. Integrative Advances for OCT-Guided Ophthalmic Surgery and Intraoperative OCT: Microscope Integration, Surgical Instrumentation, and Heads-Up Display Surgeon Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Justis P.; Srivastava, Sunil K.; Feiler, Daniel; Noonan, Amanda I.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate key integrative advances in microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) technology that will facilitate adoption and utilization during ophthalmic surgery. Methods We developed a second-generation prototype microscope-integrated iOCT system that interfaces directly with a standard ophthalmic surgical microscope. Novel features for improved design and functionality included improved profile and ergonomics, as well as a tunable lens system for optimized image quality and heads-up display (HUD) system for surgeon feedback. Novel material testing was performed for potential suitability for OCT-compatible instrumentation based on light scattering and transmission characteristics. Prototype surgical instruments were developed based on material testing and tested using the microscope-integrated iOCT system. Several surgical maneuvers were performed and imaged, and surgical motion visualization was evaluated with a unique scanning and image processing protocol. Results High-resolution images were successfully obtained with the microscope-integrated iOCT system with HUD feedback. Six semi-transparent materials were characterized to determine their attenuation coefficients and scatter density with an 830 nm OCT light source. Based on these optical properties, polycarbonate was selected as a material substrate for prototype instrument construction. A surgical pick, retinal forceps, and corneal needle were constructed with semi-transparent materials. Excellent visualization of both the underlying tissues and surgical instrument were achieved on OCT cross-section. Using model eyes, various surgical maneuvers were visualized, including membrane peeling, vessel manipulation, cannulation of the subretinal space, subretinal intraocular foreign body removal, and corneal penetration. Conclusions Significant iterative improvements in integrative technology related to iOCT and ophthalmic surgery are demonstrated. PMID:25141340

  2. Advanced Wireless Power Transfer Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Burton, E.; Wang, J.; Konan, A.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL on advanced wireless power transfer vehicle and infrastructure analysis. The potential benefits of E-roadway include more electrified driving miles from battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or even properly equipped hybrid electric vehicles (i.e., more electrified miles could be obtained from a given battery size, or electrified driving miles could be maintained while using smaller and less expensive batteries, thereby increasing cost competitiveness and potential market penetration). The system optimization aspect is key given the potential impact of this technology on the vehicles, the power grid and the road infrastructure.

  3. Advanced water window x-ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The project was focused on the design and analysis of an advanced water window soft-x-ray microscope. The activities were accomplished by completing three tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results confirm that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use aspherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary (to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater). The results are included in a manuscript which is enclosed in the Appendix.

  4. Computer modeling for advanced life support system analysis.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, A

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the equivalent mass approach to advanced life support system analysis, describes a computer model developed to use this approach, and presents early results from modeling the NASA JSC BioPlex. The model is built using an object oriented approach and G2, a commercially available modeling package Cost factor equivalencies are given for the Volosin scenarios. Plant data from NASA KSC and Utah State University (USU) are used, together with configuration data from the BioPlex design effort. Initial results focus on the importance of obtaining high plant productivity with a flight-like configuration. PMID:11540448

  5. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Monica; ONeil, Daniel A.; Christensen, Carissa B.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) is a decision support tool designed to aid program managers and strategic planners in determining how to invest technology research and development dollars. It is an Excel-based modeling package that allows a user to build complex space architectures and evaluate the impact of various technology choices. ATLAS contains system models, cost and operations models, a campaign timeline and a centralized technology database. Technology data for all system models is drawn from a common database, the ATLAS Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides a comprehensive, architecture-independent technology database that is keyed to current and future timeframes.

  6. Geotechnical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, G. E.; Mikkelsen, P. E.; Mayne, P. W.; Frost, D. D.; Dowding, C. H.

    1988-12-01

    The 11 papers in the report deal with the following areas: deformation measurements with inclinometers; dilatometer experience in Washington, D.C., and vicinity; ground vibration monitoring instrumentation and computerized surveillance; instrumentation for tests of piles subjected to axial loading; use of the wave equation by the North Carolina Department of Transportation; NYSDOT's construction control of pile foundations with dynamic pile testing; discussion of procedures for the determination of pile capacity; modern specification of driven pile work; analysis of laterally loaded piles with nonlinear bending behavior; unified design of piles and pile groups, and LTBASE, a computer program for the analysis of laterally loaded piers including base and slope effects.

  7. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed. PMID:25610632

  8. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities forin situandin operandoGISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in themore » soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.« less

  9. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities forin situandin operandoGISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

  10. Bearing defect signature analysis using advanced nonlinear signal analysis in a controlled environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoladz, T.; Earhart, E.; Fiorucci, T.

    1995-01-01

    Utilizing high-frequency data from a highly instrumented rotor assembly, seeded bearing defect signatures are characterized using both conventional linear approaches, such as power spectral density analysis, and recently developed nonlinear techniques such as bicoherence analysis. Traditional low-frequency (less than 20 kHz) analysis and high-frequency envelope analysis of both accelerometer and acoustic emission data are used to recover characteristic bearing distress information buried deeply in acquired data. The successful coupling of newly developed nonlinear signal analysis with recovered wideband envelope data from accelerometers and acoustic emission sensors is the innovative focus of this research.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of New Governance Instruments in the Transnational Educational Space: A Shift to Knowledge-Based Instruments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannidou, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the ongoing development towards a knowledge-based society--associated with globalization, an aging population, new technologies and organizational changes--has led to a more intensive analysis of education and learning throughout life with regard to quantitative, qualitative and financial aspects. In this framework, education…

  12. A Bayesian Approach for Instrumental Variable Analysis with Censored Time-to-Event Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Lu, Xuyang

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental variable (IV) analysis has been widely used in economics, epidemiology, and other fields to estimate the causal effects of covariates on outcomes, in the presence of unobserved confounders and/or measurement errors in covariates. However, IV methods for time-to-event outcome with censored data remain underdeveloped. This paper proposes a Bayesian approach for IV analysis with censored time-to-event outcome by using a two-stage linear model. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling method is developed for parameter estimation for both normal and non-normal linear models with elliptically contoured error distributions. Performance of our method is examined by simulation studies. Our method largely reduces bias and greatly improves coverage probability of the estimated causal effect, compared to the method that ignores the unobserved confounders and measurement errors. We illustrate our method on the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. PMID:25393617

  13. Accurate and precise measurement of selenium by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Jung; Watson, Russell P; Lindstrom, Richard M

    2011-05-01

    An accurate and precise measurement of selenium in Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3149, a primary calibration standard for the quantitative determination of selenium, has been accomplished by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in order to resolve a question arising during the certification process of the standard. Each limiting factor of the uncertainty in the activation analysis, including the sample preparation, irradiation, and γ-ray spectrometry steps, has been carefully monitored to minimize the uncertainty in the determined mass fraction. Neutron and γ-ray self-shielding within the elemental selenium INAA standards contributed most significantly to the uncertainty of the measurement. An empirical model compensating for neutron self-shielding and reducing the self-shielding uncertainty was successfully applied to these selenium standards. The mass fraction of selenium in the new lot of SRM 3149 was determined with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.6%.

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of mass fractions of toxic metals in plastic.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwangwon; Kang, Namgoo

    2007-10-15

    It is very challenging to decompose a plastic product for the purpose of analysis of hazardous elements contained. To circumvent such technical problem, it is imperative that an analyst employ a nondestructive analytical method free of any pretreatments. The analytical results of the concentrations of toxic metals such as Cd and Cr in polypropylene for seven samples at two different levels were obtained using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. This work was intended ultimately to establish certified reference materials (CRMs) of these metals in the polypropylene, traceable to the SI. The uncertainties associated with the analytical procedures were estimated in accordance with the ISO guideline. The results were subsequently validated by a comparison with those for CRM-680 and -681 of the Bureau Communautaire de Reference (BCR), which demonstrated acceptable agreement within their uncertainty ranges.

  15. Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hue-Hsie Jannivine; Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) is a computer model for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life support systems (ECLSS) for spacecraft and surface habitats involved in the exploration of Mars and Moon. It performs conceptual designs of advanced life support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water, and process wastes in order to reduce the need of resource resupply. By assuming steady-state operations, ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies and thereby assisting in determining the most cost-effective technology combination available. In fact, ALSSAT can perform sizing analysis of the ALS subsystems that are operated dynamically or steady in nature. Using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software with Visual Basic programming language, ALSSAT has been developed to perform multiple-case trade studies based on the calculated ECLSS mass, volume, power, and Equivalent System Mass, as well as parametric studies by varying the input parameters. ALSSAT s modular format is specifically designed for the ease of future maintenance and upgrades.

  16. Imaging spectroscopic analysis at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, A. A.; Warwick, T.; Anders, S.; Lamble, G.M.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.

    1999-05-12

    One of the major advances at the high brightness third generation synchrotrons is the dramatic improvement of imaging capability. There is a large multi-disciplinary effort underway at the ALS to develop imaging X-ray, UV and Infra-red spectroscopic analysis on a spatial scale from. a few microns to 10nm. These developments make use of light that varies in energy from 6meV to 15KeV. Imaging and spectroscopy are finding applications in surface science, bulk materials analysis, semiconductor structures, particulate contaminants, magnetic thin films, biology and environmental science. This article is an overview and status report from the developers of some of these techniques at the ALS. The following table lists all the currently available microscopes at the. ALS. This article will describe some of the microscopes and some of the early applications.

  17. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce P. Hallbert; J. J. Persensky; Carol Smidts; Tunc Aldemir; Joseph Naser

    2009-08-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program is operated in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of Nuclear Power Plants that are currently in operation. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. Advanced instruments and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear assets. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. The strategic objective of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technology R&D pathway is to establish a technical basis for new technologies needed to achieve safety and reliability of operating nuclear assets and to implement new technologies in nuclear energy systems. This will be achieved by carrying out a program of R&D to develop scientific knowledge in the areas of: • Sensors, diagnostics, and prognostics to support characterization and prediction of the effects of aging and degradation phenomena effects on critical systems, structures, and components (SSCs) • Online monitoring of SSCs and active components, generation of information, and methods to analyze and employ online monitoring information • New methods for visualization, integration, and information use to enhance state awareness and leverage expertise to achieve safer, more readily available electricity generation

  18. Intelligent data analysis of instrumented gait data in stroke patients-a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Jakob; Georgoulas, George; Moutsopoulos, Thucydides; Seferiadis, Aris

    2014-08-01

    Instrumented gait analysis (GA) may be used to analyze the causes of gait deviation in stroke patients but generates a large amount of complex data. The task of transforming this data into a comprehensible report is cumbersome. Intelligent data analysis (IDA) refers to the use of computational methods in order to analyze quantitative data more effectively. The purpose of this review was to identify and appraise the available IDA methods for handling GA data collected from patients with stroke using the standard equipment of a gait lab (3D/2D motion capture, force plates, EMG). Eleven databases were systematically searched and fifteen studies that employed some type of IDA method for the analysis of kinematic and/or kinetic and/or EMG data in populations involving stroke patients were identified. Four categories of IDA methods were employed for the analysis of sensor-acquired data in these fifteen studies: classification methods, dimensionality reduction methods, clustering methods and expert systems. The methodological quality of these studies was critically appraised by examining sample characteristics, measurements and IDA properties. Three overall methodological shortcomings were identified: (1) small sample sizes and underreported patient characteristics, (2) testing of which method is best suited to the analysis was neglected and (3) lack of stringent validation procedures. No IDA method for GA data from stroke patients was identified that can be directly applied to clinical practice. Our findings suggest that the potential provided by IDA methods is not being fully exploited.

  19. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  20. Analysis of grasping strategies and function in hemiparetic patients using an instrumented object.

    PubMed

    Jarrassé, Nathanaël; Kühne, Markus; Roach, Nick; Hussain, Asif; Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Burdet, Etienne; Roby-Brami, Agnès

    2013-06-01

    This paper validates a novel instrumented object, the iBox, dedicated to the analysis of grasping and manipulation. This instrumented box can be grasped and manipulated, is fitted with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and can sense the force applied on each side and transmits measured force, acceleration and orientation data wirelessly in real time. The iBox also provides simple access to data for analysing human motor control features such as the coordination between grasping and lifting forces and complex manipulation patterns. A set of grasping and manipulation experiments was conducted with 6 hemiparetic patients and 5 healthy control subjects. Measures made of the forces, kinematics and dynamics are developed, which can be used to analyse grasping and contribute to assessment in patients. Quantitative measurements provided by the iBox reveal numerous characteristics of the grasping strategies and function in patients: variations in the completion time, changes in the force distribution on the object and grasping force levels, difficulties to adjust the level of applied forces to the task and to maintain it, along with movement smoothness decrease and pathological tremor.

  1. Reliability analysis of instrument design of noninvasive bone marrow disease detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting; Sun, Yunlong

    2016-02-01

    Bone marrow is an important hematopoietic organ, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a variety of complications with high death rate and short survival time. Early detection and follow up care are particularly important. But the current diagnosis methods rely on bone marrow biopsy/puncture, with significant limitations such as invasion, complex operation, high risk, and discontinuous. It is highly in need of a non-invasive, safe, easily operated, and continuous monitoring technology. So we proposed to design a device aimed for detecting bone marrow lesions, which was based on near infrared spectrum technology. Then we fully tested its reliabilities, including the sensitivity, specificity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), stability, and etc. Here, we reported this sequence of reliability test experiments, the experimental results, and the following data analysis. This instrument was shown to be very sensitive, with distinguishable concentration less than 0.002 and with good linearity, stability and high SNR. Finally, these reliability-test data supported the promising clinical diagnosis and surgery guidance of our novel instrument in detection of BMLs.

  2. Advanced probabilistic risk analysis using RAVEN and RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Mandelli, Diego; Cogliati, Joshua; Kinoshita, Robert

    2014-06-01

    RAVEN, under the support of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program [1], is advancing its capability to perform statistical analyses of stochastic dynamic systems. This is aligned with its mission to provide the tools needed by the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) path-lead [2] under the Department Of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability program [3]. In particular this task is focused on the synergetic development with the RELAP-7 [4] code to advance the state of the art on the safety analysis of nuclear power plants (NPP). The investigation of the probabilistic evolution of accident scenarios for a complex system such as a nuclear power plant is not a trivial challenge. The complexity of the system to be modeled leads to demanding computational requirements even to simulate one of the many possible evolutions of an accident scenario (tens of CPU/hour). At the same time, the probabilistic analysis requires thousands of runs to investigate outcomes characterized by low probability and severe consequence (tail problem). The milestone reported in June of 2013 [5] described the capability of RAVEN to implement complex control logic and provide an adequate support for the exploration of the probabilistic space using a Monte Carlo sampling strategy. Unfortunately the Monte Carlo approach is ineffective with a problem of this complexity. In the following year of development, the RAVEN code has been extended with more sophisticated sampling strategies (grids, Latin Hypercube, and adaptive sampling). This milestone report illustrates the effectiveness of those methodologies in performing the assessment of the probability of core damage following the onset of a Station Black Out (SBO) situation in a boiling water reactor (BWR). The first part of the report provides an overview of the available probabilistic analysis capabilities, ranging from the different types of distributions available, possible sampling

  3. Enantioselective Analysis in instruments onboard ROSETTA/PHILAE and ExoMars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan; Thiemann, Wolfram; Meierhenrich, Uwe; Goesmann, Fred

    It has been suggested a number of times in the past, to look for chirality as a biomarker. So far, for lack of appropriate instrumentation, space missions have never included enantioselective analysis. The distinction between enantiomers is of crucial importance to the question of the origin of the very first (pre)biotic molecules. If molecules detected in situ on another celestial body were found to exhibit a chiral bias, this would mean that at least partial asymmetric synthesis could take place abiotically. If this chiral bias should be found to be near 100For the currently flying ESA mission ROSETTA an enantioselective instrument was built, to try for the first time to detect and separate chiral molecules in situ. This instrument is COSAC, the Cometary Sampling and Acquisition Experiment, an enantioselective GCMS device[1,2], which is included in the lander PHLIAE that will eventually in 2014 land on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. A similar but even more powerful type of enantioselective GC-MS is in preparation for ESA's ExoMars mission. This instrument is part of MOMA, the Mars Organic Molecules Analyser. It has the objective of identifying and quantifying chiral organic molecules in surface and subsurface samples of Mars. Currently ExoMars is scheduled for 2018. The newly developed enantioselective technique utilized by both COSAC and MOMA will be described, including sample acquisition, derivatization, and separation in space-resistant chiral stationary capillary columns with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection. Results of enantioselective analyses of representative test samples with special emphasis on amino acids[3], the building blocks of protein polymers, will be presented and we will discuss potential results of space missions Rosetta and ExoMars. [1] Thiemann W.H.-P., Meierhenrich U.: ESA Mission ROSETTA Will Probe for Chirality of Cometary Amino Acids. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 31 (2001), 199-210. [2

  4. Study to evaluate the integration of a mass spectrometer with a wet chemistry instrument. [for amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The charactertistics and performance capability of the current Viking '75 Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer Instrument are reviewed and documented for the purpose of possible integration with a wet chemistry instrument. Interface, high mass discrimination, and vacuum requirements were determined in a simulated flight investigation. Suggestions for future investigations, tradeoff studies, and design modifications are presented, along with the results of column bleed measurements. A preliminary design of an integrated Wet Chemistry/Mass Spectrometer instrument for amino acid analysis is shown, including estimates of additional weight, volume, and power requirements.

  5. Advanced instrument system for real-time and time-series microbial geochemical sampling of the deep (basaltic) crustal biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, James P.; Copson, David A.; Jolly, James; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Huei-Ting; Glazer, Brian T.; Wheat, C. Geoffrey

    2012-03-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program borehole CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories provide long-term access to hydrothermal fluids circulating within the basaltic crust (basement), providing invaluable opportunities to study the deep biosphere. We describe the design and application parameters of the GeoMICROBE instrumented sled, an autonomous sensor and fluid sampling system. The GeoMICROBE system couples with CORK fluid delivery lines to draw large volumes of fluids from crustal aquifers to the seafloor. These fluids pass a series of in-line sensors and an in situ filtration and collection system. GeoMICROBE's major components include a primary valve manifold system, a positive displacement primary pump, sensors (e.g., fluid flow rate, temperature, dissolved O2, electrochemistry-voltammetry analyzer), a 48-port in situ filtration and fluid collection system, computerized controller, seven 24 V-40 A batteries and wet-mateable (ODI) communications with submersibles. This constantly evolving system has been successfully connected to IODP Hole 1301A on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Also described here is a mobile pumping system (MPS), which possesses many of the same components as the GeoMICROBE (e.g., pump, sensors, controller), but is directly powered and controlled in real time via submersible operations; the MPS has been employed repeatedly to collect pristine basement fluids for a variety of geochemical and microbial studies.

  6. Integrating the Advanced Human Eye Model (AHEM) and optical instrument models to model complete visual optical systems inclusive of the typical or atypical eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, William J., III

    2012-06-01

    PURPOSE: To present a commercially available optical modeling software tool to assist the development of optical instrumentation and systems that utilize and/or integrate with the human eye. METHODS: A commercially available flexible eye modeling system is presented, the Advanced Human Eye Model (AHEM). AHEM is a module that the engineer can use to perform rapid development and test scenarios on systems that integrate with the eye. Methods include merging modeled systems initially developed outside of AHEM and performing a series of wizard-type operations that relieve the user from requiring an optometric or ophthalmic background to produce a complete eye inclusive system. Scenarios consist of retinal imaging of targets and sources through integrated systems. Uses include, but are not limited to, optimization, telescopes, microscopes, spectacles, contact and intraocular lenses, ocular aberrations, cataract simulation and scattering, and twin eye model (binocular) systems. RESULTS: Metrics, graphical data, and exportable CAD geometry are generated from the various modeling scenarios.

  7. U.S. Department Of Energy Advanced Small Modular Reactor R&D Program: Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although the recent progress in constructing new plants has spurred design of more fully digital plant-wide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. Additionally, development of advanced reactor concepts, such as Generation IV designs and small modular reactors, introduces different plant conditions (e.g., higher temperatures, different coolants, etc.) and unique plant configurations (e.g., multiunit plants with shared systems, balance of plant architectures with reconfigurable co-generation options) that increase the need for enhanced ICHMI capabilities to fully achieve industry goals related to economic competitiveness, safety and reliability, sustainability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. As a result, significant challenges remain to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of modern ICHMI technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, several DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements within their respective research portfolios. This paper describes current

  8. An Analysis of Expressed Cognitive Preferences on Forced-Choice, Multiple-Option and Rating Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandelare, John James

    The purposes of this study were to construct a general science cognitive preference test instrument, construct an alternative form of the Marks Cognitive Preference Test: High School Chemistry, and to determine the extent of agreement between the two instruments. The instruments were administered to 448 chemistry students. Two shortened forms of…

  9. Recent advances in (soil moisture) triple collocation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, A.; Su, C.-H.; Zwieback, S.; Crow, W.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.

    2016-03-01

    To date, triple collocation (TC) analysis is one of the most important methods for the global-scale evaluation of remotely sensed soil moisture data sets. In this study we review existing implementations of soil moisture TC analysis as well as investigations of the assumptions underlying the method. Different notations that are used to formulate the TC problem are shown to be mathematically identical. While many studies have investigated issues related to possible violations of the underlying assumptions, only few TC modifications have been proposed to mitigate the impact of these violations. Moreover, assumptions, which are often understood as a limitation that is unique to TC analysis are shown to be common also to other conventional performance metrics. Noteworthy advances in TC analysis have been made in the way error estimates are being presented by moving from the investigation of absolute error variance estimates to the investigation of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) metrics. Here we review existing error presentations and propose the combined investigation of the SNR (expressed in logarithmic units), the unscaled error variances, and the soil moisture sensitivities of the data sets as an optimal strategy for the evaluation of remotely-sensed soil moisture data sets.

  10. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  11. Interfacing LabVIEW With Instrumentation for Electronic Failure Analysis and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Randy K.; Bryan, Coleman; Ludwig, Larry

    1996-01-01

    The Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workstation (LabVIEW) software is designed such that equipment and processes related to control systems can be operationally lined and controlled by the use of a computer. Various processes within the failure analysis laboratories of NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) demonstrate the need for modernization and, in some cases, automation, using LabVIEW. An examination of procedures and practices with the Failure Analaysis Laboratory resulted in the conclusion that some device was necessary to elevate the potential users of LabVIEW to an operational level in minimum time. This paper outlines the process involved in creating a tutorial application to enable personnel to apply LabVIEW to their specific projects. Suggestions for furthering the extent to which LabVIEW is used are provided in the areas of data acquisition and process control.

  12. Analysis of marine sediment and lobster hepatopancreas reference materials by instrumental photon activation

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Davidson, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    By use of instrumental photon activation analysis, twelve trace (As, Ba, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, Zn, and Zr) and eight minor (C, Na, Mg, Co, K, Ca, Tl, and Fe) elements were determined in a certified marine sediment standard reference material as well as eight trace (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, and Pb) and four minor (Na, Mg, Cl, and Ca) elements in a certified marine tissue (lobster hepatopancreas) standard reference material. The precision and accuracy of the present results when compared to the accepted values clearly demonstrate the reliability of this nondestructive technique and its applicability to marine environmental or marine geochemical studies. 24 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Development and preliminary testing of an instrumented object for force analysis during grasping.

    PubMed

    Romeo, R A; Cordella, F; Zollo, L; Formica, D; Saccomandi, P; Schena, E; Carpino, G; Davalli, A; Sacchetti, R; Guglielmelli, E

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of an instrumented object for force analysis during grasping. The object, with spherical shape, has been constructed with three contact areas in order to allow performing a tripod grasp. Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) sensors have been employed for normal force measurements, while an accelerometer has been used for slip detection. An electronic board for data acquisition has been embedded into the object, so that only the cables for power supply exit from it. Validation tests have been carried out for: (i) comparing the force measurements with a ground truth; (ii) assessing the capability of the accelerometer to detect slippage for different roughness values; (iii) evaluating object performance in grasp trials performed by a human subject. PMID:26737835

  14. The accuracy of instrumental neutron activation analysis of kilogram-size inhomogeneous samples.

    PubMed

    Blaauw, M; Lakmaker, O; van Aller, P

    1997-07-01

    The feasibility of quantitative instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of samples in the kilogram range without internal standardization has been demonstrated by Overwater et al. (Anal. Chem. 1996, 68, 341). In their studies, however, they demonstrated only the agreement between the "corrected" γ ray spectrum of homogeneous large samples and that of small samples of the same material. In this paper, the k(0) calibration of the IRI facilities for large samples is described, and, this time in terms of (trace) element concentrations, some of Overwater's results for homogeneous materials are presented again, as well as results obtained from inhomogeneous materials and subsamples thereof. It is concluded that large-sample INAA can be as accurate as ordinary INAA, even when applied to inhomogeneous materials.

  15. Radiological and instrumental neutron activation analysis determined characteristics of size-fractionated fly ash.

    PubMed

    Peppas, T K; Karfopoulos, K L; Karangelos, D J; Rouni, P K; Anagnostakis, M J; Simopoulos, S E

    2010-09-15

    The concentration of trace elements and radionuclides in fly ash particles of different size can exhibit significant variation, due to the various processes taking place during combustion inside a coal-fired power plant. An investigation of this effect has been performed by analyzing samples of fly ash originating in two different coal-fired power plants, after separation into size fractions by sieving. The samples were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry, including low-energy techniques, radon exhalation measurement and instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of Al, As, Ga, K, La, Na, Mn, Mg, Sr, Sc, and V. Variations are observed in the results of various samples analyzed, while the activity balances calculated from the results of individual size fractions are consistent with those of the raw ash samples. Correlations among the radionuclides examined are also observed, while individual nuclide behavior varies between the two types of fly ash examined. PMID:20605322

  16. Chemical characterization of gas- and oil-bearing shales by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, J.K.; Koszykowski, R.F.; Klemm, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration of As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, and Zn were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in block shale samples of the New Albany Group (Devonian-Mississippian) in the in the Illinois Basin. Uranium content of the samples was as high as 75 ppm and interfered in the determination of samarium, molybdenum, barium and cerium. In the determination of selenium a correction was made for interference from tantalum. U, As, Co, Mo, Ni and Sb as well as Cu, V and pyritic sulphur which were determined by other methods, were found to correlate positively with the organic carbon content of the samples. ?? 1982 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  17. Instrumented SSH

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  18. Research Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  19. Probabilistic seismic demand analysis using advanced ground motion intensity measures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tothong, P.; Luco, N.

    2007-01-01

    One of the objectives in performance-based earthquake engineering is to quantify the seismic reliability of a structure at a site. For that purpose, probabilistic seismic demand analysis (PSDA) is used as a tool to estimate the mean annual frequency of exceeding a specified value of a structural demand parameter (e.g. interstorey drift). This paper compares and contrasts the use, in PSDA, of certain advanced scalar versus vector and conventional scalar ground motion intensity measures (IMs). One of the benefits of using a well-chosen IM is that more accurate evaluations of seismic performance are achieved without the need to perform detailed ground motion record selection for the nonlinear dynamic structural analyses involved in PSDA (e.g. record selection with respect to seismic parameters such as earthquake magnitude, source-to-site distance, and ground motion epsilon). For structural demands that are dominated by a first mode of vibration, using inelastic spectral displacement (Sdi) can be advantageous relative to the conventionally used elastic spectral acceleration (Sa) and the vector IM consisting of Sa and epsilon (??). This paper demonstrates that this is true for ordinary and for near-source pulse-like earthquake records. The latter ground motions cannot be adequately characterized by either Sa alone or the vector of Sa and ??. For structural demands with significant higher-mode contributions (under either of the two types of ground motions), even Sdi (alone) is not sufficient, so an advanced scalar IM that additionally incorporates higher modes is used.

  20. Recent advances in computational structural reliability analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, Harry R.; Torng, Tony Y.; Riha, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of structural reliability analysis is to determine the probability that the structure will adequately perform its intended function when operating under the given environmental conditions. Thus, the notion of reliability admits the possibility of failure. Given the fact that many different modes of failure are usually possible, achievement of this goal is a formidable task, especially for large, complex structural systems. The traditional (deterministic) design methodology attempts to assure reliability by the application of safety factors and conservative assumptions. However, the safety factor approach lacks a quantitative basis in that the level of reliability is never known and usually results in overly conservative designs because of compounding conservatisms. Furthermore, problem parameters that control the reliability are not identified, nor their importance evaluated. A summary of recent advances in computational structural reliability assessment is presented. A significant level of activity in the research and development community was seen recently, much of which was directed towards the prediction of failure probabilities for single mode failures. The focus is to present some early results and demonstrations of advanced reliability methods applied to structural system problems. This includes structures that can fail as a result of multiple component failures (e.g., a redundant truss), or structural components that may fail due to multiple interacting failure modes (e.g., excessive deflection, resonate vibration, or creep rupture). From these results, some observations and recommendations are made with regard to future research needs.

  1. A critical analysis of test-retest reliability in instrument validation studies of cancer patients under palliative care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcome validation needs to achieve validity and reliability standards. Among reliability analysis parameters, test-retest reliability is an important psychometric property. Retested patients must be in a clinically stable condition. This is particularly problematic in palliative care (PC) settings because advanced cancer patients are prone to a faster rate of clinical deterioration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods by which multi-symptom and health-related qualities of life (HRQoL) based on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have been validated in oncological PC settings with regards to test-retest reliability. Methods A systematic search of PubMed (1966 to June 2013), EMBASE (1980 to June 2013), PsychInfo (1806 to June 2013), CINAHL (1980 to June 2013), and SCIELO (1998 to June 2013), and specific PRO databases was performed. Studies were included if they described a set of validation studies. Studies were included if they described a set of validation studies for an instrument developed to measure multi-symptom or multidimensional HRQoL in advanced cancer patients under PC. The COSMIN checklist was used to rate the methodological quality of the study designs. Results We identified 89 validation studies from 746 potentially relevant articles. From those 89 articles, 31 measured test-retest reliability and were included in this review. Upon critical analysis of the overall quality of the criteria used to determine the test-retest reliability, 6 (19.4%), 17 (54.8%), and 8 (25.8%) of these articles were rated as good, fair, or poor, respectively, and no article was classified as excellent. Multi-symptom instruments were retested over a shortened interval when compared to the HRQoL instruments (median values 24 hours and 168 hours, respectively; p = 0.001). Validation studies that included objective confirmation of clinical stability in their design yielded better results for the test-retest analysis with regard to both

  2. Determination of twenty-nine elements in eight argonne premium coal samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-nine elements have been determined in triplicate splits of the eight Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Samples by instrumental neutron activtaion analysis. Data for control samples NBS 1633 (fly ash) and NBS 1632b are also reported. The factors that could lead to errors in analysis for these samples, such as spectral overlaps, low sensitivity, and interfering nuclear reactions, are discussed.

  3. Factor Analysis Methods and Validity Evidence: A Systematic Review of Instrument Development across the Continuum of Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    2011-01-01

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across…

  4. Gas chromatography: Possible application of advanced instrumentation developed for solar system exploration to space station cabin atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) technology was developed for flight experiments in solar system exploration. The GC is a powerful analytical technique with simple devices separating individual components from complex mixtures to make very sensitive quantitative and qualitative measurements. It monitors samples containing mixtures of fixed gases and volatile organic molecules. The GC was used on the Viking mission in support of life detection experiments and on the Pioneer Venus Large Probe to determine the composition of the venusian atmosphere. A flight GC is under development to study the progress and extent of STS astronaut denitrogenation prior to extravehicular activity. Advanced flight GC concepts and systems for future solar system exploration are also studied. Studies include miniature ionization detectors and associated control systems capable of detecting from ppb up to 100% concentration levels. Further miniaturization is investigated using photolithography and controlled chemical etching in silicon wafers. Novel concepts such as ion mobility drift spectroscopy and multiplex gas chromatography are also developed for future flight experiments. These powerful analytical concepts and associated hardware are ideal for the monitoring of cabin atmospheres containing potentially dangerous volatile compounds.

  5. Beam Optics Analysis - An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-03

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented.

  6. Advanced functional network analysis in the geosciences: The pyunicorn package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Runge, Jakob; Schultz, Hanna C. H.; Wiedermann, Marc; Zech, Alraune; Feldhoff, Jan; Rheinwalt, Aljoscha; Kutza, Hannes; Radebach, Alexander; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Functional networks are a powerful tool for analyzing large geoscientific datasets such as global fields of climate time series originating from observations or model simulations. pyunicorn (pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) is an open-source, fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for constructing functional networks (aka climate networks) representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large datasets and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures for networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn allows to study the complex dynamics of geoscientific systems as recorded by time series by means of recurrence networks and visibility graphs. The range of possible applications of the package is outlined drawing on several examples from climatology.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of the advanced zero emission power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Job, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP). This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i) oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii) combustion of the fuel, and (iii) heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC) through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.

  8. Beam Optics Analysis — An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented.

  9. Advanced Neutron Source Reactor thermal analysis of fuel plate defects

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, G.E.

    1995-08-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is a research reactor designed to provide the highest continuous neutron beam intensity of any reactor in the world. The present technology for determining safe operations were developed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). These techniques are conservative and provide confidence in the safe operation of HFIR. However, the more intense requirements of ANSR necessitate the development of more accurate, but still conservative, techniques. This report details the development of a Local Analysis Technique (LAT) that provides an appropriate approach. Application of the LAT to two ANSR core designs are presented. New theories of the thermal and nuclear behavior of the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel are utilized. The implications of lower fuel enrichment and of modifying the inspection procedures are also discussed. Development of the computer codes that enable the automate execution of the LAT is included.

  10. Advanced XAS Analysis for Investigating Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Witkowska, Agnieszka; Principi, Emiliano; Di Cicco, Andrea; Marassi, Roberto

    2007-02-02

    In the paper we present an accurate structural study of a Pt-based electrode by means of XAS, accounting for both the catalytic nanoparticles size distribution and sample inhomogeneities. Morphology and size distribution of the nanoparticles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. XAS data-analysis was performed using advanced multiple-scattering techniques (GNXAS), disentangling possible effects due to surface atom contributions in nanoparticles and sample homogeneity, contributing to a reduction of intensity of the structural signal. This approach for XAS investigation of electrodes of FC devices can represent a viable and reliable way to understand structural details, important for producing more efficient catalytic materials.

  11. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  12. Aeroelastic analysis of advanced propellers using an efficient Euler solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Mehmed, O.

    1992-01-01

    A 3D Euler solver is coupled with a 3D structural dynamics model to investigate flutter of propfans. A hybrid scheme is used to reduce computational time for the Euler equations and a normal mode analysis is used for flutter calculations. Experimental and calculated flutter results are compared for an advanced propeller propfan which experienced flutter at transonic tip relative velocities. The predicted flutter calculations are in close agreement with the experimental data. A structural damping value of 0.5 percent was required to predict the behavior observed in the experiment. Computations show that the flutter behavior is dominated by the second mode, but coupling with the first mode is required. The addition of other modes to the calculations did not affect the flutter behavior.

  13. Rare-earth elements in Egyptian granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A

    2007-04-01

    The mobilization of rare-earth elements (REEs) in the environment requires monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are mainly present at trace levels. The similarity in REEs chemical behavior makes the separate determination of each element by chemical methods difficult; instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), based on nuclear properties of the elements to be determined, is a method of choice in trace analysis of REEs and related elements. Therefore, INAA was applied as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of REEs to find out what information could be obtained about the REEs of some Egyptian granite collected from four locations in Aswan area in south Egypt as follows wadi El-Allaqi, El-Shelal, Gabel Ibrahim Pasha and from Sehyel Island and to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of NAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 x 10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The following elements have been determined: La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb and Lu. The gamma spectra was collected by HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of computerized multichannel analyzer. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was also used.

  14. Gas chromatographic instrumentation for the analysis of aerosols and gases in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, T. W.; Valentin, J. R.; Ohara, B. J.; Kojiro, D. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1987-01-01

    Instrumentation presently being developed by NASA for the collection and analysis of organic gases and aerosols in Titan's atmosphere is described together with the results of the preliminary experiments. For the aerosols, stepwise pyrolysis was shown to be a suitable method for preparing complex organic material for gas chromatography (GC), and a pyrolysis-gas chromatograph was developed and successfully used to analyze a simulated Titan aerosol. Atmospheric gases will be collected by a low-pressure gas sampling system using large-volume sample loops and analyzed by GC. The results of preliminary studies using a 20 cu cm sampling system and a very sensitive metastable ionization detector showed that hydrocarbon components at the 10 ppb level can be detected. Studies are in progress on shortening the overall analysis time by improving the pyrolysis system, the gas sampling system, and the associated gas chromatograph. Further development of the gas sampling system is planned to ensure rapid collection of samples adequate for analysis by GC over the entire range of pressures to be encountered during the probe's descent.

  15. Determination of nitrogen in boron carbide by instrumental photon activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Merchel, Silke; Berger, Achim

    2007-05-01

    Boron carbide is widely used as industrial material, because of its extreme hardness, and as a neutron absorber. As part of a round-robin exercise leading to certification of a new reference material (ERM-ED102) which was demanded by the industry we analysed nitrogen in boron carbide by inert gas fusion analysis (GFA) and instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the 14N(gamma,n)13N nuclear reaction. The latter approach is the only non-destructive method among all the methods applied. By using photons with energy below the threshold of the 12C(gamma,n)11C reaction, we hindered activation of matrix and other impurities. A recently installed beam with a very low lateral activating flux gradient enabled us to homogeneously activate sample masses of approximately 1 g. Taking extra precautions, i.e. self-absorption correction and deconvolution of the complex decay curves, we calculated a nitrogen concentration of 2260+/-100 microg g-1, which is in good agreement with our GFA value of 2303+/-64 microg g-1. The values are the second and third highest of a rather atypical (non-S-shape) distribution of data of 14 round-robin participants. It is of utmost importance for the certification process that our IPAA value is the only one not produced by inert gas fusion analysis and, therefore, the only one which is not affected by a possible incomplete release of nitrogen from high-melting boron carbide.

  16. Analysis of commercial equipment and instrumentation for Spacelab payloads. Volume 3: Design analysis and trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of each selected equipment item, and suitability and cost analyses were documented by equipment item. Tradeoffs of alternative specification requirements are presented which include possible relaxation of vibration, material control, fungus and corrosion requirements for experiment equipment. An additional tradeoff was performed to determine whether it is cost effective to modify experiment equipment to be compatible with a 28-volt dc power source rather than the conventional 110-volt ac source. Programmatic analysis data are given which were used as the basis for the extension of results from the analyses of specific equipment items to the entire spacelab experiment program.

  17. Advanced in aerospace lubricant and wear metal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saba, C.S.; Centers, P.W.

    1995-09-01

    Wear metal analysis continues to play an effective diagnostic role for condition monitoring of gas turbine engines. Since the early 1960s the United States` military services have been using spectrometric oil analysis program (SOAP) to monitor the condition of aircraft engines. The SOAP has proven to be effective in increasing reliability, fleet readiness and avoiding losses of lives and machinery. Even though historical data have demonstrated the success of the SOAP in terms of detecting imminent engine failure verified by maintenance personnel, the SOAP is not a stand-alone technique and is limited in its detection of large metallic wear debris. In response, improved laboratory, portable, in-line and on-line diagnostic techniques to perfect SOAP and oil condition monitoring have been sought. The status of research and development as well as the direction of future developmental activities in oil analysis due to technological opportunities, advanced in engine development and changes in military mission are reviewed and discussed. 54 refs.

  18. Chemical analysis of nickel-titanium rotary instruments with and without electropolishing after cleaning procedures with sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Antonio; Schäfer, Edgar; Condorelli, Guglielmo Guido; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Tripi, Teresa Roberta

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to chemically analyze rotary nickel-titanium instruments with and without electropolishing after cleaning procedures with NaOCl. To evaluate the effect of 5.25% NaOCl on electropolished RaCe instruments, a total of 18 instruments were tested. A control group of 18 nonelectropolished RaCe instruments was used. The surface of each instrument was analyzed before and after cleaning in NaOCl by using energy dispersive x-ray analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Surface defects were recorded, and a chi(2) test was used for statistical analysis. After immersion in NaOCl, the nonelectropolished and electropolished files showed a significant increase of iron deposits as a result of galvanic corrosion of the shaft (P < .05). The nonelectropolished files showed marked presence of NaCl deposits in the machining marks and microcracks. As regards the chemical nature of the surface, the electropolished files had an oxide increase compared with the low oxide concentration (mainly TiO2) before cleaning. The nonelectropolished files already possessed higher oxides concentration (TiO2 and NiO) before NaOCl cleaning. NaOCl treatment affects the chemical composition of the surface and, in particular for nonelectropolished instruments, of the bulk exposed through machining marks and fabrication microcracks. PMID:18928855

  19. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  20. The OMPS Limb Profiler Instrument: An Alternative Data Analysis and Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rault, Didier F.; Lumpe, Jerry; Eden, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The upcoming Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS), which will be launched on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) platform in early 2011, will continue monitoring the global distribution of the Earth's middle atmosphere ozone and aerosol. OMPS is composed of three instruments, namely the Total Column Mapper (heritage: TOMS, OMI), the Nadir Profiler (heritage: SBUV) and the Limb Profiler (heritage: SOLSE/LORE, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY, SAGE III). The ultimate goal of the mission is to better understand and quantify the rate of stratospheric ozone recovery. The focus of the paper will be on the Limb Profiler (LP) instrument. The LP instrument will measure the Earth fs limb radiance (which is due to the scattering of solar photons by air molecules, aerosol and Earth surface) in the ultra-violet (UV), visible and near infrared, from 285 to 1000 nm. The LP simultaneously images the whole vertical extent of the Earth's limb through three vertical slits, each covering a vertical tangent height range of 100 km and each horizontally spaced by 250 km in the cross-track direction. The focal plane of the LP spectrometer is a two ]dimensional CCD array comprised of 340 x 740 pixels. Several data analysis tools are presently being constructed and tested to retrieve ozone and aerosol vertical distribution from limb radiance measurements. The primary NASA algorithm is based on earlier algorithms developed for the SOLSE/LORE and SAGE III limb scatter missions. The paper will describe an alternative algorithm which will retrieve ozone density and aerosol extinction directly from radiance data collected on individual CCD pixels. This alternative method uses an optimal estimation approach to retrieve ozone and aerosol in the 10-60 km range from the information contained within an ensemble of about 50000 down-linked pixels. Tangent height registration is performed using the Rayleigh Scattering Attitude Sensor (RSAS) technique applied to columns of pixels in the 340-360 nm range. Cloud

  1. Trace-element analysis of 1000 environmental samples per year using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    The technology and methods developed at the Plum Brook Reactor to analyze 1000 samples per year and report data on as many as 56 elements are described. The manpower for the complete analysis of 20 to 24 samples per week required only 3 to 3.5 hours per sample. The solutions to problems encountered in sample preparation, irradiation, and counting are discussed. The automation of data reduction is described. Typical data on various sample matrices are presented.

  2. Factor analysis methods and validity evidence: A systematic review of instrument development across the continuum of medical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across the continuum of medical education had not been previously identified. Therefore, the purpose for this study was critical review of instrument development articles employing exploratory factor or principal component analysis published in medical education (2006--2010) to describe and assess the reporting of methods and validity evidence based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and factor analysis best practices. Data extraction of 64 articles measuring a variety of constructs that have been published throughout the peer-reviewed medical education literature indicate significant errors in the translation of exploratory factor analysis best practices to current practice. Further, techniques for establishing validity evidence tend to derive from a limited scope of methods including reliability statistics to support internal structure and support for test content. Instruments reviewed for this study lacked supporting evidence based on relationships with other variables and response process, and evidence based on consequences of testing was not evident. Findings suggest a need for further professional development within the medical education researcher community related to (1) appropriate factor analysis methodology and reporting and (2) the importance of pursuing multiple sources of reliability and validity evidence to construct a well-supported argument for the inferences made from the instrument. Medical education researchers and educators should be cautious in adopting instruments from the literature and carefully review available evidence. Finally, editors and reviewers are encouraged to recognize

  3. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  4. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-21

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  5. Possible Detection of Perchlorates by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument: Comparison with Previous Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro-Gonzalex, Rafael; Sutter, Brad; Archer, Doug; Ming, Doug; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Glavin, Daniel; McAdam, Amy; Stern, Jennifer; McKay, Christopher; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Mahaffy, Paul; Conrad, Pamela; Martin-Torres, Francisco; Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Grotzinger, John

    2013-01-01

    The first chemical analysis of soluble salts in the soil was carried out by the Phoenix Lander in the Martian Arctic [1]. Surprisingly, chlorine was present as magnesium or calcium perchlorate at 0.4 to 0.6 percent. Additional support for the identification of perchlorate came from the evolved gas analysis which detected the release of molecular oxygen at 350-550C [1]. When Mars-like soils from the Atacama Desert were spiked with magnesium perchlorate (1 percent) and heated using the Viking GC-MS protocol, nearly all the organics were combusted but a small amount was chlorinated, forming chloromethane and dichloromethane [2]. These chlorohydrocarbons were detected by the Viking GC-MS experiments when the Martian soil was analyzed but they were considered to be terrestrial contaminants [3]. Reinterpretation of the Viking results suggests <0.1 percent perchlorate and ppm levels of organic carbon at landing site 1 and 2 [2]. The suggestion of perchlorate in the Viking sites [2] has been challenged on the grounds that the detected compounds (CH3Cl and CH2Cl2) were carried from Earth [4]. Recently the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) ran four samples from an aeolian bedform named Rocknest. The samples analyzed were portioned from the fifth scoop at this location. The samples were heated to 835C at 35C/min with a He flow. The SAM QMS detected a major oxygen release (300-500C) [5], coupled with the release of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, and chloromethylpropene) detected both by SAM QMS and GC-MS derived from known Earth organic contaminants in the instrument [6]. Calcium perchlorate appears to be the best candidate for evolved O2 in the Rocknest samples at this time but other Cl species (e.g., chlorates) are possible and must be evaluated. The potential detection of perchlorates in Rocknest material adds weight to the argument that both Viking Landers measured signatures of

  6. Mars Miniature Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

  7. Finite Element Analysis of a Copper Single Crystal Shape Memory Alloy-Based Endodontic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Marin; Thiebaud, Frédéric; Bel Haj Khalifa, Saifeddine; Engels-Deutsch, Marc; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is the development of endodontic Cu-based single crystal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) instruments in order to eliminate the antimicrobial and mechanical deficiencies observed with the conventional Nickel-Titane (NiTi) SMA files. A thermomechanical constitutive law, already developed and implemented in a finite element code by our research group, is adopted for the simulation of the single crystal SMA behavior. The corresponding material parameters were identified starting from experimental results for a tensile test at room temperature. A computer-aided design geometry has been achieved and considered for a finite element structural analysis of the endodontic Cu-based single crystal SMA files. They are meshed with tetrahedral continuum elements to improve the computation time and the accuracy of results. The geometric parameters tested in this study are the length of the active blade, the rod length, the pitch, the taper, the tip diameter, and the rod diameter. For each set of adopted parameters, a finite element model is built and tested in a combined bending-torsion loading in accordance with ISO 3630-1 norm. The numerical analysis based on finite element procedure allowed purposing an optimal geometry suitable for Cu-based single crystal SMA endodontic files. The same analysis was carried out for the classical NiTi SMA files and a comparison was made between the two kinds of files. It showed that Cu-based single crystal SMA files are less stiff than the NiTi files. The Cu-based endodontic files could be used to improve the root canal treatments. However, the finite element analysis brought out the need for further investigation based on experiments.

  8. Accurate measurement of bromine contents in plastic samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, I J; Lee, K S; Hwang, E; Min, H S; Yim, Y H

    2013-03-26

    Accurate measurements of bromine contents in plastic samples were made by the direct comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Individual factors affecting the measurements were comprehensively evaluated and compensated, including the volatility loss of bromine from standard comparators, the background bromine level in the filter papers used for preparation of the standard comparators, nuclear interference, γ-ray spectral interference and the variance among replicates of the samples. Uncertainty contributions from those factors were thoroughly evaluated and included in the uncertainty budgeting of the INAA measurement. (81)Br was chosen as the target isotope, and the INAA measurements for bromine were experimentally confirmed to exhibit good linearity within a bromine content range of 10-170 μg. The established method has been applied to the analysis of eight plastic samples: four commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) of polyethylene and polystyrene and four acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) samples prepared as the candidate reference materials (KRISS CRM 113-01-012, -013, -014 and -015). The bromine contents of the samples were calculated at three different γ-ray energies and compared, showing good agreement. The results of the four CRMs also showed good consistency with their certified values within the stated uncertainties. Finally, the bromine contents of the ABS samples were determined with expanded uncertainties (at a 95% level of confidence) between 2.5% and 5% in a bromine content range of 25-900 mg kg(-1).

  9. Accurate measurement of bromine contents in plastic samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, I J; Lee, K S; Hwang, E; Min, H S; Yim, Y H

    2013-03-26

    Accurate measurements of bromine contents in plastic samples were made by the direct comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Individual factors affecting the measurements were comprehensively evaluated and compensated, including the volatility loss of bromine from standard comparators, the background bromine level in the filter papers used for preparation of the standard comparators, nuclear interference, γ-ray spectral interference and the variance among replicates of the samples. Uncertainty contributions from those factors were thoroughly evaluated and included in the uncertainty budgeting of the INAA measurement. (81)Br was chosen as the target isotope, and the INAA measurements for bromine were experimentally confirmed to exhibit good linearity within a bromine content range of 10-170 μg. The established method has been applied to the analysis of eight plastic samples: four commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) of polyethylene and polystyrene and four acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) samples prepared as the candidate reference materials (KRISS CRM 113-01-012, -013, -014 and -015). The bromine contents of the samples were calculated at three different γ-ray energies and compared, showing good agreement. The results of the four CRMs also showed good consistency with their certified values within the stated uncertainties. Finally, the bromine contents of the ABS samples were determined with expanded uncertainties (at a 95% level of confidence) between 2.5% and 5% in a bromine content range of 25-900 mg kg(-1). PMID:23498117

  10. Instrument-independent analysis of music by means of the continuous wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmo, Gabriella; Dovis, Fabio; Benotto, Paolo; Calosso, Claudio; Passaro, Pierluigi

    1999-10-01

    This paper deals with the problem of automatic recognition of music. Segments of digitized music are processed by means of a Continuous Wavelet Transform, properly chosen so as to match the spectral characteristics of the signal. In order to achieve a good time-scale representation of the signal components a novel wavelet has been designed suited to the musical signal features. particular care has been devoted towards an efficient implementation, which operates in the frequency domain, and includes proper segmentation and aliasing reduction techniques to make the analysis of long signals feasible. The method achieves very good performance in terms of both time and frequency selectivity, and can yield the estimate and the localization in time of both the fundamental frequency and the main harmonics of each tone. The analysis is used as a preprocessing step for a recognition algorithm, which we show to be almost independent on the instrument reproducing the sounds. Simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Systems and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Peretz, Fred J; Qualls, A L

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a large-output [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR's large thermal output enables direct comparison of its performance and requirements with other high output reactor concepts. As high-temperature plants, FHRs can support either high-efficiency electricity generation or industrial process heat production. The AHTR analysis presented in this report is limited to the electricity generation mission. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to be low-cost electricity producers while maintaining full passive safety. However, no FHR has been built, and no FHR design has reached the stage of maturity where realistic economic analysis can be performed. The system design effort described in this report represents early steps along the design path toward being able to predict the cost and performance characteristics of the AHTR as well as toward being able to identify the technology developments necessary to build an FHR power plant. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated particle fuel and graphite components. Light water reactors (LWRs) show the potentials of transparent, high-heat capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. Modern coal-fired power plants provide design experience with

  12. Stress Reduction in Adjacent Level Discs via Dynamic Instrumentation: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castellvi, Antonio E.; Huang, Hao; Vestgaarden, Tov; Saigal, Sunil; Pienkowski, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Conventional (rigid) fusion instrumentation is believed to accelerate the degeneration of adjacent discs by increasing stresses caused by motion discontinuity. Fusion instrumentation that employs reduced rod stiffness and increased axial motion, or dynamic instrumentation, may partially alleviate this problem, but the effects of this instrumentation on the stresses in the adjacent disc are unknown. We used a finiteelement model to calculate and compare the stresses in the adjacent-level disc that are induced by rigid and dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation. Methods A 3-dimensional finite-element model of the lumbar spine was obtained that simulated flexion and extension. The L5–S1 segment of this model was fused, and the L4–L5 segment was fixed with rigid or dynamic instrumentation. The mechanical properties of the dynamic instrumentation were determined by laboratory testing and then used in the finite-element model. Peak stresses in the lumbar discs were calculated and compared. Results The reduced-stiffness component of the dynamic instrumentation was associated with a 1% to 2% reduction in peak compressive stresses in the adjacent-level disc (at 45° flexion), and the increased axial motion component of this instrumentation reduced peak disc stress by 8% to 9%. Areas of disc tissue exposed to 80% of peak stresses of 6.17 MPa were 47% less for discs adjacent to dynamic instrumentation than for those adjacent to rigid instrumentation. Conclusions Reduced stiffness and increased axial motion of dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation designs result in an approximately 10% cumulative stress reduction for each flexion cycle. The effect of this stress reduction over many cycles may be substantial. Clinical Relevance The cumulative effect of this reduced amplitude and distribution of peak stresses in the adjacent disc may partially alleviate the problem of adjacent-level disc degeneration. PMID:25802582

  13. Quantitative Computed Tomography and Image Analysis for Advanced Muscle Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Kyle Joseph; Gíslason, Magnus K.; Arnadottir, Iris D.; Marcante, Andrea; Piccione, Francesco; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging is of particular interest in the field of translational myology, as extant literature describes the utilization of a wide variety of techniques to non-invasively recapitulate and quantity various internal and external tissue morphologies. In the clinical context, medical imaging remains a vital tool for diagnostics and investigative assessment. This review outlines the results from several investigations on the use of computed tomography (CT) and image analysis techniques to assess muscle conditions and degenerative process due to aging or pathological conditions. Herein, we detail the acquisition of spiral CT images and the use of advanced image analysis tools to characterize muscles in 2D and 3D. Results from these studies recapitulate changes in tissue composition within muscles, as visualized by the association of tissue types to specified Hounsfield Unit (HU) values for fat, loose connective tissue or atrophic muscle, and normal muscle, including fascia and tendon. We show how results from these analyses can be presented as both average HU values and compositions with respect to total muscle volumes, demonstrating the reliability of these tools to monitor, assess and characterize muscle degeneration. PMID:27478562

  14. DSA hole defectivity analysis using advanced optical inspection tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harukawa, Ryota; Aoki, Masami; Cross, Andrew; Nagaswami, Venkat; Tomita, Tadatoshi; Nagahara, Seiji; Muramatsu, Makoto; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Kosugi, Hitoshi; Rathsack, Benjamen; Kitano, Takahiro; Sweis, Jason; Mokhberi, Ali

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the defect density detection and analysis methodology using advanced optical wafer inspection capability to enable accelerated development of a DSA process/process tools and the required inspection capability to monitor such a process. The defectivity inspection methodologies are optimized for grapho epitaxy directed self-assembly (DSA) contact holes with 25 nm sizes. A defect test reticle with programmed defects on guide patterns is designed for improved optimization of defectivity monitoring. Using this reticle, resist guide holes with a variety of sizes and shapes are patterned using an ArF immersion scanner. The negative tone development (NTD) type thermally stable resist guide is used for DSA of a polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer (BCP). Using a variety of defects intentionally made by changing guide pattern sizes, the detection rates of each specific defectivity type has been analyzed. It is found in this work that to maximize sensitivity, a two pass scan with bright field (BF) and dark field (DF) modes provides the best overall defect type coverage and sensitivity. The performance of the two pass scan with BF and DF modes is also revealed by defect analysis for baseline defectivity on a wafer processed with nominal process conditions.

  15. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A.; Al-Khalifa, Hend S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space. PMID:27196906

  16. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A; Al-Khalifa, Hend S

    2016-05-16

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space.

  17. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A; Al-Khalifa, Hend S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space. PMID:27196906

  18. Analysis of Fine-Mode Aerosol Retrieval Capabilities by Different Passive Remote Sensing Instrument Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael; Chowdhary, Jacek; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Martin, William; Ottaviani, Matteo; Alexandrov, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing of aerosol optical properties is difficult, but multi-angle, multi-spectral, polarimetric instruments have the potential to retrieve sufficient information about aerosols that they can be used to improve global climate models. However, the complexity of these instruments means that it is difficult to intuitively understand the relationship between instrument design and retrieval success. We apply a Bayesian statistical technique that relates instrument characteristics to the information contained in an observation. Using realistic simulations of fine size mode dominated spherical aerosols, we investigate three instrument designs. Two of these represent instruments currently in orbit: the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the POLarization and Directionality of the Earths Reflectances (POLDER). The third is the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS), which failed to reach orbit during recent launch, but represents a viable design for future instruments. The results show fundamental differences between the three, and offer suggestions for future instrument design and the optimal retrieval strategy for current instruments. Generally, our results agree with previous validation efforts of POLDER and airborne prototypes of APS, but show that the MISR aerosol optical thickness uncertainty characterization is possibly underestimated.

  19. Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) Testability Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ossenfort, John

    2008-01-01

    As system designs become more complex, determining the best locations to add sensors and test points for the purpose of testing and monitoring these designs becomes more difficult. Not only must the designer take into consideration all real and potential faults of the system, he or she must also find efficient ways of detecting and isolating those faults. Because sensors and cabling take up valuable space and weight on a system, and given constraints on bandwidth and power, it is even more difficult to add sensors into these complex designs after the design has been completed. As a result, a number of software tools have been developed to assist the system designer in proper placement of these sensors during the system design phase of a project. One of the key functions provided by many of these software programs is a testability analysis of the system essentially an evaluation of how observable the system behavior is using available tests. During the design phase, testability metrics can help guide the designer in improving the inherent testability of the design. This may include adding, removing, or modifying tests; breaking up feedback loops, or changing the system to reduce fault propagation. Given a set of test requirements, the analysis can also help to verify that the system will meet those requirements. Of course, a testability analysis requires that a software model of the physical system is available. For the analysis to be most effective in guiding system design, this model should ideally be constructed in parallel with these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to present the final testability results of the Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) after the system model was completed. The tool chosen to build the model and to perform the testability analysis with is the Testability Engineering and Maintenance System Designer (TEAMS-Designer). The TEAMS toolset is intended to be a solution to span all phases of the system, from design and

  20. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature, pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system; (2) develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amount of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. High compression ratio can be achieved to allow minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities; and (3) integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of

  1. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1993-01-01

    The SSME has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) Develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system. (2) Develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amounts of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. A high compression ratio can be achieved to allow the minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities. (3) Integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for a quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate

  2. Work Domain Analysis and Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2001-02-01

    The nuclear industry is currently designing and building a new generation of reactors that will differ in important respects from the older generation. Differences in new plants will include different structural, functional, and environmental aspects, all of which are likely to have a significant impact on the way these plants are operated. In order to meet economic and safety objectives, these new reactors will all use advanced technologies to some extent, including new materials and advanced digital instrumentation and control systems. Examples of these advances include distribution of load-following demand among multiple units, different product streams (steam, process heat, or electricity), increased use of passive safety systems, high levels of automation with humans in supervisory roles, integration of computerized procedures for control room and field work, and remote surveillance and on-line monitoring. New technologies will affect not only operational strategies, but will also require a new approach to how functions are allocated to humans or machines to ensure optimal performance. There is still much uncertainty about the effect of large scale changes in plant design on operations and human tasks, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. This uncertainty will remain until sound technical bases are developed for new operational concepts and strategies. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. Up-to-date models and guidance are required for the development of operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems. Designers need to be able to identify and evaluate specific human factors challenges related to non

  3. Advanced quadrupole ion trap instrumentation for low level vehicle emissions measurements. CRADA final report for number ORNL93-0238

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Goeringer, D.E.; Dearth, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amenable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of sensitivity, specificity, speed, and flexibility with respect to the technical requirements of the top 15 analyzer.

  4. Analysis and simulation of a small-angle neutron scattering instrument on a 1 MW long pulse spallation source

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, G.A.; Hjelm, R.P.; Lujan, M. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    We studied the design and performance of a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument for a proposed 1 MW, 60 Hz long pulsed spallation source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). An analysis of the effects of source characteristics and chopper performance combined with instrument simulations using the LANSCE Monte Carlo instrument simulations package shows that the T{sub 0} chopper should be no more than 5 m from the source with the frame overlap and frame definition choppers at 5.6 and greater than 7 m, respectively. The study showed that an optimal pulse structure has an exponential decaying tail with {tau} {approx} 750 {mu}s. The Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize the LPSS SANS, showing that an optimal length is 18 m. The simulations show that an instrument with variable length is best to match the needs of a given measurement. The performance of the optimized LPSS instrument was found to be comparable with present world standard instruments.

  5. OPTIMA: advanced methods for the analysis, integration, and optimization of PRISMA mission products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzi, Donatella; Pippi, Ivan; Aiazzi, Bruno; Baronti, Stefano; Carlà, Roberto; Lastri, Cinzia; Nardino, Vanni; Raimondi, Valentina; Santurri, Leonardo; Selva, Massimo; Alparone, Luciano; Garzelli, Andrea; Lopinto, Ettore; Ananasso, Cristina; Barducci, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    PRISMA is an Earth observation system that combines a hyperspectral sensor with a panchromatic, medium-resolution camera. OPTIMA is one of the five independent scientific research projects funded by the Italian Space Agency in the framework of PRISMA mission for the development of added-value algorithms and advanced applications. The main goal of OPTIMA is to increase and to strengthen the applications of PRISMA through the implementation of advanced methodologies for the analysis, integration and optimization of level 1 and 2 products. The project is comprehensive of several working packages: data simulation, data quality, data optimization, data processing and integration and, finally, evaluation of some applications related to natural hazards. Several algorithms implemented during the project employ high-speed autonomous procedures for the elaboration of the upcoming images acquired by PRISMA. To assess the performances of the developed algorithms and products, an end-to-end simulator of the instrument has been implemented. Data quality analysis has been completed by introducing noise modeling. Stand-alone procedures of radiometric and atmospheric corrections have been developed, allowing the retrieval of at-ground spectral reflectance maps. Specific studies about image enhancement, restoration and pan-sharpening have been carried out for providing added-value data. Regarding the mission capability of monitoring environmental processes and disasters, different techniques for estimating surface humidity and for analyzing burned areas have been investigated. Finally, calibration and validation activities utilizing the CAL/VAL test site managed by CNR-IFAC and located inside the Regional Park of San Rossore (Pisa), Italy have been considered.

  6. The Quantitative Analysis of an Analgesic Tablet: An NMR Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedake, Thomas A.; Welch, Lawrence E.

    1996-11-01

    A quantitative analysis experiment is outlined that uses 13C NMR. Initial work utilizes a known compound (acenapthene) to assess the type of NMR experiment necessary to achieve a proportional response from all of the carbons in the compound. Both gated decoupling and inverse gated decoupling routines with a variety of delay times are inspected, in addition to investigation of paramagnetic additives in conjunction with inverse gated decoupling. Once the experiments with the known compound have illuminated the merits of the differing strategies for obtaining a proportional carbon response, a quantitative assessment of an unknown analgesic tablet is undertaken. The amounts of the two major components of the tablet, acetaminophen and aspirin, are determined following addition of an internal standard to the mixture. The carbon resonances emanating from each compound can be identified using spectra of the pure analgesic components and internal standard. Knowing the concentration of the internal standard and assuming a proportional response to all carbons in the sample allows calculation of the amount of both analytes in the analgesic tablets. Data from an initial laboratory trial is presented that illustrates the accuracy of the procedure.

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis errors and interferences during the certification analysis of NIST SRM 1573a tomato leaves (renewal)

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology is in the process of certification for a new supply of the botanical standard reference material (SRM) 1573, tomato leaves. This renewal SRM 1573a has already been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for 18 elements with 12 replicates and sample sizes averaging {approximately}140 mg. Elements determined by INAA were selected according to the needs of the SRM program and include some with short half-lives (aluminum, vanadium, calcium, magnesium), some with intermediate half-lives (sodium, potassium, manganese, barium, lanthanum, rubidium), and some with long half-lives (iron, chromium, zinc, cobalt, selenium, thorium, scandium, and antimony). The data obtained will also be used for homogeneity evaluation. During the initial evaluation and certification analyses, a number of potential errors and interferences were identified.

  8. Dimensions of Part-Time Faculty Job Satisfaction: Development and Factor Analysis of a Survey Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Jeff E.; Howell, Scott L.; Eggett, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to develop a reliable and valid survey instrument for assessing the satisfaction of part-time faculty teaching in continuing higher education at Brigham Young University (BYU). This article describes the reliability and validity of the instrument that may be used by other administrators and researchers…

  9. Comparative Analysis of Three Screening Instruments for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Toddlers at High Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Dietz, Claudine; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2009-01-01

    Several instruments have been developed to screen for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in high-risk populations. However, few studies compare different instruments in one sample. Data were gathered from the "Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire," "Social Communication Questionnaire," "Communication and Symbolic Behavior…

  10. Observation and Teacher Quality: Critical Analysis of Observational Instruments in Preservice Teacher Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughlan, Samantha; Jiang, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparation programs commonly use observational instruments to assess the progress and the exit performances of teacher candidates. However, while these instruments have been described and several have been studied for effectiveness, the field lacks a close examination of how they position participants: teacher candidates, K-12 pupils, and…

  11. Analysis of in-service failures and advances in microstructural characterization. Microstructural science Volume 26

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovici, E.; Northwood, D.O.; Shehata, M.T.; Wylie, J.

    1999-01-01

    The contents include Analysis of In-Service Failures (tutorials, transportation industry, corrosion and materials degradation, electronic and advanced materials); 1998 Sorby Award Lecture by Kay Geels, Struers A/S (Metallographic Preparation from Sorby to the Present); Advances in Microstructural Characterization (characterization techniques using high resolution and focused ion beam, characterization of microstructural clustering and correlation with performance); Advanced Applications (advanced alloys and intermetallic compounds, plasma spray coatings and other surface coatings, corrosion, and materials degradation).

  12. A class of physical modeling recurrent networks for analysis/synthesis of plucked string instruments.

    PubMed

    Su, A Y; Liang, Sheng-Fu

    2002-01-01

    A new approach is proposed that closely synthesizes tones of plucked string instruments by using a class of physical modeling recurrent networks. The strategies employed consist of a fast training algorithm and a multistage training procedure that are able to obtain the synthesis parameters for a specific instrument automatically. The training vector can be recorded tones of most target plucked instruments with ordinary microphones. The proposed approach delivers encouraging results when it is applied to different types of plucked string instruments such as steel-string guitar, nylon-string guitar, harp, Chin, Yueh-chin, and Pipa. The synthesized tones sound very close to the originals produced by their acoustic counterparts. In addition, the paper presents an embedded technique that can produce special effects such as vibrato and portamento that are vital to the playing of plucked-string instruments. The computation required in the resynthesis processing is also reasonable. PMID:18244510

  13. Thermal Analysis and Design of an Advanced Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin H.; Campbell, Anthony B.; French, Jonathan D.; French, D.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are considered. A transient model of the Advanced Space Suit has been developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed.

  14. [Advance directives in Switzerland: brief analysis on ethical perspectives].

    PubMed

    Bondolfi, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The author describes the political atmosphere in Switzerland which accepts the principle of advanced directives. Until now only a few cantons have legally defined the advanced directives. At the present, during the revision of common law and especially the revision of the guardianship law, the parliament is discussing a chapter dedicated to advanced directives. In this way the statute of advanced directive will be the same in all cantons. The author underlines the importance/necessity and the partiality of the principle of autonomy in this field.

  15. Innovative instrumentation for microarray scanning and analysis: application for characterization of oligonucleotide duplexes behavior.

    PubMed

    Khomyakova, E B; Dreval, E V; Tran-Dang, M; Potier, M C; Soussaline, F P

    2004-05-01

    Accuracy in microarray technology requires new approaches to microarray reader development. A microarray reader system (optical scanning array or OSA reader) based on automated microscopy with large field of view, high speed 3 axis scanning at multiple narrow-band spectra of excitation light has been developed. It allows fast capture of high-resolution, multi-fluorescence images and is characterized by a linear dynamic range and sensitivity comparable to commonly used photo-multiplier tube (PMT)-based laser scanner. Controlled by high performance software, the instrument can be used for scanning and quantitative analysis of any type of dry microarray. Studies implying temperature-controlled hybridization chamber containing a microarray can also be performed. This enables the registration of kinetics and melting curves. This feature is required in a wide range of on-chip chemical and enzymatic reactions including on-chip PCR amplification. We used the OSA reader for the characterization of hybridization and melting behaviour of oligonucleotide:oligonucleotide duplexes on three-dimensional Code Link slides. PMID:15209342

  16. Rare earth elements in core marine sediments of coastal East Malaysia by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Ahmadreza; Saion, Elias; Gharibshahi, Elham; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Kong, Yap Chee; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Elias, Md Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried out on the concentration of REEs (Dy, Sm, Eu,Yb, Lu, La and Ce) that are present in the core marine sediments of East Malaysia from three locations at South China Sea and one location each at Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea. The sediment samples were collected at a depth of between 49 and 109 m, dried, and crushed to powdery form. The entire core sediments prepared for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) were weighted approximately 0.0500 g to 0.1000 g for short irradiation and 0.1500 g to 0.2000 g for long irradiation. The samples were irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 4.0×10(12) cm(-2) s(-1) in a TRIGA Mark II research reactor operated at 750 kW. Blank samples and standard reference materials SL-1 were also irradiated for calibration and quality control purposes. It was found that the concentration of REEs varies in the range from 0.11 to 36.84 mg/kg. The chondrite-normalized REEs for different stations suggest that all the REEs are from similar origins. There was no significant REEs contamination as the enrichment factors normalized for Fe fall in the range of 0.42-2.82. PMID:26405840

  17. HELLRIDE: a new interferometric multiline instrument for the analysis of the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staiger, J.

    2012-09-01

    We are developing a new etalon-based spectrometer 'HELLRIDE' for the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Tenerife. It will offer improved performance over existing devices in a number of operational aspects. Primary development goal has been increasing the number of spectral lines for the simultaneous recording of solar Doppler shifts. Observations may cover a large field-of-view at high spatial and temporal resolution. New electromagnetic drive technologies are to be implemented. A focus will be set to achieve thermal stability with respect to spectroscopic drifts and pointing precision. All aspects of device operation are to be covered by a numerical model allowing for offline testing and offline observations simulation. Remote operation options will be available for dedicated observational programs. The new instrument is foreseen to be used for the analysis of energy transfers within the solar atmosphere. The helioseismological and kinetic aspects of chromospheric and coronal heating are here of special interest. To allow for synchronized observations of photospheric and coronal phenomena new procedures are under development to improve co-alignment of ground-based and space-based telescopes. HELLRIDE stands for HELioseismological Large Regions Interferometric DEvice.

  18. A Perspective on Development Flight Instrumentation and Flight Test Analysis Plans for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Brunty, Joseph A.; Smith, R. Marshall; Trombetta, Dominic R.

    2009-01-01

    NASA. s Constellation Program will take a significant step toward completion of the Ares I crew launch vehicle with the flight test of Ares I-X and completion of the Ares I-X post-flight evaluation. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle is an ascent development flight test that will acquire flight data early enough to impact the design and development of the Ares I. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, Ares I has been the major driver in the definition of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI). This paper focuses on the DFI development process and the plans for post-flight evaluation of the resulting data to impact the Ares I design. Efforts for determining the DFI for Ares I-X began in the fall of 2005, and significant effort to refine and implement the Ares I-X DFI has been expended since that time. This paper will present a perspective in the development and implementation of the DFI. Emphasis will be placed on the process by which the list was established and changes were made to that list due to imposed constraints. The paper will also discuss the plans for the analysis of the DFI data following the flight and a summary of flight evaluation tasks to be performed in support of tools and models validation for design and development.

  19. Instrumentation for the analysis of respiratory system disorders during sleep: Design and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, Pedro Lopes; de Andrade Lemes, Lucas Neves

    2002-11-01

    Sleep breathing disorders are estimated to be present in 2%-4% of middle-aged adults. Serious adverse consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, myocardial infraction, and cerebrovascular disease, can be related to these conditions. Intellectual deficits associated with attention, memory, and problem-solving have also been associated with a poor quality of sleep. The main causes of these disorders are obstructions resulting from repetitive narrowing and closure of the pharyngeal airway, which have been monitored by indirect measurements of temperature, displacement, and other highly invasive procedures. The measurement of mechanical impedance of the respiratory system by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently been suggested to quantify the respiratory obstruction during sleep. It is claimed that the noninvasive and dynamic characteristics of this technique would allow a noninvasive and accurate analysis of these events. In spite of this high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) describe the development of a new computer-based system for identification of the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system during sleep by the FOT and (2) evaluate the performance of this device in the description of respiratory events in conditions including no, mild, serious disease, and therapeutic procedures. These evaluations confirmed the desirable features achieved in laboratory tests and the high scientific and clinical potential of this system.

  20. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  1. Rare earth elements in core marine sediments of coastal East Malaysia by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Ahmadreza; Saion, Elias; Gharibshahi, Elham; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Kong, Yap Chee; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Elias, Md Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried out on the concentration of REEs (Dy, Sm, Eu,Yb, Lu, La and Ce) that are present in the core marine sediments of East Malaysia from three locations at South China Sea and one location each at Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea. The sediment samples were collected at a depth of between 49 and 109 m, dried, and crushed to powdery form. The entire core sediments prepared for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) were weighted approximately 0.0500 g to 0.1000 g for short irradiation and 0.1500 g to 0.2000 g for long irradiation. The samples were irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 4.0×10(12) cm(-2) s(-1) in a TRIGA Mark II research reactor operated at 750 kW. Blank samples and standard reference materials SL-1 were also irradiated for calibration and quality control purposes. It was found that the concentration of REEs varies in the range from 0.11 to 36.84 mg/kg. The chondrite-normalized REEs for different stations suggest that all the REEs are from similar origins. There was no significant REEs contamination as the enrichment factors normalized for Fe fall in the range of 0.42-2.82.

  2. Determination of trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis in Anatolian bentonitic clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güngör, N.; Tulun, T.; Alemdar, A.

    1998-08-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was carried out for the determination of trace elements in non-swelling type bentonitic clays. Samples were irradiated in Triga Mark II type of reactor at the Nuclear Institute of Technical University of Istanbul. Irradiation was performed in two steps for "short and long lived" isotopes. The γ spectra of short lived isotopes were interpreted with respect to Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Ti, Mn, V qualitatively and that of long lived isotopes with respect to Sc, Cr, Br, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Yb, Hf quantitatively. The relative richness of the trace elements (Al, Ti, Ca, Mg, Na, K) observed in the Sampo 90 program was obtained using Atomic Absorption technique by normalizing its value to that of sodium. The silicon content of samples was determined by gravimetry. The results indicated that Sample I contained relatively higher amount of REE, Sb, Ca and Na than Sample II. The amount of Sc, Cr and Br were about similar in both samples. Concentrations of La, Ce, Sm and Yb are higher than REE abundances found in all natural waters. These results suggest that Ca-bentonite samples are representative of primary deposition environment. In addition, the Sc content of both the samples indicates that Ca-bentonite deposits originated from continental crust. The relatively high amount of REE might bring about porosity problems in the use of Ca-bentonite in cement and concrete production.

  3. Robust best linear estimation for regression analysis using surrogate and instrumental variables

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate methods for regression analysis when covariates are measured with errors. In a subset of the whole cohort, a surrogate variable is available for the true unobserved exposure variable. The surrogate variable satisfies the classical measurement error model, but it may not have repeated measurements. In addition to the surrogate variables that are available among the subjects in the calibration sample, we assume that there is an instrumental variable (IV) that is available for all study subjects. An IV is correlated with the unobserved true exposure variable and hence can be useful in the estimation of the regression coefficients. We propose a robust best linear estimator that uses all the available data, which is the most efficient among a class of consistent estimators. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal under very weak distributional assumptions. For Poisson or linear regression, the proposed estimator is consistent even if the measurement error from the surrogate or IV is heteroscedastic. Finite-sample performance of the proposed estimator is examined and compared with other estimators via intensive simulation studies. The proposed method and other methods are applied to a bladder cancer case–control study. PMID:22285992

  4. Semi-automatic system for UV images analysis of historical musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondi, Piercarlo; Invernizzi, Claudia; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lombardi, Luca; Malagodi, Marco; Rovetta, Tommaso

    2015-06-01

    The selection of representative areas to be analyzed is a common problem in the study of Cultural Heritage items. UV fluorescence photography is an extensively used technique to highlight specific surface features which cannot be observed in visible light (e.g. restored parts or treated with different materials), and it proves to be very effective in the study of historical musical instruments. In this work we propose a new semi-automatic solution for selecting areas with the same perceived color (a simple clue of similar materials) on UV photos, using a specifically designed interactive tool. The proposed method works in two steps: (i) users select a small rectangular area of the image; (ii) program automatically highlights all the areas that have the same color of the selected input. The identification is made by the analysis of the image in HSV color model, the most similar to the human perception. The achievable result is more accurate than a manual selection, because it can detect also points that users do not recognize as similar due to perception illusion. The application has been developed following the rules of usability, and Human Computer Interface has been improved after a series of tests performed by expert and non-expert users. All the experiments were performed on UV imagery of the Stradivari violins collection stored by "Museo del Violino" in Cremona.

  5. Analysis of instrumental observations of the Jesenice meteorite fall on April 9, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurný, Pavel; Borovička, Jiří; Kac, Javor; Kalenda, Pavel; Atanackov, Jure; Kladnik, Gregor; Heinlein, Dieter; Grau, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    We report an analysis of instrumental observations of a very bright fireball which terminated with a meteorite fall near the town of Jesenice in Slovenia on April 9, 2009, at 0h59m46sUT. The fireball designated EN090409 was recorded photographically and photoelectrically by two southern stations of the Czech part of the European Fireball Network (EN). Simultaneously, a part of the luminous trajectory was also captured by two all-sky CCD systems and one video camera of the Slovenian meteor network. In addition to these optical recordings, the sonic booms produced by the Jesenice fireball were detected at 16 seismic stations located within 150km of the trajectory. From all these records, we reconstructed the fireball's atmospheric trajectory, basic geophysical data, the possible impact area, and the original heliocentric orbit of the meteoroid. Using a detailed fireball light curve, we modeled the atmospheric fragmentation of the meteoroid. Both the atmospheric behavior and the heliocentric orbit proved to be quite normal in comparison with other observed meteorite falls. The Jesenice orbit is markedly different from the Příbram and Neuschwanstein orbital meteorite pair, which fell on similar dates (April 7, 1959, and April 6, 2002, respectively). Three meteorites with a total weight of 3.6kg (until April 2010) were found in a high mountain area near the town of Jesenice. They are classified as L6 ordinary chondrites (Bischoff et al. 2010).

  6. Studies of generalized elemental imbalances in neurological disease patients using INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.; Vance, D.E.; Khare, S.S.; Kasarskis, E.J.; Markesbery, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence has been presented in the literature to implicate trace elements in the etiology of several age-related neurological diseases. Most of these studies are based on brain analyses. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), we have observed trace element imbalances in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Picks's disease. The most prevalent elemental imbalances found in the brain were for bromine, mercury, and the alkali metals. In this study the authors report INAA studies of trace elements in nonneural tissues from Alzheimer's disease and ALS patients. Samples from household relatives were collected for use as controls wherever possible. Hair samples were washed according to the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended procedure. Fingernail samples were scraped with a quartz knife prior to washing by the same procedure. For ALS patients, blood samples were also collected. These data indicate that elemental imbalances in Alzheimer's disease and ALS are not restricted to the brain. Many elements perturbed in the brain are also altered in the several nonneural tissues examined to date. The imbalances in different tissues, however, are not always in the same direction. The changes observed may represent causes, effects, or simply epiphenomena. Longitudinal studies of nonneural tissues and blood, as well as tissue microprobe analyses at the cellular and subcellular level, will be required in order to better assess the role of trace elements in the etiology of these diseases.

  7. Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2003-08-01

    Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510-1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional gama-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. PMID:12945682

  8. So These Numbers Really Mean Something? A Role Playing Scenario-Based Approach to the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grannas, Amanda M.; Lagalante, Anthony F.

    2010-01-01

    A new curricular approach in our undergraduate second-year instrumental analysis laboratory was implemented. Students work collaboratively on scenarios in diverse fields including pharmaceuticals, forensics, gemology, art conservation, and environmental chemistry. Each laboratory section (approximately 12 students) is divided into three groups…

  9. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  10. School Music and Society: A Content Analysis of the Midwestern Conference on School Vocal and Instrumental Music, 1946-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the session content presented in the first fifty years (1946-1996) of the (Michigan) state music education conference," The Midwestern Conference on School Vocal and Instrumental Music." The purpose of this study was to examine instructional techniques, technology, social/societal, and multicultural…

  11. NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Molly W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy for analysis of several edible fats and oils that are structurally similar but differ in physical properties and health implications. Five different fats and oils are analyzed for average chain length,…

  12. Design and Development of a Miniaturized Double Latching Solenoid Valve for the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James T.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the in-house Miniaturized Double Latching Solenoid Valve, or Microvalve, for the Gas Processing System (GPS) of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite is described. The Microvalve is a double latching solenoid valve that actuates a pintle shaft axially to hermetically seal an orifice. The key requirements and the design innovations implemented to meet them are described.

  13. Prediction Accuracy of the Washington and Illinois Risk Assessment Instruments: An Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha

    1995-01-01

    Compares the predictive performances of the Illinois CANTS 17B and the Washington State Risk Matrix on a sample of New Jersey child protective services cases using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Both instruments predict case recidivism, closings, and substantiation with probabilities greater than chance.…

  14. Assessment from Multiple Perspectives for Second Language Learners: An Analysis of the Hispanic Bilingual Gifted Screening Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly J.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Milke, Brenda

    This paper presents an analysis of the correlation between the Hispanic Bilingual Gifted Screening Instrument (HBGSI), a recently developed inclusionary gifted identification measure, and the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) when administered to Hispanic elementary school children (grades K-4) in a large urban school district in Texas. The…

  15. Crashworthiness analysis using advanced material models in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.W.; Burger, M.J.; McMichael, L.D.; Parkinson, R.D.

    1993-10-22

    As part of an electric vehicle consortium, LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum are conducting experimental and numerical studies on crashworthy aluminum spaceframe designs. They have jointly explored the effect of heat treat on crush behavior and duplicated the experimental behavior with finite-element simulations. The major technical contributions to the state of the art in numerical simulation arise from the development and use of advanced material model descriptions for LLNL`s DYNA3D code. Constitutive model enhancements in both flow and failure have been employed for conventional materials such as low-carbon steels, and also for lighter weight materials such as aluminum and fiber composites being considered for future vehicles. The constitutive model enhancements are developed as extensions from LLNL`s work in anisotropic flow and multiaxial failure modeling. Analysis quality as a function of level of simplification of material behavior and mesh is explored, as well as the penalty in computation cost that must be paid for using more complex models and meshes. The lightweight material modeling technology is being used at the vehicle component level to explore the safety implications of small neighborhood electric vehicles manufactured almost exclusively from these materials.

  16. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  17. Metabolomics analysis for biomarker discovery: advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, M S; Carvalho, M; Bastos, M L; Guedes de Pinho, P

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades there has been a change in biomedical research with the search for single genes, transcripts, proteins, or metabolites being substituted by the coverage of the entire genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome with the "omics" approaches. The emergence of metabolomics, defined as the comprehensive analysis of all metabolites in a system, is still recent compared to other "omics" fields, but its particular features and the improvement of both analytical techniques and pattern recognition methods has contributed greatly to its increasingly use. The feasibility of metabolomics for biomarker discovery is supported by the assumption that metabolites are important players in biological systems and that diseases cause disruption of biochemical pathways, which are not new concepts. In fact, metabolomics, meaning the parallel assessment of multiple metabolites, has been shown to have benefits in various clinical areas. Compared to classical diagnostic approaches and conventional clinical biomarkers, metabolomics offers potential advantages in sensitivity and specificity. Despite its potential, metabolomics still retains several intrinsic limitations which have a great impact on its widespread implementation - these limitations in biological and experimental measurements. This review will provide an insight to the characteristics, strengths, limitations, and recent advances in metabolomics, always keeping in mind its potential application in clinical/ health areas as a biomarker discovery tool. PMID:23210853

  18. Steady-State Analysis Model for Advanced Fuel Cycle Schemes.

    2008-03-17

    Version 00 SMAFS was developed as a part of the study, "Advanced Fuel Cycles and Waste Management", which was performed during 2003-2005 by an ad-hoc expert group under the Nuclear Development Committee in the OECD/NEA. The model was designed for an efficient conduct of nuclear fuel cycle scheme cost analyses. It is simple, transparent and offers users the capability to track down cost analysis results. All the fuel cycle schemes considered in the model aremore » represented in a graphic format and all values related to a fuel cycle step are shown in the graphic interface, i.e., there are no hidden values embedded in the calculations. All data on the fuel cycle schemes considered in the study including mass flows, waste generation, cost data, and other data such as activities, decay heat and neutron sources of spent fuel and high-level waste along time are included in the model and can be displayed. The user can easily modify values of mass flows and/or cost parameters and see corresponding changes in the results. The model calculates: front-end fuel cycle mass flows such as requirements of enrichment and conversion services and natural uranium; mass of waste based on the waste generation parameters and the mass flow; and all costs.« less

  19. Steady-state Analysis Model for Advanced Fuelcycle Schemes

    2006-05-12

    The model was developed as a part of the study, "Advanced Fuel Cycles and Waste Management", which was performed during 2003—2005 by an ad-hoc expert group under the Nuclear Development Committee in the OECD/NEA. The model was designed for an efficient conduct of nuclear fuel cycle scheme cost analyses. It is simple, transparent and offers users the capability to track down the cost analysis results. All the fuel cycle schemes considered in the model aremore » represented in a graphic format and all values related to a fuel cycle step are shown in the graphic interface, i.e., there are no hidden values embedded in the calculations. All data on the fuel cycle schemes considered in the study including mass flows, waste generation, cost data, and other data such as activities, decay heat and neutron sources of spent fuel and high—level waste along time are included in the model and can be displayed. The user can modify easily the values of mass flows and/or cost parameters and see the corresponding changes in the results. The model calculates: front—end fuel cycle mass flows such as requirements of enrichment and conversion services and natural uranium; mass of waste based on the waste generation parameters and the mass flow; and all costs. It performs Monte Carlo simulations with changing the values of all unit costs within their respective ranges (from lower to upper bounds).« less

  20. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Tests of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Test of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).