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Sample records for advanced instrumentation cfai

  1. The Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI): Hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Factorial Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the dimensionality and factorial invariance of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MCFAs). Method: A total of 3,649 students responded to the C-FAI in a community survey. Results: Results showed that there are five dimensions of the C-FAI (communication,…

  2. Advanced sensors and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Zimmerman, Joe E.; Douglas, Kevin R.; Morrison, Rusty

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating the readiness of Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation to meet the requirements of new initiatives in space. The following technical objectives and technologies are briefly discussed: smart and nonintrusive sensors; onboard signal and data processing; high capacity and rate adaptive data acquisition systems; onboard computing; high capacity and rate onboard storage; efficient onboard data distribution; high capacity telemetry; ground and flight test support instrumentation; power distribution; and workstations, video/lighting. The requirements for high fidelity data (accuracy, frequency, quantity, spatial resolution) in hostile environments will continue to push the technology developers and users to extend the performance of their products and to develop new generations.

  3. Advanced optical instruments technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-01-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  4. Instrumentation advances for transonic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, Percy J.

    1989-01-01

    New and improved instrumentation, like new and improved wind tunnels, provide capabilities which stimulate innovative research and discovery. During the past few years there have been a number of instrumentation developments which have aided and abetted the acquisition of more accurate aerodynamic data and have led to new physical insights as well. Some of these advances are reviewed, particularly in the area of thin film gages, hot wire anemometry, and laser instrumentation. A description is given of the instruments and/or techniques and some sample results are shown.

  5. Plans for Advanced LIGO Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    The proposed Advanced LIGO detector will have an increase in sensitivity over initial LIGO by a factor of ten, with an increased bandwidth in the region of highest sensitivity and the ability to tune for specific astrophysical sources. Advanced LIGO will achieve the equivalent of the one-year integrated observation time of initial LIGO in just several hours, allowing observation of astrophysical gravitational waves on a regular basis. The Advanced LIGO detector will replace the existing detector at the LIGO Observatories while retaining the existing building and vacuum system infrastructure. The new instruments build on the initial LIGO Fabry-Perot Michelson Interferometer layout and take advantage of significant advances in technology since the design of initial LIGO in the 1990's. Signal strength/sensitivity will be improved by increasing the laser power, lowering optical absorption, and adding signal recycling to the Fabry-Perot arm cavities. Stray forces on the test masses will be controlled by reducing thermal noise sources in the suspensions and optics and using a multi-staged seismic isolation system with inertial sensing and feedback control. The LIGO laboratory, the LIGO Science Collaboration, and international partners have undertaken a structured program of research and development, including testing of full-scale prototypes in context. Significant progress has been made on several of the detector subsystems. The Advanced LIGO project has been through National Science Foundation peer review and the National Science Board has recommended it for funding. Based on a proposed funding start in 2007, detector installation will begin in 2010, with observations at an advanced level of commissioning in 2013.

  6. Role of overexpressed CFA/I fimbriae in bacterial swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ling; Suo, Zhiyong; Lim, Timothy; Jun, SangMu; Deliorman, Muhammedin; Riccardi, Carol; Kellerman, Laura; Avci, Recep; Yang, Xinghong

    2012-06-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CFA/I is a protective antigen and has been overexpressed in bacterial vectors, such as Salmonella Typhimurium H683, to generate vaccines. Effects that overexpressed CFA/I may engender on the bacterial host remain largely unexplored. To investigate, we constructed a high CFA/I expression strain, H683-pC2, and compared it to a low CFA/I expression strain, H683-pC, and to a non-CFA/I expression strain, H683-pY. The results showed that H683-pC2 was less able to migrate into semisolid agar (0.35%) than either H683-pC or H683-pY. Bacteria that migrated showed motility halo sizes of H683-pC2 < H683-pC < H683-pY. In the liquid culture media, H683-pC2 cells precipitated to the bottom of the tube, while those of H683-pY did not. In situ imaging revealed that H683-pC2 bacilli tended to auto-agglutinate within the semisolid agar, while H683-pY bacilli did not. When the cfaBE fimbrial fiber encoding genes were deleted from pC2, the new plasmid, pC2(-), significantly recovered bacterial swimming capability. Our study highlights the negative impact of overexpressed CFA/I fimbriae on bacterial swimming motility.

  7. Role of overexpressed CFA/I fimbriae in bacterial swimming.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ling; Suo, Zhiyong; Lim, Timothy; Jun, Sangmu; Deliorman, Muhammedin; Riccardi, Carol; Kellerman, Laura; Avci, Recep; Yang, Xinghong

    2012-06-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CFA/I is a protective antigen and has been overexpressed in bacterial vectors, such as Salmonella Typhimurium H683, to generate vaccines. Effects that overexpressed CFA/I may engender on the bacterial host remain largely unexplored. To investigate, we constructed a high CFA/I expression strain, H683-pC2, and compared it to a low CFA/I expression strain, H683-pC, and to a non-CFA/I expression strain, H683-pY. The results showed that H683-pC2 was less able to migrate into semisolid agar (0.35%) than either H683-pC or H683-pY. Bacteria that migrated showed motility halo sizes of H683-pC2 < H683-pC < H683-pY. In the liquid culture media, H683-pC2 cells precipitated to the bottom of the tube, while those of H683-pY did not. In situ imaging revealed that H683-pC2 bacilli tended to auto-agglutinate within the semisolid agar, while H683-pY bacilli did not. When the cfaBE fimbrial fiber encoding genes were deleted from pC2, the new plasmid, pC2(-), significantly recovered bacterial swimming capability. Our study highlights the negative impact of overexpressed CFA/I fimbriae on bacterial swimming motility. PMID:22562964

  8. Technician Program Uses Advanced Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    Describes various aspects of a newly-developed computer-assisted drafting/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) facility in the chemical engineering technology department at Broome Community College, Binghamton, New York. Stresses the use of new instruments such as microcomputers and microprocessor-equipped instruments. (CS)

  9. Advanced Light Source instrumentation overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.H.; Hinkson, J.

    1992-10-01

    The accelerator instrumentation played a vital role in commissioning the ALS injector accelerator. It helped us to see whether electron dynamics agreed with our theoretical predictions and important beam parameters met the design specifications. It helped us to see where beam losses occurred and why. In this paper we will start with a brief description of the ALS accelerator complex and the expected performance of it. Then we will describe each diagnostics instrument by its construction, operational principle, requirements, and our experiences with it. We will describe the wall current monitor, the scintillator, the Faraday cup, the beam collimator, the beam position monitor, the direct-current current transformer (DCCT), the traveling wave electrodes the Sabersky finger, and other special instruments. Finally, we will go into some detail on how we measured the beam emittances, the closed orbit, and the betatron tunes.

  10. Laser light scattering instrument advanced technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this advanced technology development (ATD) project has been to provide sturdy, miniaturized laser light scattering (LLS) instrumentation for use in microgravity experiments. To do this, we assessed user requirements, explored the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware, and both coordinated and participated in the hardware and software advances needed for a flight hardware instrument. We have successfully breadboarded and evaluated an engineering version of a single-angle glove-box instrument which uses solid state detectors and lasers, along with fiber optics, for beam delivery and detection. Additionally, we have provided the specifications and written verification procedures necessary for procuring a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument which will be used by the flight hardware project which resulted from this work and from this project's interaction with the laser light scattering community.

  11. Advanced Instrumentation for Extreme Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Melin, Alexander M; Kisner, Roger; Fugate, David L

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is pursuing embedded instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology for next generation nuclear power generation applications. Embedded systems encompass a wide range of configurations and technologies; we define embedding in this instance as the integration of the sensors and the control system design into the component design using a systems engineering process. Embedded I&C systems are often an essential part of developing new capabilities, improving reliability, enhancing performance, and reducing operational costs. The new intrinsically safe, more efficient, and cost effective reactor technologies (Next Generation Nuclear Plant and Small Modular Reactors) require the development and application of new I&C technologies. These new designs raise extreme environmental challenges such as high temperatures (over 700 C) and material compatibility (e.g., molten salts). The desired reliability and functionality requires measurements in these extreme conditions including high radiation environments which were not previously monitored in real time. The DOE/NE Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program currently has several projects investigating I&C technologies necessary to make these reactor designs realizable. The project described in this paper has the specific goal of investigating embedded I&C with the following objectives: 1.Explore and quantify the potential gains from embedded I&C improved reliability, increased performance, and reduced cost 2.Identify practical control, sensing, and measurement techniques for the extreme environments found in high-temperature reactors 3.Design and fabricate a functional prototype high-temperature cooling pump for molten salts represents target demonstration of improved performance, reliability, and widespread usage There are many engineering challenges in the design of a high-temperature liquid salt cooling pump. The pump and motor are in direct contact with

  12. Measuring Foster Parent Potential: Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Worker Version (CFAI-W)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddeback, Gary S.; Buehler, Cheryl; Orme, John G.; Le Prohn, Nicole S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Worker Version (CFAI-W), a questionnaire designed to assess the potential of foster family care applicants to provide foster care. Method: Retrospective data were collected from 208 foster care workers who completed two copies of the CFAI-W, one…

  13. Advanced instrumentation concepts for environmental control subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; Schubert, F. H.; Gyorki, J. R.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Design, evaluation and demonstration of advanced instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft environmental control and life support systems were successfully completed. Concepts to aid maintenance following fault detection and isolation were defined. A computer-guided fault correction instruction program was developed and demonstrated in a packaged unit which also contains the operator/system interface.

  14. Instrumentation to Enhance Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; J. E. Daw; S. C. Taylor

    2009-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors has been completed. Based on this review, recommendations are made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR and a strategy has been developed for obtaining these sensors. Progress toward implementing this strategy is reported in this document. It is anticipated that this report will be updated on an annual basis.

  15. Structure of CFA/I fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong-Fu; Poole, Steven; Nishio, Kazuya; Jang, Ken; Rasulova, Fatima; McVeigh, Annette; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di; Bullitt, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Adhesion pili (fimbriae) play a critical role in initiating the events that lead to intestinal colonization and diarrheal disease by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), an E. coli pathotype that inflicts an enormous global disease burden. We elucidate atomic structures of an ETEC major pilin subunit, CfaB, from colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae. These data are used to construct models for 2 morphological forms of CFA/I fimbriae that are both observed in vivo: the helical filament into which it is typically assembled, and an extended, unwound conformation. Modeling and corroborative mutational data indicate that proline isomerization is involved in the conversion between these helical and extended forms. Our findings affirm the strong structural similarities seen between class 5 fimbriae (from bacteria primarily causing gastrointestinal disease) and class 1 pili (from bacteria that cause urinary, respiratory, and other infections) in the absence of significant primary sequence similarity. They also suggest that morphological and biochemical differences between fimbrial types, regardless of class, provide structural specialization that facilitates survival of each bacterial pathotype in its preferred host microenvironment. Last, we present structural evidence for bacterial use of antigenic variation to evade host immune responses, in that residues occupying the predicted surface-exposed face of CfaB and related class 5 pilins show much higher genetic sequence variability than the remainder of the pilin protein. PMID:19515814

  16. Structure of CFA/I fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong-Fu; Poole, Steven; Nishio, Kazuya; Jang, Ken; Rasulova, Fatima; McVeigh, Annette; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di; Bullitt, Esther

    2009-10-21

    Adhesion pili (fimbriae) play a critical role in initiating the events that lead to intestinal colonization and diarrheal disease by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), an E. coli pathotype that inflicts an enormous global disease burden. We elucidate atomic structures of an ETEC major pilin subunit, CfaB, from colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae. These data are used to construct models for 2 morphological forms of CFA/I fimbriae that are both observed in vivo: the helical filament into which it is typically assembled, and an extended, unwound conformation. Modeling and corroborative mutational data indicate that proline isomerization is involved in the conversion between these helical and extended forms. Our findings affirm the strong structural similarities seen between class 5 fimbriae (from bacteria primarily causing gastrointestinal disease) and class 1 pili (from bacteria that cause urinary, respiratory, and other infections) in the absence of significant primary sequence similarity. They also suggest that morphological and biochemical differences between fimbrial types, regardless of class, provide structural specialization that facilitates survival of each bacterial pathotype in its preferred host microenvironment. Last, we present structural evidence for bacterial use of antigenic variation to evade host immune responses, in that residues occupying the predicted surface-exposed face of CfaB and related class 5 pilins show much higher genetic sequence variability than the remainder of the pilin protein.

  17. Workshop on advanced technologies for planetary instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, J. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's robotic solar system exploration program requires a new generation of science instruments. Design concepts are now judged against stringent mass, power, and size constraints--yet future instruments must be highly capable, reliable, and, in some applications, they must operate for many years. The most important single constraint, however, is cost: new instruments must be developed in a tightly controlled design-to-cost environment. Technical innovation is the key to success and will enable the sophisticated measurements needed for future scientific exploration. As a fundamental benefit, the incorporation of breakthrough technologies in planetary flight hardware will contribute to U.S. industrial competitiveness and will strengthen the U.S. technology base. The Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments was conceived to address these challenges, to provide an open forum in which the NASA and DoD space communities could become better acquainted at the working level, and to assess future collaborative efforts. Over 300 space scientists and engineers participated in the two-and-a-half-day meeting held April 28-30, 1993, in Fairfax, Virginia. It was jointly sponsored by NASA's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), within the Office of Space Science (OSS); NASA's Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT); DoD's Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), now called the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO); and the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI). The meeting included invited oral and contributed poster presentations, working group sessions in four sub-disciplines, and a wrap-up panel discussion. On the first day, the planetary science community described instrumentation needed for missions that may go into development during the next 5 to 10 years. Most of the second day was set aside for the DoD community to inform their counterparts in planetary science about their interests and capabilities, and to describe the

  18. Advances in handheld FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Cardillo, Len; Judge, Kevin; Frayer, Maxim; Frunzi, Michael; Hetherington, Paul; Levy, Dustin; Oberndorfer, Kyle; Perec, Walter; Sauer, Terry; Stein, John; Zuidema, Eric

    2012-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenges of ConOps (Concepts of Operation) in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the advances resulting from a project designed to overcome the challenges associated with miniaturizing FT-IR instruments. The project team developed a disturbance-corrected permanently aligned cube corner interferometer for improved robustness and optimized opto-mechanical design to maximize optical throughput and signal-to-noise ratios. Thermal management and heat flow were thoroughly modeled and studied to isolate sensitive components from heat sources and provide the widest temperature operation range. Similarly, extensive research on mechanical designs and compensation techniques to protect against shock and vibration will be discussed. A user interface was carefully created for military and emergency response applications to provide actionable information in a visual, intuitive format. Similar to the HazMatID family of products, state-of-the-art algorithms were used to quickly identify the chemical composition of complex samples based on the spectral information. This article includes an overview of the design considerations, tests results, and performance validation of the mechanical ruggedness, spectral, and thermal performance.

  19. Advance on solar instrumentation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The solar observing facilities in China are introduced with the emphasis on the development in recent years and future plans for both ground and space-based solar instrumentations. The recent solar instruments are as follows: A new generation Chinese Spectral Radioreliograph (CSRH) has been constructed at Mingantu Observing Station in Zhengxiangbaiqi, inner Mongolia of China since 2013 and is in test observations now. CSRH has two arrays with 40 × 4.5 m and 60 × 2 m parabolic antennas covering 0.4-2 GHz and 2-15 GHz frequency range. CSRH is renamed as MUSER (Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radiheliograph) after its accomplishment. A new 1 m vacuum solar telescope (NVST) has been installed in 2010 at Fuxian lake, 60 km away from Kunming, Yunana. At present it is the best seeing place in China. A new telescope called ONSET (Optical and NIR Solar Eruption Tracer) has been established at the same site as NVST in 2011. ONSET has been put into operation since 2013. For future ground-based plans, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) with spatial resolution equivalent to 8m and effective area of 5m full-aperture telescope has been proposed and was formally listed into the National Plans of Major Science & Technology Infrastructures in China. The pre-study and site survey for CGST have been pursued. A 1-meter mid-infrared telescope for precise measurement of the solar magnetic field has been funded by NSFC in 2014 as a national major scientific instrument development project. This project will develop the first mid-infrared solar magnetic observation instrument in the world aiming at increasing the precision of the transverse magnetic field measurement by one order of magnitude. For future ground-based plans, we promote the Deep-space Solar Observatory (DSO) with 1-m aperture telescope to be formally funded. The ASO-S (an Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory) has been supported in background phase by Space Science Program as a small mission. Other related space solar

  20. The Three-Dimensional Structure of CFA/I Adhesion Pili

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xiang-Qi; Savarino, Stephen J.; Bullitt, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Summary To survive the harsh environment of a churning intestinal tract, bacteria attach to the host epithelium via thin fibers called pili (or fimbriae). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli expressing CFA/I pili and related pili are the most common known bacterial cause of diarrheal disease, including traveler’s diarrhea. CFA/I pili, assembled via the alternate chaperone pathway, are essential for binding and colonization of the small bowel by these pathogenic bacteria. We elucidate unique structural features of CFA/I pili that appear to optimize their function as bacterial tethers in the intestinal tract. Using transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained sample in combination with iterative three-dimensional helical reconstruction methods for image processing, we have determined the structure of the CFA/I pilus filament. Our results indicate that strong end-to-end protein interactions and weak interactions between the coils of a sturdy spring-like helix provide the combination of strength, stability, and flexibility required to sustain bacterial adhesion and incite intestinal disease. We propose that CFA/I pili behave like a spring to survive the harsh environment of a churning intestinal tract, thereby persisting long enough for these bacteria to colonize the host epithelium and cause enteric disease. PMID:18166195

  1. Latest Advancement In Airborne Relative Gravity Instrumentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne gravity surveying has been performed with widely varying degrees of success since early experimentation with the Lacoste and Romberg dynamic meter in the 1950s. There are a number of different survey systems currently in operation including relative gravity meters and gradiometers. Airborne gravity is ideally suited to rapid, wide coverage surveying and is not significantly more expensive in more remote and inhospitable terrain which makes airborne measurements one of the few viable options available for cost effective exploration. As improved instrumentation has become available, scientific applications have also been able to take advantage for use in determining sub surface geologic structures, for example under ice sheets in Antarctica, and more recently direct measurement of the geoid to improve the vertical datum in the United States. In 2004, Lacoste and Romberg (now Micro-g Lacoste) decided to build on their success with the newly developed AirSea II dynamic meter and use that system as the basis for a dedicated airborne gravity instrument. Advances in electronics, timing and positioning technology created the opportunity to refine both the hardware and software, and to develop a truly turnkey system that would work well for users with little or no airborne gravity experience as well as those with more extensive experience. The resulting Turnkey Airborne Gravity System (TAGS) was successfully introduced in 2007 and has since been flown in applications from oil, gas and mineral exploration surveys to regional gravity mapping and geoid mapping. The system has been mounted in a variety of airborne platforms including depending on the application of interest. The development experience with the TAGS enabled Micro-g Lacoste to embark on a new project in 2010 to completely redesign the mechanical and electronic components of the system rather than continuing incremental upgrades. Building on the capabilities of the original TAGS, the objectives for the

  2. A structural basis for sustained bacterial adhesion: biomechanical properties of CFA/I pili.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Magnus; Björnham, Oscar; Svantesson, Mats; Badahdah, Arwa; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Bullitt, Esther

    2012-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. Adhesion pili (or fimbriae), such as the CFA/I (colonization factor antigen I) organelles that enable ETEC to attach efficiently to the host intestinal tract epithelium, are critical virulence factors for initiation of infection. We characterized the intrinsic biomechanical properties and kinetics of individual CFA/I pili at the single-organelle level, demonstrating that weak external forces (7.5 pN) are sufficient to unwind the intact helical filament of this prototypical ETEC pilus and that it quickly regains its original structure when the force is removed. While the general relationship between exertion of force and an increase in the filament length for CFA/I pili associated with diarrheal disease is analogous to that of P pili and type 1 pili, associated with urinary tract and other infections, the biomechanical properties of these different pili differ in key quantitative details. Unique features of CFA/I pili, including the significantly lower force required for unwinding, the higher extension speed at which the pili enter a dynamic range of unwinding, and the appearance of sudden force drops during unwinding, can be attributed to morphological features of CFA/I pili including weak layer-to-layer interactions between subunits on adjacent turns of the helix and the approximately horizontal orientation of pilin subunits with respect to the filament axis. Our results indicate that ETEC CFA/I pili are flexible organelles optimized to withstand harsh motion without breaking, resulting in continued attachment to the intestinal epithelium by the pathogenic bacteria that express these pili. PMID:22178477

  3. Advances in Miniaturized Instruments for Genomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of demonstrations of the miniaturized instruments were reported for genomic applications. They provided the advantages of miniaturization, automation, sensitivity, and specificity for the development of point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to report on recent developments on miniaturized instruments for genomic applications. Based on the mature development of microfabrication, microfluidic systems have been demonstrated for various genomic detections. Since one of the objectives of miniaturized instruments is for the development of point-of-care device, impedimetric detection is found to be a promising technique for this purpose. An in-depth discussion of the impedimetric circuits and systems will be included to provide total consideration of the miniaturized instruments and their potential application towards real-time portable imaging in the “-omics” era. The current excellent demonstrations suggest a solid foundation for the development of practical and widespread point-of-care genomic diagnostic devices. PMID:25114919

  4. Advances in instrumentation for nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, S. D.

    2014-04-15

    The study of the nuclear physics properties which govern energy generation and nucleosynthesis in the astrophysical phenomena we observe in the universe is crucial to understanding how these objects behave and how the chemical history of the universe evolved to its present state. The low cross sections and short nuclear lifetimes involved in many of these reactions make their experimental determination challenging, requiring developments in beams and instrumentation. A selection of developments in nuclear astrophysics instrumentation is discussed, using as examples projects involving the nuclear astrophysics group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These developments will be key to the instrumentation necessary to fully exploit nuclear astrophysics opportunities at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams which is currently under construction.

  5. New Instrumental Tools for Advanced Astrochemical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steber, Amanda; Zinn, Sabrina; Schnell, Melanie; Rijs, Anouk

    2015-06-01

    Astrochemistry has been a growing field over the past several years. As the data from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) becomes publicly available, new and fast techniques for the analysis of the data will need to be developed, as well as fast, sensitive laboratory techniques. This lab is in the process of building up instrumentation that will be dedicated to the measurement of astrochemically relevant species, both in the microwave and the millimeter wave regimes. Discharge experiments, laser ablation experiments, as well as time of flight measurements will be possible with this instrumentation. Coupled with instrumentation capabilities will be new software aimed at a speeding up the analysis. The laboratory data will be used to search for new molecular signatures in the interstellar medium (ISM), and help to elucidate molecular reaction pathways occurring in the ISM.

  6. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  7. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  8. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Advanced instrumentation for aircraft icing research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, W.; Smith, J.; Rudoff, R.

    1990-01-01

    A compact and rugged probe based on the phase Doppler method was evaluated as a means for characterizing icing clouds using airborne platforms and for advancing aircraft icing research in large scale wind tunnels. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) upon which the new probe was based is now widely recognized as an accurate method for the complete characterization of sprays. The prototype fiber optic-based probe was evaluated in simulated aircraft icing clouds and found to have the qualities essential to providing information that will advance aircraft icing research. Measurement comparisons of the size and velocity distributions made with the standard PDPA and the fiber optic probe were in excellent agreement as were the measurements of number density and liquid water content. Preliminary testing in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) produced reasonable results but revealed some problems with vibration and signal quality at high speeds. The cause of these problems were identified and design changes were proposed to eliminate the shortcomings of the probe.

  10. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (aeosis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R.; Grant, F.; Malchow, H.; Walker, B.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of measurements were studied for estimating the orbit and/or attitude of an Earth Observation Satellite. An investigation was made into the use of known ground targets in the earth sensor imagery, in combination with onboard star sightings and/or range and range rate measurements by ground tracking stations or tracking satellites (TDRSS), to estimate satellite attitude, orbital ephemeris, and gyro bias drift. Generalized measurement equations were derived for star measurements with a particular type of star tracker, and for landmark measurements with a multispectral scanner being proposed for an advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The use of infra-red horizon measurements to estimate the attitude and gyro bias drift of a geosynchronous satellite was explored.

  11. Advanced packaging for Integrated Micro-Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyke, James L.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between packaging, microelectronics, and micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) is an important one, particularly when the edges of performance boundaries are pressed, as in the case of miniaturized systems. Packaging is a sort of physical backbone that enables the maximum performance of these systems to be realized, and the penalties imposed by conventional packing approaches is particularly limiting for MEMS devices. As such, advanced packaging approaches, such as multi-chip modules (MCM's) have been touted as a true means of electronic 'enablement' for a variety of application domains. Realizing an optimum system of packaging, however, in not as simple as replacing a set of single chip packages with a substrate of interconnections. Research at Phillips Laboratory has turned up a number of integrating options in the two- and three-dimensional rending of miniature systems with physical interconnection structures with intrinsically high performance. Not only do these structures motivate the redesign of integrated circuits (IC's) for lower power, but they possess interesting features that provide a framework for the direct integration of MEMS devices. Cost remains a barrier to the application of MEMS devices, even in space systems. Several innovations are suggested that will result in lower cost and more rapid cycle time. First, the novelty of a 'constant floor plan' MCM which encapsulates a variety of commonly used components into a stockable, easily customized assembly is discussed. Next, the use of low-cost substrates is examined. The anticipated advent of ultra-high density interconnect (UHDI) is suggested as the limit argument of advanced packaging. Finally, the concept of a heterogeneous 3-D MCM system is outlined that allows for the combination of different compatible packaging approaches into a uniformly dense structure that could also include MEMS-based sensors.

  12. Foreword: planning for the future through advance directive instruments.

    PubMed

    Winick, B J

    1998-09-01

    The Foreword traces the development of advance directive instruments and discusses their legal enforceability and many benefits. Despite their advantages, advance directives remain underused and are frequently ignored by service providers. The contributors to this special issue discuss why this is so and offer and debate a variety of remedial proposals. They analyze the various legal, clinical, ethical, and practical issues presented by the use of advance directives for health and mental health care and examine new directions in their application. The Foreword describes the organization of this special issue, summarizes the articles it contains, and comments on their significance. PMID:12803208

  13. Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science at the LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Berrah, Nora

    2015-10-13

    This grant supported a Single Investigator and Small Group Research (SISGR) application to enable multi-user research in Ultrafast Science using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s first hard x-ray free electron laser (FEL) which lased for the first time at 1.5 Å on April 20, 2009. The goal of our proposal was to enable a New Era of Science by requesting funds to purchase and build Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science (AIUS), to utilize the intense, short x-ray pulses produced by the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will allow peer review selected users to probe the ultrasmall and capture the ultrafast. These tools will expand on the investment already made in the construction of the light source and its instrumentation in both the LCLS and LUSI projects. The AIUS will provide researchers in the AMO, Chemical, Biological and Condensed Matter communities with greater flexibility in defining their scientific agenda at the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will complement and significantly augment the present AMO instrument (funded through the LCLS project) through detectors and capabilities not included in the initial suite of instrumentation at the facility. We have built all of the instrumentations and they have been utilized by scientists. Please see report attached.

  14. Instrumentation Guidelines for the Advanced National Seismic System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Working Group on Instrumentation, Siting, Installation, and Site Metadata of the Advanced National Seismic System Technical Integration Committee

    2008-01-01

    This document provides guidelines for the seismic-monitoring instrumentation used by long-term earthquake-monitoring stations that will sense ground motion, digitize and store the resulting signals in a local data acquisition unit, and optionally transmit these digital data. These guidelines are derived from specifications and requirements for data needed to address the nation's emergency response, engineering, and scientific needs as identified in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1188 (1999). Data needs are discussed in terms of national, regional, and urban scales of monitoring in section 3. Functional performance specifications for instrumentation are introduced in section 4.3 and discussed in detail in section 6 in terms of instrument classes and definitions described in section 5. System aspects and testing recommendations are discussed in sections 7 and 8, respectively. Although U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1188 (1999) recommends that the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) include portable instrumentation, performance specifications for this element are not specifically addressed in this document. Nevertheless, these guidelines are largely applicable to portable instrumentation. Volcano monitoring instrumentation is also beyond the scope of this document. Guidance for ANSS structural-response monitoring is discussed briefly herein but details are deferred to the ANSS document by the ANSS Structural Response Monitoring Committee (U.S. Geological Survey, 2005). Aspects of station planning, siting, and installation other than instrumentation are beyond the scope of this document.

  15. Impact of new instrumentation on advanced turbine research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of an orderly test program that progresses from the simplest stationary geometry to the more complex, three dimensional, rotating turbine stage. The instrumentation requirements for this evolution of testing are described. The heat transfer instrumentation is emphasized. Recent progress made in devising new measurement techniques has greatly improved the development and confirmation of more accurate analytical methods for the prediction of turbine performance and heat transfer. However, there remain challenging requirements for novel measurement techniques that could advance the future research to be done in rotating blade rows of turbomachines.

  16. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  17. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: 1. Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; 2. Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; 3. Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; 4. Identify synergies across different industries; 5. Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; 6. Understand who are the leading experts; 7. Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  18. Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, John F. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This meeting was conceived in response to new challenges facing NASA's robotic solar system exploration program. This volume contains papers presented at the Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments on 28-30 Apr. 1993. This meeting was conceived in response to new challenges facing NASA's robotic solar system exploration program. Over the past several years, SDIO has sponsored a significant technology development program aimed, in part, at the production of instruments with these characteristics. This workshop provided an opportunity for specialists from the planetary science and DoD communities to establish contacts, to explore common technical ground in an open forum, and more specifically, to discuss the applicability of SDIO's technology base to planetary science instruments.

  19. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon experiment: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, T. Gregory; Adams, James H.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Dudnik, Alexey V.; Ellison, Steven B.; Fazely, Ali R.; Garcia, L.; Grigorov, Naum L.; Inderhees, Susan E.; Isbert, Joachim; Jung, H. C.; Khein, L.; Kim, Sun-Kee; Kroeger, Richard A.; Lockwood, R.; McDonald, Frank B.; Panasyuk, Mikhail I.; Park, Choong-Soo; Price, B.; Schmidt, Wolfgang K.; Dion-Schwartz, C.; Senchishin, V. G.; Seo, Eun-Suk; Wefel, John P.; Wang, J. Z.; Zatsepin, Viktor I.; Zinn, S. Y.

    1996-10-01

    A new balloon instrument, the advanced thin ionization calorimeter (ATIC), is currently under development by an international collaboration involving researchers in the U.S., Germany, Korea, Russia and the Ukraine. The instrument will be used, in a series of long duration balloon flights, to investigate the charge composition and energy spectra of primary cosmic rays over the energy range from about 1010 to 1014 eV. The ATIC instrument is designed around a new technology, fully active Bismuth Germanate (BGO) ionization calorimeter that is used to measure the energy deposited by the cascades formed by particles interacting in an approximately 1 proton interaction length thick carbon target. The charge module comprises a highly segmented, triply redundant set of detectors (scintillator, silicon matrix and Cherenkov) that together give good incident charge resolution plus rejection of the 'backscattered' particles from the interaction. Trajectory information is obtained both from scintillator layers and from the cascade profile throughout the BGO calorimeter. This instrument is specifically designed to take advantage of the existing NASA long duration balloon flight capability in Antarctica and/or the Northern Hemisphere. The ATIC instrumentation is presented here, while a companion paper at this conference discusses the expected performance.

  20. Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) science instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dailey, C. C.; Cumings, N. P.; Winkler, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    AXAF is to be equipped with a high performance X-ray telescope for the conduction of detailed astrophysics research. The observatory is to be serviced by the Space Station or the Shuttle, depending on capabilities during the AXAF operational period. The AXAF is to utilize the wavelength band from 1.2 A to 120 A. Attention is given to the AXAF science team, the AXAF observatory characteristics, the AXAF science instrument definition program, the Advanced Charge Coupled Device (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), the High Resolution Camera (HRC), the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS), the X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), the transmission gratings, and the program schedule.

  1. Recent advances in cardiac SPECT instrumentation and system design.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark F

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in clinical cardiac SPECT instrumentation are reviewed from a systems perspective. New hardware technologies include pixelated scintillator and semiconductor detector elements; photodetectors such as position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), avalanche photodiodes (APD) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM); and novel cardiac collimation methods. There are new approaches for positioning detectors and controlling their motion during cardiac imaging. Software technology advances include iterative image reconstruction with modeling of Poisson statistics and depth-dependent collimator response. These new technologies enable faster acquisitions, the lowering of administered activity and radiation dose, and improved image resolution. Higher sensitivity collimators are a significant factor enabling faster acquisitions. Several clinical systems incorporating new technologies are discussed and different system designs can achieve similar performance. With detector elements such as APDs, SiPMs and semiconductors that are insensitive to magnetic fields, the potential for cardiac SPECT imagers that are MRI compatible opens up new frontiers in clinical cardiac research and patient care. PMID:23832650

  2. Advanced reactor instrumentation and control reliability and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Gunther, W.; Valente, J.; Azarm, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced nuclear power reactors will used different approaches to achieving a higher level of safety than the first generation. One approach used the technological developments in computation and electronics in the form of digital instrumentation and control (I C) to enhance the reliability, and accuracy of information for plant control, responding to the information, and controlling the plant and its systems under normal and upset environments in various states of degradation. Evaluating the reliability and safety of advanced I C systems requires determining the reliability of the I C used in the advanced reactors which involves distributed processing, data pile-up, interactive systems, the man-machine interface, various forms of automatic control, and systems interactions. From these analyses will come an understanding of the potential of the new I C, and protection from its vulnerabilities to enhance the safe operation of the new plants. Technological, safety, reliability, and regulatory issues associated with advanced I C for the new reactors are discussed herein. The issues are presented followed by suggested approaches to their resolution.

  3. Advanced reactor instrumentation and control reliability and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Gunther, W.; Valente, J.; Azarm, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    Advanced nuclear power reactors will used different approaches to achieving a higher level of safety than the first generation. One approach used the technological developments in computation and electronics in the form of digital instrumentation and control (I&C) to enhance the reliability, and accuracy of information for plant control, responding to the information, and controlling the plant and its systems under normal and upset environments in various states of degradation. Evaluating the reliability and safety of advanced I&C systems requires determining the reliability of the I&C used in the advanced reactors which involves distributed processing, data pile-up, interactive systems, the man-machine interface, various forms of automatic control, and systems interactions. From these analyses will come an understanding of the potential of the new I&C, and protection from its vulnerabilities to enhance the safe operation of the new plants. Technological, safety, reliability, and regulatory issues associated with advanced I&C for the new reactors are discussed herein. The issues are presented followed by suggested approaches to their resolution.

  4. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robin L; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-07-15

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing. PMID:27046341

  5. Small electromagnetically clean satellite platform and advanced space instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Makarov, Oleksander; Belyayev, Serhiy; Lukenyuk, Adolf; Marusenkov, Andriy

    The Ukrainian space program in the branch of space scientific research is based on recent achievements in the development of small microsatellite platforms and advanced onboard instrumentation. The present state of both these activities is outlined in the report. First, the design and composition peculiarities of a new microsatellite platform dedicated to carry the high sensitive electromagnetic sensors and mass-spectrometers are presented. An open nonhermetic construction gives possibilities to divide efficiently service and scientific payload. This feature as well as special measures foreseen by the solar panels and cable harness layout allows electromagnetic interference decreasing and easy introducing of shielding and compensating facilities. Up to 4 booms deployment is foreseen by the platform construction to move away far enough the electromagnetic sensors from the satellite body allow realizing the ultimate sensors sensitivity up to highest international standards. An onboard data collection and processing unit is organized in such a way that it controls efficiently both service and scientific systems. Second, some recent advances are reported in the branch of onboard electromagnetic instrumentation creation. New combined sensor - wave probe - is developed and experimentally tested in laboratory plasma chamber and in spatial experiment. This is a unique device which permits measuring simultaneously in one point three physical values - spatial current density, magnetic field fluctuations and electric potential. Other recent versions of super-light flux-gate and induction coil sensors are described. The performances of both microsatellite platform and mentioned electromagnetic sensors are discussed and the results of experimental verification of their parameters are presented. This works were supported by NSAU contract No 1-02/03 and STCU grant 3165.

  6. Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Joy Rempe; Darrell Knudson; Joshua Daw; Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Kurt Davis; Robert Schley; Steven Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper provides an update on this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted.

  7. Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rempe; D. Knudson; J. Daw; T. Unruh; B. Chase; K. Condie

    2011-06-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper reports results from this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted.

  8. Advances in infrared and imaging fibres for astronomical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Roger; McNamara, Pam; Marcel, Jackie; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2006-06-01

    Optical fibres have already played a huge part in ground based astronomical instrumentation, however, with the revolution in photonics currently taking place new fibre technologies and integrated optical devices are likely to have a profound impact on the way we manipulate light in the future. The Anglo Australian Observatory, along with partners at the Optical Fibre Technology Centre of the University of Sydney, is investigating some of the developing technologies as part of our Astrophotonics programme2. In this paper we discuss the advances that have been made with infrared transmitting fibre, both conventional and microstructured, in particular those based on fluoride glasses. Fluoride glasses have a particularly wide transparent region from the UV through to around 7μm, whereas silica fibres, commonly used in astronomy, only transmit out to about 2μm. We discuss the impact of advances in fibre manufacture that have greatly improved the optical, chemical resistance and physical properties of the fluoride fibres. We also present some encouraging initial test results for a modern imaging fibre bundle and imaging fibre taper.

  9. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; E. H. Seabury; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; S. M. Watson; J. Wharton

    2009-08-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. 1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. 2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. 3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1 – 4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to be

  10. Workshop on Advances in NASA-Relevant, Minimally Invasive Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this meeting is to highlight those advances in instrumentation and methodology that can be applied to the medical problems that will be encountered as the duration of manned space missions is extended. Information on work that is presently being done by NASA as well as other approaches in which NASA is not participating will be exchanged. The NASA-sponsored efforts that will be discussed are part of the overall Space Medicine Program that has been undertaken by NASA to address the medical problems of manned spaceflight. These problems include those that have been observed in the past as well as those which are anticipated as missions become longer, traverse different orbits, or are in any way different. This conference is arranged in order to address the types of instrumentation that might be used in several major medical problem areas. Instrumentation that will help in the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and psychological areas, among others will be presented. Interest lies in identifying instrumentation which will help in learning more about ourselves through experiments performed directly on humans. Great emphasis is placed on non-invasive approaches, although every substantial program basic to animal research will be needed in the foreseeable future. Space Medicine is a rather small affair in what is primarily an engineering organization. Space Medicine is conducted throughout NASA by a very small skeleton staff at the headquarters office in Washington and by our various field centers. These centers include the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, the Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, and the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Throughout these various centers, work is conducted in-house by NASA's own staff scientists, physicians, and engineers. In addition, various universities, industries, and other government laboratories

  11. Nimbus-F to carry advanced weather instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Meteorological research instruments launched aboard NASA's Nimbus-F spacecraft are briefly described along with the Nimbus satellite program initiated to develop an observatory system capable of meeting the research and development needs of the nation's atmospheric and earth sciences program. The following aspects of the mission are described: spacecraft design, launch operations, sequence of orbital events, and operations control and tracking. The Global Atmospheric Research program is discussed in terms of the Nimbus-F experiments and atmospheric sounding instruments.

  12. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  13. A Modular and Configurable Instrument Electronics Architecture for "MiniSAR"- An Advanced Smallsat SAR Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jaime; Pastena, Max; Bierens, Laurens

    2013-08-01

    MiniSAR is a Dutch program focused on the development of a commercial smallsat featuring a SAR instrument, led by SSBV as prime contractor. In this paper an Instrument Electronics (IEL) system concept to meet the MiniSAR demands is presented. This system has several specificities wrt similar initiatives in the European space industry, driven by our main requirement: keep it small.

  14. Advance directives as an instrument in an ageing Europe.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Tom

    2012-04-01

    Advance directives are written or oral statements that are intended to govern healthcare decision-making for their authors, for both positive and negative decisions, should they lose decisional capacity in the future. In a Europe which is facing an ageing population, advance directives play an increasing role to (help) formulate the wishes from elderly patient once they start losing the capacity to decide independently. Advance directives should not only be used as a formulation of the patients' previously made decision, but can also be used as guidelines to better understand the previous expressed wishes of the patient. If the advance directive is formulated in too vague form, the healthcare proxy and/or the healthcare trustee can help the physician interpret the directive. This broader approach towards advance directives is reflected in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as on the European legislative level. PMID:22558655

  15. Two-phase flow measurements with advanced instrumented spool pieces

    SciTech Connect

    Turnage, K.C.

    1980-09-01

    A series of two-phase, air-water and steam-water tests performed with instrumented piping spool pieces is described. The behavior of the three-beam densitometer, turbine meter, and drag flowmeter is discussed in terms of two-phase models. Results from application of some two-phase mass flow models to the recorded spool piece data are shown. Results of the study are used to make recommendations regarding spool piece design, instrument selection, and data reduction methods to obtain more accurate measurements of two-phase flow parameters. 13 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Student Learning Styles in Advanced Instrumental Music Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2007-01-01

    Despite a large body of research into learning styles from cognitive, personality and activity perspectives, the definition of learning style is still unclear. The assessment instruments commonly in use have methodological problems. The learning styles of conservatorium instrumentalists are scarcely known and are best studied using an…

  17. Planck focal plane instruments: advanced modelization and combined analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Andrea; Mennella, Aniello

    2012-08-01

    This thesis is the result of my work as research fellow at IASF-MI, Milan section of the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, part of INAF, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. This work started in January 2006 in the context of the PhD school program in Astrophysics held at the Physics Department of Universita' degli Studi di Milano under the supervision of Aniello Mennella. The main topic of my work is the software modelling of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers. The LFI is one of the two instruments on-board the European Space Agency Planck Mission for high precision measurements of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I was also selected to participate at the International Doctorate in Antiparticles Physics, IDAPP. IDAPP is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and coordinated by Giovanni Fiorentini (Universita' di Ferrara) with the objective of supporting the growing collaboration between the Astrophysics and Particles Physics communities. It is an international program in collaboration with the Paris PhD school, involving Paris VI, VII and XI Universities, leading to a double French-Italian doctoral degree title. My work was performed with the co-tutoring of Jean-Michel Lamarre, Instrument Scientist of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), the bolometric instrument on-board Planck. Thanks to this collaboration I had the opportunity to work with the HFI team for four months at the Paris Observatory, so that the focus of my activity was broadened and included the study of cross-correlation between HFI and LFI data. Planck is the first CMB mission to have on-board the same satellite very different detection technologies, which is a key element for controlling systematic effects and improve measurements quality.

  18. Recent advances in high temperature instrumentation for hot section applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, David R.; Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Programs to develop research instrumentation for use in turbine engine hot sections are described. These programs were initiated to provide improved measurements capability as support for a multidisciplinary effort to establish technolgy leading to improved hot section durability. Specific measurement systems described here include heat flux sensors, a dynamic gas temperature measuring system, laser anemometry for hot section applications, an optical system for viewing the interior of a combustor during operation, thin film sensors for surface temperature and strain measurements, and high temperature strain measuring systems. The paper describes the state of the development of these sensors and measuring systems and, in some cases, will show examples of measurements made with this instrumentation.The paper covers work done at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at various contract and grant facilities.

  19. Integrating Advanced High School Chemistry Research with Organic Chemistry and Instrumental Methods of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the unique chemistry course opportunities beyond the advanced placement-level available at a science and technology magnet high school. Students may select entry-level courses such as honors and advanced placement chemistry; they may also take electives in organic chemistry with instrumental methods of analysis;…

  20. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  1. Advanced ESPI-based medical instruments for otolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castracane, James; Conerty, M.; Cacace, Anthony T.; Gardner, Glendon M.; Miller, Mitchell B.; Parnes, Steven M.

    1993-05-01

    Optical fibers have long been used for visual inspection inside the human body for medical diagnoses and treatment. By making use of sophisticated optical interferometric and ultra- small imaging techniques, combined with automated image processing, it is possible to extract significantly increased information for more accurate medical diagnoses. With support from NIH under the SBIR program, we have been developing a range of such instruments. One of these supported by the NIDCD is capable of providing detailed spatial information on the vibratory response of the tympanic membrane (TM). This instrument involves the examination of the TM by means of high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). This provides a real time view of the vibration patterns of the TM for clinical diagnosis. This Interferometric Otoscope consists of mode conserving fiber optics, miniature diode lasers and high speed solid state detector arrays. We present the current status of the research including holography and ESPI of TM models and excised temporal bone preparations. A second instrument, also developed with support from NIDCD, is for application to the larynx. This system is also ESPI based but will incorporate features for direct vocal cord (VC) examination. By careful examination of the vibratory response of the VC during phonation, the characteristics of the mucosal wave may be examined. Adynamic regions of the cords can signal the start of lesions or cysts. Results of surgery can be evaluated in a quantitative manner. The design of a clinical prototype and preliminary electro-optic experiments on excised larynges and VC models will be presented.

  2. Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) science instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, Carl E.; Dailey, Carroll C.; Cumings, Nesbitt P.

    1991-01-01

    The overall AXAF program is summarized, with particular emphasis given to its science instruments. The science objectives established for AXAF are to determine the nature of celestial objects, from normal stars to quasars, to elucidate the nature of the physical processes which take place in and between astronomical objects, and to shed light on the history and evolution of the universe. Attention is given to the AXAF CCD imaging spectrometer, which is to provide spectrally and temporally resolved imaging, or, in conjunction with transmission grating, high-resolution dispersed spectral images of celestial sources. A high-resolution camera, an X-ray spectrometer, and the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer are also discussed.

  3. Advanced instrumentation for research in diving and hyperbaric medicine.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Arne; L'Abbate, Antonio; Kuch, Benjamin; Wagner, Matthias; Benassi, Antonio; Passera, Mirko; Bedini, Remo

    2010-01-01

    Improving the safety of diving and increasing knowledge about the adaptation of the human body to underwater and hyperbaric environment require specifically developed underwater instrumentation for physiological measurements. In fact, none of the routine clinical devices for health control is suitable for in-water and/or under-pressure operation. The present paper addresses novel technological acquisitions and the development of three dedicated devices: * an underwater data logger for recording O2 saturation (reflective pulsoxymetry), two-channel ECG, depth and temperature; * an underwater blood pressure meter based on the oscillometric method; and * an underwater echography system. Moreover, examples of recordings are presented and discussed. PMID:20929183

  4. Advanced Coatings Enabling High Performance Instruments for Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh

    We propose a three-year effort to develop techniques for far-ultraviolet (FUV) and ultraviolet coatings both as reflective optics coatings and as out-of-band-rejection (solar-blind) filters that will have a dramatic effect on the throughput and efficiency of instruments. This is an ideal time to address this problem. On the one hand, exciting new science questions posed in UV and optical realm place exacting demands on instrument capabilities far beyond HST-COS, FUSE, and GALEX with large focal plane arrays and high efficiency requirements. And on the other hand, the development of techniques and process such as atomic layer deposition with its atomically precise capability and nano-engineered materials approach enables us to address the challenging materials issues in the UV where interaction of photons and matter happen in the first few nanometers of the material surface. Aluminum substrates with protective overlayers (typically XFy, where X = Li, Mg, or Ca) have been the workhorse of reflective coatings for ultraviolet and visible instruments; however, they have demonstrated severe limitations. The formation of oxide at the Al-XFy interface and thick protective layers both affect the overall optical performance, leading to diminished reflection at shorter wavelengths. To address these long-standing shortcomings of coatings, we will use our newly developed processes and equipment to produce high-quality single- and multi-layer films of a variety of dielectrics and metals deposited with nano-scale control. JPL s new ALD system affords high uniformity, low oxygen background, good plasma processes, and precise temperature control, which are vital to achieving the large scale, uniform, and ultrathin films that are free of oxygen at interfaces. For example, ALD-grown aluminum can be protected using our newly developed chemistry for ALD magnesium fluoride. Our work will verify that the ALD technique reliably prevents the oxidation of aluminum, and will subsequently be

  5. Advanced instrumentation: Technology database enhancement, volume 4, appendix G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to add to the McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company's Sensors Database, including providing additional information on the instruments and sensors applicable to physical/chemical Environmental Control and Life Support System (P/C ECLSS) or Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) which were not previously included. The Sensors Database was reviewed in order to determine the types of data required, define the data categories, and develop an understanding of the data record structure. An assessment of the MDSSC Sensors Database identified limitations and problems in the database. Guidelines and solutions were developed to address these limitations and problems in order that the requirements of the task could be fulfilled.

  6. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaA, a molecular chaperone essential for the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Rui; Esser, Lothar; Poole, Steven; McVeigh, Annette; Chen, Yu-xing; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

    2014-01-21

    The molecular chaperone CfaA plays a critical role in the bioassembly of the surface-adhesive CFA/I fimbriae of enterotoxigenic E. coli. Purified CfaA was crystallized and the phase solution was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement coupled with anomalous scattering method.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) that cross-react immunologically with heterologous CFAs.

    PubMed Central

    Rudin, A; McConnell, M M; Svennerholm, A M

    1994-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli binds to enterocytes in the small intestine by means of antigenically distinct colonization factors (CFs), usually termed colonization factor antigens (CFAs), coli surface antigens (CS), or putative colonization factor antigens (PCFs). To explore the immunological relationship between different CFs, we dissociated CFA/I fimbriae into subunits and produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against these subunits. We selected three MAbs that cross-reacted immunologically with a number of different, whole purified CFs in a dot blot test and with the corresponding subunits in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. One of the MAbs, i.e., subunit CFA/I 17:8 (S-CFA/I 17:8), reacted more strongly with subunits of CFA/I than with whole purified fimbriae. This MAb cross-reacted with whole purified fimbriae and subunits of CS4, PCFO166, CS1, and CS2. Moreover, it bound strongly to a peptide of 25 amino acids corresponding to the N-terminal end of CFA/I. The other two MAbs, i.e., S-CFA/I 5:6 and S-CFA/I 8:11, cross-reacted with CS1, CS2, CS4, PCFO166, and CS17 fimbriae but reacted only slightly or not at all with the CFA/I peptide. MAbs S-CFA/I 17:8 and S-CFA/I 5:6 were shown to inhibit hemagglutination by bacterial strains that express either CFA/I, CS1, or CS4. In addition, the binding of enterotoxigenic E. coli strains expressing CFA/I, CS2, CS4, and PCFO166 to enterocyte-like cell-line Caco-2 was inhibited by both MAbs. These results show that several antigenically different CFs have common epitopes and that among these at least one is located in the N-terminal end of the subunit protein. Moreover, antibodies against the common epitopes seem to block binding of the bacterial strains that express different CFs to both erythrocytes and Caco-2 cells. Images PMID:7927693

  8. Corner-Cube Retroreflector Instrument for Advanced Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Folkner, William M.; Gutt, Gary M.; Williams, James G.; Somawardhana, Ruwan P.; Baran, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes how, based on a structural-thermal-optical-performance analysis, it has been determined that a single, large, hollow corner cube (170- mm outer diameter) with custom dihedral angles offers a return signal comparable to the Apollo 11 and 14 solid-corner-cube arrays (each consisting of 100 small, solid corner cubes), with negligible pulse spread and much lower mass. The design of the corner cube, and its surrounding mounting and casing, is driven by the thermal environment on the lunar surface, which is subject to significant temperature variations (in the range between 70 and 390 K). Therefore, the corner cube is enclosed in an insulated container open at one end; a narrow-bandpass solar filter is used to reduce the solar energy that enters the open end during the lunar day, achieving a nearly uniform temperature inside the container. Also, the materials and adhesive techniques that will be used for this corner-cube reflector must have appropriate thermal and mechanical characteristics (e.g., silica or beryllium for the cube and aluminum for the casing) to further reduce the impact of the thermal environment on the instrument's performance. The instrument would consist of a single, open corner cube protected by a separate solar filter, and mounted in a cylindrical or spherical case. A major goal in the design of a new lunar ranging system is a measurement accuracy improvement to better than 1 mm by reducing the pulse spread due to orientation. While achieving this goal, it was desired to keep the intensity of the return beam at least as bright as the Apollo 100-corner-cube arrays. These goals are met in this design by increasing the optical aperture of a single corner cube to approximately 170 mm outer diameter. This use of an "open" corner cube allows the selection of corner cube materials to be based primarily on thermal considerations, with no requirements on optical transparency. Such a corner cube also allows for easier pointing requirements

  9. Advanced concepts for gamma ray isotopic analysis and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, W. M.; Carlson, J. B.

    1994-07-01

    The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing actinide isotopic analysis technologies in response to needs that address issues of flexibility of analysis, robustness of analysis, ease-of-use, automation and portability. Recent developments such as the Intelligent Actinide Analysis System (IAAS), begin to address these issues. We are continuing to develop enhancements on this and other instruments that improve ease-of-use, automation and portability. Requests to analyze samples with unusual isotopics, contamination, or containers have made us aware of the need for more flexible and robust analysis. We have modified the MGA program to extend its plutonium isotopic analysis capability to samples with greater Am-241 content or U isotopics. We are looking at methods for dealing with tantalum or lead contamination and contamination with high-energy gamma emitters, such as U-233. We are looking at ways to allow the program to use additional information about the sample to further extend the domain of analyzable samples. These unusual analyses will come from the domain of samples that need to be measured because of complex reconfiguration or environmental cleanup.

  10. ECLSS evolution: Advanced instrumentation interface requirements. Volume 3: Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An Advanced ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) Technology Interfaces Database was developed primarily to provide ECLSS analysts with a centralized and portable source of ECLSS technologies interface requirements data. The database contains 20 technologies which were previously identified in the MDSSC ECLSS Technologies database. The primary interfaces of interest in this database are fluid, electrical, data/control interfaces, and resupply requirements. Each record contains fields describing the function and operation of the technology. Fields include: an interface diagram, description applicable design points and operating ranges, and an explaination of data, as required. A complete set of data was entered for six of the twenty components including Solid Amine Water Desorbed (SAWD), Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation System (TIMES), Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (EDC), Solid Polymer Electrolysis (SPE), Static Feed Electrolysis (SFE), and BOSCH. Additional data was collected for Reverse Osmosis Water Reclaimation-Potable (ROWRP), Reverse Osmosis Water Reclaimation-Hygiene (ROWRH), Static Feed Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SFSPE), Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), and Multifiltration Water Reclamation - Hygiene (MFWRH). A summary of the database contents is presented in this report.

  11. Advanced instrumentation for acousto-ultrasonic based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithard, Joel; Galea, Steve; van der Velden, Stephen; Powlesland, Ian; Jung, George; Rajic, Nik

    2016-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems using structurally-integrated sensors potentially allow the ability to inspect for damage in aircraft structures on-demand and could provide a basis for the development of condition-based maintenance approaches for airframes. These systems potentially offer both substantial cost savings and performance improvements over conventional nondestructive inspection (NDI). Acousto-ultrasonics (AU), using structurallyintegrated piezoelectric transducers, offers a promising basis for broad-field damage detection in aircraft structures. For these systems to be successfully applied in the field the hardware for AU excitation and interrogation needs to be easy to use, compact, portable, light and, electrically and mechanically robust. Highly flexible and inexpensive instrumentation for basic background laboratory investigations is also required to allow researchers to tackle the numerous scientific and engineering issues associated with AU based SHM. The Australian Defence Science and Technology Group (DST Group) has developed the Acousto Ultrasonic Structural health monitoring Array Module (AUSAM+), a compact device for AU excitation and interrogation. The module, which has the footprint of a typical current generation smart phone, provides autonomous control of four send and receive piezoelectric elements, which can operate in pitch-catch or pulse-echo modes and can undertake electro-mechanical impedance measurements for transducer and structural diagnostics. Modules are designed to operate synchronously with other units, via an optical link, to accommodate larger transducer arrays. The module also caters for fibre optic sensing of acoustic waves with four intensity-based optical inputs. Temperature and electrical resistance strain gauge inputs as well as external triggering functionality are also provided. The development of a Matlab hardware object allows users to easily access the full hardware functionality of the device and

  12. Advanced instrumentation for the collection, retrieval, and processing of urban stormwater data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Jerald B.; Bales, Jerad D.; Young, Wendi S.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, has developed a data-collection network that uses advanced instrumentation to automatically collect, retrieve, and process urban stormwater data. Precipitation measurement and water-quality networks provide data for (1) planned watershed simulation models, (2) early warning of possible flooding, (3) computation of material export, and (4) characterization of water quality in relation to basin conditions. Advantages of advanced instrumentation include remote access to real-time data, reduced demands on and more efficient use of limited human resources, and direct importation of data into a geographical information system for display and graphic analysis.

  13. Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2002-01-01

    A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

  14. The Effects of Advanced 'Glass Cockpit' Displayed Flight Instrumentation on In-flight Pilot Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwald, John

    The Cognitive Continuum Theory (CCT) was first proposed 25 years ago to explain the relationship between intuition and analytical decision making processes. In order for aircraft pilots to make these analytical and intuitive decisions, they obtain information from various instruments within the cockpit of the aircraft. Advanced instrumentation is used to provide a broad array of information about the aircraft condition and flight situation to aid the flight crew in making effective decisions. The problem addressed is that advanced instrumentation has not improved the pilot decision making in modern aircraft. Because making a decision is dependent upon the information available, this experimental quantitative study sought to determine how well pilots organize and interpret information obtained from various cockpit instrumentation displays when under time pressure. The population for this study was the students, flight instructors, and aviation faculty at the Middle Georgia State College School of Aviation campus in Eastman, Georgia. The sample was comprised of two groups of 90 individuals (45 in each group) in various stages of pilot licensure from student pilot to airline transport pilot (ATP). The ages ranged from 18 to 55 years old. There was a statistically significant relationship at the p < .05 level in the ability of the participants to organize and interpret information between the advanced glass cockpit instrumentation and the traditional cockpit instrumentation. It is recommended that the industry explore technological solutions toward creating cockpit instrumentation that could match the type of information display to the type of decision making scenario in order to aid pilots in making decisions that will result in better organization of information. Understanding the relationship between the intuitive and analytical decisions that pilots make and the information source they use to make those decisions will aid engineers in the design of instrumentation

  15. Thirty meters small angle neutron scattering instrument at China advanced research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Cheng, He; Yuan, Guangcui; Han, Charles C.; Zhang, Li; Li, Tianfu; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Yun Tao; Chen, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    A high resolution 30 m small angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument has been constructed by the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ICCAS), and installed at China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). It is equipped with a mechanical velocity selector, pinhole (including multi-pinhole) collimation system, sample chamber, and high resolution two dimensional 3He position sensitive neutron detector. The flexible variations of incident neutron wavelength, source to sample distance, sample to detector distance and the presence of neutron focusing lenses enable a wide Q range from 0.001 Å-1 to 0.5 Å-1 in reciprocal space and to optimize the resolution required. The instrument is the first SANS instrument in China, and can be widely used for the structure characterization of various materials, as well as kinetic and dynamic observation during external stimulation. The design and characteristics of the instrument are presented in the manuscript.

  16. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA Instrument Response

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on calibrating several of these instruments with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and instrument responses in order to inform the instrument calibration procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried out to assess the impacts of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and instrument responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards instruments. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA instrument. This work studies the impacts of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA instrument response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron instrument was selected to illustrate the impact of these uncertainties on NDA instrument response.

  17. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA Instrument Response

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on calibrating several of these instruments with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and instrument responses in order to inform the instrument calibration procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried outmore » to assess the impacts of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and instrument responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards instruments. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA instrument. This work studies the impacts of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA instrument response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron instrument was selected to illustrate the impact of these uncertainties on NDA instrument response.« less

  18. Status Report on Efforts to Enhance Instrumentation to Support Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; J. E. Daw

    2011-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR NSUF facilitates basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors was completed. Based on this review, recommendations were made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR; and a strategy was developed for obtaining these sensors. In 2009, a report was issued documenting this program’s strategy and initial progress toward accomplishing program objectives. In 2009, a report was issued documenting this instrumentation development strategy and initial progress toward accomplishing instrumentation development program objectives. This document reports progress toward implementing this strategy in 2010.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaE, the adhesive subunit of the CFA/I fimbriae from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong-Fu; Poole, Steven; Rasulova, Fatima; Esser, Lothar; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

    2006-02-01

    The adhesin CfaE of the CFA/I fimbriae from human enterotoxigenic E. coli has been crystallized. CfaE crystals diffracted X-rays to better than 2.4 Å and phasing was solved by the SIRAS method. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) represents a formidable food and waterborne diarrheal disease threat of global importance. The first step in ETEC pathogenesis is bacterial attachment to small-intestine epithelial cells via adhesive fimbriae, many of which are genetically related to the prototype colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I). The minor fimbrial subunit CfaE is required for initiation of CFA/I fimbrial assembly and mediates bacterial attachment to host cell-surface receptors. A donor-strand complemented variant of CfaE (dscCfaE) was expressed with a hexahistidine tag, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected to 2.4 Å resolution for both native and derivatized crystals and showed the symmetry of space group P6{sub 2}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 142.9, c = 231.9 Å. Initial phases were derived from the SIRAS approach and electron density showed two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Sequence assignments were aided by anomalous signals from the selenium of an SeMet-derivatized crystal and from S atoms of a native crystal.

  20. Binding of CFA/I Pili of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to Asialo-GM1 Is Mediated by the Minor Pilin CfaE.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, T P Vipin; Riches, James D; Scanlon, Martin J; Ulett, Glen C; Sakellaris, Harry

    2016-05-01

    CFA/I pili are representatives of a large family of related pili that mediate the adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells. They are assembled via the alternate chaperone-usher pathway and consist of two subunits, CfaB, which makes up the pilus shaft and a single pilus tip-associated subunit, CfaE. The current model of pilus-mediated adherence proposes that CFA/I has two distinct binding activities; the CfaE subunit is responsible for binding to receptors of unknown structure on erythrocyte and intestinal epithelial cell surfaces, while CfaB binds to various glycosphingolipids, including asialo-GM1. In this report, we present two independent lines of evidence that, contrary to the existing model, CfaB does not bind to asialo-GM1 independently of CfaE. Neither purified CfaB subunits nor CfaB assembled into pili bind to asialo-GM1. Instead, we demonstrate that binding activity toward asialo-GM1 resides in CfaE and this is essential for pilus binding to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that the binding activities of CFA/I pili for asialo-GM1, erythrocytes, and intestinal cells are inseparable, require the same amino acid residues in CfaE, and therefore depend on the same or very similar binding mechanisms. PMID:26975993

  1. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop: April 5-7, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: (1) Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; (2) Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; (3) Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; (4) Identify synergies across different industries; (5) Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; (6) Understand who are the leading experts; (7) Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  2. Advances in and uses of gamma-ray field instrumentation at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Smith, S.E.; Ianakiev, K.

    1994-02-01

    We are developing a set of tools to be used by the Safeguards Assay Group to solve problems found in safeguards and the domestic nuclear industry. The tools are also applicable to problems dealing with the environment, defense, and other areas of national and international interest. We have used extensively the advances in hardware and software since our last multichannel analyzer (MCA) development activities over a decade ago. We are also using our experience with and feedback from users of our previous instruments. In analyzing the instrument needs of our constituents and the characteristics of our previous instruments, which we think have inhibited their broader use, we have concluded that uses for an MCA-type instrument are widely varied and fundamentally changing,and that any new instruments should include a versatile, widely used hardware interface, which is as independent as possible of hardware standards, and which is readily interfaced to the computers or controllers rapidly evolving in the commercial sector. In addition, software tools must be provided that allow Los Alamos, users, and third parties to quickly and conveniently develop software specific to the user or the measurement to control the basic instrument we develop. This paper deals mainly with a miniature and modular multi-channel analyzer (M{sup 3}CA) and its applications.

  3. Advances in Instrumental Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to highlight the recent advances and methodological improvements in instrumental techniques applied for the analysis of different brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The literature search strategy was based on the recent analytical reviews published on BFRs. The main selection criteria involved the successful development and application of analytical methods for determination of the target compounds in various environmental matrices. Different factors affecting chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection of brominated analytes were evaluated and discussed. Techniques using advanced instrumentation to achieve outstanding results in quantification of different BFRs and their metabolites/degradation products were highlighted. Finally, research gaps in the field of BFR analysis were identified and recommendations for future research were proposed. PMID:27433482

  4. Workshop on advanced polarimetric instrumentation: API'09. Preface of the workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Caurel, E.

    2010-06-01

    The First NanoCharM Workshop on Advanced Polarimetric Instrumentation was focused on the instrumentation developed to work with polarised light, which is the cause of a great deal of research and study in a variety of fields, such as astronomy, telecommunications, defence, medicine, electronics, material science, metrology and many more. The workshop was therefore organised around six themes: imaging, astronomy and satellites, measurement of optical activity, Mueller matrix algebra and polarimetric data analysis, diffractometry and metrology of nanostructures, as well as new developments in polarimetric instrumentation. The workshop was founded by the European project NanoCharM the aim of which is, firstly, to coordinate research activities focusing on the characterisation of materials using polarised light (polarimetry) and, secondly, to develop communication initiatives to make scientists, decision-makers in the broadest sense of the term, industrialists and students aware of the various applications of polarised light.

  5. Status Report on Efforts to Enhance Instrumentation to Support Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rempe; D. Knudson; J. Daw; T. Unruh; B. Chase; R. Schley; J. Palmer; K. Condie

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support the growth of nuclear science and technology in the United States (US). By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR NSUF facilitates basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to design, develop, and deploy new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors was completed. Based on this initial review, recommendations were made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR, and a strategy was developed for obtaining these sensors. In 2009, a report was issued documenting this program’s strategy and initial progress toward accomplishing program objectives. Since 2009, annual reports have been issued to provide updates on the program strategy and the progress made on implementing the strategy. This report provides an update reflecting progress as of January 2014.

  6. Advances in the use of odour as forensic evidence through optimizing and standardizing instruments and canines

    PubMed Central

    Furton, Kenneth G.; Caraballo, Norma Iris; Cerreta, Michelle M.; Holness, Howard K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the advances made in identifying trace amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that originate from forensic specimens, such as drugs, explosives, live human scent and the scent of death, as well as the probative value for detecting such odours. The ability to locate and identify the VOCs liberated from or left by forensic substances is of increasing importance to criminal investigations as it can indicate the presence of contraband and/or associate an individual to a particular location or object. Although instruments have improved significantly in recent decades—with sensitivities now rivalling that of biological detectors—it is widely recognized that canines are generally still more superior for the detection of odourants due to their speed, versatility, ruggedness and discriminating power. Through advancements in the detection of VOCs, as well as increased standardization efforts for instruments and canines, the reliability of odour as evidence has continuously improved and is likely to continue to do so. Moreover, several legal cases in which this novel form of evidence has been accepted into US courts of law are discussed. As the development and implementation of best practice guidelines for canines and instruments increase, their reliability in detecting VOCs of interest should continue to improve, expanding the use of odour as an acceptable form of forensic evidence. PMID:26101287

  7. Advances in the use of odour as forensic evidence through optimizing and standardizing instruments and canines.

    PubMed

    Furton, Kenneth G; Caraballo, Norma Iris; Cerreta, Michelle M; Holness, Howard K

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the advances made in identifying trace amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that originate from forensic specimens, such as drugs, explosives, live human scent and the scent of death, as well as the probative value for detecting such odours. The ability to locate and identify the VOCs liberated from or left by forensic substances is of increasing importance to criminal investigations as it can indicate the presence of contraband and/or associate an individual to a particular location or object. Although instruments have improved significantly in recent decades-with sensitivities now rivalling that of biological detectors-it is widely recognized that canines are generally still more superior for the detection of odourants due to their speed, versatility, ruggedness and discriminating power. Through advancements in the detection of VOCs, as well as increased standardization efforts for instruments and canines, the reliability of odour as evidence has continuously improved and is likely to continue to do so. Moreover, several legal cases in which this novel form of evidence has been accepted into US courts of law are discussed. As the development and implementation of best practice guidelines for canines and instruments increase, their reliability in detecting VOCs of interest should continue to improve, expanding the use of odour as an acceptable form of forensic evidence. PMID:26101287

  8. Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection Instrumentation Development and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; Steele, Andrew; Amashukeli, Xenia; Fisher, Anita; Grunthaner, Frank; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeff; Chiesl, Tom; Stockton, Amanda; Mathies, Rich

    2008-01-01

    Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight instrumentation and for the development of advanced instrumentation technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight instrumentation including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instruments on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer instruments under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help calibrate current spaceflight instrumentation, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.

  9. Advanced Camera for Surveys Instrument Handbook for Cycle 21 v. 12.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, L.; et al.

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), a third-generation instrument, was installed in the Hubble Space Telescope during Servicing Mission 3B, on March 7, 2002 (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/HST_overview/servicing_missions). Its primary purpose was to increase HST imaging discovery efficiency by about a factor of 10, with a combination of detector area and quantum efficiency that surpasses previous instruments. ACS has three independent cameras that have provided wide-field, high resolution, and ultraviolet imaging capabilities respectively, using a broad assortment of filters designed to address a large range of scientific goals. In addition, coronagraphic, polarimetric, and grism capabilities have made the ACS a versatile and powerful instrument. The ACS Instrument Handbook, which is maintained by the ACS/WFPC2 Team at STScI, describes the instrument properties, performance, operations, and calibration. It is the basic technical reference manual for the instrument, and should be used with other documents (listed in Table 1.1) for writing Phase I proposals, detailed Phase II programs, and for data analysis. (See Figure 1.1). In May 2009, Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) successfully restored the ACS Wide Field Camera (WFC) to regular service after its failure in January 2007. Unfortunately, the ACS High Resolution Camera (HRC) was not restored to operation during SM4, so it cannot be proposed for new observations. Nevertheless, this handbook retains description of the HRC to support analysis of archived observations. The ACS Solar Blind Channel (SBC) was unaffected by the January 2007 failure of WFC and HRC. The SBC has remained in steady operation, and was not serviced during SM4. It remains available for new observations.

  10. Seismic isolation of Advanced LIGO: Review of strategy, instrumentation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matichard, F.; Lantz, B.; Mittleman, R.; Mason, K.; Kissel, J.; Abbott, B.; Biscans, S.; McIver, J.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, S.; Allwine, E.; Barnum, S.; Birch, J.; Celerier, C.; Clark, D.; Coyne, D.; DeBra, D.; DeRosa, R.; Evans, M.; Foley, S.; Fritschel, P.; Giaime, J. A.; Gray, C.; Grabeel, G.; Hanson, J.; Hardham, C.; Hillard, M.; Hua, W.; Kucharczyk, C.; Landry, M.; Le Roux, A.; Lhuillier, V.; Macleod, D.; Macinnis, M.; Mitchell, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D.; Paris, H.; Pele, A.; Puma, M.; Radkins, H.; Ramet, C.; Robinson, M.; Ruet, L.; Sarin, P.; Shoemaker, D.; Stein, A.; Thomas, J.; Vargas, M.; Venkateswara, K.; Warner, J.; Wen, S.

    2015-09-01

    The new generation of gravitational waves detectors require unprecedented levels of isolation from seismic noise. This article reviews the seismic isolation strategy and instrumentation developed for the Advanced LIGO observatories. It summarizes over a decade of research on active inertial isolation and shows the performance recently achieved at the Advanced LIGO observatories. The paper emphasizes the scientific and technical challenges of this endeavor and how they have been addressed. An overview of the isolation strategy is given. It combines multiple layers of passive and active inertial isolation to provide suitable rejection of seismic noise at all frequencies. A detailed presentation of the three active platforms that have been developed is given. They are the hydraulic pre-isolator, the single-stage internal isolator and the two-stage internal isolator. The architecture, instrumentation, control scheme and isolation results are presented for each of the three systems. Results show that the seismic isolation sub-system meets Advanced LIGO’s stringent requirements and robustly supports the operation of the two detectors.

  11. Advanced life support control/monitor instrumentation concepts for flight application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dahlhausen, M. J.; Fell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Development of regenerative Environmental Control/Life Support Systems requires instrumentation characteristics which evolve with successive development phases. As the development phase moves toward flight hardware, the system availability becomes an important design aspect which requires high reliability and maintainability. This program was directed toward instrumentation designs which incorporate features compatible with anticipated flight requirements. The first task consisted of the design, fabrication and test of a Performance Diagnostic Unit. In interfacing with a subsystem's instrumentation, the Performance Diagnostic Unit is capable of determining faulty operation and components within a subsystem, perform on-line diagnostics of what maintenance is needed and accept historical status on subsystem performance as such information is retained in the memory of a subsystem's computerized controller. The second focus was development and demonstration of analog signal conditioning concepts which reduce the weight, power, volume, cost and maintenance and improve the reliability of this key assembly of advanced life support instrumentation. The approach was to develop a generic set of signal conditioning elements or cards which can be configured to fit various subsystems. Four generic sensor signal conditioning cards were identified as being required to handle more than 90 percent of the sensors encountered in life support systems. Under company funding, these were detail designed, built and successfully tested.

  12. Recent Beam Measurements and New Instrumentation at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, F.; Baptiste, K.; Barry, W.; Chin, M.; Filippetto, D.; Jaegerhofer, L.; Julian, J.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Low, R.; Plate, D.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.; Scarvie, T.; Stupakov, G.; Weber, J.; Zolotorev, M.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-04-11

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley was the first of the soft x-ray third generation light source ever built, and since 1993 has been in continuous and successful operation serving a large community of users in the VUV and soft x-ray community. During these years the storage ring underwent through several important upgrades that allowed maintaining the performance of this veteran facility at the forefront. The ALS beam diagnostics and instrumentation have followed a similar path of innovation and upgrade and nowadays include most of the modem and last generation devices and technologies that are commercially available and used in the recently constructed third generation light sources. In this paper we will not focus on such already widely known systems, but we will concentrate our effort in the description of some measurements techniques, instrumentation and diagnostic systems specifically developed at the ALS and used during the last few years.

  13. RECENT BEAM MEASUREMENTS AND NEW INSTRUMENTATION AT THE ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Baptiste, Kenneth; Barry, Walter; Chin, Michael; Filippetto, Daniele; Jaegerhofer, Lukas; Julian, James; Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Low, Raymond; Plate, David; Portmann, Gregory; Robin, David; Scarvie, Tomas; Stupakov, Gennady; Weber, Jonah; Zolotorev, Max

    2008-05-05

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley was the first of the soft x-ray third generation light source ever built, and since 1993 has been in continuous and successful operation serving a large community of users in the VUV and soft x-ray community. During these years the storage ring underwent through several important upgrades that allowed maintaining the performance of this veteran facility at the forefront. The ALS beam diagnostics and instrumentation have followed a similar path of innovation and upgrade and nowadays include most of the modem and last generation devices and technologies that are commercially available and used in the recently constructed third generation light sources. In this paper we will not focus on such already widely known systems, but we will concentrate our effort in the description of some measurements techniques, instrumentation and diagnostic systems specifically developed at the ALS and used during the last few years.

  14. Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Jordan, Scott [Physik Instrumente

    2013-02-11

    Scott Jordan on "Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  15. Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Scott

    2012-06-01

    Scott Jordan on "Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Instrumentation and Controls Technology Research for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, key DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements to their respective research portfolio. This article describes current ICHMI research to support the development of advanced small modular reactors.

  17. Challenges and Advances in Instrumentation of UHV LT Multi-Probe SPM System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhouhang

    The progress of nanoscience and nanotechnology can be realized only through continued advances and utilization of instruments and techniques for characterizing material properties and manipulating material and device at nanoscale. The UHV LT Multi-Probe SPM system with high resolution SEM has been developed to meet such challenges. This integrated instrument bridges dimensions from the centimeter to atomic scale, and provides an unprecedented platform for local, non-destructive transport measurements and for building, manipulating and function-testing complex nanoelectronics and nanoscale machineries. It also enables combining many different techniques for characterizing sample conductance, topography, chemical, optical or magnetic properties with complementary information at the same position or on the same nanodevice. Design and development of such complex systems pose many issues and challenges. This chapter will discuss some of the issues faced, solutions reached and advances made. Examples include: (1) Disturbance by magnetic material and magnetic field of SEM imaging and coordination of SEM/SPM position, and their influence on and disturbance of SAM spectra and SAM mapping. The design and use of non-magnetic motors for multi-probe modules will be presented and discussed. (2) Tip holder and sample holder design for easy handling, better mechanical stability over the temperature range and better thermal contact and the versatility of the sample holder with multiple contacts. (3) Use of optical fiber as one of the probe modules, and positioning of the fiber probe. CL spectra and CL mapping results will be presented.

  18. Advances in Nuclear Cardiac Instrumentation with a View Towards Reduced Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Damini; Duvall, W. Lane; Henzlova, Milena J.; Berman, Daniel S.; Germano, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in nuclear cardiology instrumentation have enabled myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with improved image quality and fast scan times. These developments also can be exploited to reduce the effective radiation dose to the patient. In this review, we discuss these technologies including new single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, as well as novel reconstruction software with regard to their potential for the reduction of the patient radiation dose. New advances in nuclear cardiology instrumentation will allow routine rest/stress MPI imaging with low radiation doses (< 5 mSv) and fast imaging times, even by the software-only solutions. It is possible to further reduce the MPI radiation dose to less than 2 to 3 mSv range with standard acquisition times. PET perfusion imaging also can be performed with very low doses especially by the three-dimensional scanners allowing hybrid PET/computed tomographic angiography (CTA) imaging with low overall dose. In addition, stress-only protocols can be utilized to further reduce the radiation dose and the overall test time. PMID:22327929

  19. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): development of a survey instrument to assess community resilience.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Neas, Barbara R; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Norris, Fran H; Van Horn, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    While building community resilience to disasters is becoming an important strategy in emergency management, this is a new field of research with few available instruments for assessing community resilience. This article describes the development of the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) survey instrument. CART is a community intervention designed to enhance community resilience to disasters, in part, by engaging communities in measuring it. The survey instrument, originally based on community capacity and related literature and on key informant input, was refined through a series of four field tests. Community organizations worked with researchers in a participatory action process that provided access to samples and helped to guide the research. Exploratory factor analysis performed after each field test led to the identification of four interrelated constructs (also called domains) which represent the foundation for CART Connection and Caring, Resources, Transformative Potential, and Disaster Management. This model was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis on two community samples. The CART survey can provide data for organizations and communities interested in assessing a community's resilience to disasters. Baseline data, preferably collected pre disaster can be compared to data collected post disaster and/or post intervention. PMID:24187884

  20. Advancements in the safe identification of explosives using a Raman handheld instrument (ACE-ID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Kittredge, Marina; Sparano, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify bulk solid and liquid phase unknown samples without the need to contact the substance. Materials can be identified through transparent and semi-translucent containers such as plastic and glass. ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require the redesign of conventional laboratory units for: field portability; shock, thermal and chemical attack resistance; easy and intuitive use in restrictive gear; reduced size, weight, and power. This article introduces a new handheld instrument (ACE-IDTM) designed to take Raman technology to the next level in terms of size, safety, speed, and analytical performance. ACE-ID is ruggedized for use in severe climates and terrains. It is lightweight and can be operated with just one hand. An intuitive software interface guides users through the entire identification process, making it easy-to-use by personnel of different skill levels including military explosive ordinance disposal technicians, civilian bomb squads and hazmat teams. Through the use of embedded advanced algorithms, the instrument is capable of providing fluorescence correction and analysis of binary mixtures. Instrument calibration is performed automatically upon startup without requiring user intervention. ACE-ID incorporates an optical rastering system that diffuses the laser energy over the sample. This important innovation significantly reduces the heat induced in dark samples and the probability of ignition of susceptible explosive materials. In this article, the explosives identification performance of the instrument will be provided in addition to a quantitative evaluation of the safety improvements derived from the reduced ignition probabilities.

  1. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  2. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W. ); Goldberg, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analyses of several forms of the CfaB major subunit of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CFA/I fimbriae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong-Fu; Poole, Steven; Rasulova, Fatima; McVeigh, Annette L.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

    2009-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a major global cause of diarrhea, initiates the pathogenic process via fimbriae-mediated attachment to the small intestinal epithelium. A common prototypic ETEC fimbria, colo­nization factor antigen I (CFA/I), consists of a tip-localized minor adhesive subunit CfaE and the stalk-forming major subunit CfaB, both of which are necessary for fimbrial assembly. To elucidate the structure of CFA/I at atomic resolution, three recombinant proteins were generated consisting of fusions of the minor and major subunits (CfaEB) and of two (CfaBB) and three (CfaBBB) repeats of the major subunit. Crystals of CfaEB diffracted X-rays to 2.1 Å resolution and displayed the symmetry of space group P21. CfaBB exhibited a crystal diffraction limit of 2.3 Å resolution and had the symmetry of space group P21212. CfaBBB crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2 and diffracted X-­rays to 2.3 Å resolution. These structures were determined using the molecular-replacement method. PMID:19255474

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaE, the adhesive subunit of the CFA/I fimbriae from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong-Fu; Poole, Steven; Rasulova, Fatima; Esser, Lothar; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

    2006-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) represents a formidable food and waterborne diarrheal disease threat of global importance. The first step in ETEC pathogenesis is bacterial attachment to small-intestine epithelial cells via adhesive fimbriae, many of which are genetically related to the prototype colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I). The minor fimbrial subunit CfaE is required for initiation of CFA/I fimbrial assembly and mediates bacterial attachment to host cell-surface receptors. A donor-strand complemented variant of CfaE (dscCfaE) was expressed with a hexahistidine tag, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected to 2.4 Å resolution for both native and derivatized crystals and showed the symmetry of space group P6222, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 142.9, c = 231.9 Å. Initial phases were derived from the SIRAS approach and electron density showed two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Sequence assignments were aided by anomalous signals from the selenium of an SeMet-derivatized crystal and from S atoms of a native crystal. PMID:16511280

  5. Advanced earthquake monitoring system for U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs medical buildings--instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Reza, Shahneam; Cheng, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP; http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/) of the U.S. Geological Survey has been installing sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of 28 VA hospital buildings located in seismically active regions of the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico during earthquake shaking. These advanced monitoring systems, which combine the use of sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are designed to determine the structural health of each hospital building rapidly after an event, helping the VA to ensure the safety of patients and staff. This report presents the instrumentation component of this project by providing details of each hospital building, including a summary of its structural, geotechnical, and seismic hazard information, as well as instrumentation objectives and design. The structural-health monitoring component of the project, including data retrieval and processing, damage detection and localization, automated alerting system, and finally data dissemination, will be presented in a separate report.

  6. Advances in field-portable ion trap GC/MS instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diken, Eric G.; Arno, Josep; Skvorc, Ed; Manning, David; Andersson, Greger; Judge, Kevin; Fredeen, Ken; Sadowski, Charles; Oliphant, Joseph L.; Lammert, Stephen A.; Jones, Jeffrey L.; Waite, Randall W.; Grant, Chad; Lee, Edgar D.

    2012-06-01

    The rapid and accurate detection and identification of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals can be critical to the protection of military and civilian personnel. The use of gas chromatography (GC) - mass spectrometry (MS) can provide both the sensitivity and selectivity required to identify unknown chemicals in complex (i.e. real-world) environments. While most widely used as a laboratory-based technique, recent advances in GC, MS, and sampling technologies have led to the development of a hand-portable GC/MS system that is more practical for field-based analyses. The unique toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer (TMS) used in this instrument has multiple benefits related to size, weight, start-up time, ruggedness, and power consumption. Sample separation is achieved in record time (~ 3 minutes) and with high resolution using a state-of-the-art high-performance low-thermal-mass GC column. In addition to providing a system overview highlighting its most important features, the presentation will focus on the chromatographic and mass spectral performance of the system. Results from exhaustive performance testing of the new instrument will be introduced to validate its unique robustness and ability to identify targeted and unknown chemicals.

  7. Corner-cube retro-reflector instrument for advanced lunar laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Williams, James G.; Folkner, William M.; Gutt, Gary M.; Baran, Richard T.; Hein, Randall C.; Somawardhana, Ruwan P.; Lipa, John A.; Wang, Suwen

    2013-08-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) has made major contributions to our understanding of the Moon's internal structure and the dynamics of the Earth-Moon system. Because of the recent improvements of the ground-based laser ranging facilities, the present LLR measurement accuracy is limited by the retro-reflectors currently on the lunar surface, which are arrays of small corner-cubes. Because of lunar librations, the surfaces of these arrays do not, in general, point directly at the Earth. This effect results in a spread of arrival times, because each cube that comprises the retroreflector is at a slightly different distance from the Earth, leading to the reduced ranging accuracy. Thus, a single, wide aperture corner-cube could have a clear advantage. In addition, after nearly four decades of successful operations the retro-reflectors arrays currently on the Moon started to show performance degradation; as a result, they yield still useful, but much weaker return signals. Thus, fresh and bright instruments on the lunar surface are needed to continue precision LLR measurements. We have developed a new retro-reflector design to enable advanced LLR operations. It is based on a single, hollow corner cube with a large aperture for which preliminary thermal, mechanical, and optical design and analysis have been performed. The new instrument will be able to reach an Earth-Moon range precision of 1-mm in a single pulse while being subjected to significant thermal variations present on the lunar surface, and will have low mass to allow robotic deployment. Here we report on our design results and instrument development effort.

  8. Clinical trial to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of an oral inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli prototype vaccine containing CFA/I overexpressing bacteria and recombinantly produced LTB/CTB hybrid protein.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, A; Leach, S; Tobias, J; Carlin, N; Gustafsson, B; Jertborn, M; Bourgeois, L; Walker, R; Holmgren, J; Svennerholm, A-M

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a new oral vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhea containing killed recombinant E. coli bacteria expressing increased levels of ETEC colonization factors (CFs) and a recombinant protein (LCTBA), i.e. a hybrid between the binding subunits of E. coli heat labile toxin (LTB) and cholera toxin (CTB). We describe a randomized, comparator controlled, double-blind phase I trial in 60 adult Swedish volunteers of a prototype of this vaccine. The safety and immunogenicity of the prototype vaccine, containing LCTBA and an E. coli strain overexpressing the colonization factor CFA/I, was compared to a previously developed oral ETEC vaccine, consisting of CTB and inactivated wild type ETEC bacteria expressing CFA/I (reference vaccine). Groups of volunteers were given two oral doses of either the prototype or the reference vaccine; the prototype vaccine was administered at the same or a fourfold higher dosage than the reference vaccine. The prototype vaccine was found to be safe and equally well-tolerated as the reference vaccine at either dosage tested. The prototype vaccine induced mucosal IgA (fecal secretory IgA and intestine-derived IgA antibody secreting cell) responses to both LTB and CFA/I, as well as serum IgA and IgG antibody responses to LTB. Immunization with LCTBA resulted in about twofold higher mucosal and systemic IgA responses against LTB than a comparable dose of CTB. The higher dose of the prototype vaccine induced significantly higher fecal and systemic IgA responses to LTB and fecal IgA responses to CFA/I than the reference vaccine. These results demonstrate that CF over-expression and inclusion of the LCTBA hybrid protein in an oral inactivated ETEC vaccine does not change the safety profile when compared to a previous generation of such a vaccine and that the prototype vaccine induces significant dose dependent mucosal immune responses against CFA/I and LTB. PMID:23306362

  9. Advanced Non-Destructive Assay Systems and Special Instrumentation Requirements for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.; Swinson, B.

    2008-07-01

    drawings and documentation (iii) Lack of compatibility with modern computers, software, data transfer networks, digital protocols and electrical code standards, (iv) Non-compliance with current and future mandatory standards and regulations for nuclear facilities (v) Design focused on measurement and control points that may be specific to the facility process (vi) Lack of utilization of recent technological advances where better performing, less complex and more cost-effective options are now available. Key radiometric measurement drivers and control points for future recycling facilities have been determined and a review of the adequacy of existing instrumentation has been performed. Areas where recent technology improvements may be more effectively deployed and future technology development may be appropriate are identified. (author)

  10. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrumentation interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) defines the specific details of the complete accomodation information between the Earth Observing System (EOS) PM Spacecraft and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A)Instrument. This is the first submittal of the ICN: it will be updated periodically throughout the life of the program. The next update is planned prior to Critical Design Review (CDR).

  11. Advances in the in Vivo Raman Spectroscopy of Malignant Skin Tumors Using Portable Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Moulia, Violetta; Elka, Aspasia; Gaitanis, Georgios; Bassukas, Ioannis D.

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a promising tool for real-time clinical diagnosis of malignant skin tumors offering a number of potential advantages: it is non-intrusive, it requires no sample preparation, and it features high chemical specificity with minimal water interference. However, in vivo tissue evaluation and accurate histopathological classification remain a challenging task for the successful transition from laboratory prototypes to clinical devices. In the literature, there are numerous reports on the applications of Raman spectroscopy to biomedical research and cancer diagnostics. Nevertheless, cases where real-time, portable instrumentations have been employed for the in vivo evaluation of skin lesions are scarce, despite their advantages in use as medical devices in the clinical setting. This paper reviews the advances in real-time Raman spectroscopy for the in vivo characterization of common skin lesions. The translational momentum of Raman spectroscopy towards the clinical practice is revealed by (i) assembling the technical specifications of portable systems and (ii) analyzing the spectral characteristics of in vivo measurements. PMID:26132563

  12. Should needle localization breast biopsy give way to the new technology; the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Hawasli, A; Zonca, S; Watt, C; Rebecca, A

    2000-07-01

    Between July 1995 and June 1997, 114 consecutive women underwent 118 breast biopsies for nonpalpable lesions. A limited procedure room and local anesthesia were used in 96.5 per cent of patients. Intravenous access was not established in 95 per cent of patients. Oral diazepam was given to 51 per cent of patients. Needle localization technique was used with a success rate of 97.5 per cent and average operative time of 18 minutes. Breast carcinoma was found in 29 (24.6 per cent) biopsies. A review of 99 of the 118 mammograms showed only 45 per cent of the lesions being amenable to the new technology, the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation. Advantages of the needle localization include short operative time; supine position for the patient; easy access to control bleeding; ability to choose a cosmetic site for the skin incision; minimal tissue removal before reaching the lesion; ability to maintain a sterile field; and applicability to almost any mammographic lesion identified, whether single or multiple. Disadvantages include the need for a separate procedure to place the wire and potential of missing the lesion in 2.5 per cent, requiring additional surgery. PMID:10917475

  13. AXIS: an instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Zacharias, R; Felker, B; Holder, J P; Allen, F V; Bell, P M; Bradley, D; Montesanti, R; Landen, O L

    2014-11-01

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV-200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition. PMID:25430200

  14. AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G. N. Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Zacharias, R.; Felker, B.; Holder, J. P.; Allen, F. V.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D.; Montesanti, R.; Landen, O. L.

    2014-11-15

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV–200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  15. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaA, a molecular chaperone essential for the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Rui; Esser, Lothar; Poole, Steven; McVeigh, Annette; Chen, Yu-xing; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of pilus bioassembly in Gram-negative bacteria stems mainly from studies of P pili and type 1 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, which are mediated by the classic chaperone–usher pathway (CUP). However, CFA/I fimbriae, a class 5 fimbria and intestinal colonization factor for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), are proposed to assemble via the alternate chaperone pathway (ACP). Both CUP and ACP fimbrial bioassembly pathways require the function of a periplasmic chaperone, but their corresponding proteins share very low similarity in primary sequence. Here, the crystallization of the CFA/I periplasmic chaperone CfaA by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method is reported. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected from a native CfaA crystal to 2 Å resolution and to 1.8 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively, from a lead and a platinum derivative. These crystals displayed the symmetry of space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.6, b = 28.68, c = 90.60 Å, β = 119.7°. Initial phases were derived from multiple isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering experiments using the data from the platinum and lead derivatives. This resulted in an interpretable electron-density map showing one CfaA molecule in an asymmetric unit. Sequence assignments were aided by anomalous signals from the heavy-atom derivatives. Refinement of the atomic model of CfaA is ongoing, which is expected to further understanding of the essential aspects and allowable variations in tertiary structure of the greater family of chaperones involved in chaperone–usher mediated bioassembly. PMID:24637755

  16. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaA, a molecular chaperone essential for the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bao, Rui; Esser, Lothar; Poole, Steven; McVeigh, Annette; Chen, Yu Xing; Savarino, Stephen J; Xia, Di

    2014-02-01

    Understanding of pilus bioassembly in Gram-negative bacteria stems mainly from studies of P pili and type 1 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, which are mediated by the classic chaperone-usher pathway (CUP). However, CFA/I fimbriae, a class 5 fimbria and intestinal colonization factor for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), are proposed to assemble via the alternate chaperone pathway (ACP). Both CUP and ACP fimbrial bioassembly pathways require the function of a periplasmic chaperone, but their corresponding proteins share very low similarity in primary sequence. Here, the crystallization of the CFA/I periplasmic chaperone CfaA by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method is reported. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected from a native CfaA crystal to 2 Å resolution and to 1.8 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively, from a lead and a platinum derivative. These crystals displayed the symmetry of space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.6, b = 28.68, c = 90.60 Å, β = 119.7°. Initial phases were derived from multiple isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering experiments using the data from the platinum and lead derivatives. This resulted in an interpretable electron-density map showing one CfaA molecule in an asymmetric unit. Sequence assignments were aided by anomalous signals from the heavy-atom derivatives. Refinement of the atomic model of CfaA is ongoing, which is expected to further understanding of the essential aspects and allowable variations in tertiary structure of the greater family of chaperones involved in chaperone-usher mediated bioassembly. PMID:24637755

  17. EDITORIAL: Advances in Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments for Production Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Gao, Yongsheng; Krystek, Michael

    2008-08-01

    . Neuschaefer-Rube et al, also from PTB, present procedures and standards to test tactile and optical microsensors and micro-computed tomography systems, which are similar to the established tests for classical coordinate measuring machines and assess local and global sensor characteristics. The last three papers are related to micro/nano-metrology and intelligent instrumentation. Jiang et al from Tohoku University describe the fabrication of piezoresistive nanocantilevers for ultra-sensitive force detection by using spin-out diffusion, EB lithography and FAB etching, respectively. Y-C Liu et al from National Taiwan University develop an economical and highly sensitive optical accelerometer using a commercial optical pickup head. Michihata et al from Osaka University experimentally investigate the positioning sensing property and accuracy of a laser trapping probe for a nano-coordinate measuring machine. As guest editors, we believe that this special feature presents the newest information on advances in measurement technology and intelligent instruments from basic research to applied systems for Production Engineering. We would like to thank all the authors for their great contributions to this special feature and the referees for their careful reviews of the papers. We would also like to express our thanks and appreciation to Professor P Hauptmann, Editor-in-Chief of MST, for his kind offer to publish selected ISMTII 2007 papers in MST, and to the publishing staff of MST for their dedicated efforts that have made this special feature possible.

  18. EDITORIAL: Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation Systems for the Food and Beverage Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong

    2006-02-01

    Advanced sensors and instrumentation systems are becoming increasingly important in the classification, characterization, authentication, quality control and safety management of food products and beverages. To bring together industrialists and academic researchers to discuss the latest developments and trends in this particular area, the ISAT (Instrument Science and Technology) Group of the Institute of Physics organized a highly focused one-day technical meeting, which was held at the Rutherford Conference Centre at the Institute of Physics in London on 15 December 2004. The event was co-sponsored by the Measurement, Sensors, Instrumentation and NDT Professional Network of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and the Measurement Science and Technology Panel of the Institute of Measurement and Control. The special feature in this issue (on pages 229 287) brings together a collection of some of the papers that were presented at the event. Also included in the special feature are two relevant papers that were submitted through the usual route. Technical topics covered, though wide ranging as reflected in part by the diversity of the papers, demonstrate recent developments and possible approaches that may offer solutions to a broad range of sensing and measurement problems in the food and beverage industries. The first paper, reported by Sheridan et al, is concerned with the quality monitoring of chicken, sausages and pastry products during their cooking processes using an optical fibre-based sensing system. Carter et al describe how digital imaging and image processing techniques have been applied to achieve the classification and authentication of rice grains. The challenges in the measurement and control of final moisture content in baked food products such as bread and biscuits are addressed and discussed by McFarlane. Juodeikiene et al report their progress in the development of acoustic echolocation-based techniques for the evaluation of porosity and

  19. Qualification issues associated with the use of advanced instrumentation and control systems hardware in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-10-01

    The instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and Tiber-optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I&C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying I&C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I&C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light water reactor. The template was then used to address reliability issues for microprocessor-based protection systems. Standards (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I&C systems were also identified. This approach addresses in part issues raised in Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy document SECY-91-292. which recognizes that advanced I&C systems for the nuclear industry are ``being developed without consensus standards, as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.``

  20. Wide field imager instrument for the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Nandra, Kirpal; Plattner, Markus; Porro, Matteo; Rau, Arne; Santangelo, Andrea; Tenzer, Chris; Wilms, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (Athena) has been selected for ESA's L2 mission, scheduled for launch in 2028. It will provide the necessary capabilities to achieve the ambitious goals of the science theme "The Hot and Energetic Universe." Athena's x-ray mirrors will be based on silicon pore optics technology with a 12-m focal length. Two complementary focal plane camera systems are foreseen, which can be moved interchangeably to the focus of the mirror system: the actively shielded micro-calorimeter spectrometer X-IFU and the wide field imager (WFI). The WFI camera will provide an unprecedented survey power through its large field of view of 40 arc min with a high count-rate capability (˜1 Crab). It permits a state-of-the-art energy resolution in the energy band of 0.1 to 15 keV during the entire mission lifetime (e.g., full width at half maximum ≤150 eV at 6 keV). This performance is accomplished by a set of depleted P-channel field effect transistor (DEPFET) active pixel sensor matrices with a pixel size well suited to the angular resolution of 5 arc sec (on-axis) of the mirror system. Each DEPFET pixel is a combined detector-amplifier structure with a MOSFET integrated onto a fully depleted 450-μm-thick silicon bulk. This manuscript will summarize the current instrument concept and design, the status of the technology development, and the envisaged baseline performance.

  1. Advanced Instrumentation and Control Methods for Small and Medium Reactors with IRIS Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    J. Wesley Hines; Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Michael Doster; Robert M. Edwards; Kenneth D. Lewis; Paul Turinsky; Jamie Coble

    2011-05-31

    Development and deployment of small-scale nuclear power reactors and their maintenance, monitoring, and control are part of the mission under the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) program. The objectives of this NERI-consortium research project are to investigate, develop, and validate advanced methods for sensing, controlling, monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis of these reactors, and to demonstrate the methods with application to one of the proposed integral pressurized water reactors (IPWR). For this project, the IPWR design by Westinghouse, the International Reactor Secure and Innovative (IRIS), has been used to demonstrate the techniques developed under this project. The research focuses on three topical areas with the following objectives. Objective 1 - Develop and apply simulation capabilities and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis methods to address sensor deployment analysis and small grid stability issues. Objective 2 - Develop and test an autonomous and fault-tolerant control architecture and apply to the IRIS system and an experimental flow control loop, with extensions to multiple reactor modules, nuclear desalination, and optimal sensor placement strategy. Objective 3 - Develop and test an integrated monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis system for SMRs using the IRIS as a test platform, and integrate process and equipment monitoring (PEM) and process and equipment prognostics (PEP) toolboxes. The research tasks are focused on meeting the unique needs of reactors that may be deployed to remote locations or to developing countries with limited support infrastructure. These applications will require smaller, robust reactor designs with advanced technologies for sensors, instrumentation, and control. An excellent overview of SMRs is described in an article by Ingersoll (2009). The article refers to these as deliberately small reactors. Most of these have modular characteristics, with multiple units deployed at the same plant site. Additionally, the topics focus

  2. Advances in Instrumentation for Quantification of Isotopic Nitrous Oxide from ppb levels to 100%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, F.; Gupta, M.; Leen, J.; Provencal, R. A.; Owano, T. G.; Baer, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    The isotopic composition of trace gases provides information of their origin and fate that cannot be determined from their concentration measurements alone. Biological source and loss processes, like bacterial production of nitrous oxide, are typically accompanied by isotopic selectivity associated with the kinetics of bond formation and destruction. Of the three important biologically mediated greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), the understanding of nitrous oxide isotopic budget in air lags behind the other two gases primarily due to the relatively low concentration of N2O in ambient air (~320 ppb). Furthermore, the origin of nitrates in rivers, lakes, ocean and other water supplies may be determined from analyses of isotopic nitrous oxide produced via chemical reduction or biological conversion. These processes can produce nitrous oxide at levels considerably greater than those present in ambient air. To date, analyses of isotopic nitrous oxide requires either pre-concentration of samples containing low concentrations or dilution of samples with high concentrations. We report significant advances of instrumentation for real-time measurements of site-specific isotopic nitrogen (δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ15N, δ18O) and mixing ratio [N2O] of nitrous oxide over a very wide range of mole fractions in air. Specifically, LGR's Isotopic N2O Analyzer can report site-specific isotopic nitrogen and isotopic oxygen continuously in flows ranging from 0.2 to over 20 ppm (parts per million) nitrous oxide in air (with preconcentration or dilution). Furthermore, for samples of limited volume, a batch technique may be used for similar isotopic measurements in discrete samples containing 0.2 ppm to 100% nitrous oxide (e.g., sample volumes from bacterial digestion can be as little as 1-10 mL). This novel technology, which employs cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) and a mid-infrared laser (4.56 microns) and does not require any cryogenic components, has been

  3. Multiepitope fusion antigen induces broadly protective antibodies that prevent adherence of Escherichia coli strains expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and CFA/IV.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Wollenberg, Katie M; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2014-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years and continues to be a major threat to global health. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in developing countries. ETEC strains are able to attach to host small intestinal epithelial cells by using bacterial colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins. This attachment helps to initiate the diarrheal disease. Vaccines that induce antiadhesin immunity to block adherence of ETEC strains that express immunologically heterogeneous CFA adhesins are expected to protect against ETEC diarrhea. In this study, we created a CFA multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) carrying representative epitopes of CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, and CS3), and CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, and CS6), examined its immunogenicity in mice, and assessed the potential of this MEFA as an antiadhesin vaccine against ETEC. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with this CFA MEFA exhibited no adverse effects and developed immune responses to CFA/I, CFA/II, and CFA/IV adhesins. Moreover, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, ETEC or E. coli strains expressing CFA/I, CFA/II, or CFA/IV adhesins were significantly inhibited in adherence to Caco-2 cells. Our results indicated this CFA MEFA elicited antibodies that not only cross-reacted to CFA/I, CFA/II and CFA/IV adhesins but also broadly inhibited adherence of E. coli strains expressing these seven adhesins and suggested that this CFA MEFA could be a candidate to induce broad-spectrum antiadhesin protection against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, this antigen construction approach (creating an MEFA) may be generally used in vaccine development against heterogenic pathogens. PMID:24351757

  4. Assessment of instrumentation needs for advanced coal power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Lipka, J.V.; Rutkowski, M.D.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify contaminants, identify instrumentation needs, assess available instrumentation and identify instruments that should be developed for controlling and monitoring gas streams encountered in the following power plants: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, and Gasification Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell. Emphasis was placed on hot gas cleanup system gas stream analysis, and included process control, research and environmental monitoring needs. Commercial process analyzers, typical of those currently used for process control purposes, were reviewed for the purpose of indicating commercial status. No instrument selection guidelines were found which were capable of replacing user interaction with the process analyzer vendors. This study leads to the following conclusions: available process analyzers for coal-derived gas cleanup applications satisfy current power system process control and regulatory requirements, but they are troublesome to maintain; commercial gas conditioning systems and in situ analyzers continue to be unavailable for hot gas cleanup applications; many research-oriented gas stream characterization and toxicity assessment needs can not be met by commercially available process analyzers; and greater emphasis should be placed on instrumentation and control system planning for future power plant applications. Analyzers for specific compounds are not recommended other than those needed for current process control purposes. Instead, some generally useful on-line laser-based and inductively coupled plasma methods are recommended for further development because of their potential for use in present hot gas cleanup research and future optimization, component protection and regulation compliance activities. 48 refs., 21 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. RASOR: an advanced instrument for soft x-ray reflectivity and diffraction.

    PubMed

    Beale, T A W; Hase, T P A; Iida, T; Endo, K; Steadman, P; Marshall, A R; Dhesi, S S; van der Laan, G; Hatton, P D

    2010-07-01

    We report the design and construction of a novel soft x-ray diffractometer installed at Diamond Light Source. The beamline endstation RASOR is constructed for general users and designed primarily for the study of single crystal diffraction and thin film reflectivity. The instrument is comprised of a limited three circle (theta, 2theta, and chi) diffractometer with an additional removable rotation (phi) stage. It is equipped with a liquid helium cryostat, and post-scatter polarization analysis. Motorized motions are provided for the precise positioning of the sample onto the diffractometer center of rotation, and for positioning the center of rotation onto the x-ray beam. The functions of the instrument have been tested at Diamond Light Source, and initial test measurements are provided, demonstrating the potential of the instrument. PMID:20687739

  6. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  7. Advanced Telescopes and Observatories and Scientific Instruments and Sensors Capability Roadmaps: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Dan; Bankston, Perry

    2005-01-01

    Agency objective are: Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  8. The Urey Instrument: An Advanced In Situ Organic and Oxidant Detector for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, Andrew D.; Chalmers, John H.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Amashukeli, Xenia; Willis, Peter; Skelley, Alison M.; Mathies, Richard A.; Quinn, Richard C.; Zent, Aaron P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Amundson, Ron; Glavin Daniel P.; Botta, Oliver; Barron, Laurence; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Coleman, Max; Hofmann, Beda A.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Rettberg, Petra; Ride, Sally; Musée, François Robert; Sephton, Mark A.; Yen, Albert

    2008-06-01

    The Urey organic and oxidant detector consists of a suite of instruments designed to search for several classes of organic molecules in the martian regolith and ascertain whether these compounds were produced by biotic or abiotic processes using chirality measurements. These experiments will also determine the chemical stability of organic molecules within the host regolith based on the presence and chemical reactivity of surface and atmospheric oxidants. Urey has been selected for the Pasteur payload on the European Space Agency's (ESA's) upcoming 2013 ExoMars rover mission. The diverse and effective capabilities of Urey make it an integral part of the payload and will help to achieve a large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of cosmochemistry and the origin of life.

  9. Next generation Advanced Laser Fluorometry (ALF) for characterization of natural aquatic environments: new instruments.

    PubMed

    Chekalyuk, Alexander; Hafez, Mark

    2013-06-17

    The new optical design allows single- or multi-wavelength excitation of laser-stimulated emission (LSE), provides optimized LSE optical collection for spectral and temporal analyses, and incorporates swappable modules for flow-through and small-volume sample measurements. The basic instrument configuration uses 510 nm laser excitation for assessments of chlorophyll-a, phycobiliprotein pigments, variable fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in CDOM-rich waters. The three-laser instrument configuration (375, 405, and 510 nm excitation) provides additional Fv/Fm measurements with 405 nm excitation, CDOM assessments in a broad concentration range, and potential for spectral discrimination between oil and CDOM fluorescence. The new measurement protocols, analytical algorithms and examples of laboratory and field measurements are discussed. PMID:23787609

  10. The Urey instrument: an advanced in situ organic and oxidant detector for Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Aubrey, Andrew D; Chalmers, John H; Bada, Jeffrey L; Grunthaner, Frank J; Amashukeli, Xenia; Willis, Peter; Skelley, Alison M; Mathies, Richard A; Quinn, Richard C; Zent, Aaron P; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Amundson, Ron; Glavin, Daniel P; Botta, Oliver; Barron, Laurence; Blaney, Diana L; Clark, Benton C; Coleman, Max; Hofmann, Beda A; Josset, Jean-Luc; Rettberg, Petra; Ride, Sally; Robert, François; Sephton, Mark A; Yen, Albert

    2008-06-01

    The Urey organic and oxidant detector consists of a suite of instruments designed to search for several classes of organic molecules in the martian regolith and ascertain whether these compounds were produced by biotic or abiotic processes using chirality measurements. These experiments will also determine the chemical stability of organic molecules within the host regolith based on the presence and chemical reactivity of surface and atmospheric oxidants. Urey has been selected for the Pasteur payload on the European Space Agency's (ESA's) upcoming 2013 ExoMars rover mission. The diverse and effective capabilities of Urey make it an integral part of the payload and will help to achieve a large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of cosmochemistry and the origin of life. PMID:18680409

  11. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R&D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R&D.

  12. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R D.

  13. Advances in Neutron Spectroscopy and High Magnetic Field Instrumentation for studies of Correlated Electron Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Granroth, Garrett E

    2011-01-01

    Neutron Spectroscopy has provided critical information on the magnetism in correlated electron systems. Specifically quantum magnets, superconductors, and multi-ferroics are areas of productive research. A discussion of recent measurements on the SEQUOIA spectrometer will provide examples of how novel instrumentation concepts are used on the latest generation of spectrometers to extend our knowledge in such systems. The now ubiquitous function of sample rotation allows for full mapping of volumes of $Q$ and $\\omega$ space. An instrument focused on low angles could extend these maps to cover more of the first Brillioun zone. Innovative chopper cascades allow two unique modes of operation. Multiplexed measurements allow the simultaneous measurement of high and low energy features in an excitation spectrum. Alternatively by limiting the neutron bandwidth incident on the Fermi Chopper, background from subsequent time frames is removed, enabling the observation of weak, large energy transfer features. Finally the implementation of event-based detection for neutron experiments is time correlated experiments. Diffraction studies of the high field spin states in MnWO$_4$ using magnetic fields up to 30 T, provided by a pulsed magnet, illustrate this method. Expanding the high field studies to spectroscopy will require a novel instrument, focused around a world class DC magnet, like Zeemans proposed for the SNS.

  14. Implementation of local area network extension for instrumentation standard trigger capabilities in advanced data acquisition platformsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. M.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; de Arcas, G.; Vega, J.

    2008-10-01

    Synchronization mechanisms are an essential part of the real-time distributed data acquisition systems (DASs) used in fusion experiments. Traditionally, they have been based on the use of digital signals. The approach known as local area network extension for instrumentation (LXI) provides a set of very powerful synchronization and trigger mechanisms. The Intelligent Test Measurement System (ITMS) is a new platform designed to implement distributed data acquisition and fast data processing for fusion experiments. It is based on COMPATPCI technology and its extension to instrumentation (PXI). Hardware and software elements have been developed to include LXI trigger and synchronization mechanisms in this platform in order to obtain a class A LXI instrument. This paper describes the implementation of such a system, involving the following components: commercial hardware running a Linux operating system; a real-time extension to an operating system and network (RTAI and RTNET), which implements a software precision time protocol (PTP) using IEEE1588; an ad hoc PXI module to support hardware implementation of PTP-IEEE 1588; and the multipoint, low-voltage differential signaling hardware LXI trigger bus.

  15. Development of the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE): An Advanced Airborne DIAL Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alvah S., Jr.; Brown, Kevin E.; Hall, William M.; Barnes, James C.; Edwards, William C.; Petway, Larry B.; Little, Alan D.; Luck, William S., Jr.; Jones, Irby W.; Antill, Charles W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Instrument is the first fully-engineered, autonomous Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) System for the measurement of water vapor in the troposphere (aerosol and cloud measurements are included). LASE uses a double-pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser for the transmitter with a 30 ns pulse length and 150 mJ/pulse. The laser beam is "seeded" to operate on a selected water vapor absorption line in the 815-nm region using a laser diode and an onboard absorption reference cell. A 40 cm diameter telescope collects the backscattered signals and directs them onto two detectors. LASE collects DIAL data at 5 Hz while onboard a NASA/Ames ER-2 aircraft flying at altitudes from 16-21 km. LASE was designed to operate autonomously within the environment and physical constraints of the ER-2 aircraft and to make water vapor profile measurements across the troposphere to better than 10% accuracy. LASE has flown 19 times during the development of the instrument and the validation of the science data. This paper describes the design, operation, and reliability of the LASE Instrument.

  16. Advanced sampling techniques for hand-held FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Weber, Chris; Levy, Dustin

    2013-05-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenging ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, extreme reliability, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the HazMatID™ Elite, a FT-IR instrument designed to balance the portability advantages of a handheld device with the performance challenges associated with miniaturization. In this paper, special focus will be given to the HazMatID Elite's sampling interfaces optimized to collect and interrogate different types of samples: accumulated material using the on-board ATR press, dispersed powders using the ClearSampler™ tool, and the touch-to-sample sensor for direct liquid sampling. The application of the novel sample swipe accessory (ClearSampler) to collect material from surfaces will be discussed in some detail. The accessory was tested and evaluated for the detection of explosive residues before and after detonation. Experimental results derived from these investigations will be described in an effort to outline the advantages of this technology over existing sampling methods.

  17. Conducting Reflective, Hands-On Research with Advanced Characterization Instruments: A High-Level Undergraduate Practical Exploring Solid-State Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, S. J.; Mapp, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    An undergraduate practical exercise has been designed to provide hands-on, instrument-based experience of advanced characterization techniques. A research experience approach is taken, centered around the concept of solid-state polymorphism, which requires a detailed knowledge of molecular and crystal structure to be gained by advanced analytical…

  18. Implementation of advanced matrix corrections for active interrogation of waste drums using the CTEN instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, S.; Estep, R.; Hollas, C.

    1998-12-31

    The combined thermal/epithermal neutron instrument (CTEN) was designed at Los Alamos to improve measurement accuracy and mitigate self shielding effects inherent in the differential dieaway technique (DDT). A major goal in this research effort has been the development of a calibration technique that incorporates recently developed matrix and self-shielding corrections using data generated from additional detectors and new acquisition techniques. A comprehensive data set containing both active and passive measurements was generated using 26 different matrices and comprising a total of 1,400 measurements. In all, 31 flux-and-matrix-dependent parameters, 24 positional parameters, two dieaway times, and a correlated ratio were determined from each of the over 1,400 measurements. A reduced list of matrix indicators, prioritized using the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm, was used to train a neural network using a generalized regression technique (GRNN) to determine matrix- and position-corrected calibration factors. This paper describes the experimental, analytical, and empirical techniques used to determine the corrected calibration factor for an unknown waste drum. Results from a range of cases are compared with those obtained using a mobile DDT instrument and traditional DDT algorithms.

  19. Advanced Spectroscopic and Thermal Imaging Instrumentation for Shock Tube and Ballistic Range Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.; Cruden, Brett A.; Bogdanoff, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility and Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF, an aeroballistic range) at NASA Ames support basic research in aerothermodynamic phenomena of atmospheric entry, specifically shock layer radiation spectroscopy, convective and radiative heat transfer, and transition to turbulence. Innovative optical instrumentation has been developed and implemented to meet the challenges posed from obtaining such data in these impulse facilities. Spatially and spectrally resolved measurements of absolute radiance of a travelling shock wave in EAST are acquired using multiplexed, time-gated imaging spectrographs. Nearly complete spectral coverage from the vacuum ultraviolet to the near infrared is possible in a single experiment. Time-gated thermal imaging of ballistic range models in flight enables quantitative, global measurements of surface temperature. These images can be interpreted to determine convective heat transfer rates and reveal transition to turbulence due to isolated and distributed surface roughness at hypersonic velocities. The focus of this paper is a detailed description of the optical instrumentation currently in use in the EAST and HFFAF.

  20. Advanced instrumentation for DNP-enhanced MAS NMR for higher magnetic fields and lower temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Yoh; Idehara, Toshitaka; Fukazawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2016-03-01

    Sensitivity enhancement of MAS NMR using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is gaining importance at moderate fields (B0 < 9 T) and temperatures (T > 90 K) with potential applications in chemistry and material sciences. However, considering the ever-increasing size and complexity of the systems to be studied, it is crucial to establish DNP under higher field conditions, where the spectral resolution and the basic NMR sensitivity tend to improve. In this perspective, we overview our recent efforts on hardware developments, specifically targeted on improving DNP MAS NMR at high fields. It includes the development of gyrotrons that enable continuous frequency tuning and rapid frequency modulation for our 395 GHz-600 MHz and 460 GHz-700 MHz DNP NMR spectrometers. The latter 700 MHz system involves two gyrotrons and a quasi-optical transmission system that combines two independent sub-millimeter waves into a single dichromic wave. We also describe two cryogenic MAS NMR probe systems operating, respectively, at T ∼100 K and ∼30 K. The latter system utilizes a novel closed-loop helium recirculation mechanism, achieving cryogenic MAS without consuming any cryogen. These instruments altogether should promote high-field DNP toward more efficient, reliable and affordable technology. Some experimental DNP results obtained with these instruments are presented.

  1. Advanced instrumentation for DNP-enhanced MAS NMR for higher magnetic fields and lower temperatures.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Yoh; Idehara, Toshitaka; Fukazawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2016-03-01

    Sensitivity enhancement of MAS NMR using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is gaining importance at moderate fields (B0<9T) and temperatures (T>90K) with potential applications in chemistry and material sciences. However, considering the ever-increasing size and complexity of the systems to be studied, it is crucial to establish DNP under higher field conditions, where the spectral resolution and the basic NMR sensitivity tend to improve. In this perspective, we overview our recent efforts on hardware developments, specifically targeted on improving DNP MAS NMR at high fields. It includes the development of gyrotrons that enable continuous frequency tuning and rapid frequency modulation for our 395 GHz-600 MHz and 460 GHz-700 MHz DNP NMR spectrometers. The latter 700 MHz system involves two gyrotrons and a quasi-optical transmission system that combines two independent sub-millimeter waves into a single dichromic wave. We also describe two cryogenic MAS NMR probe systems operating, respectively, at T ∼ 100K and ∼ 30K. The latter system utilizes a novel closed-loop helium recirculation mechanism, achieving cryogenic MAS without consuming any cryogen. These instruments altogether should promote high-field DNP toward more efficient, reliable and affordable technology. Some experimental DNP results obtained with these instruments are presented. PMID:26920836

  2. Instrumentation for time-resolved dispersive studies at Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, S.; Rodricks, B.

    1996-07-01

    We describe progress in optics and instrumentation at beamline 1-BM, designed in part for time-resolved dispersive x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements. The key optical element is a horizontally focusing curved-crystal monochromator that invokes a 4-point bending scheme and a liquid-metal cooling bath. The device has been designed for dispersive studies in the 5-24 keV range, with a horizontal focal spot size of {le}100 micrometers FWHM. To minimize thermal distortions and thermal equilibration time, the 355 {times} 32 {times} 0.8 mm crystal is nearly half submerged in a bath of Ga-In-Sn-Zn alloy, which thermally couples the crystal to the water-cooled Cu frame, while permitting the required crystal bending. Harmonic rejection, focusing schemes and the novel spectrometer positioning system will be described. For microsecond-resolution time-resolved studies, a fast CCD streak camera detector has been developed. Results from commissioning tests of the instrumentation are described. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Advanced Two-Phase Flow Instrumentation Program. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Turnage, K.G.; Davis, C.E.; Anderson, R.L.; Miller, G.N.

    1980-12-01

    Work performed to develop and evaluate liquid level sensors for in-vessel use in pressurized water reactors is described. Experiments were performed with three thermal-type level sensors in natural convection to saturated water and steam. Pressures in those tests ranged from 0.1 to 8.6 MPa (15 to 1250 psia). Thermal-type sensors were also tested in steam-water forced convection at low and moderate pressures. Sensor response was found to be insensitive to flow velocity and void fraction but sensitive to the presence or absence of a liquid phase. A series of meetings was held with representatives of three pressurized water reactor vendors regarding research goals and implementation of reactor-vessel monitoring instrumentation.

  4. Recent advances in soft x-ray scattering instrumentation at the national synchrotron light source

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.D.; Kao, Chi-Chang; Hastings, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    For the study of condensed matter systems x-ray scattering experiments are often the best choice as they have several desirable features including complete conservation of momentum in the incident and detected particles, well characterized initial and final electronic states, and insensitivity of photon transport to external electric and magnetic fields (as compared to photoelectrons for example). To extend these techniques to the soft x-ray region ({Dirac h}v < 1keV) the lack of suitable detectors, and the difficulties associated with performing scattering experiments in vacuum must be overcome. In this paper we provide details of our instrumental development program, and show some representative examples of experiments we have performed to date. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

    1999-04-27

    On November 23, 1998, an 18,000-foot-deep wild-cat natural gas well being drilled near Bakersfield, CA blew out and caught fire. All attempts to kill this well failed, and the well continues to flow under limited control, producing large volumes of natural gas, salt water, and some oil. The oil and some of the water is being separated and trucked off site, and the remaining gas and water is being burned at the well head. A relief well is being drilled approximately one-quarter mile away in an attempt to intercept the first well. If the relief well is successful, it will be used to cement in and kill the first well. Epoch Wellsite Services, Inc., the mud-logging company for the initial well and the relief well, requested Sandia's rolling float meter (RFM) for these critical drilling operations. The RFM is being used to measure the mud outflow rate and detect kicks while drilling the relief well, which will undoubtedly encounter reservoir conditions similar to those responsible for the blow out. Based on its prior experience with the RFM, Epoch believes that it is the only instrument capable of providing the level of accuracy and response to mudflow needed to quickly detect kicks and minimize the risk of a blowout on this second critical well. In response to the urgent request from industry, Sandia and Epoch technicians installed the RFM on the relief well return line, and completed its initial calibration. The data from the RFM is displayed in real-time for the driller, the companyman, and the toolpusher via Epochs RIGWATCH Drilling Instmmentation System. The RFM has already detected several small kicks while drilling toward the annulus of the blown out well. A conventional paddle meter is located downstream of the RFM to provide redundancy and the opportunity to compare the two meters in an actual drilling operation, The relief well is nearing 14,000 feet deep, targeting an intercept of the first well near 17,600 feet. The relief well is expected to be completed in

  6. Experimental studies in natural groundwater recharge dynamics: Assessment of recent advances in instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Perry, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    To quantify and model the natural groundwater-recharge process, two sites in south-central Kansas, U.S.A., were instrumented with various modern sensors and data microloggers. The atmospheric-boundary layer and the unsaturated and saturated soil zones were monitored as a unified regime. Data from the various sensors were collected using microloggers in combination with magnetic-cassette tape, graphical and digital recorders, analog paper-tape recorders, and direct observations to evaluate and automate data collection and processing. Atmospheric sensors included an anemometer, a tipping-bucket raingage, an air-temperature thermistor, a relative-humidity probe, a net radiometer, and a barometric-pressure transducer. Sensors in the unsaturated zone consisted of soil-temperature thermocouples, tensiometers coupled with pressure transducers and dial gages, gypsum blocks, and a neutron moisture probe operated by an observer. The saturated-zone sensors consisted of a water-level pressure transducer, a conventional float gage connected to a variable potentiometer, soil thermocouples, and a number of multiple-depth piezometers. Evaluation of the operation of these sensors and recorders indicated that certain types of equipment such as pressure transducers are very sensitive to environmental conditions. Extraordinary steps had to be taken to protect some of the equipment, whereas other equipment seemed to be reliable under all conditions. Based on such experiences, a number of suggestions aimed at improving such investigations are outlined. ?? 1984.

  7. TAIGA the Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy — present status and perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnev, N. M.; Astapov, I. I.; Bogdanov, A. G.; Boreyko, V.; Büker, M.; Brückner, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Gafarov, A. V.; Chvalaev, O. B.; Gorbunov, N.; Grebenyuk, V.; Grinyuk, A.; Gress, O. A.; Gress, T.; Dyachok, A. N.; Epimakhov, S. N.; Horns, D.; Ivanova, A. L.; Karpov, N. I.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Kazarina, Y. A.; Kindin, V.; Kirichkov, N. V.; Kiryuhin, S. N.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Kompaniets, K. G.; Konstantinov, E. N.; Korobchenko, A. V.; Korosteleva, E. E.; Kozhin, V. A.; Kunnas, M.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Lenok, V. V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Lubsandorzhiev, N. B.; Mirgazov, R. R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Monkhoev, R. D.; Nachtigall, R.; Pakhorukov, A. L.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Pankov, L. V.; Poleschuk, V. A.; Popova, E. G.; Porelli, A.; Prosin, V. V.; Ptuskin, V. S.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Rubtsov, G. I.; Rueger, M.; Samoliga, V. S.; Satunin, P. S.; Savinov, V. Yu; Semeney, Yu A.; Shaibonov, B. A., Jr.; Silaev, A. A.; Silaev, A. A., Jr.; Skurikhin, A. V.; Slunecka, M.; Spiering, C.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Tluczykont, M.; Wischnewski, R.; Yashin, I. I.; Zagorodnikov, A. V.; Zurbanov, V. L.

    2014-09-01

    TAIGA stands for ``Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy'' and is a project to built a complex, hybrid detector system for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy from a few TeV to several PeV, and for cosmic ray studies from 100 TeV to 1 EeV. TAIGA will search for ``PeVatrons'' (ultra-high energy gamma-ray sources) and measure the composition and spectrum of cosmic rays in the knee region (100 TeV-10 PeV) with good energy resolution and high statistics. TAIGA will include Tunka-HiSCORE — an array of wide-angle air Cherenkov stations, an array of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, an array of particle detectors, both on the surface and underground and the TUNKA-133 air Cherenkov array.

  8. Technology advancement of the CCD201-20 EMCCD for the WFIRST coronagraph instrument: sensor characterization and radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Leon K.; Demers, Richard T.; Hoenk, Michael; Peddada, Pavani; Nemati, Bijan; Cherng, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Neat, Leo S.; Loc, Anthony; Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew; Reinheimer, Alice; Jorden, Paul R.; Jordan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset (WFIRST-AFTA) mission is a 2.4-m class space telescope that will be used across a swath of astrophysical research domains. JPL will provide a high-contrast imaging coronagraph instrument-one of two major astronomical instruments. In order to achieve the low noise performance required to detect planets under extremely low flux conditions, the electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) has been baselined for both of the coronagraph's sensors-the imaging camera and integral field spectrograph. JPL has established an EMCCD test laboratory in order to advance EMCCD maturity to technology readiness level-6. This plan incorporates full sensor characterization, including read noise, dark current, and clock-induced charge. In addition, by considering the unique challenges of the WFIRST space environment, degradation to the sensor's charge transfer efficiency will be assessed, as a result of damage from high-energy particles such as protons, electrons, and cosmic rays. Science-grade CCD201-20 EMCCDs have been irradiated to a proton fluence that reflects the projected WFIRST orbit. Performance degradation due to radiation displacement damage is reported, which is the first such study for a CCD201-20 that replicates the WFIRST conditions. In addition, techniques intended to identify and mitigate radiation-induced electron trapping, such as trap pumping, custom clocking, and thermal cycling, are discussed.

  9. Advanced wavefront correction technology for the next generation of adaptive optics equipped ophthalmic instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doble, Nathan; Helmbrecht, Michael; Hart, Matthew; Juneau, Thor

    2005-04-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is becoming increasingly important in improving system resolution in flood illuminated fundus cameras, confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopes (cSLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). For the latter two cases, AO also provides an increase in the throughput light levels. The flood and cSLO modalities have allowed for the routine, in-vivo visualization of individual cone photoreceptor cells and real time blood flow measurements of single leukocyte cells. Most recently, evidence of the rod mosaic has also been observed. A key component in all of these systems is the deformable mirror (DM) that provides the correction of the high order aberrations. The majority of these systems to-date have utilized large, expensive DMs originally designed for astronomy. This paper details ongoing work at Iris AO, Inc in which advanced fabrication techniques based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are being leveraged. This approach yields extremely compact DMs that offer higher performance and lower cost, coupled with the ability for batch fabrication. The Iris AO design uses an array of individually addressable hexagonal segments than can each be moved in three orthogonal directions. Such a design allows for superior ocular wavefront fitting performance and very high stroke (>10 microns). Additionally, our DMs can be fabricated with diameters that are an order of magnitude smaller than conventional non-MEMS techniques.

  10. 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar Instrument Advancements for Tropospheric Wind Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Kavaya, M. J.; Koch, G.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge derived from global tropospheric wind measurement is an important constituent of our overall understanding of climate behavior [1]. Accurate weather prediction saves lives and protects properties from destructions. High-energy 2-micron laser is the transmitter of choice for coherent Doppler wind detection. In addition to the eye-safety, the wavelength of the transmitter suitably matches the aerosol size in the lower troposphere. Although the technology of the 2-micron laser has been maturing steadily, lidar derived wind data is still a void in the global weather database. In the last decade, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have been engaged in this endeavor, contributing to the scientific database of 2-micron lidar transmitters. As part of this effort, an in depth analysis of the physics involved in the workings of the Ho: Tm laser systems have been published. In the last few years, we have demonstrated lidar transmitter with over1Joule output energy. In addition, a large body of work has been done in characterizing new laser materials and unique crystal configurations to enhance the efficiency and output energy of the 2-micron laser systems. At present 2-micron lidar systems are measuring wind from both ground and airborne platforms. This paper will provide an overview of the advancements made in recent years and the technology maturity levels attained.

  11. Instrumentation and beam dynamics study of advanced electron-photon facility in Indiana University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tianhuan

    The Advanced eLectron-PHoton fAcility (ALPHA) is a compact electron accelerator under construction and being commissioned at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). In this thesis, we have studied the refurbished Cooler Injector Synchrotron (CIS) RF cavity using both the transmission line model and SUPERFISH simulation. Both low power and high power RF measurements have been carried out to characterize the cavity. Considering the performance limit of ferrite, we have designed a new ferrite loaded, co-axial quarter wave like cavity with similar structure but a more suitable ferrite material. We have also designed a traveling wave stripline kicker for fast extraction by POISSON and Microwave Studio. The strips' geometry is trimmed to maximize the uniformity of the kicking field and match the impedance of the power cables. The time response simulation shows the kicker is fast enough for machine operation. The pulsed power supply requirement has also been speci ed. For the beam diagnosis in the longitudinal direction, we use a wideband Wall Gap Monitor (WGM) served in CIS. With proper shielding and amplification to get good WGM signal, we have characterized the injected and extracted beam signal in single pass commissioning, and also verified the debunching effect of the ALPHA storage ring. A modulation-demodulation signal processing method is developed to measure the current and longitudinal profile of injected beam. By scanning the dipole strength in the injection line, we have reconstructed the tomography of the longitudinal phase space of the LINAC beam. In the accumulation mode, ALPHA will be operated under a low energy and high current condition, where intra beam scattering (IBS) becomes a dominant effect on the beam emittance. A self consistent simulation, including IBS effect, gas scattering and linear coupling, has been carried out to calculate the emittance of the stored beam.

  12. Instrumentation and Beam Dynamics Study of Advanced Electron-Photon Facility in Indiana University

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Tianhuan

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced eLectron-PHoton fAcility (ALPHA) is a compact electron accelerator under construction and being commissioned at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). In this thesis, we have studied the refurbished Cooler Injector Synchrotron (CIS) RF cavity using both the transmission line model and SUPERFISH simulation. Both low power and high power RF measurements have been carried out to characterize the cavity. Considering the performance limit of ferrite, we have designed a new ferrite loaded, co-axial quarter wave like cavity with similar structure but a more suitable ferrite material. We have also designed a traveling wave stripline kicker for fast extraction by POISSON and Microwave Studio. The strips geometry is trimmed to maximize the uniformity of the kicking field and match the impedance of the power cables. The time response simulation shows the kicker is fast enough for machine operation. The pulsed power supply requirement has also been specified. For the beam diagnosis in the longitudinal direction, we use a wideband Wall Gap Monitor (WGM) served in CIS. With proper shielding and amplification to get good WGM signal, we have characterized the injected and extracted beam signal in single pass commissioning, and also verified the debunching effect of the ALPHA storage ring. A modulation-demodulation signal processing method is developed to measure the current and longitudinal profile of injected beam. By scanning the dipole strength in the injection line, we have reconstructed the tomography of the longitudinal phase space of the LINAC beam. In the accumulation mode, ALPHA will be operated under a low energy and high current condition, where intra beam scattering (IBS) becomes a dominant effect on the beam emittance. A self consistent simulation, including IBS effect, gas scattering and linear coupling, has been carried out to calculate the emittance of the stored beam.

  13. Accurate Characterization of Winter Precipitation Using In-Situ Instrumentation, CSU-CHILL Radar, and Advanced Scattering Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. J.; Notaros, B. M.; Bringi, V. N.; Kleinkort, C.; Huang, G. J.; Kennedy, P.; Thurai, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel approach to remote sensing and characterization of winter precipitation and modeling of radar observables through a synergistic use of advanced in-situ instrumentation for microphysical and geometrical measurements of ice and snow particles, image processing methodology to reconstruct complex particle three-dimensional (3D) shapes, computational electromagnetics to analyze realistic precipitation scattering, and state-of-the-art polarimetric radar. Our in-situ measurement site at the Easton Valley View Airport, La Salle, Colorado, shown in the figure, consists of two advanced optical imaging disdrometers within a 2/3-scaled double fence intercomparison reference wind shield, and also includes PLUVIO snow measuring gauge, VAISALA weather station, and collocated NCAR GPS advanced upper-air system sounding system. Our primary radar is the CSU-CHILL radar, with a dual-offset Gregorian antenna featuring very high polarization purity and excellent side-lobe performance in any plane, and the in-situ instrumentation site being very conveniently located at a range of 12.92 km from the radar. A multi-angle snowflake camera (MASC) is used to capture multiple different high-resolution views of an ice particle in free-fall, along with its fall speed. We apply a visual hull geometrical method for reconstruction of 3D shapes of particles based on the images collected by the MASC, and convert these shapes into models for computational electromagnetic scattering analysis, using a higher order method of moments. A two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD), collocated with the MASC, provides 2D contours of a hydrometeor, along with the fall speed and other important parameters. We use the fall speed from the MASC and the 2DVD, along with state parameters measured at the Easton site, to estimate the particle mass (Böhm's method), and then the dielectric constant of particles, based on a Maxwell-Garnet formula. By calculation of the "particle-by-particle" scattering

  14. Development of instrumentation for surface, interface and thin film science at the Advanced Photon Source. Final Technical Report for period September 15, 1994 - September 14, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Bedzyk, Michael J.

    2000-09-01

    The P.I. and his research term successfully used the funds from the DOE Instrumentation grant entitled ''Development of Instrumentation for Surface, Interface and Thin Film Science at the Advanced Photon Source'' to design, build, test, and commission a customized surface science x-ray scattering/spectroscopy chamber. This instrumentation, which is presently in use at an APS x-ray undulator beam line operated by the DuPont-Northwestern-Dow Collaborative Access Team, is used for x-ray measurements of surface, interface, thin film, and nano-structures.

  15. Performance acceptance test of a portable instrument to detect uranium in water at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S.; Weeks, S.J.

    1997-03-28

    The Eppendorf-Biotronik Model IC 2001-2, a portable field ruggedized ion chromatography instrument, was rigorously tested at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio. This instrument rapidly detected the uranium concentration in water, and has a detection limit in the low ppb range without using the sample concentrating feature. The test set of samples analyzed included: ``Real World`` water samples from the AWWT containing uranium concentrations in the 9--110 ppb range, a sample blank, and a performance evaluation sample. The AWWT samples contained sets of both raw water and acid-preserved water samples. Selected samples were analyzed in quadruplicate to asses the instrument`s precision, and these results were compared with the results from an off-site confirmatory laboratory to assess the instrument`s accuracy. Additional comparisons with on-site laboratory instruments, Chemcheck KPA-11 and Scintrex UA-3 are reported. Overall, the Eppendorf-Biotronik IC 2001-2 performed exceptionally well providing a detection limit in the low ppb region (< 10 ppb) and giving rapid (< 5 minutes) accurate and reproducible analytical results for the AWWT, ``real world``, water samples with uranium concentrations in the region of interest (10--40 ppb). The per sample operating cost for this instrument is equivalent to the per sample cost for the currently used KPA. The time required to analyze a sample and provide a result is approximately the same for the CI 2001-2, KPA, and Scintrex instruments.

  16. Coordination of Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) Science Working Group (SWG) for the study of instrument accommodation and operational requirements on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives are to coordinate the activities of the Science Working Group (SWG) of the Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) for the study of instruments accommodation and operation requirements on board space station. In order to facilitate the progress of the objective, two conferences were organized, together with two small group discussions.

  17. Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-03-15

    Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham

  18. LIGHT WATER REACTOR SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM ADVANCED INSTRUMENTATION, INFORMATION, AND CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES TECHNICAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-07-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  20. Comparison of Data From Far Ultraviolet Limb Scanning and Imaging Instrumentation Aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, P. W.; Carruthers, G. R.; Dymond, K. F.; Finch, M. A.; McDonald, S. E.; Nicholas, A. C.; Thonnard, S. E.; Budzien, S. A.; McCoy, R. P.

    2001-05-01

    The ARGOS satellite includes two Naval Research Laboratory experiments that monitor naturally occurring far ultraviolet emissions in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Coincident observations between these two instruments, the Global Imaging Monitor of the Ionosphere (GIMI) and the Low Resolution Airglow and Auroral Spectrograph (LORAAS), have been obtained. The GIMI instrument produces 9 ° x 9 ° limb images with passband coverage between 131 and 200 nm. The LORAAS instrument provides the spectral distribution from 80 to 170 nm for 2.4 ° x 17 ° field of regard. The two instruments are coaligned aboard the spacecraft, aft-looking in the orbital plane. Preliminary comparisons of observations obtained from the imaging and scanning instruments under quiet geomagnetic conditions are reported, including irradiances and spectral distributions. By combining the GIMI data with that from LORAAS, the study of the dynamics of the ionosphere can be expanded to investigate both horizontal and vertical distrubutions and their variances. The improved capability can extend to the study of active periods with highly variable and disturbed ionospheres, and examples are discussed from data acquired during periods of high geomagnetic activity. These results provide the first direct comparison between near simultaneous limb scans and images from ARGOS, and show promise as a validation technique to improve capabilities for the study of ionospheric variability.

  1. Relationship between three cotton trash measurements: High Volume Instrumentation (HVI), Shirley Analyzer (SA), and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of non-lint materials (trashes) in commercial cotton bales at various amounts degrades the market values and further influences the end-use qualities. In order to ensure a fair trading, the USDA’s AMS has introduced the high volume instrument (HVI) measurement as a universal standard index....

  2. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). As-Designed Parts List: Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) As-Built Parts List for the AMSU-A Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the As-Designed Parts List, Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) As-Built Parts Lists For The AMSU-A Instruments, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  3. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A1 METSAT Instrument (S/N 105) Qualification, Level Vibration Tests of December 1998 (S/O 605445, OC-419)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, AMSU-AL METSAT Instrument (S/N 105) Qualification Level Vibration Tests of December 1998 (S/0 605445, OC-419), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  4. Networking strategies of the microscopy community for improved utilization of advanced instruments: (2) The national network for transmission electron microscopy and atom probe studies in France (METSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Épicier, Thierry; Snoeck, Étienne

    2014-02-01

    With the development, over the past ten years, of a new generation of electron microscopes with advanced performance, incorporating aberration correctors, monochromators, more sensitive detectors, and innovative specimen environments, quantitative measurements at the subnanometer and, in certain cases, at the unique atom level, are now accessible. However, an optimized use of these possibilities requires access to costly instruments and support by specialized trained experts. For these reasons, a national network (METSA) has been created in France with the support of CNRS and CEA in order to offer, in centres with complementary equipment and expertise, an open access to an enlarged and multidisciplinary community of academic and industrial users.

  5. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrument logic diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains all of the block diagrams and internal logic diagrams for the Earth Observation System Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). These diagrams show the signal inputs, outputs, and internal signal flow for the AMSU-A.

  6. Integrative Advances for OCT-Guided Ophthalmic Surgery and Intraoperative OCT: Microscope Integration, Surgical Instrumentation, and Heads-Up Display Surgeon Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Justis P.; Srivastava, Sunil K.; Feiler, Daniel; Noonan, Amanda I.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate key integrative advances in microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) technology that will facilitate adoption and utilization during ophthalmic surgery. Methods We developed a second-generation prototype microscope-integrated iOCT system that interfaces directly with a standard ophthalmic surgical microscope. Novel features for improved design and functionality included improved profile and ergonomics, as well as a tunable lens system for optimized image quality and heads-up display (HUD) system for surgeon feedback. Novel material testing was performed for potential suitability for OCT-compatible instrumentation based on light scattering and transmission characteristics. Prototype surgical instruments were developed based on material testing and tested using the microscope-integrated iOCT system. Several surgical maneuvers were performed and imaged, and surgical motion visualization was evaluated with a unique scanning and image processing protocol. Results High-resolution images were successfully obtained with the microscope-integrated iOCT system with HUD feedback. Six semi-transparent materials were characterized to determine their attenuation coefficients and scatter density with an 830 nm OCT light source. Based on these optical properties, polycarbonate was selected as a material substrate for prototype instrument construction. A surgical pick, retinal forceps, and corneal needle were constructed with semi-transparent materials. Excellent visualization of both the underlying tissues and surgical instrument were achieved on OCT cross-section. Using model eyes, various surgical maneuvers were visualized, including membrane peeling, vessel manipulation, cannulation of the subretinal space, subretinal intraocular foreign body removal, and corneal penetration. Conclusions Significant iterative improvements in integrative technology related to iOCT and ophthalmic surgery are demonstrated. PMID:25141340

  7. A New Class of Advanced Accuracy Satellite Instrumentation (AASI) for the CLARREO Mission: Interferometer Test-bed Tradestudies and Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. K.; Revercomb, H. E.; Grandmont, F. J.; Buijs, H.; Gero, P. J.; Best, F. A.; Tobin, D. C.; Knuteson, R. O.; Laporte, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    NASA has selected CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory), a climate mission recommended by the 2007 Decadal Survey of the US National Research Council, as a potential new start in 2010. CLARREO will measure spectrally resolved radiance from the earth and atmospheric bending of GPS signals related to atmospheric structure (refractivity) as benchmark measurements of long-term climate change trends. CLARREO will provide more complete spectral and time-of-day coverage and will fly basic physical standards to eliminate the need to assume on-board reference stability. Therefore, the spectral radiances from this mission will also serve as benchmarks to propagate a highly accurate calibration to other space-borne IR instruments. Technology development and risk reduction for the CLARREO mission is being conducted at the Space Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The objective of this work is to develop and demonstrate the technology necessary to measure IR spectrally resolved radiances (3 - 50 micrometers) with ultra high accuracy (< 0.1 K 3-sigma brightness temperature at scene temperature) for the CLARREO benchmark climate mission. The ultimate benefit to society is irrefutable quantification of climate change and a solid basis for improving climate model forecasts. The proposed work (University of Wisconsin-Madison and Harvard University) was selected for the 2007 NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) and will develop four primary technologies to assure SI traceability on-orbit and demonstrate the ultra high accuracy measurement capability required for CLARREO: (1) On-orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS), a high emissivity blackbody source that uses multiple miniature phase-change cells to provide a revolutionary on-orbit standard with absolute temperature accuracy proven over a wide range of temperatures, (2) On-orbit Cavity Emissivity Modules (OCEMs), providing a source (quantum cascade laser, QCL, or

  8. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce P. Hallbert; J. J. Persensky; Carol Smidts; Tunc Aldemir; Joseph Naser

    2009-08-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program is operated in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of Nuclear Power Plants that are currently in operation. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. Advanced instruments and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear assets. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. The strategic objective of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technology R&D pathway is to establish a technical basis for new technologies needed to achieve safety and reliability of operating nuclear assets and to implement new technologies in nuclear energy systems. This will be achieved by carrying out a program of R&D to develop scientific knowledge in the areas of: • Sensors, diagnostics, and prognostics to support characterization and prediction of the effects of aging and degradation phenomena effects on critical systems, structures, and components (SSCs) • Online monitoring of SSCs and active components, generation of information, and methods to analyze and employ online monitoring information • New methods for visualization, integration, and information use to enhance state awareness and leverage expertise to achieve safer, more readily available electricity generation

  9. Advanced instrument system for real-time and time-series microbial geochemical sampling of the deep (basaltic) crustal biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, James P.; Copson, David A.; Jolly, James; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Huei-Ting; Glazer, Brian T.; Wheat, C. Geoffrey

    2012-03-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program borehole CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories provide long-term access to hydrothermal fluids circulating within the basaltic crust (basement), providing invaluable opportunities to study the deep biosphere. We describe the design and application parameters of the GeoMICROBE instrumented sled, an autonomous sensor and fluid sampling system. The GeoMICROBE system couples with CORK fluid delivery lines to draw large volumes of fluids from crustal aquifers to the seafloor. These fluids pass a series of in-line sensors and an in situ filtration and collection system. GeoMICROBE's major components include a primary valve manifold system, a positive displacement primary pump, sensors (e.g., fluid flow rate, temperature, dissolved O2, electrochemistry-voltammetry analyzer), a 48-port in situ filtration and fluid collection system, computerized controller, seven 24 V-40 A batteries and wet-mateable (ODI) communications with submersibles. This constantly evolving system has been successfully connected to IODP Hole 1301A on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Also described here is a mobile pumping system (MPS), which possesses many of the same components as the GeoMICROBE (e.g., pump, sensors, controller), but is directly powered and controlled in real time via submersible operations; the MPS has been employed repeatedly to collect pristine basement fluids for a variety of geochemical and microbial studies.

  10. U.S. Department Of Energy Advanced Small Modular Reactor R&D Program: Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although the recent progress in constructing new plants has spurred design of more fully digital plant-wide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. Additionally, development of advanced reactor concepts, such as Generation IV designs and small modular reactors, introduces different plant conditions (e.g., higher temperatures, different coolants, etc.) and unique plant configurations (e.g., multiunit plants with shared systems, balance of plant architectures with reconfigurable co-generation options) that increase the need for enhanced ICHMI capabilities to fully achieve industry goals related to economic competitiveness, safety and reliability, sustainability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. As a result, significant challenges remain to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of modern ICHMI technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, several DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements within their respective research portfolios. This paper describes current

  11. Integrating the Advanced Human Eye Model (AHEM) and optical instrument models to model complete visual optical systems inclusive of the typical or atypical eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, William J., III

    2012-06-01

    PURPOSE: To present a commercially available optical modeling software tool to assist the development of optical instrumentation and systems that utilize and/or integrate with the human eye. METHODS: A commercially available flexible eye modeling system is presented, the Advanced Human Eye Model (AHEM). AHEM is a module that the engineer can use to perform rapid development and test scenarios on systems that integrate with the eye. Methods include merging modeled systems initially developed outside of AHEM and performing a series of wizard-type operations that relieve the user from requiring an optometric or ophthalmic background to produce a complete eye inclusive system. Scenarios consist of retinal imaging of targets and sources through integrated systems. Uses include, but are not limited to, optimization, telescopes, microscopes, spectacles, contact and intraocular lenses, ocular aberrations, cataract simulation and scattering, and twin eye model (binocular) systems. RESULTS: Metrics, graphical data, and exportable CAD geometry are generated from the various modeling scenarios.

  12. Gas chromatography: Possible application of advanced instrumentation developed for solar system exploration to space station cabin atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) technology was developed for flight experiments in solar system exploration. The GC is a powerful analytical technique with simple devices separating individual components from complex mixtures to make very sensitive quantitative and qualitative measurements. It monitors samples containing mixtures of fixed gases and volatile organic molecules. The GC was used on the Viking mission in support of life detection experiments and on the Pioneer Venus Large Probe to determine the composition of the venusian atmosphere. A flight GC is under development to study the progress and extent of STS astronaut denitrogenation prior to extravehicular activity. Advanced flight GC concepts and systems for future solar system exploration are also studied. Studies include miniature ionization detectors and associated control systems capable of detecting from ppb up to 100% concentration levels. Further miniaturization is investigated using photolithography and controlled chemical etching in silicon wafers. Novel concepts such as ion mobility drift spectroscopy and multiplex gas chromatography are also developed for future flight experiments. These powerful analytical concepts and associated hardware are ideal for the monitoring of cabin atmospheres containing potentially dangerous volatile compounds.

  13. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  14. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. This report describes an inspector-instrument interface design which allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user. The interface has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer.

  15. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. An inspector-instrument interface design that allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user is presented. This capability has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer.

  16. The Brazilian Version of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) Is a Feasible, Valid and Reliable Instrument for the Measurement of Symptoms in Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Manfredini, Luciana Lopes; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purposes To develop and validate a Portuguese version of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) in Brazilian patients with advanced cancer. Methods The ESAS was translated and then back translated into Portuguese in accordance with international guidelines. The final version was approved by an Expert Committee after pilot testing on 24 advanced cancer patients. Subsequently, we evaluated the time to complete the assessment, the number of unanswered items, internal consistency, convergent validity, and known-group validity in a sample of 249 advanced cancer patients who completed the ESAS along with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A total of 90 clinically stable patients were retested after 4 to 96 hours (test-retest reliability), and 80 patients answered the ESAS after 21 (±7) days to measure scale responsiveness using an anchor-based method. Results The ESAS was completed in a mean time of only 2.2 minutes. The internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.861), and the removal of single items did not change the overall alpha value. For convergent validity, Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the ESAS symptom scores and the corresponding EORTC QLQ-C30 and ESS symptom scores ranged between 0.520 (95% CI = 0.424–0.605) and 0.814 (95% CI = 0.760–0.856), indicating moderate to strong correlations. Test-retest reliability values were considered adequate, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.758 (95% CI = 0.627–0.843) to 0.939 (95% CI = 0.905–0.960). Conclusions ESAS is a feasible, valid and reliable multi-symptom assessment instrument for use in Brazil. PMID:26154288

  17. Mars Miniature Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

  18. Review of Instrumented Indentation

    PubMed Central

    VanLandingham, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumented indentation, also known as depth-sensing indentation or nanoindentation, is increasingly being used to probe the mechanical response of materials from metals and ceramics to polymeric and biological materials. The additional levels of control, sensitivity, and data acquisition offered by instrumented indentation systems have resulted in numerous advances in materials science, particularly regarding fundamental mechanisms of mechanical behavior at micrometer and even sub-micrometer length scales. Continued improvements of instrumented indentation testing towards absolute quantification of a wide range of material properties and behavior will require advances in instrument calibration, measurement protocols, and analysis tools and techniques. In this paper, an overview of instrumented indentation is given with regard to current instrument technology and analysis methods. Research efforts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) aimed at improving the related measurement science are discussed.

  19. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Tests of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Test of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  20. Validation of the FM-800 ambulatory blood pressure monitor according to the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation criteria and the International Protocol.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kaori; Kikuya, Masahiro; Hara, Azusa; Hirose, Takuo; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Asayama, Kei; Inoue, Ryusuke; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    To validate the FM-800 device (Fukuda Denshi Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), this validation study was performed based on the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) protocol and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) criteria. Thirty-three participants were included (15 in phase 1 and an additional 18 in phase 2) in the ESH protocol. The device was tested on 85 participants according to the AAMI criteria, which require a mean device-observers discrepancy within 5 ± 8 mmHg. The tested device passed all the criteria for both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and for the Korotkoff and oscillometric methods according to the ESH protocol. The test device also fulfilled the AAMI accuracy criteria for the 85 participants; the mean ± SD of the SBP/DBP differences between the tested device and the mean of the observer readings were -1.1 ± 4.2/-0.8 ± 4.2 mmHg for the Korotkoff method and 2.3 ± 3.9/-2.3 ± 3.9 mmHg for the oscillometric method. The FM-800 device for ABPM passed all the validation criteria of the ESH and AAMI and can, therefore, be recommended for clinical use in an adult population. PMID:21091358

  1. Characterization of Leonid meteor head echo data collected using the VHF-UHF Advanced Research Projects Agency Long-Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar (ALTAIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, S.; Hunt, S. M.; McKeen, F. M.; Minardi, M. J.

    2002-02-01

    The Leonid meteor shower, which was predicted to hit storm-like activity on 17 November 1998, was observed using radar and optical sensors at the Kwajalein Missile Range in order to study potential threats to orbiting spacecraft. Meteor head echo data were collected during the predicted peak of the ``storm'' primarily using the Advanced Research Projects Agency Long-Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar (ALTAIR). ALTAIR is a dual-frequency radar at VHF (160 MHz) and UHF (422 MHz) that is uniquely suited for detecting meteor head echoes due to high sensitivity, precise calibration, and the ability to record radar data at a high rate (Gb/min). ALTAIR transmits right-circular (RC) polarized energy and records left-circular (LC) sum, RC sum, LC azimuth angle difference, and LC elevation angle difference channels; these four measurements facilitate the determination of three-dimensional target position and velocity as a function of radar cross section and time. During the predicted peak of the storm, ALTAIR detected 734 VHF head echoes in 29 min of data and 472 UHF head echoes in 17 min of data, as well as numerous specular and nonspecular ionization trails. This paper contains analysis on the head echo data, including dual-frequency statistics and the variability of head echo decelerations. We also include results from the analysis of the radius-density parameter, which shows a strong correlation with deceleration.

  2. Development and Validation of an Instrument To Assess the Self-Confidence of Students Enrolled in the Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongwiwatthananukit, Supakit; Newton, Gail D.; Popovich, Nicholas G.

    2002-01-01

    Sought to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure pharmacy students' self-confidence and to determine the effect of selected demographic variables as independent predictors of self-confidence. Found that the instrument had content validity, high internal consistency reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity. Several…

  3. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  4. Instrumentation in Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Barp, Eric A; Erickson, John G; Reese, Eric R

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, arthroscopic procedures of the foot and ankle have seen a significant increase in both indications and popularity. Furthermore, technological advances in video quality, fluid management, and other arthroscopy-specific instruments continue to make arthroscopic procedures more effective with reproducible outcomes. As surgeons continue to use this approach, it is important that they have a complete understanding of the instrumentation available to them, including their indications and limitations. PMID:27599434

  5. Design and performances of microcameras and photometers instruments on TARANIS satellite for an advanced characterization of Transient Luminous Event in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mer-Dachard, Fanny; Cansot, Elodie; Hébert, Philippe; Farges, Thomas; Ravel, Karen; Gaillac, Stéphanie

    2015-10-01

    The TARANIS mission aims at studying upper atmosphere coupling with a scientific nadir-pointing microsatellite - CNES Myriade family - at a low-altitude orbit (700 km). The main objectives are to measure the occurrence of Transient Luminous Event (TLE), impulsive energetic optical phenomena generated by storms according to recently discovered process, and Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF), their emissions and trigger factors. TARANIS instruments are currently in manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing phase. The MicroCameras and Photometers instruments (MCP) are in charge of the remote sensing of the sprites and the lightning in optical wavelengths. MicroCameras instrument [MCP-MC] is an imager in the visible and Photometers instrument [MCP-PH] is a radiometer with four bands from UV to NIR, able to detect TLEs on-board and to trigger the whole payload. The satellite will provide a complete survey of the atmosphere in low resolution together with a high resolution data of sites of interest automatically detected on board. For MC and PH instruments, CEA defined scientific needs and is in charge of processing data and providing scientific results. CNES described the technical requirements of these two instruments and will run in-flight commissioning. Design, manufacturing and testing is under responsibility of Sodern for MicroCameras and Bertin Technologies for Photometers. This article shortly describes physical characteristics of TLEs and presents the final design of these instruments and first measured performances.

  6. Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control (II&C) Research and Development Facility Buildout and Project Execution of LWRS II&C Pilot Projects 1 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Farris; Johanna Oxstrand; Gregory Weatherby

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on light water reactor sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current reactors. As technologies are introduced that change the operation of the plant, the LWRS pilot projects can help identify their best-advanced uses and help demonstrate the safety of these technologies. In early testing of operator performance given these emerging technologies will ensure the safety and usability of systems prior to large-scale deployment and costly verification and validation at the plant. The aim of these collaborations, demonstrations, and approaches are intended to lessen the inertia that sustains the current status quo of today's II&C systems technology, and to motivate transformational change and a shift in strategy to a long-term approach to II&C modernization that is more sustainable. Research being conducted under Pilot Project 1 regards understanding the conditions and behaviors that can be modified, either through process improvements and/or technology deployment, to improve the overall safety and efficiency of outage control at nuclear facilities. The key component of the research in this pilot project is accessing the delivery of information that will allow researchers to simulate the control room, outage control center (OCC) information, and plant status data. The simulation also allows researchers to identify areas of opportunity where plant operating status and outage activities can be analyzed to increase overall plant efficiency. For Pilot Project 3 the desire is to demonstrate the ability of technology deployment and the subsequent impact on maximizing the 'Collective Situational Awareness' of the various stakeholders in a commercial nuclear power plant. Specifically, the desire is to show positive results in plant

  7. AMOVA ["Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis"]: An Advanced Statistical Methodology Designed to Measure and Test the Validity, Reliability, and Overall Efficacy of Inquiry-Based Psychometric Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, James Edward, II

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides an epistemological rational for the Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis [also referred by the acronym "AMOVA"] statistical methodology designed to test psychometric instruments. This form of inquiry is a form of mathematical optimization in the discipline of linear stochastic modelling. AMOVA is an in-depth…

  8. Concrete and Formal Thinking Abilities in High School Biology Students as Measured by Three Separate Instruments. AESOP (Advancement of Education in Science-Oriented Programs) Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.; Blake, Anthony J. D.

    The purpose of this investigation was to classify a sample of high school biology students into concrete and formal operational levels using three separate instruments: (1) a battery of Piagetian tasks (the pendulum, bending rods, and the balance beam); (2) a written biology examination consisting of questions requiring concrete and formal…

  9. Cordless Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

  10. Monitoring Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology (Environmental Control Issue), 1977

    1977-01-01

    This section contains a listing of the manufacturers of environmental monitoring instruments. The manufacturers are listed alphabetically under product headings. Addresses are included in a different section. (MA)

  11. SURVEY INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C J

    1954-01-19

    This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

  12. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Ocean Observation Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) was developed by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. for Ames Research Center under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract as a simulator for an advanced oceanographic satellite instrument. The instrument measures water temperature and detects water color in nine wavelengths. Water color indicates chlorophyll content or phytoplankton. After EOCAP assistance and technical improvements, the AOCI was successfully commercialized by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. One version provides commercial fishing fleets with information about fish locations, and the other is used for oceanographic research.

  14. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  15. Instrumentation '79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Surveys the state of commerical development of analytical instrumentation as reflected by the Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. Includes optical spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, magnetic spectrometers, and x-ray. (Author/MA)

  16. Astronomical instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R. N.

    Indian astronomers have devised a number of instruments and the most important of these is the armillary sphere. The earliest armillary spheres were very simple instruments. Ptolemy in his Almagest enumerates at least three. The simplest of all was the equinoctial armilla. They had also the solstitial armilla which was a double ring, erected in the plane of the meridian with a rotating inner circle. This was used to measure the solar altitude.

  17. Oceanographic Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer sensor is towed by ship through the water and the resulting printouts are compared with satellite data. The instrument is non-destructive and can be used in situ, providing scientific information on ocean activity and productivity.

  18. What`s new in artificial lift. Part 2: Advances in electrical submersible pumping equipment and instrumentation/control, plus other new artificial lift developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1996-04-01

    The Part 1 article presented last month discussed recent industry artificial lift innovations for sucker rod pumping, progressing cavity pumping and gas lift. Described in this presentation are 22 advances recently introduced by 15 different companies for electrical submersible pumping (ESP), and other new developments related to artificial lift field operations. ESP innovations include contributions ranging from new downhole pump equipment, gas separators and cables to various surface controllers/monitors. Other R and D contributions cover desangers, separators, fluid level measurements, chemical injection and well-heads.

  19. Research Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  20. Instrumented SSH

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  1. Geoscience instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E. A. (Editor); Mercanti, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Geoscience instrumentation systems are considered along with questions of geoscience environment, signal processing, data processing, and design problems. Instrument platforms are examined, taking into account ground platforms, airborne platforms, ocean platforms, and space platforms. In situ and laboratory sensors described include acoustic wave sensors, age sensors, atmospheric constituent sensors, biological sensors, cloud particle sensors, electric field sensors, electromagnetic field sensors, precision geodetic sensors, gravity sensors, ground constituent sensors, horizon sensors, humidity sensors, ion and electron sensors, magnetic field sensors, tide sensors, and wind sensors. Remote sensors are discussed, giving attention to sensing techniques, acoustic echo-sounders, gamma ray sensors, optical sensors, radar sensors, and microwave radiometric sensors.

  2. Earth Viewing Applications Laboratory (EVAL). Instrument catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    There were 87 instruments described that are used in earth observation, with an additional 51 instruments containing references to programs and their major functions. These instruments were selected from such sources as: (1) earth observation flight program, (2) operational satellite improvement programs, (3) advanced application flight experiment program, (4) shuttle experiment definition program, and (5) earth observation aircraft program.

  3. Antibodies derived from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesin tip MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) against adherence of nine ETEC adhesins: CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Ruan, Xiaosai; Duan, Qiangde; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-06-30

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading bacterial cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. ETEC bacteria initiate diarrheal disease by attaching to host receptors at epithelial cells and colonizing in small intestine. Therefore, preventing ETEC attachment has been considered the first line of defense against ETEC diarrhea. However, developing vaccines effectively against ETEC bacterial attachment encounters challenge because ETEC strains produce over 23 immunologically heterogeneous adhesins. In this study, we applied MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) approach to integrate epitopes from adhesin tips or adhesive subunits of CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA adhesins and to construct an adhesin tip MEFA peptide. We then examined immunogenicity of this tip MEFA in mouse immunization, and assessed potential application of this tip MEFA for ETEC vaccine development. Data showed that mice intraperitoneally immunized with this adhesin tip MEFA developed IgG antibody responses to all nine ETEC adhesins. Moreover, ETEC and E. coli bacteria expressing these nine adhesins, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, exhibited significant reduction in attachment to Caco-2 cells. These results indicated that anti-adhesin antibodies induced by this adhesin tip MEFA blocked adherence of the most important ETEC adhesins, suggesting this multivalent tip MEFA may be useful for developing a broadly protective anti-adhesin vaccine against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:27228947

  4. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  5. RHIC instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-10

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  6. RHIC instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 1011 protons to 250 GeV, or 109 fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  7. RHIC instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.; Witkover, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Comparing the Psychometric Properties of the Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Behaviors (CNPI) and the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAIN-AD) Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Ersek, Mary; Herr, Keela; Neradilek, Moni Blazej; Buck, Harleah G.; Black, Brianne

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine and compare the psychometric properties of two common observational pain assessment tools used in persons with dementia. Design In a cross-sectional descriptive study nursing home (NH) residents were videotaped at rest and during a structured movement procedure. Following one training session and one practice session, two trained graduate nursing research assistants independently scored the tapes using the two pain observation tools. Setting Fourteen nursing homes in Western Washington State participating in a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to enhance pain assessment and management. Participants Sixty participants with moderate to severe pain were identified by nursing staff or chosen based on the pain items from the most recent Minimum Data Set assessment. Measures Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (CNPI) and the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD), demographic and pain-related data (Minimum Data Set), nursing assistant reports of participants’ usual pain intensity, Pittsburgh Agitation Scale (PAS). Results Internal consistency for both tools was good except for the CNPI at rest for one rater. Inter-rater reliability for pain presence was fair (K = 0.25 for CNPI with movement; K = 0.31 for PAINAD at rest) to moderate (K = 0.43 for CNPI at rest; K = 0.54 for PAINAD with movement). There were significant differences in mean CNPI and PAINAD scores at rest and during movement, providing support for construct validity. However, both tools demonstrated marked floor effects, particularly when participants were at rest, Conclusions Despite earlier studies supporting the reliability and validity of the CNPI and the PAINAD, findings from the current study indicate that these measures warrant further study with clinical users, should be used cautiously both in research and clinical settings and only as part of a comprehensive approach to pain assessment. PMID:20088854

  9. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  10. Instrumentation for interstellar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, M.

    The time has arrived for designing, building, and instrumenting a spacecraft for a dedicated foray into interstellar space surrounding our star, the Sun. This region was probed in the past by remote techniques and it will be explored in situ by the Interstellar Probe mission. The mission will significantly advance our understanding of the nature of the local interstellar medium and explore the distant frontier of the solar system by revealing the details of the interaction between the Sun and Galaxy. This mission will also be an important practical step toward interstellar flight of the future. Reaching interstellar space in reasonable time requires high escape velocities and will likely be enabled by non-chemical propulsion such as nuclear-powered electric propulsion or solar sailing. Unusually high spacecraft velocities, enormous distances from the Sun, and non-chemical propulsion will significantly influence the design of the mission, spacecraft and scientific instrumentation. We will review measurement objectives of the first mission into interstellar space and outline constrains on the instrumentation. Measurement of particles, fields, and dust in the interstellar medium will be complemented by search for complex molecules and remote sensing capabilities in various spectral bands. A "look" back at our solar system will also be a glimpse of wh at a flyby mission of the distant future would encounter in approaching another star. The instrumentation for interstellar exploration presents numerous challenges. Mass, telemetry, and power constraints would place a premium on miniaturization and autonom . There are, however,y physical limits on how small the sensors could be. New instrument concepts may be required to achieve the desired measurement capabilities under the stringent constraints of a realistic interstellar mission.

  11. Instrumentation for interstellar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The time has arrived for designing, building, and instrumenting a spacecraft for a dedicated foray into the galactic environment surrounding our star, the sun. This region was probed in the past by remote techniques and it will be explored in situ by the NASA's planned Interstellar Probe mission. The mission will significantly advance our understanding of the nature of the local interstellar medium and explore the distant frontier of the solar system by revealing the details of the interaction between the sun and the Galaxy. This mission will also be an important practical step toward interstellar flight of the future. Reaching interstellar space in reasonable time requires high escape velocities and will likely be enabled by non-chemical propulsion such as nuclear-powered electric propulsion or solar sailing. Unusually high spacecraft velocities, enormous distances from the Sun, and non-chemical propulsion will significantly influence design of the mission, spacecraft, and scientific instrumentation. We will review measurement objectives of the first dedicated mission into interstellar space and outline constraints on the instrumentation. Measurement of particles, fields, and dust in the interstellar medium will be complemented by search for complex organic molecules and remote sensing capabilities in various spectral bands. A "look" back at our solar system will also be a glimpse of what a truly-interstellar mission of the distant future would encounter in approaching a target star. The instrumentation for interstellar exploration presents numerous challenges. Mass, telemetry, and power constraints would place a premium on miniaturization and autonomy. There are, however, physical limits on how small the sensors could be. New instrument concepts may be required to achieve the desired measurement capabilities under the stringent constraints of a realistic interstellar mission.

  12. Development and preclinical evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of an oral ETEC vaccine containing inactivated E. coli bacteria overexpressing colonization factors CFA/I, CS3, CS5 and CS6 combined with a hybrid LT/CT B subunit antigen, administered alone and together with dmLT adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, J; Bourgeois, L; Carlin, N; Clements, J; Gustafsson, B; Lundgren, A; Nygren, E; Tobias, J; Walker, R; Svennerholm, A-M

    2013-05-01

    A first-generation oral inactivated whole-cell enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine, comprising formalin-killed ETEC bacteria expressing different colonization factor (CF) antigens combined with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), when tested in phase III studies did not significantly reduce overall (generally mild) ETEC diarrhea in travelers or children although it reduced more severe ETEC diarrhea in travelers by almost 80%. We have now developed a novel more immunogenic ETEC vaccine based on recombinant non-toxigenic E. coli strains engineered to express increased amounts of CF antigens, including CS6 as well as an ETEC-based B subunit protein (LCTBA), and the optional combination with a nontoxic double-mutant heat-labile toxin (LT) molecule (dmLT) as an adjuvant. Two test vaccines were prepared under GMP: (1) A prototype E. coli CFA/I-only formalin-killed whole-cell+LCTBA vaccine, and (2) A "complete" inactivated multivalent ETEC-CF (CFA/I, CS3, CS5 and CS6 antigens) whole-cell+LCTBA vaccine. These vaccines, when given intragastrically alone or together with dmLT in mice, were well tolerated and induced strong intestinal-mucosal IgA antibody responses as well as serum IgG and IgA responses to each of the vaccine CF antigens as well as to LT B subunit (LTB). Both mucosal and serum responses were further enhanced (adjuvanted) when the vaccines were co-administered with dmLT. We conclude that the new multivalent oral ETEC vaccine, both alone and especially in combination with the dmLT adjuvant, shows great promise for further testing in humans. PMID:23541621

  13. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of some relatively new applications of proven techniques to discussions…

  14. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

  15. Safeguards instrumentation: past, present, future

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Instruments are essential for accounting, for surveillance and for protection of nuclear materials. The development and application of such instrumentation is reviewed, with special attention to international safeguards applications. Active and passive nondestructive assay techniques are some 25 years of age. The important advances have been in learning how to use them effectively for specific applications, accompanied by major advances in radiation detectors, electronics, and, more recently, in mini-computers. The progress in seals has been disappointingly slow. Surveillance cameras have been widely used for many applications other than safeguards. The revolution in TV technology will have important implications. More sophisticated containment/surveillance equipment is being developed but has yet to be exploited. On the basis of this history, some expectations for instrumentation in the near future are presented.

  16. Advanced camera for surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Ford, Holland C.; Bartko, Frank; Bely, Pierre Y.; Broadhurst, Tom; Burrows, Christopher J.; Cheng, Edward S.; Crocker, James H.; Franx, Marijn; Feldman, Paul D.; Golimowski, David A.; Hartig, George F.; Illingworth, Garth; Kimble, Randy A.; Lesser, Michael P.; Miley, George H.; Postman, Marc; Rafal, Marc D.; Rosati, Piero; Sparks, William B.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; White, Richard L.; Sullivan, Pamela; Volmer, Paul; LaJeunesse, Tom

    2000-07-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a third generation instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It is currently planned for installation in HST during the fourth servicing mission in Summer 2001. The ACS will have three cameras.

  17. Research on geothermal chemistry and advanced instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertus, R. J.; Shannon, D. W.; Sullivan, R. G.; Kindle, C. H.; Pool, K. H.

    1985-09-01

    Research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) focuses on long-term geothermal power plant reliability. Past work concentrated on development of continuous high-temperature probes for monitoring process variables. PNL also completed a comprehensive handbook of brine treatment processes as they relate to injection well longevity. A recently completed study analyzed corrosion in the hydrocarbon system of a binary cycle plant. Over the two-year monitoring period, corrosion rates were less than 1 MPY in any part of the hydrocarbon system. The system was kept completely dry so the rates seem reasonable. Present projects include: (1) determination of gas breakout conditions at the Herber Binary Demonstration Plant operated by San Diego Gas and Electric Company; (2) generation of water mixing solubility data; (3) installation of prototype leak detectors at the Herber Plant; and (4) evaluation of state-of-the-art particle counters.

  18. Advances in Clinical PET/MRI Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Hans; Lerche, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the first whole-body PET/MRI scanners installed for clinical use were the sequential Philips PET/MRI with PMT-based, TOF-capable technology and the integrated simultaneous Siemens PET/MRI. Avalanche photodiodes as non-magneto-sensitive readout electronics allowed PET integrated within the MRI. The experiences with these scanners showed that improvements of software aspects, such as attenuation correction, were necessary and that efficient protocols combining optimally PET and MRI must be still developed. In 2014, General Electric issued an integrated PET/MRI with SiPM-based PET detectors, allowing TOF-PET. Looking at the MRI components of current PET/MR imaging systems, primary improvements come from sequences and new coils. PMID:26952724

  19. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (AEOSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Var, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth observation satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.

  20. Advanced research in instrumentation and diagnostics technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Lawrence, W.P.; Raptis, A.C.

    1992-09-01

    this research project will develop an ultrasonic flow imaging system based on tomographic technique. Initially, we will demonstrate both the reflection and diffraction tomographic applied to flow imaging. Then, the direct inversion problem will be examined. In this paper, we present the initial assessment of the feasibility and the evaluation of practical wedge designs. Major tasks of the project include (1) a feasibility study, (2) evaluation of sensing geometry and wedge design, (3) development of image reconstruction algorithm, and (4) flow tests of the imaging system. At present, we have completed the feasibility study and are in the process of evaluating wedge design.

  1. Mini-Laparoscopy: Instruments and Economics.

    PubMed

    Shadduck, Phillip P; Paquentin, Eduardo Moreno; Carvalho, Gustavo L; Redan, Jay A

    2015-11-01

    Mini-laparoscopy (Mini) was pioneered more than 20 years ago, initially with instruments borrowed from other specialties and subsequently with tools designed specifically for Mini. Early adoption of Mini was inhibited though by the limitations of these first-generation instruments, especially functionality and durability. Newer generation Mini instruments have recently become available with improved effector tips, a choice of shaft diameters and lengths, better shaft insulation and electrosurgery capability, improved shaft strength and rotation, more ergonomic handles, low-friction trocar options, and improved instrument durability. Improvements are also occurring in imaging and advanced energy for Mini. The current status of mini-laparoscopy instruments and economics are presented. PMID:26680380

  2. Instrumental Analysis in Environmental Chemistry - Gas Phase Detection Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Donald H.; Meyers, Philip A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses advances made in chemical analysis instrumentation used in environmental monitoring. This first of two articles is concerned with analytical instrumentation in which detection and dispersion depend ultimately on the properties of gaseous molecules. (JR)

  3. Instrumentation and Control for Fossil-Energy Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Instrumentation and control requirements for fossil-energy processes discussed in working document. Published to foster advancement of instrumentation and control technology by making equipment suppliers and others aware of specifications, needs, and potential markets.

  4. Optical Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  5. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry.

    PubMed

    McSween, Harry Y; McNutt, Ralph L; Prettyman, Thomas H

    2011-11-29

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon's crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

  6. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry

    PubMed Central

    McSween, Harry Y.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon’s crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

  7. Radiological instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-12-23

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material.

  8. Spectroscopic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Hans-Joachim

    The selection of a spectrographic system including the detector is governed by several aspects: - Wavelength region of interest - Low or high-resolution studies, survey spectra, line intensities only or detailed line profiles - Weak or strong emitter, which usually is equivalent to having a plasma of low or high density - Low or high time resolution, which basically determines the detector and only to a lesser degree the throughput of the system - Stigmatic or astigmatic image of the plasma in the exit plane Spectrometers with the exception of instruments for the X-ray region typically consist of: - An entrance slit (width w en, area A E) - A dispersive element - An optical system, which forms a spectrally dispersed image of the entrance slit in the exit plane - A detector in the exit plane Figure 3.1 illustrates a schematic layout. Dispersing elements are prisms, gratings, interferometers, and crystals. The imaging system consists usually of a lens L1 (or mirror M1) collimating the radiation from the entrance slit, and a lens L2 (or mirror M2) focusing the radiation in the exit (image) plane. Mirrors have the advantage of no chromatic aberration and can also be used at shorter wavelengths where glasses, quartz, and crystals absorb the radiation. Unfortunately, their reflectivity decreases at short wavelengths; this can be remedied to some degree by reducing the number of reflecting surfaces and employing spherical or even toroidal gratings which combine focusing and dispersing properties. The optical system (L1, L2) or (M1, M2) becomes unnecessary.

  9. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  10. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

  11. An Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, John H.

    The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program is a project designed to devise experiments to coordinate the use of instruments in the laboratory programs of physical chemistry, instrumental analysis, and inorganic chemistry at the advanced undergraduate level. It is intended that such experiments would incorporate an introduction to the instrument…

  12. Handheld advanced nucleic acid analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul; Hadley, Dean R.; Bodtker, Brian H.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Mariella, Raymond P., Jr.; Koopman, Ronald P.; Belgrader, Philip

    2000-12-01

    There is a growing need for portable, lightweight, battery operated instruments capable of detecting and identifying bio-warfare and bio-terrorism agents in the field. To address this need, we have developed a handheld PCR instrument. LLNLs advanced thermal cycling technology and expertise with portable, field tested biological instrumentation, combined with the development of real-time, fluorescence based PCR assays, has enabled the development of a very portable, versatile, power efficient PCR instrument with a simplified operating system designed for use by first responders. The heart of the instrument is the sample module, which incorporates the advanced silicon thermal cycler developed at LLNL.

  13. GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

  14. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Tim; Speed, Kerry; Lange, Robert; Olsen, Art; Smith, Brett; Taylor, Robert; Schmidt, Mark; Racette, Paul; Bonds, Quenton; Brucker, Ludovic; Koenig, Lora; Marshall, Hans-Peter; Vanhille, Ken; Borissenko, Anatoly; Tsang, Leung; Tan, Shurun

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses current efforts to develop a Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM). The objective of the effort are as follows: to advance the utility of a wideband active and passive instrument (8-40 gigahertz) to support the snow science community; improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors; demonstrate science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE); and advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  15. Low activated incore instrument

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.

    1994-04-19

    Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

  16. Evaluating musical instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  17. Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALGains): An Online Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gayle; Atwong, Catherine; Fuller, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALGains) is a Web-based instrument for measuring student perception of their learning in a variety of courses. The authors adapted this instrument to measure students' achieved proficiency in analyzing cases in an advanced business communication class. The instrument showed that students did achieve a high…

  18. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  19. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  20. Afterword: Instruments as media, media as instruments.

    PubMed

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2016-06-01

    The collection of essays comes under the heading of two catchwords: instruments and media. This Afterword looks at their interaction and roles in exploring the characteristics of living beings throughout history, especially their melding and gliding into each other. Before turning to the papers, I will make some more general remarks on instruments and media in scientific, and in particular, biological research. PMID:27053536

  1. Piping inspection instrument carriage

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1993-09-20

    This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  2. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  3. Build an effective group for instrumentation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fullen, W.E.

    1988-08-01

    An instrumentation group is needed, either as an independent company or as part of a larger engineering or engineering/construction company. Ideally, such a group has many multitalented individuals to cover field instrumentation, electrical wiring, programmable controllers, single loop controllers, distributive control systems, configuration, software programming, computer aided drafting, communication links, advanced control, and additional support from all other disciplines. There are many occasions when, for short periods, there is a need for other engineering disciplines such as electrical, piping, structural, civil and architectural on instrumentation systems projects.

  4. Musical Instruments, Models, and Machines.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenfeld, Neil

    1996-11-01

    A traditional musical instrument is an analog computer that integrates equations of motion based on applied boundary conditions. We are approaching a remarkable time when advances in transducers, real-time computing, and mathematical modeling will enable new technology to emulate and generalize the physics of great musical instruments from first principles, helping virtuosic musicians to do more and non-musicians to engage in creative expression. I will discuss the underlying problems, including non-contact sensing and state reconstruction for nonlinear systems, describe exploratory performance collaborations with artists ranging from Yo-Yo Ma to Penn & Teller, and then consider the broader implications of these devices for the interaction between people and machines. Part B of program listing

  5. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  6. Woodwind Instrument Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperl, Gary

    1980-01-01

    The author presents a simple maintenance program for woodwind instruments which includes the care of tendon corks, the need for oiling keys, and methods of preventing cracks in woodwind instruments. (KC)

  7. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  8. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a brief summary of the utility of a wideband active and passive (radar and radiometer, respectively) instrument (8-40 GHz) to support the snow science community. The effort seeks to improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors and to demonstrate their science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE). In addition the effort seeks to advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  9. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  10. The Instrumental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Devin Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to enable better predictive models by engaging raw experimental data through the Instrumental Model. The Instrumental Model captures the protocols and procedures of experimental data analysis. The approach is formalized by encoding the Instrumental Model in an XML record. Decoupling the raw experimental data from…

  11. Compact Instruments Measure Heat Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Based in Huntsville, Alabama, AZ Technology Inc. is a woman- and veteran-owned business that offers expertise in electromechanical-optical design and advanced coatings. AZ Technology has received eight Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center for the development of spectral reflectometers and the measurement of surface thermal properties. The company uses a variety of measurement services and instruments, including the Spectrafire, a portable spectral emissometer it used to assist General Electric with the design of its award-winning Giraffe Warmer for neonatal intensive care units.

  12. Real-time atmospheric chemistry field instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Delphine K; Jimenez, Jose L

    2010-10-01

    Quantifying the concentrations of trace atmospheric species in complex, reactive, and constantly changing gas and particle mixtures is challenging. This article provides a broad overview of recent advances in instrumentation used for analyzing ambient gases and particles continuously and with fast time resolution during field campaigns. PMID:20722374

  13. Present status of aircraft instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    This report gives a brief description of the present state of development and of the performance characteristics of instruments included in the following group: speed instruments, altitude instruments, navigation instruments, power-plant instruments, oxygen instruments, instruments for aerial photography, fog-flying instruments, general problems, summary of instrument and research problems. The items considered under performance include sensitivity, scale errors, effects of temperature and pressure, effects of acceleration and vibration, time lag, damping, leaks, elastic defects, and friction.

  14. Interstellar Dust Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Drake, K.; Collette, A.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Postberg, F.; Krueger, H.; Auer, S.

    2010-10-01

    Interstellar grains traversing the inner planetary system have been identified by the Ulysses dust detector. Space dust detectors on other missions confirmed this finding. Analysis of the Stardust collectors is under way to search for and analyze such exotic grains. Interstellar dust particles can be detected and analyzed in the near-Earth space environment. New instrumentation has been developed to determine the origin of dust particles and their elemental composition. A Dust Telescope is a combination of a Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 084501, 2008) together with a high mass resolution mass analyzer for the chemical composition of dust particles in space. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of induced electric signals when a charged grain flies through a position sensitive electrode system. A modern DTS can measure dust particles as small as 0.2 micron in radius and dust speeds up to 100 km/s. Large area chemical analyzers of 0.1 m2 sensitive area have been tested at a dust accelerator and it was demonstrated that they have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass number up to >100 (Earth, Moon and Planets, DOI: 10.1007/s11038-005-9040-z, 2005; Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 014501, 2007). The advanced Dust Telescope is capable of identifying interstellar and interplanetary grains, and measuring their mass, velocity vector, charge, elemental and isotopic compositions. An Active Dust Collector combines a DTS with an aerogel or other dust collector materials, e.g. like the ones used on the Stardust mission. The combination of a DTS with a dust collector provides not only individual trajectories of the collected particles but also their impact time and position on the collector which proves essential in finding collected sub-micron sized grains on the collector.

  15. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  16. A review of instrumentation kinematics of engine-driven nickel-titanium instruments.

    PubMed

    Çapar, I D; Arslan, H

    2016-02-01

    Over the years, NiTi alloys have become indispensable materials in endodontic treatment. With technological advancements in metallurgy, manufacturers have attempted to produce instruments with enhanced features. In parallel with these developments, endodontic motors have undergone improvements in terms of torque control and kinematics that are adjustable in different directions. This review presents an overview of the advancements in instrumentation kinematics and the effect of instrumentation kinematics on root canal shaping procedures and instrument performance. The literature search for this narrative review was conducted in Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science using the keywords 'kinematics and endodontics' and 'reciprocation and endodontics'. In addition, historical literature was searched using the keyword 'nickel-titanium and endodontics'. Overall, 143 articles were included up to 2015. PMID:25630977

  17. The Advanced LIGO Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritschel, Peter

    2016-03-01

    After decades of development, the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are now operating, and they completed their first observational run in early 2016. Advanced LIGO consists of two 4-km scale interferometric detectors located at separate sites in the US. The first year of detector commissioning that led to the first observation run produced instruments that have several times better sensitivity to gravitational-wave strain than previous instruments. At their final design sensitivity, the detectors will be another factor of 2-3x more sensitive than current performance. This talk will cover the design of Advanced LIGO, explain how the sensitivity improvements have been achieved, and lay out the path to reaching final design sensitivity.

  18. Instrumenting the Intelligence Analysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, Ernest; Cowley, Paula J.

    2005-05-02

    The Advanced Research and Development Activity initiated the Novel Intelligence from Massive Data (NIMD) program to develop advanced analytic technologies and methodologies. In order to support this objective, researchers and developers need to understand what analysts do and how they do it. In the past, this knowledge generally was acquired through subjective feedback from analysts. NIMD established the innovative Glass Box Analysis (GBA) Project to instrument a live intelligence mission and unobtrusively capture and objectively study the analysis process. Instrumenting the analysis process requires tailor-made software hooks that grab data from a myriad of disparate application operations and feed into a complex relational database and hierarchical file store to collect, store, retrieve, and distribute analytic data in a manner that maximizes researchers’ understanding. A key to success is determining the correct data to collect and aggregate low-level data into meaningful analytic events. This paper will examine how the GBA team solved some of these challenges, continues to address others, and supports a growing user community in establishing their own GBA environments and/or studying the data generated by GBA analysts working in the Glass Box.

  19. Innovative Technology in Hearing Instruments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hearing instrument technology research is almost entirely focused on the projected needs of the consumer market in the developed world. However, two thirds of the world’s population with hearing impairment live in developing countries and this proportion will increase in future, given present demographic trends. In developing regions, amplification and other hearing health needs may differ from those in industrialized nations, for cultural, health, or economic reasons. World Health Organization estimates indicate that at present only a small percentage of individuals in developing countries who are in need of amplification have access to hearing aid provision. New technologies, such as trainable hearing aids, advanced noise reduction algorithms, feedback reduction circuitry, nano coatings for hearing aid components, and innovative power options, may offer considerable potential benefits, both for individuals with hearing impairment in developing countries and for those who provide hearing health care services in these regions. This article considers the possible supporting role of innovative hearing instrument technologies in the provision of affordable hearing health care services in developing countries and highlights the need for research that considers the requirements of the majority of the world population in need of hearing instrument provision. PMID:22068223

  20. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  1. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  2. Measurement of Mars Atmosphere Using an Orbiting Lidar Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amzajerdian, F.; Busch, G. E.; Edwards, W. C.; Cianciolo, A. D.; Munk, M. M.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an orbiting lidar instrument concept capable of providing Mars atmospheric parameters critical to design of future robotic and manned missions requiring advanced aerocapture, precision landing, and launch from Mars surface.

  3. In Situ Instrument to Detect Prebiotic Compounds in Planetary Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Dworkin, Jason; Glavin, Daniel P.; Southard, Adrian; Balvin, Manuel; Kotecki, Carl; Ferrance, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The development of an in situ LC-MS instrument for future planetary science missions to icy surfaces that are of high astrobiology and astrochemistry potential will advance our understanding of organics in the solar system.

  4. Instrument performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program.

  5. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  6. Instrument validation project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.

  7. Space applications instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

  8. Recent development in PET instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Peng, By Hao; Levin, Craig S

    2010-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is used in the clinic and in vivo small animal research to study molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders, and to guide the discovery and development of new treatments. This paper reviews current challenges of advancing PET technology and some of newly developed PET detectors and systems. The paper focuses on four aspects of PET instrumentation: high photon detection sensitivity; improved spatial resolution; depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution and time-of-flight (TOF). Improved system geometry, novel non-scintillator based detectors, and tapered scintillation crystal arrays are able to enhance the photon detection sensitivity of a PET system. Several challenges for achieving high resolution with standard scintillator-based PET detectors are discussed. Novel detectors with 3-D positioning capability have great potential to be deployed in PET for achieving spatial resolution better than 1 mm, such as cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) and position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). DOI capability enables a PET system to mitigate parallax error and achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view (FOV). Six common DOI designs, as well as advantages and limitations of each design, are discussed. The availability of fast scintillation crystals such as LaBr(3), and the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) greatly advances TOF-PET development. Recent instrumentation and initial results of clinical trials are briefly presented. If successful, these technology advances, together with new probe molecules, will substantially enhance the molecular sensitivity of PET and thus increase its role in preclinical and clinical research as well as evaluating and managing disease in the clinic. PMID:20497121

  9. New generation low power radiation survey instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1984-02-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and powersaving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Use of a capacitor as a power source eliminates many problems commonly associated with battery-operated instruments, such as having to open the case to change batteries, battery storage life, availability of batteries in the field, and some savings in weight. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments.

  10. How To Control Color Appearance With Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Margaret E.

    1980-05-01

    Colorimetry, as defined by the International Commission on Illumination, is the measurement of colors, made possible by the properties of the eye and based on a set of conventions. Instrumentation for measuring object color, therefore, must be based on a human observer. The intent is to design an instrument that in effect responds as a person would, so that research development, production control and quality control areas have some means of assessing the acceptability of the appearance of a product. Investigations of a human observer's psychological response to color, and the manner in which visual observations are made, give the instrument designer and manufacturer data necessary to answer two questions: a. How can we put numbers (instrument read-out) on a perception that occurs in the brain of the observer? b. What can we learn from examination of a visual observing situation that will guide us in our design of an instrumental simulation of this situation? Involving as it does our own daily, almost unconscious, practice of making judgments concerning the things we see, the design and manufacture of color measurement instruments is an exceedingly interesting field. The advances being made concurrently today in research concerning human color vision and in optical and electronic technology will make possible increasingly useful instrumentation for quality control of product color.

  11. Inclusion Practice Priorities Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montie, Jo; And Others

    This instrument was developed to assist individuals or teams to review best practice indicators regarding the development of inclusive school communities and to establish priority targets for improvement. The instrument covers three areas: (1) school community issues, (2) team issues, and (3) classroom issues. For each area, there is a review…

  12. Affective Involvement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K.

    1970-01-01

    The Affective Involvement Instrument (AII) describes and classifies affective involvement in the process of decision-making as it occurs during classroom activities such as role-playing or group discussions. The thirty-celled instrument behaviorizes the six processes involved in decision-making and combines them with the taxonomic levels of the…

  13. Developments in Electrochemical Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteryoung, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Discusses developments in electrochemical instrumentation, including the role of computers, measurement/control instruments, present needs and future prospects. Indicates that microprocessors are used primarily for data processing, and that progress depends on noninstrumental factors such as electrode materials. (Author/JN)

  14. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  15. Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.

  16. Thermally isolated well instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Engelder, P.D.

    1984-04-03

    A well instrument is isolated from the high temperatures of a surrounding earth formation by enclosing the instrument within a heat insulative jacket structure, preferably a dewar having spaced walls with a vacuum therebetween, with a heat sink contained in the jacket above the instrument assembly, and with a heat pipe extending upwardly from the instrument assembly to the heat sink and containing a fluid which by evaporation at a lower point and condensation at a higher point will conduct heat upwardly from the instrument assembly to the heat sink but not downwardly therebetween. The heat pipe preferably projects upwardly beyond a top portion of the insulating jacket to the location of a convector element which is exposed to the temperature of fluid or air at the outside of the insulating jacket to transmit heat from within the jacket to its exterior but not in a reverse direction.

  17. Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

    1923-01-01

    This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

  18. Auto-Adaptive Radio Astronomy Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, Victor; Lonsdale, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    Progress in the field of radio astronomy depends heavily on advances in instrumental capabilities, characterized by properties such as collecting area, resolution in the angular, spectral and temporal domains, field of view, and spatial aperture sampling. Generally, such advances in capability represent increases in the formal quantity of astronomical information that is received and processed by the instrument. The current generation of radio astronomy arrays can generate antenna voltage data at rates of Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will quickly expand these rates by multiple orders of magnitude. Future Exascale systems will have to make many choices on how to process subsets of big data. As human capacity will be overwhelmed at this scale, part of the discovery process will have to be handled by algorithms and machines. A key challenge will be to identify patterns of scientific significance in massive data sets and adjust instruments to become more sensitive to such patterns. As a step towards realization, we will revisit the current data collection and analysis pipelines from a fresh perspective that treats them as one system. In this system, multicore parallelism reduces big data accumulation by moving fragments of analysis and filtering closer to the data acquisition. MIT Haystack is pursuing approaches that enable future scientists to shift their interaction with bare metal instruments to steering search algorithms. Our vision is to create auto-adaptive instruments that can automatically adjust to identify and characterize interesting data patterns and properties, to optimize signal to noise ratios, and balance the search process depending on environmental changes. Bios Victor Pankratius is a principal investigator and computer scientist at MIT Haystack Observatory, where he advances new directions of computing in astronomy. Contact him at [pankrat at mit dot edu], victorpankratius.com, or Twitter @vpankratius. Colin Lonsdale is Director of

  19. Space Physics Instruments for Nano-Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N.; Jefferies, S.; Raymond, C. A.; Pierce, D. R.; Dawson, O.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in CubeSat capabilities have prompted the development of increasingly ambitious mission concepts. These address significant science goals that were previously assumed to be addressable only by larger missions, and often include distributed measurements from multiple platforms. In parallel, space physics instruments are being developed that can meet the packaging requirements of CubeSats, and yet deliver high fidelity measurements. We will describe the development of two such instruments, a vector helium magnetometer and Doppler-magnetograph, and discuss several mission concepts that address outstanding problems in heliophysics.

  20. Latest Progress on the QUBIC Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghribi, A.; Aumont, J.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bau, A.; Bélier, B.; Bergé, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bersanelli, M.; Bigot-Sazy, M.-A.; Bordier, G.; Bunn, E. T.; Cavaliere, F.; Chanial, P.; Coppolecchia, A.; Decourcelle, T.; De Bernardis, P.; De Petris, M.; Drilien, A.-A.; Dumoulin, L.; Falvella, M. C.; Gault, A.; Gervasi, M.; Giard, M.; Gradziel, M.; Grandsire, L.; Gayer, D.; Hamilton, J.-Ch.; Haynes, V.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Holtzer, N.; Kaplan, J.; Korotkov, A.; Lande, J.; Lowitz, A.; Maffei, B.; Marnieros, S.; Martino, J.; Masi, S.; Mennella, A.; Montier, L.; Murphy, A.; Ng, M. W.; Olivieri, E.; Pajot, F.; Passerini, A.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Piccirillo, L.; Pisano, G.; Prêle, D.; Rambaud, D.; Rigaut, O.; Rosset, C.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Scully, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Tartari, A.; Timbie, P.; Tucker, G.; Vibert, L.; Voisin, F.; Watson, B.; Zannoni, M.

    2014-09-01

    QUBIC is a unique instrument that crosses the barriers between classical imaging architectures and interferometry taking advantage from both high sensitivity and systematics mitigation. The scientific target is to detect primordial gravitational waves created by inflation by the polarization they imprint on the cosmic microwave background—the holy grail of modern cosmology. In this paper, we show the latest advances in the development of the architecture and the sub-systems of the first module of this instrument to be deployed at Dome Charlie Concordia base—Antarctica in 2015.

  1. Geothermal instrumentation development activities at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.

    1985-03-01

    A major element of Sandia's Geothermal Technology Development Program is the effort directed toward development of instrumentation. This effort has two aspects, the development of high temperature components and prototype tools and the investigation of new concepts and capabilities. The focus of these activities is the acquisition of information to make geothermal drilling and resource development more efficient. Several projects of varying nature and scope make up the instrumentation development element, and this element will expand as the program emphasis on development of an advanced geothermal drilling system and the need for improved information grow. 13 refs.

  2. The DKIST Instrumentation Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woeger, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope with its four meter diameter aperture will be the largest telescope in the world for solar observations when it is commissioned in the year 2019. In order to harness its scientific potential immediately, DKIST will integrate five instruments that each will provide unique functionality to measure properties of the solar atmosphere at unprecedented spatial resolution.In this paper we discuss the unique capabilities in the DKIST instrument suite that consists of the Visible Broadband Imager (VBI), the Visible Spectro-Polarimeter (ViSP), the Visible Tunable Filter (VTF), the Diffraction-Limited Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter (DL-NIRSP), and the Cryogenic Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter (Cryo-NIRSP).In addition, we will explain the facility's approach to supporting high spatial resolution data acquisition with multiple instruments simultaneously by means of the Facility Instrument Distribution Optics. This system of wavelength separating and interchangeable beamsplitters will enable a variety of different ways to optically configure the light beam to the instruments. This approach ensures that the DKIST instruments can use their individual advantages in a multitude of different observing scenarios. The DKIST instrumentation suite will enable crucial new insights into complex physical processes that occur on spatial scales that are smaller than any solar structure observed in the past.

  3. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  4. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  5. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  6. Instrument intercomparisons and assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albritton, D. L.; Zander, R. J.; Farmer, C. B.; Hilsenrath, E.; Mankin, W. G.; Murcray, D. G.; Pollitt, S.; Robbins, D. E.; Roscoe, H.

    Over the past few years, several field campaigns were devoted to the goal of assessing instrument reliability, as opposed to solely obtaining data to answer a geophysical question. Some examples of the formal instrument intercomparisons that have occurred in the past decade and those that are planned for the very near future are listed chronologically. Balloon-borne techniques and instruments that address the height profiles of the trace species in the lower stratosphere are emphasized. Beginning with the most extensively studied trace constituent, the approach taken and the results obtained, are described. The current status of the measurement capabilities are summarized, and the needs for future intercomparisons and assessments are listed.

  7. Writing Instrument Profiles for Mastery of Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel; Fernandez, Jorge; Nalliah, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Because of the rapidly changing nature of chemical instrumentation, students must be trained in how to learn and understand new instruments. Toward this end, students are asked to create small instrument manuals, or instrument profiles, for the major pieces of equipment studied during an instrumental analysis course. This writing-intensive process…

  8. Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, William Lance; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic sensing technology has emerged in recent years offering tremendous advantages over conventional aircraft instrumentation systems. The advantages of fiber optic sensors over their conventional counterparts are well established; they are lighter, smaller, and can provide enormous numbers of measurements at a fraction of the total sensor weight. After a brief overview of conventional and fiber-optic sensing technology, this paper presents an overview of the research that has been conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in recent years to advance this promising new technology. Research and development areas include system and algorithm development, sensor characterization and attachment, and real-time experimentally-derived parameter monitoring for ground- and flight-based applications. The vision of fiber optic smart structure technology is presented and its potential benefits to aerospace vehicles throughout the lifecycle, from preliminary design to final retirement, are presented.

  9. Low cost instrumentation amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Amplifier can be used for many applications requiring high input impedance and common mode rejection, low drift, and gain accuracy on order of one percent. Performance of inexpensive amplifier approaches that of some commercial instrumentation amplifiers in many specifications.

  10. NPP: The Five Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NPP satellite has 5 instruments on board: VIIRS, CERES, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS. Each one will deliver a specific set of data helping weather prediction and climate studies. This video is a quick ...

  11. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  12. AIR Instrument Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, I. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The large number of radiation types composing the atmospheric radiation requires a complicated combination of instrument types to fully characterize the environment. A completely satisfactory combination has not as yet been flown and would require a large capital outlay to develop. In that the funds of the current project were limited to essential integration costs, an international collaboration was formed with partners from six countries and fourteen different institutions with their own financial support for their participation. Instruments were chosen to cover sensitivity to all radiation types with enough differential sensitivity to separate individual components. Some instruments were chosen as important to specify the physical field component and other instruments were chosen on the basis that they could be useful in dosimetric evaluation. In the present paper we will discuss the final experimental flight package for the ER-2 flight campaign.

  13. CALIPSO Instrument Operational

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-18

    CALIPSO Instrument Operational Thursday, September 11, 2014 The CALIPSO payload is back in data acquisition mode as of Wednesday, September 17, 2014.  CALIPSO data processing has returned to a nominal state, and...

  14. Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

  15. Instrumentation opportunities for ocean science research

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, H.L.

    1993-02-01

    Progress in ocean research is inextricably linked to advances in instrumentation and technology. Modern ocean science research increasingly deals with the dynamic physical, chemical, and biological processes within the oceans and how these processes interact over long time and spatial scales. This type of research requires strong links between scientists conducting the research and others developing the instruments and technology. The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides approximately 70 percent of all funding for basic ocean science research in the U.S. Research activities fall within the four primary ocean science disciplines: biological, chemical, physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics. Despite great diversity in observational needs between these diciplines, three general categories of instrument development projects sponsored by NSF reflect distinct community requirements. Demonstration if feasibility projects test an idea for improving existing instrumentation. Goals are readily achievable over a short duration and have modest budgets. Implementation projects are wide-ranging, multi-year projects involving development of new instrumentation. Instrumentation systems development projects integrate a number of observational and operational systems. These require cooperative efforts between scientists and engineers and are both lengthy and expensive. Given the diversity of ocean science activities, important roles exist for federal mission agencies, private and state research institutions, industry and individuals.

  16. Aeronautic Instruments. Section III : Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Franklin L; Stearns, H O

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 contains a discussion and description of the various types of air speed measuring instruments. The authors then give general specifications and performance requirements with the results of tests on air speed indicators at the Bureau of Standards. Part 2 reports methods and laboratory apparatus used at the Bureau of Standards to make static tests. Methods are also given of combining wind tunnel tests with static tests. Consideration is also given to free flight tests. Part 3 discusses the problem of finding suitable methods for the purpose of measuring the speed of aircraft relative to the ground.

  17. Updated Guidelines for ANSS Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. R.; Hutt, C. R.; Gee, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2008 the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and cooperating universities and institutions issued USGS Open-File Report 2008-1262 (OFR) containing detailed guidelines for the performance of instrumentation to be used by the ANSS. Here we report an update underway to these guidelines to take account of lessons learned, changing technology, and expanding user desires; in a few instances, performance matters that are very hard to test in practice are either modified or removed. Instrument classes are defined in the OFR in terms of amplitude resolution and cost; because relevant technologies have advanced substantially in these six years and a number of groups have begun to explore the use of relatively inexpensive, entirely host installed and operated Class C systems, the guidelines for strong-motion sensors are being expanded to include detailed guidelines for them rather than just anticipating them. As always, Class A systems will form the state-of-the-art backbone of any network, with Class B filling in spatially and in areas otherwise not covered well. Class C systems would be an additional step in making networks denser by providing very inexpensive hardware, installation, and maintenance to fill in additionally between Class A and B sites, for example in a high-seismicity urban area, with Class A sites every 4-6 km, Class B every 2-3 km, and Class C at <1 km spacing. Class C devices would be both installed and maintained by hosts, not institutions, and therefore also would be economical for extending coverage in regions with widely spaced or rare large seismicity, such as the central and eastern U.S.

  18. Experimenting with woodwind instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2007-05-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects of holes in the tubing and other factors that make simple tubes useful as musical instruments.

  19. Modeling of Musical Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Rolf; Hansen, Uwe

    Signal processing techniques in acoustics address many concerns. Included are such things as wave propagation variables, amplitude considerations, spectral content, wavelength, and phase. Phase is primarily of concern when waves interact with each other, as well as with a medium, and the imposition of boundary conditions leads to normal mode vibrations. Such conditions are prevalent in all musical instruments, and thus relevant signal processing techniques are essential to both understanding and modeling the structure of musical instruments and the sound radiated.

  20. [The instrument for thermography].

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Shinsuke

    2014-07-01

    Thermography is an imaging method using the instrument to detect infrared rays emitted from the body surface, and to plot them as a distribution diagram of the temperature information. Therefore, a thermographic instrument can be assumed to measure the skin temperature of the diseased region. Such an instrument is a useful device for noninvasive and objective assessment of various diseases. Examination using a thermographic instrument can assess the autonomic dysfunction by measuring the skin blood flow involved with the sympathetic innervation. Thermography is useful in assisting the determination of the therapeutic effect. However, autonomic dysfunction should be confirmed correctly with the assessment of thermatome that shows abnormal thermal distribution in the region of the disease. Thermography should make noticeable the difference between the body temperature of abnormal and normal sites, and show the alteration of temperature. Monitoring using thermography is useful to determine the effect of sympathetic nerve block. If a thermographic instrument is used, it is important that examiners should understand the function of the instrument, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25098130

  1. Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

  2. Intonation and compensation of fretted string instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele U.; Gower, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss theoretical and physical models that are useful for analyzing the intonation of musical instruments such as guitars and mandolins and can be used to improve the tuning on these instruments. The placement of frets on the fingerboard is designed according to mathematical rules and the assumption of an ideal string. The analysis becomes more complicated when we include the effects of deformation of the string and inharmonicity due to other string characteristics. As a consequence, perfect intonation of all the notes on the instrument cannot be achieved, but complex compensation procedures can be introduced to minimize the problem. To test the validity of these procedures, we performed extensive measurements using standard monochord sonometers and other acoustical devices, confirming the correctness of our theoretical models. These experimental activities can be integrated into acoustics courses and laboratories and can become a more advanced version of basic experiments with monochords and sonometers.

  3. The keyboard instruments.

    PubMed

    Manchester, Ralph A

    2014-06-01

    Now that the field of performing arts medicine has been in existence for over three decades, we are approaching a key point: we should start to see more articles that bring together the data that have been collected from several studies in order to draw more robust conclusions. Review articles and their more structured relative, the meta-analysis, can help to improve our understanding of a particular topic, comparing and synthesizing the results of previous research that has been done on that subject area. One way this could be done would be to review the research that has been carried out on the performance-related problems associated with playing a particular instrument or group of instruments. While I am not going to do that myself, I hope that others will. In this editorial, I will do a very selective review of the playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) associated with one instrument group (the keyboard instruments), focusing on the most played instrument in that group (the piano;). PMID:24925170

  4. Issues in Shuttle System Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George

    2004-01-01

    The purose: a) Customer's perspective on Space Shuttle Return to Flight instrumentation; b) Focus on the difficult instrumentation issues; and c) Enable a discussion of new technologies (i.e.- NANO/MEMS/Small Tech) that could enhance Shuttle instrumentation posture. The T-10 Umbilical allows the vehicle instruments to be monitored and recorded prior to each launch and retract during launch.Launch Complex Instrumentation are instruments needed for assessment of Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) Salt-air and launch environments are issues. Instrumentation (Drag-On Instrumentation) can be added as needed to the vehicle for non-flight use. The current Roll-out Fatigue Testing is a primary example.

  5. Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Johan

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument is a trace gas monitoring instrument in the line of GOME (ERS-2) and Sciamachy (ENVISAT). Following these instruments, OMI provides UV-visible spectroscopy with a resolution sufficient to separate out the various absorbing trace gases (using DOAS or `Full' retrieval), but shaped as an imaging spectrometer. This means that a two dimensional detector is used where one dimension records the spectrum and the other images the swath. The scanning mechanism from the GOME and Sciamachy is not required anymore and there are considerable advantages with respect to simultaneous measurement of swath pixels, polarisation and obtainable swath width. The OMI consortium for a phase B is formed by Fokker Space & Systems and TPD in the Netherlands and VTT in Finland. In the presentation UV-visible atmospheric remote sensing will be placed in perspective and the OMI will be explaned.

  6. Nonmetallic Diaphragms for Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N; Buckingham, C T

    1925-01-01

    This report, the second of a series of reports relating to the general subject of instrument diaphragms. The first report of the series was published as Technical Report no. 165, "diaphragms for aeronautic instruments," and comprised an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles. The present report relates entirely to nonmetallic diaphragms, the use of which in certain types of pressure elements has been increasing for some time. Little, if any, information has been available to aid the designer of instruments using this form of pressure element. It was to attempt to meet the need for such information that the investigation reported in this paper was undertaken. The report describes the various materials which have been used as nonmetallic diaphragms, discusses the factors which affect the performance of the diaphragms and gives the results of tests made for the purpose of investigating the effect produced by these factors.

  7. Eigenvalues and musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howle, V. E.; Trefethen, Lloyd N.

    2001-10-01

    Most musical instruments are built from physical systems that oscillate at certain natural frequencies. The frequencies are the imaginary parts of the eigenvalues of a linear operator, and the decay rates are the negatives of the real parts, so it ought to be possible to give an approximate idea of the sound of a musical instrument by a single plot of points in the complex plane. Nevertheless, the authors are unaware of any such picture that has ever appeared in print. This paper attempts to fill that gap by plotting eigenvalues for simple models of a guitar string, a flute, a clarinet, a kettledrum, and a musical bell. For the drum and the bell, simple idealized models have eigenvalues that are irrationally related, but as the actual instruments have evolved over the generations, the leading five or six eigenvalues have moved around the complex plane so that their relative positions are musically pleasing.

  8. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  9. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

  10. [Hardening of dental instruments].

    PubMed

    Gerasev, G P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of prolonging the service life of stomatological instruments by the local hardening of their working parts is discussed. Such hardening should be achieved by using hard and wear-resistant materials. The examples of hardening dental elevators and hard-alloy dental drills are given. New trends in the local hardening of instruments are the treatment of their working parts with laser beams, the application of coating on their surface by the gas-detonation method. The results of research work and trials are presented. PMID:7300627

  11. Instrumentation in medical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1995-05-01

    The demand for clinical use of accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams for cancer treatment is now burgeoning worldwide. Clinical trials are underway at more than a dozen accelerators. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation treatment of human cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Many instruments in medical systems have been developed for modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, monitoring the delivery of the treatment beams, and controlling the treatment processes to ensure patient safety. These in turn demand new developments of instruments in controlling beam extraction, beam tuning, and beam transportation at the medical systems.

  12. Lightning Instrumentation at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Jose L.; Eng, D.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes lightning phenomena with a brief explanation of lightning generation and lightning activity as related to KSC. An analysis of the instrumentation used at launching Pads 39 A&B for measurements of lightning effects is included with alternatives and recommendations to improve the protection system and upgrade the actual instrumentation system. An architecture for a new data collection system to replace the present one is also included. A novel architecture to obtain lightning current information from several sensors using only one high speed recording channel while monitoring all sensors to replace the actual manual lightning current recorders and a novel device for the protection system are described.

  13. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  14. Microtechnology for instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Mariella, R.

    1998-01-01

    For the last two decades, the majority of research and development at LLNL in microtechnology has focused on photonics devices and bulk micromachining, including miccroelectro-mechanical systems and associated areas. For the last ten years, we have used these capabilities to address our analytical instrumentation needs. Just as the miniature photonics have enable the fabrication of analytical instruments that are either higher performance, smaller, more portable, or are combinations of these. Examples of these are our portable thermal cyclers for DNA analysis, our hand-held gas chromatograph, our flow-stream-waveguide-based flow cytometer, and our etched-microchannel electrophoresis systems. This presentation will describe these and related developments.

  15. Instrumentation in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, K.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements in designing instrumentation systems and measurements of various physical quantities in wind tunnels are surveyed. Emphasis is given to sensors used for measuring pressure, temperature, and angle, and the measurements of air turbulence and boundary layers. Instrumentation in wind tunnels require accuracy, fast response, diversity and operational simplicity. Measurements of force, pressure, attitude angle, free flow, pressure distribution, and temperature are illustrated by a table, and a block diagram. The LDV (laser Doppler velocimeter) method for measuring air turbulence and flow velocity and measurement of skin friction and flow fields using laser holograms are discussed. The future potential of these techniques is studied.

  16. Large Instrument Development for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. Richard; Warnick, Karl F.; Jeffs, Brian D.; Norrod, Roger D.; Lockman, Felix J.; Cordes, James M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and development of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong cost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science requirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal of shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be counterproductive. Instrument optimization is much more difficult with longer lists of requirements, and the development process is longer and less efficient. More complex instruments are necessarily further behind the technology state of the art because of longer development times. Including technology R&D in the construction phase of projects is a growing trend that leads to higher risks, cost overruns, schedule delays, and project de-scoping. There are no technology breakthroughs just over the horizon that will suddenly bring down the cost of collecting area. Advances come largely through careful attention to detail in the adoption of new technology provided by industry and the commercial market. Radio astronomy instrumentation has a very bright future, but a vigorous long-term R&D program not tied directly to specific projects needs to be restored, fostered, and preserved.

  17. A New Instrument Selector for Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Gary M.

    2009-05-01

    Instrument selectors create more productive telescopes and open research opportunities that require coordinated measurements, such as time-series photometry and spectroscopy of variable stars. They provide the convenience of permanent wiring and balancing. Moreover, they remove risks inherent when swapping equipment in the middle of the night. While obviously essential for remote automated systems, they also facilitate the visitor/student/researcher multiuser scenarios of collegiate observatories. Until recently, the only products available for telescopes in the 12 to 24 inch range have been either manually operated flip mirrors or oversized and heavy devices developed for large institutional systems. This is unfortunate because many smaller instruments are now fully capable of automated operation, but mechanically limited to a single sensor. Now a new 4 way rotating mirror selector, developed by the Michigan instrument maker Optec at the request of the author, provides a lightweight and fully automated solution to supporting a collection of instruments on a single optical tube. This project looks first at the performance of the new selector in terms of switching rate, settling time, reproducibility and programmability and at the the system level issues of instrument loads, flexure, balance, back focus and parfocalization. The test configuration incorporates a photometric camera, two independent spectrographs, and a photometer, all mounted on a fully automated 0.35m telescope. Based upon initial results, the selector appears to provide a promising solution for both advanced amateurs and small college observatories.

  18. Software Framework for Controlling Unsupervised Scientific Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Benjamin; Jahr, Wiebke; Weber, Michael; Huisken, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Science outreach and communication are gaining more and more importance for conveying the meaning of today’s research to the general public. Public exhibitions of scientific instruments can provide hands-on experience with technical advances and their applications in the life sciences. The software of such devices, however, is oftentimes not appropriate for this purpose. In this study, we describe a software framework and the necessary computer configuration that is well suited for exposing a complex self-built and software-controlled instrument such as a microscope to laymen under limited supervision, e.g. in museums or schools. We identify several aspects that must be met by such software, and we describe a design that can simultaneously be used to control either (i) a fully functional instrument in a robust and fail-safe manner, (ii) an instrument that has low-cost or only partially working hardware attached for illustration purposes or (iii) a completely virtual instrument without hardware attached. We describe how to assess the educational success of such a device, how to monitor its operation and how to facilitate its maintenance. The introduced concepts are illustrated using our software to control eduSPIM, a fluorescent light sheet microscope that we are currently exhibiting in a technical museum. PMID:27570966

  19. Software Framework for Controlling Unsupervised Scientific Instruments.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Benjamin; Jahr, Wiebke; Weber, Michael; Huisken, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Science outreach and communication are gaining more and more importance for conveying the meaning of today's research to the general public. Public exhibitions of scientific instruments can provide hands-on experience with technical advances and their applications in the life sciences. The software of such devices, however, is oftentimes not appropriate for this purpose. In this study, we describe a software framework and the necessary computer configuration that is well suited for exposing a complex self-built and software-controlled instrument such as a microscope to laymen under limited supervision, e.g. in museums or schools. We identify several aspects that must be met by such software, and we describe a design that can simultaneously be used to control either (i) a fully functional instrument in a robust and fail-safe manner, (ii) an instrument that has low-cost or only partially working hardware attached for illustration purposes or (iii) a completely virtual instrument without hardware attached. We describe how to assess the educational success of such a device, how to monitor its operation and how to facilitate its maintenance. The introduced concepts are illustrated using our software to control eduSPIM, a fluorescent light sheet microscope that we are currently exhibiting in a technical museum. PMID:27570966

  20. The HYDICE instrument design and its application to planetary instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basedow, R.; Silverglate, P.; Rappoport, W.; Rockwell, R.; Rosenberg, D.; Shu, K.; Whittlesey, R.; Zalewski, E.

    The Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) instrument represents a significant advance in the state of the art in hyperspectral sensors. It combines a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and significantly better spatial and spectral resolution and radio metric accuracy than systems flying on aircraft today. The need for 'clean' data, i.e., data free of sampling artifacts and excessive spatial or spectral noise, is a key driver behind the difficult combination of performance requirements laid out for HYDICE. Most of these involve the sensor optics and detector. This paper presents an optimized approach to those requirements, one that comprises push broom scanning, a single, mechanically cooled focal plane, a double-pass prism spectrometer, and an easily fabricated yet wide-field telescope. Central to the approach is a detector array that covers the entire spectrum from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. Among the major benefits conferred by such a design are optical and mechanical simplicity, low polarization sensitivity, and coverage of the entire spectrum without suffering the spectral gaps caused by beam splitters. The overall system minimizes interfaces to the C-141 aircraft on which it will be flown, can be calibrated on the ground and in flight to accuracies better than those required, and is designed for simple, push-button operation. Only unprocessed data are recorded during flight. A ground data processing station provides quick-look, calibration correction, and archiving capabilities, with a throughput better than the requirements. Overall performance of the system is expected to provide the solid database required to evaluate the potential of hyperspectral imagery in a wide variety of applications. HYDICE can be regarded as a test bed for future planetary instruments. The ability to spectrally image a wide field of view over multiple spectral octaves offers obvious advantages and is expected to maximize science return for the required cost and

  1. The HYDICE instrument design and its application to planetary instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basedow, R.; Silverglate, P.; Rappoport, W.; Rockwell, R.; Rosenberg, D.; Shu, K.; Whittlesey, R.; Zalewski, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) instrument represents a significant advance in the state of the art in hyperspectral sensors. It combines a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and significantly better spatial and spectral resolution and radio metric accuracy than systems flying on aircraft today. The need for 'clean' data, i.e., data free of sampling artifacts and excessive spatial or spectral noise, is a key driver behind the difficult combination of performance requirements laid out for HYDICE. Most of these involve the sensor optics and detector. This paper presents an optimized approach to those requirements, one that comprises push broom scanning, a single, mechanically cooled focal plane, a double-pass prism spectrometer, and an easily fabricated yet wide-field telescope. Central to the approach is a detector array that covers the entire spectrum from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. Among the major benefits conferred by such a design are optical and mechanical simplicity, low polarization sensitivity, and coverage of the entire spectrum without suffering the spectral gaps caused by beam splitters. The overall system minimizes interfaces to the C-141 aircraft on which it will be flown, can be calibrated on the ground and in flight to accuracies better than those required, and is designed for simple, push-button operation. Only unprocessed data are recorded during flight. A ground data processing station provides quick-look, calibration correction, and archiving capabilities, with a throughput better than the requirements. Overall performance of the system is expected to provide the solid database required to evaluate the potential of hyperspectral imagery in a wide variety of applications. HYDICE can be regarded as a test bed for future planetary instruments. The ability to spectrally image a wide field of view over multiple spectral octaves offers obvious advantages and is expected to maximize science return for the required cost and

  2. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  3. Instrument for Textbook Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huetteman, Julie Doidge

    An instrument to assist in assessing textbooks was created to provide a concise format for comparison and evaluation. Textbook characteristics were selected to illustrate content and proportion of characteristics of textbooks. Nine textbook characteristics were selected for quantifying the content areas of textbooks: (1) number of pages in the…

  4. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Percussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Jesse

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing percussion instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will recognize duple, triple,…

  5. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Strings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Philip

    A course in music which emphasizes harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory one in which pupils will develop skill in playing orchestral string instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will select the title of a familiar melody…

  6. Portable dynamic fundus instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gerald R. (Inventor); Meehan, Richard T. (Inventor); Hunter, Norwood R. (Inventor); Caputo, Michael P. (Inventor); Gibson, C. Robert (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A portable diagnostic image analysis instrument is disclosed for retinal funduscopy in which an eye fundus image is optically processed by a lens system to a charge coupled device (CCD) which produces recordable and viewable output data and is simultaneously viewable on an electronic view finder. The fundus image is processed to develop a representation of the vessel or vessels from the output data.

  7. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  8. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  9. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  10. Instrument Measures Ocular Counterrolling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitan, Barry M.; Reschke, Millard F.; Spector, Lawrence N.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, battery-powered, noninvasive unit replaces several pieces of equipment and operator. Instrument that looks like pair of goggles with small extension box measures ocular counterrotation. Called "otolith tilt-translation reinterpretation" (OTTR) goggles, used in studies of space motion sickness. Also adapted to use on Earth and determine extent of impairment in patients who have impaired otolith functions.

  11. Elementary Instrumental Music Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dolores A.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Our former Elementary Instrumental Music Program for 4th-6th graders was costly and ineffective. Students were bused to a high school in the middle of the instructional day--costs (time and transportation) were not compensatory with the program, which was experiencing a significant drop-out rate.…

  12. HARMONI instrument control electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigante, José V.; Rodríguez Ramos, Luis F.; Zins, Gerard; Schnetler, Hermine; Pecontal, Arlette; Herreros, José Miguel; Clarke, Fraser; Bryson, Ian; Thatte, Niranjan

    2014-07-01

    HARMONI is an integral field spectrograph working at visible and near-infrared wavelengths over a range of spatial scales from ground layer corrected to fully diffraction-limited. The instrument has been chosen to be part of the first-light complement at the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). This paper describes the instrument control electronics to be developed at IAC. The large size of the HARMONI instrument, its cryogenic operation, and the fact that it must operate with enhanced reliability is a challenge from the point of view of the control electronics design. The present paper describes a design proposal based on the current instrument requirements and intended to be fully compliant with the ESO E-ELT standards, as well as with the European EMC and safety standards. The modularity of the design and the use of COTS standard hardware will benefit the project in several aspects, as reduced costs, shorter schedule by the use of commercially available components, and improved quality by the use of well proven solutions.

  13. University Reactor Instrumentation Grant

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Bajorek

    2000-02-01

    A noble gas air monitoring system was purchased through the University Reactor Instrumentation Grant Program. This monitor was installed in the Kansas State TRIGA reactor bay at a location near the top surface of the reactor pool according to recommendation by the supplier. This system is now functional and has been incorporated into the facility license.

  14. Designing Intelligent Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Erner, Philip M.; Frasso, Scott

    2007-11-01

    Remote science operations require automated systems that can both act and react with minimal human intervention. One such vision is that of an intelligent instrument that collects data in an automated fashion, and based on what it learns, decides which new measurements to take. This innovation implements experimental design and unites it with data analysis in such a way that it completes the cycle of learning. This cycle is the basis of the Scientific Method. The three basic steps of this cycle are hypothesis generation, inquiry, and inference. Hypothesis generation is implemented by artificially supplying the instrument with a parameterized set of possible hypotheses that might be used to describe the physical system. The act of inquiry is handled by an inquiry engine that relies on Bayesian adaptive exploration where the optimal experiment is chosen as the one which maximizes the expected information gain. The inference engine is implemented using the nested sampling algorithm, which provides the inquiry engine with a set of posterior samples from which the expected information gain can be estimated. With these computational structures in place, the instrument will refine its hypotheses, and repeat the learning cycle by taking measurements until the system under study is described within a pre-specified tolerance. We will demonstrate our first attempts toward achieving this goal with an intelligent instrument constructed using the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT robotics platform.

  15. Experimenting with Woodwind Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects…

  16. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented.

  17. Instrument measures cloud cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Eight solar sensing cells comprise inexpensive monitoring instrument. Four cells always track Sun while other four face sky and clouds. On overcast day, cloud-irradiance sensors generate as much short-circuit current as Sun sensor cells. As clouds disappear, output of cloud sensors decreases. Ratio of two sensor type outputs determines fractional cloud cover.

  18. Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

    This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

  19. Rain radar instrument definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  20. Flaws of drug instrumentalization.

    PubMed

    Swendsen, Joel; Le Moal, Michel

    2011-12-01

    The adaptive use of drugs, or "drug instrumentalization," is presented as a reality that the scientific literature has largely ignored. In this commentary, we demonstrate why this concept has limited value from the standpoint of nosology, why it should not be viewed as "adaptive," and why it has dangerous implications for policy and public health efforts. PMID:22074977

  1. Analytical Instrument Obsolescence Examined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggin, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The threat of instrument obsolescence and tight federal budgets have conspired to threaten the existence of research analytical laboratories. Despite these and other handicaps most existing laboratories expect to keep operating in support of basic research, though there may be serious penalties in the future unless funds are forthcoming. (Author)

  2. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Woodwinds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Melvin

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing modes and forms is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing wood-wind instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on identification of elementary concepts of mode and form. Course objectives include: (1) pupil will select…

  3. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  4. THE ARCADE 2 INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Wollack, E.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-04-01

    The second generation Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE 2) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the radiometric temperature of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic and extragalactic emission at six frequencies from 3 to 90 GHz. ARCADE 2 utilizes a double-nulled design where emission from the sky is compared to that from an external cryogenic full-aperture blackbody calibrator by cryogenic switching radiometers containing internal blackbody reference loads. In order to further minimize sources of systematic error, ARCADE 2 features a cold fully open aperture with all radiometrically active components maintained at near 2.7 K without windows or other warm objects, achieved through a novel thermal design. We discuss the design and performance of the ARCADE 2 instrument in its 2005 and 2006 flights.

  5. Single pilot scanning behavior in simulated instrument flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A simulation of tasks associated with single pilot general aviation flight under instrument flight rules was conducted as a baseline for future research studies on advanced flight controls and avionics. The tasks, ranging from simple climbs and turns to an instrument landing systems approach, were flown on a fixed base simulator. During the simulation the control inputs, state variables, and the pilots visual scan pattern including point of regard were measured and recorded.

  6. Virtual instruments for wind and atmospheric turbulence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Christian; Streicher, Juergen; Leike, Ines; Banakh, Viktor A.; Smalikho, Igor N.

    2001-01-01

    Hardware development for remote sensing costs a lot of time and money. A virtual instrument based on software modules can be developed faster and is flexible for changes. Such a virtual instrument can be used to optimize the sensor in advance. Adaptation of the different user aspects is possible. Finally, tests of the signal quality with existing sensors can be used to understand misalignments and internal sensor problems.

  7. Advanced gearbox technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. E.; Cedoz, R. W.; Salama, E. E.; Wagner, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced 13,000 HP, counterrotating (CR) gearbox was designed and successfully tested to provide a technology base for future designs of geared propfan propulsion systems for both commercial and military aircraft. The advanced technology CR gearbox was designed for high efficiency, low weight, long life, and improved maintainability. The differential planetary CR gearbox features double helical gears, double row cylindrical roller bearings integral with planet gears, tapered roller prop support bearings, and a flexible ring gear and diaphragm to provide load sharing. A new Allison propfan back-to-back gearbox test facility was constructed. Extensive rotating and stationary instrumentation was used to measure temperature, strain, vibration, deflection and efficiency under representative flight operating conditions. The tests verified smooth, efficient gearbox operation. The highly-instrumented advanced CR gearbox was successfully tested to design speed and power (13,000 HP), and to a 115 percent overspeed condition. Measured CR gearbox efficiency was 99.3 percent at the design point based on heat loss to the oil. Tests demonstrated low vibration characteristics of double helical gearing, proper gear tooth load sharing, low stress levels, and the high load capacity of the prop tapered roller bearings. Applied external prop loads did not significantly affect gearbox temperature, vibration, or stress levels. Gearbox hardware was in excellent condition after the tests with no indication of distress.

  8. An ice lithography instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  9. Impact dynamics instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormck, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    One of the tasks specified in the NASA Langley controlled impact demonstration (CID) work package was to furnish dynamic instrumentation sensors. The types of instrumentation sensors required were accelerometers for aircraft structural loads measurements, seat belt load cells to measure anthropomorphic dummy responses to the aircraft impact, and strain gage bending bridges to measure the aircraft fuselage and wing bending during impact. The objective in the selection of dynamic instrumentation for the CID was to provide 352 of the highest quality transducers and remain within budget allocation. The transducers that were selected for the CID evaluation process were each subjected to rigorous laboratory acceptance tests and to aircraft fuselage section drop tests at the LaRC Impact Dynamics Research Facility. Data compiled from this series of tests showed the selected transducers to be best suited for the CID mission requirement. The transducers installation technique on the airframe proved successful. The transducer quality assurance was guaranteed through rigorous acceptance testing. Data acquired was 97.0%.

  10. Mandolin Family Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

  11. Embedded instrumentation systems architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visnevski, Nikita A.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the operational concept of the Embedded Instrumentation Systems Architecture (EISA) that is being developed for Test and Evaluation (T&E) applications. The architecture addresses such future T&E requirements as interoperability, flexibility, and non-intrusiveness. These are the ultimate requirements that support continuous T&E objectives. In this paper, we demonstrate that these objectives can be met by decoupling the Embedded Instrumentation (EI) system into an on-board and an off-board component. An on-board component is responsible for sampling, pre-processing, buffering, and transmitting data to the off-board component. The latter is responsible for aggregating, post-processing, and storing test data as well as providing access to the data via a clearly defined interface including such aspects as security, user authentication and access control. The power of the EISA architecture approach is in its inherent ability to support virtual instrumentation as well as enabling interoperability with such important T&E systems as Integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET), Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) and other relevant Department of Defense initiatives.

  12. An ice lithography instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-15

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  13. An ice lithography instrument.

    PubMed

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J A

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines. PMID:21721733

  14. An ice lithography instrument

    PubMed Central

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines. PMID:21721733

  15. Borehole survey instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, H.E.; Lin, J.W. III; Macha, E.S.; Smither, M.A.

    1984-12-04

    A borehole survey instrument is provided having a meniscus type floating compass member with indicia thereon for indicating azimuth and inclination. A light source is disposed below the indicia for illuminating the indicia upward through the liquid through which the meniscus type floating compass member floats. A lens system is provided for focusing the image of the illuminated compass member upon a film disposed below the compass member. This arrangement permits the centering post for the compass member to be of minimum diameter consistent with rigidity requirements and permits a high angle compass member to indicate angles of inclination approaching ninety degrees. A multiple light bulb light source is utilized and each light bulb is mounted in a manner which permits a single light bulb to illuminate the entire compass member. A hand-held programming and diagnostic unit is provided which may be momentarily electrically mated with the borehole survey tool to input a programmed timed delay and diagnostically test both the condition of the light bulbs utilized as the illumination source and the state of the batteries within the instrument. This hand-held programmable unit eliminates all the mechanical programming switches and permits the instrument to be completely sealed from the pressure, fluids and contaminants normally found in a well bore.

  16. SABER instrument design update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplin, Roy W.; Zollinger, Lorin; Batty, J. Clair; Folkman, Steve; Roosta, Mehrdad; Tansock, Joseph J.; Jensen, Mark; Stauder, John; Miller, Jim; Vanek, Michael; Robinson, Don

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the design of a 10-channel infrared (1.27 to 16.9 micrometers ) radiometer instrument known as SABER (sounding of the atmosphere using broadband emission radiometry) that will measure earth-limb emissions from the TIMED (thermosphere- ionosphere-mesosphere energetics and dynamics) satellite. The instrument telescope, designed to reject stray light from the earth and the atmosphere, is an on-axis Cassegrain design with a clam shell reimager and a one-axis scan mirror. The telescope is cooled below 210 K by a dedicated radiator. The focal plane assembly (consisting of a filter array, a detector array, a Lyot stop, and a window) is cooled to 75 K by a miniature cryogenic refrigerator. The conductive heat load on the refrigerator is minimized by a Kevlar support system that thermally isolates the focal plane assembly from the telescope. Kevlar is also used to thermally isolate the telescope from the spacecraft. Instrument responsivity drifts due to changes in telescope and focal plane temperatures as well as other causes are neutralized by an in-flight calibration system. The detector array consists of discrete HgCdTe, InSb, and InGaAs detectors. Two InGaAs detectors are a new long wavelength type, made by EG&G, that have a long wavelength cutoff of 2.33 micrometers at 77 K.

  17. Simulation visualization through dynamic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.

    1998-09-01

    The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.

  18. FHR Process Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both

  19. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  20. CARMENES instrument overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  1. Airborne Instrumentation Needs for Climate and Atmospheric Research

    SciTech Connect

    McFarquhar, Greg; Schmid, Beat; Korolev, Alexei; Ogren, John A.; Russell, P. B.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Turner, David D.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2011-10-06

    Observational data are of fundamental importance for advances in climate and atmospheric research. Advances in atmospheric science are being made not only through the use of ground-based and space-based observations, but also through the use of in-situ and remote sensing observations acquired on instrumented aircraft. In order for us to enhance our knowledge of atmospheric processes, it is imperative that efforts be made to improve our understanding of the operating characteristics of current instrumentation and of the caveats and uncertainties in data acquired by current probes, as well as to develop improved observing methodologies for acquisition of airborne data.

  2. Advances in Auditory and Vestibular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Trune, Dennis R.; Dutia, Mayank B.

    2010-01-01

    Auditory and Vestibular medicine is becoming more accepted as a specialty of its own, Medical NeurOtology. Recent advances in the field have been instrumental in the understanding of the scientific foundations, pathophysiology, clinical approach and management of patients with hearing and vestibular disorders. This paper will review these advances. PMID:20711412

  3. Overview of the instrumentation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieberding, William C.

    1989-04-01

    This program is aimed at developing sensors and measurement systems capable of obtaining the data necessary for the verification of computational models of the structural behavior, the fatigue life, and the environmental conditions pertinent to advanced reusable space propulsion systems. One of the characteristics of measurement systems needed to verify codes is that the sensors must be nonintrusive or at least minimally intrusive so as not to significantly perturb the conditions being measured. This leads to a heavy emphasis on laser optical techniques and on thin-film sensors. Another characteristic of such instruments is that they must be highly accurate and produce very high spatial and temporal resolution of the parameter being measured. The measurement systems needed generally fall into a number of broad categories. First there are the measurements needed on the surfaces of components such as turbine blades and vanes. Some of the desired parameters are temperature, strain, and heat flux. Another broad category encompasses those measurements needed in the flow environment around these components. Here, the desired results are high resolution maps of such parameters as flow velocity, temperature, density, pressure, and species concentration. The remaining category deals with measurements necessary for monitoring the health of the engine. This category has loomed ever more important since the Challenger disaster. An optical method for determining the characteristics of the plume is presented. Holographic measurement of structural damage is also presented.

  4. Development of a New Approach to Instrument Model Design Used by Team X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrew, Shanna E.

    2005-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Design Team was formed in April 1995 to improve the quality and reduce the cost of JPL proposals and advanced mission studies. Currently a consolidation attempt is underway to develop a Model Library for use by JPL's Advanced Projects Design Team by collecting existing instrument models for inclusion in the library. This will allow users to readily find models of interest. In addition to this, there is also an attempt underway to develop a new approach to instrument model design used by the Advanced Design Team (Team X). This new approach consists of splitting up the different model parts such as orbital parameters, instrument parameters and instrument outputs into separate searchable parts. The user can then decide between design trades and use the different pieces to construct a model that will fit their needs. As well, this will lead to the opportunity for the large variety of usable instrument models.

  5. Optical technologies for UV remote sensing instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.; Osantowski, J. F.; Leviton, D. B.; Saha, T. T.; Content, D. A.; Boucarut, R. A.; Gum, J. S.; Wright, G. A.; Fleetwood, C. M.; Madison, T. J.

    Over the last decade significant advances in technology have made possible development of instruments with substantially improved efficiency in the UV spectral region. In the area of optical coatings and materials, the importance of recent developments in chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors, SiC films, and multilayer coatings in the context of ultraviolet instrumentation design are discussed. For example, the development of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors, with high ultraviolet (UV) reflectance and low scatter surfaces, provides the opportunity to extend higher spectral/spatial resolution capability into the 50-nm region. Optical coatings for normal incidence diffraction gratings are particularly important for the evolution of efficient extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrographs. SiC films are important for optimizing the spectrograph performance in the 90 nm spectral region. The performance evaluation of the flight optical components for the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) instrument, a spectroscopic instrument to fly aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission, designed to study dynamic processes, temperatures, and densities in the plasma of the upper atmosphere of the Sun in the wavelength range from 50 nm to 160 nm, is discussed. The optical components were evaluated for imaging and scatter in the UV. The performance evaluation of SOHO/CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer) flight gratings tested for spectral resolution and scatter in the DGEF is reviewed and preliminary results on resolution and scatter testing of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) technology development diffraction gratings are presented.

  6. Optical Technologies for UV Remote Sensing Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.; Osantowski, J. F.; Leviton, D. B.; Saha, T. T.; Content, D. A.; Boucarut, R. A.; Gum, J. S.; Wright, G. A.; Fleetwood, C. M.; Madison, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last decade significant advances in technology have made possible development of instruments with substantially improved efficiency in the UV spectral region. In the area of optical coatings and materials, the importance of recent developments in chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors, SiC films, and multilayer coatings in the context of ultraviolet instrumentation design are discussed. For example, the development of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors, with high ultraviolet (UV) reflectance and low scatter surfaces, provides the opportunity to extend higher spectral/spatial resolution capability into the 50-nm region. Optical coatings for normal incidence diffraction gratings are particularly important for the evolution of efficient extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrographs. SiC films are important for optimizing the spectrograph performance in the 90 nm spectral region. The performance evaluation of the flight optical components for the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) instrument, a spectroscopic instrument to fly aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission, designed to study dynamic processes, temperatures, and densities in the plasma of the upper atmosphere of the Sun in the wavelength range from 50 nm to 160 nm, is discussed. The optical components were evaluated for imaging and scatter in the UV. The performance evaluation of SOHO/CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer) flight gratings tested for spectral resolution and scatter in the DGEF is reviewed and preliminary results on resolution and scatter testing of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) technology development diffraction gratings are presented.

  7. Instrumentation advances in emissions characterization from propellant/explosive combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Morrison, D.J.; Mullins, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Results from a chamber study to characterize emissions from combustion of selected pure energetic materials are presented in this paper. The study was carried out as a part of a comprehensive air pathways risk assessment for a propellant and explosive manufacturing facility that engages in open burning methods for manufacturing waste disposal. Materials selected for emissions characterization in this study included both aluminized and non-aluminized composite propellant, a double base propellant and a plastic bonded explosive. Combustion tests in a specialized chamber revealed very low emissions for gaseous products of incomplete combustion such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Analysis of gaseous and aerosol emission products for a pre-selected target analyte list that included both volatile and semi-volatile organics revealed either low or non-detectable emissions for the four energetic types tested. Hydrogen chloride was detected as a major emission product from propellants containing ammonium perchlorate. Results from this work reveal that about one-half of the chlorine in the original material is released as hydrogen chloride. Based on earlier work, the balance of the chlorine emissions is expected to be in the form of chlorine gas.

  8. Development of microchannel plates in advanced wind-tunnel instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, W. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) electron multiplier dynamic range has been increased 3 to 4 orders of magnitude at ambient temperatures, through enhanced input count rate capability and reduced background or 'dark' noise. The previous upper limit of roughly 10(exp 7) - 10(exp 8) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) at ambient has been extended to levels approach 10(exp 10) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) under continuous dc operation. The lower limit, previously set by an irreducible background component (approximately 0.6 cm(exp -2)s(exp -1)), has been lowered to the cosmic ray limit of .01 cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The high end improvement was achieved by conductively cooling a very low resistance MCP by bonding it to a heat sink, while maintaining pulse-counting operation with multianode readouts. The low-end improvement was achieved by removing all radioisotopes from the MCP matrix glass. The detectors will benefit optical and mass spectrometry, flow visualization, plasma diagnostics, magnetometry, and other high signal flux applications. Very low MCP background noise will benefit X-ray and UV astronomy, medical imaging, trace isotope mass spectrometry, and other applications where the signal flux is often extremely low.

  9. Instrumentation: Software-Driven Instrumentation: The New Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salit, M. L.; Parsons, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Software-driven instrumentation makes measurements that demand a computer as an integral part of either control, data acquisition, or data reduction. The structure of such instrumentation, hardware requirements, and software requirements are discussed. Examples of software-driven instrumentation (such as wavelength-modulated continuum source…

  10. Ultrasonic vs. hand instrumentation in periodontal therapy: clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Ranjitha; De Stefano, Jamie A

    2016-06-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease in adults. Traditional nonsurgical periodontal therapy involves subgingival removal of hard and soft deposits on the root surface, along with maintenance of good oral hygiene. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy can either be definitive or part of the initial phase before surgical therapy. Mechanical therapy, either with hand or ultrasonic instrumentation, is the keystone of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. This requires considerable amounts of time and a high level of operator skill. The use of appropriate instruments greatly increases clinical efficiency. This article discusses the use of ultrasonic and hand instrumentation, along with recent advances, and the benefits of adjunctive therapy during nonsurgical periodontal therapy. PMID:27045433

  11. The GRAVITY instrument software/hardware related aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Thomas; Wieprecht, Ekkehard; Burtscher, Leonard; Kok, Yitping; Yazici, Senol; Anugu, Narsireddy; Dembet, Roderick; Fedou, Pierre; Lacour, Sylvestre; Ott, Jürgen; Eisenhauer, Frank; Blind, Nicolas; Genzel, Reinhard; Gillessen, Stefan; Hans, Oliver; Haug, Marcus; Haussmann, Frank; Huber, Stefan; Janssen, Annemieke; Kellner, Stefan; Lippa, Magdalena; Pfuhl, Oliver; Sturm, Eckhard; Weber, Johannes; Amorim, Antonio; Brandner, Wolfgang; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Perrin, Guy S.; Straubmeier, Christian; Schöller, Markus; Abuter, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    The GRAVITY Instrument Software (INS) is based on the common VLT Software Environment. In addition to the basic Instrument Control Software (ICS) which handles Motors, Shutters, Lamps, etc., it also includes three detector subsystems, several special devices, field bus devices, and various real time algorithms. The latter are implemented using ESO TAC (Tools for Advanced Control) and run at a frequency of up to 4 kHz. In total, the instrument has more than 100 ICS devices and runs on five workstations and seven vxWorks LCUs.

  12. Modified trocar with laser diode for instrument guidance.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Taufiek Konrad

    2013-12-01

    Laparoscopic instruments that are newly inserted into trocars are initially outside the surgeon's endoscopic field of view. This can make it difficult to accurately position the instrument at the operative site and presents a potential risk to patients since the tip of the instrument could potentially perforate organs and blood vessels while it is advanced blindly. To solve this problem, I have designed a trocar that incorporates a laser pointer to guide laparoscopic instruments while they are outside the endoscopic field of view. The laser dot is projected along the long axis of the trocar. This allows the surgeon to instantly determine the direction and target of the introduced instrument. Furthermore, the projected laser dot serves as evidence of an unobstructed path from the trocar to the target. This modification improves safety in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:23793574

  13. Planck-LFI: Instrument Design and Ground Calibration Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersanelli, M.; Aja, B.; Artal, E.; Balasini, M.; Baldan, G.; Battaglia, P.; Bernardino, T.; Bhandari, P.; Blackhurst, E.; Boschini, L.; Bowman, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cappellini, B.; Cavaliere, F.; Colombo, F.; Cuttaia, F.; Davis, R.; Dupac, X.; Edgeley, J.; D'Arcangelo, O.; de La Fuente, L.; de Rosa, A.; Ferrari, F.; Figini, L.; Fogliani, S.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Jukkala, P.; Gaier, T.; Galtress, A.; Garavaglia, S.; Gomez-Renasco, F.; Guzzi, P.; Herreros, J. M.; Hoyland, R.; Huges, N.; Kettle, D.; Kilpel, V. H.; Laaninen, M.; Lapolla, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Lawson, D.; Leonardi, R.; Leutenegger, P.; Levin, S.; Lilje, P. B.; Lubin, P. M.; Maino, D.; Malaspina, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Mari, G.; Maris, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Mediavilla, A.; Meinhold, P.; Mennella, A.; Miccolis, M.; Morgante, G.; Nash, A.; Nesti, R.; Pagan, L.; Paine, C.; Pascual, J. P.; Pasian, F.; Pecora, M.; Pezzati, S.; Pospieszalski, M.; Platania, P.; Prina, M.; Rebolo, R.; Roddis, N.; Sabatini, N.; Sandri, M.; Salmon, M. J.; Seiffert, M.; Silvestri, R.; Simonetto, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Sozzi, C.; Stringhetti, L.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Varis, J.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.; Wilkinson, A.; Winder, F.; Zacchei, A.

    2005-09-01

    The ESA Planck satellite is designed to achieve precision imaging of the Cosmic Microwave Background with an unprecedented combination of angular resolution, sensitivity, spectral range and sky coverage. The Low Frequency Instrument is one of two complementary instruments, and covers 30, 44, and 70 GHz with an array of wideband pseudo-correlation, cryogenic radiometers. Advanced qualification models of the radiometer chains and of the instrument electronics have been manufactured, tested and integrated into the LFI Qualification Model. The main radiometer calibration, RF tuning and performance characterization is carried out at a single radiometer chain level, and then verified at instrument integrated level in dedicated cryofacilities. Here we describe the main requirements and instrument design, and we summarize the radiometer calibration strategy optimised during the qualification activity in view of the LFI Flight Model campaign.

  14. Hand-portable liquid chromatographic instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sonika; Tolley, Luke T; Tolley, H Dennis; Plistil, Alex; Stearns, Stanley D; Lee, Milton L

    2015-11-20

    Over the last four decades, liquid chromatography (LC) has experienced an evolution to smaller columns and particles, new stationary phases and low flow rate instrumentation. However, the development of person-portable LC has not followed, mainly due to difficulties encountered in miniaturizing pumps and detectors, and in reducing solvent consumption. The recent introduction of small, non-splitting pumping systems and UV-absorption detectors for use with capillary columns has finally provided miniaturized instrumentation suitable for high-performance hand-portable LC. Fully integrated microfabricated LC still remains a significant challenge. Ion chromatography (IC) has been successfully miniaturized and applied for field analysis; however, applications are mostly limited to inorganic and small organic ions. This review covers advancements that make possible more rapid expansion of portable forms of LC and IC. PMID:26592464

  15. Design and performance of ASTER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisada, Hiroyuki

    1995-12-01

    ASTER is an advanced multispectral imager with high spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolutions for EOS-AM1 spacecraft which will be launched with four other instruments in June 1998. The ASTER instrument covers a wide spectral region from visible to thermal infrared by 14 spectral bands. To meet a wide spectral coverage, optical sensing units of ASTER are separated into three subsystems, that is the visible and near infrared subsystem, the short wave infrared subsystem and the thermal infrared subsystem, depending on spectral region. Moreover, ASTER has an in-track stereoscopic viewing capability by a near infrared band. To acquire the stereo data the VNIR subsystem has two telescopes for the nadir and backward viewings. Several new technologies are adopted as design challenges to realize the high performance. The validity of these new technologies is verified through the evaluation of the engineering model.

  16. Remote sensing analysis instrumentation for geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Avera, H.O.

    1980-09-01

    Detailed analysis of remotely sensed imagery is an important first step in determining the viability of an area for geothermal interest. Advances in quality and quantity of imagery require that the analysis process be improved. Where gross information is required, computer programs scan imagery, measure gray scale levels, and correlate density information to previously defined subjects. In areas of geothermal interest, detailed analysis of small information elements is required. Instrumentation consists of imagery support, transport and illumination, stereoscopic viewer, and graphic information transfer device. Instrumentation must support the human operator from one of the geothermal disciplines. New and fully capable analysis exploitation and equipment is available and should be used if the total economies of remote sensing are to be realized in geothermal studies.

  17. INERTIAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEM FOR AERIAL SURVEYING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Russell H.; Chapman, William H.; Hanna, William F.; Mongan, Charles E.; Hursh, John W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe an inertial guidance or navigation system that will enable use of relatively light aircraft for efficient data-gathering in geologgy, hydrology, terrain mapping, and gravity-field mapping. The instrument system capitalizes not only on virtual state-of-the-art inertial guidance technology but also on similarly advanced technology for measuring distance with electromagnetic radiating devices. The distance measurement can be made with a transceiver beamed at either a cooperative taget, with a specially designed reflecting surface, or a noncooperative target, such as the Earth's surface. The instrument system features components that use both techniques. Thus, a laser tracker device, which updates the inertial guidance unit or navigator in flight, makes distance measurements to a retroreflector target mounted at a ground-control point; a laser profiler device, beamed vertically downward, makes distance measurements to the Earth's surface along a path that roughly mirrors the aircraft flight path.

  18. ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William

    2001-01-01

    The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.

  19. LBL's Pollution Instrumentation Comparability Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, R. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Contained are condensed excerpts from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Survey of Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring. The survey describes instrumentation used to analyze air and water quality, radiation emissions, and biomedical impacts. (BB)

  20. Instruments for Water Quality Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Dwight G.

    1972-01-01

    Presents information regarding available instruments for industries and agencies who must monitor numerous aquatic parameters. Charts denote examples of parameters sampled, testing methods, range and accuracy of test methods, cost analysis, and reliability of instruments. (BL)

  1. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  2. Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in this viewgraph presentation include information on 1) Historic instruments at Goddard; 2) Integrated Design Capability at Goddard; 3) The Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL).

  3. Instrumental musicians' hazards.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, R A

    2001-01-01

    In the last two decades, injuries to instrumental musicians have been well documented. Major categories of performance-related injuries include musculoskeletal overuse, nerve entrapment/thoracic outlet syndrome, and focal dystonia. Other areas of concern to instrumentalists include hypermobility, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and hearing loss. This chapter reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, physical exam, treatment, and prevention of common problems of instrumentalists. Emphasis is placed on the team approach of treatment and prevention and the need for close collaboration of the various health professionals, music educators, and performers. Additional resources are presented for those interested in pursuing performing arts medicine in greater detail. PMID:11567922

  4. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-04-19

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  5. Diaphragms for Aeronautic Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, M D

    1924-01-01

    This investigation was carried out at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and comprises an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles, together with a discussion of expedients for making the most effective use of existing diaphragms actuated by the hydrostatic pressure form an essential element of a great variety instruments for aeronautic and other technical purposes. The various physical data needed as a foundation for rational methods of diaphragm design have not, however, been available hitherto except in the most fragmentary form.

  6. Instrument Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, Chatura; Hull-Ryde, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Well-defined quality control (QC) processes are used to determine whether a certain procedure or action conforms to a widely accepted standard and/or set of guidelines, and are important components of any laboratory quality assurance program (Popa-Burke et al., J Biomol Screen 14: 1017-1030, 2009). In this chapter, we describe QC procedures useful for monitoring the accuracy and precision of laboratory instrumentation, most notably automated liquid dispensers. Two techniques, gravimetric QC and photometric QC, are highlighted in this chapter. When used together, these simple techniques provide a robust process for evaluating liquid handler accuracy and precision, and critically underpin high-quality research programs. PMID:27316990

  7. Keyboard Emulation For Computerized Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, P. M.; Crouch, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    Keyboard emulator has interface at same level as manual keyboard entry. Since communication and control take place at high intelligence level in instrument, all instrument circuitry fully utilized. Little knowledge of instrument circuitry necessary, since only task interface performs is key closure. All existing logic and error checking still performed by instrument, minimizing workload of laboratory microcomputer. Timing constraints for interface operation minimal at keyboard entry level.

  8. Surface composition mapping radiometer instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design, development, and fabrication of a three-channel scanning radiometer are discussed. The instrument was flown on Nimbus 5 satellite and measured infrared energy in the 8.3 to 9.3, 10.2 to 11.2, and 0.8 to 1.1 micron spectral regions. The instrument parameters are presented. Theoretical discussions of the instrument subassemblies are provided. Operational details of the mechanical and electrical portions of the instrument are included.

  9. A new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, Roy B.

    1993-01-01

    The Faraday Ring Ammeter was the subject of this grant for a new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation. This report summarizes our progress in this work. Briefly, we have conducted an intensive series of experiments and trials over three years, testing some five configurations of the instrument to measure currents, resulting in two Ph.D. theses, supported by this grant, and two flight configurations of the instrument. The first flight would have been on a NASA-Air Force collaborative sounding rocket, but was not flown because of instrumental difficulties. The second has been successfully integrated on the NASA Auroral Turbulence payload which is to be launched in February, 1994.

  10. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  11. Advance directives

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Rory; Mailo, Kevin; Angeles, Ricardo; Agarwal, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of patients with advance directives in a family practice, and to describe patients’ perspectives on a family doctor’s role in initiating discussions about advance directives. Design A self-administered patient questionnaire. Setting A busy urban family medicine teaching clinic in Hamilton, Ont. Participants A convenience sample of adult patients attending the clinic over the course of a typical business week. Main outcome measures The prevalence of advance directives in the patient population was determined, and the patients’ expectations regarding the role of their family doctors were elucidated. Results The survey population consisted of 800 participants (a response rate of 72.5%) well distributed across age groups; 19.7% had written advance directives and 43.8% had previously discussed the topic of advance directives, but only 4.3% of these discussions had occurred with family doctors. In 5.7% of cases, a family physician had raised the issue; 72.3% of respondents believed patients should initiate the discussion. Patients who considered advance directives extremely important were significantly more likely to want their family doctors to start the conversation (odds ratio 3.98; P < .05). Conclusion Advance directives were not routinely addressed in the family practice. Most patients preferred to initiate the discussion of advance directives. However, patients who considered the subject extremely important wanted their family doctors to initiate the discussion. PMID:25873704

  12. Spacecraft instrument calibration and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Feldman, P.; Hudson, R.; Lean, J.; Madden, R.; Mcmaster, L.; Mount, G.; Rottman, G.; Simon, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The following topics are covered: instrument degradation; the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Experiment; the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS); the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE-1) and SAGE-2 instruments; the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV ozone and near infrared airglow instruments; and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS).

  13. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  14. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  15. The QUIET Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leitch, E. M.; Wollack, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ( approx 1 deg.) . Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 micro Ks(exp 1/2)) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 micro Ks(exp 1/2) at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01 (QUIET Collaboration 2012) The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range l approximately equals 25-975 . These are the largest HEMT-ba.sed arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument,

  16. Instrumentation for Submillimeter Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragovan, M.; Novak, G.

    1984-01-01

    During the last two years three instruments were built and operated for detection of polarization in the submillimeter to millimeter wavelength bands. In principle, simply rotating a polarizing grid in front of the detector would be sufficient to determine the state of linear polarization. In practice severe systematic problems are found with this approach. Everything in the light path has potential for inducing polarization. The telescope, apertures in the lightpath, and the Winston light collectors all introduce systematic errors. (The polarization/depolarization induced by these devices is due to diffraction and the finite conductivity of the metals used). Two of the polarimeters are for use on the KAO; the third is for the IRTF on Mauna Kea. The airplane polarimeters, M1 and M2, were specifically designed to minimize the systematic errors. The ground based polarimeter uses our f/35 photometer with an external polarizing grid as the analyzer. With all three instruments the key to success is the data collector and analysis scheme.

  17. An Instrumental Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

  18. The QUIET Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  19. Armored instrumentation cable for geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.; Johnson, J.; Todd, B.

    1981-01-01

    Multiconductor armored well-logging cable is used extensively by the oil and natural gas industry to lower various instruments used to measure the geological and geophysical parameters into deep wellbores. Advanced technology in oil-well drilling makes it possible to achieve borehole depths of 9 km (30,000 ft). The higher temperatures in these deeper boreholes demand advancements in the design and manufacturing of wireline cable and in the electrical insulating and armoring materials used as integral components. If geothermal energy is proved an abundant economic resource, drilling temperatures approaching and exceeding 300/sup 0/C will become commonplace. The adaptation of teflons as electrical insulating material permitted use of armored cable in geothermal wellbores where temperatures are slightly in excess of 200/sup 0/C, and where the concentrations of corrosive minerals and gases are high. Teflon materials presently used in wireline cables, however, are not capable of continuous operation at the anticipated higher temperatures.

  20. XEUS mission and instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Peacock, Anthony J.; Parmar, Arvind N.; Beijersbergen, Marco W.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission (XEUS) is an ambitious project under study by the European Space Agency (ESA), which aims to probe the distant hot universe with comparable sensitivity to NGST and ALMA. The effective optical area and angular resolution required to perform this task is 30 m2 effective area and <5 inch angular resolution respectively at 1 keV. The single Wolter-I X-ray telescope having these characteristics will be equipped with large area semiconductor detectors and high-resolution cryogenic imaging spectrometers with 2 eV resolution at 1 keV. A novel approach to mission design has been developed, placing the detector instruments on one dedicated spacecraft and the optics on another. The International Space Station (ISS) with the best ever-available infrastructure in space will be used to expand the mirror diameter from 4.5 m to 10 m, by using the European Robotic Arm on the ISS. The detector spacecraft (DSC) uses solar-electric propulsion to maintain its position while flying in formation with the mirror spacecraft. The detector instruments are protected from straylight and contamination by sophisticated baffles and filters, and employing the Earth as a shield to make the most sensitive low energy X-ray observations of the heavily red-shifted universe. After completion of an initial observation phase lasting 5 years, the mirror spacecraft will be upgraded (basically expanded to a full 10 m diameter mirror) at the ISS, while the DSC is replaced by a new spacecraft with a new suite of detector instruments optimised to the full area XEUS mirror. An industrial feasibility study was successfully completed and identified no major problem area. Current activities focus on a full system level study and the necessary technology developments. XEUS is likely to become a truly global mission, involving many of the partners that have teamed up to build the ISS. Japan is already a major partner int the study of XEUS, with ISAS having its main

  1. Robotic servicing of EOS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.; Juberts, Maris

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses robotic servicing of the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) instruments. The goals of implementing a robotic servicing system on EOS would be to maintain the instruments throughout the required mission life and minimize life-cycle costs. To address robot servicing, an initial design concept has been developed which will be applied to a representative EOS instrument. This instrument will be used as a model for determining the most practical level of servicing of its parts, and how to design these parts for robot servicing. Using this representative EOS instrument as a model, a generic design scheme will be developed that can be applied to all EOS instruments. The first task is to determine how to identify which parts must be designed for robot servicing. Next, the requirements imposed on the instruments and the servicing robot when designing for robot serviceability must be examined.

  2. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  3. Sentinel-1 Instrument Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Torres, Ramon; Geudtner, Dirk; Brown, Michael; Deghaye, Patrick; Navas-Traver, Ignacio; Ostergaard, Allan; Rommen, Bjorn; Floury, Nicolas; Davidson, Malcolm

    2013-03-01

    The forthcoming European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-1 (S-1) C-band SAR constellation will provide continuous all-weather day/night global coverage, with six days exact repetition time (near daily coverage over Europe and Canada) and with radar data delivery within 3 to 24 hours. These features open new possibilities for operational maritime services. The Sentinel-1 space segment has been designed and is being built by an industrial consortium with Thales Alenia Space Italia as prime contractor and EADS Astrium GmbH as C-SAR instrument responsible. It is expected that Sentinel-1A be launched in 2013. This paper will provide an overview of the Sentinel-1 system, the status and characteristics of the technical implementation. The key elements of the system supporting the maritime user community will be highlighted.

  4. Instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical validation.

    PubMed

    Zigler, S S

    2009-08-01

    Although the promise of new positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents is great, the process of bringing these agents to commercialization remains in its infancy. There are no PET products today that have gone through the full clinical and chemistry development process required to gain marketing approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The purpose of this paper was to review validation from the perspective of the chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) section of an FDA filing, as well as the validation requirements described in FDA good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations, guidance documents and general chapters of the US Pharmacopeia (USP). The review includes discussion of validation from development to commercial production of PET radiopharmaceuticals with a special emphasis on equipment and instrumentation used in production and testing. The goal is to stimulate a dialog that leads to the standardization of industry practices and regulatory requirements for validation practices in PET. PMID:19834450

  5. Well surveying instrument sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Poquette, R.S.

    1981-01-20

    A surveying instrument sensor which includes a gimbal supported for rotation within a casing, a torquer coupled to rotate the gimbal with a first two-axis flexure suspended gyro supported on the gimbal with its spin axis perpendicular to the axis of the gimbal and one of its sensitive axes aligned with the axis of the gimbal, a second two-axis flexure suspended gyro disposed on the gimbal with its spin axis alinged with the axis of the gimbal and having two sensitive axes outputs orthogonal thereto. The output of the first gyro is coupled to the torquer to form a gimbal stabilized loop and the outputs and torquing inputs of the second gimbal coupled into rate capture loops with output signals obtained from the rate captured loops permitting fast and accurate surveying of a well pipe.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Mims, L.S.

    1961-08-22

    A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

  7. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Christian, David E.

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  8. LANDSAT instruments characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Work performed for the LANDSAT instrument characterization task in the areas of absolute radiometry, coherent noise analysis, and between-date smoothing is reported. Absolute radiometric calibration for LANDSAT-5 TM under ambient conditions was performed. The TM Radiometric Algorithms and Performance Program (TRAPP) was modified to create optional midscan data files and to match the TM Image Processing System (TIPS) algorithm for pulse determination. Several data reduction programs were developed, including a linear regression and its plotted result. A fast Fourier transformation study was conducted on the resequenced TM data. Subscenes of homogeneous water within scenes over Pensacola, Florida were used for testing the FFT on the resequenced data. Finally, a gain and pulse height stability study of LANDSAT 5 TM spectral bands was performed.

  9. Instrumented Architectural Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

  10. Imaging Spectroscopy Instrumentation for Earth Science and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Robert; Vane, Gregg

    2016-07-01

    Spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method based in physics that is used to investigate questions and test hypotheses across an extraordinary range of scientific disciplines as well as for quantitative applications. In the late 1970's the concept for an instrument that measured spectra for every point in an image was conceived and proposed using the most advanced infrared detector array available at the time. The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer as developed and first flew in 1982. New discoveries were made with the first flights of this instrument. Since that time increasingly advanced airborne and space imaging spectrometer have been developed and deployed. These instruments have been used for science and applications on Earth and for science and exploration throughout the solar system. This talk presents the advances in imaging spectrometer instrumentation and key discoveries of imaging spectrometers for Earth and elsewhere in our solar system. It also presents examples of new imaging spectrometer architectures enabled by new detectors and spectrometer design forms as well as some of the science and applications objectives that can be pursued ranging 50 micron spatial imaging for planetary surface rovers to spectroscopic instruments measuring exoplanet composition and structure.

  11. Ideology as instrument.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

    2007-12-01

    Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. PMID:18085858

  12. Laparoscopic Multifunctional Instruments: Design and Testing of Initial Prototypes

    PubMed Central

    Schadler, Jeremy; Haluck, Randy S.; Culkar, Kristin; Dziedzic, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    Background: Advances in minimally invasive surgical techniques will require new types of instrument end-effectors for smaller, longer, and flexible instruments. These include a new class of multifunctional instruments capable of performing more than 1 task with a single set of working jaws. Furthermore, it is desired that multifunctional instruments be designed to provide improved dexterity compared with that in currently commercially available instruments. Methods: Three prototypes of multifunctional laparoscopic surgical instruments are described: (1) a mechanical scissors-grasper, (2) a mechanical scissors-grasper-articulator, and (3) a compliant mechanism scissors-grasper. Methods of baseline analysis, design methods and considerations, and subjective evaluations of interim prototypes are presented. Results: The 3 prototypes demonstrate promising early results. However, based on subjective evaluation, these prototypes do not perform individual functions as well as basic disposable single-function laparoscopic instruments do. Conclusions: The concept of multifunctionality and increased end-effector dexterity is achievable as demonstrated by the prototypes presented. Further work is required to refine, simplify, and improve the multifunctional instruments to a point where they may be useful as surgical tools. PMID:15791983

  13. Recent Developments in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Instrumentation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1986-04-01

    This paper presents recent detector developments and perspectives for positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation used for medical research, as well as the physical processes in positron annihilation, photon scattering and detection, tomograph design considerations, and the potentials for new advances in detectors.

  14. The James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Sullivan, Pamela C.; Boyce, Leslye A.; Glazer, Stuart D.; Johnson, Eric L.; McCloskey, John C.; Voyton, Mark F.

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module of the James Webb Space Telescope is described from a systems perspective with emphasis on unique and advanced technology aspects. The major subsystems of this flight element are described including: structure, thermal, command and data handling, and software.

  15. Naturalistic Observation as a Research Instrument in Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlak, Harold

    A number of problems are identified and questions raised about the usefulness of conventional instruments of educational and psychological measurement in curriculum evaluation and research. Four purposes of curriculum evaluation data are identified: (1) advancement of science, (2) curriculum revision, (3) provision of data for the formulation of…

  16. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  17. The design and development of a third generation OSEE instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, D. F.; Yost, W. T.; Stone, F. D.; Welch, C. S.; Scales, E.; Gasser, E. S.; Joe, E.; Goodman, T.; Pascual, X.; Hefner, B.

    1995-01-01

    Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE) has been used to quantify surface contamination in the aerospace community. As advances are made towards the understanding of OSEE, it is desirable to incorporate technological advances with succeeding generations of instrumentation, so that improvements in the practical application of OSEE may be disseminated among the user community. Several studies undertaken by Yost, Welch, Abedin and others have expanded the knowledge base related to the underlying principles of OSEE. The conclusions of these studies, together with inputs from the user community were the foundation upon which the development of a third generation OSEE instrument was based. This manuscript describes the significant improvements incorporated into a third generation OSEE instrument as well as the elements unique to its design.

  18. The design and development of a third generation OSEE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perey, D. F.; Yost, W. T.; Stone, F. D.; Welch, C. S.; Scales, E.; Gasser, E. S.; Joe, E.; Goodman, T.; Pascual, X.; Hefner, B.

    1995-03-01

    Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE) has been used to quantify surface contamination in the aerospace community. As advances are made towards the understanding of OSEE, it is desirable to incorporate technological advances with succeeding generations of instrumentation, so that improvements in the practical application of OSEE may be disseminated among the user community. Several studies undertaken by Yost, Welch, Abedin and others have expanded the knowledge base related to the underlying principles of OSEE. The conclusions of these studies, together with inputs from the user community were the foundation upon which the development of a third generation OSEE instrument was based. This manuscript describes the significant improvements incorporated into a third generation OSEE instrument as well as the elements unique to its design.

  19. Aeropropulsion 1987. Session 4: Instrumentation and Controls Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center has had a long history of research directed toward advancing the national capability in the areas of propulsion research instrumentation and propulsion controls. Some of the major advances from this research that are currently in use are highlighted as well as some of the ongoing and planned research that will strongly impact the future capabilities. The presentations will cover the efforts on research instrumentation and controls as well as the research on high temperature electronics. This introductory section will focus on the major drivers or needs of the aeropropulsion industry that have shaped the instrumentation and controls research programs. Also covered will be the technological opportunities that have greatly impacted the program and that permitted break-throughs in several areas.

  20. Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, instrumentation room, bays and console plan. Specifications No. Eng-04-353-55-72; drawing no. 60-09-12; sheet 110 of 148; file no. 1321/61. Stamped: Record drawing - as constructed. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Virtual Instrument Simulator for CERES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    1997-01-01

    A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES Virtual Instrument Simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed Flight Code and Ground Support Software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES Instrument Simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES Instrument Simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES Flight Operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively inexpensive

  2. Virtual instrument simulator for CERES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, John J.

    1997-12-01

    A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's tropical rainfall measurement mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth observing system (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES virtual instrument simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed flight code and ground support software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES instrument simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES instrument simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES flight operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively

  3. Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument: Development of a new instrument

    PubMed Central

    Bova, Carol; Barton, Bruce; Hartigan, Celia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The goal of this project was to develop the first disease-specific instrument for the evaluation of quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. Methods: Focus groups and interview sessions were conducted, with chronic pancreatitis patients, to identify items felt to impact quality of life which were subsequently formatted into a paper-and-pencil instrument. This instrument was used to conduct an online survey by an expert panel of pancreatologists to evaluate its content validity. Finally, the modified instrument was presented to patients during precognitive testing interviews to evaluate its clarity and appropriateness. Results: In total, 10 patients were enrolled in the focus groups and interview sessions where they identified 50 items. Once redundant items were removed, the 40 remaining items were made into a paper-and-pencil instrument referred to as the Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument. Through the processes of content validation and precognitive testing, the number of items in the instrument was reduced to 24. Conclusions: This marks the development of the first disease-specific instrument to evaluate quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. It includes unique features not found in generic instruments (economic factors, stigma, and spiritual factors). Although this marks a giant step forward, psychometric evaluation is still needed prior to its clinical use. PMID:26770703

  4. Novel Developments in Instrumentation for PET Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Advances in medical imaging, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), have been based on technical developments in physics and instrumentation that have common foundations with detection systems used in other fields of physics. New detector materials are used in PET systems that maximize efficiency, timing characteristics and robustness, and which lead to improved image quality and quantitative accuracy for clinical imaging. Time of flight (TOF) techniques are now routinely used in commercial PET scanners that combine physiological imaging with anatomical imaging provided by x-ray computed tomography. Using new solid-state photo-sensors instead of traditional photo-multiplier tubes makes it possible to combine PET with magnetic resonance imaging which is a significant technical challenge, but one that is creating new opportunities for both research and clinical applications. An overview of recent advances in instrumentation, such as TOF and PET/MR will be presented, along with examples of imaging studies to demonstrate the impact on patient care and basic research of diseases.

  5. Intonation and compensation of fretted string instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele; Gower, Christina

    2011-04-01

    We discuss theoretical and physical models that are useful for analyzing the intonation of musical instruments such as guitars and mandolins and can be used to improve the tuning on these instruments. The placement of frets on the fingerboard is designed according to mathematical rules and the assumption of an ideal string. The analysis becomes more complicated when we include the effects of deformation of the string and inharmonicity due to other string characteristics. As a consequence, perfect intonation of all the notes on the instrument cannot be achieved, but complex compensation procedures can be introduced to minimize the problem. To test the validity of these procedures, we performed extensive measurements using standard monochord sonometers and other acoustical devices, confirming the correctness of our theoretical models. These experimental activities can be integrated into acoustics courses and laboratories and can become a more advanced version of basic experiments with monochords and sonometers. This work was supported by a grant from the Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering, Loyola Marymount University.

  6. Detectors for the NIRCAM Instrument on JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. T.; Rieke, M. J.; Hall, D. N. B.; Garnett, J.; Loose, M.; Magoncelli, A.; Winters, G.

    2005-12-01

    NIRCAM is the near infrared camera for the James Webb Space Telescope. It will provide an unprecedented combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, and angular resolution between the wavelengths of 0.6 to 5 μ m. To cover this wide range, the instrument uses two versions of the Rockwell Scientific HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG detector technology. The short wavelength channel consists of a 2 x 2 mosaic of 2.5 μ m cutoff detectors, producing a 4096 x 4096 array. The mid-wavelength channel consists of a single 2048x2048 5 μ m cutoff array. For redundancy and areal coverage, the instrument has two copies of each of these channels, yielding a total of 40 megapixels on the sky. The focal plane array effort includes detector and cryogenic electronics development at Rockwell Scientific, detector packaging at the University of Arizona, and electronics development at Lockheed-Martin Advanced Technology Center. We report on the current status in all these areas. We present data that indicate the NIRCAM detectors will meet the performance goals of JWST. We also discuss testing plans for the next few months that will bring the focal plane arrays to flight technical readiness. The NIRCAM instrument is funded by NASA/GSFC under contract NAS5-02105.

  7. Study of instrumentation needs for process control and safety in coal fluidized-bed combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Griggs, K.E.; Henry, R.F.; Podolski, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the current state of the art of instrumentation for planned and operating fluidized-bed combustion systems. This study is intended to identify instrumentation needs and serve as a data base for projects to develop this instrumentation. A considerable number of needs for measurements for which presently available instrumentation is not suitable were reported by respondents. The identified deficiencies are presented with the associated physical parameter ranges for FBC processes. New techniques and instrumentation under development, as well as some available alternative instruments, are discussed briefly. Also, newly instituted mechanisms for technical information exchange on instrumentation for fossil energy applications are identified. Development of instruments to meet the identified measurement deficiencies is recommended in order to ensure the feasibility of automatic control of large-scale fluidized-bed combustion systems, and to advance the state of the art of fluidized-bed combustion technology.

  8. Two Radiative/Thermochemical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Janoff, Dwight D.; Shelley, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of absorption and emission complement thermal measurements. Two laboratory instruments for research in combustion and pyrolysis equipped for radiative as well as thermal measurements. One instrument essentially differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) modified to detect radiation emitted by flames. Provides means to evaluate limits of flammability of materials exhibiting exothermic reactions in DSC's. Other instrument used to determine pyrolysis properties of specimens exposed to various gases by measurement of infrared absorption spectra of pyrolysis products.

  9. Instrumentation in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Adappa, Nithin D

    2016-08-01

    Frontal recess dissection proposes many challenges to the surgeon. These challenges stem from its highly variable nature, small caliber, difficult visualization, and proximity to vital structures such as the skull base and orbit. As such, delicate mucosal-sparing dissection of the frontal recess with proper instrumentation is paramount to minimize scar formation and ensure patency. Here, the article explores key instrumentation in frontal recess surgery with an emphasis on hand instruments and adjunctive technologies. PMID:27329980

  10. Experimenting with string musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-03-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.

  11. Multi-Functional Lidar Instrument for Global Measurement of Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amzajerdian, F.; Busch, G. E.; Edwards, W. C.; Dwyer Cianciolo, A. M.; Munk, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes an orbiting lidar instrument concept capable of providing Mars atmospheric parameters critical to design of future robotic and manned missions requiring advanced aerocapture, precision landing, and launch from Mars surface.

  12. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  13. Radiological instrument. Patent Application

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1985-10-10

    This patent application discloses a radiological measuring instrument including an angularly variable radiation-sensitive structure comprised of two blocks of material having a different index of refraction with one of the materials comprising a radiochromic substance whose refractive index changes through anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to radiation. The ratio of the two indices of refraction is selected to be close to unity, with the radiation-sensitive structure being pivotally adjusted so that light is directed into one end of the block comprising the material having the greater index of refraction. This element, moreover, is selected to be clear and transparent with the incident angle being close to the critical angle where total reflection of all incident light occurs. A portion of the incident light is furthermore projected through the clear transparent block without reflection, with the two beams emerging from the other end of the block, where they are detected. Exposure to radiation changes the index of refraction of the radiochromic block and accordingly the reflected energy emerging therefrom. Calibrated readjustment of the angle of incidence provides a measure of the sensed radiation.

  14. Halo vest instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Dryver R.; Krag, Martin

    1996-05-01

    The halo vest is a head and neck immobilization system that is often used on patients that are recovering from cervical trauma or surgery. The halo vest system consists of a rigid halo that is firmly attached to the skull, an upright support structure for stabilization and immobilization, and a torso-enveloping vest. The main purpose of this study was to measure the forces that are carried by the halo-vest structure as the subject undergoes various activities of daily living and external loading for different vest designs. A tethered strain gage load cell based instrumentation system was used to take these load measurements on ten different subjects. Three different halo-vest systems were evaluated. The primary difference between the vests was the amount of torso coverage and the use of shoulder straps. The loads were measured, analyzed and used to compare the vests and to create a model of halo-vest-neck mechanics. Future applications of this technology to standalone data logging, pin-load measuring and biofeedback applications are discussed.

  15. The Clementine instrument complement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    The recent successes of the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) experiment at the Moon and Gaspra show the utility of multispectral imaging of planetary objects. 'Clementine' is the planetary community's 'code name' for the SDIO (Space Defense Initiative Organization), mission to the Moon and the asteroid Geographos. This mission is designed as a long term stressing test on sensors and space systems developed for SDIO. In the course of this test Clementine will obtain science data using a varied and powerful array of remote sensing instruments which were developed by or for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. Clementine carries five cameras, one for navigation and four for science experiments. In addition, a laser ranger is included which will serve as a laser altimeter. The Clementine cameras cover a wider range of spatial resolutions and wavelength range than did Galileo and are almost ideally suited to mapping of mafic rock types as are present on the Moon and expected at Geographos. Calibration of the cameras will occur at the sensor calibration laboratory at LLNL. In flight calibrations, using standard stars and other standards should improve the stated accuracies. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) include the following noise sources: shot noise, calibration error, digitization noise, readout noise, and frame transfer noise (where applicable). The achieved SNRs are a balance between detector saturation and acceptable image smear. The 'worst' case uses the longest possible integration times.

  16. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    PubMed Central

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection. PMID:19485522

  17. Optical distance measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

  18. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  19. Ultrasonics and space instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design topic selected was an outgrowth of the experimental design work done in the Fluid Behavior in Space experiment, which relies on the measurement of minute changes of the pressure and temperature to obtain reasonably accurate volume determinations. An alternative method of volume determination is the use of ultrasonic imaging. An ultrasonic wave system is generated by wall mounted transducer arrays. The interior liquid configuration causes reflection and refraction of the pattern so that analysis of the received wave system provides a description of the configuration and hence volume. Both continuous and chirp probe beams were used in a laboratory experiment simulating a surface wetting propellant. The hardware included a simulated tank with gaseous voids, transmitting and receiving transducers, transmitters, receivers, computer interface, and computer. Analysis software was developed for image generation and interpretation of results. Space instrumentation was pursued in support of a number of experiments under development for GAS flights. The program included thirty undergraduate students pursuing major qualifying project work under the guidance of eight faculty supported by a teaching assistant. Both mechanical and electrical engineering students designed and built several microprocessor systems to measure parameters such as temperature, acceleration, pressure, velocity, and circulation in order to determine combustion products, vortex formation, gas entrainment, EMR emissions from thunderstorms, and milli-g-accelerations due to crew motions.

  20. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:25946180

  1. Advanced Hypervelocity Aerophysics Facility Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, Robert D. (Compiler); Scallion, William I. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of the workshop was to obtain a critical assessment of a concept for a large, advanced hypervelocity ballistic range test facility powered by an electromagnetic launcher, which was proposed by the Langley Research Center. It was concluded that the subject large-scale facility was feasible and would provide the required ground-based capability for performing tests at entry flight conditions (velocity and density) on large, complex, instrumented models. It was also concluded that advances in remote measurement techniques and particularly onboard model instrumentation, light-weight model construction techniques, and model electromagnetic launcher (EML) systems must be made before any commitment for the construction of such a facility can be made.

  2. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  3. Modularized Parallel Neutron Instrument Simulation on the TeraGrid

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Meili; Cobb, John W; Hagen, Mark E; Miller, Stephen D; Lynch, Vickie E

    2007-01-01

    In order to build a bridge between the TeraGrid (TG), a national scale cyberinfrastructure resource, and neutron science, the Neutron Science TeraGrid Gateway (NSTG) is focused on introducing productive HPC usage to the neutron science community, primarily the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Monte Carlo simulations are used as a powerful tool for instrument design and optimization at SNS. One of the successful efforts of a collaboration team composed of NSTG HPC experts and SNS instrument scientists is the development of a software facility named PSoNI, Parallelizing Simulations of Neutron Instruments. Parallelizing the traditional serial instrument simulation on TeraGrid resources, PSoNI quickly computes full instrument simulation at sufficient statistical levels in instrument de-sign. Upon SNS successful commissioning, to the end of 2007, three out of five commissioned instruments in SNS target station will be available for initial users. Advanced instrument study, proposal feasibility evalua-tion, and experiment planning are on the immediate schedule of SNS, which pose further requirements such as flexibility and high runtime efficiency on fast instrument simulation. PSoNI has been redesigned to meet the new challenges and a preliminary version is developed on TeraGrid. This paper explores the motivation and goals of the new design, and the improved software structure. Further, it describes the realized new fea-tures seen from MPI parallelized McStas running high resolution design simulations of the SEQUOIA and BSS instruments at SNS. A discussion regarding future work, which is targeted to do fast simulation for automated experiment adjustment and comparing models to data in analysis, is also presented.

  4. MISR Instrument Data Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David; Garay, Michael; Diner, David; Thompson, Charles; Hall, Jeffrey; Rheingans, Brian; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    The MISR Interactive eXplorer (MINX) software functions both as a general-purpose tool to visualize Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument data, and as a specialized tool to analyze properties of smoke, dust, and volcanic plumes. It includes high-level options to create map views of MISR orbit locations; scrollable, single-camera RGB (red-greenblue) images of MISR level 1B2 (L1B2) radiance data; and animations of the nine MISR camera images that provide a 3D perspective of the scenes that MISR has acquired. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2008 55 The plume height capability provides an accurate estimate of the injection height of plumes that is needed by air quality and climate modelers. MISR provides global high-quality stereo height information, and this program uses that information to perform detailed height retrievals of aerosol plumes. Users can interactively digitize smoke, dust, or volcanic plumes and automatically retrieve heights and winds, and can also archive MISR albedos and aerosol properties, as well as fire power and brightness temperatures associated with smoke plumes derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Some of the specialized options in MINX enable the user to do other tasks. Users can display plots of top-of-atmosphere bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs) versus camera-angle for selected pixels. Images and animations can be saved to disk in various formats. Also, users can apply a geometric registration correction to warp camera images when the standard processing correction is inadequate. It is possible to difference the images of two MISR orbits that share a path (identical ground track), as well as to construct pseudo-color images by assigning different combinations of MISR channels (angle or spectral band) to the RGB display channels. This software is an interactive application written in IDL and compiled into an IDL Virtual Machine (VM) ".sav" file.

  5. EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI): Validation Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinksma, E. J.; McPeters, R.; deHaan, J. F.; Levelt, P. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    OMI is an advanced hyperspectral instrument that measures backscattered radiation in the UV and visible. It will be flown as part of the EOS Aura mission and provide data on atmospheric chemistry that is highly synergistic with other Aura instruments HIRDLS, MLS, and TES. OMI is designed to measure total ozone, aerosols, cloud information, and UV irradiances, continuing the TOMS series of global mapped products but with higher spatial resolution. In addition its hyperspectral capability enables measurements of trace gases such as SO2, NO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. A plan for validation of the various OM1 products is now being formulated. Validation of the total column and UVB products will rely heavily on existing networks of instruments, like NDSC. NASA and its European partners are planning aircraft missions for the validation of Aura instruments. New instruments and techniques (DOAS systems for example) will need to be developed, both ground and aircraft based. Lidar systems are needed for validation of the vertical distributions of ozone, aerosols, NO2 and possibly SO2. The validation emphasis will be on the retrieval of these products under polluted conditions. This is challenging because they often depend on the tropospheric profiles of the product in question, and because of large spatial variations in the troposphere. Most existing ground stations are located in, and equipped for, pristine environments. This is also true for almost all NDSC stations. OMI validation will need ground based sites in polluted environments and specially developed instruments, complementing the existing instrumentation.

  6. Zach's instruments and their characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    The astronomically interested Duke Ernst II von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (1745-1804) hired Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) as court astronomer in 1786. Immediatedly Zach started to make plans for instrumentation for a new observatory. But first they travelled with their instruments (a 2-foot Ramsden transit instrument, the Sisson quadrant, three Hadley sextants, two achromatic refractors and chronometers) to southern France. In Hyàres a tower of the wall around the town was converted into an observatory in 1787. For the building of the new observatory Zach had chosen a place outside of Gotha on the top of the Seeberg. The three main instruments were an 8-foot transit instrument made by Ramsden, a northern and southern mural quadrant made by Sisson and a zenith sector made by Cary, in addition an 8-foot circle made by Ramsden. By analysing the whole instrumentation of Gotha observatory, we can see a change around 1800 in the kind of instruments, from quadrants and sextants to the full circles and from the transit instrument to the meridian circle. The decline of the Gotha observatory started with the early death of the Duke in 1804 and the subsequent departure of Zach in 1806.

  7. Introduction to Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A. O., III

    This module contains instructional materials on instrumentation to help teachers train students in the job skills they will need as beginning instrumentation technicians. The module addresses the nature of accessing, measuring, and controlling phenomena such as level, flow, pressure, and temperature. Students are introduced to the devices and…

  8. Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

  9. Associations in Human Instrumental Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamez, A. Matias; Rosas, Juan M.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to study the contents of human instrumental conditioning. Experiment 1 found positive transfer between a discriminative stimulus (S[superscript D] and an instrumental response (R) that shared the outcome (O) with the response that was originally trained with the S[superscript D], showing the formation of an…

  10. Experimenting with String Musical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

  11. Integrated Instrument Simulator Suites for Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Matsui, Toshihisa; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, Johnathan; Butler, Carolyn; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Niamsuwan, Noppasin; Johnson, Michael P.; Jacob, Joseph C.; Tsang, Leung; Shams, Khawaja; Jaruwatanadilok, Sermsak; Oveisgharan, Shadi; Simard, Marc; Turk, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System Simulators Suite (NEOS3) is a modular framework of forward simulations tools for remote sensing of Earth's Atmosphere from space. It was initiated as the Instrument Simulator Suite for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (ISSARS) under the NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) to enable science users to perform simulations based on advanced atmospheric and simple land surface models, and to rapidly integrate in a broad framework any experimental or innovative tools that they may have developed in this context. The name was changed to NEOS3 when the project was expanded to include more advanced modeling tools for the surface contributions, accounting for scattering and emission properties of layered surface (e.g., soil moisture, vegetation, snow and ice, subsurface layers). NEOS3 relies on a web-based graphic user interface, and a three-stage processing strategy to generate simulated measurements. The user has full control over a wide range of customizations both in terms of a priori assumptions and in terms of specific solvers or models used to calculate the measured signals.This presentation will demonstrate the general architecture, the configuration procedures and illustrate some sample products and the fundamental interface requirements for modules candidate for integration.

  12. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  13. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  14. Cervical Spine Instrumentation in Children.

    PubMed

    Hedequist, Daniel J; Emans, John B

    2016-06-01

    Instrumentation of the cervical spine enhances stability and improves arthrodesis rates in children undergoing surgery for deformity or instability. Various morphologic and clinical studies have been conducted in children, confirming the feasibility of anterior or posterior instrumentation of the cervical spine with modern implants. Knowledge of the relevant spine anatomy and preoperative imaging studies can aid the clinician in understanding the pitfalls of instrumentation for each patient. Preoperative planning, intraoperative positioning, and adherence to strict surgical techniques are required given the small size of children. Instrumentation options include anterior plating, occipital plating, and a variety of posterior screw techniques. Complications related to screw malposition include injury to the vertebral artery, neurologic injury, and instrumentation failure. PMID:27097300

  15. Instrument Remote Control Application Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Hostetter, Carl F.

    2006-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) architecture is a flexible, platform-independent application framework that is well suited for the control and monitoring of remote devices and sensors. IRC enables significant savings in development costs by utilizing extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions to configure the framework for a specific application. The Instrument Markup Language (IML) is used to describe the commands used by an instrument, the data streams produced, the rules for formatting commands and parsing the data, and the method of communication. Often no custom code is needed to communicate with a new instrument or device. An IRC instance can advertise and publish a description about a device or subscribe to another device's description on a network. This simple capability of dynamically publishing and subscribing to interfaces enables a very flexible, self-adapting architecture for monitoring and control of complex instruments in diverse environments.

  16. Instrument Concept for the Proposed DESDynI SAR instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkovic-Martin, Dragana; Hoffman, James P.; Veilleux, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The proposed DESDynI (Solid Earth Deformation, Ecosystems Structure and Dynamics of Ice) SAR (synthetic aperture radar) Instrument would expand the trade-space of radar instrument concepts and push the boundaries of high-level integration of digital and RF subsystems in order to achieve very precise assessments of system's behavior; DESDynI mission concept would provide continuous science measurements that would greatly enhance understanding of geophysical and anthropological effects in three science disciplines; Trades in instrument architecture implementations and partnership discussions are producing a set of options for science community and NASA to evaluate and consider implementing late in the decade.

  17. Instrumental variables and Mendelian randomization with invalid instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyunseung

    Instrumental variables (IV) methods have been widely used to determine the causal effect of a treatment, exposure, policy, or an intervention on an outcome of interest. The IV method relies on having a valid instrument, a variable that is (A1) associated with the exposure, (A2) has no direct effect on the outcome, and (A3) is unrelated to the unmeasured confounders associated with the exposure and the outcome. However, in practice, finding a valid instrument, especially those that satisfy (A2) and (A3), can be challenging. For example, in Mendelian randomization studies where genetic markers are used as instruments, complete knowledge about instruments' validity is equivalent to complete knowledge about the involved genes' functions. The dissertation explores the theory, methods, and application of IV methods when invalid instruments are present. First, when we have multiple candidate instruments, we establish a theoretical bound whereby causal effects are only identified as long as less than 50% of instruments are invalid, without knowing which of the instruments are invalid. We also propose a fast penalized method, called sisVIVE, to estimate the causal effect. We find that sisVIVE outperforms traditional IV methods when invalid instruments are present both in simulation studies as well as in real data analysis. Second, we propose a robust confidence interval under the multiple invalid IV setting. This work is an extension of our work on sisVIVE. However, unlike sisVIVE which is robust to violations of (A2) and (A3), our confidence interval procedure provides honest coverage even if all three assumptions, (A1)-(A3), are violated. Third, we study the single IV setting where the one IV we have may actually be invalid. We propose a nonparametric IV estimation method based on full matching, a technique popular in causal inference for observational data, that leverages observed covariates to make the instrument more valid. We propose an estimator along with

  18. AIRS-Light instrument concept and critical technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschhoff, Kevin R.

    2002-12-01

    Understanding Earth's climate, atmospheric transport mechanisms, and the hydrologic cycle requires a precise knowledge of global atmospheric circulation, temperature profiles, and water vapor distribution. The accuracy of advanced sounders such as AIRS/AMSU/HSB on NASA's Aqua spacecraft can match radiosonde accuracy. It is essential to fold those capabilities fully into the NPOESS, enabling soundings of radiosonde accuracy every 6 hours around the globe on an operational basis. However, the size, mass, power demands, and thermal characteristics of the Aqua sounding instrument suite cannot be accommodated on the NPOESS spacecraft. AIRS-Light is an instrument concept, developed under the Instrument Incubator Program, which provides IR sounding performance identical to the AIRS instrument but uses advances in HgCdTe FPA technology and pulse tube cooler technology, as well as design changes, to dramatically reduce the size, mass, and power demand, allowing AIRS-Light to meet all NPOESS spacecraft interface requirements. The AIRS-Light Instrument Incubator program fostered the development of photovoltaic-mode HgCdTe detector array technology for the 13.5-15.4 μm band covered by photoconductive-mode HgCdTe arrays in AIRS, achieved state of the art results in this band, and substantially reduced the development risk for this last new technology needed for AIRS-Light implementation.

  19. Smart Payload Development for High Data Rate Instrument Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Norton, Charles D.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of smart payloads instruments systems with high data rates. On-board computation has become a bottleneck for advanced science instrument and engineering capabilities. In order to improve the computation capability on board, smart payloads have been proposed. A smart payload is a Localized instrument, that can offload the flight processor of extensive computing cycles, simplify the interfaces, and minimize the dependency of the instrument on the flight system. This has been proposed for the Mars mission, Mars Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (MATMOS). The design of this system is discussed; the features of the Virtex-4, are discussed, and the technical approach is reviewed. The proposed Hybrid Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology has been shown to deliver breakthrough performance by tightly coupling hardware and software. Smart Payload designs for instruments such as MATMOS can meet science data return requirements with more competitive use of available on-board resources and can provide algorithm acceleration in hardware leading to implementation of better (more advanced) algorithms in on-board systems for improved science data return

  20. Performance status of the AIRS instrument thirteen years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Denis A.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Broberg, Steven E.

    2015-09-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 μm to 15.4 μm and a 13.5 km footprint at nadir. AIRS is a "facility" instrument developed by NASA as an experimental demonstration of advanced technology for remote sensing and the benefits of high resolution infrared spectra to science investigations. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles and trace gas amounts for CO2 , CO, SO2 , O3 and CH4. AIRS data are used for weather forecasting, climate process studies and validating climate models. The AIRS instrument has far exceeded its required design life of 5 years, with nearly 13 years of routine science operations that began on August 31, 2002. While the instrument has performed exceptionally well, with little sign of wear, the AIRS Project continues to monitor and maintain the health of AIRS, characterize its behavior and improve performance where possible. Radiometric stability has been monitored and trending shows better than 16 mK/year stability. Spectral calibration stability is better than 1 ppm/year. At this time we expect the AIRS to continue to perform well into the next decade. This paper contains updates to previous instrument status reports, with emphasis on the last three years.

  1. Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, Joseph T.; Duncan, Alan; Stubbs, David; Sigler, Robert; Kendrick, Rick; Smith, Eric; Mason, James; Delory, Greg; Lipps, Jere H.; Manga, Michael; Graham, James R.; de Pater, Imke; Reiboldt, Sarah; Bierhaus, Edward; Dalton, James B.; Fienup, James; Yu, Jeffrey W.

    2004-11-01

    An innovative approach that enables greatly increased return from earth and planetary science remote sensing missions is described. Our concept, called Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS), provides a large-aperture, wide-field, diffraction-limited telescope at a fraction of the cost, mass and volume of conventional space telescopes, by integrating advanced optical interferometry technologies. All optical assemblies are integrated into MIDAS as the primary remote sensing science payload, thereby reducing the cost, resources, complexity, integration and risks of a set of back-end science instruments (SI's) tailored to a specific mission, such as advanced SI's now in development for earth and planetary remote sensing missions. MIDAS interfaces to multiple SI's for redundancy and to enable synchronized concurrent science investigations, such as with multiple highly sensitive spectrometers. Passive imaging modes with MIDAS enable remote sensing at diffraction-limited resolution sequentially by each science instrument, as well as in somewhat lower resolution by multiple science instruments acting concurrently on the image, such as in different wavebands. Our MIDAS concept inherently provides nanometer-resolution hyperspectral passive imaging without the need for any moving parts in the science instruments. In its active remote sensing modes using an integrated laser source, MIDAS enables LIDAR, vibrometry, illumination, various active laser spectroscopies such as ablative, breakdown or time-resolved spectroscopy. The MIDAS optical design also provides high-resolution imaging for long dwell times at high altitudes, thereby enabling real-time, wide-area remote sensing of dynamic changes in planet surface processes.

  2. Calibrating coastal GNSS-R instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Johan; Haas, Rüdiger; Hobiger, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Since 2011, a GNSS-R (Global Navigation Satellite System - Reflectometry) instrument for local sea level observations is operated at the Onsala Space Observatory (Löfgren et al., 2011). The Onsala Space Observatory is the Swedish geodetic fundamental station, located at the Swedish West Coast, and contributes to the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) by a variety of geodetic and geophysical observations. The Onsala GNSS-R instrumentation consists of two GNSS antennas that are mounted back-to-back on a bar at the coastline extending over the open sea in southward direction. One of the antennas is upward oriented and receives the direct satellite signals, while the other antenna is downward oriented and receives the satellite signals that reflect off the sea surface. The antennas are connected to a commercial GNSS receiver each and data are recorded with sampling rate of up to 20 Hz. Satellite signals of several GNSS are received and are analysed with various different analysis strategies to provide sea level results with different temporal resolution and precision (Larson et al., 2013; Löfgren and Haas, 2014). Since the instrumentation uses GNSS signals, it is possible to derive both local sea level, i.e. relative to the coast, and absolute sea level, i.e. relative to the geocentre as realised by the GNSS. The bar carrying the two antennas can be placed in 10 different vertical positions covering a height difference of 2.5 m between the highest and lowest position. We present results from a calibration campaign of the Onsala GNSS-R instrumentation performed in 2014. During this several weeks long campaign the antennas were placed at different vertical positions for several days at each position. The recorded data are analysed with the different analysis strategies, and the results are compared to the results derived from the co-located tide gauge equipment. References - Löfgren J, Haas R, Scherneck H-G (2011). Three months of local sea-level derived from

  3. Remote sensing technology research and instrumentation platform design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An instrumented pallet concept and definition of an aircraft with performance and payload capability to meet NASA's airborne turbulent flux measurement needs for advanced multiple global climate research and field experiments is presented. The report addresses airborne measurement requirements for general circulation model sub-scale parameterization research, specifies instrumentation capable of making these measurements, and describes a preliminary support pallet design. Also, a review of aircraft types and a recommendation of a manned and an unmanned aircraft capable of meeting flux parameterization research needs is given.

  4. Solid motor diagnostic instrumentation. [design of self-contained instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Arens, W. E.; Wuest, W. S.

    1973-01-01

    A review of typical surveillance and monitoring practices followed during the flight phases of representative solid-propellant upper stages and apogee motors was conducted to evaluate the need for improved flight diagnostic instrumentation on future spacecraft. The capabilities of the flight instrumentation package were limited to the detection of whether or not the solid motor was the cause of failure and to the identification of probable primary failure modes. Conceptual designs of self-contained flight instrumentation packages capable of meeting these reqirements were generated and their performance, typical cost, and unit characteristics determined. Comparisons of a continuous real time and a thresholded hybrid design were made on the basis of performance, mass, power, cost, and expected life. The results of this analysis substantiated the feasibility of a self-contained independent flight instrumentation module as well as the existence of performance margins by which to exploit growth option applications.

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  6. Validating GOES Instrument Thermal Deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harter, Peter; Ghaffarian, Benny; Ng, Ray; Pugh, Brett; Wilkin, Paul; Sayal, Chetan; Chu, Don

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) instrument thermal model predictions with on-orbit data shows that the models capture the observed temperature and misalignment trends. Lack of precise knowledge as to spacecraft pointing precludes such comparison with instrument pointing predictions. Based on the models, thermally induced instrument attitude variation will dominate GOES N-Q Image Motion Compensation (IMC). Errors due to day-to-day changes in the attitude profiles are predicted to be under 10 microradians except for rapid scans where disturbances may reach 30 microradians.

  7. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  8. Commissioning Instrument for the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, S.; Sánchez, B.; Bringas, V.; Espejo, C.; Flores, R.; Chapa, O.; Lara, G.; Chavolla, A.; Anguiano, G.; Arciniega, S.; Dorantes, A.; González, J. L.; Montoya, J. M.; Toral, R.; Hernández, H.; Nava, R.; Devaney, N.; Castro, J.; Cavaller-Marqués, L.

    2005-12-01

    During the GTC integration phase, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes: imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature WFS, and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. This instrument was built by the Instituto de Astronomía UNAM and the Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI) under GRANTECAN contract after a public bid. In this paper we made a general instrument overview and we show some of the performance final results obtained when the Factory Acceptance tests previous to its transport to La Palma.

  9. Foundations of measurement and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, Isidore

    1990-01-01

    The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

  10. Genetic markers as instrumental variables

    PubMed Central

    von Hinke, Stephanie; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Propper, Carol; Windmeijer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The use of genetic markers as instrumental variables (IV) is receiving increasing attention from economists, statisticians, epidemiologists and social scientists. Although IV is commonly used in economics, the appropriate conditions for the use of genetic variants as instruments have not been well defined. The increasing availability of biomedical data, however, makes understanding of these conditions crucial to the successful use of genotypes as instruments. We combine the econometric IV literature with that from genetic epidemiology, and discuss the biological conditions and IV assumptions within the statistical potential outcomes framework. We review this in the context of two illustrative applications. PMID:26614692

  11. Reference Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques Victor; Farris, Ronald Keith

    2015-09-01

    This report represents the culmination of a four-year research project that was part of the Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface subprogram of the DOE Advanced Reactor Technologies program.

  12. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  13. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  14. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  15. The MUSE second-generation VLT instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, R.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bauer, S.; Biswas, I.; Blaizot, J.; Boudon, D.; Brau-Nogue, S.; Brinchmann, J.; Caillier, P.; Capoani, L.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Couderc, P.; Daguisé, E.; Deiries, S.; Delabre, B.; Dreizler, S.; Dubois, J.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; Emsellem, E.; Fechner, T.; Fleischmann, A.; François, M.; Gallou, G.; Gharsa, T.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Guiderdoni, B.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Le Floch, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Olaya, J.-C.; Pares, L.; Pasquini, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Pelló, R.; Petit, C.; Popow, E.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Roth, M.; Rupprecht, G.; Serre, D.; Schaye, J.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.,; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Yerle, N.

    2010-07-01

    Summary: The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph currently in manufacturing, assembly and integration phase. MUSE has a field of 1x1 arcmin2 sampled at 0.2x0.2 arcsec2 and is assisted by the VLT ground layer adaptive optics ESO facility using four laser guide stars. The instrument is a large assembly of 24 identical high performance integral field units, each one composed of an advanced image slicer, a spectrograph and a 4kx4k detector. In this paper we review the progress of the manufacturing and report the performance achieved with the first integral field unit.

  16. Imaging Instrumentation and Techniques for Precision Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, Katia; Parodi, Katia; Thieke, Christian; Thieke, Christian

    Over the last decade, several technological advances have considerably improved the achievable precision of dose delivery in radiation therapy. Clinical exploitation of the superior tumor-dose conformality offered by modern radiotherapy techniques like intensity-modulated radiotherapy and ion beam therapy requires morphological and functional assessment of the tumor during the entire therapy chain from treatment planning to beam application and treatment response evaluation. This chapter will address the main rationale and role of imaging in state-of-the-art external beam radiotherapy. Moreover, it will present the status of novel imaging instrumentation and techniques being nowadays introduced in clinical use or still under development for image guidance and, ultimately, dose guidance of precision radiotherapy.

  17. ISIS Support for Dawn Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K. J.; Anderson, J. A.; Barrett, J. M.; Sides, S. C.; Titus, T. N.

    2012-03-01

    The USGS ISIS system now includes support for the Dawn FC and VIR instruments with ingestion and camera/sensor model software. This provides the scientific community with the means to process Dawn image data into geologic maps.

  18. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  19. Self-playing musical instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    2001-05-01

    This do-ahead Physics Olympics competition is a musical challenge based on one designed by Dan Calder for a past New Hampshire Physics Olympics. The objective is to build a musical instrument that is self-playing.

  20. Life support subsystem monitoring instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Kostell, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    The recognition of the need for instrumentation in manned spacecraft life-support subsystems has increased significantly over the past several years. Of the required control and monitoring instrumentation, this paper will focus on the monitoring instrumentation as applied to life-support subsystems. The initial approach used independent sensors, independent sensor signal conditioning circuitry, and independent logic circuitry to provide shutdown protection only. This monitoring system was replaced with a coordinated series of printed circuit cards, each of which contains all the electronics to service one sensor and provide performance trend information, fault detection and isolation information, and shutdown protection. Finally, a review of sensor and instrumentation problems is presented, and the requirement for sensors with built-in signal conditioning and provisions for in situ calibration is discussed.

  1. Ames Scientists Develop MSL Instrument

    NASA Video Gallery

    David Blake, a research scientist at NASA Ames, led the development of CheMin, one of ten scientific instruments onboard Curiosity, the Mars Scientific Laboratory. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction tool...

  2. Course on Instruments Updates Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Describes a course in chemical instrumentation for high school chemistry teachers, paid for by Union Carbide. Teachers used spectrophotometer, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, atomic absorption spectrograph, gas chromatograph, liquid chromatograph and infrared spectrophotometer. Also describes other teacher education seminars. (JM)

  3. Instruments and attachments for electronystagmography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mironenko, Y. T.; Vilenskiy, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    A portable set of instruments and devices was developed which makes it possible to record spontaneous nystagmus with open and closed eyes. Rotational, caloric, position, and pressure nystagmus under any conditions may also be recorded.

  4. Tailoring Instrumentation to the Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abplanalp, Glen H.; Menzenhauer, Fred C.

    1978-01-01

    This article provides guidelines in selecting appropriate instrumentation for water treatment facilities. Major areas of concern include: technical operating requirements of the process; equipment design and quality; installations; and mechanical aptitude of personnel. (CS)

  5. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  6. Modular Approach to Instrumental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Richard L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    To remedy certain deficiencies, an instrument analysis course was reorganized into six one-unit modules: optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance, separations, electrochemistry, radiochemistry, and computers and interfacing. Selected aspects of the course are discussed. (SK)

  7. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  8. Interfacing Microcomputers with Laboratory Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joseph W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of microcomputer-controlled gamma scintillation spectrometer and chromatographic data analyzer, including design and construction of interface electronics and production of software. Includes diagrams of electric circuits and project evaluation indicating that both instruments functioned as intended. (JN)

  9. Instrument detects bacterial life forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plakas, C.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument assays enzymatic bioluminescent reaction that occurs when adenosine triphosphate /ATP/ combines with lucifrase and luciferin. Module assembly minimizes need for hardware associated with reaction fluid and waste transfer. System is applicable in marine biology and aerospace and medical fields.

  10. Radiant Power Measuring Instrument (RPMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The radiant power measuring instrument is a rugged, hand-carried instrument which provides an ERTS investigator with a capability of obtaining radiometric measurements needed to determine solar and atmospheric parameters that affect the ERTS radiance measurements. With these parameters, ERTS data can be transformed into absolute target reflectance signatures, making accurate unambiguous interpretations possible.

  11. 14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... instruments. (a) Instruments and instrument lines. (1) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument... of fluids would not create a hazard. (3) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument that... position. (f) Fuel pressure indicator. There must be means to measure fuel pressure, in each...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... instruments. (a) Instruments and instrument lines. (1) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument... of fluids would not create a hazard. (3) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument that... position. (f) Fuel pressure indicator. There must be means to measure fuel pressure, in each...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... instruments. (a) Instruments and instrument lines. (1) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument... of fluids would not create a hazard. (3) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument that... position. (f) Fuel pressure indicator. There must be means to measure fuel pressure, in each...

  14. The SETI instrument development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The architecture of the instrument system for the SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) program is briefly described and the development approach used to implement the operational instruments is discussed. The two versions of the instrument system include a target survey instrument to observe at a very high sensitivity a selected set of interesting stars that have particular a priori promise, and a sky survey instrument to observe the entire celestial sphere at a lower sensitivity. The targeted survey utilizes the 305 meter antenna at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, a 64 meter DSN antenna, and other large radio telescopes. The Arecibo instrument provides the highest sensitivity by virtue of the antenna gain. The antenna line feeds cover an instantaneous frequency range of 50 MHz (tunable over 100 MHz), while the multichannel spectrum analyzer/signal detector is capable of analyzing a frequency segment 16 MHz wide with a maximum resolution of 1 Hz. The sky survey employs a listen-only, 34 meter antenna. The SETI breadboard development is also described.

  15. Instrument Modelling in Observational Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, P.; Rosa, M. R.

    2004-07-01

    By constructing instrument models which incorporate as full as possible a knowledge of optical and detector physics, the calibration of astronomical data can be placed on a firmer footing than is currently the norm. A number of developments make it more practical today to efficiently use optical models in the whole observational process: At first, the proposer can prepare observations using model based exposure time estimators and data simulators. Second, the observatory controls the instrumental configuration, tests data analysis procedures and provides calibration solutions with the help of instrument and environment models. We show in particular how such models can be used to ease very significantly the calibration and operation of complex instruments from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope and provide a high level of homogeneity and integrity in the post-operational archives. We review the role of instrument models for observatory operations, observing, pipeline processing and data interpretation and describe the current usage of instrument modelling at the ST-ECF and ESO.

  16. CARMENES. IV: instrument control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Hagen, Hans-Jürgen; Morales, Rafael; Abril, Miguel; Galadí-Enríquez, David; Seifert, Walter; Sánchez Carrasco, Miguel A.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, Jose A.; Mandel, Holger

    2012-09-01

    The overall purpose of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-precision measurements of radial velocities of late-type stars with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2014 at the 3.5 m telescope in the German- Spanish Astronomical Center at Calar Alto observatory (CAHA, Spain) and will be equipped with two spectrographs in the near-infrared and visible windows. The technology involved in such instrument represents a challenge at all levels. The instrument coordination and management is handled by the Instrument Control System (ICS), which is responsible of carrying out the operations of the different subsystems and providing a tool to operate the instrument from low to high user interaction level. The main goal of the ICS and the CARMENES control layer architecture is to maximize the instrument efficiency by reducing time overheads and by operating it in an integrated manner. The ICS implements the CARMENES operational design. A description of the ICS architecture and the application programming interfaces for low- and high-level communication is given. Internet Communications Engine is the technology selected to implement most of the interface protocols.

  17. INSTRUMENTATION FOR FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFITHS, P.R.; HOMES, C.

    2001-05-04

    Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

  18. Instrumentation and telemetry at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy multiprogram engineering and scientific facility with unique design, development, and test capabilities arising from their work in nuclear weapons, energy resources, defense systems, nuclear safeguards, and specialized scientific endeavors. To support these programs, they have developed instrumentation and telemetry expertise not available elsewhere. This technology is applicable to projects in government and industry. Since the 1950s, they have applied our technical competence to meet difficult challenges with innovative solutions to data acquisition and telemetry problems. Sandia - with experience in fields as diverse as parachute design and plasma physics, geology and rocket guidance, human factors and high-speed aerodynamics, non-destructive testing and satellite communications - can use the power of synergism among our many disciplines to solve your complex problems of data and acquisition and analysis. SNL solves difficult data acquisition problems for extreme environments with expertise in advanced telemetry techniques, high data rate telemetry design, specialized electronics packaging, MIL-STD-1553 communications, instrumentation development, real-time data analysis, project management, specialized testers and data encryption.

  19. Reliability Improvements in Liquid Rocket Engine Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, A.; Acosta, E.

    2005-01-01

    Instrumentation hardware is often the weak link in advanced liquid fueled propulsion systems. The development of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) was no exception. By sheer necessity, a reusable, high energy, low weight engine system often relegates the instrumentation hardware to the backseat in the critical hardware development process. This produces less than optimum hardware constraints; including size, location, mounting, redundancy, and signal conditioning. This can negatively affect the development effort and ultimately the system reliability. The challenge was clear, however, the outcome was less certain. Unfortunately, the SSME hardware development culminated in series of measurement failures, most significant of which was the premature engine shutdown during the launch of STS-51F on July 29, 1985. The Return to Flight activities following the Challenger disaster redoubled our efforts to eliminate, once and for all, sensor malfunctions as the determining factor in overall engine reliability. This paper describes each phase of this effort in detail and includes discussion of the tasks related to improving measurement reliability.

  20. High-Resolution and Animal Imaging Instrumentation and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcari, Nicola; Guerra, AlbertoDel

    During the last decade we have observed a growing interest in "in vivo" imaging techniques for small animals. This is due to the necessity of studying biochemical processes at a molecular level for pharmacology, genetic, and pathology investigations. This field of research is usually called "molecular imaging."Advances in biological understanding have been accompanied by technological advances in instrumentation and techniques and image-reconstruction software, resulting in improved image quality, visibility, and interpretation. The main technological challenge is then the design of systems with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity.