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Sample records for advanced integration matrix

  1. Advanced Integration Matrix Education Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul Heather L.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) will design a ground-based test facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions in order to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This paper describes development plans for educational outreach activities related to technological and operational integration scenarios similar to the challenges that will be encountered through this project. The education outreach activities will provide hands-on, interactive exercises to allow students of all levels to experience design and operational challenges similar to what NASA deals with everyday in performing the integration of complex missions. These experiences will relate to and impact students everyday lives by demonstrating how their interests in science and engineering can develop into future careers, and reinforcing the concepts of teamwork and conflict resolution. Allowing students to experience and contribute to real-world development, research, and scientific studies of ground-based simulations for complex exploration missions will stimulate interest in the space program, and bring NASA's challenges to the student level. By enhancing existing educational programs and developing innovative activities and presentations, AIM will support NASA s endeavor to "inspire the next generation of explorers.. .as only NASA can."

  2. The Advanced Integration Matrix Project and Analog Sites: Difference or Duplication?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    Several project teams have conducted Mars and Lunar mission simulations at analog sites and facilities over the past decade. These projects have a range of scope, participants, and objectives. NASA has provided many of these projects with funding, equipment, and personnel. Despite their variety, a consistent aim of these sites is advancing our capability to return to the Moon or to go to Mars. The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project was begun in 2002 with a corollary aim: that of advancing the technology needed for long duration human exploration of space. As a new project, it is prudent to ask and answer the question: "What does AIM offer to NASA that is distinct from what current and past analog sites offer?" The price tag for human spaceflight is high enough without needless duplication of efforts. The AIM Project concept is distinct from currently operating terrestrial analogs in three important ways. First, AIM is not strictly an analog site or facility; second, AIM is primarily focused on systems and integration issues; and finally, AIM is organizationally related to NASA s advanced development groups and subject to the rigors of the JSC Engineering Directorate s development process. The successful development of destination-independent, cost-effective, safe, and reliable long duration human exploration systems requires that NASA use both the analog sites and ground-based systems integration efforts. The Advanced Integration Matrix Project will not simply duplicate the former, but will give the agency the capability for the latter.

  3. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  4. Matrix membranes and integrability

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.; Fairlie, D.; Curtright, T.

    1997-06-01

    This is a pedagogical digest of results reported in Curtright, Fairlie, {ampersand} Zachos 1997, and an explicit implementation of Euler`s construction for the solution of the Poisson Bracket dual Nahm equation. But it does not cover 9 and 10-dimensional systems, and subsequent progress on them Fairlie 1997. Cubic interactions are considered in 3 and 7 space dimensions, respectively, for bosonic membranes in Poisson Bracket form. Their symmetries and vacuum configurations are explored. Their associated first order equations are transformed to Nahm`s equations, and are hence seen to be integrable, for the 3-dimensional case, by virtue of the explicit Lax pair provided. Most constructions introduced also apply to matrix commutator or Moyal Bracket analogs.

  5. An advanced algorithm for construction of Integral Transport Matrix Method operators using accumulation of single cell coupling factors

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, B. P.; Azmy, Y. Y.

    2013-07-01

    The Integral Transport Matrix Method (ITMM) has been shown to be an effective method for solving the neutron transport equation in large domains on massively parallel architectures. In the limit of very large number of processors, the speed of the algorithm, and its suitability for unstructured meshes, i.e. other than an ordered Cartesian grid, is limited by the construction of four matrix operators required for obtaining the solution in each sub-domain. The existing algorithm used for construction of these matrix operators, termed the differential mesh sweep, is computationally expensive and was developed for a structured grid. This work proposes the use of a new algorithm for construction of these operators based on the construction of a single, fundamental matrix representing the transport of a particle along every possible path throughout the sub-domain mesh. Each of the operators is constructed by multiplying an element of this fundamental matrix by two factors dependent only upon the operator being constructed and on properties of the emitting and incident cells. The ITMM matrix operator construction time for the new algorithm is demonstrated to be shorter than the existing algorithm in all tested cases with both isotropic and anisotropic scattering considered. While also being a more efficient algorithm on a structured Cartesian grid, the new algorithm is promising in its geometric robustness and potential for being applied to an unstructured mesh, with the ultimate goal of application to an unstructured tetrahedral mesh on a massively parallel architecture. (authors)

  6. Integrable matrix theory: Level statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaramazza, Jasen A.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Yuzbashyan, Emil A.

    2016-09-01

    We study level statistics in ensembles of integrable N ×N matrices linear in a real parameter x . The matrix H (x ) is considered integrable if it has a prescribed number n >1 of linearly independent commuting partners Hi(x ) (integrals of motion) "]Hi(x ) ,Hj(x ) ]">H (x ) ,Hi(x ) =0 , for all x . In a recent work [Phys. Rev. E 93, 052114 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.052114], we developed a basis-independent construction of H (x ) for any n from which we derived the probability density function, thereby determining how to choose a typical integrable matrix from the ensemble. Here, we find that typical integrable matrices have Poisson statistics in the N →∞ limit provided n scales at least as logN ; otherwise, they exhibit level repulsion. Exceptions to the Poisson case occur at isolated coupling values x =x0 or when correlations are introduced between typically independent matrix parameters. However, level statistics cross over to Poisson at O (N-0.5) deviations from these exceptions, indicating that non-Poissonian statistics characterize only subsets of measure zero in the parameter space. Furthermore, we present strong numerical evidence that ensembles of integrable matrices are stationary and ergodic with respect to nearest-neighbor level statistics.

  7. Integrability and generalized monodromy matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lhallabi, T.; Moujib, A.

    2007-09-15

    We construct the generalized monodromy matrix M-circumflex({omega}) of two-dimensional string effective action by introducing the T-duality group properties. The integrability conditions with general solutions depending on spectral parameter are given. This construction is investigated for the exactly solvable Wess, Zumino, Novikov, and Witten model in pp-wave limit when B=0.

  8. Advanced fiber/matrix material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartness, J. Timothy

    1991-01-01

    Work completed in Phase 1 of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology program is discussed. Two towpreg forms (commingled yarns and fused powder towpregs) are being characterized under the program. These towpregs will be used to evaluate textile fabrication technologies for advanced aircraft composite structures. The unique characteristic of both of these material forms is that both fiber and matrix resin are handled in a single operation such as weaving, braiding, or fiber placement. The evaluation of both commingled and fused powder towpreg is described. Various polymer materials are considered for both subsonic and supersonic applications. Polymers initially being evaluated include thermoplastic polyimides such as Larc-TPI and New-TPI, thermoplastics such as PEEK and PEKEKK as well as some toughened crosslinked polyimides. Preliminary mechanical properties as well as tow handling are evaluated.

  9. Advanced Integrated Traction System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Smith; Charles Gough

    2011-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy elaborates the compelling need for a commercialized competitively priced electric traction drive system to proliferate the acceptance of HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in the market. The desired end result is a technically and commercially verified integrated ETS (Electric Traction System) product design that can be manufactured and distributed through a broad network of competitive suppliers to all auto manufacturers. The objectives of this FCVT program are to develop advanced technologies for an integrated ETS capable of 55kW peak power for 18 seconds and 30kW of continuous power. Additionally, to accommodate a variety of automotive platforms the ETS design should be scalable to 120kW peak power for 18 seconds and 65kW of continuous power. The ETS (exclusive of the DC/DC Converter) is to cost no more than $660 (55kW at $12/kW) to produce in quantities of 100,000 units per year, should have a total weight less than 46kg, and have a volume less than 16 liters. The cost target for the optional Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter is $375. The goal is to achieve these targets with the use of engine coolant at a nominal temperature of 105C. The system efficiency should exceed 90% at 20% of rated torque over 10% to 100% of maximum speed. The nominal operating system voltage is to be 325V, with consideration for higher voltages. This project investigated a wide range of technologies, including ETS topologies, components, and interconnects. Each technology and its validity for automotive use were verified and then these technologies were integrated into a high temperature ETS design that would support a wide variety of applications (fuel cell, hybrids, electrics, and plug-ins). This ETS met all the DOE 2010 objectives of cost, weight, volume and efficiency, and the specific power and power density 2015 objectives. Additionally a bi-directional converter was developed that provides charging and electric power take-off which is the first step

  10. Integrated optic vector-matrix multiplier

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Michael R.

    2011-09-27

    A vector-matrix multiplier is disclosed which uses N different wavelengths of light that are modulated with amplitudes representing elements of an N.times.1 vector and combined to form an input wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) light stream. The input WDM light stream is split into N streamlets from which each wavelength of the light is individually coupled out and modulated for a second time using an input signal representing elements of an M.times.N matrix, and is then coupled into an output waveguide for each streamlet to form an output WDM light stream which is detected to generate a product of the vector and matrix. The vector-matrix multiplier can be formed as an integrated optical circuit using either waveguide amplitude modulators or ring resonator amplitude modulators.

  11. Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.

  12. Advanced integrated safeguards at Barnwell

    SciTech Connect

    Bambas, K.J.; Barnes, L.D.

    1980-06-01

    The development and initial performance testing of an advanced integrated safeguards system at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) is described. The program concentrates on the integration and coordination of physical security and nuclear materials control and accounting at a single location. Hardware and software for this phase have been installed and are currently being evaluated. The AGNS/DOE program is now in its third year of development at the BNFP.

  13. Development, implementation, and test results on integrated optics switching matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, E.

    1982-01-01

    A small integrated optics switching matrix, which was developed, implemented, and tested, indicates high performance. The matrix serves as a model for the design of larger switching matrices. The larger integrated optics switching matrix should form the integral part of a switching center with high data rate throughput of up to 300 megabits per second. The switching matrix technique can accomplish the design goals of low crosstalk and low distortion. About 50 illustrations help explain and depict the many phases of the integrated optics switching matrix. Many equations used to explain and calculate the experimental data are also included.

  14. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are enabling materials for a number of demanding applications in aerospace, energy, and nuclear industries. In the aerospace systems, these materials are being considered for applications in hot sections of jet engines such as the combustor liner, vanes, nozzle components, nose cones, leading edges of reentry vehicles, and space propulsion components. Applications in the energy and environmental industries include radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, heat recuperators, gas and diesel particulate filters, and components for land based turbines for power generation. These materials are also being considered for use in the first wall and blanket components of fusion reactors. In the last few years, a number of CMC components have been developed and successfully tested for various aerospace and ground based applications. However, a number of challenges still remain slowing the wide scale implementation of these materials. They include robust fabrication and manufacturing, assembly and integration, coatings, property modeling and life prediction, design codes and databases, repair and refurbishment, and cost. Fabrication of net and complex shape components with high density and tailorable matrix properties is quite expensive, and even then various desirable properties are not achievable. In this presentation, a number of examples of successful CMC component development and testing will be provided. In addition, critical need for robust manufacturing, joining and assembly technologies in successful implementation of these systems will be discussed.

  15. Advances in thermoplastic matrix composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Newaz, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Accounts are given of the development status of thermoplastic composite processing methods, as well as their current thermal and mechanical behavior and delamination properties. Attention is given to the thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers, pultrusion-process modeling, the high temperature behavior of graphite/PEEK, the thermal conductivity of composites for electronic packaging, a FEM analysis of mode I and II thermoplastic-matrix specimens, and reinforcements' resin-impregnation behavior during thermoplastic composite manufacture. Also discussed are the mechanical properties of carbon fiber/PEEK for structural applications, moisture-content mechanical property effects in PPS-matrix composites, the interlaminar fracture toughness of thermoplastic composites, and thermoplastic composite delamination growth under elevated temperature cyclic loading.

  16. Probabilistic Evaluation of Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the deterministic and probabilistic structural evaluation results of two structures made with advanced ceramic composites (CMC): internally pressurized tube and uniformly loaded flange. The deterministic structural evaluation includes stress, displacement, and buckling analyses. It is carried out using the finite element code MHOST, developed for the 3-D inelastic analysis of structures that are made with advanced materials. The probabilistic evaluation is performed using the integrated probabilistic assessment of composite structures computer code IPACS. The affects of uncertainties in primitive variables related to the material, fabrication process, and loadings on the material property and structural response behavior are quantified. The primitive variables considered are: thermo-mechanical properties of fiber and matrix, fiber and void volume ratios, use temperature, and pressure. The probabilistic structural analysis and probabilistic strength results are used by IPACS to perform reliability and risk evaluation of the two structures. The results will show that the sensitivity information obtained for the two composite structures from the computational simulation can be used to alter the design process to meet desired service requirements. In addition to detailed probabilistic analysis of the two structures, the following were performed specifically on the CMC tube: (1) predicted the failure load and the buckling load, (2) performed coupled non-deterministic multi-disciplinary structural analysis, and (3) demonstrated that probabilistic sensitivities can be used to select a reduced set of design variables for optimization.

  17. Advances in biomimetic regeneration of elastic matrix structures

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Bashur, Chris A.

    2012-01-01

    Elastin is a vital component of the extracellular matrix, providing soft connective tissues with the property of elastic recoil following deformation and regulating the cellular response via biomechanical transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. The limited ability of most adult cells to synthesize elastin precursors and assemble them into mature crosslinked structures has hindered the development of functional tissue-engineered constructs that exhibit the structure and biomechanics of normal native elastic tissues in the body. In diseased tissues, the chronic overexpression of proteolytic enzymes can cause significant matrix degradation, to further limit the accumulation and quality (e.g., fiber formation) of newly deposited elastic matrix. This review provides an overview of the role and importance of elastin and elastic matrix in soft tissues, the challenges to elastic matrix generation in vitro and to regenerative elastic matrix repair in vivo, current biomolecular strategies to enhance elastin deposition and matrix assembly, and the need to concurrently inhibit proteolytic matrix disruption for improving the quantity and quality of elastogenesis. The review further presents biomaterial-based options using scaffolds and nanocarriers for spatio-temporal control over the presentation and release of these biomolecules, to enable biomimetic assembly of clinically relevant native elastic matrix-like superstructures. Finally, this review provides an overview of recent advances and prospects for the application of these strategies to regenerating tissue-type specific elastic matrix structures and superstructures. PMID:23355960

  18. Advances in biomimetic regeneration of elastic matrix structures.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Bashur, Chris A; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2012-10-01

    Elastin is a vital component of the extracellular matrix, providing soft connective tissues with the property of elastic recoil following deformation and regulating the cellular response via biomechanical transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. The limited ability of most adult cells to synthesize elastin precursors and assemble them into mature crosslinked structures has hindered the development of functional tissue-engineered constructs that exhibit the structure and biomechanics of normal native elastic tissues in the body. In diseased tissues, the chronic overexpression of proteolytic enzymes can cause significant matrix degradation, to further limit the accumulation and quality (e.g., fiber formation) of newly deposited elastic matrix. This review provides an overview of the role and importance of elastin and elastic matrix in soft tissues, the challenges to elastic matrix generation in vitro and to regenerative elastic matrix repair in vivo, current biomolecular strategies to enhance elastin deposition and matrix assembly, and the need to concurrently inhibit proteolytic matrix disruption for improving the quantity and quality of elastogenesis. The review further presents biomaterial-based options using scaffolds and nanocarriers for spatio-temporal control over the presentation and release of these biomolecules, to enable biomimetic assembly of clinically relevant native elastic matrix-like superstructures. Finally, this review provides an overview of recent advances and prospects for the application of these strategies to regenerating tissue-type specific elastic matrix structures and superstructures.

  19. Advanced integrated enhanced vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. R.; Luk, Chiu H.; Hammerstrom, Dan; Pavel, Misha

    2003-09-01

    In anticipation of its ultimate role in transport, business and rotary wing aircraft, we clarify the role of Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS): how the output data will be utilized, appropriate architecture for total avionics integration, pilot and control interfaces, and operational utilization. Ground-map (database) correlation is critical, and we suggest that "synthetic vision" is simply a subset of the monitor/guidance interface issue. The core of integrated EVS is its sensor processor. In order to approximate optimal, Bayesian multi-sensor fusion and ground correlation functionality in real time, we are developing a neural net approach utilizing human visual pathway and self-organizing, associative-engine processing. In addition to EVS/SVS imagery, outputs will include sensor-based navigation and attitude signals as well as hazard detection. A system architecture is described, encompassing an all-weather sensor suite; advanced processing technology; intertial, GPS and other avionics inputs; and pilot and machine interfaces. Issues of total-system accuracy and integrity are addressed, as well as flight operational aspects relating to both civil certification and military applications in IMC.

  20. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  1. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  2. Micromechanical characterization of nonlinear behavior of advanced polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Chen, J. L.; Sun, C. T.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the presence of curing stresses and oriented crystalline structures in the matrix of polymer matrix fiber composites, the in situ nonlinear properties of the matrix are expected to be rather different from those of the bulk resin. A plane stress micromechanical model was developed to retrieve the in situ elastic-plastic properties of Narmco 5260 and Amoco 8320 matrices from measured elastic-plastic properties of IM7/5260 and IM7/8320 advance composites. In the micromechanical model, the fiber was assumed to be orthotropically elastic and the matrix to be orthotropic in elastic and plastic properties. The results indicate that both in situ elastic and plastic properties of the matrices are orthotropic.

  3. Transgene integration: use of matrix attachment regions.

    PubMed

    Allen, George C; Spiker, Steven; Thompson, William F

    2005-01-01

    Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are operationally defined as DNA elements that bind specifically to the nuclear matrix in vitro. When MARs are positioned at the 5'- and 3'-ends of a transgene higher more predictable expression of the transgene results. MARs are increasingly being applied to prevent unwanted transgene silencing, which is especially common when direct DNA transformation methods are used. This chapter describes methods for the isolation of MARs and the subsequent methods allowing the investigator to incorporate MARS into transformation strategies that can both improve transformation frequency and result in predictable, stable expression of the transgenic trait.

  4. Transgene integration: use of matrix attachment regions.

    PubMed

    Allen, George C; Spiker, Steven; Thompson, William F

    2005-01-01

    Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are operationally defined as DNA elements that bind specifically to the nuclear matrix in vitro. When MARs are positioned at the 5'- and 3'-ends of a transgene higher more predictable expression of the transgene results. MARs are increasingly being applied to prevent unwanted transgene silencing, which is especially common when direct DNA transformation methods are used. This chapter describes methods for the isolation of MARs and the subsequent methods allowing the investigator to incorporate MARS into transformation strategies that can both improve transformation frequency and result in predictable, stable expression of the transgenic trait. PMID:15310930

  5. Integrating Sustainability in Higher Education: A Generic Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusinko, Cathy A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework in the form of a generic matrix of options for integrating sustainability in higher education (SHE) so that university faculty and administrators can make more appropriate and strategic choices with respect to SHE. Design/methodology/approach: This original matrix draws from and extends…

  6. INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 3

  7. INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 1

  8. Development of Metal Matrix Composites for NASA'S Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    The state-of-the-art development of several aluminum and copper based Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for NASA's advanced propulsion systems will be presented. The presentation's goal is to provide an overview of NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's planned and on-going activities in MMC for advanced liquid rocket engines such as the X-33 vehicle's Aerospike and X-34 Fastrac engine. The focus will be on lightweight and environmental compatibility with oxygen and hydrogen of key MMC materials, within each NASA's new propulsion application, that will provide a high payoff for NASA's reusable launch vehicle systems and space access vehicles. Advanced MMC processing techniques such as plasma spray, centrifugal casting, pressure infiltration casting will be discussed. Development of a novel 3D printing method for low cost production of composite preform, and functional gradient MMC to enhanced rocket engine's dimensional stability will be presented.

  9. Development of Metal Matrix Composites for NASA's Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.; Elam, S.

    2001-01-01

    The state-of-the-art development of several Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for NASA's advanced propulsion systems will be presented. The goal is to provide an overview of NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's on-going activities in MMC components for advanced liquid rocket engines such as the X-33 vehicle's Aerospike engine and X-34's Fastrac engine. The focus will be on lightweight, low cost, and environmental compatibility with oxygen and hydrogen of key MMC materials, within each of NASA's new propulsion application, that will provide a high payoff for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicles and space access vehicles. In order to fabricate structures from MMC, effective joining methods must be developed to join MMC to the same or to different monolithic alloys. Therefore, a qualitative assessment of MMC's welding and joining techniques will be outlined.

  10. Nonlinear mechanical behavior of thermoplastic matrix materials for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenz, R. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Two recent theories of nonlinear mechanical response are quantitatively compared and related to experimental data. Computer techniques are formulated to handle the numerical integration and iterative procedures needed to solve the associated sets of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Problems encountered during these formulations are discussed and some open questions described. Bearing in mind these cautions, the consequences of changing parameters that appear in the formulations on the resulting engineering properties are discussed. Hence, engineering approaches to the analysis of thermoplastic matrix material can be suggested.

  11. Risk Matrix Integrating Risk Attitudes Based on Utility Theory.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xin; Yin, Zhiyi; Frangopol, Dan M

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that absence of the consideration of risk attitudes of decisionmakers in the risk matrix establishment process has become a major limitation. In order to evaluate risk in a more comprehensive manner, an approach to establish risk matrices that integrates risk attitudes based on utility theory is proposed. There are three main steps within this approach: (1) describing risk attitudes of decisionmakers by utility functions, (2) bridging the gap between utility functions and the risk matrix by utility indifference curves, and (3) discretizing utility indifference curves. A complete risk matrix establishment process based on practical investigations is introduced. This process utilizes decisionmakers' answers to questionnaires to formulate required boundary values for risk matrix establishment and utility functions that effectively quantify their respective risk attitudes.

  12. Quantitative MRI as a diagnostic tool of intervertebral disc matrix composition and integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Fackson; Iatridis, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease has been implicated as a major component of spine pathology. The current major clinical procedures for treating disc degeneration have been disappointing, because of altered spinal mechanics leading to subsequent degeneration at adjacent disc levels. Disc pathology treatment is shifting toward prevention and treatment of underlying etiologic processes at the level of the disc matrix composition and integrity and the biomechanics of the disc. The ability to perform such treatment relies on one’s ability to accurately and objectively assess the state of the matrix and the effectiveness of treatment by a non-invasive technique. In this review, we will summarize our advances in efforts to develop an objective, accurate, non-invasive diagnostic tool (quantitative MRI) in the detection and quantification of matrix composition and integrity and of biomechanical changes in early intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:19005703

  13. Advanced Measurements of Silicon Carbide Ceramic Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Farhad Farzbod; Stephen J. Reese; Zilong Hua; Marat Khafizov; David H. Hurley

    2012-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is being considered as a fuel cladding material for accident tolerant fuel under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program sponsored by the Nuclear Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Silicon carbide has many potential advantages over traditional zirconium based cladding systems. These include high melting point, low susceptibility to corrosion, and low degradation of mechanical properties under neutron irradiation. In addition, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) made from SiC have high mechanical toughness enabling these materials to withstand thermal and mechanical shock loading. However, many of the fundamental mechanical and thermal properties of SiC CMCs depend strongly on the fabrication process. As a result, extrapolating current materials science databases for these materials to nuclear applications is not possible. The “Advanced Measurements” work package under the LWRS fuels pathway is tasked with the development of measurement techniques that can characterize fundamental thermal and mechanical properties of SiC CMCs. An emphasis is being placed on development of characterization tools that can used for examination of fresh as well as irradiated samples. The work discuss in this report can be divided into two broad categories. The first involves the development of laser ultrasonic techniques to measure the elastic and yield properties and the second involves the development of laser-based techniques to measurement thermal transport properties. Emphasis has been placed on understanding the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of SiC CMCs in regards to thermal and mechanical properties. The material properties characterized within this work package will be used as validation of advanced materials physics models of SiC CMCs developed under the LWRS fuels pathway. In addition, it is envisioned that similar measurement techniques can be used to provide process control and quality assurance as well as measurement of

  14. Implementation and Assessment of Advanced Analog Vector-Matrix Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Charles K.; Bualat, Maria G.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of an analog optical vecto-rmatrix coprocessor with a throughput of 128 Mops for a personal computer. Vector matrix calculations are inherently parallel, providing a promising domain for the use of optical calculators. However, to date, digital optical systems have proven too cumbersome to replace electronics, and analog processors have not demonstrated sufficient accuracy in large scale systems. The goal of the work described in this paper is to demonstrate a viable optical coprocessor for linear operations. The analog optical processor presented has been integrated with a personal computer to provide full functionality and is the first demonstration of an optical linear algebra processor with a throughput greater than 100 Mops. The optical vector matrix processor consists of a laser diode source, an acoustooptical modulator array to input the vector information, a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to input the matrix information, an avalanche photodiode array to read out the result vector of the vector matrix multiplication, as well as transport optics and the electronics necessary to drive the optical modulators and interface to the computer. The intent of this research is to provide a low cost, highly energy efficient coprocessor for linear operations. Measurements of the analog accuracy of the processor performing 128 Mops are presented along with an assessment of the implications for future systems. A range of noise sources, including cross-talk, source amplitude fluctuations, shot noise at the detector, and non-linearities of the optoelectronic components are measured and compared to determine the most significant source of error. The possibilities for reducing these sources of error are discussed. Also, the total error is compared with that expected from a statistical analysis of the individual components and their relation to the vector-matrix operation. The sufficiency of the measured accuracy of the

  15. Fully Integrated Biochip Platforms for Advanced Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Sandro; Ghoreishizadeh, Sara; Olivo, Jacopo; Taurino, Irene; Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Cavallini, Andrea; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Dehollain, Catherine; Burleson, Wayne; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications. PMID:23112644

  16. Fully integrated biochip platforms for advanced healthcare.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Sandro; Ghoreishizadeh, Sara; Olivo, Jacopo; Taurino, Irene; Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Cavallini, Andrea; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Dehollain, Catherine; Burleson, Wayne; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications.

  17. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  18. Recent advances on integrated quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orieux, Adeline; Diamanti, Eleni

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the use of integrated technologies for applications in the field of quantum information processing and communications has made great progress. The resulting devices feature valuable characteristics such as scalability, reproducibility, low cost and interconnectivity, and have the potential to revolutionize our computation and communication practices in the future, much in the way that electronic integrated circuits have drastically transformed our information processing capacities since the last century. Among the multiple applications of integrated quantum technologies, this review will focus on typical components of quantum communication systems and on overall integrated system operation characteristics. We are interested in particular in the use of photonic integration platforms for developing devices necessary in quantum communications, including sources, detectors and both passive and active optical elements. We also illustrate the challenges associated with performing quantum communications on chip, by using the case study of quantum key distribution—the most advanced application of quantum information science. We conclude with promising perspectives in this field.

  19. Advanced approaches to focal plane integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. D.; Smith, E. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Both visible and infrared focal plane assemblies have common architectural driving parameters which guide their design approaches. The key drivers for advanced focal plane assemblies (FPA) are: the detector type and performance required; the number of detector chips; the packaging density; and the geometry. The impact of these drivers is seen to determine the engineering compromises necessary to establish FPA design approach. Several new designs are discussed which show a range of applications from single detector assemblies to monolithic detector chips with on-chip signal processing. The main objective of many advanced designs is to integrate the focal plane components in order to reduce power and reduce the number of interconnections.

  20. Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging.

    PubMed

    Ju, Myeong Jin; Hong, Young-Joo; Makita, Shuichi; Lim, Yiheng; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Duan, Lian; Miura, Masahiro; Tang, Shuo; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2013-08-12

    An advanced version of Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (JMT) is demonstrated for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging of the posterior eye. JMT is capable of providing localized flow tomography by Doppler detection and investigating the birefringence property of tissue through a three-dimensional (3-D) Jones matrix measurement. Owing to an incident polarization multiplexing scheme based on passive optical components, this system is stable, safe in a clinical environment, and cost effective. Since the properties of this version of JMT provide intrinsic compensation for system imperfection, the system is easy to calibrate. Compared with the previous version of JMT, this advanced JMT achieves a sufficiently long depth measurement range for clinical cases of posterior eye disease. Furthermore, a fine spectral shift compensation method based on the cross-correlation of calibration signals was devised for stabilizing the phase of OCT, which enables a high sensitivity Doppler OCT measurement. In addition, a new theory of JMT which integrates the Jones matrix measurement, Doppler measurement, and scattering measurement is presented. This theory enables a sensitivity-enhanced scattering OCT and high-sensitivity Doppler OCT. These new features enable the application of this system to clinical cases. A healthy subject and a geographic atrophy patient were measured in vivo, and simultaneous imaging of choroidal vasculature and birefringence structures are demonstrated.

  1. Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging.

    PubMed

    Ju, Myeong Jin; Hong, Young-Joo; Makita, Shuichi; Lim, Yiheng; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Duan, Lian; Miura, Masahiro; Tang, Shuo; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2013-08-12

    An advanced version of Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (JMT) is demonstrated for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging of the posterior eye. JMT is capable of providing localized flow tomography by Doppler detection and investigating the birefringence property of tissue through a three-dimensional (3-D) Jones matrix measurement. Owing to an incident polarization multiplexing scheme based on passive optical components, this system is stable, safe in a clinical environment, and cost effective. Since the properties of this version of JMT provide intrinsic compensation for system imperfection, the system is easy to calibrate. Compared with the previous version of JMT, this advanced JMT achieves a sufficiently long depth measurement range for clinical cases of posterior eye disease. Furthermore, a fine spectral shift compensation method based on the cross-correlation of calibration signals was devised for stabilizing the phase of OCT, which enables a high sensitivity Doppler OCT measurement. In addition, a new theory of JMT which integrates the Jones matrix measurement, Doppler measurement, and scattering measurement is presented. This theory enables a sensitivity-enhanced scattering OCT and high-sensitivity Doppler OCT. These new features enable the application of this system to clinical cases. A healthy subject and a geographic atrophy patient were measured in vivo, and simultaneous imaging of choroidal vasculature and birefringence structures are demonstrated. PMID:23938857

  2. Advances in Ecological Speciation: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Faria, Rui; Renaut, Sebastien; Galindo, Juan; Pinho, Catarina; Melo-Ferreira, José; Melo, Martim; Jones, Felicity; Salzburger, Walter; Schluter, Dolph; Butlin, Roger

    2014-02-01

    The role of natural selection in promoting reproductive isolation has received substantial renewed interest within the last two decades. As a consequence, the study of ecological speciation has become an extremely productive research area in modern evolutionary biology. Recent innovations in sequencing technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to study the mechanisms involved in ecological speciation. Genome scans provide significant insights but have some important limitations; efforts are needed to integrate them with other approaches to make full use of the sequencing data deluge. An international conference 'Advances in Ecological Speciation' organized by the University of Porto (Portugal) aimed to review current progress in ecological speciation. Using some of the examples presented at the conference, we highlight the benefits of integrating ecological and genomic data and discuss different mechanisms of parallel evolution. Finally, future avenues of research are suggested to advance our knowledge concerning the role of natural selection in the establishment of reproductive isolation during ecological speciation.

  3. Decoherence in chaotic and integrable systems: a random matrix approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.

    2003-03-01

    We study the influence of chaos and order on entanglement and decoherence. In view of applications in quantum computing and teleportation which should be able to work with arbitrarily complicated states, we pay particular attention to the behavior of random states. While studies with coherent states indicate that chaos accelerates decoherence and entanglement, we find that there is practically no difference between the chaotic and the integrable case, as far as random states are concerned. In the present studies we use unitary time evolution of the total system, and partial traces to emulate decoherence. Random matrix models are a natural choice to describe the dynamics of random states. The invariant aspects of chaos and order are then reflected in the different spectral statistics. We develop random matrix models for the evolution of entanglement for a large variety of situations, discussing the strong coupling case in full detail.

  4. Advanced composites: Environmental effects on selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects that expected space flight environment has upon the mechanical properties of epoxy and polyimide matrix composites were analyzed. Environmental phenomena covered water immersion, high temperature aging, humidity, lightning strike, galvanic action, electromagnetic interference, thermal shock, rain and sand erosion, and thermal/vacuum outgassing. The technology state-of-the-art for graphite and boron reinforced epoxy and polyimide matrix materials is summarized to determine the relative merit of using composites in the space shuttle program. Resin matrix composites generally are affected to some degree by natural environmental phenomena with polyimide resin matrix materials less affected than epoxies.

  5. Advanced integrated life support system update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Integrated Life Support System Program (AILSS) is an advanced development effort to integrate the life support and protection requirements using the U.S. Navy's fighter/attack mission as a starting point. The goal of AILSS is to optimally mate protection from altitude, acceleration, chemical/biological agent, thermal environment (hot, cold, and cold water immersion) stress as well as mission enhancement through improved restraint, night vision, and head-mounted reticules and displays to ensure mission capability. The primary emphasis to date has been to establish garment design requirements and tradeoffs for protection. Here the garment and the human interface are treated as a system. Twelve state-off-the-art concepts from government and industry were evaluated for design versus performance. On the basis of a combination of centrifuge, thermal manikin data, thermal modeling, and mobility studies, some key design parameters have been determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the integration of protection through garment design and the use of a single layer, multiple function concept to streamline the garment system.

  6. SEU In An Advanced Bipolar Integrated Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Secrest, Elaine C.; Berndt, Dale F.

    1989-01-01

    Report summarizes investigation of single-event upsets (SEU) in bipolar integrated-circuit set of flip-flops (memory cells). Device tested made by advanced digital bipolar silicon process of Honeywell, Inc. Circuit chip contained 4 cells. Construction enabled study of effect of size on SEU behavior. Each cell externally biased so effect of bias current on SEU behavior. Results of study provides important information for optimal design of devices fabricated using buried-layer bipolar process operating in heavy-ion SEU environments. Designers use information to provide required levels of suppression of SEU in specific applications via combinations of size and/or cell-current scaling.

  7. Integrating the Myocardial Matrix into Heart Failure Recognition and Management

    PubMed Central

    Spinale, Francis G.; Zile, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to public perception, the morbidity and mortality as well as the resultant health care costs associated with chronic heart failure (HF) are increasing and arguably reaching epidemic proportions. While basic research efforts have provided unique insights into fundamental processes that govern myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) growth and function, the translation of these findings to improved diagnostics and therapeutics for HF have not been as forthcoming. The factors that contribute to this relative paucity of new clinical tools for HF are multifactorial but likely include the need to recognize and differentiate HF phenotypes, and to couple the use of biomarkers and multimodality imaging in early translational research studies. Recognizing the classification scheme of HF with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) to that of HF with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)and incorporating unique and differential measurements of ECM remodeling to these specific disease processes are warranted. For example, profiling pathways of ECM degradation such as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in patients with ischemic heart disease and HFrEF can provide prognostic information in terms of risk of progression to HF. In patients with chronic hypertensive disease and HFpEF, plasma profiling indices of ECM synthesis and turnover, as well as advances in ECM imaging have been shown to provide diagnostic and prognostic utility. In terms of therapeutics, strategies which stabilize the ECM in HFrEF hold potential, whereas in contradistinction, selective antifibrotic agents may hold promise with HFpEF. PMID:23989715

  8. Advanced packaging for Integrated Micro-Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyke, James L.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between packaging, microelectronics, and micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) is an important one, particularly when the edges of performance boundaries are pressed, as in the case of miniaturized systems. Packaging is a sort of physical backbone that enables the maximum performance of these systems to be realized, and the penalties imposed by conventional packing approaches is particularly limiting for MEMS devices. As such, advanced packaging approaches, such as multi-chip modules (MCM's) have been touted as a true means of electronic 'enablement' for a variety of application domains. Realizing an optimum system of packaging, however, in not as simple as replacing a set of single chip packages with a substrate of interconnections. Research at Phillips Laboratory has turned up a number of integrating options in the two- and three-dimensional rending of miniature systems with physical interconnection structures with intrinsically high performance. Not only do these structures motivate the redesign of integrated circuits (IC's) for lower power, but they possess interesting features that provide a framework for the direct integration of MEMS devices. Cost remains a barrier to the application of MEMS devices, even in space systems. Several innovations are suggested that will result in lower cost and more rapid cycle time. First, the novelty of a 'constant floor plan' MCM which encapsulates a variety of commonly used components into a stockable, easily customized assembly is discussed. Next, the use of low-cost substrates is examined. The anticipated advent of ultra-high density interconnect (UHDI) is suggested as the limit argument of advanced packaging. Finally, the concept of a heterogeneous 3-D MCM system is outlined that allows for the combination of different compatible packaging approaches into a uniformly dense structure that could also include MEMS-based sensors.

  9. Poling of PVDF matrix composites for integrated structural load sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh; Greminger, Michael A.; Zhao, Ping

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to create and evaluate a smart composite structure that can be used for integrated load sensing and structural health monitoring. In this structure, PVDF films are used as the matrix material instead of epoxy resin or other thermoplastics. The reinforcements are two layers of carbon fiber with one layer of Kevlar separating them. Due to the electrical conductivity properties of carbon fiber and the dielectric effect of Kevlar, the structure acts as a capacitor. Furthermore, the piezoelectric properties of the PVDF matrix can be used to monitor the response of the structure under applied loads. In order to exploit the piezoelectric properties of PVDF, the PVDF material must be polarized to align the dipole moments of its crystalline structure. The optimal condition for poling the structure was found by performing a 23 factorial design of experiment (DoE). The factors that were studied in DoE were temperature, voltage, and duration of poling. Finally, the response of the poled structure was monitored by exposing the samples to an applied load.

  10. Advanced composites: Fabrication processes for selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    This design note is based on present state of the art for epoxy and polyimide matrix composite fabrication technology. Boron/epoxy and polyimide and graphite/epoxy and polyimide structural parts can be successfully fabricated. Fabrication cycles for polyimide matrix composites have been shortened to near epoxy cycle times. Nondestructive testing has proven useful in detecting defects and anomalies in composite structure elements. Fabrication methods and tooling materials are discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of different tooling materials. Types of honeycomb core, material costs and fabrication methods are shown in table form for comparison. Fabrication limits based on tooling size, pressure capabilities and various machining operations are also discussed.

  11. Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Passaro, Vittorio M N; de Tullio, Corrado; Troia, Benedetto; La Notte, Mario; Giannoccaro, Giovanni; De Leonardis, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, optical devices and circuits are becoming fundamental components in several application fields such as medicine, biotechnology, automotive, aerospace, food quality control, chemistry, to name a few. In this context, we propose a complete review on integrated photonic sensors, with specific attention to materials, technologies, architectures and optical sensing principles. To this aim, sensing principles commonly used in optical detection are presented, focusing on sensor performance features such as sensitivity, selectivity and rangeability. Since photonic sensors provide substantial benefits regarding compatibility with CMOS technology and integration on chips characterized by micrometric footprints, design and optimization strategies of photonic devices are widely discussed for sensing applications. In addition, several numerical methods employed in photonic circuits and devices, simulations and design are presented, focusing on their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, recent developments in the field of photonic sensing are reviewed, considering advanced photonic sensor architectures based on linear and non-linear optical effects and to be employed in chemical/biochemical sensing, angular velocity and electric field detection. PMID:23202223

  12. Technology Advancement for Integrative Stem Cell Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have endeavored to use stem cells for a variety of applications ranging from basic science research to translational medicine. Population-based characterization of such stem cells, while providing an important foundation to further development, often disregard the heterogeneity inherent among individual constituents within a given population. The population-based analysis and characterization of stem cells and the problems associated with such a blanket approach only underscore the need for the development of new analytical technology. In this article, we review current stem cell analytical technologies, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each, followed by applications of these technologies in the field of stem cells. Furthermore, while recent advances in micro/nano technology have led to a growth in the stem cell analytical field, underlying architectural concepts allow only for a vertical analytical approach, in which different desirable parameters are obtained from multiple individual experiments and there are many technical challenges that limit vertically integrated analytical tools. Therefore, we propose—by introducing a concept of vertical and horizontal approach—that there is the need of adequate methods to the integration of information, such that multiple descriptive parameters from a stem cell can be obtained from a single experiment. PMID:24874188

  13. Development of Advanced Tools for Cryogenic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D. C.; Marland, B. C.; Stouffer, C. J.; Kroliczek, E. J.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes four advanced devices (or tools) that were developed to help solve problems in cryogenic integration. The four devices are: (1) an across-gimbal nitrogen cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP); (2) a miniaturized neon CLHP; (3) a differential thermal expansion (DTE) cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW); and (4) a dual-volume nitrogen cryogenic thermal storage unit (CTSU). The across-gimbal CLHP provides a low torque, high conductance solution for gimbaled cryogenic systems wishing to position their cryocoolers off-gimbal. The miniaturized CLHP combines thermal transport, flexibility, and thermal switching (at 35 K) into one device that can be directly mounted to both the cooler cold head and the cooled component. The DTE-CTSW, designed and successfully tested in a previous program using a stainless steel tube and beryllium (Be) end-pieces, was redesigned with a polymer rod and high-purity aluminum (Al) end-pieces to improve performance and manufacturability while still providing a miniaturized design. Lastly, the CTSU was designed with a 6063 Al heat exchanger and integrally welded, segmented, high purity Al thermal straps for direct attachment to both a cooler cold head and a Be component whose peak heat load exceeds its average load by 2.5 times. For each device, the paper will describe its development objective, operating principles, heritage, requirements, design, test data and lessons learned.

  14. Technology advancement for integrative stem cell analyses.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yoon; Choi, Jonghoon; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-12-01

    Scientists have endeavored to use stem cells for a variety of applications ranging from basic science research to translational medicine. Population-based characterization of such stem cells, while providing an important foundation to further development, often disregard the heterogeneity inherent among individual constituents within a given population. The population-based analysis and characterization of stem cells and the problems associated with such a blanket approach only underscore the need for the development of new analytical technology. In this article, we review current stem cell analytical technologies, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each, followed by applications of these technologies in the field of stem cells. Furthermore, while recent advances in micro/nano technology have led to a growth in the stem cell analytical field, underlying architectural concepts allow only for a vertical analytical approach, in which different desirable parameters are obtained from multiple individual experiments and there are many technical challenges that limit vertically integrated analytical tools. Therefore, we propose--by introducing a concept of vertical and horizontal approach--that there is the need of adequate methods to the integration of information, such that multiple descriptive parameters from a stem cell can be obtained from a single experiment.

  15. Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; de Tullio, Corrado; Troia, Benedetto; La Notte, Mario; Giannoccaro, Giovanni; De Leonardis, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, optical devices and circuits are becoming fundamental components in several application fields such as medicine, biotechnology, automotive, aerospace, food quality control, chemistry, to name a few. In this context, we propose a complete review on integrated photonic sensors, with specific attention to materials, technologies, architectures and optical sensing principles. To this aim, sensing principles commonly used in optical detection are presented, focusing on sensor performance features such as sensitivity, selectivity and rangeability. Since photonic sensors provide substantial benefits regarding compatibility with CMOS technology and integration on chips characterized by micrometric footprints, design and optimization strategies of photonic devices are widely discussed for sensing applications. In addition, several numerical methods employed in photonic circuits and devices, simulations and design are presented, focusing on their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, recent developments in the field of photonic sensing are reviewed, considering advanced photonic sensor architectures based on linear and non-linear optical effects and to be employed in chemical/biochemical sensing, angular velocity and electric field detection. PMID:23202223

  16. Angiogenic Type I Collagen Extracellular Matrix Integrated with Recombinant Bacteriophages Displaying Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Junghyo; Korkmaz Zirpel, Nuriye; Park, Hyun-Ji; Han, Sewoon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Shin, Jisoo; Cho, Seung-Woo; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Chung, Seok

    2016-01-21

    Here, a growth-factor-integrated natural extracellular matrix of type I collagen is presented that induces angiogenesis. The developed matrix adapts type I collagen nanofibers integrated with synthetic colloidal particles of recombinant bacteriophages that display vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The integration is achieved during or after gelation of the type I collagen and the matrix enables spatial delivery of VEGF into a desired region. Endothelial cells that contact the VEGF are found to invade into the matrix to form tube-like structures both in vitro and in vivo, proving the angiogenic potential of the matrix.

  17. Recent advances in the study of zebrafish extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Jason R

    2015-05-01

    The zebrafish extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic and pleomorphic structure consisting of numerous proteins that together regulate a variety of cellular and morphogenetic events beginning as early as gastrulation. The zebrafish genome encodes a similar complement of ECM proteins as found in other vertebrate organisms including glycoproteins, fibrous proteins, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and interacting or modifying proteins such as integrins and matrix metalloproteinases. As a genetic model system combined with its amenability to high-resolution microscopic imaging, the zebrafish allows interrogation of ECM protein structure and function in both the embryo and adult. Accumulating data have identified important roles for zebrafish ECM proteins in processes as diverse as cell polarity, migration, tissue mechanics, organ laterality, muscle contraction, and regeneration. In this review, I highlight recently published data on these topics that demonstrate how the ECM proteins fibronectin, laminin, and collagen contribute to zebrafish development and adult homeostasis.

  18. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-05-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  19. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    SciTech Connect

    Zerr, Robert J; Azmy, Yousry Y

    2010-11-23

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution by up to {approx}50% when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing case are opticaUy thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block preconditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient preconditioner.

  20. Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeza, Ã.-.; Veis, L.; Poves, A.; Dukelsky, J.

    2015-11-01

    We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous 400 keV discrepancy in the ground state energy of 56Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the p f +g 9 /2 shell model space for the ground 0+ and first 2+ states of 64Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from a Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.

  1. Advances in Ceramic Matrix Composite Blade Damping Characteristics for Aerospace Turbomachinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Harris, Donald L.; Ting, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    For advanced aerospace propulsion systems, development of ceramic matrix composite integrally-bladed turbine disk technology is attractive for a number of reasons. The high strength-to-weight ratio of ceramic composites helps to reduce engine weight and the one-piece construction of a blisk will result in fewer parts count, which should translate into reduced operational costs. One shortcoming with blisk construction, however, is that blisks may be prone to high cycle fatigue due to their structural response to high vibration environments. Use of ceramic composites is expected to provide some internal damping to reduce the vibratory stresses encountered due to unsteady flow loads through the bladed turbine regions. A goal of our research was to characterize the vibration viscous damping behavior of C/SiC composites. The vibration damping properties were measured and calculated. Damping appeared to decrease with an increase in the natural frequency. While the critical damping amount of approximately 2% is required for typical aerospace turbomachinery engines, the C/SiC damping at high frequencies was less than 0.2% from our study. The advanced high-performance aerospace propulsion systems almost certainly will require even more damping than what current vehicles require. A purpose of this paper is to review some work on C/SiC vibration damping by the authors for the NASA CMC turbine blisk development program and address an importance of the further investigation of the blade vibration damping characteristics on candidate CMC materials for the NASA s advanced aerospace turbomachinery engine systems.

  2. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing.

    PubMed

    Hales, T C; Sarnak, P; Pugh, M C

    2000-11-21

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues ("the energy levels") follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks.

  3. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing

    PubMed Central

    Hales, T. C.; Sarnak, P.; Pugh, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues (“the energy levels”) follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks. PMID:11058156

  4. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing.

    PubMed

    Hales, T C; Sarnak, P; Pugh, M C

    2000-11-21

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues ("the energy levels") follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks. PMID:11058156

  5. The American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics: advancing the ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Thomas L.; Liehr, Michael; Coolbaugh, Douglas; Bowers, John E.; Alferness, Rod; Watts, Michael; Kimerling, Lionel

    2016-02-01

    The American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics (AIM Photonics) is focused on developing an end-to-end integrated photonics ecosystem in the U.S., including domestic foundry access, integrated design tools, automated packaging, assembly and test, and workforce development. This paper describes how the institute has been structured to achieve these goals, with an emphasis on advancing the integrated photonics ecosystem. Additionally, it briefly highlights several of the technological development targets that have been identified to provide enabling advances in the manufacture and application of integrated photonics.

  6. Polymer, metal and ceramic matrix composites for advanced aircraft engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, D. L.; Serafini, T. T.; Dicarlo, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced aircraft engine research within NASA Lewis is being focused on propulsion systems for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. Each of these flight regimes requires different types of engines, but all require advanced materials to meet their goals of performance, thrust-to-weight ratio, and fuel efficiency. The high strength/weight and stiffness/weight properties of resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites will play an increasingly key role in meeting these performance requirements. At NASA Lewis, research is ongoing to apply graphite/polyimide composites to engine components and to develop polymer matrices with higher operating temperature capabilities. Metal matrix composites, using magnesium, aluminum, titanium, and superalloy matrices, are being developed for application to static and rotating engine components, as well as for space applications, over a broad temperature range. Ceramic matrix composites are also being examined to increase the toughness and reliability of ceramics for application to high-temperature engine structures and components.

  7. Polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix composites for advanced aircraft engine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Daniels, D.L.; Serafini, T.T.; Di Carlo, J.A.

    1986-06-01

    Advanced aircraft engine research within NASA Lewis focuses on propulsion systems for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. Each of these flight regimes requires different types of engines, but all require advanced materials to meet their goals of performance, thrust-to-weight ratio, and fuel efficiency. The high strength/weight and stiffness/weight properties of resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites will play an increasingly key role in meeting these performance requirements. At NASA Lewis, research is ongoing to apply graphite/polyimide composites to engine components and to develop polymer matrices with higher operating temperature capabilities. Metal matrix composites, using magnesium, aluminum, titanium, and superalloy matrices, are being developed for application to static and rotating engine components, as well as for space applications, over a broad temperature range. Ceramic matrix composites are also being examined to increase the toughness and reliability of ceramics for application to high-temperature engine structures and components.

  8. The advanced microgrid. Integration and interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Ward Isaac; Ton, Dan T.; Guttromson, Ross; Glover, Steven F; Stamp, Jason Edwin; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Reilly, Jim

    2014-02-01

    This white paper focuses on "advanced microgrids," but sections do, out of necessity, reference today's commercially available systems and installations in order to clearly distinguish the differences and advances. Advanced microgrids have been identified as being a necessary part of the modern electrical grid through a two DOE microgrid workshops, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Smart Grid Interoperability Panel and other related sources. With their grid-interconnectivity advantages, advanced microgrids will improve system energy efficiency and reliability and provide enabling technologies for grid-independence to end-user sites. One popular definition that has been evolved and is used in multiple references is that a microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed-energy resources within clearly defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid. A microgrid can connect and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in both grid-connected or island-mode. Further, an advanced microgrid can then be loosely defined as a dynamic microgrid.

  9. Advanced Composites: Mechanical Properties and Hardware Programs for Selected Resin Matrix Materials. [considering space shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    This design note presents typical mechanical properties tabulated from industrial and governmental agencies' test programs. All data are correlated to specific products and all of the best known products are presented. The data include six epoxies, eight polyimides and one polyquinoxaline matrix material. Bron and graphite are the fiber reinforcements. Included are forty-two summaries of advanced (resin matrix) composite programs in existence in the United States. It is concluded that the selection of appropriate matrices, the geometric manner in which the fibers are incorporated in the matrix and the durability of the bond between fiber and matrix establish the end properties of the composite material and the performance of the fabricated structure.

  10. Bone Formation is Affected by Matrix Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Mostafa, Ahmed Jenan; Appleford, Mark; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2016-10-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in bone extracellular matrix as people age. Although previous evidence shows that the accumulation of AGEs in bone matrix may impose significant effects on bone cells, the effect of matrix AGEs on bone formation in vivo is still poorly understood. To address this issue, this study used a unique rat model with autograft implant to investigate the in vivo response of bone formation to matrix AGEs. Fluorochrome biomarkers were sequentially injected into rats to label the dynamic bone formation in the presence of elevated levels of matrix AGEs. After sacrificing animals, dynamic histomorphometry was performed to determine mineral apposition rate (MAR), mineralized surface per bone surface (MS/BS), and bone formation rate (BFR). Finally, nanoindentation tests were performed to assess mechanical properties of newly formed bone tissues. The results showed that MAR, MS/BS, and BFR were significantly reduced in the vicinity of implant cores with high concentration of matrix AGEs, suggesting that bone formation activities by osteoblasts were suppressed in the presence of elevated matrix AGEs. In addition, MAR and BFR were found to be dependent on the surrounding environment of implant cores (i.e., cortical or trabecular tissues). Moreover, MS/BS and BFR were also dependent on how far the implant cores were away from the growth plate. These observations suggest that the effect of matrix AGEs on bone formation is dependent on the biological milieu around the implants. Finally, nanoindentation test results indicated that the indentation modulus and hardness of newly formed bone tissues were not affected by the presence of elevated matrix AGEs. In summary, high concentration of matrix AGEs may slow down the bone formation process in vivo, while imposing little effects on bone mineralization.

  11. Systems engineering and integration: Advanced avionics laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In order to develop the new generation of avionics which will be necessary for upcoming programs such as the Lunar/Mars Initiative, Advanced Launch System, and the National Aerospace Plane, new Advanced Avionics Laboratories are required. To minimize costs and maximize benefits, these laboratories should be capable of supporting multiple avionics development efforts at a single location, and should be of a common design to support and encourage data sharing. Recent technological advances provide the capability of letting the designer or analyst perform simulations and testing in an environment similar to his engineering environment and these features should be incorporated into the new laboratories. Existing and emerging hardware and software standards must be incorporated wherever possible to provide additional cost savings and compatibility. Special care must be taken to design the laboratories such that real-time hardware-in-the-loop performance is not sacrificed in the pursuit of these goals. A special program-independent funding source should be identified for the development of Advanced Avionics Laboratories as resources supporting a wide range of upcoming NASA programs.

  12. Form factors in quantum integrable models with GL(3)-invariant R-matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuliak, S.; Ragoucy, E.; Slavnov, N. A.

    2014-04-01

    We study integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and possessing GL(3)-invariant R-matrix. We obtain determinant representations for form factors of off-diagonal entries of the monodromy matrix. These representations can be used for the calculation of form factors and correlation functions of the XXX SU(3)-invariant Heisenberg chain.

  13. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  14. Advances in mechanistic understanding of release rate control mechanisms of extended-release hydrophilic matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Timmins, Peter; Desai, Divyakant; Chen, Wei; Wray, Patrick; Brown, Jonathan; Hanley, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Approaches to characterizing and developing understanding around the mechanisms that control the release of drugs from hydrophilic matrix tablets are reviewed. While historical context is provided and direct physical characterization methods are described, recent advances including the role of percolation thresholds, the application on magnetic resonance and other spectroscopic imaging techniques are considered. The influence of polymer and dosage form characteristics are reviewed. The utility of mathematical modeling is described. Finally, how all the information derived from applying the developed mechanistic understanding from all of these tools can be brought together to develop a robust and reliable hydrophilic matrix extended-release tablet formulation is proposed. PMID:27444495

  15. Advancing Instructional Communication: Integrating a Biosocial Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Sean M.; Afifi, Tamara D.

    2014-01-01

    Celebrating 100 years of the National Communication Association necessitates that, as we commemorate our past, we also look toward our future. As part of a larger conversation about the future of instructional communication, this essay reinvestigates the importance of integrating biosocial approaches into instructional communication research. In…

  16. Integrated modeling of advanced optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.; Needels, Laura; Levine, B. Martin

    1993-02-01

    This poster session paper describes an integrated modeling and analysis capability being developed at JPL under funding provided by the JPL Director's Discretionary Fund and the JPL Control/Structure Interaction Program (CSI). The posters briefly summarize the program capabilities and illustrate them with an example problem. The computer programs developed under this effort will provide an unprecedented capability for integrated modeling and design of high performance optical spacecraft. The engineering disciplines supported include structural dynamics, controls, optics and thermodynamics. Such tools are needed in order to evaluate the end-to-end system performance of spacecraft such as OSI, POINTS, and SMMM. This paper illustrates the proof-of-concept tools that have been developed to establish the technology requirements and demonstrate the new features of integrated modeling and design. The current program also includes implementation of a prototype tool based upon the CAESY environment being developed under the NASA Guidance and Control Research and Technology Computational Controls Program. This prototype will be available late in FY-92. The development plan proposes a major software production effort to fabricate, deliver, support and maintain a national-class tool from FY-93 through FY-95.

  17. Addressable-Matrix Integrated-Circuit Test Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayah, Hoshyar R.; Buehler, Martin G.

    1991-01-01

    Method of quality control based on use of row- and column-addressable test structure speeds collection of data on widths of resistor lines and coverage of steps in integrated circuits. By use of straightforward mathematical model, line widths and step coverages deduced from measurements of electrical resistances in each of various combinations of lines, steps, and bridges addressable in test structure. Intended for use in evaluating processes and equipment used in manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits.

  18. Characterization of the proteins comprising the integral matrix of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryonic spicules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, C. E.; Wilt, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we enumerate and characterize the proteins that comprise the integral spicule matrix of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryo. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of [35S]methionine radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins reveals that there are 12 strongly radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins and approximately three dozen less strongly radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins. The majority of the proteins have acidic isoelectric points; however, there are several spicule matrix proteins that have more alkaline isoelectric points. Western blotting analysis indicates that SM50 is the spicule matrix protein with the most alkaline isoelectric point. In addition, two distinct SM30 proteins are identified in embryonic spicules, and they have apparent molecular masses of approximately 43 and 46 kDa. Comparisons between embryonic spicule matrix proteins and adult spine integral matrix proteins suggest that the embryonic 43-kDa SM30 protein is an embryonic isoform of SM30. An adult 49-kDa spine matrix protein is also identified as a possible adult isoform of SM30. Analysis of the SM30 amino acid sequences indicates that a portion of SM30 proteins is very similar to the carbohydrate recognition domain of C-type lectin proteins.

  19. Addressable Inverter Matrix Tests Integrated-Circuit Wafer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.

    1988-01-01

    Addressing elements indirectly through shift register reduces number of test probes. With aid of new technique, complex test structure on silicon wafer tested with relatively small number of test probes. Conserves silicon area by reduction of area devoted to pads. Allows thorough evaluation of test structure characteristics and of manufacturing process parameters. Test structure consists of shift register and matrix of inverter/transmission-gate cells connected to two-by-ten array of probe pads. Entire pattern contained in square area having only 1.6-millimeter sides. Shift register is conventional static CMOS device using inverters and transmission gates in master/slave D flip-flop configuration.

  20. Courage as integral to advancing nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Spence, Deb; Smythe, Liz

    2007-11-01

    Courage is an elusive but fundamental component of nursing. Yet it is seldom mentioned in professional texts and other literature nor is it often recognised and supported in practice. This paper focuses on the illumination of courage in nursing. Data from a hermeneutic analysis of nurses' practice stories is integrated with literature to assist deeper understanding of the meaning of courage in contemporary nursing practice. The purpose is to make visible a phenomenon that needs to be actively fostered or 'en-courage-d' if nursing is to effectively contribute to an improved health service. PMID:18293656

  1. On integrable matrix product operators with bond dimension D = 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Hosho

    2015-01-01

    We construct and study a two-parameter family of matrix product operators of bond dimension D = 4. The operators M(x, y) act on ({\\Bbb{C}}_2)\\otimes N , i.e. the space of states of a spin-1/2 chain of length N. For the particular values of the parameters: x = 1/3 and y=1/\\sqrt{3} , the operator turns out to be proportional to the square root of the reduced density matrix of the valence-bond-solid state on a hexagonal ladder. We show that M(x, y) has several interesting properties when (x, y) lies on the unit circle centered at the origin: x2 + y2 = 1. In this case, we find that M(x, y) commutes with the Hamiltonian and all the conserved charges of the isotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain. Moreover, M(x1, y1) and M(x2, y2) are mutually commuting if x^2i + y^2_i=1 for both i = 1 and 2. These remarkable properties of M(x, y) are proved as a consequence of the Yang-Baxter equation.

  2. Systems Engineering and Integration for Advanced Life Support System and HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamarani, Ali K.

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering (SE) discipline has revolutionized the way engineers and managers think about solving issues related to design of complex systems: With continued development of state-of-the-art technologies, systems are becoming more complex and therefore, a systematic approach is essential to control and manage their integrated design and development. This complexity is driven from integration issues. In this case, subsystems must interact with one another in order to achieve integration objectives, and also achieve the overall system's required performance. Systems engineering process addresses these issues at multiple levels. It is a technology and management process dedicated to controlling all aspects of system life cycle to assure integration at all levels. The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project serves as the systems engineering and integration function for the Human Support Technology (HST) program. AIM provides means for integrated test facilities and personnel for performance trade studies, analyses, integrated models, test results, and validated requirements of the integration of HST. The goal of AIM is to address systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. It will use an incremental systems integration approach to yield technologies, baselines for further development, and possible breakthrough concepts in the areas of technological and organizational interfaces, total information flow, system wide controls, technical synergism, mission operations protocols and procedures, and human-machine interfaces.

  3. Current advances in systems and integrative biology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Scott W.; Fernandes, Marco; Husi, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology has gained a tremendous amount of interest in the last few years. This is partly due to the realization that traditional approaches focusing only on a few molecules at a time cannot describe the impact of aberrant or modulated molecular environments across a whole system. Furthermore, a hypothesis-driven study aims to prove or disprove its postulations, whereas a hypothesis-free systems approach can yield an unbiased and novel testable hypothesis as an end-result. This latter approach foregoes assumptions which predict how a biological system should react to an altered microenvironment within a cellular context, across a tissue or impacting on distant organs. Additionally, re-use of existing data by systematic data mining and re-stratification, one of the cornerstones of integrative systems biology, is also gaining attention. While tremendous efforts using a systems methodology have already yielded excellent results, it is apparent that a lack of suitable analytic tools and purpose-built databases poses a major bottleneck in applying a systematic workflow. This review addresses the current approaches used in systems analysis and obstacles often encountered in large-scale data analysis and integration which tend to go unnoticed, but have a direct impact on the final outcome of a systems approach. Its wide applicability, ranging from basic research, disease descriptors, pharmacological studies, to personalized medicine, makes this emerging approach well suited to address biological and medical questions where conventional methods are not ideal. PMID:25379142

  4. Advances in Treatment Integrity Research: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Conceptualization, Measurement, and Enhancement of Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ann C.; Easton, Julia E.; Parker, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Documenting treatment integrity is an important issue in research and practice in any discipline concerned with prevention and intervention. However, consensus concerning the dimensions of treatment integrity and how they should be measured has yet to emerge. Advances from three areas in which significant treatment integrity work has taken…

  5. Advanced integrated WDM system for POF communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, M.; Fischer, U. H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer Optical Fibres (POFs) show clear advantages compared to copper and glass fibres. In essence, POFs are inexpensive, space-saving and not susceptible to electromagnetic interference. Thus, the usage of POFs have become a reasonable alternative in short distance data communication. Today, POFs are applied in a wide number of applications due to these specific advantages. These applications include automotive communication systems and in-house-networks. State-of-the-art is to transmit data with only one channel over POF, this limits the bandwidth. To solve this problem, an integrated MUX/DEMUX-element for WDM over POF is designed and developed to use multiple channels. This integration leads to low costs, therefore this component is suitable for mass market applications. The fundamental idea is to separate the chromatic parts of the light in its monochromatic components by means of a grating based on an aspheric mirror. Due to the high NA of the POF the setup has to be designed in a 3D-approach. Therefore this setup cannot be compared with the planar solutions available on market, they would result high losses in the 3rd dimension. To achieve a fast and optimized design an optical simulation program is used. Particular attention has to be paid to the design of the POF as a light source in the simulation program and the optimisation of the grating. The following realization of the demultiplexer is planed to be done with injection molding. This technology offers easy and very economical processing. These advantages make this technology first choice for optical components in the low-cost array.

  6. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  7. Advances in NLTE Modeling for Integrated Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, H A; Hansen, S B

    2009-07-08

    The last few years have seen significant progress in constructing the atomic models required for non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) simulations. Along with this has come an increased understanding of the requirements for accurately modeling the ionization balance, energy content and radiative properties of different elements for a wide range of densities and temperatures. Much of this progress is the result of a series of workshops dedicated to comparing the results from different codes and computational approaches applied to a series of test problems. The results of these workshops emphasized the importance of atomic model completeness, especially in doubly excited states and autoionization transitions, to calculating ionization balance, and the importance of accurate, detailed atomic data to producing reliable spectra. We describe a simple screened-hydrogenic model that calculates NLTE ionization balance with surprising accuracy, at a low enough computational cost for routine use in radiation-hydrodynamics codes. The model incorporates term splitting, {Delta}n = 0 transitions, and approximate UTA widths for spectral calculations, with results comparable to those of much more detailed codes. Simulations done with this model have been increasingly successful at matching experimental data for laser-driven systems and hohlraums. Accurate and efficient atomic models are just one requirement for integrated NLTE simulations. Coupling the atomic kinetics to hydrodynamics and radiation transport constrains both discretizations and algorithms to retain energy conservation, accuracy and stability. In particular, the strong coupling between radiation and populations can require either very short timesteps or significantly modified radiation transport algorithms to account for NLTE material response. Considerations such as these continue to provide challenges for NLTE simulations.

  8. Extracellular matrix-associated proteins form an integral and dynamic system during Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weipeng; Sun, Jin; Ding, Wei; Lin, Jinshui; Tian, Renmao; Lu, Liang; Liu, Xiaofen; Shen, Xihui; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Though the essential role of extracellular matrix in biofilm development has been extensively documented, the function of matrix-associated proteins is elusive. Determining the dynamics of matrix-associated proteins would be a useful way to reveal their functions in biofilm development. Therefore, we applied iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to evaluate matrix-associated proteins isolated from different phases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 biofilms. Among the identified 389 proteins, 54 changed their abundance significantly. The increased abundance of stress resistance and nutrient metabolism-related proteins over the period of biofilm development was consistent with the hypothesis that biofilm matrix forms micro-environments in which cells are optimally organized to resist stress and use available nutrients. Secreted proteins, including novel putative effectors of the type III secretion system were identified, suggesting that the dynamics of pathogenesis-related proteins in the matrix are associated with biofilm development. Interestingly, there was a good correlation between the abundance changes of matrix-associated proteins and their expression. Further analysis revealed complex interactions among these modulated proteins, and the mutation of selected proteins attenuated biofilm development. Collectively, this work presents the first dynamic picture of matrix-associated proteins during biofilm development, and provides evidences that the matrix-associated proteins may form an integral and well regulated system that contributes to stress resistance, nutrient acquisition, pathogenesis and the stability of the biofilm. PMID:26029669

  9. Integrated review software advances at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Klosterbuer, S. F.; Michel, K. D.; Betts, S. E.; Determan, J. C.; Longo, J. F.; Parker, R. F.; Pelowitz, D. G.; Rothrock, R. B.; Schneider, C. M.; Nordquist, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1988, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing software for unattended monitoring systems. These systems are composed of three categories of software: acquisition, collection and review. The data acquisition software is contained in modular instrumentation distributed throughout facilities to continuously acquire data from devices ranging from radiation detectors to cameras to binary switches. The data collection software runs on computers connected to the instruments and offloads and stores the acquired data. The review software enables the end user to quickly and easily examine the data collected from these different systems and compare the results to declared operator activities. This paper addresses the review software. The original standalone review software processed only radiation data. This software was expanded to include new programs (tools) to display and correlate video and operator declarations and added an interface to the standard neutron coincidence counter analysis program. This expanded review software containing multiple review tools is referred to collectively as the Integrated Review Software (IRS). The IRS continues to expand and evolve. Two primary IRS developments will be described in this paper. First, the IRS was expanded to include review tools to display and analyze new data types. Position Review was developed to display Global Positioning System (GPS) location data to aid in tracking radiation movements. Isotopic Review is being developed to provide a link to the standard gamma isotopic analysis software. In addition significant enhancements are being added to the existing review tools such as Operator Review, Radiation Review and Digital Video Review. A second IRS development is to produce standardized components with published interfaces enabling other parties to produce custom components that plug into review software. It is anticipated that there will be four primary types of components that could be

  10. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  11. The potential benefit of an advanced integrated utility system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of an advanced integrated utility system based on 1980 technology was investigated. An example of such a system, which provides electricity, heating and air conditioning, solid waste disposal, and water treatment in a single integrated plant, is illustrated for a hypothetical apartment complex. The system requires approximately 50 percent of the energy and approximately 55 percent of the water that would be required by a typical current conventional system.

  12. Bethe Vectors of Quantum Integrable Models with GL(3) Trigonometric R-Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belliard, Samuel; Pakuliak, Stanislav; Ragoucy, Eric; Slavnov, Nikita A.

    2013-10-01

    We study quantum integrable models with GL(3) trigonometric R-matrix and solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. Using the presentation of the universal Bethe vectors in terms of projections of products of the currents of the quantum affine algebra U_q(widehat{{gl}}_3) onto intersections of different types of Borel subalgebras, we prove that the set of the nested Bethe vectors is closed under the action of the elements of the monodromy matrix.

  13. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of peformance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays, etc.) and the human operator. In the Remote Control Engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures.

  14. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of performance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays) and the human operator. In the remote control engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures.

  15. Depletion of reactive advanced glycation endproducts from diabetic uremic sera using a lysozyme-linked matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, T; Li, Y M; Fishbane, S; Vlassara, H

    1997-01-01

    Diabetic uremic sera contain excessive amounts of reactive advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which accelerate the vasculopathy of diabetes and end-stage renal disease. To capture in vivo-derived toxic AGEs, high affinity AGE-binding protein lysozyme (LZ) was linked to a Sepharose 4B matrix. Initial studies showed that > 80% of 125I-AGE-BSA was retained by the LZ matrix, compared with < 10% retained by a control matrix. More than 60% of AGE-lysine was captured by the LZ matrix, and the LZ-bound fraction retained immunoreactivity and cross-linking activity, but had little intrinsic fluorescence (370/440 nm). After passage through the LZ matrix, AGE levels in diabetic sera (0.37+/-0.04 U/mg) were significantly reduced to a level (0.09+/-0.01 U/mg; n = 10; P < 0. 0001) comparable with the level of normal human serum, whereas total protein absorption was < 3%. The AGE-enriched serum fraction exhibited cross-linking activity, which was completely prevented by aminoguanidine. Among numerous LZ-bound proteins in diabetic uremic sera, three major proteins "susceptible" to AGE modification were identified: the immunoglobulin G light chain, apolipoprotein J (clusterin/SP-40,40), and the complement 3b beta chain. These findings indicate that the LZ-linked AGE affinity column may serve as an efficient method for the depletion of toxic AGEs from sera, including specific AGE-modified proteins that may be linked to altered immunity, lipoprotein metabolism, and accelerated vasculopathy in renal failure patients with or without diabetes. PMID:9259584

  16. Using Matrix Structures to Integrate Theory and Statistics into a Research Methods Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a visual device, borrowed from matrix algebra, which helps students integrate theory, methods, and statistics in sociological research. Data are organized in a rectangular structure, with the columns of variable names representing theory, the rows representing observations whose quality is related to methodological concerns and the need…

  17. Recent advances in lipid nanoparticle formulations with solid matrix for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Das, Surajit; Chaudhury, Anumita

    2011-03-01

    Lipid nanoparticles based on solid matrix have emerged as potential drug carriers to improve gastrointestinal (GI) absorption and oral bioavailability of several drugs, especially lipophilic compounds. These formulations may also be used for sustained drug release. Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) and the newer generation lipid nanoparticle, nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC), have been studied for their capability as oral drug carriers. Biodegradable, biocompatible, and physiological lipids are generally used to prepare these nanoparticles. Hence, toxicity problems related with the polymeric nanoparticles can be minimized. Furthermore, stability of the formulations might increase than other liquid nano-carriers due to the solid matrix of these lipid nanoparticles. These nanoparticles can be produced by different formulation techniques. Scaling up of the production process from lab scale to industrial scale can be easily achieved. Reasonably high drug encapsulation efficiency of the nanoparticles was documented. Oral absorption and bioavailability of several drugs were improved after oral administration of the drug-loaded SLNs or NLCs. In this review, pros and cons, different formulation and characterization techniques, drug incorporation models, GI absorption and oral bioavailability enhancement mechanisms, stability and storage condition of the formulations, and recent advances in oral delivery of the lipid nanoparticles based on solid matrix will be discussed. PMID:21174180

  18. Integrative and complementary therapies for patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Lucille

    2014-07-01

    In integrative medicine, well-being is emphasized, and in palliative care, quality of life (QOL) is a similar concept or goal. Both can occur despite advanced cancer. Integrative medicine serves to combine the best of alternative, complementary and conventional therapies to optimize well-being and QOL, whether or not a person is at the end of their life. When integrative medicine is combined with palliative care modalities, the toolbox to provide symptom control and well-being or QOL is increased or broadened. Palliative care and integrative medicine are best provided early in the trajectory of illness such as cancer, and increase in amount as the illness progresses toward end of life. In cancer care, symptoms of the cancer, as well as symptoms produced by cancer therapies, are addressed with conventional and integrative therapies. Goals of care change as the disease progresses, and a patient's unique situation creates a different balance of integrative and conventional therapies. Integrative therapies such as music, aromatherapy, and massage might appeal to more patients than more specific, less common integrative therapies that might be more expensive, or seem more unusual such as Ayurvedic medicine and energy modalities. Each person may be drawn to different integrative modalities depending on factors such as cultural traditions, beliefs, lifestyle, internet information, advice from family and friends, books, etc. This review focuses on how integrative and complementary modalities can be included in comprehensive palliative care for patients with advanced malignancies. Nutrition and movement, often neglected in conventional treatment strategies, will also be included in the larger context of integrative and palliative modalities. Both conventional and integrative modalities in palliative care help patients live with empowerment, hope, and well-being no matter how long their lives last. A comprehensive review of all integrative and complementary therapies is

  19. A feasibility study for advanced technology integration for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Matsuyama, G. T.; Hawley, K. E.; Meredith, P. T.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to identify candidate technologies and specific developments which offer greatest promise for improving safety, fuel efficiency, performance, and utility of general aviation airplanes. Interviews were conducted with general aviation airframe and systems manufacturers and NASA research centers. The following technologies were evaluated for use in airplane design tradeoff studies conducted during the study: avionics, aerodynamics, configurations, structures, flight controls, and propulsion. Based on industry interviews and design tradeoff studies, several recommendations were made for further high payoff research. The most attractive technologies for use by the general aviation industry appear to be advanced engines, composite materials, natural laminar flow airfoils, and advanced integrated avionics systems. The integration of these technologies in airplane design can yield significant increases in speeds, ranges, and payloads over present aircraft with 40 percent to 50 percent reductions in fuel used.

  20. Advanced Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously satisfying the demands of energy storage and attitude control through the use of rotating flywheels. It was demonstrated that, for a wide spectrum of applications, such a system possessed many advantages over contemporary energy storage and attitude control approaches. More recent technology advances in composite material rotors, magnetic suspension systems, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the applicability and merits of this concept. This study is undertaken to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for a space station application. System and component designs are developed to establish the performance of this concept and system trade studies conducted to examine the viability of this approach relative to conventional candidate systems. It is clearly demonstrated that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but also offers substantial savings in mass and life-cycle cost for the space station mission.

  1. Investigation of an advanced fault tolerant integrated avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, W. R.; Cottrell, D.; Flanders, J.; Javornik, A.; Rusovick, M.

    1986-01-01

    Presented is an advanced, fault-tolerant multiprocessor avionics architecture as could be employed in an advanced rotorcraft such as LHX. The processor structure is designed to interface with existing digital avionics systems and concepts including the Army Digital Avionics System (ADAS) cockpit/display system, navaid and communications suites, integrated sensing suite, and the Advanced Digital Optical Control System (ADOCS). The report defines mission, maintenance and safety-of-flight reliability goals as might be expected for an operational LHX aircraft. Based on use of a modular, compact (16-bit) microprocessor card family, results of a preliminary study examining simplex, dual and standby-sparing architectures is presented. Given the stated constraints, it is shown that the dual architecture is best suited to meet reliability goals with minimum hardware and software overhead. The report presents hardware and software design considerations for realizing the architecture including redundancy management requirements and techniques as well as verification and validation needs and methods.

  2. Robust Joining and Integration Technologies for Advanced Metallic, Ceramic, and Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, Tarah; Morscher, Gregory N.; Halbig, Michael H.; Asthana, Rajiv

    2006-01-01

    Robust integration and assembly technologies are critical for the successful implementation of advanced metallic, ceramic, carbon-carbon, and ceramic matrix composite components in a wide variety of aerospace, space exploration, and ground based systems. Typically, the operating temperature of these components varies from few hundred to few thousand Kelvin with different working times (few minutes to years). The wide ranging system performance requirements necessitate the use of different integration technologies which includes adhesive bonding, low temperature soldering, active metal brazing, diffusion bonding, ARCJoinT, and ultra high temperature joining technologies. In this presentation, a number of joining examples and test results will be provided related to the adhesive bonding and active metal brazing of titanium to C/C composites, diffusion bonding of silicon carbide to silicon carbide using titanium interlayer, titanium and hastelloy brazing to silicon carbide matrix composites, and ARCJoinT joining of SiC ceramics and SiC matrix composites. Various issues in the joining of metal-ceramic systems including thermal expansion mismatch and resulting residual stresses generated during joining will be discussed. In addition, joint design and testing issues for a wide variety of joints will be presented.

  3. Recent advances in the integrative nutrition of arthropods.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen J; Clissold, Fiona J; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Ponton, Fleur; Wilder, Shawn M; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-01-01

    In this review we highlight recent advances in four areas in which nutrition shapes the relationships between organisms: between plants and herbivores, between hosts and their microbiota, between individuals within groups and societies, and between species within food webs. We demonstrate that taking an explicitly multidimensional view of nutrition and employing the logic of the geometric framework for nutrition provide novel insights and offer a means of integration across different levels of organization, from individuals to ecosystems.

  4. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology for advanced space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    Future Space Communications subsystems will utilize GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC's) to reduce volume, weight, and cost and to enhance system reliability. Recent advances in GaAs MMIC technology have led to high-performance devices which show promise for insertion into these next generation systems. The status and development of a number of these devices operating from Ku through Ka band will be discussed along with anticipated potential applications.

  5. Simplified expressions of the T-matrix integrals for electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, Walter R. C.; Auguié, Baptiste; Le Ru, Eric C.

    2011-09-01

    The extended boundary condition method, also called the null-field method, provides a semianalytic solution to the problem of electromagnetic scattering by a particle by constructing a transition matrix (T-matrix) that links the scattered field to the incident field. This approach requires the computation of specific integrals over the particle surface, which are typically evaluated numerically. We introduce here a new set of simplified expressions for these integrals in the commonly studied case of axisymmetric particles. Simplifications are obtained using the differentiation properties of the radial functions (spherical Bessel) and angular functions (associated Legendre functions) and integrations by parts. The resulting simplified expressions not only lead to faster computations, but also reduce the risks of loss of precision and provide a simpler framework for further analytical work.

  6. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  7. Small tumor virus genomes are integrated near nuclear matrix attachment regions in transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Shera, K A; Shera, C A; McDougall, J K

    2001-12-01

    More than 15% of human cancers have a viral etiology. In benign lesions induced by the small DNA tumor viruses, viral genomes are typically maintained extrachromosomally. Malignant progression is often associated with viral integration into host cell chromatin. To study the role of viral integration in tumorigenesis, we analyzed the positions of integrated viral genomes in tumors and tumor cell lines induced by the small oncogenic viruses, including the high-risk human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, simian virus 40, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. We show that viral integrations in tumor cells lie near cellular sequences identified as nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs), while integrations in nonneoplastic cells show no significant correlation with these regions. In mammalian cells, the nuclear matrix functions in gene expression and DNA replication. MARs play varied but poorly understood roles in eukaryotic gene expression. Our results suggest that integrated tumor virus genomes are subject to MAR-mediated transcriptional regulation, providing insight into mechanisms of viral carcinogenesis. Furthermore, the viral oncoproteins serve as invaluable tools for the study of mechanisms controlling cellular growth. Similarly, our demonstration that integrated viral genomes may be subject to MAR-mediated transcriptional effects should facilitate elucidation of fundamental mechanisms regulating eukaryotic gene expression.

  8. Advanced integrated spectrometer designs for miniaturized optical coherence tomography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akca, B. I.; Považay, B.; Chang, L.; Alex, A.; Wörhoff, K.; de Ridder, R. M.; Drexler, W.; Pollnau, M.

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled clinical applications that revolutionized in vivo medical diagnostics. Nevertheless, its current limitations owing to cost, size, complexity, and the need for accurate alignment must be overcome by radically novel approaches. Exploiting integrated optics, the central components of a spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) system can be integrated on a chip. Arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) spectrometers with their high spectral resolution and compactness are excellent candidates for on-chip SD-OCT systems. However, specific design-related issues of AWG spectrometers limit the performance of on-chip SD-OCT systems. Here we present advanced AWG designs which could overcome the limitations arising from free spectral range, polarization dependency, and curved focal plane of the AWG spectrometers. Using these advanced AWG designs in an SD-OCT system can provide not only better overall performance but also some unique aspects that a commercial system does not have. Additionally, a partially integrated OCT system comprising an AWG spectrometer and an integrated beam splitter, as well as the in vivo imaging using this system are demonstrated.

  9. Advanced remote handling for future applications: The advanced integrated maintenance system

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Kring, C.T.; Rowe, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing advanced techniques for remote maintenance of future US fuel reprocessing plants. The developed technology has a wide spectrum of application for other hazardous environments. These efforts are based on the application of teleoperated, force-reflecting servomanipulators for dexterous remote handling with television viewing for large-volume hazardous applications. These developments fully address the nonrepetitive nature of remote maintenance in the unstructured environments encountered in fuel reprocessing. This paper covers the primary emphasis in the present program; the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a prototype remote handling system for reprocessing applications, the Advanced Integrated Maintenance System.

  10. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  11. Study of mould design and forming process on advanced polymer-matrix composite complex structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. J.; Zhan, L. H.; Bai, H. M.; Chen, X. P.; Zhou, Y. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Advanced carbon fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites are widely applied to aviation manufacturing field due to their outstanding performance. In this paper, the mould design and forming process of the complex composite structure were discussed in detail using the hat stiffened structure as an example. The key issues of the moulddesign were analyzed, and the corresponding solutions were also presented. The crucial control points of the forming process such as the determination of materials and stacking sequence, the temperature and pressure route of the co-curing process were introduced. In order to guarantee the forming quality of the composite hat stiffened structure, a mathematical model about the aperture of rubber mandrel was introduced. The study presented in this paper may provide some actual references for the design and manufacture of the important complex composite structures.

  12. [Integrated care for patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Jassem, Ewa; Górecka, Dorota; Krakowiak, Piotr; Kozielski, Jerzy; Słomiński, J Marek; Krajnik, Małgorzata; Fal, Andrzej M

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third cause of mortality and disability (assessed by DALY) among patients above 60 year old. Severe and very severe COPD (FEV(1) = equal or less than 50% and 30% of expected value, respectively) is estimated at 20% of all COPD patients. Advanced COPD usually leads to physical and mental deterioration, the patients often manage with the problems caused by the disease and other comorbidities poorly. This leads to increased risk of COPD exacerbations and further deterioration of the patient's status, increased costs of medical care and eventually increased risk of death. Current organization of medical care for those patients does not provide adequate health and social support for them. However, it seems that introducing an integrated approach proposed by World Health Organization, could improve the situation of advanced COPD patients. In Poland, this kind of care has been provided in advanced cancer patients throughout stationary palliative care units and hospices during the last several years. This experience should be helpful in integrating actions of general practitioners and specialized nurses, as well as providing access for the specialists' consultations according to the individual needs of the patients. It should also allow for broad cooperation with auxiliary staff, such as social workers, medical assistants and volunteers, as well as psychologists and clergymen (especially in the terminal phase of the disease).

  13. Molecular Mechanism Responsible for Fibronectin-controlled Alterations in Matrix Stiffness in Advanced Chronic Liver Fibrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Ayumi; Sakai, Keiko; Moriya, Kei; Sasaki, Takako; Keene, Douglas R; Akhtar, Riaz; Miyazono, Takayoshi; Yasumura, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Morishita, Shin; Sakai, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis is characterized by extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening. However, the functional contribution of tissue stiffening to noncancer pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Fibronectin (Fn) is an ECM glycoprotein substantially expressed during tissue repair. Here we show in advanced chronic liver fibrogenesis using a mouse model lacking Fn that, unexpectedly, Fn-null livers lead to more extensive liver cirrhosis, which is accompanied by increased liver matrix stiffness and deteriorated hepatic functions. Furthermore, Fn-null livers exhibit more myofibroblast phenotypes and accumulate highly disorganized/diffuse collagenous ECM networks composed of thinner and significantly increased number of collagen fibrils during advanced chronic liver damage. Mechanistically, mutant livers show elevated local TGF-β activity and lysyl oxidase expressions. A significant amount of active lysyl oxidase is released in Fn-null hepatic stellate cells in response to TGF-β1 through canonical and noncanonical Smad such as PI3 kinase-mediated pathways. TGF-β1-induced collagen fibril stiffness in Fn-null hepatic stellate cells is significantly higher compared with wild-type cells. Inhibition of lysyl oxidase significantly reduces collagen fibril stiffness, and treatment of Fn recovers collagen fibril stiffness to wild-type levels. Thus, our findings indicate an indispensable role for Fn in chronic liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in negatively regulating TGF-β bioavailability, which in turn modulates ECM remodeling and stiffening and consequently preserves adult organ functions. Furthermore, this regulatory mechanism by Fn could be translated for a potential therapeutic target in a broader variety of chronic fibrotic diseases.

  14. A fission matrix based validation protocol for computed power distributions in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, J. W.; Nigg, D. W.; LaPorta, A. W.

    2013-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been engaged in a significant multi year effort to modernize the computational reactor physics tools and validation procedures used to support operations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and its companion critical facility (ATRC). Several new protocols for validation of computed neutron flux distributions and spectra as well as for validation of computed fission power distributions, based on new experiments and well-recognized least-squares statistical analysis techniques, have been under development. In the case of power distributions, estimates of the a priori ATR-specific fuel element-to-element fission power correlation and covariance matrices are required for validation analysis. A practical method for generating these matrices using the element-to-element fission matrix is presented, along with a high-order scheme for estimating the underlying fission matrix itself. The proposed methodology is illustrated using the MCNP5 neutron transport code for the required neutronics calculations. The general approach is readily adaptable for implementation using any multidimensional stochastic or deterministic transport code that offers the required level of spatial, angular, and energy resolution in the computed solution for the neutron flux and fission source. (authors)

  15. Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banker, Brian F.; Robinson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing effort named HESTIA (Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement), led at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to promote a cross-subsystem approach to developing Mars-enabling technologies with the ultimate goal of integrated system optimization. HESTIA also aims to develop the infrastructure required to rapidly test these highly integrated systems at a low cost. The initial focus is on the common fluids architecture required to enable human exploration of mars, specifically between life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) subsystems. An overview of the advancements in both integrated technologies, in infrastructure, in simulation, and in modeling capabilities will be presented, as well as the results and findings of integrated testing,. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth), minimization of surface hardware and commodities is paramount. Hardware requirements can be minimized by reduction of equipment performing similar functions though for different subsystems. If hardware could be developed which meets the requirements of both life support and ISRU it could result in the reduction of primary hardware and/or reduction in spares. Minimization of commodities to the surface of mars can be achieved through the creation of higher efficiency systems producing little to no undesired waste, such as a closed-loop life support subsystem. Where complete efficiency is impossible or impractical, makeup commodities could be manufactured via ISRU. Although, utilization of ISRU products (oxygen and water) for crew consumption holds great promise of reducing demands on life support hardware, there exist concerns as to the purity and transportation of commodities. To date, ISRU has been focused on production rates and purities for

  16. Form factors of the monodromy matrix entries in gl (2 | 1)-invariant integrable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutsalyuk, A.; Liashyk, A.; Pakuliak, S. Z.; Ragoucy, E.; Slavnov, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    We study integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and described by gl (2 | 1) or gl (1 | 2) superalgebras. We obtain explicit determinant representations for form factors of the monodromy matrix entries. We show that all form factors are related to each other at special limits of the Bethe parameters. Our results allow one to obtain determinant formulas for form factors of local operators in the supersymmetric t- J model.

  17. Optimization on microlattice materials for sound absorption by an integrated transfer matrix method.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaobing; Yang, Jun; Hu, Gengkai

    2015-04-01

    Materials with well-defined microlattice structures are superlight, stable, and thus bear great potential in sound absorption. An integrated transfer matrix method (TMM) is proposed to evaluate the sound absorbing efficiency of these lattice materials, in which a massive number of micropores are densely placed. A comparison between integrated TMM and conventional TMM reveals that the proposed approach offers better predictions on sound absorption of microlattice. This approach is then employed to optimize the microlattice material to determine the best pore and porosity that lead to maximum absorbing efficiency capability and minimum required thickness to attain a target sound absorption. PMID:25920886

  18. Optimization on microlattice materials for sound absorption by an integrated transfer matrix method.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaobing; Yang, Jun; Hu, Gengkai

    2015-04-01

    Materials with well-defined microlattice structures are superlight, stable, and thus bear great potential in sound absorption. An integrated transfer matrix method (TMM) is proposed to evaluate the sound absorbing efficiency of these lattice materials, in which a massive number of micropores are densely placed. A comparison between integrated TMM and conventional TMM reveals that the proposed approach offers better predictions on sound absorption of microlattice. This approach is then employed to optimize the microlattice material to determine the best pore and porosity that lead to maximum absorbing efficiency capability and minimum required thickness to attain a target sound absorption.

  19. Advanced High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites for Gas Turbine Engines Program Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, David; Carella, John

    1999-01-01

    This document, submitted by AlliedSignal Engines (AE), a division of AlliedSignal Aerospace Company, presents the program final report for the Advanced High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites for Gas Turbine Engines Program Expansion in compliance with data requirements in the statement of work, Contract No. NAS3-97003. This document includes: 1 -Technical Summary: a) Component Design, b) Manufacturing Process Selection, c) Vendor Selection, and d) Testing Validation: 2-Program Conclusion and Perspective. Also, see the Appendix at the back of this report. This report covers the program accomplishments from December 1, 1996, to August 24, 1998. The Advanced High Temperature PMC's for Gas Turbine Engines Program Expansion was a one year long, five task technical effort aimed at designing, fabricating and testing a turbine engine component using NASA's high temperature resin system AMB-21. The fiber material chosen was graphite T650-35, 3K, 8HS with UC-309 sizing. The first four tasks included component design and manufacturing, process selection, vendor selection, component fabrication and validation testing. The final task involved monthly financial and technical reports.

  20. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composites for Shrouds and Combustor Liners of Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra; Jill Jonkowski; Joseph Mavec; Paul Bakke; Debbie Haught; Merrill Smith

    2011-01-07

    This report covers work performed under the Advanced Materials for Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines (AMAIGT) program by GE Global Research and its collaborators from 2000 through 2010. A first stage shroud for a 7FA-class gas turbine engine utilizing HiPerComp{reg_sign}* ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material was developed. The design, fabrication, rig testing and engine testing of this shroud system are described. Through two field engine tests, the latter of which is still in progress at a Jacksonville Electric Authority generating station, the robustness of the CMC material and the shroud system in general were demonstrated, with shrouds having accumulated nearly 7,000 hours of field engine testing at the conclusion of the program. During the latter test the engine performance benefits from utilizing CMC shrouds were verified. Similar development of a CMC combustor liner design for a 7FA-class engine is also described. The feasibility of using the HiPerComp{reg_sign} CMC material for combustor liner applications was demonstrated in a Solar Turbines Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) engine test where the liner performed without incident for 12,822 hours. The deposition processes for applying environmental barrier coatings to the CMC components were also developed, and the performance of the coatings in the rig and engine tests is described.

  1. Integrity of Narrow Epithelial Tubes in the C. elegans Excretory System Requires a Transient Luminal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Gill, Hasreet K; Cohen, Jennifer D; Ayala-Figueroa, Jesus; Forman-Rubinsky, Rachel; Poggioli, Corey; Bickard, Kevin; Parry, Jean M; Pu, Pu; Hall, David H; Sundaram, Meera V

    2016-08-01

    Most epithelial cells secrete a glycoprotein-rich apical extracellular matrix that can have diverse but still poorly understood roles in development and physiology. Zona Pellucida (ZP) domain glycoproteins are common constituents of these matrices, and their loss in humans is associated with a number of diseases. Understanding of the functions, organization and regulation of apical matrices has been hampered by difficulties in imaging them both in vivo and ex vivo. We identified the PAN-Apple, mucin and ZP domain glycoprotein LET-653 as an early and transient apical matrix component that shapes developing epithelia in C. elegans. LET-653 has modest effects on shaping of the vulva and epidermis, but is essential to prevent lumen fragmentation in the very narrow, unicellular excretory duct tube. We were able to image the transient LET-653 matrix by both live confocal imaging and transmission electron microscopy. Structure/function and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies revealed that LET-653 exists in two separate luminal matrix pools, a loose fibrillar matrix in the central core of the lumen, to which it binds dynamically via its PAN domains, and an apical-membrane-associated matrix, to which it binds stably via its ZP domain. The PAN domains are both necessary and sufficient to confer a cyclic pattern of duct lumen localization that precedes each molt, while the ZP domain is required for lumen integrity. Ectopic expression of full-length LET-653, but not the PAN domains alone, could expand lumen diameter in the developing gut tube, where LET-653 is not normally expressed. Together, these data support a model in which the PAN domains regulate the ability of the LET-653 ZP domain to interact with other factors at the apical membrane, and this ZP domain interaction promotes expansion and maintenance of lumen diameter. These data identify a transient apical matrix component present prior to cuticle secretion in C. elegans, demonstrate critical roles for

  2. Integrity of Narrow Epithelial Tubes in the C. elegans Excretory System Requires a Transient Luminal Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Figueroa, Jesus; Parry, Jean M.; Pu, Pu; Hall, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Most epithelial cells secrete a glycoprotein-rich apical extracellular matrix that can have diverse but still poorly understood roles in development and physiology. Zona Pellucida (ZP) domain glycoproteins are common constituents of these matrices, and their loss in humans is associated with a number of diseases. Understanding of the functions, organization and regulation of apical matrices has been hampered by difficulties in imaging them both in vivo and ex vivo. We identified the PAN-Apple, mucin and ZP domain glycoprotein LET-653 as an early and transient apical matrix component that shapes developing epithelia in C. elegans. LET-653 has modest effects on shaping of the vulva and epidermis, but is essential to prevent lumen fragmentation in the very narrow, unicellular excretory duct tube. We were able to image the transient LET-653 matrix by both live confocal imaging and transmission electron microscopy. Structure/function and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies revealed that LET-653 exists in two separate luminal matrix pools, a loose fibrillar matrix in the central core of the lumen, to which it binds dynamically via its PAN domains, and an apical-membrane-associated matrix, to which it binds stably via its ZP domain. The PAN domains are both necessary and sufficient to confer a cyclic pattern of duct lumen localization that precedes each molt, while the ZP domain is required for lumen integrity. Ectopic expression of full-length LET-653, but not the PAN domains alone, could expand lumen diameter in the developing gut tube, where LET-653 is not normally expressed. Together, these data support a model in which the PAN domains regulate the ability of the LET-653 ZP domain to interact with other factors at the apical membrane, and this ZP domain interaction promotes expansion and maintenance of lumen diameter. These data identify a transient apical matrix component present prior to cuticle secretion in C. elegans, demonstrate critical roles for

  3. Integrity of Narrow Epithelial Tubes in the C. elegans Excretory System Requires a Transient Luminal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Gill, Hasreet K; Cohen, Jennifer D; Ayala-Figueroa, Jesus; Forman-Rubinsky, Rachel; Poggioli, Corey; Bickard, Kevin; Parry, Jean M; Pu, Pu; Hall, David H; Sundaram, Meera V

    2016-08-01

    Most epithelial cells secrete a glycoprotein-rich apical extracellular matrix that can have diverse but still poorly understood roles in development and physiology. Zona Pellucida (ZP) domain glycoproteins are common constituents of these matrices, and their loss in humans is associated with a number of diseases. Understanding of the functions, organization and regulation of apical matrices has been hampered by difficulties in imaging them both in vivo and ex vivo. We identified the PAN-Apple, mucin and ZP domain glycoprotein LET-653 as an early and transient apical matrix component that shapes developing epithelia in C. elegans. LET-653 has modest effects on shaping of the vulva and epidermis, but is essential to prevent lumen fragmentation in the very narrow, unicellular excretory duct tube. We were able to image the transient LET-653 matrix by both live confocal imaging and transmission electron microscopy. Structure/function and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies revealed that LET-653 exists in two separate luminal matrix pools, a loose fibrillar matrix in the central core of the lumen, to which it binds dynamically via its PAN domains, and an apical-membrane-associated matrix, to which it binds stably via its ZP domain. The PAN domains are both necessary and sufficient to confer a cyclic pattern of duct lumen localization that precedes each molt, while the ZP domain is required for lumen integrity. Ectopic expression of full-length LET-653, but not the PAN domains alone, could expand lumen diameter in the developing gut tube, where LET-653 is not normally expressed. Together, these data support a model in which the PAN domains regulate the ability of the LET-653 ZP domain to interact with other factors at the apical membrane, and this ZP domain interaction promotes expansion and maintenance of lumen diameter. These data identify a transient apical matrix component present prior to cuticle secretion in C. elegans, demonstrate critical roles for

  4. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, P.

    1996-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste.

  5. Advanced general aviation comparative engine/airframe integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, G. L.; Ellis, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Aviation Comparative Engine/Airframe Integration Study was initiated to help determine which of four promising concepts for new general aviation engines for the 1990's should be considered for further research funding. The engine concepts included rotary, diesel, spark ignition, and turboprop powerplants; a conventional state-of-the-art piston engine was used as a baseline for the comparison. Computer simulations of the performance of single and twin engine pressurized aircraft designs were used to determine how the various characteristics of each engine interacted in the design process. Comparisons were made of how each engine performed relative to the others when integrated into an airframe and required to fly a transportation mission.

  6. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  7. Cancer Cell Stiffness: Integrated Roles of Three-Dimensional Matrix Stiffness and Transforming Potential

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erin L.; Lu, Jing; Yu, Dihua; Bonnecaze, Roger T.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2010-01-01

    While significant advances have been made toward revealing the molecular mechanisms that influence breast cancer progression, much less is known about the associated cellular mechanical properties. To this end, we use particle-tracking microrheology to investigate the interplay among intracellular mechanics, three-dimensional matrix stiffness, and transforming potential in a mammary epithelial cell (MEC) cancer progression series. We use a well-characterized model system where human-derived MCF10A MECs overexpress either ErbB2, 14-3-3ζ, or both ErbB2 and 14-3-3ζ, with empty vector as a control. Our results show that MECs possessing ErbB2 transforming potential stiffen in response to elevated matrix stiffness, whereas non-transformed MECs or those overexpressing only 14-3-3ζ do no exhibit this response. We further observe that overexpression of ErbB2 alone is associated with the highest degree of intracellular sensitivity to matrix stiffness, and that the effect of transforming potential on intracellular stiffness is matrix-stiffness-dependent. Moreover, our intracellular stiffness measurements parallel cell migration behavior that has been previously reported for these MEC sublines. Given the current knowledge base of breast cancer mechanobiology, these findings suggest that there may be a positive relationship among intracellular stiffness sensitivity, cell motility, and perturbed mechanotransduction in breast cancer. PMID:20923638

  8. Cancer cell stiffness: integrated roles of three-dimensional matrix stiffness and transforming potential.

    PubMed

    Baker, Erin L; Lu, Jing; Yu, Dihua; Bonnecaze, Roger T; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2010-10-01

    While significant advances have been made toward revealing the molecular mechanisms that influence breast cancer progression, much less is known about the associated cellular mechanical properties. To this end, we use particle-tracking microrheology to investigate the interplay among intracellular mechanics, three-dimensional matrix stiffness, and transforming potential in a mammary epithelial cell (MEC) cancer progression series. We use a well-characterized model system where human-derived MCF10A MECs overexpress either ErbB2, 14-3-3ζ, or both ErbB2 and 14-3-3ζ, with empty vector as a control. Our results show that MECs possessing ErbB2 transforming potential stiffen in response to elevated matrix stiffness, whereas non-transformed MECs or those overexpressing only 14-3-3ζ do no exhibit this response. We further observe that overexpression of ErbB2 alone is associated with the highest degree of intracellular sensitivity to matrix stiffness, and that the effect of transforming potential on intracellular stiffness is matrix-stiffness-dependent. Moreover, our intracellular stiffness measurements parallel cell migration behavior that has been previously reported for these MEC sublines. Given the current knowledge base of breast cancer mechanobiology, these findings suggest that there may be a positive relationship among intracellular stiffness sensitivity, cell motility, and perturbed mechanotransduction in breast cancer.

  9. Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    This presentation briefly reviews the SiC/SiC major environmental and environment-fatigue degradations encountered in simulated turbine combustion environments, and thus NASA environmental barrier coating system evolution for protecting the SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites for meeting the engine performance requirements. The presentation will review several generations of NASA EBC materials systems, EBC-CMC component system technologies for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, highlighting the temperature capability and durability improvements in simulated engine high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity, and with mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions. This paper will also focus on the performance requirements and design considerations of environmental barrier coatings for next generation turbine engine applications. The current development emphasis is placed on advanced NASA candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiC/SiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. The efforts have been also directed to developing prime-reliant, self-healing 2700F EBC bond coat; and high stability, lower thermal conductivity, and durable EBC top coats. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability performance will be described. The research and development opportunities for turbine engine environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling will be briefly discussed.

  10. Accumulation of Extracellular Matrix in Advanced Lesions of Canine Distemper Demyelinating Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Seehusen, Frauke; Al-Azreg, Seham A.; Raddatz, Barbara B.; Haist, Verena; Puff, Christina; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Ulrich, Reiner; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In demyelinating diseases, changes in the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) may contribute to demyelination and failure of myelin repair and axonal sprouting, especially in chronic lesions. To characterize changes in the ECM in canine distemper demyelinating leukoencephalitis (DL), histochemical and immunohistochemical investigations of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cerebella using azan, picrosirius red and Gomori`s silver stain as well as antibodies directed against aggrecan, type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin and phosphacan showed alterations of the ECM in CDV-infected dogs. A significantly increased amount of aggrecan was detected in early and late white matter lesions. In addition, the positive signal for collagens I and IV as well as fibronectin was significantly increased in late lesions. Conversely, the expression of phosphacan was significantly decreased in early and more pronounced in late lesions compared to controls. Furthermore, a set of genes involved in ECM was extracted from a publically available microarray data set and was analyzed for differential gene expression. Gene expression of ECM molecules, their biosynthesis pathways, and pro-fibrotic factors was mildly up-regulated whereas expression of matrix remodeling enzymes was up-regulated to a relatively higher extent. Summarized, the observed findings indicate that changes in the quality and content of ECM molecules represent important, mainly post-transcriptional features in advanced canine distemper lesions. Considering the insufficiency of morphological regeneration in chronic distemper lesions, the accumulated ECM seems to play a crucial role upon regenerative processes and may explain the relatively small regenerative potential in late stages of this disease. PMID:27441688

  11. Matrix Factorization-Based Prediction of Novel Drug Indications by Integrating Genomic Space.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wen; Liu, Xi; Gao, Yibo; Chen, Lin; Song, Jianglong; Chen, Di; Gao, Kuo; Jiang, Yongshi; Yang, Yiping; Chen, Jianxin; Lu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    There has been rising interest in the discovery of novel drug indications because of high costs in introducing new drugs. Many computational techniques have been proposed to detect potential drug-disease associations based on the creation of explicit profiles of drugs and diseases, while seldom research takes advantage of the immense accumulation of interaction data. In this work, we propose a matrix factorization model based on known drug-disease associations to predict novel drug indications. In addition, genomic space is also integrated into our framework. The introduction of genomic space, which includes drug-gene interactions, disease-gene interactions, and gene-gene interactions, is aimed at providing molecular biological information for prediction of drug-disease associations. The rationality lies in our belief that association between drug and disease has its evidence in the interactome network of genes. Experiments show that the integration of genomic space is indeed effective. Drugs, diseases, and genes are described with feature vectors of the same dimension, which are retrieved from the interaction data. Then a matrix factorization model is set up to quantify the association between drugs and diseases. Finally, we use the matrix factorization model to predict novel indications for drugs.

  12. Fast and accurate computation of system matrix for area integral model-based algebraic reconstruction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shunli; Zhang, Dinghua; Gong, Hao; Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Wang, Ge; Cao, Guohua

    2014-11-01

    Iterative algorithms, such as the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), are popular for image reconstruction. For iterative reconstruction, the area integral model (AIM) is more accurate for better reconstruction quality than the line integral model (LIM). However, the computation of the system matrix for AIM is more complex and time-consuming than that for LIM. Here, we propose a fast and accurate method to compute the system matrix for AIM. First, we calculate the intersection of each boundary line of a narrow fan-beam with pixels in a recursive and efficient manner. Then, by grouping the beam-pixel intersection area into six types according to the slopes of the two boundary lines, we analytically compute the intersection area of the narrow fan-beam with the pixels in a simple algebraic fashion. Overall, experimental results show that our method is about three times faster than the Siddon algorithm and about two times faster than the distance-driven model (DDM) in computation of the system matrix. The reconstruction speed of our AIM-based ART is also faster than the LIM-based ART that uses the Siddon algorithm and DDM-based ART, for one iteration. The fast reconstruction speed of our method was accomplished without compromising the image quality.

  13. Integration of large chemical kinetic mechanisms via exponential methods with Krylov approximations to Jacobian matrix functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2012-06-01

    Recent trends in hydrocarbon fuel research indicate that the number of species and reactions in chemical kinetic mechanisms is rapidly increasing in an effort to provide predictive capabilities for fuels of practical interest. In order to cope with the computational cost associated with the time integration of stiff, large chemical systems, a novel approach is proposed. The approach combines an exponential integrator and Krylov subspace approximations to the exponential function of the Jacobian matrix. The components of the approach are described in detail and applied to the ignition of stoichiometric methane-air and iso-octane-air mixtures, here described by two widely adopted chemical kinetic mechanisms. The approach is found to be robust even at relatively large time steps and the global error displays a nominal third-order convergence. The performance of the approach is improved by utilising an adaptive algorithm for the selection of the Krylov subspace size, which guarantees an approximation to the matrix exponential within user-defined error tolerance. The Krylov projection of the Jacobian matrix onto a low-dimensional space is interpreted as a local model reduction with a well-defined error control strategy. Finally, the performance of the approach is discussed with regard to the optimal selection of the parameters governing the accuracy of its individual components.

  14. Giant enhancement of light emission from Au nanocrystals into a porous matrix integrated with silicon platform.

    PubMed

    Kisner, Alexandre; de Aguiar, Marina Rodrigues; Kubota, Lauro T

    2009-04-01

    Integration of metal nanoparticle-dielectric films with silicon technology is emerging as a promising candidate for sub-wavelength optoelectronics and correlated devices. A giant enhancement of the luminescence intensity of gold nanocrystals directly prepared on a nanoporous template of anodized aluminium oxide is evaluated herewith, for the first time in literature, as a favourable substrate for integrating silicon-based optoelectronics. The size and lateral separation between adjacent particles are controlled by the geometry of the dielectric matrix and on-chip-integration is achieved during the nanoparticle growth, requiring no further steps. A more pronounced photoresponse is observed with embedded nanocrystals as small as 12 nm and the high emission is attributed to the light confinement associated to the increase of the local field effect on the surface plasmon hybridization waves. The demonstrated ability to control the assemble of the nanocrystals and the intense light emission indicate that the embedded gold nanostructures have a high potential for plasmonic device applications.

  15. Orthogonal matrix factorization enables integrative analysis of multiple RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Stražar, Martin; Žitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž; Ule, Jernej; Curk, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in post-transcriptional control of gene expression, including splicing, transport, polyadenylation and RNA stability. To model protein–RNA interactions by considering all available sources of information, it is necessary to integrate the rapidly growing RBP experimental data with the latest genome annotation, gene function, RNA sequence and structure. Such integration is possible by matrix factorization, where current approaches have an undesired tendency to identify only a small number of the strongest patterns with overlapping features. Because protein–RNA interactions are orchestrated by multiple factors, methods that identify discriminative patterns of varying strengths are needed. Results: We have developed an integrative orthogonality-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization (iONMF) to integrate multiple data sources and discover non-overlapping, class-specific RNA binding patterns of varying strengths. The orthogonality constraint halves the effective size of the factor model and outperforms other NMF models in predicting RBP interaction sites on RNA. We have integrated the largest data compendium to date, which includes 31 CLIP experiments on 19 RBPs involved in splicing (such as hnRNPs, U2AF2, ELAVL1, TDP-43 and FUS) and processing of 3’UTR (Ago, IGF2BP). We show that the integration of multiple data sources improves the predictive accuracy of retrieval of RNA binding sites. In our study the key predictive factors of protein–RNA interactions were the position of RNA structure and sequence motifs, RBP co-binding and gene region type. We report on a number of protein-specific patterns, many of which are consistent with experimentally determined properties of RBPs. Availability and implementation: The iONMF implementation and example datasets are available at https://github.com/mstrazar/ionmf. Contact: tomaz.curk@fri.uni-lj.si Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available

  16. Hydrogel-Framed Nanofiber Matrix Integrated with a Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence Detection of Matrix Metalloproteinases-9.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Won; Koh, Won-Gun

    2016-06-21

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a pivotal role in regulating the composition of the extracellular matrix and have a critical role in vascular disease, cancer progression, and bone disorders. This paper describes the design and fabrication of a microdevice as a new platform for highly sensitive MMP-9 detection. In this sensing platform, fluorescein isocyanate (FITC)-labeled MMP-9 specific peptides were covalently immobilized on an electrospun nanofiber matrix to utilize an enzymatic cleavage strategy. Prior to peptide immobilization, the nanofiber matrix was incorporated into hydrogel micropatterns for easy size control and handling of the nanofiber matrix. The resultant hydrogel-framed nanofiber matrix immobilizing the peptides was inserted into microfluidic devices consisting of reaction chambers and detection zones. The immobilized peptides were reacted with the MMP-9-containing solution in a reaction chamber, which resulted in the cleavage of the FITC-containing peptide fragments and subsequently generated fluorescent flow at the detection zone. As higher concentrations of the MMP-9 solution were introduced or larger peptide-immobilizing nanofiber areas were used, more peptides were cleaved, and a stronger fluorescence signal was observed. Due to the huge surface area of the nanofiber and small dimensions of the microsystem, a faster response time (30 min) and lower detection limit (10 pM) could be achieved in this study. The hydrogel-framed nanofiber matrix is disposable and can be replaced with new ones immobilizing either the same or different biomolecules for various bioassays, while the microfluidic system can be continuously reused. PMID:27214657

  17. Hydrogel-Framed Nanofiber Matrix Integrated with a Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence Detection of Matrix Metalloproteinases-9.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Won; Koh, Won-Gun

    2016-06-21

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a pivotal role in regulating the composition of the extracellular matrix and have a critical role in vascular disease, cancer progression, and bone disorders. This paper describes the design and fabrication of a microdevice as a new platform for highly sensitive MMP-9 detection. In this sensing platform, fluorescein isocyanate (FITC)-labeled MMP-9 specific peptides were covalently immobilized on an electrospun nanofiber matrix to utilize an enzymatic cleavage strategy. Prior to peptide immobilization, the nanofiber matrix was incorporated into hydrogel micropatterns for easy size control and handling of the nanofiber matrix. The resultant hydrogel-framed nanofiber matrix immobilizing the peptides was inserted into microfluidic devices consisting of reaction chambers and detection zones. The immobilized peptides were reacted with the MMP-9-containing solution in a reaction chamber, which resulted in the cleavage of the FITC-containing peptide fragments and subsequently generated fluorescent flow at the detection zone. As higher concentrations of the MMP-9 solution were introduced or larger peptide-immobilizing nanofiber areas were used, more peptides were cleaved, and a stronger fluorescence signal was observed. Due to the huge surface area of the nanofiber and small dimensions of the microsystem, a faster response time (30 min) and lower detection limit (10 pM) could be achieved in this study. The hydrogel-framed nanofiber matrix is disposable and can be replaced with new ones immobilizing either the same or different biomolecules for various bioassays, while the microfluidic system can be continuously reused.

  18. Single and compact ESD device Beta-Matrix solution based on bidirectional SCR Network in advanced 28/32 nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeat, Johan; Galy, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    Advanced CMOS technologies, like CMOS32 nm high K metal gate, become more and more sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD) phenomenon particularly because of their low overvoltage robustness. In this context, we develop a Beta-Matrix concept [1] which merges six silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) in a same structure and having one single triggering gate N (GN) for a high integration and high flexibility in IO frame. This device is the center of a new protection strategy which combined both local and global protection approach [1]. Also, a specific trigger circuit has been developed to turn-on Beta-Matrix whatever stressed pins during an ESD event and to keep it off when IC is in normal operation mode and is presented in [2]. Both, Beta-Matrix and trigger circuit, make a robust and very efficient ESD network which allows removing all IO placement constraint and power IO [3]. Also, this study is a synthesis of both previous work and a development of new Beta-Matrix topology to improve the device behavior, particularly by improving the uniformity of activation and decreasing triggering voltage of the structure. This work presents results of 3 dimensional TCAD simulations and measurements of transmission line pulse (TLP) and very fast-TLP.

  19. Clearance Kinetics and Matrix Binding Partners of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products

    PubMed Central

    Milutinovic, Pavle S.; Englert, Judson M.; Crum, Lauren T.; Mason, Neale S.; Ramsgaard, Lasse; Enghild, Jan J.; Sparvero, Louis J.; Lotze, Michael T.; Oury, Tim D.

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the sites and mechanisms of sRAGE action in the healthy state is vital to better understand the biological importance of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Previous studies in animal models of disease have demonstrated that exogenous sRAGE has an anti-inflammatory effect, which has been reasoned to arise from sequestration of pro-inflammatory ligands away from membrane-bound RAGE isoforms. We show here that sRAGE exhibits in vitro binding with high affinity and reversibly to extracellular matrix components collagen I, collagen IV, and laminin. Soluble RAGE administered intratracheally, intravenously, or intraperitoneally, does not distribute in a specific fashion to any healthy mouse tissue, suggesting against the existence of accessible sRAGE sinks and receptors in the healthy mouse. Intratracheal administration is the only effective means of delivering exogenous sRAGE to the lung, the organ in which RAGE is most highly expressed; clearance of sRAGE from lung does not differ appreciably from that of albumin. PMID:24642901

  20. Preparation and characterization of an advanced collagen aggregate from porcine acellular dermal matrix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinhua; Dan, Nianhua; Dan, Weihua

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to extract and characterize an advanced collagen aggregate (Ag-col) from porcine acellular dermal matrix (pADM). Based on histological examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), Ag-col was composed of the D-periodic cross-striated collagen fibrils and thick collagen fiber bundles with uneven diameters and non-orientated arrangement. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of pADM, Ag-col and Col were similar and revealed the presence of the triple helix. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis exhibited a slightly higher content of α-helix but inappreciably less amount of random coil structure in Ag-col compared to Col. Moreover, imino acid contents of pADM, Ag-col and Col were 222.43, 218.30 and 190.01 residues/1000 residues, respectively. From zeta potential analysis, a net charge of zero was found at pH 6.45 and 6.11 for Ag-col and Col, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study suggested that the Td of Ag-col was 20°C higher than that of Col as expected, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that Ag-col possessed a higher storage modulus but similar loss factor compared to Col. Therefore, the collagen aggregate from pADM could serve as a better alternative source of collagens for further applications in food and biological industries. PMID:27039117

  1. Integrating Organic Matter Structure with Ecosystem Function using Advanced Analytical Chemistry Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms are the primary transformers of organic matter in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The structure of organic matter controls its bioavailability and researchers have long sought to link the chemical characteristics of the organic matter pool to its lability. To date this effort has been primarily attempted using low resolution descriptive characteristics (e.g. organic matter content, carbon to nitrogen ratio, aromaticity, etc .). However, recent progress in linking these two important ecosystem components has been advanced using advanced high resolution tools (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy (MS)-based techniques). A series of experiments will be presented that highlight the application of high resolution techniques in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the focus on how these data explicitly provide the foundation for integrating organic matter structure into our concept of ecosystem function. The talk will highlight results from a series of experiments including: an MS-based metabolomics and fluorescence excitation emission matrix approach evaluating seasonal and vegetation based changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition from arctic soils; Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS and MS metabolomics analysis of DOM from three lakes in an alpine watershed; and the transformation of 13C labeled glucose track with NMR during a rewetting experiment from Colorado grassland soils. These data will be synthesized to illustrate how the application of advanced analytical techniques provides novel insight into our understanding of organic matter processing in a wide range of ecosystems.

  2. Advances in integrated photonic circuits for packet-switched interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kevin A.; Stabile, Ripalta

    2014-03-01

    Sustained increases in capacity and connectivity are needed to overcome congestion in a range of broadband communication network nodes. Packet routing and switching in the electronic domain are leading to unsustainable energy- and bandwidth-densities, motivating research into hybrid solutions: optical switching engines are introduced for massive-bandwidth data transport while the electronic domain is clocked at more modest GHz rates to manage routing. Commercially-deployed optical switching engines using MEMS technologies are unwieldy and too slow to reconfigure for future packet-based networking. Optoelectronic packet-compliant switch technologies have been demonstrated as laboratory prototypes, but they have so far mostly used discretely pigtailed components, which are impractical for control plane development and product assembly. Integrated photonics has long held the promise of reduced hardware complexity and may be the critical step towards packet-compliant optical switching engines. Recently a number of laboratories world-wide have prototyped optical switching circuits using monolithic integration technology with up to several hundreds of integrated optical components per chip. Our own work has focused on multi-input to multi-output switching matrices. Recently we have demonstrated 8×8×8λ space and wavelength selective switches using gated cyclic routers and 16×16 broadband switching chips using monolithic multi-stage networks. We now operate these advanced circuits with custom control planes implemented with FPGAs to explore real time packet routing in multi-wavelength, multi-port test-beds. We review our contributions in the context of state of the art photonic integrated circuit technology and packet optical switching hardware demonstrations.

  3. Matrilin-3 switches from anti- to pro-anabolic upon integration to the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Vincourt, Jean-Baptiste; Etienne, Stéphanie; Grossin, Laurent; Cottet, Justine; Bantsimba-Malanda, Claudie; Netter, Patrick; Mainard, Didier; Libante, Virginie; Gillet, Pierre; Magdalou, Jacques

    2012-06-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) has long been viewed primarily as an organized network of solid-phase ligands for integrin receptors. During degenerative processes, such as osteoarthritis, the ECM undergoes deterioration, resulting in its remodeling and in the release of some of its components. Matrilin-3 (MATN3) is an almost cartilage specific, pericellular protein acting in the assembly of the ECM of chondrocytes. In the past, MATN3 was found required for cartilage homeostasis, but also involved in osteoarthritis-related pro-catabolic functions. Here, to better understand the pathological and physiological functions of MATN3, its concentration as a circulating protein in articular fluids of human osteoarthritic patients was determined and its functions as a recombinant protein produced in human cells were investigated with particular emphasis on the physical state under which it is presented to chondrocytes. MATN3 down-regulated cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and up-regulated catabolism when administered as a soluble protein. When artificially immobilized, however, MATN3 induced chondrocyte adhesion via a α5β1 integrin-dependent mechanism, AKT activation and favored survival and ECM synthesis. Furthermore, MATN3 bound directly to isolated α5β1 integrin in vitro. TGFβ1 stimulation of chondrocytes allowed integration of exogenous MATN3 into their ECM and ECM-integrated MATN3 induced AKT phosphorylation and improved ECM synthesis and accumulation. In conclusion, the integration of MATN3 to the pericellular matrix of chondrocytes critically determines the direction toward which MATN3 regulates cartilage metabolism. These data explain how MATN3 plays either beneficial or detrimental functions in cartilage and highlight the important role played by the physical state of ECM molecules.

  4. Integrated metrology: an enabler for advanced process control (APC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Claus; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner

    2001-04-01

    Advanced process control (APC) techniques become more and more important as short innovation cycles in microelectronics and a highly competitive market requires cost-effective solutions in semiconductor manufacturing. APC marks a paradigm shift from statistically based techniques (SPC) using monitor wafers for sampling measurement data towards product wafer control. The APC functionalities including run-to-run control, fault detection, and fault analysis allow to detect process drifts and excursions at an early stage and to minimize the number of misprocessed wafers. APC is being established as part of factory control systems through the definition of an APC framework. A precondition for APC is the availability of sensors and measurement methods providing the necessary wafer data. This paper discusses integrated metrology as an enabler for APC and demonstrates practical implementations in semiconductor manufacturing.

  5. An integrated computer system for preliminary design of advanced aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Sobieszczanski, J.; Landrum, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    A progress report is given on the first phase of a research project to develop a system of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) which is intended to automate to the largest extent possible the preliminary and detailed design of advanced aircraft. The approach used is to build a pilot system and simultaneously to carry out two major contractual studies to define a practical IPAD system preparatory to programing. The paper summarizes the specifications and goals of the IPAD system, the progress to date, and any conclusion reached regarding its feasibility and scope. Sample calculations obtained with the pilot system are given for aircraft preliminary designs optimized with respect to discipline parameters, such as weight or L/D, and these results are compared with designs optimized with respect to overall performance parameters, such as range or payload.

  6. Integrating matrix solution of the hybrid state vector equations for beam vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    A simple, versatile, and efficient computational technique has been developed for dynamic analysis of linear elastic beam and rod type of structures. Moreover, the method provides a rather general solution approach for two-point boundary value problems that are described by a single independent spatial variable. For structural problems, the method is implemented by a mixed state vector formulation of the differential equations, combined with an integrating matrix solution procedure. Highly accurate solutions are easily achieved with this approach. Example solutions are given for beam vibration problems including discontinuous stiffness and mass parameters, elastic restraint boundary conditions, concentrated inertia loading, and rigid body modes

  7. Lime enhanced chromium removal in advanced integrated wastewater pond system.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, I; Isoaho, S A; Green, F B; Puhakka, J A

    2006-03-01

    The removal of trivalent chromium from a combined tannery effluent in horizontal settling tanks and subsequent Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond System (AIWPS) reactors was investigated. The raw combined effluent from Modjo tannery had pH in the range of 11.2-12. At this pH, a trivalent chromium removal of 46-72% was obtained in the horizontal settling tanks after a one-day detention time. Trivalent chromium precipitated as chromium hydroxide, Cr(OH)3. 58-95% Cr(III) was removed in the advanced facultative pond (AFP) where the water column pH of 7.2-8.4 was close to pH 8, which is the optimum precipitation pH for trivalent chromium. Chromium removals in the secondary facultative pond (SFP) and maturation pond (MP) were 30-50% and 6-16%, respectively. With Cr(III) concentration of 0.2-0.8 mg/l in the final treated effluent, the AIWPS preceded by horizontal settling tanks produced effluent that could easily meet most of the current Cr(III) discharge limits to receive water bodies.

  8. Single event soft error in advanced integrated circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanfu, Zhao; Suge, Yue; Xinyuan, Zhao; Shijin, Lu; Qiang, Bian; Liang, Wang; Yongshu, Sun

    2015-11-01

    As technology feature size decreases, single event upset (SEU), and single event transient (SET) dominate the radiation response of microcircuits. Multiple bit upset (MBU) (or multi cell upset) effects, digital single event transient (DSET) and analogue single event transient (ASET) cause serious problems for advanced integrated circuits (ICs) applied in a radiation environment and have become a pressing issue. To face this challenge, a lot of work has been put into the single event soft error mechanism and mitigation schemes. This paper presents a review of SEU and SET, including: a brief historical overview, which summarizes the historical development of the SEU and SET since their first observation in the 1970's; effects prominent in advanced technology, which reviews the effects such as MBU, MSET as well as SET broadening and quenching with the influence of temperature, device structure etc.; the present understanding of single event soft error mechanisms, which review the basic mechanism of single event generation including various component of charge collection; and a discussion of various SEU and SET mitigation schemes divided as circuit hardening and layout hardening that could help the designer meet his goals.

  9. High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC) for Advanced Space Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Bowman, Cheryl; Beach, Duane

    2007-01-01

    High temperature polymer matrix composites (PMC) reinforced with high thermal conductivity (approx. 1000 W/mK) pitch-based carbon fibers are evaluated for a facesheet/fin structure of large space radiator systems. Significant weight reductions along with improved thermal performance, structural integrity and space durability toward its metallic counterparts were envisioned. Candidate commercial resin systems including Cyanate Esters, BMIs, and polyimide were selected based on thermal capabilities and processability. PMC laminates were designed to match the thermal expansion coefficient of various metal heat pipes or tubes. Large, but thin composite panels were successfully fabricated after optimizing cure conditions. Space durability of PMC with potential degradation mechanisms was assessed by simulated thermal aging tests in high vacuum, 1-3 x 10(exp -6) torr, at three temperatures, 227 C, 277 C, and 316 C for up to one year. Nanocomposites with vapor-grown carbon nano-fibers and exfoliated graphite flakes were attempted to improve thermal conductivity (TC) and microcracking resistance. Good quality nanocomposites were fabricated and evaluated for TC and durability including radiation resistance. TC was measured in both in-plan and thru-the-thickness directions, and the effects of microcracks on TC are also being evaluated. This paper will discuss the systematic experimental approaches, various performance-durability evaluations, and current subcomponent design and fabrication/manufacturing efforts.

  10. Improved Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composite/Foam Core Integrated Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    2009-01-01

    The use of hybridized carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC) fabric to reinforce ceramic matrix composite face sheets and the integration of such face sheets with a foam core creates a sandwich structure capable of withstanding high-heatflux environments (150 W/cm2) in which the core provides a temperature drop of 1,000 C between the surface and the back face without cracking or delamination of the structure. The composite face sheet exhibits a bilinear response, which results from the SiC matrix not being cracked on fabrication. In addition, the structure exhibits damage tolerance under impact with projectiles, showing no penetration to the back face sheet. These attributes make the composite ideal for leading edge structures and control surfaces in aerospace vehicles, as well as for acreage thermal protection systems and in high-temperature, lightweight stiffened structures. By tailoring the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a carbon fiber containing ceramic matrix composite (CMC) face sheet to match that of a ceramic foam core, the face sheet and the core can be integrally fabricated without any delamination. Carbon and SiC are woven together in the reinforcing fabric. Integral densification of the CMC and the foam core is accomplished with chemical vapor deposition, eliminating the need for bond-line adhesive. This means there is no need to separately fabricate the core and the face sheet, or to bond the two elements together, risking edge delamination during use. Fibers of two or more types are woven together on a loom. The carbon and ceramic fibers are pulled into the same pick location during the weaving process. Tow spacing may be varied to accommodate the increased volume of the combined fiber tows while maintaining a target fiber volume fraction in the composite. Foam pore size, strut thickness, and ratio of face sheet to core thickness can be used to tailor thermal and mechanical properties. The anticipated CTE for the hybridized composite is managed by

  11. ATOS: Integration of advanced technology software within distributed Spacecraft Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Wheadon, J.; Omullane, W.; Whitgift, D.; Poulter, K.; Niezette, M.; Timmermans, R.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Romero, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) is a program of studies into the integration of advanced applications (including knowledge based systems (KBS)) with ground systems for the support of spacecraft mission operations.

  12. Flowering and genome integrity control by a nuclear matrix protein in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifeng; Gan, Eng-Seng; He, Yuehui; Ito, Toshiro

    2013-01-01

    The matrix attachment regions (MARs) binding proteins could finely orchestrate temporal and spatial gene expression during development. In Arabidopsis, transposable elements (TEs) and TE-like repeat sequences are transcriptionally repressed or attenuated by the coordination of many key players including DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases and the siRNA pathway, which help to protect genomic integrity and control multiple developmental processes such as flowering. We have recently reported that an AT-hook nuclear matrix binding protein, TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENT SILENCING VIA AT-HOOK (TEK), participates in a histone deacetylation (HDAC) complex to silence TEs and genes containing a TE-like sequence, including AtMu1, FWA and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Ler background. We have shown that TEK knockdown causes increased histone acetylation, reduced H3K9me2 and moderate reduction of DNA methylation in the target loci, leading to the de-repression of FLC and FWA, as well as TE reactivation. Here we discuss the role of TEK as a putative MAR binding protein which functions in the maintenance of genome integrity and in flowering control by silencing TEs and repeat-containing genes. PMID:23836195

  13. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  14. Integration of advanced practice providers into the Israeli healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Eliana Marcus; Andrews, Caryn Scheinberg

    2016-01-01

    Many countries around the world have integrated various types of Advanced Practice Providers (APPs) into their healthcare systems. The main motivating factors for recognizing and developing APPs worldwide include physician shortages and the need for improved access or delivery (US, France, Belgium, Scotland, Switzerland), reduced residency hours (US, UK), shortages in underserved regions (US, Canada, Finland, Australia), and cost containment (Germany, Netherlands, UK, US). Israel is experiencing a shortage of physicians in peripheral geographic regions and in critical medical specialties. Recent by-laws approved by the Knesset (Parliament), combined with Israel Ministry of Health (MOH) policies, have thus far been unable to fully address the shortages. To understand the potential contribution of APPs in Israel, we evaluated the international historical foundations and development of APP roles. We assessed how APPs have impacted healthcare in other countries by analyzing public data and published international research about APP education, safety, quality of care, motivators, barriers, and impact. We found that APPs are recognized in dozens of countries, and have similar scopes of practice, graduate level education requirements (in developed countries), and clinical training. At the same time, there is wide variability among countries in the actual function and independence of the advanced practice nurse (APN), particularly the nurse practitioner (NP). APPs have been established as cost effective, safe healthcare providers who improve healthcare access. Israel has begun to introduce APPs, specifically NPs, in a variety of fields, including geriatrics, palliative care and diabetic care. We recommend a rapid expansion of existing and new APP roles into the Israeli healthcare system based on evidence and the recommendations of international evaluations by non-government organizations. By shifting the education to a university setting, mirroring successful, evidence

  15. Advanced optical network architecture for integrated digital avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, D. Reed

    1996-12-01

    For the first time in the history of avionics, the network designer now has a choice in selecting the media that interconnects the sources and sinks of digital data on aircraft. Electrical designs are already giving way to photonics in application areas where the data rate times distance product is large or where special design requirements such as low weight or EMI considerations are critical. Future digital avionic architectures will increasingly favor the use of photonic interconnects as network data rates of one gigabit/second and higher are needed to support real-time operation of high-speed integrated digital processing. As the cost of optical network building blocks is reduced and as temperature-rugged laser sources are matured, metal interconnects will be forced to retreat to applications spanning shorter and shorter distances. Although the trend is already underway, the widespread use of digital optics will first occur at the system level, where gigabit/second, real-time interconnects between sensors, processors, mass memories and displays separated by a least of few meters will be required. The application of photonic interconnects for inter-printed wiring board signalling across the backplane will eventually find application for gigabit/second applications since signal degradation over copper traces occurs before one gigabit/second and 0.5 meters are reached. For the foreseeable future however, metal interconnects will continue to be used to interconnect devices on printed wiring boards since 5 gigabit/second signals can be sent over metal up to around 15 centimeters. Current-day applications of optical interconnects at the system level are described and a projection of how advanced optical interconnect technology will be driven by the use of high speed integrated digital processing on future aircraft is presented. The recommended advanced network for application in the 2010 time frame is a fiber-based system with a signalling speed of around 2

  16. Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and biological processes: recent developments, trends, and advances.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Gelareh Bankian; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2004-01-01

    The greatest challenge of today's wastewater treatment technology is to optimize the use of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The choice of the process and/or integration of the processes depend strongly on the wastewater characteristics, concentrations, and the desired efficiencies. It has been observed by many investigators that the coupling of a bioreactor and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) could reduce the final concentrations of the effluent to the desired values. However, optimizing the total cost of the treatment is a challenge, as AOPs are much more expensive than biological processes alone. Therefore, an appropriate design should not only consider the ability of this coupling to reduce the concentration of organic pollutants, but also try to obtain the desired results in a cost effective process. To consider the total cost of the treatment, the residence time in biological and photochemical reactors, the kinetic rates, and the capital and operating costs of the reactors play significant roles. In this study, recent developments and trends (1996-2003) on the integration of photochemical and biological processes for the degradation of problematic pollutants in wastewater have been reviewed. The conditions to get the optimum results from this integration have also been considered. In most of the studies, it has been shown that the integrated processes were more efficient than individual processes. However, slight changes in the configuration of the reactors, temperature, pH, treatment time, concentration of the oxidants, and microorganism's colonies could lead to a great deviation in results. It has also been demonstrated that the treatment cost in both reactors is a function of time, which changes by the flow rate. The minimum cost in the coupling of the processes cannot be achieved unless considering the best treatment time in chemical and biological reactors individually.

  17. Biological Matrix Effects in Quantitative Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Analytical Methods: Advancing Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E.; D’Souza, Priya E.; Chen, Xianyu; Radford, Samantha A.; Cohen, Jordan R.; Marder, M. Elizabeth; Kartavenka, Kostya; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    The ability to quantify levels of target analytes in biological samples accurately and precisely, in biomonitoring, involves the use of highly sensitive and selective instrumentation such as tandem mass spectrometers and a thorough understanding of highly variable matrix effects. Typically, matrix effects are caused by co-eluting matrix components that alter the ionization of target analytes as well as the chromatographic response of target analytes, leading to reduced or increased sensitivity of the analysis. Thus, before the desired accuracy and precision standards of laboratory data are achieved, these effects must be characterized and controlled. Here we present our review and observations of matrix effects encountered during the validation and implementation of tandem mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. We also provide systematic, comprehensive laboratory strategies needed to control challenges posed by matrix effects in order to ensure delivery of the most accurate data for biomonitoring studies assessing exposure to environmental toxicants. PMID:25562585

  18. Cooperative Research and Development for Advanced Microturbines Program on Advanced Integrated Microturbine System

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Bowman

    2007-05-30

    The Advanced Integrated Microturbine Systems (AIMS) project was kicked off in October of 2000 to develop the next generation microturbine system. The overall objective of the project was to develop a design for a 40% electrical efficiency microturbine system and demonstrate many of the enabling technologies. The project was initiated as a collaborative effort between several units of GE, Elliott Energy Systems, Turbo Genset, Oak Ridge National Lab and Kyocera. Since the inception of the project the partners have changed but the overall direction of the project has stayed consistent. The project began as a systems study to identify design options to achieve the ultimate goal of 40% electrical efficiency. Once the optimized analytical design was identified for the 40% system, it was determined that a 35% efficient machine would be capable of demonstrating many of the advanced technologies within the given budget and timeframe. The items that would not be experimentally demonstrated were fully produced ceramic parts. However, to understand the requirements of these ceramics, an effort was included in the project to experimentally evaluate candidate materials in representative conditions. The results from this effort would clearly identify the challenges and improvement required of these materials for the full design. Following the analytical effort, the project was dedicated to component development and testing. Each component and subsystem was designed with the overall system requirements in mind and each tested to the fullest extent possible prior to being integrated together. This method of component development and evaluation helps to minimize the technical risk of the project. Once all of the components were completed, they were assembled into the full system and experimentally evaluated.

  19. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  20. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  1. Fabrication, polarization, and characterization of PVDF matrix composites for integrated structural load sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh; Greminger, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    The focus of this work is to evaluate a new carbon fiber reinforced composite structure with integrated sensing capabilities. In this composite structure, the typical matrix material used for carbon fiber reinforced composites is replaced with the thermoplastic polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). Since PVDF has piezoelectric properties, it enables the structure to be used for integrated load sensing. In addition, the electrical conductivity property of the carbon fabric is harnessed to form the electrodes of the integrated sensor. In order to prevent the carbon fiber electrodes from shorting to each other, a thin Kevlar fabric layer is placed between the two carbon fiber electrode layers as a dielectric. The optimal polarization parameters were determined using a design of experiments approach. Once polarized, the samples were then used in compression and tensile tests to determine the effective d33 and d31 piezoelectric coefficients. The degree of polarization of the PVDF material was determined by relating the effective d33 coefficient of the composite to the achieved d33 of the PVDF component of the composite using a closed form expression. Using this approach, it was shown that optimal polarization of the composite material results in a PVDF component d33 of 3.2 pC N-1. Moreover, the Young’s modulus of the composite structure has been characterized.

  2. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Input Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, B.; Orwig, K.; McCaa, J. R.; Harrold, S.; Draxl, C.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.

    2013-12-01

    projects to develop updated datasets: the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit and the Solar Integration National Dataset (SIND) Toolkit. The WIND Toolkit spans 2007-2013 using advanced NWP methods run on a nationwide 2-km grid with 5-minute resolution, and includes over 110,000 onshore and offshore wind power production sites. This paper and presentation will discuss an overview of the WIND Toolkit modeling advancements, site selection, data accessibility, and validation results.

  3. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Advanced Energy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL and Advanced Energy Industries at the ESIF to test its advanced photovoltaic inverter technology with the ESIF's power hardware-in-the-loop system and megawatt-scale grid simulators.

  4. A thermally modified polymer matrix composite material with structural integrity to 371 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    The potential for utilizing surface coatings to inhibit the thermal oxidation of polymer matrix composites was studied. Isothermal, inert gas exposures of graphite/PMR-15 composites indicated that after an initial loss of weight, no significant amounts of thermal degradation products are given off during high temperature exposures in the absence of oxygen. As long as a coating remains effective, the composite material should remain stable. It was also found that the glass transition temperature T sub g of the matrix resin could be increased to values in excess of 400 C. This resulted in measured short beam shear strengths of 75.9 MPa (11 Ksi), flexural strengths of 1172 MPa (170 Ksi) and flexural moduli of 141 GPa (20.5 Msi) for the material at a test temperature of 371 C. The treatment that was used caused a decrease in the PMR-15 resin density from 1.31 to 1.29 gm/cc. It was concluded that state-of-the-art composites, protected by oxygen-impervious coatings, can be used as materials of construction with structural integrity to at least 371 C and possibly above.

  5. Linear matrix inequality-based proportional-integral control design with application to F-16 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodore, Zachary B.

    A robust proportional-integral (PI) controller was synthesized for the F-16 VISTA (Variable stability In-flight Simulator Test Aircraft) using a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, with the goal of eventually designing and implementing a linear parameter-varying PI controller on high performance aircraft. The combination of classical and modern control theory provides theoretically guaranteed stability and performance throughout the flight envelope and ease of implementation due to the simplicity of the PI controller structure. The controller is designed by solving a set of LMIs with pole placement constraints. This closed-loop system was simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to analyze the performance of the controller. A robust Hinfinity controller was also developed to compare performance with PI controller. The simulation results showed stability, albeit with poor performance compared to the Hinfinity controlle.

  6. Integrated extracellular matrix signaling in mammary gland development and breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jieqing; Xiong, Gaofeng; Trinkle, Christine; Xu, Ren

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM), a major component of the cellular microenvironment, plays critical roles in normal tissue morphogenesis and disease progression. Binding of ECM to membrane receptor proteins, such as integrin, discoidin domain receptors, and dystroglycan, elicits biochemical and biomechanical signals that control cellular architecture and gene expression. These ECM signals cooperate with growth factors and hormones to regulate cell migration, differentiation, and transformation. ECM signaling is tightly regulated during normal mammary gland development. Deposition and alignment of fibrillar collagens direct migration and invasion of mammary epithelial cells during branching morphogenesis. Basement membrane proteins are required for polarized acinar morphogenesis and milk protein expression. Deregulation of ECM proteins in the long run is sufficient to promote breast cancer development and progression. Recent studies demonstrate that the integrated biophysical and biochemical signals from ECM and soluble factors are crucial for normal mammary gland development as well as breast cancer progression.

  7. Addressable test matrix for measuring analog transfer characteristics of test elements used for integrated process control and device evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A set of addressable test structures, each of which uses addressing schemes to access individual elements of the structure in a matrix, is used to test the quality of a wafer before integrated circuits produced thereon are diced, packaged and subjected to final testing. The electrical characteristic of each element is checked and compared to the electrical characteristic of all other like elements in the matrix. The effectiveness of the addressable test matrix is in readily analyzing the electrical characteristics of the test elements and in providing diagnostic information.

  8. United by Goals: There Is No Integrated Advancement without Communications and Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiConsiglio, John

    2011-01-01

    The idea behind integrated advancement is simple and dates back to the 1990s: A strong relationship between advancement offices conserves resources. It leads to a more efficient workforce. It portrays a highly unified message to stakeholders, including donors, alumni, local officials, and opinion leaders. In short, the entire advancement team…

  9. The effect of an autologous cellular gel-matrix integrated implant system on wound healing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This manuscript reports the production and preclinical studies to examine the tolerance and efficacy of an autologous cellular gel-matrix integrated implant system (IIS) aimed to treat full-thickness skin lesions. Methods The best concentration of fibrinogen and thrombin was experimentally determined by employing 28 formula ratios of thrombin and fibrinogen and checking clot formation and apparent stability. IIS was formed by integrating skin cells by means of the in situ gelification of fibrin into a porous crosslinked scaffold composed of chitosan, gelatin and hyaluronic acid. The in vitro cell proliferation within the IIS was examined by the MTT assay and PCNA expression. An experimental rabbit model consisting of six circular lesions was utilized to test each of the components of the IIS. Then, the IIS was utilized in an animal model to cover a 35% body surface full thickness lesion. Results The preclinical assays in rabbits demonstrated that the IIS was well tolerated and also that IIS-treated rabbit with lesions of 35% of their body surface, exhibited a better survival rate (p = 0,06). Conclusion IIS should be further studied as a new wound dressing which shows promising properties, being the most remarkable its good biological tolerance and cell growth promotion properties. PMID:20565787

  10. Advanced general aviation engine/airframe integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmroczek, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of the in-airframe performance and efficiency of the advanced engine concepts is presented. The results indicate that the proposed advanced engines can significantly improve the performance and economy of general aviation airplanes. The engine found to be most promising is the highly advanced version of a rotary combustion (Wankel) engine. The low weight and fuel consumption of this engine, as well as its small size, make it suited for aircraft use.

  11. Analytical finite element matrix elements and global matrix assembly for hierarchical 3-D vector basis functions within the hybrid finite element boundary integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wang, K.; Li, H.; Eibert, T. F.

    2014-11-01

    A hybrid higher-order finite element boundary integral (FE-BI) technique is discussed where the higher-order FE matrix elements are computed by a fully analytical procedure and where the gobal matrix assembly is organized by a self-identifying procedure of the local to global transformation. This assembly procedure applys to both, the FE part as well as the BI part of the algorithm. The geometry is meshed into three-dimensional tetrahedra as finite elements and nearly orthogonal hierarchical basis functions are employed. The boundary conditions are implemented in a strong sense such that the boundary values of the volume basis functions are directly utilized within the BI, either for the tangential electric and magnetic fields or for the asssociated equivalent surface current densities by applying a cross product with the unit surface normals. The self-identified method for the global matrix assembly automatically discerns the global order of the basis functions for generating the matrix elements. Higher order basis functions do need more unknowns for each single FE, however, fewer FEs are needed to achieve the same satisfiable accuracy. This improvement provides a lot more flexibility for meshing and allows the mesh size to raise up to λ/3. The performance of the implemented system is evaluated in terms of computation time, accuracy and memory occupation, where excellent results with respect to precision and computation times of large scale simulations are found.

  12. Recent advances in the field of ceramic fibers and ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naslain, R.

    2005-03-01

    Progress achieved during the last decade in the field of ceramic fibers and related ceramic matrix composites is reviewed. Both SiC-based and alumina-based fine fibers have been improved in terms of thermal stability and creep resistance with temperature limit of about 1400 and 1200 ° C, respectively. Two concepts for achieving damage-tolerant ceramic matrix composites have been identified : (i) that of non-oxide composites with a dense matrix in which matrix cracks formed under load are deflected and arrested in a weak fiber coating referred to as the interphase and (ii) that of all-oxide composites with a highly porous matrix with no need of any fiber coating. The lifetime under load of non-oxide composites in oxidizing atmospheres, is improved through the use of multilayered self-healing interphases and matrices deposited from gaseous precursors by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Lifetime ranging from 1000 to 10,000 hours at 1200 ° C under cyclic loading in air are foreseen. Alumina-based composites although attractive for long term exposures in oxidizing atmospheres up to ≈1200 ° C, are still experimental materials.

  13. Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix Regional Integration to Quantify Spectra for Dissolved Organic Matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, W.; Westerhoff, P.; Leenheer, J.A.; Booksh, K.

    2003-01-01

    Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water and soil. However, interpreting the >10,000 wavelength-dependent fluorescence intensity data points represented in EEMs has posed a significant challenge. Fluorescence regional integration, a quantitative technique that integrates the volume beneath an EEM, was developed to analyze EEMs. EEMs were delineated into five excitation-emission regions based on fluorescence of model compounds, DOM fractions, and marine waters or freshwaters. Volumetric integration under the EEM within each region, normalized to the projected excitation-emission area within that region and dissolved organic carbon concentration, resulted in a normalized region-specific EEM volume (??i,n). Solid-state carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra, and EEMs were obtained for standard Suwannee River fulvic acid and 15 hydrophobic or hydrophilic acid, neutral, and base DOM fractions plus nonfractionated DOM from wastewater effluents and rivers in the southwestern United States. DOM fractions fluoresced in one or more EEM regions. The highest cumulative EEM volume (??T,n = ????i,n) was observed for hydrophobic neutral DOM fractions, followed by lower ??T,n values for hydrophobic acid, base, and hydrophilic acid DOM fractions, respectively. An extracted wastewater biomass DOM sample contained aromatic protein- and humic-like material and was characteristic of bacterial-soluble microbial products. Aromatic carbon and the presence of specific aromatic compounds (as indicated by solid-state 13C NMR and FTIR data) resulted in EEMs that aided in differentiating wastewater effluent DOM from drinking water DOM.

  14. Implementation of advanced matrix corrections for active interrogation of waste drums using the CTEN instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, S.; Estep, R.; Hollas, C.

    1998-12-31

    The combined thermal/epithermal neutron instrument (CTEN) was designed at Los Alamos to improve measurement accuracy and mitigate self shielding effects inherent in the differential dieaway technique (DDT). A major goal in this research effort has been the development of a calibration technique that incorporates recently developed matrix and self-shielding corrections using data generated from additional detectors and new acquisition techniques. A comprehensive data set containing both active and passive measurements was generated using 26 different matrices and comprising a total of 1,400 measurements. In all, 31 flux-and-matrix-dependent parameters, 24 positional parameters, two dieaway times, and a correlated ratio were determined from each of the over 1,400 measurements. A reduced list of matrix indicators, prioritized using the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm, was used to train a neural network using a generalized regression technique (GRNN) to determine matrix- and position-corrected calibration factors. This paper describes the experimental, analytical, and empirical techniques used to determine the corrected calibration factor for an unknown waste drum. Results from a range of cases are compared with those obtained using a mobile DDT instrument and traditional DDT algorithms.

  15. Integrated design and analysis of advanced airfoil shapes for gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.A.; Rooney, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    An integral process in the mechanical design of gas turbine airfoils is the conversion of hot or running geometry into cold or as-manufactured geometry. New and advanced methods of design and analysis must be created that parallel new and technologically advanced turbine components. In particular, to achieve the high performance required of today's gas turbine engines, the industry is forced to design and manufacture increasingly complex airfoil shapes using advanced analysis and modeling techniques. This paper describes a method of integrating advanced, general purpose finite element analysis techniques in the mechanical design process.

  16. Nondestructive Evaluation of Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites: A Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yolken, H. Thomas; Matzkanin, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their increasing utilization in structural applications, the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites continues to receive considerable research and development attention. Due to the heterogeneous nature of composites, the form of defects is often very different from a metal and fracture mechanisms are more complex. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview and technology assessment of the current state-of-the-art with respect to NDE of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  17. Integration of SWPF into the DWPF Flowsheet: Gap Analysis and Test Matrix Development

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-12-10

    Based on Revision 19 of the High Level Waste (HLW) System Plan, it is anticipated that the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will be integrated into the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet in October 2018 (or with Sludge Batch 11 (SB11)). Given that, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has requested a technical basis be developed that validates the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for use during the processing of the SWPF-based coupled flowsheet or that leads to the refinements of or modifications to the models that are needed so that the models may be used during the processing of the SWPF-based coupled flowsheet. To support this objective, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has completed three key interim activities prior to validation of the current or development of refined PCCS models over the anticipated glass composition region for SWPF processing. These three key activities include: (1) defining the glass compositional region over which SWPF is anticipated to be processed, (2) comparing the current PCCS model validation ranges to the SWPF glass compositional region from which compositional gaps can be identified, and (3) developing a test matrix to cover the compositional gaps.

  18. Efficient Drug-Pathway Association Analysis via Integrative Penalized Matrix Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Yang, Can; Hather, Greg; Liu, Ray; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional drug discovery practice usually follows the "one drug - one target" approach, seeking to identify drug molecules that act on individual targets, which ignores the systemic nature of human diseases. Pathway-based drug discovery recently emerged as an appealing approach to overcome this limitation. An important first step of such pathway-based drug discovery is to identify associations between drug molecules and biological pathways. This task has been made feasible by the accumulating data from high-throughput transcription and drug sensitivity profiling. In this paper, we developed "iPaD", an integrative Penalized Matrix Decomposition method to identify drug-pathway associations through jointly modeling of such high-throughput transcription and drug sensitivity data. A scalable bi-convex optimization algorithm was implemented and gave iPaD tremendous advantage in computational efficiency over current state-of-the-art method, which allows it to handle the ever-growing large-scale data sets that current method cannot afford to. On two widely used real data sets, iPaD also significantly outperformed the current method in terms of the number of validated drug-pathway associations that were identified. The Matlab code of our algorithm publicly available at http://licong-jason.github.io/iPaD/. PMID:27295636

  19. Development of an alternating integrator for magnetic measurements for experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Liu, D M; Wan, B N; Zhao, W Z; Shen, B; He, Y G; Chen, B; Huang, J; Liu, H Q

    2014-11-01

    A high-performance integrator is one of the key electronic devices for reliably controlling plasma in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak for long pulse operation. We once designed an integrator system of real-time drift compensation, which has a low integration drift. However, it is not feasible for really continuous operations due to capacitive leakage error and nonlinearity error. To solve the above-mentioned problems, this paper presents a new alternating integrator. In the new integrator, the integrator system of real-time drift compensation is adopted as one integral cell while two such integral cells work alternately. To achieve the alternate function, a Field Programmable Gate Array built in the digitizer is utilized. The performance test shows that the developed integrator with the integration time constant of 20 ms has a low integration drift (<15 mV) for 1000 s.

  20. Development of an alternating integrator for magnetic measurements for experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D. M. Zhao, W. Z.; He, Y. G.; Chen, B.; Wan, B. N.; Shen, B.; Huang, J.; Liu, H. Q.

    2014-11-15

    A high-performance integrator is one of the key electronic devices for reliably controlling plasma in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak for long pulse operation. We once designed an integrator system of real-time drift compensation, which has a low integration drift. However, it is not feasible for really continuous operations due to capacitive leakage error and nonlinearity error. To solve the above-mentioned problems, this paper presents a new alternating integrator. In the new integrator, the integrator system of real-time drift compensation is adopted as one integral cell while two such integral cells work alternately. To achieve the alternate function, a Field Programmable Gate Array built in the digitizer is utilized. The performance test shows that the developed integrator with the integration time constant of 20 ms has a low integration drift (<15 mV) for 1000 s.

  1. Recent advances in understanding the reinforcing ability and mechanism of carbon nanotubes in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estili, Mehdi; Sakka, Yoshio

    2014-12-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), commonly referred to as ultimate reinforcement, the main purpose for fabricating CNT-ceramic matrix composites has been mainly to improve the fracture toughness and strength of the ceramic matrix materials. However, there have been many studies reporting marginal improvements or even the degradation of mechanical properties. On the other hand, those studies claiming noticeable toughening measured using indentation, which is an indirect/unreliable characterization method, have not demonstrated the responsible mechanisms applicable to the nanoscale, flexible CNTs; instead, those studies proposed those classical methods applicable to microscale fiber/whisker reinforced ceramics without showing any convincing evidence of load transfer to the CNTs. Therefore, the ability of CNTs to directly improve the macroscopic mechanical properties of structural ceramics has been strongly questioned and debated in the last ten years. In order to properly discuss the reinforcing ability (and possible mechanisms) of CNTs in a ceramic host material, there are three fundamental questions to our knowledge at both the nanoscale and macroscale levels that need to be addressed: (1) does the intrinsic load-bearing ability of CNTs change when embedded in a ceramic host matrix?; (2) when there is an intimate atomic-level interface without any chemical reaction with the matrix, could one expect any load transfer to the CNTs along with effective load bearing by them during crack propagation?; and (3) considering their nanometer-scale dimensions, flexibility and radial softness, are the CNTs able to improve the mechanical properties of the host ceramic matrix at the macroscale when individually, intimately and uniformly dispersed? If so, how? Also, what is the effect of CNT concentration in such a defect-free composite system? Here, we briefly review the recent studies addressing the above fundamental questions. In particular, we discuss the new

  2. Melatonin Preserves Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Permeability via Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Alluri, Himakarnika; Wilson, Rickesha L.; Anasooya Shaji, Chinchusha; Wiggins-Dohlvik, Katie; Patel, Savan; Liu, Yang; Peng, Xu; Beeram, Madhava R.; Davis, Matthew L.; Huang, Jason H.; Tharakan, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular hyperpermeability that occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) often leads to vasogenic brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure following traumatic brain injury (TBI). At a cellular level, tight junction proteins (TJPs) between neighboring endothelial cells maintain the integrity of the BBB via TJ associated proteins particularly, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) that binds to the transmembrane TJPs and actin cytoskeleton intracellularly. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as well as the proteolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are key mediators of trauma-associated brain edema. Recent studies indicate that melatonin a pineal hormone directly binds to MMP-9 and also might act as its endogenous inhibitor. We hypothesized that melatonin treatment will provide protection against TBI-induced BBB hyperpermeability via MMP-9 inhibition. Rat brain microvascular endothelial cells grown as monolayers were used as an in vitro model of the BBB and a mouse model of TBI using a controlled cortical impactor was used for all in vivo studies. IL-1β (10 ng/mL; 2 hours)-induced endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability was significantly attenuated by melatonin (10 μg/mL; 1 hour), GM6001 (broad spectrum MMP inhibitor; 10 μM; 1 hour), MMP-9 inhibitor-1 (MMP-9 specific inhibitor; 5 nM; 1 hour) or MMP-9 siRNA transfection (48 hours) in vitro. Melatonin and MMP-9 inhibitor-1 pretreatment attenuated IL-1β-induced MMP-9 activity, loss of ZO-1 junctional integrity and f-actin stress fiber formation. IL-1β treatment neither affected ZO-1 protein or mRNA expression or cell viability. Acute melatonin treatment attenuated BBB hyperpermeability in a mouse controlled cortical impact model of TBI in vivo. In conclusion, one of the protective effects of melatonin against BBB hyperpermeability occurs due to enhanced BBB integrity via MMP-9 inhibition. In addition, acute melatonin treatment provides protection against BBB

  3. Melatonin Preserves Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Permeability via Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Alluri, Himakarnika; Wilson, Rickesha L; Anasooya Shaji, Chinchusha; Wiggins-Dohlvik, Katie; Patel, Savan; Liu, Yang; Peng, Xu; Beeram, Madhava R; Davis, Matthew L; Huang, Jason H; Tharakan, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular hyperpermeability that occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) often leads to vasogenic brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure following traumatic brain injury (TBI). At a cellular level, tight junction proteins (TJPs) between neighboring endothelial cells maintain the integrity of the BBB via TJ associated proteins particularly, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) that binds to the transmembrane TJPs and actin cytoskeleton intracellularly. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as well as the proteolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are key mediators of trauma-associated brain edema. Recent studies indicate that melatonin a pineal hormone directly binds to MMP-9 and also might act as its endogenous inhibitor. We hypothesized that melatonin treatment will provide protection against TBI-induced BBB hyperpermeability via MMP-9 inhibition. Rat brain microvascular endothelial cells grown as monolayers were used as an in vitro model of the BBB and a mouse model of TBI using a controlled cortical impactor was used for all in vivo studies. IL-1β (10 ng/mL; 2 hours)-induced endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability was significantly attenuated by melatonin (10 μg/mL; 1 hour), GM6001 (broad spectrum MMP inhibitor; 10 μM; 1 hour), MMP-9 inhibitor-1 (MMP-9 specific inhibitor; 5 nM; 1 hour) or MMP-9 siRNA transfection (48 hours) in vitro. Melatonin and MMP-9 inhibitor-1 pretreatment attenuated IL-1β-induced MMP-9 activity, loss of ZO-1 junctional integrity and f-actin stress fiber formation. IL-1β treatment neither affected ZO-1 protein or mRNA expression or cell viability. Acute melatonin treatment attenuated BBB hyperpermeability in a mouse controlled cortical impact model of TBI in vivo. In conclusion, one of the protective effects of melatonin against BBB hyperpermeability occurs due to enhanced BBB integrity via MMP-9 inhibition. In addition, acute melatonin treatment provides protection against BBB

  4. Integrating advanced visualization technology into the planetary Geoscience workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, John; Forsberg, Andrew; Loomis, Andrew; Head, James; Dickson, James; Fassett, Caleb

    2011-09-01

    Recent advances in computer visualization have allowed us to develop new tools for analyzing the data gathered during planetary missions, which is important, since these data sets have grown exponentially in recent years to tens of terabytes in size. As part of the Advanced Visualization in Solar System Exploration and Research (ADVISER) project, we utilize several advanced visualization techniques created specifically with planetary image data in mind. The Geoviewer application allows real-time active stereo display of images, which in aggregate have billions of pixels. The ADVISER desktop application platform allows fast three-dimensional visualization of planetary images overlain on digital terrain models. Both applications include tools for easy data ingest and real-time analysis in a programmatic manner. Incorporation of these tools into our everyday scientific workflow has proved important for scientific analysis, discussion, and publication, and enabled effective and exciting educational activities for students from high school through graduate school.

  5. Tomorrow`s energy today for cities and counties -- Alternative wastewater treatment: Advanced Integrated Pond systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a discussion of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the Advanced Integrated Pond System as an alternative for other more costly municipal waste water treatment plants.

  6. Advanced integrated safeguards using front-end-triggering devices

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Whitty, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    This report addresses potential uses of front-end-triggering devices for enhanced safeguards. Such systems incorporate video surveillance as well as radiation and other sensors. Also covered in the report are integration issues and analysis techniques.

  7. Zirconia-magnesia inert matrix fuel and waste form: Synthesis, characterization and chemical performance in an advanced fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, Kiel Steven

    There is a significant buildup in plutonium stockpiles throughout the world, because of spent nuclear fuel and the dismantling of weapons. The radiotoxicity of this material and proliferation risk has led to a desire for destroying excess plutonium. To do this effectively, it must be fissioned in a reactor as part of a uranium free fuel to eliminate the generation of more plutonium. This requires an inert matrix to volumetrically dilute the fissile plutonium. Zirconia-magnesia dual phase ceramic has been demonstrated to be a favorable material for this task. It is neutron transparent, zirconia is chemically robust, magnesia has good thermal conductivity and the ceramic has been calculated to conform to current economic and safety standards. This dissertation contributes to the knowledge of zirconia-magnesia as an inert matrix fuel to establish behavior of the material containing a fissile component. First, the zirconia-magnesia inert matrix is synthesized in a dual phase ceramic containing a fissile component and a burnable poison. The chemical constitution of the ceramic is then determined. Next, the material performance is assessed under conditions relevant to an advanced fuel cycle. Reactor conditions were assessed with high temperature, high pressure water. Various acid solutions were used in an effort to dissolve the material for reprocessing. The ceramic was also tested as a waste form under environmental conditions, should it go directly to a repository as a spent fuel. The applicability of zirconia-magnesia as an inert matrix fuel and waste form was tested and found to be a promising material for such applications.

  8. Psychiatric Advance Directives and Social Workers: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Scheyett, Anna; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are legal documents that allow individuals to express their wishes for future psychiatric care and to authorize a legally appointed proxy to make decisions on their behalf during incapacitating crises. PADs are viewed as an alternative to the coercive interventions that sometimes accompany mental health crises…

  9. Recent advances in integrated multidisciplinary optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Walsh, Joanne L.; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.

    1992-01-01

    A joint activity involving NASA and Army researchers at NASA LaRC to develop optimization procedures to improve the rotor blade design process by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for all of the important interactions among the disciplines is described. The disciplines involved include rotor aerodynamics, rotor dynamics, rotor structures, airframe dynamics, and acoustics. The work is focused on combining these five key disciplines in an optimization procedure capable of designing a rotor system to satisfy multidisciplinary design requirements. Fundamental to the plan is a three-phased approach. In phase 1, the disciplines of blade dynamics, blade aerodynamics, and blade structure are closely coupled while acoustics and airframe dynamics are decoupled and are accounted for as effective constraints on the design for the first three disciplines. In phase 2, acoustics is integrated with the first three disciplines. Finally, in phase 3, airframe dynamics is integrated with the other four disciplines. Representative results from work performed to date are described. These include optimal placement of tuning masses for reduction of blade vibratory shear forces, integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization, and integrated aerodynamic/dynamic/structural optimization. Examples of validating procedures are described.

  10. Durability and CMAS Resistance of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures with improved efficiency, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. This paper will emphasize advanced environmental barrier coating developments for SiCSiC turbine airfoil components, by using advanced coating compositions and processing, in conjunction with mechanical and environment testing and durability validations. The coating-CMC degradations and durability in the laboratory simulated engine fatigue-creep and complex operating environments are being addressed. The effects of Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) from road sand or volcano-ash deposits on the degradation mechanisms of the environmental barrier coating systems will be discussed. The results help understand the advanced EBC-CMC system performance, aiming at the durability improvements of more robust, prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings for successful applications of the component technologies and lifing methodologies.

  11. Systems integration and demonstration of advanced reusable structure for ALS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbins, Martin N.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the potential of advanced material to achieve life cycle cost (LCC) benefits for reusable structure on the advanced launch system. Three structural elements were investigated - all components of an Advanced Launch System reusable propulsion/avionics module. Leading aeroshell configurations included sandwich structure using titanium, graphite/polyimide (Gr/PI), or high-temperature aluminum (HTA) face sheets. Thrust structure truss concepts used titanium, graphite/epoxy, or silicon carbide/aluminum struts. Leading aft bulkhead concepts employed graphite epoxy and aluminum. The technical effort focused on the aeroshell because the greatest benefits were expected there. Thermal analyses show the structural temperature profiles during operation. Finite element analyses show stresses during splash-down. Weight statements and manufacturing cost estimates were prepared for calculation of LCC for each design. The Gr/PI aeroshell showed the lowest potential LCC, but the HTA aeroshell was judged to be lower risk. A technology development plan was prepared to validate the applicable structural technology.

  12. An introduction to NASA's advanced computing program: Integrated computing systems in advanced multichip modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Alkalai, Leon

    1996-01-01

    Recent changes within NASA's space exploration program favor the design, implementation, and operation of low cost, lightweight, small and micro spacecraft with multiple launches per year. In order to meet the future needs of these missions with regard to the use of spacecraft microelectronics, NASA's advanced flight computing (AFC) program is currently considering industrial cooperation and advanced packaging architectures. In relation to this, the AFC program is reviewed, considering the design and implementation of NASA's AFC multichip module.

  13. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  14. Integrated Droplet-Based Microextraction with ESI-MS for Removal of Matrix Interference in Single-Cell Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Chao; Wei, Zhen-Wei; Gong, Xiao-Yun; Si, Xing-Yu; Zhao, Yao-Yao; Yang, Cheng-Dui; Zhang, Si-Chun; Zhang, Xin-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Integrating droplet-based microfluidics with mass spectrometry is essential to high-throughput and multiple analysis of single cells. Nevertheless, matrix effects such as the interference of culture medium and intracellular components influence the sensitivity and the accuracy of results in single-cell analysis. To resolve this problem, we developed a method that integrated droplet-based microextraction with single-cell mass spectrometry. Specific extraction solvent was used to selectively obtain intracellular components of interest and remove interference of other components. Using this method, UDP-Glc-NAc, GSH, GSSG, AMP, ADP and ATP were successfully detected in single MCF-7 cells. We also applied the method to study the change of unicellular metabolites in the biological process of dysfunctional oxidative phosphorylation. The method could not only realize matrix-free, selective and sensitive detection of metabolites in single cells, but also have the capability for reliable and high-throughput single-cell analysis. PMID:27126222

  15. Process Integration Study [Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Applications and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, A.

    1992-06-01

    This work was carried out in two phases: Phase 1; identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2; evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses were undertaken, including the evaluation of a heat pump installed as a recommendation of Phase 1.

  16. Complex integration of matrix, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in genetic emphysema.

    PubMed

    Podowski, Megan; Calvi, Carla L; Cheadle, Christopher; Tuder, Rubin M; Biswals, Shyam; Neptune, Enid R

    2009-07-01

    Alveolar enlargement, which is characteristic of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital matrix disorders, and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema, is thought to result from enhanced inflammation and ensuing excessive matrix proteolysis. Although there is recent evidence that cell death and oxidative stress punctuate these diseases, the mechanistic link between abnormal lung extracellular matrix and alveolar enlargement is lacking. We hypothesized that the tight-skin (TSK) mouse, which harbors a spontaneous internal duplication in the microfibrillar glycoprotein fibrillin-1, might show whether matrix alterations are sufficient to promote oxidative stress and cell death, injury cascades central to the development of clinical emphysema. We observed no evidence of increased metalloprotease activation by histochemical and zymographic methods. We did find initial oxidative stress followed by increased apoptosis in the postnatal TSK lung. Both blunted antioxidant production and reduced extracellular superoxide dismutase activity were evident in the neonatal lung. High-dose antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine improved airspace caliber and attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis in neonatal and adult TSK mice. These data establish that an abnormal extracellular matrix without overt elastolysis is sufficient to confer susceptibility to postnatal normoxia, reminiscent of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The resultant oxidative stress and apoptosis culminate in profound airspace enlargement. The TSK lung exemplifies the critical interplay between extracellular matrix, oxidative stress, and cell-death cascades that may contribute to genetic and acquired airspace enlargement.

  17. Impact of cross-linker on alginate matrix integrity and drug release.

    PubMed

    Ching, A L; Liew, C V; Heng, P W S; Chan, L W

    2008-05-01

    Sodium alginate, a biopolymer, was employed in the formulation of matrix tablets. They cracked or laminated at acidic pH, compromising their dissolution performance. Improved mechanical strength and reduced barrier permeability of calcium alginate gel provided the rationale for cross-linking the alginate matrix to sustain drug release. Studies had suggested that the incorporation of soluble calcium salts in alginate matrix tablets could sustain drug release at near-neutral pH due to in situ cross-linking. However, results from the present study showed otherwise when gastrointestinal pH conditions were simulated. Significant reduction in drug release rate was only observed when an external calcium source was utilized at low concentration. High calcium ion concentrations caused matrix disintegration. In contrast, matrices pre-coated by calcium alginate could sustain drug release at pH 1.2 followed by pH 6.8 for over 12h. The presence of cross-linked barrier impeded matrix lamination and preserved matrix structure, contributing to at least three-fold reduction in drug release at pH 1.2. Zero order release as well as delayed burst release could be achieved by employing appropriate grade of alginate and cross-linking conditions. PMID:18272307

  18. Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerna, T; Gibbons, S J; Ringdal, F; Harris, D B

    2007-02-09

    The principal objective of this two-year study is to develop and test a new advanced, automatic approach to seismic detection/location using array processing. We address a strategy to obtain significantly improved precision in the location of low-magnitude events compared with current fully-automatic approaches, combined with a low false alarm rate. We have developed and evaluated a prototype automatic system which uses as a basis regional array processing with fixed, carefully calibrated, site-specific parameters in conjuction with improved automatic phase onset time estimation. We have in parallel developed tools for Matched Field Processing for optimized detection and source-region identification of seismic signals. This narrow-band procedure aims to mitigate some of the causes of difficulty encountered using the standard array processing system, specifically complicated source-time histories of seismic events and shortcomings in the plane-wave approximation for seismic phase arrivals at regional arrays.

  19. Advancement of Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Emiley, Mark S.; Agte, Jeremy S.; Sandusky, Robert R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) is a method for optimization of an engineering system, e.g., an aerospace vehicle. BLISS consists of optimizations at the subsystem (module) and system levels to divide the overall large optimization task into sets of smaller ones that can be executed concurrently. In the initial version of BLISS that was introduced and documented in previous publications, analysis in the modules was kept at the early conceptual design level. This paper reports on the next step in the BLISS development in which the fidelity of the aerodynamic drag and structural stress and displacement analyses were upgraded while the method's satisfactory convergence rate was retained.

  20. Advanced ceramic matrix composite materials for current and future propulsion technology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S.; Beyer, S.; Knabe, H.; Immich, H.; Meistring, R.; Gessler, A.

    2004-08-01

    Current rocket engines, due to their method of construction, the materials used and the extreme loads to which they are subjected, feature a limited number of load cycles. Various technology programmes in Europe are concerned, besides developing reliable and rugged, low cost, throwaway equipment, with preparing for future reusable propulsion technologies. One of the key roles for realizing reusable engine components is the use of modern and innovative materials. One of the key technologies which concern various engine manufacturers worldwide is the development of fibre-reinforced ceramics—ceramic matrix composites. The advantages for the developers are obvious—the low specific weight, the high specific strength over a large temperature range, and their great damage tolerance compared to monolithic ceramics make this material class extremely interesting as a construction material. Over the past years, the Astrium company (formerly DASA) has, together with various partners, worked intensively on developing components for hypersonic engines and liquid rocket propulsion systems. In the year 2000, various hot-firing tests with subscale (scale 1:5) and full-scale nozzle extensions were conducted. In this year, a further decisive milestone was achieved in the sector of small thrusters, and long-term tests served to demonstrate the extraordinary stability of the C/SiC material. Besides developing and testing radiation-cooled nozzle components and small-thruster combustion chambers, Astrium worked on the preliminary development of actively cooled structures for future reusable propulsion systems. In order to get one step nearer to this objective, the development of a new fibre composite was commenced within the framework of a regionally sponsored programme. The objective here is to create multidirectional (3D) textile structures combined with a cost-effective infiltration process. Besides material and process development, the project also encompasses the development of

  1. Ceramic Integration Technologies for Advanced Energy Systems: Critical Needs, Technical Challenges, and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2010-01-01

    Advanced ceramic integration technologies dramatically impact the energy landscape due to wide scale application of ceramics in all aspects of alternative energy production, storage, distribution, conservation, and efficiency. Examples include fuel cells, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, gas turbine propulsion systems, distribution and transmission systems based on superconductors, nuclear power generation and waste disposal. Ceramic integration technologies play a key role in fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts with multifunctional properties. However, the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance requires the understanding of many thermochemical and thermomechanical factors, particularly for high temperature applications. In this presentation, various needs, challenges, and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic metal) material www.nasa.gov 45 ceramic-ceramic-systems have been discussed. Experimental results for bonding and integration of SiC based Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) LDI fuel injector and advanced ceramics and composites for gas turbine applications are presented.

  2. Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) Fiscal Year 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    David Dennison; Pamela W. Massey; Timothy O. Nelson

    1998-10-01

    President Clinton issued Nonprolferation and Export Control Policy in September 1993 in response to the growing threat of nuclear proliferation. Four months later, in January 1994, President Clinton and Russia's President Yeltsin issued a Joint Statement Between the United States and Russia on Nonprollfieration of Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Means of Their Delivery. President Clinton announced on 1 March 1995, that approximately 200 metric tons of US- origin weapons-usable fissile materials had been declared surplus to US defense needs. The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) Demonstration Project is one part of the scientific response to President Clinton's promise to reduce the nuclear weapons stockpile. The work accomplished on the ARIES Demonstration Project during fiscal year 1996, 10ctober 1995 through 30 September 1996, is described in this report. The Department of Energy (DOE), by forming the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD), has initiated a Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The first step is the disassembly and conversion of weapons pits. Of the 200 metric tons of US surplus fissile material, approximately 50 tons are weapons plutonium, and of these 50 tons, 2/3 is contained in pits. Weapons plutonium wili be extracted from pits, rendered to an unclassified form, and converted to oxide. The plutonium oxide will then be dispositioned either by immobilization in a ceramic matrix or blended with uranium oxide, fabricated into ceramic pellets of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and "burned" in a commercial light water reactor. The purpose of ARIES is to demonstrate two major activities: (1) dismantlement of nuclear weapons, and (2) conversion of weapons-grade plutonium into a form required for long-term storage or in preparation for the disposition (immobilization m MOX fuel) that allows for international inspection and verification, and in accordance with safeguards regimes. Plutonium does not have to be declassified

  3. Advancing the integration of history and ecology for conservation.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Péter; Hédl, Radim

    2011-08-01

    The important role of humans in the development of current ecosystems was recognized decades ago; however, the integration of history and ecology in order to inform conservation has been difficult. We identified four issues that hinder historical ecological research and considered possible solutions. First, differences in concepts and methods between the fields of ecology and history are thought to be large. However, most differences stem from miscommunication between ecologists and historians and are less substantial than is usually assumed. Cooperation can be achieved by focusing on the features ecology and history have in common and through understanding and acceptance of differing points of view. Second, historical ecological research is often hampered by differences in spatial and temporal scales between ecology and history. We argue that historical ecological research can only be conducted at extents for which sources in both disciplines have comparable resolutions. Researchers must begin by clearly defining the relevant scales for the given purpose. Third, periods for which quantitative historical sources are not easily accessible (before AD 1800) have been neglected in historical ecological research. Because data from periods before 1800 are as relevant to the current state of ecosystems as more recent data, we suggest that historical ecologists actively seek out data from before 1800 and apply analytic methods commonly used in ecology to these data. Fourth, humans are not usually considered an intrinsic ecological factor in current ecological research. In our view, human societies should be acknowledged as integral parts of ecosystems and societal processes should be recognized as driving forces of ecosystem change.

  4. Identification of transformation products during advanced oxidation of diatrizoate: Effect of water matrix and oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Azerrad, Sara P; Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Gilboa, Maayan; Schulz, Manoj; Ternes, Thomas; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2016-10-15

    Removal of micropollutants from reverse osmosis (RO) brines of wastewater desalination by oxidation processes is influenced by the scavenging capacity of brines components, resulting in the accumulation of transformation products (TPs) rather than complete mineralization. In this work the iodinated contrast media diatrizoate (DTZ) was used as model compound due to its relative resistance to oxidation. Identification of TPs was performed in ultrapure water (UPW) and RO brines applying nonthermal plasma (NTP) and UVA-TiO2 as oxidation techniques. The influence of main RO brines components in the formation and accumulation of TPs, such as chloride, bicarbonate alkalinity and humic acid, was also studied during UVA-TiO2. DTZ oxidation pattern in UPW resulted similar in both UVA-TiO2 and NTP achieving 66 and 61% transformation, respectively. However, DTZ transformation in RO brines was markedly lower in UVA-TiO2 (9%) than in NTP (27%). These differences can be attributed to the synergic effect of RO brines components during NTP. Moreover, reactive species other than hydroxyl radical contributed to DTZ transformation, i.e., direct photolysis in UVA-TiO2 and direct photolysis + O3 in NTP accounted for 16 and 23%, respectively. DTZ transformation led to iodide formation in both oxidation techniques but it further oxidized to iodate by ozone in NTP. In total 14 transformation products were identified in UPW of which 3 were present only in UVA-TiO2 and 2 were present exclusively in NTP; 5 of the 14 TPs were absent in RO brines. Five of them were new and were denoted as TP-474A/B, TP-522, TP-586, TP-602, TP-628. TP-522 (mono-chlorinated) was elucidated only in presence of high chloride titer-synthetic water matrix in NTP, most probably formed by active chlorine species generated in situ. TPs accumulation in RO brines was markedly different in comparison to UPW. This denotes the influence of RO brines components in the formation of reactive species that could further attack

  5. Identification of transformation products during advanced oxidation of diatrizoate: Effect of water matrix and oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Azerrad, Sara P; Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Gilboa, Maayan; Schulz, Manoj; Ternes, Thomas; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2016-10-15

    Removal of micropollutants from reverse osmosis (RO) brines of wastewater desalination by oxidation processes is influenced by the scavenging capacity of brines components, resulting in the accumulation of transformation products (TPs) rather than complete mineralization. In this work the iodinated contrast media diatrizoate (DTZ) was used as model compound due to its relative resistance to oxidation. Identification of TPs was performed in ultrapure water (UPW) and RO brines applying nonthermal plasma (NTP) and UVA-TiO2 as oxidation techniques. The influence of main RO brines components in the formation and accumulation of TPs, such as chloride, bicarbonate alkalinity and humic acid, was also studied during UVA-TiO2. DTZ oxidation pattern in UPW resulted similar in both UVA-TiO2 and NTP achieving 66 and 61% transformation, respectively. However, DTZ transformation in RO brines was markedly lower in UVA-TiO2 (9%) than in NTP (27%). These differences can be attributed to the synergic effect of RO brines components during NTP. Moreover, reactive species other than hydroxyl radical contributed to DTZ transformation, i.e., direct photolysis in UVA-TiO2 and direct photolysis + O3 in NTP accounted for 16 and 23%, respectively. DTZ transformation led to iodide formation in both oxidation techniques but it further oxidized to iodate by ozone in NTP. In total 14 transformation products were identified in UPW of which 3 were present only in UVA-TiO2 and 2 were present exclusively in NTP; 5 of the 14 TPs were absent in RO brines. Five of them were new and were denoted as TP-474A/B, TP-522, TP-586, TP-602, TP-628. TP-522 (mono-chlorinated) was elucidated only in presence of high chloride titer-synthetic water matrix in NTP, most probably formed by active chlorine species generated in situ. TPs accumulation in RO brines was markedly different in comparison to UPW. This denotes the influence of RO brines components in the formation of reactive species that could further attack

  6. Psychiatric Advance Directives and Social Workers: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Scheyett, Anna; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric Advance Directives (PADs) are legal documents that allow individuals to express their wishes for future psychiatric care and to authorize a legally appointed proxy to make decisions on their behalf during incapacitating crises. PADs are viewed as an alternative to the coercive interventions that sometimes accompany mental health crises for persons with mental illness. Insofar as coercive interventions can abridge clients’ autonomy and self-determination -- values supported by the Profession’s Code of Ethics -- social workers have a vested interest in finding ways to reduce coercion and increase autonomy and self-determination in their practice. However, PADs are also viewed as having the potential to positively affect a variety of other clinical outcomes, including but not limited to treatment engagement, treatment satisfaction, and working alliance. This article reviews the clinical and legal history of PADs and empirical evidence for their implementation and effectiveness. Despite what should be an inherent interest in PADs, and the fact that laws authorizing PADs have proliferated in the past decade, there is little theoretical or empirical research in the social work literature. PMID:20408357

  7. Advancing Partnerships Towards an Integrated Approach to Oil Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.; Stough, T.; Gallegos, S. C.; Leifer, I.; Murray, J. J.; Streett, D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills can cause enormous ecological and economic devastation, necessitating application of the best science and technology available, and remote sensing is playing a growing critical role in the detection and monitoring of oil spills, as well as facilitating validation of remote sensing oil spill products. The FOSTERRS (Federal Oil Science Team for Emergency Response Remote Sensing) interagency working group seeks to ensure that during an oil spill, remote sensing assets (satellite/aircraft/instruments) and analysis techniques are quickly, effectively, appropriately, and seamlessly available to oil spills responders. Yet significant challenges remain for addressing oils spanning a vast range of chemical properties that may be spilled from the Tropics to the Arctic, with algorithms and scientific understanding needing advances to keep up with technology. Thus, FOSTERRS promotes enabling scientific discovery to ensure robust utilization of available technology as well as identifying technologies moving up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level). A recent FOSTERRS facilitated support activity involved deployment of the AVIRIS NG (Airborne Visual Infrared Imaging Spectrometer- Next Generation) during the Santa Barbara Oil Spill to validate the potential of airborne hyperspectral imaging to real-time map beach tar coverage including surface validation data. Many developing airborne technologies have potential to transition to space-based platforms providing global readiness.

  8. The Green's matrix and the boundary integral equations for analysis of time-harmonic dynamics of elastic helical springs.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Sergey V

    2011-03-01

    Helical springs serve as vibration isolators in virtually any suspension system. Various exact and approximate methods may be employed to determine the eigenfrequencies of vibrations of these structural elements and their dynamic transfer functions. The method of boundary integral equations is a meaningful alternative to obtain exact solutions of problems of the time-harmonic dynamics of elastic springs in the framework of Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. In this paper, the derivations of the Green's matrix, of the Somigliana's identities, and of the boundary integral equations are presented. The vibrational power transmission in an infinitely long spring is analyzed by means of the Green's matrix. The eigenfrequencies and the dynamic transfer functions are found by solving the boundary integral equations. In the course of analysis, the essential features and advantages of the method of boundary integral equations are highlighted. The reported analytical results may be used to study the time-harmonic motion in any wave guide governed by a system of linear differential equations in a single spatial coordinate along its axis.

  9. Advanced Power Electronics for LED Drivers: Advanced Technologies for integrated Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: MIT is teaming with Georgia Institute of Technology, Dartmouth College, and the University of Pennsylvania (UPenn) to create more efficient power circuits for energy-efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) through advances in 3 related areas. First, the team is using semiconductors made of high-performing gallium nitride grown on a low-cost silicon base (GaN-on-Si). These GaN-on-Si semiconductors conduct electricity more efficiently than traditional silicon semiconductors. Second, the team is developing new magnetic materials and structures to reduce the size and increase the efficiency of an important LED power component, the inductor. This advancement is important because magnetics are the largest and most expensive part of a circuit. Finally, the team is creating an entirely new circuit design to optimize the performance of the new semiconductors and magnetic devices it is using.

  10. Time dependent integration of matrix metalloproteinases and their targeted substrates directs axonal sprouting and synaptogenesis following central nervous system injury

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Linda L.; Chan, Julie L.; Doperalski, Adele E.; Reeves, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, many investigators have reported how extracellular matrix molecules act to regulate neuroplasticity. The majority of these studies involve proteins which are targets of matrix metalloproteinases. Importantly, these enzyme/substrate interactions can regulate degenerative and regenerative phases of synaptic plasticity, directing axonal and dendritic reorganization after brain insult. The present review first summarizes literature support for the prominent role of matrix metalloproteinases during neuroregeneration, followed by a discussion of data contrasting adaptive and maladaptive neuroplasticity that reveals time-dependent metalloproteinase/substrate regulation of postinjury synaptic recovery. The potential for these enzymes to serve as therapeutic targets for enhanced neuroplasticity after brain injury is illustrated with experiments demonstrating that metalloproteinase inhibitors can alter adaptive and maladaptive outcome. Finally, the complexity of metalloproteinase role in reactive synaptogenesis is revealed in new studies showing how these enzymes interact with immune molecules to mediate cellular response in the local regenerative environment, and are regulated by novel binding partners in the brain extracellular matrix. Together, these different examples show the complexity with which metalloproteinases are integrated into the process of neuroregeneration, and point to a promising new angle for future studies exploring how to facilitate brain plasticity. PMID:25206824

  11. Scattering of electromagnetic radiation based on numerical calculation of the T-matrix through its integral representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricoli, Ugo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2014-08-01

    A novel numerical technique is presented to calculate the T-matrix for a single particle through the use of the volume integral equation for electromagnetic scattering. It is based on the method called Coupled Dipole Approximation (CDA), see O. J. F. Martin et al.1. The basic procedure includes the parallel use of the Lippmann-Schwinger and the Dyson equations to iteratively solve for the T-matrix and the Green's function dyadic respectively. The boundary conditions of the particle are thus automatically satisfied. The method can be used for the evaluation of the optical properties (e.g. Müller matrix) of anisotropic, inhomogeneous and asymmetric particles, both in far and near field, giving as output the T-matrix, which depends only on the scatterer itself and is independent from the polarization and direction of the incoming field. Estimation of the accuracy of the method is provided through comparison with the analytical spherical case (Mie theory) as well as non-spherical cubic ice particles.

  12. Integrative Chemistry: Advanced functional cellular materials bearing multiscale porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depardieu, M.; Kinadjian, N.; Backov, R.

    2015-07-01

    With this mini review we show through the sol-gel and emulsion-based Integrative Chemistry how it is possible to trigger materials dimensionality and beyond their functionalities when reaching enhanced applications. In here we focus on 3D macrocellular monolithic foams bearing hierarchical porosities and applications thereof. We first depict the general background of emulsions focusing on concentrated ones, acting as soft templates for the design of PolyHIPE foams, HIPE being the acronym of High Internal Phase Emulsions while encompassing both sol-gel and polymer chemistry. Secondly we extend this approach toward the design of hybrid organic-inorganic foams, labeled Organo-Si(HIPE), where photonics and heterogeneous catalysis applications are addressed. In a third section we show how inorganic Si(HIPE) matrices can be employed as sacrificial hard templates for the generation carbonaceous foams, labeled Carbon(HIPE). These foams being conductive we show applications when employed as electrodes for Li-S battery and as hosts for Li(BH4)-based hydrogen storage.

  13. Advanced helmet vision system (AHVS) integrated night vision helmet mounted display (HMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcraft, Todd W.; Atac, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Gentex Corporation, under contract to Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 4.0T), designed the Advanced Helmet Vision System to provide aircrew with 24-hour, visor-projected binocular night vision and HMD capability. AHVS integrates numerous key technologies, including high brightness Light Emitting Diode (LED)-based digital light engines, advanced lightweight optical materials and manufacturing processes, and innovations in graphics processing software. This paper reviews the current status of miniaturization and integration with the latest two-part Gentex modular helmet, highlights the lessons learned from previous AHVS phases, and discusses plans for qualification and flight testing.

  14. The Integration of Interests, Aptitudes, and Personality Traits: A Test of Lowman's Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Andrew D.

    1998-01-01

    Data from 270 men and 277 women on the Ball Aptitude Battery and personality questionnaires were used to test Lowman's matrix of expected characteristics across Holland's six vocational types. Over half of Lowman's predictions were confirmed. General cognitive ability may have affected other results. (SK)

  15. AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

    2003-02-27

    WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment

  16. Advancing human health risk assessment: integrating recent advisory committee recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael; Becker, Richard A; Haber, Lynne T; Pottenger, Lynn H; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A

    2013-07-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose-response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose-response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  17. Advancing human health risk assessment: Integrating recent advisory committee recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Richard A.; Haber, Lynne T.; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose–response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose–response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  18. Combined dynamic stiffness matrix and precise time integration method for transient forced vibration response analysis of beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin

    2008-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the transient response of a beam. The beam is divided into several continuous Timoshenko beam elements. The overall dynamic stiffness matrix is assembled in turn. Using Leung's equation, we derive the overall mass and stiffness matrices which are more suitable for response analysis than the overall dynamic stiffness matrix. The forced vibration of the beam is computed by the precise time integration method. Three illustrative beams are discussed to evaluate the performance of the current method. Solutions calculated by the finite element method and theoretical analysis are also enumerated for comparison. In these examples, we have found that the current method can solve the forced vibration of structures with a higher precision.

  19. Biomimetics of the Extracellular Matrix: An Integrated Three-Dimensional Fiber-Hydrogel Composite for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Jeannine; Gibson, Matt; Bandalini, Pierre Alain; Laird, Christopher; Mao, Hai-Quan; Moroni, Lorenzo; Seliktar, Dror

    2012-01-01

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of an integrated fibrous protein network and proteoglycan-based ground (hydrogel) substance. We designed a novel electrospinning technique to engineer a three dimensional fiber-hydrogel composite that mimics the native ECM structure, is injectable, and has practical macroscale dimensions for clinically relevant tissue defects. In a model system of articular cartilage tissue engineering, the fiber-hydrogel composites enhanced the biological response of adult stem cells, with dynamic mechanical stimulation resulting in near native levels of extracellular matrix. This technology platform was expanded through structural and biochemical modification of the fibers including hydrophilic fibers containing chondroitin sulfate, a significant component of endogenous tissues, and hydrophobic fibers containing ECM microparticles. PMID:22287978

  20. NASA's Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Understanding Calcium Magnesium Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) Degradations and Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures with improved efficiency, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. The development of prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings is essential to the viability and reliability of the envisioned CMC engine component applications, ensuring integrated EBC-CMC system durability and designs are achievable for successful applications of the game-changing component technologies and lifing methodologies.This paper will emphasize recent NASA environmental barrier coating developments for SiCSiC turbine airfoil components, utilizing advanced coating compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and combined mechanical and environment testing and durability evaluations. The coating-CMC degradations in the engine fatigue-creep and operating environments are particularly complex; one of the important coating development aspects is to better understand engine environmental interactions and coating life debits, and we have particularly addressed the effect of Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) from road sand or volcano-ash deposits on the durability of the environmental barrier coating systems, and how the temperature capability, stability and cyclic life of the candidate rare earth oxide and silicate coating systems will be impacted in the presence of the CMAS at high temperatures and under simulated heat flux conditions. Advanced environmental barrier coating systems, including HfO2-Si with rare earth dopant based bond coat systems, will be discussed for the performance improvements to achieve better temperature capability and CMAS resistance for future engine operating conditions.

  1. Using the Student Research Project to Integrate Macroeconomics and Statistics in an Advanced Cost Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Mahamood M.; Schwartz, Bill N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a student research project that is part of an advanced cost accounting class. The project emphasizes active learning, integrates cost accounting with macroeconomics and statistics by "learning by doing" using real world data. Students analyze sales data for a publicly listed company by focusing on the company's…

  2. Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training: Systems Integration. Final Report (February 1972-March 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, D. F.; Terry, C.

    The Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) was designed to investigate the role of simulation in the future Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) program. The problem addressed in this report was one of integrating two unlike components into one synchronized system. These two components were the Basic T-37 Simulators and their…

  3. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science…

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Inclusions and Precipitation Hardening in Metal Matrix Composites: Application to Advanced High-Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Askari, Hesam A.; Zbib, Hussein M.; Sun, Xin

    2013-06-30

    In this study, the strengthening effect of inclusions and precipitates in metals is investigated within a multiscale approach that utilizes models at various length scales, namely, Molecular Mechanics (MM), discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD), and an Eigenstrain Inclusion Method (EIM). Particularly, precipitates are modeled as hardsoft particles whose stress fields interact with dislocations. The stress field resulting from the elastic mismatch between the particles and the matrix is accounted for through the EIM. While the MM method is employed for the purpose of developing rules for DD for short range interaction between a single dislocation and an inclusion, the DD method is used to predict the strength of the composite resulting from the interaction between ensembles of dislocations and particles. As an application to this method, the mechanical behavior of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) is investigated and the results are then compared to the experimental data. The results show that the finely dispersive precipitates can strengthen the material by pinning the dislocations up to a certain shear stress and retarding the recovery, as well as annihilation of dislocations. The DD results show that strengthening due to nano sized particles is a function of the density and size of the precipitates. This size effect is then explained using a mechanistic model developed based on dislocation-particle interaction.

  5. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : FY10 development and integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Sassani, David Carl; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. Waste IPSC activities in fiscal year 2010 focused on specifying a challenge problem to demonstrate proof of concept, developing a verification and validation plan, and performing an initial gap analyses to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. This year-end progress report documents the FY10 status of acquisition, development, and integration of thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) code capabilities, frameworks, and enabling tools and infrastructure.

  6. Mini Review of Integrated Care and Implications for Advanced Practice Nurse Role

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Diana; Startsman, Laura F.; Perraud, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Literature related to primary care and behavioral health integration initiatives is becoming abundant. The United States’ 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act included provisions encouraging increased collaboration of care for individuals with behavioral and physical health service needs in the public sector. There is relatively little known of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses’ (APRNs) roles with integrating primary and behavioral healthcare. The goal of this review article is to: (a) define integration of physical and behavioral healthcare and potential models; (b) answer the question as to what are effective evidence based models/strategies for integrating behavioral health and primary care; (c) explore the future role and innovations of APRNs in the integration of physical and behavioral healthcare. Results: The evidence- based literature is limited to three systematic reviews and six randomized controlled trials. It was difficult to generalize the data and the effective integration strategies varied from such interventions as care management to use of sertraline to depression management and to access. There were, though, implications for the integrated care advanced practice nurse to have roles inclusive of competencies, leadership, engagement, collaboration and advocacy. PMID:27347258

  7. Vertical stratification of matrix production is essential for physical integrity and architecture of macrocolony biofilms of E scherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Diego O.; Klauck, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bacterial macrocolony biofilms grow into intricate three‐dimensional structures that depend on self‐produced extracellular polymers conferring protection, cohesion and elasticity to the biofilm. In E scherichia coli, synthesis of this matrix – consisting of amyloid curli fibres and cellulose – requires CsgD, a transcription factor regulated by the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS, and occurs in the nutrient‐deprived cells of the upper layer of macrocolonies. Is this asymmetric matrix distribution functionally important or is it just a fortuitous by‐product of an unavoidable nutrient gradient? In order to address this question, the RpoS‐dependent csgD promoter was replaced by a vegetative promoter. This re‐wiring of csgD led to CsgD and matrix production in both strata of macrocolonies, with the lower layer transforming into a rigid ‘base plate’ of growing yet curli‐connected cells. As a result, the two strata broke apart followed by desiccation and exfoliation of the top layer. By contrast, matrix‐free cells at the bottom of wild‐type macrocolonies maintain colony contact with the humid agar support by flexibly filling the space that opens up under buckling areas of the macrocolony. Precisely regulated stratification in matrix‐free and matrix‐producing cell layers is thus essential for the physical integrity and architecture of E . coli macrocolony biofilms. PMID:26234179

  8. Fabricating high-resolution offset color-filter black matrix by integrating heterostructured substrate with inkjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guo-Shin; You, Po-Chin; Lin, Kai-Lun; Hong, Chien-Chong; Liou, Tong-Miin

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a self-aligning ink by integrating an inkjet printing technique and heterostructures to fabricate a black matrix with a micrometer-scale tunable thickness. The black matrix is a grid-like structure used in color filters. Traditionally, a black matrix has been fabricated using photolithography techniques, the disadvantages of which are high material consumption, less fabrication flexibility, complex processing procedures, and high chemical pollution. Inkjet printing technology has garnered attention because of its low material costs, high fabrication flexibility, and reduced processing procedures and pollution. In this study, a fabricating process combining an inkjet printing technique with heterostructures to form stripe-arranged and delta-arranged thickness-tunable black matrices has been demonstrated. The deformation and self-aligning process of ink droplet impingement onto gutters are driven by designed heterogeneous surface properties. The minimum track width attained is 10 µm, which is competitive for color filter resolutions for thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays. The developed technology surmounts the bottlenecks of inkjet printing resolution, and saves more than 75% black material than modern photolithography.

  9. Path integral molecular dynamics method based on a pair density matrix approximation: An algorithm for distinguishable and identical particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Shinichi; Okazaki, Susumu

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, the path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) method has been extended to employ an efficient approximation of the path action referred to as the pair density matrix approximation. Configurations of the isomorphic classical systems were dynamically sampled by introducing fictitious momenta as in the PIMD based on the standard primitive approximation. The indistinguishability of the particles was handled by a pseudopotential of particle permutation that is an extension of our previous one [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10 116 (2000)]. As a test of our methodology for Boltzmann statistics, calculations have been performed for liquid helium-4 at 4 K. We found that the PIMD with the pair density matrix approximation dramatically reduced the computational cost to obtain the structural as well as dynamical (using the centroid molecular dynamics approximation) properties at the same level of accuracy as that with the primitive approximation. With respect to the identical particles, we performed the calculation of a bosonic triatomic cluster. Unlike the primitive approximation, the pseudopotential scheme based on the pair density matrix approximation described well the bosonic correlation among the interacting atoms. Convergence with a small number of discretization of the path achieved by this approximation enables us to construct a method of avoiding the problem of the vanishing pseudopotential encountered in the calculations by the primitive approximation.

  10. Recent Advances in Flexible and Stretchable Bio-Electronic Devices Integrated with Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Choi, Suji; Lee, Hyunjae; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Flexible and stretchable electronics and optoelectronics configured in soft, water resistant formats uniquely address seminal challenges in biomedicine. Over the past decade, there has been enormous progress in the materials, designs, and manufacturing processes for flexible/stretchable system subcomponents, including transistors, amplifiers, bio-sensors, actuators, light emitting diodes, photodetector arrays, photovoltaics, energy storage elements, and bare die integrated circuits. Nanomaterials prepared using top-down processing approaches and synthesis-based bottom-up methods have helped resolve the intrinsic mechanical mismatch between rigid/planar devices and soft/curvilinear biological structures, thereby enabling a broad range of non-invasive, minimally invasive, and implantable systems to address challenges in biomedicine. Integration of therapeutic functional nanomaterials with soft bioelectronics demonstrates therapeutics in combination with unconventional diagnostics capabilities. Recent advances in soft materials, devices, and integrated systems are reviewes, with representative examples that highlight the utility of soft bioelectronics for advanced medical diagnostics and therapies.

  11. Recent Advances in Flexible and Stretchable Bio-Electronic Devices Integrated with Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Choi, Suji; Lee, Hyunjae; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Flexible and stretchable electronics and optoelectronics configured in soft, water resistant formats uniquely address seminal challenges in biomedicine. Over the past decade, there has been enormous progress in the materials, designs, and manufacturing processes for flexible/stretchable system subcomponents, including transistors, amplifiers, bio-sensors, actuators, light emitting diodes, photodetector arrays, photovoltaics, energy storage elements, and bare die integrated circuits. Nanomaterials prepared using top-down processing approaches and synthesis-based bottom-up methods have helped resolve the intrinsic mechanical mismatch between rigid/planar devices and soft/curvilinear biological structures, thereby enabling a broad range of non-invasive, minimally invasive, and implantable systems to address challenges in biomedicine. Integration of therapeutic functional nanomaterials with soft bioelectronics demonstrates therapeutics in combination with unconventional diagnostics capabilities. Recent advances in soft materials, devices, and integrated systems are reviewes, with representative examples that highlight the utility of soft bioelectronics for advanced medical diagnostics and therapies. PMID:26779680

  12. Towards the integration of matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry imaging into the current fingermark examination workflow.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Robert; Bleay, Stephen; Wolstenholme, Rosalind; Clench, Malcolm Ronald; Francese, Simona

    2013-10-10

    A wide range of fingermark enhancement techniques (FET) is currently employed to visualise latent fingermarks at crime scenes. However, if smudged, partial, distorted or absent in the National Fingerprint Database, crime scene marks may be not useful for identification purposes. In these circumstances, a technology enabling chemical imaging of both endogenous and exogenous species contained within the fingermark could provide additional and associative investigative information, to profile the suspect's activities prior to the crime. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI) has proven to be such a technique, enabling investigative information to be gathered, for example, on what substances the donor has come in contact with and what they have ingested. Nonetheless, to be employed, MALDI MSI has to be validated and its compatibility with FET tested for integration into the standard fingermark examination workflow. For the first time, a direct comparison has been made between the efficiency of a range of FET and MALDI MSI under different conditions. This information will build towards validation of the technology. Also, for the first time, MALDI MSI has been successfully employed as a sequential step following fingermark enhancement using many of the currently employed FET. Additionally, known enhancers have been "re-visited" by combining them with a MALDI matrix, providing both improved fingermark development and chemical species detection via MALDI MSI. The result reported here are good indication in favour of the integration of MALDI MSI into the current fingermark examination workflow for gathering additional investigative information.

  13. Positive semidefinite tensor factorizations of the two-electron integral matrix for low-scaling ab initio electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hoy, Erik P.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2015-08-14

    Tensor factorization of the 2-electron integral matrix is a well-known technique for reducing the computational scaling of ab initio electronic structure methods toward that of Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The simplest factorization that maintains the positive semidefinite character of the 2-electron integral matrix is the Cholesky factorization. In this paper, we introduce a family of positive semidefinite factorizations that generalize the Cholesky factorization. Using an implementation of the factorization within the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], we study several inorganic molecules, alkane chains, and potential energy curves and find that this generalized factorization retains the accuracy and size extensivity of the Cholesky factorization, even in the presence of multi-reference correlation. The generalized family of positive semidefinite factorizations has potential applications to low-scaling ab initio electronic structure methods that treat electron correlation with a computational cost approaching that of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory.

  14. Positive semidefinite tensor factorizations of the two-electron integral matrix for low-scaling ab initio electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Erik P; Mazziotti, David A

    2015-08-14

    Tensor factorization of the 2-electron integral matrix is a well-known technique for reducing the computational scaling of ab initio electronic structure methods toward that of Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The simplest factorization that maintains the positive semidefinite character of the 2-electron integral matrix is the Cholesky factorization. In this paper, we introduce a family of positive semidefinite factorizations that generalize the Cholesky factorization. Using an implementation of the factorization within the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], we study several inorganic molecules, alkane chains, and potential energy curves and find that this generalized factorization retains the accuracy and size extensivity of the Cholesky factorization, even in the presence of multi-reference correlation. The generalized family of positive semidefinite factorizations has potential applications to low-scaling ab initio electronic structure methods that treat electron correlation with a computational cost approaching that of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory.

  15. Positive semidefinite tensor factorizations of the two-electron integral matrix for low-scaling ab initio electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Erik P; Mazziotti, David A

    2015-08-14

    Tensor factorization of the 2-electron integral matrix is a well-known technique for reducing the computational scaling of ab initio electronic structure methods toward that of Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The simplest factorization that maintains the positive semidefinite character of the 2-electron integral matrix is the Cholesky factorization. In this paper, we introduce a family of positive semidefinite factorizations that generalize the Cholesky factorization. Using an implementation of the factorization within the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], we study several inorganic molecules, alkane chains, and potential energy curves and find that this generalized factorization retains the accuracy and size extensivity of the Cholesky factorization, even in the presence of multi-reference correlation. The generalized family of positive semidefinite factorizations has potential applications to low-scaling ab initio electronic structure methods that treat electron correlation with a computational cost approaching that of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory. PMID:26277123

  16. Biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticle integrated mid-infrared pathogen sensor for food matrixes.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Sandeep P; Mauer, Lisa J; Deb-Roy, Chitrita; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2009-04-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 or anti-Salmonella typhimurium antibodies that can specifically bind to their target organisms were used to isolate E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium separately from a cocktail of bacteria and from food matrixes. The pathogens were then detected using label-free IR fingerprinting. The binding and detection protocol was first validated using a benchtop FT-IR spectrometer and then applied to a portable mid-IR spectrometer to enable this approach as a point-of-detection technology. Highly selective detection was achieved in less than 30 min at both species (E. coli O157:H7 vs S. typhimurium ) and strain (E. coli O157:H7 vs E. coli K12) levels in complex food matrixes (2% milk, spinach extract) with a detection limit of 10(4)-10(5) CFU/mL. The combined approach of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and IR spectroscopy imparts specificity through spectroscopic fingerprinting and selectivity through species-specific antibodies with an in-built sample extraction step and could be applied in the field for on-site food-borne pathogen monitoring.

  17. Coordinating, integrating, and synchronizing disaster response : use of an emergency response synchronization matrix in emergency planning, exercises, and operations.

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, P. L., Jr.; Mitrani, J. E.; Metz, W. C.; Vercellone, J. J.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-11-01

    The Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness (CSEP) Program is a wide-ranging activity in support of a national initiative involving the U.S. Army Chemical Materiel Command (CMA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 9 states, and 37 counties. Established in 1988, the CSEP Program enhances emergency planning for the unlikely event of a release of hazardous chemical weapons agent from one of the Army's chemical weapons storage installations currently storing chemical weapons. These obsolete weapons are scheduled to be destroyed; meanwhile, however, they pose a threat to installation workers and residents of the surrounding communities. Argonne's CSEP Program includes a variety of components that serve the needs of multiple program participants. Among the major activities are: (1) Development of the Emergency Planning Synchronization Matrix to facilitate integration of multi-jurisdictional emergency plans: (a) Coordinating, Integrating, and Synchronizing Disaster Response: Use of an Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix in Emergency Planning, Exercises, and Operations. A graphical depiction of the entire emergency response process via a synchronization matrix is an effective management tool for optimizing the design, exercise, and real-life implementation of emergency plans. This system-based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time. It gives responders the opportunity to make real-time adjustments to maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. An effective response to any natural or technological hazard must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization. An emergency response to an accidental release of chemical warfare agents from one of this nation's eight chemical weapons stockpile sites, like any other disaster response, is complex

  18. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Draxl, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.; Harrold, S.; McCaa, J.; Cline, J.; Clark, C.

    2013-10-01

    Regional wind integration studies in the United States require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high-penetration scenarios. The wind data sets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as be time synchronized with available load profiles. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this paper fulfills these requirements. A wind resource dataset, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model run on a nationwide 2-km grid at 5-min resolution will be made publicly available for more than 110,000 onshore and offshore wind power production sites.

  19. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  20. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Carmack, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  1. Evaluating cell matrix mechanics using an integrated nonlinear optical tweezer-confocal imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Berney; Alonzo, Carlo A. C.; Xia, Lawrence; Speroni, Lucia; Georgakoudi, Irene; Soto, Ana M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Cronin-Golomb, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Biomechanics plays a central role in breast epithelial morphogenesis. In this study we have used 3D cultures in which normal breast epithelial cells are able to organize into rounded acini and tubular ducts, the main structures found in the breast tissue. We have identified fiber organization as a main determinant of ductal organization. While bulk rheological properties of the matrix seem to play a negligible role in determining the proportion of acini versus ducts, local changes may be pivotal in shape determination. As such, the ability to make microscale rheology measurements coupled with simultaneous optical imaging in 3D cultures can be critical to assess the biomechanical factors underlying epithelial morphogenesis. This paper describes the inclusion of optical tweezers based microrheology in a microscope that had been designed for nonlinear optical imaging of collagen networks in ECM. We propose two microrheology methods and show preliminary results using a gelatin hydrogel and collagen/Matrigel 3D cultures containing mammary gland epithelial cells.

  2. Advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI)/F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System final flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowden, Donald J.; Bessette, Denis E.

    1987-01-01

    The AFTI F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System has undergone developmental and demonstration flight testing over a total of 347.3 flying hours in 237 sorties. The emphasis of this phase of the flight test program was on the development of automated guidance and control systems for air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons delivery, using a digital flight control system, dual avionics multiplex buses, an advanced FLIR sensor with laser ranger, integrated flight/fire-control software, advanced cockpit display and controls, and modified core Multinational Stage Improvement Program avionics.

  3. Evaluating Instructor Technology Integration in Community and Technical Colleges: A Performance Evaluation Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Favero, Marietta; Hinson, Janice M.

    2007-01-01

    The press for implementing technology based instructional delivery systems in community and technical colleges is well documented. Yet faculty face numerous challenges in integrating technology into instruction (AL-Bataineh & Brooks, 2003; Groves & Zemel, 2000; Khoury, 1997). Stimulating faculty ownership in technology, diffusion of technology use…

  4. Integrated Mueller-matrix near-infrared imaging and point-wise spectroscopy improves colonic cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    We report the development and implementation of a unique integrated Mueller-matrix (MM) near-infrared (NIR) imaging and Mueller-matrix point-wise diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy technique for improving colonic cancer detection and diagnosis. Point-wise MM DR spectra can be acquired from any suspicious tissue areas indicated by MM imaging. A total of 30 paired colonic tissue specimens (normal vs. cancer) were measured using the integrated MM imaging and point-wise MM DR spectroscopy system. Polar decomposition algorithms are employed on the acquired images and spectra to derive three polarization metrics including depolarization, diattentuation and retardance for colonic tissue characterization. The decomposition results show that tissue depolarization and retardance are significantly decreased (p<0.001, paired 2-sided Student’s t-test, n = 30); while the tissue diattentuation is significantly increased (p<0.001, paired 2-sided Student’s t-test, n = 30) associated with colonic cancer. Further partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and leave-one tissue site-out, cross validation (LOSCV) show that the combination of the three polarization metrics provide the best diagnostic accuracy of 95.0% (sensitivity: 93.3%, and specificity: 96.7%) compared to either of the three polarization metrics (sensitivities of 93.3%, 83.3%, and 80.0%; and specificities of 90.0%, 96.7%, and 80.0%, respectively, for the depolarization, diattentuation and retardance metrics) for colonic cancer detection. This work suggests that the integrated MM NIR imaging and point-wise MM NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has the potential to improve the early detection and diagnosis of malignant lesions in the colon. PMID:27446640

  5. Multiplexing electro-optic architectures for advanced aircraft integrated flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the results of a 10 month program sponsored by NASA. The objective of this program was to evaluate various optical sensor modulation technologies and to design an optimal Electro-Optic Architecture (EOA) for servicing remote clusters of sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft flight control systems. The EOA's supply optical power to remote sensors and actuators, process the modulated optical signals returned from the sensors, and produce conditioned electrical signals acceptable for use by a digital flight control computer or Vehicle Management System (VMS) computer. This study was part of a multi-year initiative under the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program to design, develop, and test a totally integrated fiber optic flight/propulsion control system for application to advanced aircraft. Unlike earlier FOCSI studies, this program concentrated on the design of the EOA interface rather than the optical transducer technology itself.

  6. Design and characterization of microcapsules-integrated collagen matrixes as multifunctional three-dimensional scaffolds for soft tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Del Mercato, Loretta L; Passione, Laura Gioia; Izzo, Daniela; Rinaldi, Rosaria; Sannino, Alessandro; Gervaso, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds based on collagen are promising candidates for soft tissue engineering applications. The addition of stimuli-responsive carriers (nano- and microparticles) in the current approaches to tissue reconstruction and repair brings about novel challenges in the design and conception of carrier-integrated polymer scaffolds. In this study, a facile method was developed to functionalize 3D collagen porous scaffolds with biodegradable multilayer microcapsules. The effects of the capsule charge as well as the influence of the functionalization methods on the binding efficiency to the scaffolds were studied. It was found that the binding of cationic microcapsules was higher than that of anionic ones, and application of vacuum during scaffolds functionalization significantly hindered the attachment of the microcapsules to the collagen matrix. The physical properties of microcapsules-integrated scaffolds were compared to pristine scaffolds. The modified scaffolds showed swelling ratios, weight losses and mechanical properties similar to those of unmodified scaffolds. Finally, in vitro diffusional tests proved that the collagen scaffolds could stably retain the microcapsules over long incubation time in Tris-HCl buffer at 37°C without undergoing morphological changes, thus confirming their suitability for tissue engineering applications. The obtained results indicate that by tuning the charge of the microcapsules and by varying the fabrication conditions, collagen scaffolds patterned with high or low number of microcapsules can be obtained, and that the microcapsules-integrated scaffolds fully retain their original physical properties.

  7. Design and characterization of microcapsules-integrated collagen matrixes as multifunctional three-dimensional scaffolds for soft tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Del Mercato, Loretta L; Passione, Laura Gioia; Izzo, Daniela; Rinaldi, Rosaria; Sannino, Alessandro; Gervaso, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds based on collagen are promising candidates for soft tissue engineering applications. The addition of stimuli-responsive carriers (nano- and microparticles) in the current approaches to tissue reconstruction and repair brings about novel challenges in the design and conception of carrier-integrated polymer scaffolds. In this study, a facile method was developed to functionalize 3D collagen porous scaffolds with biodegradable multilayer microcapsules. The effects of the capsule charge as well as the influence of the functionalization methods on the binding efficiency to the scaffolds were studied. It was found that the binding of cationic microcapsules was higher than that of anionic ones, and application of vacuum during scaffolds functionalization significantly hindered the attachment of the microcapsules to the collagen matrix. The physical properties of microcapsules-integrated scaffolds were compared to pristine scaffolds. The modified scaffolds showed swelling ratios, weight losses and mechanical properties similar to those of unmodified scaffolds. Finally, in vitro diffusional tests proved that the collagen scaffolds could stably retain the microcapsules over long incubation time in Tris-HCl buffer at 37°C without undergoing morphological changes, thus confirming their suitability for tissue engineering applications. The obtained results indicate that by tuning the charge of the microcapsules and by varying the fabrication conditions, collagen scaffolds patterned with high or low number of microcapsules can be obtained, and that the microcapsules-integrated scaffolds fully retain their original physical properties. PMID:27219851

  8. Advanced Integration in Multi-Scale Mechanics and Welding Process Simulation in Weld Integrity Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vitek, J.M.; Wilkowski, G.M.; Brust, F.W.; Babu, S.

    2008-01-30

    In this project, mathematical models that predict the microstructure in pipeline steel welds were to be developed. These models were to be integrated with thermal models that describe the time-temperature history in the weld as a function of location in order to derive the spatial variation of microstructure in the weld. The microstructure predictions were also to be combined with microstructure-hardness relations, based on the additivity principle, to determine the spatial variation of hardness in the weld. EMC2 also developed microstructural models based on empirical relationships. ORNL was to pursue the development of more fundamental, theoretically based models. ORNL applied a previously developed model for inclusion formation to predict the extent and nature of inclusions that form during weld cooling from the liquid. This inclusion model was directly integrated with computational thermodynamics capability. A convenient user interface was developed for both the inclusion model and the thermodynamic phase-stability calculations. The microstructure model was based on the simultaneous transformation theory analysis as applied to the transformation of austenite to various ferrite constituents during weld cooling. The model available on the Materials Algorithm Project web site was used. Extensive modification of this model was required to correct problems with compilation and calculations as a function of the computational platform (Unix, Linux, Windows, etc.) that was used. The user interface for the inclusion model and thermodynamic phase-stability calculations was delivered to EMC2 along with the modified and correct microstructure model. Evaluation of the theoretically based model will be carried out and the predictions will be compared with experimental results as well as predictions based on the empirical models developed by EMC2.

  9. An integrated job exposure matrix for electrical exposures of utility workers.

    PubMed

    Bracken, T Dan; Kavet, Robert; Patterson, Robert M; Fordyce, Tiffani A

    2009-08-01

    Electric utility workers may be exposed to any combination of magnetic fields, electric fields, nuisance shocks (from spark discharges and continuous currents), imperceptible contact currents, and electrical injuries. Collectively these exposures are referred to as EMF Factors. Previous occupational exposure assessments have mainly characterized the magnetic field, with less attention to the electric field. Nuisance shocks and electrical injuries, though palpable, have received little to no attention. This article presents a prototype job exposure matrix that addresses exposure to all EMF Factors taking into account job category, work environment, and occupied environment. Exposures for all factors were classified into three ordinal levels for 22 job categories. Electric and magnetic field exposures were classified by the geometric mean of daily average of personal exposure measurements. Although relatively sparse, survey data on nuisance shocks were adequate for exposure assignment by job category and indicate that the frequency of these exposures has diminished over time. The least information was available for imperceptible contact currents that are associated with electric field exposures and small contact voltages. Data for electrical injuries by job category were derived from the Electric Power Research Institute Occupational Health Surveillance Database, with exposure assignments based on combined injury rates for flash burn and electric shock/electrocution. The highest exposures for all EMF Factors are essentially limited to four job categories that work on or close to electrical equipment: (1) cable splicers, (2) electricians, (3) line workers, and (4) substation operators.

  10. A matrix metalloprotease-PAR1 system regulates vascular integrity, systemic inflammation and death in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Tressel, Sarah L; Kaneider, Nicole C; Kasuda, Shogo; Foley, Caitlin; Koukos, Georgios; Austin, Karyn; Agarwal, Anika; Covic, Lidija; Opal, Steven M; Kuliopulos, Athan

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is a deadly disease characterized by the inability to regulate the inflammatory–coagulation response in which the endothelium plays a key role. The cause of this perturbation remains poorly understood and has hampered the development of effective therapeutics. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are involved in the host response to pathogens, but can also cause uncontrolled tissue damage and contribute to mortality. We found that human sepsis patients had markedly elevated plasma proMMP-1 and active MMP-1 levels, which correlated with death at 7 and 28 days after diagnosis. Likewise, septic mice had increased plasma levels of the MMP-1 ortholog, MMP-1a. We identified mouse MMP-1a as an agonist of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) on endothelial cells. MMP-1a was released from endothelial cells in septic mice. Blockade of MMP-1 activity suppressed endothelial barrier disruption, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), lung vascular permeability as well as the cytokine storm and improved survival, which was lost in PAR1-deficient mice. Infusion of human MMP-1 increased lung vascular permeability in normal wild-type mice but not in PAR1-deficient mice. These findings implicate MMP-1 as an important activator of PAR1 in sepsis and suggest that therapeutics that target MMP1-PAR1 may prove beneficial in the treatment of sepsis. PMID:21591259

  11. PERK Integrates Autophagy and Oxidative Stress Responses To Promote Survival during Extracellular Matrix Detachment▿

    PubMed Central

    Avivar-Valderas, Alvaro; Salas, Eduardo; Bobrovnikova-Marjon, Ekaterina; Diehl, J. Alan; Nagi, Chandandeep; Debnath, Jayanta; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2011-01-01

    Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) detached from the extracellular matrix (ECM) produce deleterious reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce autophagy to survive. The coordination of such opposing responses likely dictates whether epithelial cells survive ECM detachment or undergo anoikis. Here, we demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum kinase PERK facilitates survival of ECM-detached cells by concomitantly promoting autophagy, ATP production, and an antioxidant response. Loss-of-function studies show that ECM detachment activates a canonical PERK-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)-ATF4-CHOP pathway that coordinately induces the autophagy regulators ATG6 and ATG8, sustains ATP levels, and reduces ROS levels to delay anoikis. Inducible activation of an Fv2E-ΔNPERK chimera by persistent activation of autophagy and reduction of ROS results in lumen-filled mammary epithelial acini. Finally, luminal P-PERK and LC3 levels are reduced in PERK-deficient mammary glands, whereas they are increased in human breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) versus normal breast tissues. We propose that the normal proautophagic and antioxidant PERK functions may be hijacked to promote the survival of ECM-detached tumor cells in DCIS lesions. PMID:21709020

  12. The National Lung Matrix Trial: translating the biology of stratification in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, G.; Crack, L. R.; Popat, S.; Swanton, C.; Hollingsworth, S. J.; Buller, R.; Walker, I.; Carr, T. H.; Wherton, D.; Billingham, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The management of NSCLC has been transformed by stratified medicine. The National Lung Matrix Trial (NLMT) is a UK-wide study exploring the activity of rationally selected biomarker/targeted therapy combinations. Patients and methods The Cancer Research UK (CRUK) Stratified Medicine Programme 2 is undertaking the large volume national molecular pre-screening which integrates with the NLMT. At study initiation, there are eight drugs being used to target 18 molecular cohorts. The aim is to determine whether there is sufficient signal of activity in any drug–biomarker combination to warrant further investigation. A Bayesian adaptive design that gives a more realistic approach to decision making and flexibility to make conclusions without fixing the sample size was chosen. The screening platform is an adaptable 28-gene Nextera next-generation sequencing platform designed by Illumina, covering the range of molecular abnormalities being targeted. The adaptive design allows new biomarker–drug combination cohorts to be incorporated by substantial amendment. The pre-clinical justification for each biomarker–drug combination has been rigorously assessed creating molecular exclusion rules and a trumping strategy in patients harbouring concomitant actionable genetic abnormalities. Discrete routes of pathway activation or inactivation determined by cancer genome aberrations are treated as separate cohorts. Key translational analyses include the deep genomic analysis of pre- and post-treatment biopsies, the establishment of patient-derived xenograft models and longitudinal ctDNA collection, in order to define predictive biomarkers, mechanisms of resistance and early markers of response and relapse. Conclusion The SMP2 platform will provide large scale genetic screening to inform entry into the NLMT, a trial explicitly aimed at discovering novel actionable cohorts in NSCLC. Clinical Trial ISRCTN 38344105. PMID:26410619

  13. Advancing Tissue Engineering: A Tale of Nano-, Micro-, and Macroscale Integration.

    PubMed

    Leijten, Jeroen; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Nasajpour, Amir; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-27

    Tissue engineering has the potential to revolutionize the health care industry. Delivering on this promise requires the generation of efficient, controllable and predictable implants. The integration of nano- and microtechnologies into macroscale regenerative biomaterials plays an essential role in the generation of such implants, by enabling spatiotemporal control of the cellular microenvironment. Here we review the role, function and progress of a wide range of nano- and microtechnologies that are driving the advancements in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:27101419

  14. Integrating temperature-dependent life table data into a matrix projection model for Drosophila suzukii population estimation.

    PubMed

    Wiman, Nik G; Walton, Vaughn M; Dalton, Daniel T; Anfora, Gianfranco; Burrack, Hannah J; Chiu, Joanna C; Daane, Kent M; Grassi, Alberto; Miller, Betsey; Tochen, Samantha; Wang, Xingeng; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent fecundity and survival data was integrated into a matrix population model to describe relative Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) population increase and age structure based on environmental conditions. This novel modification of the classic Leslie matrix population model is presented as a way to examine how insect populations interact with the environment, and has application as a predictor of population density. For D. suzukii, we examined model implications for pest pressure on crops. As case studies, we examined model predictions in three small fruit production regions in the United States (US) and one in Italy. These production regions have distinctly different climates. In general, patterns of adult D. suzukii trap activity broadly mimicked seasonal population levels predicted by the model using only temperature data. Age structure of estimated populations suggest that trap and fruit infestation data are of limited value and are insufficient for model validation. Thus, we suggest alternative experiments for validation. The model is advantageous in that it provides stage-specific population estimation, which can potentially guide management strategies and provide unique opportunities to simulate stage-specific management effects such as insecticide applications or the effect of biological control on a specific life-stage. The two factors that drive initiation of the model are suitable temperatures (biofix) and availability of a suitable host medium (fruit). Although there are many factors affecting population dynamics of D. suzukii in the field, temperature-dependent survival and reproduction are believed to be the main drivers for D. suzukii populations. PMID:25192013

  15. Integrating temperature-dependent life table data into a matrix projection model for Drosophila suzukii population estimation.

    PubMed

    Wiman, Nik G; Walton, Vaughn M; Dalton, Daniel T; Anfora, Gianfranco; Burrack, Hannah J; Chiu, Joanna C; Daane, Kent M; Grassi, Alberto; Miller, Betsey; Tochen, Samantha; Wang, Xingeng; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent fecundity and survival data was integrated into a matrix population model to describe relative Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) population increase and age structure based on environmental conditions. This novel modification of the classic Leslie matrix population model is presented as a way to examine how insect populations interact with the environment, and has application as a predictor of population density. For D. suzukii, we examined model implications for pest pressure on crops. As case studies, we examined model predictions in three small fruit production regions in the United States (US) and one in Italy. These production regions have distinctly different climates. In general, patterns of adult D. suzukii trap activity broadly mimicked seasonal population levels predicted by the model using only temperature data. Age structure of estimated populations suggest that trap and fruit infestation data are of limited value and are insufficient for model validation. Thus, we suggest alternative experiments for validation. The model is advantageous in that it provides stage-specific population estimation, which can potentially guide management strategies and provide unique opportunities to simulate stage-specific management effects such as insecticide applications or the effect of biological control on a specific life-stage. The two factors that drive initiation of the model are suitable temperatures (biofix) and availability of a suitable host medium (fruit). Although there are many factors affecting population dynamics of D. suzukii in the field, temperature-dependent survival and reproduction are believed to be the main drivers for D. suzukii populations.

  16. Integrating Temperature-Dependent Life Table Data into a Matrix Projection Model for Drosophila suzukii Population Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Wiman, Nik G.; Walton, Vaughn M.; Dalton, Daniel T.; Anfora, Gianfranco; Burrack, Hannah J.; Chiu, Joanna C.; Daane, Kent M.; Grassi, Alberto; Miller, Betsey; Tochen, Samantha; Wang, Xingeng; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent fecundity and survival data was integrated into a matrix population model to describe relative Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) population increase and age structure based on environmental conditions. This novel modification of the classic Leslie matrix population model is presented as a way to examine how insect populations interact with the environment, and has application as a predictor of population density. For D. suzukii, we examined model implications for pest pressure on crops. As case studies, we examined model predictions in three small fruit production regions in the United States (US) and one in Italy. These production regions have distinctly different climates. In general, patterns of adult D. suzukii trap activity broadly mimicked seasonal population levels predicted by the model using only temperature data. Age structure of estimated populations suggest that trap and fruit infestation data are of limited value and are insufficient for model validation. Thus, we suggest alternative experiments for validation. The model is advantageous in that it provides stage-specific population estimation, which can potentially guide management strategies and provide unique opportunities to simulate stage-specific management effects such as insecticide applications or the effect of biological control on a specific life-stage. The two factors that drive initiation of the model are suitable temperatures (biofix) and availability of a suitable host medium (fruit). Although there are many factors affecting population dynamics of D. suzukii in the field, temperature-dependent survival and reproduction are believed to be the main drivers for D. suzukii populations. PMID:25192013

  17. Performance Tuning of Fock Matrix and Two-Electron Integral Calculations for NWChem on Leading HPC Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Hongzhan; Austin, Brian M.; De Jong, Wibe A.; Oliker, Leonid; Wright, Nicholas J.; Apra, Edoardo

    2014-10-01

    Attaining performance in the evaluation of two-electron repulsion integrals and constructing the Fock matrix is of considerable importance to the computational chemistry community. Due to its numerical complexity improving the performance behavior across a variety of leading supercomputing platforms is an increasing challenge due to the significant diversity in high-performance computing architectures. In this paper, we present our successful tuning methodology for these important numerical methods on the Cray XE6, the Cray XC30, the IBM BG/Q, as well as the Intel Xeon Phi. Our optimization schemes leverage key architectural features including vectorization and simultaneous multithreading, and results in speedups of up to 2.5x compared with the original implementation.

  18. Integrated Water Gas Shift Membrane Reactors Utilizing Novel, Non Precious Metal Mixed Matrix Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, John

    2013-09-30

    Nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and other related hybrid materials were prepared by modifying published synthesis procedures by introducing bases, changing stoichiometric ratios, or adjusting reaction conditions. These materials were stable at temperatures >300 °C and were compatible with the polymer matrices used to prepare mixed- matrix membranes (MMMs). MMMs tested at 300 °C exhibited a >30 fold increase in permeability, compared to those measured at 35 °C, while maintaining H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity. Measurements at high pressure (up to 30 atm) and high temperature (up to 300 °C) resulted in an increase in gas flux across the membrane with retention of selectivity. No variations in permeability were observed at high pressures at either 35 or 300 °C. CO{sub 2}-induced plasticization was not observed for Matrimid®, VTEC, and PBI polymers or their MMMs at 30 atm and 300 °C. Membrane surface modification by cross-linking with ethanol diamine resulted in an increase in H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity at 35 °C. Spectrometric analysis showed that the cross-linking was effective to temperatures <150 °C. At higher temperatures, the cross-linked membranes exhibit a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity similar to the uncross-linked polymer. Performance of the polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fibers prepared at Santa Fe Science and Technology (SFST, Inc.) showed increased flux o to a flat PBI membrane. A water-gas shift reactor has been built and currently being optimized for testing under DOE conditions.

  19. Advances in gallium arsenide monolithic microwave integrated-circuit technology for space communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. In this paper, current developments in GaAs MMIC technology are described, and the status and prospects of the technology are assessed.

  20. Tadalafil Integrates Nitric Oxide-Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling to Inhibit High Glucose-induced Matrix Protein Synthesis in Podocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hak Joo; Feliers, Denis; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M.; Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Gorin, Yves; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes-induced kidney cell injury involves an increase in matrix protein expression that is only partly alleviated by current treatment, prompting a search for new modalities. We have previously shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhibits high glucose-induced protein synthesis in kidney podocytes. We tested whether tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction, ameliorates high glucose stimulation of matrix proteins by generating H2S in podocytes. Tadalafil abrogated high glucose stimulation of global protein synthesis and matrix protein laminin γ1. Tadalafil inhibited high glucose-induced activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 and laminin γ1 accumulation in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. Tadalafil increased AMPK phosphorylation by stimulating calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase β. Tadalafil rapidly increased the expression and activity of the H2S-generating enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) by promoting its translation. dl-Propargylglycine, a CSE inhibitor, and siRNA against CSE inhibited tadalafil-induced AMPK phosphorylation and abrogated the tadalafil effect on high glucose stimulation of laminin γ1. In tadalafil-treated podocytes, we examined the interaction between H2S and nitric oxide (NO). Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one, inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS) and soluble guanylyl cyclase, respectively, abolished tadalafil induction of H2S and AMPK phosphorylation. Tadalafil rapidly augmented inducible NOS (iNOS) expression by increasing its mRNA, and siRNA for iNOS and 1400W, an iNOS blocker, inhibited tadalafil stimulation of CSE expression and AMPK phosphorylation. We conclude that tadalafil amelioration of high glucose stimulation of synthesis of proteins including matrix proteins in podocytes requires integration of the NO-H2S-AMPK axis leading to the inhibition of high glucose-induced mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1

  1. Leveraging advanced data analytics, machine learning, and metrology models to enable critical dimension metrology solutions for advanced integrated circuit nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Narender; Zhang, Yunlin; Kagalwala, Taher; Bailey, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Integrated circuit (IC) technology is changing in multiple ways: 193i to extreme ultraviolet exposure, planar to nonplanar device architecture, from single exposure lithography to multiple exposure and directed self-assembly (DSA) patterning, and so on. Critical dimension (CD) control requirement is becoming stringent and more exhaustive: CD and process windows are shrinking, three-sigma CD control of <2 nm is required in complex geometries, and a metrology uncertainty of <0.2 nm is required to achieve the target CD control for advanced IC nodes (e.g., 14, 10, and 7 nm nodes). There are fundamental capability and accuracy limits in all the metrology techniques that are detrimental to the success of advanced IC nodes. Reference or physical CD metrology is provided by atomic force microscopy (CD-AFM) and TEM while workhorse metrology is provided by CD-SEM, scatterometry, and model-based infrared reflectrometry (MBIR). Precision alone is not sufficient for moving forward. No single technique is sufficient to ensure the required accuracy of patterning. The accuracy of CD-AFM is ˜1 nm and the precision in TEM is poor due to limited statistics. CD scanning electron microscopy (CD-SEM), scatterometry, and MBIR need to be calibrated by reference measurements for ensuring the accuracy of patterned CDs and patterning models. There is a dire need for a measurement with <0.5 nm accuracy and the industry currently does not have that capability with inline measurements. Being aware of the capability gaps for various metrology techniques, we have employed data processing techniques and predictive data analytics, along with patterning simulation and metrology models and data integration techniques to selected applications demonstrating the potential solution and practicality of such an approach to enhance CD metrology accuracy. Data from multiple metrology techniques have been analyzed in multiple ways to extract information with associated uncertainties and integrated to extract

  2. Robust Joining and Integration of Advanced Ceramics and Composites: Challenges, Opportunities, and Realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2006-01-01

    Advanced ceramics and fiber reinforced composites are under active consideration for use in a wide variety of high temperature applications within the aeronautics, space transportation, energy, and nuclear industries. The engineering designs of ceramic and composite components require fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts of various thicknesses. In many instances, it is more economical to build up complex shapes by joining simple geometrical shapes. In addition, these components have to be joined or assembled with metallic sub-components. Thus, joining and attachment have been recognized as enabling technologies for successful utilization of ceramic components in various demanding applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of high temperature joints in advanced ceramics and ceramic matrix composites will be presented. Silicon carbide based advanced ceramics and fiber reinforced composites in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology. In addition, some examples of metal-ceramic brazing will also be presented. Microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of joints in silicon carbide ceramics and composites will be reported. Various joint design philosophies and design issues in joining of ceramics and composites will be discussed.

  3. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Savic, Vesna; Hector, Louis G.; Ezzat, Hesham; Sachdev, Anil K.; Quinn, James; Krupitzer, Ronald; Sun, Xin

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980 grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.

  4. Advances in three-dimensional integration technologies in support of infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temple, D. S.; Vick, E. P.; Malta, D.; Lueck, M. R.; Skokan, M. R.; Masterjohn, C. M.; Muzilla, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Staring infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) require pixel-level, three-dimensional (3D) integration with silicon readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that provide detector bias, integrate detector current, and may further process the signals. There is an increased interest in ROIC technology as a result of two trends in the evolution of infrared FPAs. The first trend involves decreasing the FPA pixel size, which leads to the increased information content within the same FPA die size. The second trend involves the desire to enhance signal processing capability at the FPA level, which opens the door to the detector behaving like a smart peripheral rather than a passive component—with complex signal processing functions being executed on, rather than off, the FPA chip. In this paper, we review recent advances in 3D integration process technologies that support these key trends in the development of infrared FPAs. Specifically, we discuss approaches in which the infrared sensor is integrated with 3D ROIC stacks composed of multiple layers of silicon circuitry interconnected using metal-filled through-silicon vias. We describe the continued development of the 3D integration technology and summarize key demonstrations that show its viability for pixels as small as 5 microns.

  5. Limitation to Advanced Life Support in patients admitted to intensive care unit with integrated palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Mazutti, Sandra Regina Gonzaga; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of limitations to Advanced Life Support in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit with integrated palliative care. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients in the palliative care program of the intensive care unit of Hospital Paulistano over 18 years of age from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014. The limitations to Advanced Life Support that were analyzed included do-not-resuscitate orders, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and vasoactive drugs. Central tendency measures were calculated for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare the characteristics of patients with or without limits to Advanced Life Support, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare length of stay after Advanced Life Support. Confidence intervals reflecting p ≤ 0.05 were considered for statistical significance. Results A total of 3,487 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 342 were included in the palliative care program. It was observed that after entering the palliative care program, it took a median of 2 (1 - 4) days for death to occur in the intensive care unit and 4 (2 - 11) days for hospital death to occur. Many of the limitations to Advanced Life Support (42.7%) took place on the first day of hospitalization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (96.8%) and ventilatory support (73.6%) were the most adopted limitations. Conclusion The contribution of palliative care integrated into the intensive care unit was important for the practice of orthothanasia, i.e., the non-extension of the life of a critically ill patient by artificial means. PMID:27626949

  6. A Prototype PZT Matrix Transducer With Low-Power Integrated Receive ASIC for 3-D Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Raghunathan, Shreyas B; Yu, Zili; Shabanimotlagh, Maysam; Chen, Zhao; Chang, Zu-yao; Blaak, Sandra; Prins, Christian; Ponte, Jacco; Noothout, Emile; Vos, Hendrik J; Bosch, Johan G; Verweij, Martin D; de Jong, Nico; Pertijs, Michiel A P

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation of a prototype lead zirconium titanate (PZT) matrix transducer with an integrated receive ASIC, as a proof of concept for a miniature three-dimensional (3-D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe. It consists of an array of 9 ×12 piezoelectric elements mounted on the ASIC via an integration scheme that involves direct electrical connections between a bond-pad array on the ASIC and the transducer elements. The ASIC addresses the critical challenge of reducing cable count, and includes front-end amplifiers with adjustable gains and micro-beamformer circuits that locally process and combine echo signals received by the elements of each 3 ×3 subarray. Thus, an order-of-magnitude reduction in the number of receive channels is achieved. Dedicated circuit techniques are employed to meet the strict space and power constraints of TEE probes. The ASIC has been fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process and consumes only 0.44 mW/channel. The prototype has been acoustically characterized in a water tank. The ASIC allows the array to be presteered across ±37° while achieving an overall dynamic range of 77 dB. Both the measured characteristics of the individual transducer elements and the performance of the ASIC are in good agreement with expectations, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  7. ADVANCED INTEGRATION OF MULTI-SCALE MECHANICS AND WELDING PROCESS SIMULATION IN WELD INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, Gery M.; Rudland, David L.; Shim, Do-Jun; Brust, Frederick W.; Babu, Sundarsanam

    2008-06-30

    -driving force by a factor of 2 depending on strain-hardening, pressure level as a % of SMYS, and flaw size. • From years of experience in circumferential fracture analyses and experimentation, there has not been sufficient integration of work performed for other industries into analogous problems facing the oil and gas pipeline markets. Some very basic concepts and problems solved previously in these fields could have circumvented inconsistencies seen in the stress-based and strain-based analysis efforts. For example, in nuclear utility piping work, more detailed elastic-plastic fracture analyses were always validated in their ability to predict loads and displacements (stresses and strains). The eventual implementation of these methodologies will result in acceleration of the industry adoption of higher-strength line-pipe steels.

  8. Integration Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics for Energy and Environmental Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new and innovative materials has been known to culminate in major turning points in human history. The transformative impact and functional manifestation of new materials have been demonstrated in every historical era by their integration into new products, systems, assemblies, and devices. In modern times, the integration of new materials into usable products has a special relevance for the technological development and economic competitiveness of industrial societies. Advanced ceramic technologies dramatically impact the energy and environmental landscape due to potential wide scale applications in all aspects of energy production, storage, distribution, conservation, and efficiency. Examples include gas turbine propulsion systems, fuel cells, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, distribution and transmission systems based on superconductors, nuclear power generation, and waste disposal. Robust ceramic integration technologies enable hierarchical design and manufacturing of intricate ceramic components starting with geometrically simpler units that are subsequently joined to themselves and/or to metals to create components with progressively higher levels of complexity and functionality. However, for the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance under different operating conditions, the detailed understanding of various thermochemical and thermomechanical factors is critical. Different approaches are required for the integration of ceramic-metal and ceramic-ceramic systems across length scales (macro to nano). In this presentation, a few examples of integration of ceramic to metals and ceramic to ceramic systems will be presented. Various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic-ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic-metal) material systems will be discussed. Potential opportunities and need for the development of innovative design philosophies, approaches, and

  9. Microstructural Characterization of a Mg Matrix U-Mo Dispersion Fuel Plate Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor to High Fission Density: SEM Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon D.; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adam B.; Medvedev, Pavel G.; Madden, James W.; Moore, Glenn A.

    2016-06-01

    Low-enriched (U-235 <20 pct) U-Mo dispersion fuel is being developed for use in research and test reactors. In most cases, fuel plates with Al or Al-Si alloy matrices have been tested in the Advanced Test Reactor to support this development. In addition, fuel plates with Mg as the matrix have also been tested. The benefit of using Mg as the matrix is that it potentially will not chemically interact with the U-Mo fuel particles during fabrication or irradiation, whereas with Al and Al-Si alloys such interactions will occur. Fuel plate R9R010 is a Mg matrix fuel plate that was aggressively irradiated in ATR. This fuel plate was irradiated as part of the RERTR-8 experiment at high temperature, high fission rate, and high power, up to high fission density. This paper describes the results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of an irradiated fuel plate using polished samples and those produced with a focused ion beam. A follow-up paper will discuss the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Using SEM, it was observed that even at very aggressive irradiation conditions, negligible chemical interaction occurred between the irradiated U-7Mo fuel particles and Mg matrix; no interconnection of fission gas bubbles from fuel particle to fuel particle was observed; the interconnected fission gas bubbles that were observed in the irradiated U-7Mo particles resulted in some transport of solid fission products to the U-7Mo/Mg interface; the presence of microstructural pathways in some U-9.1 Mo particles that could allow for transport of fission gases did not result in the apparent presence of large porosity at the U-7Mo/Mg interface; and, the Mg-Al interaction layers that were present at the Mg matrix/Al 6061 cladding interface exhibited good radiation stability, i.e. no large pores.

  10. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry.

  11. Sync Matrix

    2004-12-31

    Sync Matrix provides a graphic display of the relationships among all of the response activities of each jurisdiction. This is accomplished through software that organizes and displays the activities by jurisdiction, function, and time for easy review and analysis. The software can also integrate the displays of multiple jurisdictions to allow examination of the total response.

  12. Development of an integrated energetic neutral particle measurement system on experimental advanced full superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y. B. Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhang, J. Z.; Qi, M. Z.; Xia, S. B.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.

    2014-11-15

    Full function integrated, compact silicon photodiode based solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) have been developed for energetic particle (EP) relevant studies on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ssNPAs will be mostly operated in advanced current mode with a few channels to be operated in conventional pulse-counting mode, aiming to simultaneously achieve individually proved ultra-fast temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution capabilities. The design details together with considerations on EAST specific engineering realities and physics requirements are presented. The system, including a group of single detectors on two vertical ports and two 16-channel arrays on a horizontal port, can provide both active and passive charge exchange measurements. ssNPA detectors, with variable thickness of ultra thin tungsten dominated foils directly deposited on the front surface, are specially fabricated and utilized to achieve about 22 keV energy resolution for deuterium particle detection.

  13. Development of an integrated energetic neutral particle measurement system on experimental advanced full superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. B.; Zhang, J. Z.; Qi, M. Z.; Xia, S. B.; Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.

    2014-11-01

    Full function integrated, compact silicon photodiode based solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) have been developed for energetic particle (EP) relevant studies on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ssNPAs will be mostly operated in advanced current mode with a few channels to be operated in conventional pulse-counting mode, aiming to simultaneously achieve individually proved ultra-fast temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution capabilities. The design details together with considerations on EAST specific engineering realities and physics requirements are presented. The system, including a group of single detectors on two vertical ports and two 16-channel arrays on a horizontal port, can provide both active and passive charge exchange measurements. ssNPA detectors, with variable thickness of ultra thin tungsten dominated foils directly deposited on the front surface, are specially fabricated and utilized to achieve about 22 keV energy resolution for deuterium particle detection.

  14. Performance improvements of single-engine business airplanes by the integration of advanced technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    An assessment is presented of the performance gains and economic impact of the integration in general aviation aircraft of advanced technologies, relating to such aspects of design as propulsion, natural laminar flow, lift augmentation, unconventional configurations, and advanced aluminum and composite structures. All considerations are with reference to a baseline mission of 1300 nm range and 300-knot cruise speed with a 1300-lb payload, and a baseline aircraft with a 40 lb/sq ft wing loading and an aspect ratio of 8. Extensive analytical results are presented from the NASA-sponsored General Aviation Synthesis Program. Attention is given to the relative performance gains to be expected from the single-engined baseline aircraft's use of a low cost general aviation turbine engine, a spark-ignited reciprocating engine, a diesel engine, and a Wankel rotary engine.

  15. Development of an integrated energetic neutral particle measurement system on experimental advanced full superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y B; Zhang, J Z; Qi, M Z; Xia, S B; Liu, D; Heidbrink, W W; Wan, B N; Li, J G

    2014-11-01

    Full function integrated, compact silicon photodiode based solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) have been developed for energetic particle (EP) relevant studies on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ssNPAs will be mostly operated in advanced current mode with a few channels to be operated in conventional pulse-counting mode, aiming to simultaneously achieve individually proved ultra-fast temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution capabilities. The design details together with considerations on EAST specific engineering realities and physics requirements are presented. The system, including a group of single detectors on two vertical ports and two 16-channel arrays on a horizontal port, can provide both active and passive charge exchange measurements. ssNPA detectors, with variable thickness of ultra thin tungsten dominated foils directly deposited on the front surface, are specially fabricated and utilized to achieve about 22 keV energy resolution for deuterium particle detection.

  16. AFTI/SITAN (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation) final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, J.R.

    1988-11-01

    Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation (SITAN) provides continuous position fixes to an inertial navigation system (INS) by real-time comparison of radar altimeter ground clearance measurements with stored digital terrain elevation data (DTED). This is accomplished by using an extended Kalman filter algorithm to estimate the errors in the reference trajectory provided by an INS. In this report, Sandia National Laboratories documents the results of a reimbursable effort funded by the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) Avionics Laboratory to flight test SITAN as implemented onboard the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI)F-16. 5 refs., 101 figs., 1 tab.

  17. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This L-shaped probe mounted on the forward fuselage of a modified F-18 Systems Research Aircraft was the focus of an air data collection experiment flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration (ALADIN) experiment focused on providing pilots with angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip information as well as traditional airspeed and altitude data from a single system. For the experiment, the probes--one mounted on either side of the F-18's forward fuselage--were hooked to a series of four transducers, which relayed pressure measurements to an on-board research computer.

  18. Advances in BAC-Based Physical Mapping and Map Integration Strategies in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils

    2012-01-01

    In the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, map-based sequencing strategy has been recently suppressed being too expensive and laborious. The detailed studies on NGS drafts alone indicated these assemblies remain far from gold standard reference quality, especially when applied on complex genomes. In this context the conventional BAC-based physical mapping has been identified as an important intermediate layer in current hybrid sequencing strategy. BAC-based physical map construction and its integration with high-density genetic maps have benefited from NGS and high-throughput array platforms. This paper addresses the current advancements of BAC-based physical mapping and high-throughput map integration strategies to obtain densely anchored well-ordered physical maps. The resulted maps are of immediate utility while providing a template to harness the maximum benefits of the current NGS platforms. PMID:22500080

  19. Integrative Utilization of Microenvironments, Biomaterials and Computational Techniques for Advanced Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Amir; Mohammadaliha, Negar; Mohseni, Mina

    2015-10-20

    This review aims to propose the integrative implementation of microfluidic devices, biomaterials, and computational methods that can lead to a significant progress in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine researches. Simultaneous implementation of multiple techniques can be very helpful in addressing biological processes. Providing controllable biochemical and biomechanical cues within artificial extracellular matrix similar to in vivo conditions is crucial in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine researches. Microfluidic devices provide precise spatial and temporal control over cell microenvironment. Moreover, generation of accurate and controllable spatial and temporal gradients of biochemical factors is attainable inside microdevices. Since biomaterials with tunable properties are a worthwhile option to construct artificial extracellular matrix, in vitro platforms that simultaneously utilize natural, synthetic, or engineered biomaterials inside microfluidic devices are phenomenally advantageous to experimental studies in the field of tissue engineering. Additionally, collaboration between experimental and computational methods is a useful way to predict and understand mechanisms responsible for complex biological phenomena. Computational results can be verified by using experimental platforms. Computational methods can also broaden the understanding of the mechanisms behind the biological phenomena observed during experiments. Furthermore, computational methods are powerful tools to optimize the fabrication of microfluidic devices and biomaterials with specific features. Here we present a succinct review of the benefits of microfluidic devices, biomaterial, and computational methods in the case of tissue engineering and regeneration medicine. Furthermore, some breakthroughs in biological phenomena including the neuronal axon development, cancerous cell migration and blood vessel formation via angiogenesis by virtue of the aforementioned approaches

  20. Study on the Integrated Geophysic Methods and Application of Advanced Geological Detection for Complicated Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Xiao, G.

    2014-12-01

    The engineering geological and hydrological conditions of current tunnels are more and more complicated, as the tunnels are elongated with deeper depth. In constructing these complicated tunnels, geological hazards prone to occur as induced by unfavorable geological bodies, such as fault zones, karst or hydrous structures, etc. The working emphasis and difficulty of the advanced geological exploration for complicated tunnels are mainly focused on the structure and water content of these unfavorable geological bodies. The technical aspects of my paper systematically studied the advanced geological exploration theory and application aspects for complicated tunnels, with discussion on the key technical points and useful conclusions. For the all-aroundness and accuracy of advanced geological exploration results, the objective of my paper is targeted on the comprehensive examination on the structure and hydrous characteristic of the unfavorable geological bodies in complicated tunnels. By the multi-component seismic modeling on a more real model containing the air medium, the wave field response characteristics of unfavorable geological bodies can be analyzed, thus providing theoretical foundation for the observation system layout, signal processing and interpretation of seismic methods. Based on the tomographic imaging theory of seismic and electromagnetic method, 2D integrated seismic and electromagnetic tomographic imaging and visualization software was designed and applied in the advanced drilling hole in the tunnel face, after validation of the forward and inverse modeling results on theoretical models. The transmission wave imaging technology introduced in my paper can be served as a new criterion for detection of unfavorable geological bodies. After careful study on the basic theory, data processing and interpretation, practical applications of TSP and ground penetrating radar (GPR) method, as well as serious examination on their application examples, my paper

  1. Advanced satellite workstation: An integrated workstation environment for operational support of satellite system planning and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, Stewart A.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype integrated environment, the Advanced Satellite Workstation (ASW), is described that has been developed and delivered for evaluation and operator feedback in an operational satellite control center. The current ASW hardware consists of a Sun Workstation and Macintosh II Workstation connected via an ethernet Network Hardware and Software, Laser Disk System, Optical Storage System, and Telemetry Data File Interface. The central mission of ASW is to provide an intelligent decision support and training environment for operator/analysts of complex systems such as satellites. There have been many workstation implementations recently which incorporate graphical telemetry displays and expert systems. ASW is a considerably broader look at intelligent, integrated environments for decision support, based upon the premise that the central features of such an environment are intelligent data access and integrated toolsets. A variety of tools have been constructed in support of this prototype environment including: an automated pass planner for scheduling vehicle support activities, architectural modeler for hierarchical simulation and analysis of satellite vehicle subsystems, multimedia-based information systems that provide an intuitive and easily accessible interface to Orbit Operations Handbook and other relevant support documentation, and a data analysis architecture that integrates user modifiable telemetry display systems, expert systems for background data analysis, and interfaces to the multimedia system via inter-process communication.

  2. Recent Advances in Registration, Integration and Fusion of Remotely Sensed Data: Redundant Representations and Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czaja, Wojciech; Le Moigne-Stewart, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sophisticated mathematical techniques have been successfully applied to the field of remote sensing to produce significant advances in applications such as registration, integration and fusion of remotely sensed data. Registration, integration and fusion of multiple source imagery are the most important issues when dealing with Earth Science remote sensing data where information from multiple sensors, exhibiting various resolutions, must be integrated. Issues ranging from different sensor geometries, different spectral responses, differing illumination conditions, different seasons, and various amounts of noise need to be dealt with when designing an image registration, integration or fusion method. This tutorial will first define the problems and challenges associated with these applications and then will review some mathematical techniques that have been successfully utilized to solve them. In particular, we will cover topics on geometric multiscale representations, redundant representations and fusion frames, graph operators, diffusion wavelets, as well as spatial-spectral and operator-based data fusion. All the algorithms will be illustrated using remotely sensed data, with an emphasis on current and operational instruments.

  3. Advancing Exposure Science through Chemical Data Curation and Integration in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

    PubMed Central

    Grondin, Cynthia J.; Davis, Allan Peter; Wiegers, Thomas C.; King, Benjamin L.; Wiegers, Jolene A.; Reif, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Mattingly, Carolyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure science studies the interactions and outcomes between environmental stressors and human or ecological receptors. To augment its role in understanding human health and the exposome, we aimed to centralize and integrate exposure science data into the broader biological framework of the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), a public resource that promotes understanding of environmental chemicals and their effects on human health. Objectives: We integrated exposure data within the CTD to provide a centralized, freely available resource that facilitates identification of connections between real-world exposures, chemicals, genes/proteins, diseases, biological processes, and molecular pathways. Methods: We developed a manual curation paradigm that captures exposure data from the scientific literature using controlled vocabularies and free text within the context of four primary exposure concepts: stressor, receptor, exposure event, and exposure outcome. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, we have illustrated the benefits of both centralization and integration of exposure information with CTD core data. Results: We have described our curation process, demonstrated how exposure data can be accessed and analyzed in the CTD, and shown how this integration provides a broad biological context for exposure data to promote mechanistic understanding of environmental influences on human health. Conclusions: Curation and integration of exposure data within the CTD provides researchers with new opportunities to correlate exposures with human health outcomes, to identify underlying potential molecular mechanisms, and to improve understanding about the exposome. Citation: Grondin CJ, Davis AP, Wiegers TC, King BL, Wiegers JA, Reif DM, Hoppin JA, Mattingly CJ. 2016. Advancing exposure science through chemical data curation and integration in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. Environ Health Perspect 124:1592–1599; http://dx.doi.org/10

  4. VHL Induces Renal Cell Differentiation and Growth Arrest through Integration of Cell-Cell and Cell-Extracellular Matrix Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Davidowitz, Eliot J.; Schoenfeld, Alan R.; Burk, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene are involved in the family cancer syndrome for which it is named and the development of sporadic renal cell cancer (RCC). Reintroduction of VHL into RCC cells lacking functional VHL [VHL(−)] can suppress their growth in nude mice, but not under standard tissue culture conditions. To examine the hypothesis that the tumor suppressor function of VHL requires signaling through contact with extracellular matrix (ECM), 786-O VHL(−) RCC cells and isogenic sublines stably expressing VHL gene products [VHL(+)] were grown on ECMs. Cell-cell and cell-ECM signalings were required to elicit VHL-dependent differences in growth and differentiation. VHL(+) cells differentiated into organized epithelial sheets, whereas VHL(−) cells were branched and disorganized. VHL(+) cells grown to high density on collagen I underwent growth arrest, whereas VHL(−) cells continued to proliferate. Integrin levels were up-regulated in VHL(−) cells, and cell adhesion was down-regulated in VHL(+) cells during growth at high cell density. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, a transcription factor and global activator of proximal tubule-specific genes in the nephron, was markedly up-regulated in VHL(+) cells grown at high cell density. These data indicate that VHL can induce renal cell differentiation and mediate growth arrest through integration of cell-cell and cell-ECM signals. PMID:11154273

  5. The Extracellular Matrix Protein Artichoke Is Required for Integrity of Ciliated Mechanosensory and Chemosensory Organs in Drosophila Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Andrés, Marta; Turiégano, Enrique; Göpfert, Martin C.; Canal, Inmaculada; Torroja, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Sensory cilia are often encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). In Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrates, this ECM is thought to be directly involved in ciliary mechanosensing by coupling external forces to the ciliary membrane. Drosophila mechano- and chemosensory cilia are both associated with an ECM, indicating that the ECM may have additional roles that go beyond mechanosensory cilium function. Here, we identify Artichoke (ATK), an evolutionarily conserved leucine-rich repeat ECM protein that is required for normal morphogenesis and function of ciliated sensilla in Drosophila. atk is transiently expressed in accessory cells in all ciliated sensory organs during their late embryonic development. Antibody stainings show ATK protein in the ECM that surrounds sensory cilia. Loss of ATK protein in atk null mutants leads to cilium deformation and disorientation in chordotonal organs, apparently without uncoupling the cilia from the ECM, and consequently to locomotion defects. Moreover, impaired chemotaxis in atk mutant larvae suggests that, based on ATK protein localization, the ECM is also crucial for the correct assembly of chemosensory receptors. In addition to defining a novel ECM component, our findings show the importance of ECM integrity for the proper morphogenesis of ciliated organs in different sensory modalities. PMID:24496014

  6. Advancing environmental flow science: Developing frameworks for altered landscapes and integrating efforts across disciplines.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, Shannon K.; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  7. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Shannon K.; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  8. Integration of magnetic bearings in the design of advanced gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Storace, A.F.; Sood, D.; Lyons, J.P.; Preston, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Active magnetic bearings provide revolutionary advantages for gas turbine engine rotor support. These advantages include tremendously improved vibration and stability characteristics, reduced power loss, improved reliability, fault tolerance, and greatly extended bearing service life. The marriage of these advantages with innovative structural network design and advanced materials utilization will permit major increases in thrust-to-weight performance and structural efficiency for future gas turbine engines. However, obtaining the maximum payoff requires two key ingredients. The first is the use of modern magnetic bearing technologies such as innovative digital control techniques, high-density power electronics, high-density magnetic actuators, fault-tolerant system architecture, and electronic (sensorless) position estimation. This paper describes these technologies and the test hardware currently in place for verifying the performance of advanced magnetic actuators, power electronics, and digital controls. The second key ingredient is to go beyond the simple replacement of rolling element bearings with magnetic bearings by incorporating magnetic bearings as an integral part of the overall engine design. This is analogous to the proper approach to designing with composites, whereby the designer tailors the geometry and load-carrying function of the structural system or component for the composite instead of simply substituting composites in a design originally intended for metal material. This paper describes methodologies for the design integration of magnetic bearings in gas turbine engines.

  9. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Shannon K; McManamay, Ryan A; Miller, Andrew D; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  10. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines

    DOE PAGES

    Brewer, Shannon; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-05-13

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a bettermore » understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.« less

  11. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Shannon K; McManamay, Ryan A; Miller, Andrew D; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards. PMID:27177541

  12. Advanced Hybrid Spacesuit Concept Featuring Integrated Open Loop and Closed Loop Ventilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, Brian A.; Fitzpatrick, Garret R.; Gohmert, Dustin M.; Ybarra, Rick M.; Dub, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses the design and prototype of an advanced spacesuit concept that integrates the capability to function seamlessly with multiple ventilation system approaches. Traditionally, spacesuits are designed to operate both dependently and independently of a host vehicle environment control and life support system (ECLSS). Spacesuits that operate independent of vehicle-provided ECLSS services must do so with equipment selfcontained within or on the spacesuit. Suits that are dependent on vehicle-provided consumables must remain physically connected to and integrated with the vehicle to operate properly. This innovation is the design and prototype of a hybrid spacesuit approach that configures the spacesuit to seamlessly interface and integrate with either type of vehicular systems, while still maintaining the ability to function completely independent of the vehicle. An existing Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) was utilized as the platform from which to develop the innovation. The ACES was retrofitted with selected components and one-off items to achieve the objective. The ventilation system concept was developed and prototyped/retrofitted to an existing ACES. Components were selected to provide suit connectors, hoses/umbilicals, internal breathing system ducting/ conduits, etc. The concept utilizes a lowpressure- drop, high-flow ventilation system that serves as a conduit from the vehicle supply into the suit, up through a neck seal, into the breathing helmet cavity, back down through the neck seal, out of the suit, and returned to the vehicle. The concept also utilizes a modified demand-based breathing system configured to function seamlessly with the low-pressure-drop closed-loop ventilation system.

  13. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as as integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Geospace Science from Ground-based Magnetometer Arrays: Advances in Sensors, Data Collection, and Data Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-01

    , acceleration, and loss of electrons in the radiation belts promise high profile science returns. Integrated, global scale data products also have potential importance and application for real-time monitoring of the space weather threats to electrical power grids from geomagnetically induced currents. Such data exploitation increasingly relies on the collaborations between multiple national magnetometer arrays to generate single data products with common file format and data properties. We review advances in geospace science which can be delivered by networks of ground-based magnetometers - in terms of advances in sensors, data collection, and data integration - including through collaborations within the Ultra-Large Terrestrial International Magnetometer Array (ULTIMA) consortium.

  15. Oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance: a matrix for integrating climate-related stressor effects in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pörtner, H-O

    2010-03-15

    The concept of oxygen- and capacity-dependent thermal tolerance in aquatic ectotherms has successfully explained climate-induced effects of rising temperatures on species abundance in the field. Oxygen supply to tissues and the resulting aerobic performance characters thus form a primary link between organismal fitness and its role and functioning at the ecosystem level. The thermal window of performance in water breathers matches their window of aerobic scope. Loss of performance reflects the earliest level of thermal stress, caused by hypoxaemia and the progressive mismatch of oxygen supply and demand at the borders of the thermal envelope. Oxygen deficiency elicits the transition to passive tolerance and associated systemic and cellular stress signals like hormonal responses or oxidative stress as well as the use of protection mechanisms like heat shock proteins at thermal extremes. Thermal acclimatization between seasons or adaptation to a climate regime involves shifting thermal windows and adjusting window widths. The need to specialize on a limited temperature range results from temperature-dependent trade-offs at several hierarchical levels, from molecular structure to whole-organism functioning, and may also support maximized energy efficiency. Various environmental factors like CO(2) (ocean acidification) and hypoxia interact with these principal relationships. Existing knowledge suggests that these factors elicit metabolic depression supporting passive tolerance to thermal extremes. However, they also exacerbate hypoxaemia, causing a narrowing of thermal performance windows and prematurely leading the organism to the limits of its thermal acclimation capacity. The conceptual analysis suggests that the relationships between energy turnover, the capacities of activity and other functions and the width of thermal windows may lead to an integrative understanding of specialization on climate and, as a thermal matrix, of sensitivity to climate change and the

  16. System design and integration of the large-scale advanced prop-fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, B. P.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel consumption. Studies have shown that blades with thin airfoils and aerodynamic sweep extend the inherent efficiency advantage that turboprop propulsion systems have demonstrated to the higher speed to today's aircraft. Hamilton Standard has designed a 9-foot diameter single-rotation Prop-Fan. It will test the hardware on a static test stand, in low speed and high speed wind tunnels and on a research aircraft. The major objective of this testing is to establish the structural integrity of large scale Prop-Fans of advanced construction, in addition to the evaluation of aerodynamic performance and the aeroacoustic design. The coordination efforts performed to ensure smooth operation and assembly of the Prop-Fan are summarized. A summary of the loads used to size the system components, the methodology used to establish material allowables and a review of the key analytical results are given.

  17. INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE HEALTH: UNPRECEDENTED OPORTUNITIES FOR BEHAVIOR ANALYSTS

    PubMed Central

    KURTI, ALLISON N.; DALLERY, JESSE

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one’s diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health. PMID:25774070

  18. An application of oscillation damped motion for suspended payloads to the advanced integrated maintenance system

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, M.W. ); Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Transportation of objects using overhead cranes can induce pendulum motion of the object, which usually must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. Recent work at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that oscillation damped transport and swing-free stops are possible by properly programming the acceleration of the transporting crane. This paper reviews the theory associated with oscillation-damped trajectories for simply suspended objects and describes a specific, full-scale implementation of the damped oscillation methods for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS). Hardware and software requirements and constraints for proper operation are discussed. Finally, test results and lessons learned are presented. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Tiffany; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSoucie, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans/initial results.

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  1. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSouice, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Laue, Greg; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans.

  2. Integrating advanced materials simulation techniques into an automated data analysis workflow at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Borreguero Calvo, Jose M; Campbell, Stuart I; Delaire, Olivier A; Doucet, Mathieu; Goswami, Monojoy; Hagen, Mark E; Lynch, Vickie E; Proffen, Thomas E; Ren, Shelly; Savici, Andrei T; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will review developments on the integration of advanced modeling and simulation techniques into the analysis step of experimental data obtained at the Spallation Neutron Source. A workflow framework for the purpose of refining molecular mechanics force-fields against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data is presented. The workflow combines software components to submit model simulations to remote high performance computers, a message broker interface for communications between the optimizer engine and the simulation production step, and tools to convolve the simulated data with the experimental resolution. A test application shows the correction to a popular fixed-charge water model in order to account polarization effects due to the presence of solvated ions. Future enhancements to the refinement workflow are discussed. This work is funded through the DOE Center for Accelerating Materials Modeling.

  3. Operating experience with advanced centrifugal contractors in the integrated equipment test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.; Welesko, P.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), advanced design centrifugal contactors for nuclear fuel reprocessing have been operated for several years in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility using depleted uranium. The mixing of the aqueous and organic phases in these contactors is achieved in the annular zone between the stationary housing and the rotor. Mass transfer tests with these contactors using depleted uranium have shown stage efficiencies in excess of 90%. Clarification of the feed to remove particles down to 2 ..mu..m was found to be necessary to prevent operational problems with the extraction bank. The status of the contactor drive system has been monitored using vibration analysis to increase the reliability of the solvent extraction system. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  5. Integration of Advanced Probabilistic Analysis Techniques with Multi-Physics Models

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; none,; Flanagan, George F.; Poore III, Willis P.; Muhlheim, Michael David

    2014-07-30

    An integrated simulation platform that couples probabilistic analysis-based tools with model-based simulation tools can provide valuable insights for reactive and proactive responses to plant operating conditions. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the benefits of a partial implementation of the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Framework Specification through the coupling of advanced PRA capabilities and accurate multi-physics plant models. Coupling a probabilistic model with a multi-physics model will aid in design, operations, and safety by providing a more accurate understanding of plant behavior. This represents the first attempt at actually integrating these two types of analyses for a control system used for operations, on a faster than real-time basis. This report documents the development of the basic communication capability to exchange data with the probabilistic model using Reliability Workbench (RWB) and the multi-physics model using Dymola. The communication pathways from injecting a fault (i.e., failing a component) to the probabilistic and multi-physics models were successfully completed. This first version was tested with prototypic models represented in both RWB and Modelica. First, a simple event tree/fault tree (ET/FT) model was created to develop the software code to implement the communication capabilities between the dynamic-link library (dll) and RWB. A program, written in C#, successfully communicates faults to the probabilistic model through the dll. A systems model of the Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor–Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (ALMR-PRISM) design developed under another DOE project was upgraded using Dymola to include proper interfaces to allow data exchange with the control application (ConApp). A program, written in C+, successfully communicates faults to the multi-physics model. The results of the example simulation were successfully plotted.

  6. OPTIMA: advanced methods for the analysis, integration, and optimization of PRISMA mission products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzi, Donatella; Pippi, Ivan; Aiazzi, Bruno; Baronti, Stefano; Carlà, Roberto; Lastri, Cinzia; Nardino, Vanni; Raimondi, Valentina; Santurri, Leonardo; Selva, Massimo; Alparone, Luciano; Garzelli, Andrea; Lopinto, Ettore; Ananasso, Cristina; Barducci, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    PRISMA is an Earth observation system that combines a hyperspectral sensor with a panchromatic, medium-resolution camera. OPTIMA is one of the five independent scientific research projects funded by the Italian Space Agency in the framework of PRISMA mission for the development of added-value algorithms and advanced applications. The main goal of OPTIMA is to increase and to strengthen the applications of PRISMA through the implementation of advanced methodologies for the analysis, integration and optimization of level 1 and 2 products. The project is comprehensive of several working packages: data simulation, data quality, data optimization, data processing and integration and, finally, evaluation of some applications related to natural hazards. Several algorithms implemented during the project employ high-speed autonomous procedures for the elaboration of the upcoming images acquired by PRISMA. To assess the performances of the developed algorithms and products, an end-to-end simulator of the instrument has been implemented. Data quality analysis has been completed by introducing noise modeling. Stand-alone procedures of radiometric and atmospheric corrections have been developed, allowing the retrieval of at-ground spectral reflectance maps. Specific studies about image enhancement, restoration and pan-sharpening have been carried out for providing added-value data. Regarding the mission capability of monitoring environmental processes and disasters, different techniques for estimating surface humidity and for analyzing burned areas have been investigated. Finally, calibration and validation activities utilizing the CAL/VAL test site managed by CNR-IFAC and located inside the Regional Park of San Rossore (Pisa), Italy have been considered.

  7. CAPE-OPEN Integration for Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    This paper highlights the use of the CAPE-OPEN (CO) standard interfaces in the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The APECS system uses the CO unit operation, thermodynamic, and reaction interfaces to provide its plug-and-play co-simulation capabilities, including the integration of process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. APECS also relies heavily on the use of a CO COM/CORBA bridge for running process/CFD co-simulations on multiple operating systems. For process optimization in the face of multiple and some time conflicting objectives, APECS offers stochastic modeling and multi-objective optimization capabilities developed to comply with the CO software standard. At NETL, system analysts are applying APECS to a wide variety of advanced power generation systems, ranging from small fuel cell systems to commercial-scale power plants including the coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant.

  8. An application of oscillation-damped motion for suspended payloads to the advanced integrated maintenance system

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, M.W. ); Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    The transportation of objects using overhead cranes can induce pendular motion of the object, which usually must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. Recent work at Sandia National Laboratories has shown that oscillation-damped transport and swing-free stops are possible by properly programming the acceleration of the transporting crane. Initial studies have been completed using a CIMCORP XR6100 gantry robot. The Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS) is an engineering and operations test bed developed for remote maintenance and handling studies within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of CFRP has been to advanced the technology of in-cell systems planned for future nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The AIMS provides the capabilities to examine the needs and constraints necessary for hot-cell remote maintenance and includes a force-reflecting master/slave teleoperator and overhead transporter system. The associated control system provides a flexible programming environment conducive to controls experimentation. This paper reviews the theory associated with oscillation-damped trajectories for simply suspended objects and describes a specific implementation of the oscillation damping methods for the AIMS transporter. Hardware and software requirements and constraints for proper operation are discussed.

  9. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  10. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  11. Multilevel integration of patternable low-κ material into advanced Cu BEOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qinghuang; Chen, S. T.; Nelson, A.; Brock, P.; Cohen, S.; Davis, B.; Fuller, N.; Kaplan, R.; Kwong, R.; Liniger, E.; Neumayer, D.; Patel, J.; Shobha, H.; Sooriyakumaran, R.; Purushothaman, S.; Spooner, T.; Miller, R.; Allen, R.; Wisnieff, R.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we wish to report, for the first time, on a simple, low-cost, novel way to form dual-damascene copper (Cu) on-chip interconnect or Back-End-Of-the-Line (BEOL) structures using a patternable low dielectric constant (low-κ) dielectric material concept. A patternable low-κ dielectric material combines the functions of a traditional resist and a dielectric material into one single material. It acts as a traditional resist during patterning and is subsequently converted to a low-κ dielectric material during a post-patterning curing process. No sacrificial materials (separate resists or hardmasks) and their related deposition, pattern transfer (etch) and removal (strip) are required to form dual-damascene BEOL patterns. We have successfully demonstrated multi-level dual-damascene integration of a novel patternable low-κ dielectric material into advanced Cu BEOL. This κ=2.7 patternable low-κ material is based on the industry standard SiCOH-based (silsesquioxane polymer) material platform and is compatible with 248 nm optical lithography. Multilevel integration of this patternable low-κ material at 45 nm node Cu BEOL fatwire levels has been demonstrated with very high electrical yields using the current manufacturing infrastructure.

  12. Integration of magnetic bearings in the design of advanced gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storace, Albert F.; Sood, Devendra K.; Lyons, James P.; Preston, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings provide revolutionary advantages for gas turbine engine rotor support. These advantages include tremendously improved vibration and stability characteristics, reduced power loss, improved reliability, fault-tolerance, and greatly extended bearing service life. The marriage of these advantages with innovative structural network design and advanced materials utilization will permit major increases in thrust to weight performance and structural efficiency for future gas turbine engines. However, obtaining the maximum payoff requires two key ingredients. The first key ingredient is the use of modern magnetic bearing technologies such as innovative digital control techniques, high-density power electronics, high-density magnetic actuators, fault-tolerant system architecture, and electronic (sensorless) position estimation. This paper describes these technologies. The second key ingredient is to go beyond the simple replacement of rolling element bearings with magnetic bearings by incorporating magnetic bearings as an integral part of the overall engine design. This is analogous to the proper approach to designing with composites, whereby the designer tailors the geometry and load carrying function of the structural system or component for the composite instead of simply substituting composites in a design originally intended for metal material. This paper describes methodologies for the design integration of magnetic bearings in gas turbine engines.

  13. Improved methodology for integral analysis of advanced reactors employing passive safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muftuoglu, A. Kursad

    After four decades of experience with pressurized water reactors, a new generation of nuclear plants are emerging. These advanced designs employ passive safety which relies on natural forces, such as gravity and natural circulation. The new concept of passive safety also necessitates improvement in computational tools available for best-estimate analyses. The system codes originally designed for high pressure conditions in the presence of strong momentum sources such as pumps are challenged in many ways. Increased interaction of the primary system with the containment necessitates a tool for integral analysis. This study addresses some of these concerns. An improved tool for integral analysis coupling primary system with containment calculation is also presented. The code package is based on RELAP5 and CONTAIN programs, best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code for primary system analysis and containment code for containment analysis, respectively. The suitability is demonstrated with a postulated small break loss of coolant accident analysis of Westinghouse AP600 plant. The thesis explains the details of the analysis including the coupling model.

  14. Integration of magnetic bearings in the design of advanced gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storace, Albert F.; Sood, Devendra K.; Lyons, James P.; Preston, Mark A.

    1994-05-01

    Active magnetic bearings provide revolutionary advantages for gas turbine engine rotor support. These advantages include tremendously improved vibration and stability characteristics, reduced power loss, improved reliability, fault-tolerance, and greatly extended bearing service life. The marriage of these advantages with innovative structural network design and advanced materials utilization will permit major increases in thrust to weight performance and structural efficiency for future gas turbine engines. However, obtaining the maximum payoff requires two key ingredients. The first key ingredient is the use of modern magnetic bearing technologies such as innovative digital control techniques, high-density power electronics, high-density magnetic actuators, fault-tolerant system architecture, and electronic (sensorless) position estimation. This paper describes these technologies. The second key ingredient is to go beyond the simple replacement of rolling element bearings with magnetic bearings by incorporating magnetic bearings as an integral part of the overall engine design. This is analogous to the proper approach to designing with composites, whereby the designer tailors the geometry and load carrying function of the structural system or component for the composite instead of simply substituting composites in a design originally intended for metal material. This paper describes methodologies for the design integration of magnetic bearings in gas turbine engines.

  15. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  16. Recent Advances in Bacteria Identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Nanomaterials as Affinity Probes

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Tai-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Identifying trace amounts of bacteria rapidly, accurately, selectively, and with high sensitivity is important to ensuring the safety of food and diagnosing infectious bacterial diseases. Microbial diseases constitute the major cause of death in many developing and developed countries of the world. The early detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial in preventing, treating, and containing the spread of infections, and there is an urgent requirement for sensitive, specific, and accurate diagnostic tests. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is an extremely selective and sensitive analytical tool that can be used to characterize different species of pathogenic bacteria. Various functionalized or unmodified nanomaterials can be used as affinity probes to capture and concentrate microorganisms. Recent developments in bacterial detection using nanomaterials-assisted MALDI-MS approaches are highlighted in this article. A comprehensive table listing MALDI-MS approaches for identifying pathogenic bacteria, categorized by the nanomaterials used, is provided. PMID:24786089

  17. Differential impact of mechanical unloading on structural and nonstructural components of the extracellular matrix in advanced human heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sakamuri, Siva S V P; Takawale, Abhijit; Basu, Ratnadeep; Fedak, Paul W M; Freed, Darren; Sergi, Consolato; Oudit, Gavin Y; Kassiri, Zamaneh

    2016-06-01

    Adverse remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a significant characteristic of heart failure. Reverse remodeling of the fibrillar ECM secondary to mechanical unloading of the left ventricle (LV) by left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been subject of intense investigation; however, little is known about the impacts on nonfibrillar ECM and matricellular proteins that also contribute to disease progression. Explanted failing hearts were procured from patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with or without LVAD support, and compared to nonfailing control hearts. LV free wall specimens were formalin-fixed, flash-frozen or optimum cutting temperature-mount frozen. Histologic and biochemical assessment of fibrillar ECM showed that LVAD support was associated with lower levels of insoluble collagen, collagen type I mRNA, and collagen I/III ratio compared with no-LVAD hearts. A disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs-2 (ADAM-TS2), a procollagen endopeptidase, was reduced in no-LVAD but not in LVAD hearts. The rise in ECM proteolytic activities was significantly lower in LVAD hearts. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP2, MMP8, MMP13, and MT1-MMP/MMP14) were comparable between DCM hearts. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)3 and TIMP4 messenger RNA and protein showed the greatest reduction in no-LVAD hearts. Basement membrane proteins exhibited less severe disarray of laminin and fibronectin-1 in LVAD-supported hearts. The rise in matricellular protein, osteopontin, was suppressed in LVAD hearts, whereas secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (SPARC) levels was unaffected by LVAD. Mechanical unloading of the failing DCM hearts can restore the fibrillar ECM and the basement membrane, contributing toward improved clinical outcomes. However, persistent elevation of matricellular proteins such as SPARC could contribute to the relapse of failing hearts on removal of LVAD support.

  18. Joint force protection advanced security system (JFPASS) "the future of force protection: integrate and automate"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Carlos E.; Fagan, Joe E.

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Defense (DoD) defines 'force protection' as "preventive measures taken to mitigate hostile actions against DoD personnel (to include family members), resources, facilities, and critical information." Advanced technologies enable significant improvements in automating and distributing situation awareness, optimizing operator time, and improving sustainability, which enhance protection and lower costs. The JFPASS Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) demonstrates a force protection environment that combines physical security and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) defense through the application of integrated command and control and data fusion. The JFPASS JCTD provides a layered approach to force protection by integrating traditional sensors used in physical security, such as video cameras, battlefield surveillance radars, unmanned and unattended ground sensors. The optimization of human participation and automation of processes is achieved by employment of unmanned ground vehicles, along with remotely operated lethal and less-than-lethal weapon systems. These capabilities are integrated via a tailorable, user-defined common operational picture display through a data fusion engine operating in the background. The combined systems automate the screening of alarms, manage the information displays, and provide assessment and response measures. The data fusion engine links disparate sensors and systems, and applies tailored logic to focus the assessment of events. It enables timely responses by providing the user with automated and semi-automated decision support tools. The JFPASS JCTD uses standard communication/data exchange protocols, which allow the system to incorporate future sensor technologies or communication networks, while maintaining the ability to communicate with legacy or existing systems.

  19. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  20. Advancing the study of violence against women using mixed methods: integrating qualitative methods into a quantitative research program.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-02-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women's sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided.

  1. Truncation of the Series Expressions in the Advanced ENZ-Theory of Diffraction Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haver, S.; Janssen, A. J. E. M.

    2014-09-01

    The point-spread function (PSF) is used in optics for design and assessment of the imaging capabilities of an optical system. It is therefore of vital importance that this PSF can be calculated fast and accurately. In the past 12 years, the Extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ) approach has been developed for the purpose of semi-analytic evaluation of the PSF, for circularly symmetric optical systems, in the focal region. In the earliest ENZ-years, the Debye approximation of the diffraction integral, by which the PSF is given, was considered for the very basic situation of a low-NA optical system and relatively small defocus values, so that a scalar treatment was allowed with a focal factor comprising a quadratic function in the exponential. At present, the ENZ-method allows calculation of the PSF in low- and high-NA cases, in scalar form and for vector fields (including polarization), for large wave-front aberrations, including amplitude non-uniformities, using a quasi-spherical phase focal factor in a virtually unlimited focal range around the focal plane, and no limitations in the off-axis direction. Additionally, the application range of the method has been broadened and generalized to the calculation of aerial images of extended objects by including the finite distance of the object to the entrance pupil. Also imaging into a multi-layer is now possible by accounting for both forward and backward propagation in the layers. In the advanced ENZ-approach, the generalized, complex-valued pupil function is developed into a series of Zernike circle polynomials, with exponential azimuthal dependence (having cosine/sine azimuthal dependence as special cases). For each Zernike term, the diffraction integral reduces after azimuthal integration to an integral that can be expressed as an infinite double series involving spherical Bessel functions, accounting for the parameters of the optical system and the defocus value, and Jinc functions comprising the radial off-axis value

  2. An implantable and controlled drug-release silk fibroin nanofibrous matrix to advance the treatment of solid tumour cancers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Maobin; Fan, Dejun; Chen, Yufeng; Zhao, Zheng; He, Xiaowen; Li, Gang; Chen, Aizheng; Wu, Xiaojian; Li, Jiashen; Li, Zhi; Hunt, John A; Li, Yi; Lan, Ping

    2016-10-01

    The development of more effective cancer therapeutic strategies are still critically required. The maximization of the therapeutic effect in combination with avoiding the severe side effects on normal tissues when using chemotherapy drugs is still an urgent problem that requires improvements urgently. Here we provide implantable and controllable drug-release that utilises silk fibroin (SF) as a nanofibrous drug delivery system (DDS) for cancer treatment. A nanofibrous structure with controllable fibre diameter (<100 nm) was produced. The drug release rate of the SF DDS was controlled by applying a post-treatment process. In vitro anti-cancer (HCT116) results indicated that curcumin (CM)-SF nanofibrous matrix had a superior anti-cancer potential when the concentration was >5 μg/mL. The mechanism could be explained by the cell cycle being held in the S phase. The toxic effect on normal cells (NCM460) was minimized by using a treatment concentration range (5-20 μg/mL). Implantation of this DDS into the tumour site inhibited the growth of solid tumour; this offers an alternative approach for novel cancer therapy. PMID:27376557

  3. Integrating interprofessional collaboration skills into the advanced practice registered nurse socialization process.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Kathleen; Payne, Camille; Heye, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of interprofessional collaboration and practice as a means to provide patient-centered care and to decrease the current fragmentation of health care services in the 21st century provides a clear and unique opportunity for the advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) to assume a key role. For APRNs and other health care providers, to participate effectively as team members requires an interprofessional mindset. Development of interprofessional skills and knowledge for the APRN has been hindered by a silo approach to APRN role socialization. The Institute of Medicine Report (IOM; 2010) states that current health care systems should focus on team collaboration to deliver accessible, high-quality, patient-centered health care that addresses wellness and prevention of illness and adverse events, management of chronic illness, and increased capacity of all providers on the team. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the need to incorporate interprofessional education (IPE) into the socialization models used in advanced practice nursing programs. IPE requires moving beyond profession-specific educational efforts to engage students of different health care professions in interactive learning. Being able to work effectively as member of a clinical team while a student is a fundamental part of that learning (Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel, 2011). The objective of IPE curriculum models in graduate nursing programs is to educate APRNs in the development of an interprofessional mindset. Interprofessional collaboration and coordination are needed to achieve seamless transitions for patients between providers, specialties, and health care settings (IOM, 2010). Achieving the vision requires the continuous development of interprofessional competencies by APRNs as part of the learning process, so that upon entering the workforce, APRNs are ready to practice effective teamwork and team-based care. Socialization of the professional APRN

  4. A two-loop sparse matrix numerical integration procedure for the solution of differential/algebraic equations: Application to multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabana, Ahmed A.; Hussein, Bassam A.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, a two-loop implicit sparse matrix numerical integration (TLISMNI) procedure for the solution of constrained rigid and flexible multibody system differential and algebraic equations is proposed. The proposed method ensures that the kinematic constraint equations are satisfied at the position, velocity and acceleration levels. In this method, a sparse Lagrangian augmented form of the equations of motion that ensures that the constraints are satisfied at the acceleration level is first used to solve for all the accelerations and Lagrange multipliers. The independent coordinates and velocities are then identified and integrated using HTT or Newmark formulas, expressed in this paper in terms of the independent accelerations only. The constraint equations at the position level are then used within an iterative Newton-Raphson procedure to determine the dependent coordinates. The dependent velocities are determined by solving a linear system of algebraic equations. In order to effectively exploit efficient sparse matrix techniques and have minimum storage requirements, a two-loop iterative method is proposed. Equally important, the proposed method avoids the use of numerical differentiation which is commonly associated with the use of implicit integration methods in multibody system algorithms. Numerical examples are presented in order to demonstrate the use of the new integration procedure.

  5. Integration of Technology, Curriculum, and Professional Development for Advancing Middle School Mathematics: Three Large-Scale Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Shechtman, Nicole; Tatar, Deborah; Hegedus, Stephen; Hopkins, Bill; Empson, Susan; Knudsen, Jennifer; Gallagher, Lawrence P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present three studies (two randomized controlled experiments and one embedded quasi-experiment) designed to evaluate the impact of replacement units targeting student learning of advanced middle school mathematics. The studies evaluated the SimCalc approach, which integrates an interactive representational technology, paper curriculum,…

  6. Integration of advanced geoscience and engineering techniques to quantify interwell heterogeneity. Quarterly technical report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.; Buckley, J.S.; Weiss, W.W.; Ouenes, A.

    1995-09-01

    Objective is to integrate advanced geoscience and reservoir engineering concepts to quantify the dynamics of fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions as related to reservoir architecture and lithologic characterization. During this period, studies were made of the permeability, wettability, and porosity of the Sulimar Queen Formation.

  7. Application of Energy Integration Techniques to the Design of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory

    2000-01-01

    Exchanging heat between hot and cold streams within an advanced life support system can save energy. This savings will reduce the equivalent system mass (ESM) of the system. Different system configurations are examined under steady-state conditions for various percentages of food growth and waste treatment. The scenarios investigated represent possible design options for a Mars reference mission. Reference mission definitions are drawn from the ALSS Modeling and Analysis Reference Missions Document, which includes definitions for space station evolution, Mars landers, and a Mars base. For each scenario, streams requiring heating or cooling are identified and characterized by mass flow, supply and target temperatures and heat capacities. The Pinch Technique is applied to identify good matches for energy exchange between the hot and cold streams and to calculate the minimum external heating and cooling requirements for the system. For each pair of hot and cold streams that are matched, there will be a reduction in the amount of external heating and cooling required, and the original heating and cooling equipment will be replaced with a heat exchanger. The net cost savings can be either positive or negative for each stream pairing, and the priority for implementing each pairing can be ranked according to its potential cost savings. Using the Pinch technique, a complete system heat exchange network is developed and heat exchangers are sized to allow for calculation of ESM. The energy-integrated design typically has a lower total ESM than the original design with no energy integration. A comparison of ESM savings in each of the scenarios is made to direct future Pinch Analysis efforts.

  8. Integration of advanced geoscience and engineering techniques to quantify interwell heterogeneity. Quarterly technical report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.S.; Weiss, W.W.; Ouenes, A.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this project is to integrate advanced geoscience and reservoir engineering concepts with the goal of quantifying the dynamics of fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions as they relate to reservoir architecture and lithologic characterization. This interdisciplinary effort will integrate geological and geophysical data with engineering and petrophysical results through reservoir simulation. Several members of the PPRC staff are participating in the development of improved reservoir description by integration of the field and laboratory data, as well as in the development of quantitative reservoir models to aid performance predictions.

  9. Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Increased Biomass Productivity and Technology Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xuemei; Sabarsky, Martin

    2013-09-30

    Cellana is a leading developer of algae-based bioproducts, and its pre-commercial production of marine microalgae takes place at Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF) in Hawaii. KDF is housing more than 70 high-performing algal strains for different bioproducts, of which over 30 have been grown outside at scale. So far, Cellana has produced more than 10 metric tons of algal biomass for the development of biofuels, animal feed, and high-value nutraceuticals. Cellana?s ALDUO algal cultivation technology allows Cellana to grow non-extremophile algal strains at large scale with no contamination disruptions. Cellana?s research and production at KDF have addressed three major areas that are crucial for the commercialization of algal biofuels: yield improvement, cost reduction, and the overall economics. Commercially acceptable solutions have been developed and tested for major factors limiting areal productivity of algal biomass and lipids based on years of R&D work conducted at KDF. Improved biomass and lipid productivity were achieved through strain improvement, culture management strategies (e.g., alleviation of self-shading, de-oxygenation, and efficient CO2 delivery), and technical advancement in downstream harvesting technology. Cost reduction was achieved through optimized CO2 delivery system, flue gas utilization technology, and energy-efficient harvesting technology. Improved overall economics was achieved through a holistic approach by integration of high-value co-products in the process, in addition to yield improvements and cost reductions.

  10. Indianapolis I3: the third generation Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Julie J; Overhage, J Marc; Barnes, Mike; McDonald, Clement J

    2004-04-01

    In 2001, the Regenstrief Institute for Health Care and the Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) began an IAIMS planning effort to create a vision and a tactical plan for the first Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) implementation to cross a large area and include unaffiliated institutions. A number of elements made this planning effort unique. Among these elements were the existence of a network infrastructure that supported the Indianapolis Network for Patient Care, the existence of a mature medical informatics program at the Regenstrief Institute, and the existence of a wide-area knowledge network fostered by the IUSM libraries. However, the leadership for a strong information technology role in the IUSM that could promote collaboration in support of education and research across the diverse Indianapolis hospital systems had been lacking. By bringing together various groups, each with a commitment to improve health care quality and public health across the Indianapolis metropolitan area, regardless of individual institutional affiliation, the strategic directions for I3-Indianapolis IAIMS Initiative have been defined and the foundations for a third generation IAIMS construct have been laid in Indianapolis, Indiana.

  11. Joining and Integration of Advanced Carbon-Carbon Composites to Metallic Systems for Thermal Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research and development activities in joining and integration of carbon-carbon (C/C) composites to metals such as Ti and Cu-clad-Mo for thermal management applications are presented with focus on advanced brazing techniques. A wide variety of carbon-carbon composites with CVI and resin-derived matrices were joined to Ti and Cu-clad Mo using a number of active braze alloys. The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of active elements (e.g., Ti) at the composite/braze interface. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the CVI C/C composites was observed. The chemical and thermomechanical compatibility between C/C and metals at elevated temperatures is assessed. The role of residual stresses and thermal conduction in brazed C/C joints is discussed. Theoretical predictions of the effective thermal resistance suggest that composite-to-metal brazed joints may be promising for lightweight thermal management applications.

  12. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Program review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology to an Advanced Subsonic Transport Project, established as one element of the NASA/Boeing Energy Efficient Transport Technology Program. The performance assessment showed that incorporating ACT into an airplane designed to fly approximately 200 passengers approximately 2,000 nmi could yield block fuel savings from 6 to 10 percent at the design range. The principal risks associated with incorporating these active control functions into a commercial airplane are those involved with the ACT system implementation. The Test and Evaluation phase of the IAAC Project focused on the design, fabrication, and test of a system that implemented pitch axis fly-by-wire, pitch axis augmentation, and wing load alleviation. The system was built to be flight worthy, and was planned to be experimentally flown on the 757. The system was installed in the Boeing Digital Avionics Flight Controls Laboratory (DAFCL), where open loop hardware and software tests, and a brief examination of a direct drive valve (DDV) actuation concept were accomplished. The IAAC Project has shown that ACT can be beneficially incorporated into a commercial transport airplane. Based on the results achieved during the testing phase, there appears to be no fundamental reason(s) that would preclude the commercial application of ACT, assuming an appropriate development effort is included.

  13. Advancing effects analysis for integrated, large-scale wildfire risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew P; Calkin, David E; Gilbertson-Day, Julie W; Ager, Alan A

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we describe the design and development of a quantitative, geospatial risk assessment tool intended to facilitate monitoring trends in wildfire risk over time and to provide information useful in prioritizing fuels treatments and mitigation measures. The research effort is designed to develop, from a strategic view, a first approximation of how both fire likelihood and intensity influence risk to social, economic, and ecological values at regional and national scales. Three main components are required to generate wildfire risk outputs: (1) burn probability maps generated from wildfire simulations, (2) spatially identified highly valued resources (HVRs), and (3) response functions that describe the effects of fire (beneficial or detrimental) on the HVR. Analyzing fire effects has to date presented a major challenge to integrated risk assessments, due to a limited understanding of the type and magnitude of changes wrought by wildfire to ecological and other nonmarket values. This work advances wildfire effects analysis, recognizing knowledge uncertainty and appropriately managing it through the use of an expert systems approach. Specifically, this work entailed consultation with 10 fire and fuels program management officials from federal agencies with fire management responsibilities in order to define quantitative resource response relationships as a function of fire intensity. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept application of the wildland fire risk assessment tool, using the state of Oregon as a case study.

  14. Development of Regulatory Technical Requirements for the Advanced Integral Type Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik; Kim, Hho Jung

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the current status of the study on the development of regulatory technical requirements for the licensing review of an advanced integral type research reactor of which the license application is expected in a few years. According to the Atomic Energy Act of Korea, both research and education reactors are subject to the technical requirements for power reactors in the licensing review. But, some of the requirements may not be applicable or insufficient for the licensing reviews of reactors with unique design features. Thus it is necessary to identify which review topics or areas can not be addressed by the existing requirements and to develop the required ones newly or supplement appropriately. Through the study performed so far, it has been identified that the following requirements need to be developed newly for the licensing review of SMART-P: the use of proven technology, the interfacial facility, the non-safety systems, and the metallic fuels. The approach and basis for the development of each of the requirements are discussed. (authors)

  15. Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems: a twenty-year history at the University of Cincinnati*

    PubMed Central

    Guard, J. Roger; Brueggemann, Ralph F.; Fant, William K.; Hutton, John J.; Kues, John R.; Marine, Stephen A.; Rouan, Gregory W.; Schick, Leslie C.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Cincinnati (UC) has been active in the National Library of Medicine's Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) program since IAIMS' inception in 1984. UC received IAIMS planning and modeling grants in the 1980s, spent the 1990s practicing its own form of “iaims” and refining its vision, and, in May 2003, received an IAIMS operations grant in the first round of awards under “the next generation” program. This paper discusses the history of IAIMS at UC and describes the goals, methods, and strategies of the current IAIMS program. The goals of UC's IAIMS program are to: improve teaching effectiveness by improving the assessment of health professional students and residents in laboratory and clinical teaching and learning environments; improve the ability of researchers, educators, and students to acquire and apply the knowledge required to be more productive in genomic research and education; and increase the productivity of researchers and administrators in the pre-award, post-award, and compliance phases of the research lifecycle. PMID:15098045

  16. Advances in the study of boundary value problems for nonlinear integrable PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelloni, Beatrice

    2015-02-01

    In this review I summarize some of the most significant advances of the last decade in the analysis and solution of boundary value problems for integrable partial differential equations (PDEs) in two independent variables. These equations arise widely in mathematical physics, and in order to model realistic applications, it is essential to consider bounded domain and inhomogeneous boundary conditions. I focus specifically on a general and widely applicable approach, usually referred to as the unified transform or Fokas transform, that provides a substantial generalization of the classical inverse scattering transform. This approach preserves the conceptual efficiency and aesthetic appeal of the more classical transform approaches, but presents a distinctive and important difference. While the inverse scattering transform follows the ‘separation of variables’ philosophy, albeit in a nonlinear setting, the unified transform is based on the idea of synthesis, rather than separation, of variables. I will outline the main ideas in the case of linear evolution equations, and then illustrate their generalization to certain nonlinear cases of particular significance.

  17. COST-ES0601: Advances in homogenisation methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestre, O.; Auer, I.; Venema, V.; Stepanek, P.; Szentimrey, T.; Grimvall, A.; Aguilar, E.

    2009-04-01

    The COST Action ES0601: Advances in homogenisation methods of climate series: an integrated approach is nearing the end of its second year of life. The action is intended to provide the best possible tools for the homogenization of time series to the climate research community. The involved scientists have done remarkable progress since COST Action ES0601 was launched (see www.homogenisation.org). HOME has started with a literature review and a survey to the research community to identify those climatic elements and homogenisation techniques to be considered during the action. This allowed the preparation of the benchmark monthly dataset to be used during the remaining time of the action. This monthly benchmark contains real temperature and precipitation data (with real inhomogeneities), as well as synthetic and surrogate networks, including artificially produced missing values, outliers, local trends and break inhomogeneities which are inserted at the usual rate, size and distribution found in actual networks. The location of the outliers and change points is undisclosed to the HOME scientists, who are, at present, applying different homogenisation approaches and uploading the results, to analyse the performances of their techniques. Everyone who works on the homogenization of climate data is cordially invited to join this exercise. HOME is also working on the production of a daily benchmark dataset, to reproduce the experiment described above, but in a lower temporal resolution, and on the preparation of freely available homogenization tools, including the best performing approaches.

  18. The Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication and Control (ISAACC) System Concept: Infrastructure for ISHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) architectures for spacecraft will include hard real-time, critical subsystems and soft real-time monitoring subsystems. Interaction between these subsystems will be necessary and an architecture supporting multiple criticality levels will be required. Demonstration hardware for the Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication & Control (ISAACC) system has been developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. It is a modular system using a commercially available time-triggered protocol, ?Tp/C, that supports hard real-time distributed control systems independent of the data transmission medium. The protocol is implemented in hardware and provides guaranteed low-latency messaging with inherent fault-tolerance and fault-containment. Interoperability between modules and systems of modules using the TTP/C is guaranteed through definition of messages and the precise message schedule implemented by the master-less Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communications protocol. "Plug-and-play" capability for sensors and actuators provides automatically configurable modules supporting sensor recalibration and control algorithm re-tuning without software modification. Modular components of controlled physical system(s) critical to control algorithm tuning, such as pumps or valve components in an engine, can be replaced or upgraded as "plug and play" components without modification to the ISAACC module hardware or software. ISAACC modules can communicate with other vehicle subsystems through time-triggered protocols or other communications protocols implemented over Ethernet, MIL-STD- 1553 and RS-485/422. Other communication bus physical layers and protocols can be included as required. In this way, the ISAACC modules can be part of a system-of-systems in a vehicle with multi-tier subsystems of varying criticality. The goal of the ISAACC architecture development is control and monitoring of safety critical systems of a

  19. The effect of oxygen tension on human articular chondrocyte matrix synthesis: integration of experimental and computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Oreffo, R O C; Sengers, B G; Tare, R S

    2014-09-01

    Significant oxygen gradients occur within tissue engineered cartilaginous constructs. Although oxygen tension is an important limiting parameter in the development of new cartilage matrix, its precise role in matrix formation by chondrocytes remains controversial, primarily due to discrepancies in the experimental setup applied in different studies. In this study, the specific effects of oxygen tension on the synthesis of cartilaginous matrix by human articular chondrocytes were studied using a combined experimental-computational approach in a "scaffold-free" 3D pellet culture model. Key parameters including cellular oxygen uptake rate were determined experimentally and used in conjunction with a mathematical model to estimate oxygen tension profiles in 21-day cartilaginous pellets. A threshold oxygen tension (pO2 ≈ 8% atmospheric pressure) for human articular chondrocytes was estimated from these inferred oxygen profiles and histological analysis of pellet sections. Human articular chondrocytes that experienced oxygen tension below this threshold demonstrated enhanced proteoglycan deposition. Conversely, oxygen tension higher than the threshold favored collagen synthesis. This study has demonstrated a close relationship between oxygen tension and matrix synthesis by human articular chondrocytes in a "scaffold-free" 3D pellet culture model, providing valuable insight into the understanding and optimization of cartilage bioengineering approaches.

  20. Advanced Image Intensifier: a 60°field-of-view night vision system with integral electroluminescent display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crenshaw, David A.; Branigan, Robert G.

    1996-06-01

    The Advanced Image Intensifier Advanced Technology Demonstrator is an Army program to develop and demonstrate the next generation of night vision goggle using revolutionary new technologies to improve system performance and expand the capability of currently fielded image intensifier devices. The Advanced Image Intensifier is a helmet mounted imaging and display system that exploits recent advances in diffractive optics, miniature flat panel displays, image intensifier tube technology and manufacturing processes. The system will demonstrate significantly enhanced operational performance by increasing low-light resolution by greater than 25 percent; increasing field of view from 40 degrees to 60 degrees; improving high light performance; and integrating a display for viewing thermal imagery, computer graphics, and symbology. The results of these improvements will increase the night fighting capability, operational effectiveness, mobilty, versatility, and survivability of the dismounted soldier and aviator.

  1. A computational method for solving stochastic Itô–Volterra integral equations based on stochastic operational matrix for generalized hat basis functions

    SciTech Connect

    Heydari, M.H.; Hooshmandasl, M.R.; Maalek Ghaini, F.M.; Cattani, C.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a new computational method based on the generalized hat basis functions is proposed for solving stochastic Itô–Volterra integral equations. In this way, a new stochastic operational matrix for generalized hat functions on the finite interval [0,T] is obtained. By using these basis functions and their stochastic operational matrix, such problems can be transformed into linear lower triangular systems of algebraic equations which can be directly solved by forward substitution. Also, the rate of convergence of the proposed method is considered and it has been shown that it is O(1/(n{sup 2}) ). Further, in order to show the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method, the new approach is compared with the block pulse functions method by some examples. The obtained results reveal that the proposed method is more accurate and efficient in comparison with the block pule functions method.

  2. Advanced Communication and Control for Distributed Energy Resource Integration: Phase 2 Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    BPL Global

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this research project is to demonstrate sensing, communication, information and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of multivendor distributed energy resource (DER) units at aggregation levels that meet individual user requirements for facility operations (residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) and further serve as resource options for electric and natural gas utilities. The fully demonstrated DER aggregation system with embodiment of communication and control technologies will lead to real-time, interactive, customer-managed service networks to achieve greater customer value. Work on this Advanced Communication and Control Project (ACCP) consists of a two-phase approach for an integrated demonstration of communication and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of DER units to reach progressive levels of aggregated power output. Phase I involved design and proof-of-design, and Phase II involves real-world demonstration of the Phase I design architecture. The scope of work for Phase II of this ACCP involves demonstrating the Phase I design architecture in large scale real-world settings while integrating with the operations of one or more electricity supplier feeder lines. The communication and control architectures for integrated demonstration shall encompass combinations of software and hardware components, including: sensors, data acquisition and communication systems, remote monitoring systems, metering (interval revenue, real-time), local and wide area networks, Web-based systems, smart controls, energy management/information systems with control and automation of building energy loads, and demand-response management with integration of real-time market pricing. For Phase II, BPL Global shall demonstrate the Phase I design for integrating and controlling the operation of more than 10 DER units, dispersed at various locations in one or more Independent System Operator (ISO) Control Areas, at

  3. Advanced Technologies Demonstrated by the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS) Aboard Deep Space 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, David H.; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Brown, Robert H.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Lee, Meemong; Sandel, Bill R.; Thomas, David A.; Benoit, Robert T.; Yelle, Roger V.

    2007-04-01

    MICAS is an integrated multi-channel instrument that includes an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (80 185 nm), two high-resolution visible imagers (10 20 μrad/pixel, 400 900 nm), and a short-wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer (1250 2600 nm). The wavelength ranges were chosen to maximize the science data that could be collected using existing semiconductor technologies and avoiding the need for multi-octave spectrometers. It was flown on DS1 to validate technologies derived from the development of PICS (Planetary Imaging Camera Spectrometer). These technologies provided a novel systems approach enabling the miniaturization and integration of four instruments into one entity, spanning a wavelength range from the UV to IR, and from ambient to cryogenic temperatures with optical performance at a fraction of a wavelength. The specific technologies incorporated were: a built-in fly-by sequence; lightweight and ultra-stable, monolithic silicon-carbide construction, which enabled room-temperature alignment for cryogenic (85 140 K) performance, and provided superb optical performance and immunity to thermal distortion; diffraction-limited, shared optics operating from 80 to 2600 nm; advanced detector technologies for the UV, visible and short-wavelength IR; high-performance thermal radiators coupled directly to the short-wave infrared (SWIR) detector optical bench, providing an instrument with a mass less than 10 kg, instrument power less than 10 W, and total instrument cost of less than ten million dollars. The design allows the wavelength range to be extended by at least an octave at the short wavelength end and to ˜50 microns at the long wavelength end. Testing of the completed instrument demonstrated excellent optical performance down to 77 K, which would enable a greatly reduced background for longer wavelength detectors. During the Deep Space 1 Mission, MICAS successfully collected images and spectra for asteroid 9969 Braille, Mars, and comet 19/P Borrelly

  4. Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise: Advancing coastal management through integrated research and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Rising sea level represents a significant threat to coastal communities and ecosystems through land loss, altered habitats, and increased vulnerability to coastal storms and inundation. This threat is exemplified in the northern Gulf of Mexico where low topography, expansive marshes, and a prevalence of tropical storms have already resulted in extensive coastal impacts. The development of robust predictive capabilities that incorporate complex biological processes with physical dynamics are critical for informed planning and restoration efforts for coastal ecosystems. Looking to build upon existing predictive modeling capabilities and allow for use of multiple model (i.e., ensemble) approaches, NOAA initiated the Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise program in 2010 to advance physical/biological integrative modeling capabilities in the region with a goal to provide user friendly predictive tools for coastal ecosystem management. Focused on the northern Gulf of Mexico, this multi-disciplinary project led by the University of Central Florida will use in situ field studies to parameterize physical and biological models. These field studies will also result in a predictive capability for overland sediment delivery and transport that will further enhance marsh, oyster, and submerged aquatic vegetation models. Results from this integrated modeling effort are envisioned to inform management strategies for reducing risk, restoration and breakwater guidelines, and resource sustainability for project planning, among other uses. In addition to the science components, this project incorporates significant engagement of the management community through a management applications principle investigator and an advisory management committee. Routine engagement between the science team and the management committee, including annual workshops, are focused on ensuring the development of applicable, relevant, and useable products and tools at the conclusion of this project. Particular

  5. Advanced technologies demonstrated by the miniature integrated camera and spectrometer (MICAS) aboard deep space 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodgers, D.H.; Beauchamp, P.M.; Soderblom, L.A.; Brown, R.H.; Chen, G.-S.; Lee, M.; Sandel, B.R.; Thomas, D.A.; Benoit, R.T.; Yelle, R.V.

    2007-01-01

    MICAS is an integrated multi-channel instrument that includes an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (80-185 nm), two high-resolution visible imagers (10-20 ??rad/pixel, 400-900 nm), and a short-wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer (1250-2600 nm). The wavelength ranges were chosen to maximize the science data that could be collected using existing semiconductor technologies and avoiding the need for multi-octave spectrometers. It was flown on DS1 to validate technologies derived from the development of PICS (Planetary Imaging Camera Spectrometer). These technologies provided a novel systems approach enabling the miniaturization and integration of four instruments into one entity, spanning a wavelength range from the UV to IR, and from ambient to cryogenic temperatures with optical performance at a fraction of a wavelength. The specific technologies incorporated were: a built-in fly-by sequence; lightweight and ultra-stable, monolithic silicon-carbide construction, which enabled room-temperature alignment for cryogenic (85-140 K) performance, and provided superb optical performance and immunity to thermal distortion; diffraction-limited, shared optics operating from 80 to 2600 nm; advanced detector technologies for the UV, visible and short-wavelength IR; high-performance thermal radiators coupled directly to the short-wave infrared (SWIR) detector optical bench, providing an instrument with a mass less than 10 kg, instrument power less than 10 W, and total instrument cost of less than ten million dollars. The design allows the wavelength range to be extended by at least an octave at the short wavelength end and to 50 microns at the long wavelength end. Testing of the completed instrument demonstrated excellent optical performance down to 77 K, which would enable a greatly reduced background for longer wavelength detectors. During the Deep Space 1 Mission, MICAS successfully collected images and spectra for asteroid 9969 Braille, Mars, and comet 19/P Borrelly. The

  6. Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Glen; Tillman, Jennifer; Hanna, Keith; Heubusch, Jeff; Ayers, Robert

    2007-04-01

    for creating initial alerts - we refer to this as software level detection, the next level building block Immersive 3D visual assessment for situational awareness and to manage the reaction process - we refer to this as automated intelligent situational awareness, a third building block Wide area command and control capabilities to allow control from a remote location - we refer to this as the management and process control building block integrating together the lower level building elements. In addition, this paper describes three live installations of complete, total systems that incorporate visible and thermal cameras as well as advanced video analytics. Discussion of both system elements and design is extensive.

  7. The role of porous matrix in water flow regulation within a karst unsaturated zone: an integrated hydrogeophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrière, Simon D.; Chalikakis, Konstantinos; Danquigny, Charles; Davi, Hendrik; Mazzilli, Naomi; Ollivier, Chloé; Emblanch, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Some portions of the porous rock matrix in the karst unsaturated zone (UZ) can contain large volumes of water and play a major role in water flow regulation. The essential results are presented of a local-scale study conducted in 2011 and 2012 above the Low Noise Underground Laboratory (LSBB - Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit) at Rustrel, southeastern France. Previous research revealed the geological structure and water-related features of the study site and illustrated the feasibility of specific hydrogeophysical measurements. In this study, the focus is on hydrodynamics at the seasonal and event timescales. Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) measured a high water content (more than 10 %) in a large volume of rock. This large volume of water cannot be stored in fractures and conduits within the UZ. MRS was also used to measure the seasonal variation of water stored in the karst UZ. A process-based model was developed to simulate the effect of vegetation on groundwater recharge dynamics. In addition, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring was used to assess preferential water pathways during a rain event. This study demonstrates the major influence of water flow within the porous rock matrix on the UZ hydrogeological functioning at both the local (LSBB) and regional (Fontaine de Vaucluse) scales. By taking into account the role of the porous matrix in water flow regulation, these findings may significantly improve karst groundwater hydrodynamic modelling, exploitation, and sustainable management.

  8. NERI FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT, DE-FC07-O5ID14647, OPTIMIZATION OF OXIDE COMPOUNDS FOR ADVANCED INERT MATRIX MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    PI: JUAN C. NINO, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR

    2009-01-11

    In order to reduce the current excesses of plutonium (both weapon grade and reactor grade) and other transuranium elements, a concept of inert matrix fuel (IMF) has been proposed for an uranium free transmutation of fissile actinides which excludes continuous uranium-plutonium conversion in thermal reactors and advanced systems. Magnesium oxide (MgO) is a promising candidate for inert matrix (IM) materials due to its high melting point (2827 C), high thermal conductivity (13 W/K {center_dot} m at 1000 C), good neutronic properties, and irradiation stability However, MgO reacts with water and hydrates easily, which prevents it from being used in light water reactors (LWRs) as an IM. To improve the hydration resistance of MgO-based inert matrix materials, Medvedev and coworkers have recently investigated the introduction of a secondary phase that acts as a hydration barrier. An MgO-ZrO{sub 2} composite was specifically studied and the results showed that the composite exhibited improved hydration resistance than pure MgO. However, ZrO{sub 2} is insoluble in most acids except HF, which is undesirable for fuel reprocessing. Moreover, the thermal conductivity of ZrO{sub 2} is low and typically less than 3 W {center_dot} m{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1} at 1000 C. In search for an alternative composite strategy, Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, an oxide compound with pyrochlore structure, has been proposed recently as a corrosion resistant phase, and MgO-Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composites have been investigated as potential IM materials. An adequate thermal conductivity of 6 W {center_dot} m{sup -} 1 {center_dot} K{sup -1} at 1000 C for the MgO-Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composite with 90 vol% MgO was recently calculated and reported. Other simulations proposed that the MgO-pyrochlore composites could exhibit higher radiation stability than previously reported. Final optimization of the composite microstructure was performed on the 70 vol% MgO-Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7

  9. Virtual Welded-Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z.; Dong, P.; Liu, S.; Babu, S.; Olson, G.; DebRoy, T.

    2005-04-15

    The primary goal of this project is to increase the fatigue life of a welded-joint by 10 times and to reduce energy use by 25% through product performance and productivity improvements using an integrated modeling approach. The fatigue strength of a welded-joint is currently the bottleneck to design high performance and lightweight welded structures using advanced materials such as high strength steels. In order to achieve high fatigue strength in a welded-joint it is necessary to manage the weld bead shape for lower stress concentration, produce preferable residual stress distribution, and obtain the desired microstructure for improved material toughness and strength. This is a systems challenge that requires the optimization of the welding process, the welding consumable, the base material, as well as the structure design. The concept of virtual welded-joint design has been proposed and established in this project. The goal of virtual welded-joint design is to develop a thorough procedure to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, property, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatigue strength by a systematic modeling approach. The systematic approach combines five sub-models: weld thermal-fluid model, weld microstructure model, weld material property model, weld residual stress model, and weld fatigue model. The systematic approach is thus based on interdisciplinary applied sciences including heat transfer, computational fluid dynamics, materials science, engineering mechanics, and material fracture mechanics. The sub-models are based on existing models with further development. The results from modeling have been validated with critical experiments. The systematic modeling approach has been used to design high fatigue resistant welds considering the combined effects of weld bead geometry, residual stress, microstructure, and material property. In particular, a special welding wire has been developed in this project to introduce

  10. Non-specific lipid transfer proteins in plants: presenting new advances and an integrated functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Lu, Changming; Zeng, Xinhua; Li, Yunjing; Fu, Donghui; Wu, Gang

    2015-09-01

    Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic proteins present in abundance in higher plants. They are involved in key processes of plant cytology, such as the stablization of membranes, cell wall organization, and signal transduction. nsLTPs are also known to play important roles in resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and in plant growth and development, such as sexual reproduction, seed development and germination. The structures of plant nsLTPs contain an eight-cysteine residue conserved motif, linked by four disulfide bonds, and an internal hydrophobic cavity, which comprises the lipid-binding site. This structure endows stability and increases the ability to bind and/or carry hydrophobic molecules. There is growing interest in nsLTPs, due to their critical roles, resulting in the need for a comprehensive review of their form and function. Relevant topics include: nsLTP structure and biochemical features, their classification, identification, and characterization across species, sub-cellular localization, lipid binding and transfer ability, expression profiling, functionality, and evolution. We present advances, as well as limitations and trends, relating to the different topics of the nsLTP gene family. This review collates a large body of research pertaining to the role of nsLTPs across the plant kingdom, which has been integrated as an in depth functional analysis of this group of proteins as a whole, and their activities across multiple biochemical pathways, based on a large number of reports. This review will enhance our understanding of nsLTP activity in planta, prompting further work and insights into the roles of this multifaceted protein family in plants.

  11. ECLSS Integration Analysis: Advanced ECLSS Subsystem and Instrumentation Technology Study for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In his July 1989 space policy speech, President Bush proposed a long range continuing commitment to space exploration and development. Included in his goals were the establishment of permanent lunar and Mars habitats and the development of extended duration space transportation. In both cases, a major issue is the availability of qualified sensor technologies for use in real-time monitoring and control of integrated physical/chemical/biological (p/c/b) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). The purpose of this study is to determine the most promising instrumentation technologies for future ECLSS applications. The study approach is as follows: 1. Precursor ECLSS Subsystem Technology Trade Study - A database of existing and advanced Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) and Water Recovery and Management (WRM) ECLSS subsystem technologies was created. A trade study was performed to recommend AR and WRM subsystem technologies for future lunar and Mars mission scenarios. The purpose of this trade study was to begin defining future ECLSS instrumentation requirements as a precursor to determining the instrumentation technologies that will be applicable to future ECLS systems. 2. Instrumentation Survey - An instrumentation database of Chemical, Microbial, Conductivity, Humidity, Flowrate, Pressure, and Temperature sensors was created. Each page of the sensor database report contains information for one type of sensor, including a description of the operating principles, specifications, and the reference(s) from which the information was obtained. This section includes a cursory look at the history of instrumentation on U.S. spacecraft. 3. Results and Recommendations - Instrumentation technologies were recommended for further research and optimization based on a consideration of both of the above sections. A sensor or monitor technology was recommended based on its applicability to future ECLS systems, as defined by the ECLSS Trade Study (1), and on whether its

  12. Low cost reclamation using the Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems Technology and reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Downing, J B; Bracco, E; Green, F B; Ku, A Y; Lundquist, T J; Zubieta, I X; Oswald, W J

    2002-01-01

    The sustainability of wastewater reclamation and reuse schemes is often limited by the increase in salt concentration that occurs with each water use. In this pilot study, we show that the cost of reclaiming wastewater and removing salt can be dramatically decreased by integrating recent advances in wastewater pond design, solids separation equipment, and membrane technology. Effluent from an AIWPS Facility was clarified in a Krofta Supracell Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) unit and a Slow Sand Filter (SSF) prior to final treatment in an Expertise S.r.l. reverse osmosis (RO) unit. The ponds of the AIWPS Facility removed an average of 82% of soluble BOD and 80% of soluble nitrogen. Following clarification, filtration, and RO treatment, the pollutant removals were > 99% for soluble BOD, > 99% for soluble nitrogen, and 98% for TDS. Based on membrane fouling rate data, the cleaning interval for the RO membranes in a full-scale AIWPS-RO Facility would be over 100 days. This interval is on par with that typically seen in full-scale reclamation facilities treating secondary activated sludge effluent with microfiltration prior to reverse osmosis. A 4-MLD AIWPS-RO Facility is expected to produce permeate water at substantially lower cost and lower energy consumption (US $698 and 443 kWh per million liters treated) than a system of equal capacity using conventional activated sludge secondary treatment followed by microfiltration and reverse osmosis (US $1274 and 911 kWh per million litres treated). This cost and energy differential is attributable to the lower capital and operating expenses of the AIWPS Technology in comparison with activated sludge.

  13. IEDA Thesaurus: A Controlled Vocabulary for IEDA Systems to Advance Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, P.; Lehnert, K. A.; Arko, R. A.; Song, L.; Hsu, L.; Carter, M. R.; Ferrini, V. L.; Ash, J.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) is a community-based facility that serves to support, sustain, and advance the geosciences by providing data services for observational geoscience data from the Ocean, Earth, and Polar Sciences. Many dedicated systems such as the Petrological Database (PetDB), Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS), System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR), Data Coordination Center for the U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP-DCC), etc., under the umbrella of the IEDA framework, were developed to support the preservation, discovery, retrieval, and analysis of a wide range of observational field and analytical data types from diverse communities. However, it is currently difficult to maintain consistency of indexing content within IEDA schema, and perform unified or precise searching of the data in these diverse systems as each system maintains separate vocabularies, hierarchies, authority files, or sub taxonomies. We present here the IEDA Thesaurus, a system, which combines existing separate controlled vocabularies from the different systems under the IEDA schema into a single master controlled vocabulary, also introducing some new top facets for future long-term use. The IEDA thesaurus contains structured terminology for petrology, geochemistry, sedimentology, oceanography, geochronology, and volcanology, and other general metadata fields. 18 top facets (also called 'top categories') are defined, including equipment, geographic gazetteer, geologic ages, geologic units, materials, etc. The terms of the thesaurus are cross validated with others popular geoscience vocabularies such as GeoRef Thesaurus, U.S. Geological Survey Library Classification System, Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), and Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies. The thesaurus is organized along with the ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies, and is published using

  14. Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS).

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2008-08-01

    The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework.

  15. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator is associated with progression from benign to advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Schmalfeldt, B; Prechtel, D; Härting, K; Späthe, K; Rutke, S; Konik, E; Fridman, R; Berger, U; Schmitt, M; Kuhn, W; Lengyel, E

    2001-08-01

    Proteases are linked to the malignant phenotype of different solid tumors. Therefore, the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in the progression of ovarian cancer was investigated. Gelatinolytic activity and protein expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were analyzed in tissue extracts of 19 cystadenomas and 18 low malignant potential (LMP) tumors, as well as 41 primary tumors of advanced ovarian cancer stage International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics IIIc/IV and their corresponding omentum metastases by quantitative gelatin zymography and Western blot. In the same tissue extracts, antigen levels of uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 were determined by ELISA. Protein expression of pro-MMP-2 (72 kDa) and pro-MMP-9 (92 kDa as well as antigen levels of uPA and PAI-1 were low in benign ovarian tumors but increased significantly from LMP tumors to advanced ovarian cancers. The highest values of all of the proteolytic factors were detected in omentum metastases. Active MMP-2 enzyme (62 kDa) was detected only in ovarian cancer (66%) and corresponding metastases (93%) but never in benign or LMP tumors. The activation rate of MMP-2 to its active isoform was higher in the metastases. Comparing both proteolytic systems, higher PAI-1 concentrations were consistently found in cancers with high pro-MMP-9 expression. These data indicate that members of the plasminogen activator system, as well as the metalloproteinases MMP-2/9, increase with growing malignant potential of ovarian tumors. These findings are of particular relevance to the development of protease inhibitors as new therapeutic approaches in ovarian cancer.

  16. Application of Transformational Leadership Principles in the Development and Integration of Palliative Care Within an Advanced Heart Failure Program.

    PubMed

    George, Susan; Leasure, A Renee

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem in United States, and it has reached epidemic proportions. Heart failure is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Although the prognosis of HF is worse than many forms of cancer, many patients, families, and clinicians are unaware of the dire prognosis. As the disease progress to advanced HF, patients are faced with many challenges, such as poor quality of life due to worsening symptoms and frequent hospitalizations. Heart failure management adds significant financial burden to the health care system. Palliative care can be integrated into HF care to improve quality of life and symptom management and to address physical, spiritual, and psychosocial needs of patients and families. Palliative care can be used concurrently with or independent of curative or life-prolonging HF therapies. Transformational leadership principles were used to guide the development of a plan to enhance integration of palliative care within traditional advanced HF care. PMID:26836596

  17. Application of Transformational Leadership Principles in the Development and Integration of Palliative Care Within an Advanced Heart Failure Program.

    PubMed

    George, Susan; Leasure, A Renee

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem in United States, and it has reached epidemic proportions. Heart failure is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Although the prognosis of HF is worse than many forms of cancer, many patients, families, and clinicians are unaware of the dire prognosis. As the disease progress to advanced HF, patients are faced with many challenges, such as poor quality of life due to worsening symptoms and frequent hospitalizations. Heart failure management adds significant financial burden to the health care system. Palliative care can be integrated into HF care to improve quality of life and symptom management and to address physical, spiritual, and psychosocial needs of patients and families. Palliative care can be used concurrently with or independent of curative or life-prolonging HF therapies. Transformational leadership principles were used to guide the development of a plan to enhance integration of palliative care within traditional advanced HF care.

  18. Advanced technology and manufacturing practices for machining and inspecting metal matrix composites. Final CRADA report for CRADA number Y-1292-0092

    SciTech Connect

    Fell, H.A.; Shelton, J.E.; LaMance, G.M.; Kennedy, C.R.

    1995-02-26

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) and the Lanxide Corporation (Lanxide) negotiated a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop advanced technology and manufacturing practices for machining and inspecting metal matrix composites (MMC). The objective of this CRADA was to develop machining parameters to allow manufacturing of automotive components from MMCs. These parts exhibit a range of shapes and dimensional tolerances and require a large number of machining operations. The common characteristic of the components is the use of the light weight MMC materials to replace heavier materials. This allows smaller and lighter moving parts and supporting structural components thereby increasing fuel mileage. The CRADA was divided into three areas: basic investigation of cutting parameters, establishment of a mock production line for components, and optimization of parameters in the mock facility. This report covers the manufacturing of MMCs and preliminary Phase I testing for silicon carbide having various loading percentages and extensive Phase I testing of cutting parameters on 30% alumina loaded aluminum. On January 26, 1995, a letter from the vice president, technology at Lanxide was issued terminating the CRADA due to changes in business. 9 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Conversion from Li2SO4 to Li2S@C on carbon paper matrix: A novel integrated cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. H.; Xie, D.; Yang, T.; Zhong, Y.; Wang, X. L.; Xia, X. H.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    Integral construction of lithium sulfide (Li2S) cathode is indispensable and vital for developing high-performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Herein we have demonstrated a facile strategy for fabricating free-standing carbon paper supported Li2S@C (P-Li2S@C) integrated cathode. The P-Li2S@C cathode is synthesized through simple pyrolysis of low-cost lithium sulfate (Li2SO4) and chitosan, and embedded in the double carbon matrixes with carbon paper support and outer CVD-carbon layer. Li2S nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the above designed double carbon matrixes. The P-Li2S@C cathode exhibits an initial discharge capacity of 820 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and still maintains 430 mAh g-1after 100 cycles, superior to the P-Li2S counterpart (480 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 150 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles). Our research verifies the effectiveness of double carbon modification on the Li2S, especially, the outer carbon coating not only improves the electrical conductivity of electrode, but also further prohibits the "shuttle effect" of polysulfides.

  20. Integrating Advanced High School Chemistry Research with Organic Chemistry and Instrumental Methods of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the unique chemistry course opportunities beyond the advanced placement-level available at a science and technology magnet high school. Students may select entry-level courses such as honors and advanced placement chemistry; they may also take electives in organic chemistry with instrumental methods of analysis;…

  1. Integrating Advance Organizers and Multidimensional Information Display in Electronic Performance Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Wei-Chen; Chao, Chia-An

    2007-01-01

    This study has reviewed major design approaches for electronic performance support systems and identified two common problems: users' inability to comprehend screen-based material and poorly designed instructional scaffolds. This paper presents a design approach, called the "Matrix-Aided Performance System" ("MAPS"), which enables these problems…

  2. Integration of advanced geoscience and engineering techniques to quantify interwell heterogeneity. Quarterly technical report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.S.; Ouenes, A.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to integrate advanced geoscience and reservoir engineering concepts with the goal of quantifying the dynamics of fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions as they relate reservoir architecture and lithologic characterization. This interdisciplinary effort will integrate geological and geophysical data with engineering and petrophysical results through reservoir simulation. Subcontractors from Stanford University and the University of Texas at Austin are collaborating on the project. Several members of the Petroleum Recovery Research Center are participating in the development of the improved reservoir description by integration of the field and laboratory data, as well as in the development of quantitative reservoir models to aid performance predictions. Technical progress is summarized for geologic studies and field operations at Sulimar Queen Field, New Mexico, and technology transfer from this study.

  3. Integration of advanced optical functions on the focal plane array for very compact MCT-based micro cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendler, Manuel; Lasfargues, Gilles; Bernabé, S.; Druart, Guillaume A.; de La Barriere, Florence; Rommeluere, Sylvain; Guérineau, Nicolas; Lhermet, Nicolas; Ribot, Hervé

    2010-04-01

    Over the past decade, several technological breakthroughs have been achieved in the field of optical detection, in terms of spatial and thermal resolutions. The actual trend leads to the integration of new functions at the vicinity of the detector. This paper presents two types of integrated optics in the cryo-cooler, close to the MCT (CdHgTe) infrared detector array. The first one, for spectro-imaging applications, is a Fourier-transform microspectrometer on chip (MICROSPOC), developed for very fast acquisition of spectral signatures. Experimental results will be presented. The second one, for large field of view applications, illustrates the high potentiality of the integration of advanced optical functions in the Dewar of MCT detectors.

  4. Advanced time integration algorithms for dislocation dynamics simulations of work hardening

    DOE PAGES

    Sills, Ryan B.; Aghaei, Amin; Cai, Wei

    2016-04-25

    Efficient time integration is a necessity for dislocation dynamics simulations of work hardening to achieve experimentally relevant strains. In this work, an efficient time integration scheme using a high order explicit method with time step subcycling and a newly-developed collision detection algorithm are evaluated. First, time integrator performance is examined for an annihilating Frank–Read source, showing the effects of dislocation line collision. The integrator with subcycling is found to significantly out-perform other integration schemes. The performance of the time integration and collision detection algorithms is then tested in a work hardening simulation. The new algorithms show a 100-fold speed-up relativemore » to traditional schemes. As a result, subcycling is shown to improve efficiency significantly while maintaining an accurate solution, and the new collision algorithm allows an arbitrarily large time step size without missing collisions.« less

  5. Advanced time integration algorithms for dislocation dynamics simulations of work hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Ryan B.; Aghaei, Amin; Cai, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Efficient time integration is a necessity for dislocation dynamics simulations of work hardening to achieve experimentally relevant strains. In this work, an efficient time integration scheme using a high order explicit method with time step subcycling and a newly-developed collision detection algorithm are evaluated. First, time integrator performance is examined for an annihilating Frank-Read source, showing the effects of dislocation line collision. The integrator with subcycling is found to significantly out-perform other integration schemes. The performance of the time integration and collision detection algorithms is then tested in a work hardening simulation. The new algorithms show a 100-fold speed-up relative to traditional schemes. Subcycling is shown to improve efficiency significantly while maintaining an accurate solution, and the new collision algorithm allows an arbitrarily large time step size without missing collisions.

  6. FAA/NASA International Symposium on Advanced Structural Integrity Methods for Airframe Durability and Damage Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    International technical experts in durability and damage tolerance of metallic airframe structures were assembled to present and discuss recent research findings and the development of advanced design and analysis methods, structural concepts, and advanced materials. The symposium focused on the dissemination of new knowledge and the peer-review of progress on the development of advanced methodologies. Papers were presented on: structural concepts for enhanced durability, damage tolerance, and maintainability; new metallic alloys and processing technology; fatigue crack initiation and small crack effects; fatigue crack growth models; fracture mechanics failure, criteria for ductile materials; structural mechanics methodology for residual strength and life prediction; development of flight load spectra for design and testing; and advanced approaches to resist corrosion and environmentally assisted fatigue.

  7. Space Launch System Spacecraft/Payloads Integration and Evolution Office Advanced Development FY 2014 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, C. M.; Bickley, F. P.; Hueter, U.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Development Office (ADO), part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program, provides SLS with the advanced development needed to evolve the vehicle from an initial Block 1 payload capability of 70 metric tons (t) to an eventual capability Block 2 of 130 t, with intermediary evolution options possible. ADO takes existing technologies and matures them to the point that insertion into the mainline program minimizes risk. The ADO portfolio of tasks covers a broad range of technical developmental activities. The ADO portfolio supports the development of advanced boosters, upper stages, and other advanced development activities benefiting the SLS program. A total of 36 separate tasks were funded by ADO in FY 2014.

  8. Framework programmable platform for the advanced software development workstation. Integration mechanism design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Reddy, Uday; Ackley, Keith; Futrell, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at combining effective tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process in an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by this model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated.

  9. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dual Convertor Controller Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Bell, Mark E.; Dolce, James L.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed a non-nuclear representation of a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) consisting of a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC), a Dual Convertor Controller (DCC) EM (engineering model) 2 & 3, and associated support equipment, which were tested in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The DCC was designed by the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to actively control a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC). The first phase of testing included a Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS) which was developed by JHU/APL and simulates the operation and electrical behavior of a pair of ASC's in real time via a combination of hardware and software. RSIL provides insight into the electrical interactions between a representative radioisotope power generator, its associated control schemes, and realistic electric system loads. The first phase of integration testing included the following spacecraft bus configurations: capacitive, battery, and supercapacitor. A load profile, created based on data from several missions, tested the RPS and RSIL ability to maintain operation during load demands above and below the power provided by the RPS. The integration testing also confirmed the DCC's ability to disconnect from the spacecraft when the bus voltage dipped below 22 V or exceeded 36 V. Once operation was verified with the DASCS, the tests were repeated with actual operating ASC's. The goal of this integration testing was to verify operation of the DCC when connected to a spacecraft and to verify the functionality of the newly designed RSIL. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  10. Sequential measurements of serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 to monitor chemotherapy responses in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xiaojuan; Zhai, Xiaoran; Wang, Jinghui; Zhao, Xiaoting; Yang, Xinjie; Lv, Jialin; Ma, Li; Zhang, Lina; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Shucai; Yue, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis, including lung cancer. However, whether variations in serum MMP-9 levels can serve as a biomarker for monitoring chemotherapy curative effect remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the association between variations in serum MMP-9 levels and chemotherapy curative effect in patients with lung cancer. Patients and methods A total of 82 patients with advanced lung cancer were included. All newly diagnosed patients were treated with platinum-based doublet chemotherapy. Serial measurements of serum MMP-9 levels were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In this manner, we chose four time points to examine the association, including before chemotherapy, and 3 weeks after the beginning of the first, second, and fourth cycles of chemotherapy. Results Compared with the serum level of MMP-9 before progressive disease, patients with progressive disease had elevated serum levels of MMP-9. Compared with the previous time point of collecting specimens, the serum levels of MMP-9 in the patients with a complete response/partial response/stable disease decreased or were maintained stable. The differences of variation in serum MMP-9 levels in patients with different chemotherapy curative effects were all statistically significant after one cycle, two cycles, and four cycles (after one cycle: P<0.001; after two cycles: P<0.001; after four cycles: P=0.01). However, patients with small-cell lung cancer did not exhibit similar test results. Conclusion The variation in serum MMP-9 levels in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer during chemotherapy was closely related to chemotherapy curative effect and could be useful to monitor chemotherapy curative effect for a small portion of patients. PMID:27330309

  11. A Comparison of Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft and Periosteal Pedicle Graft Covered by Coronally Advanced Flap in the Treatment of Gingival Recession: 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Godavarthi, Lalasa; Murthy, K Raja; Pavankumar, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical efficacy of periosteal pedicle graft (PPG) and acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADMA) in conjunction with coronally advanced flap (CAF) in the treatment of gingival recession during a 1-year follow-up. A sample of 14 patients, each with two similar Miller Class I or II gingival recession (28 recession sites), was selected. Each recession site was randomly assigned to the experimental site (PPG + CAF) or the control site (ADMG + CAF). The clinical parameters recorded at baseline and 12 months postoperatively were probing pocket depth, width of keratinized gingiva, and clinical attachment level, whereas full-mouth and site-specific plaque and gingival index and vertical recession depth and width were recorded at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Analysis was performed to determine if treatment differences were present. The mean recession depth in experimental sites decreased from 2.89 ± 0.40 mm at baseline to 0.25 ± 0.50 mm at 12 months, corresponding to a mean root coverage of 92.79% ± 14.25%. In control sites, recession shrank from 2.93 ± 0.55 mm at baseline to 0.32 ± 0.46 mm at 12 months follow-up, demonstrating a mean root coverage of 89.79% ± 14.73%. Compared to the use of ADMA, the PPG technique uses similar incision design and flap management at the graft site, is equivalent in technique sensitivity, and has a perceived improvement in esthetic outcome. PMID:27333020

  12. Integrative Advances for OCT-Guided Ophthalmic Surgery and Intraoperative OCT: Microscope Integration, Surgical Instrumentation, and Heads-Up Display Surgeon Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Justis P.; Srivastava, Sunil K.; Feiler, Daniel; Noonan, Amanda I.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate key integrative advances in microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) technology that will facilitate adoption and utilization during ophthalmic surgery. Methods We developed a second-generation prototype microscope-integrated iOCT system that interfaces directly with a standard ophthalmic surgical microscope. Novel features for improved design and functionality included improved profile and ergonomics, as well as a tunable lens system for optimized image quality and heads-up display (HUD) system for surgeon feedback. Novel material testing was performed for potential suitability for OCT-compatible instrumentation based on light scattering and transmission characteristics. Prototype surgical instruments were developed based on material testing and tested using the microscope-integrated iOCT system. Several surgical maneuvers were performed and imaged, and surgical motion visualization was evaluated with a unique scanning and image processing protocol. Results High-resolution images were successfully obtained with the microscope-integrated iOCT system with HUD feedback. Six semi-transparent materials were characterized to determine their attenuation coefficients and scatter density with an 830 nm OCT light source. Based on these optical properties, polycarbonate was selected as a material substrate for prototype instrument construction. A surgical pick, retinal forceps, and corneal needle were constructed with semi-transparent materials. Excellent visualization of both the underlying tissues and surgical instrument were achieved on OCT cross-section. Using model eyes, various surgical maneuvers were visualized, including membrane peeling, vessel manipulation, cannulation of the subretinal space, subretinal intraocular foreign body removal, and corneal penetration. Conclusions Significant iterative improvements in integrative technology related to iOCT and ophthalmic surgery are demonstrated. PMID:25141340

  13. Recent advances and progress towards an integrated interdisciplinary thermal-structural finite element technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namburu, Raju R.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated finite element approach is presented for interdisciplinary thermal-structural problems. Of the various numerical approaches, finite element methods with direct time integration procedures are most widely used for these nonlinear problems. Traditionally, combined thermal-structural analysis is performed sequentially by transferring data between thermal and structural analysis. This approach is generally effective and routinely used. However, to solve the combined thermal-structural problems, this approach results in cumbersome data transfer, incompatible algorithmic representations, and different discretized element formulations. The integrated approach discussed in this paper effectively combines thermal and structural fields, thus overcoming the above major shortcomings. The approach follows Lax-Wendroff type finite element formulations with flux and stress based representations. As a consequence, this integrated approach uses common algorithmic representations and element formulations. Illustrative test examples show that the approach is effective for integrated thermal-structural problems.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADVANCED APPROACH FOR NEXT-GENERATION INTEGRATED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Scott R. Reeves

    2005-04-01

    Accurate, high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) reservoir characterization can provide substantial benefits for effective oilfield management. By doing so, the predictive reliability of reservoir flow models, which are routinely used as the basis for investment decisions involving hundreds of millions of dollars and designed to recover millions of barrels of oil, can be significantly improved. Even a small improvement in incremental recovery for high-value assets can result in important contributions to bottom-line profitability. Today's standard practice for developing a 3D reservoir description is to use seismic inversion techniques. These techniques make use of geostatistics and other stochastic methods to solve the inverse problem, i.e., to iteratively construct a likely geologic model and then upscale and compare its acoustic response to that actually observed in the field. This method has several inherent flaws, such as: (1) The resulting models are highly non-unique; multiple equiprobable realizations are produced, meaning (2) The results define a distribution of possible outcomes; the best they can do is quantify the uncertainty inherent in the modeling process, and (3) Each realization must be run through a flow simulator and history matched to assess it's appropriateness, and therefore (4) The method is labor intensive and requires significant time to complete a field study; thus it is applied to only a small percentage of oil and gas producing assets. A new approach to achieve this objective was first examined in a Department of Energy (DOE) study performed by Advanced Resources International (ARI) in 2000/2001. The goal of that study was to evaluate whether robust relationships between data at vastly different scales of measurement could be established using virtual intelligence (VI) methods. The proposed workflow required that three specific relationships be established through use of artificial neural networks (ANN's): core-to-log, log

  15. Transient 3D heat flow analysis for integrated circuit devices using the transmission line matrix method on a quad tree mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smy, T.; Walkey, D.; Dew, S. K.

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents a 3D transmission line matrix (TLM) implementation for the solution of transient heat flow in integrated semiconductor devices. The implementation uses a rectangular discontinuous mesh to allow for local mesh refinement. This approach is based on a quad tree meshing technique which can have a complex geometry using blocks of varying sizes. Each such block can have a maximum of two adjacent blocks on any vertical side and a maximum of four blocks on the top or bottom. The TLM implementation is based on a physical extraction of a resistance and capacitance network and then the creation of the appropriate TLM matrix. The formulation allows for temperature-dependent material parameters and a non-uniform time stepping. The simulator is first tested using a 2D example of a heat source in a rectangular region. Using this example the numerical error is determined and found to be less than 0.4%. Next, non-linearities are included, and a number of non-uniform time stepping algorithms are tested. Then, a 3D problem is also compared to an analytical solution and again the error is very small. Finally, an example of a full solution of heat flow in a realistic Si trench device is presented.

  16. A reduced-order integral formulation to account for the finite size effect of isotropic square panels using the transfer matrix method.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Paolo; Pompoli, Francesco; Lionti, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The transfer matrix method is a well-established prediction tool for the simulation of sound transmission loss and the sound absorption coefficient of flat multilayer systems. Much research has been dedicated to enhancing the accuracy of the method by introducing a finite size effect of the structure to be simulated. The aim of this paper is to present a reduced-order integral formulation to predict radiation efficiency and radiation impedance for a panel with equal lateral dimensions. The results are presented and discussed for different materials in terms of radiation efficiency, sound transmission loss, and the sound absorption coefficient. Finally, the application of the proposed methodology for rectangular multilayer systems is also investigated and validated against experimental data. PMID:27106325

  17. A reduced-order integral formulation to account for the finite size effect of isotropic square panels using the transfer matrix method.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Paolo; Pompoli, Francesco; Lionti, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The transfer matrix method is a well-established prediction tool for the simulation of sound transmission loss and the sound absorption coefficient of flat multilayer systems. Much research has been dedicated to enhancing the accuracy of the method by introducing a finite size effect of the structure to be simulated. The aim of this paper is to present a reduced-order integral formulation to predict radiation efficiency and radiation impedance for a panel with equal lateral dimensions. The results are presented and discussed for different materials in terms of radiation efficiency, sound transmission loss, and the sound absorption coefficient. Finally, the application of the proposed methodology for rectangular multilayer systems is also investigated and validated against experimental data.

  18. Developing and Integrating Advanced Movement Features Improves Automated Classification of Ciliate Species

    PubMed Central

    Soleymani, Ali; Pennekamp, Frank; Petchey, Owen L.; Weibel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in tracking technologies such as GPS or video tracking systems describe the movement paths of individuals in unprecedented details and are increasingly used in different fields, including ecology. However, extracting information from raw movement data requires advanced analysis techniques, for instance to infer behaviors expressed during a certain period of the recorded trajectory, or gender or species identity in case data is obtained from remote tracking. In this paper, we address how different movement features affect the ability to automatically classify the species identity, using a dataset of unicellular microbes (i.e., ciliates). Previously, morphological attributes and simple movement metrics, such as speed, were used for classifying ciliate species. Here, we demonstrate that adding advanced movement features, in particular such based on discrete wavelet transform, to morphological features can improve classification. These results may have practical applications in automated monitoring of waste water facilities as well as environmental monitoring of aquatic systems. PMID:26680591

  19. Integrating first-line treatment options into clinical practice: what's new in advanced melanoma?

    PubMed

    Dummer, Reinhard; Schadendorf, Dirk; Ascierto, Paolo A; Larkin, James; Lebbé, Celeste; Hauschild, Axel

    2015-12-01

    Melanoma remains a serious form of skin cancer in Europe and worldwide. Localized, early-stage melanomas can usually be treated with surgical excision. However, the prognosis is poorer for patients with advanced disease. Before 2011, treatment for advanced melanoma included palliative surgery and/or radiotherapy, and chemotherapy with or without immunotherapy, such as interleukin-2. As none of these treatments had shown survival benefits in patients with advanced melanoma, European guidelines had recommended that patients be entered into clinical trials. The lack of approved first-line options and varying access to clinical trials meant that European clinicians relied on experimental regimens and chemotherapy-based treatments when no other options were available. Since 2011, ipilimumab, an immuno-oncology therapy, and vemurafenib and dabrafenib, targeted agents that inhibit mutant BRAF, have been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of advanced melanoma. More recently, the MEK inhibitor, trametinib, received European marketing authorization for use in patients with BRAF mutation-positive advanced melanoma. In 2014, the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab was approved as a first-line therapy in Japan. Whereas nivolumab and another anti-PD-1 antibody, pembrolizumab, were approved as second-line therapies in the USA, their recent approval in Europe are for first-line use based on new clinical trial data in this setting. Together these agents are changing clinical practice and making therapeutic decisions more complex. Here, we discuss current and emerging therapeutic options for the first-line treatment of advanced melanoma, and how these therapies can be optimized to provide the best possible outcomes for patients. PMID:26426764

  20. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Antenna Drive Subsystem METSAT AMSU-A2 (PN:1331200-2, SN:108)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haapala, C.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Antenna Drive Subassembly, Antenna Drive Subsystem, METSAT AMSU-A2 (P/N 1331200-2, SN: 108), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  1. An integrated PM2.5 source apportionment study: Positive Matrix Factorisation vs. the chemical transport model CAMx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, M. C.; Brotto, P.; Cassola, F.; Cuccia, E.; Massabò, D.; Mazzino, A.; Piazzalunga, A.; Prati, P.

    2014-09-01

    Receptor and Chemical Transport Models are commonly used tools in source apportionment studies, even if different expertise is required. We describe an experiment using both approaches to apportion the PM2.5 (i.e., particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 μm) sources in the city of Genoa (Italy). A sampling campaign was carried out to collect PM2.5 samples daily for approximately six month during 2011 in three sites. The subsequent compositional analyses included the speciation of elements, major ions and both organic and elemental carbon; these data produced a large database for receptor modelling through Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF). In the same period, a meteorological and air quality modelling system was implemented based on the mesoscale numerical weather prediction model WRF and the chemical transport model CAMx to obtain meteorological and pollutant concentrations up to a resolution of 1.1 km. The source apportionment was evaluated by CAMx over the same period that was used for the monitoring campaign using the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology tool. Even if the source categorisations were changed (i.e., groups of time-correlated compounds in PMF vs. activity categories in CAMx), the PM2.5 source apportionment by PMF and CAMx produced comparable results. The different information provided by the two approaches (e.g., real-world factor profile by PMF and apportionment of a secondary aerosol by CAMx) was used jointly to elucidate the composition and origin of PM2.5 and to develop a more general methodology. When studying the primary and secondary components of PM, the main anthropogenic sources in the area were road transportation, energy production/industry and maritime emissions, accounting for 40%-50%, 20%-30% and 10%-15%, of PM2.5, respectively.

  2. The Attending Nurse Caring Model: integrating theory, evidence and advanced caring-healing therapeutics for transforming professional practice.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jean; Foster, Roxie

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a proposed model: The Attending Nursing Caring Model (ANCM) as an exemplar for advancing and transforming nursing practice within a reflective, theoretical and evidence-based context. Watson's theory of human caring is used as a guide for integrating theory, evidence and advanced therapeutics in the area of children's pain. The ANCM is offered as a programme for renewing the profession and its professional practices of caring-healing arts and science, during an era of decline, shortages, and crises in care, safety, and hospital and health reform. The ANCM elevates contemporary nursing's caring values, relationships, therapeutics and responsibilities to a higher/deeper order of caring science and professionalism, intersecting with other professions, while sustaining the finest of its heritage and traditions of healing.

  3. Pulse advancement and delay in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit: direct experimental observations.

    PubMed

    Uranus, H P; Zhuang, L; Roeloffzen, C G H; Hoekstra, H J W M

    2007-09-01

    We report experimental observations of the negative-group-velocity (v(g)) phenomenon in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit. We demonstrate that when the v(g) is negative, the (main) peak of output pulse appears earlier than the peak of a reference pulse, while for a positive v(g), the situation is the other way around. We observed that a pulse splitting phenomenon occurs in the neighborhood of the critical-coupling point. This pulse splitting limits the maximum achievable delay and advancement of a single device as well as facilitating a smooth transition from highly advanced to highly delayed pulse, and vice versa, across the critical-coupling point. PMID:17767325

  4. Pulse advancement and delay in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit: direct experimental observations.

    PubMed

    Uranus, H P; Zhuang, L; Roeloffzen, C G H; Hoekstra, H J W M

    2007-09-01

    We report experimental observations of the negative-group-velocity (v(g)) phenomenon in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit. We demonstrate that when the v(g) is negative, the (main) peak of output pulse appears earlier than the peak of a reference pulse, while for a positive v(g), the situation is the other way around. We observed that a pulse splitting phenomenon occurs in the neighborhood of the critical-coupling point. This pulse splitting limits the maximum achievable delay and advancement of a single device as well as facilitating a smooth transition from highly advanced to highly delayed pulse, and vice versa, across the critical-coupling point.

  5. Integrated Advanced Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Configuration Management Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanaugh, J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to identify the baseline to be established during the development life cycle of the integrated AMSU-A, and define the methods and procedures which Aerojet will follow in the implementation of configuration control for each established baseline. Also this plan establishes the Configuration Management process to be used for the deliverable hardware, software, and firmware of the Integrated AMSU-A during development, design, fabrication, test, and delivery.

  6. Fiber Optic Control System integration for advanced aircraft. Electro-optic and sensor fabrication, integration, and environmental testing for flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, Daniel W.; Weaver, Thomas L.; Kessler, Bradley L.; Bedoya, Carlos A.; Mattes, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the design, development, and testing of passive fiber optic sensors and a multiplexing electro-optic architecture (EOA) for installation and flight test on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. This hardware was developed under the Fiber Optic Control Systems for Advanced Aircraft program, part of a multiyear NASA initiative to design, develop, and demonstrate through flight test 'fly-by-light' systems for application to advanced aircraft flight and propulsion control. This development included the design and production of 10 passive optical sensors and associated multiplexed EOA hardware based on wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) technology. A variety of sensor types (rotary position, linear position, temperature, and pressure) incorporating a broad range of sensor technologies (WDM analog, WDM digital, analog microbend, and fluorescent time rate of decay) were obtained from different manufacturers and functionally integrated with an independently designed EOA. The sensors were built for installation in a variety of aircraft locations, placing the sensors in a variety of harsh environments. The sensors and EOA were designed and built to have the resulting devices be as close as practical to a production system. The integrated system was delivered to NASA for flight testing on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. Development and integration testing of the system provided valuable information as to which sensor types were simplest to design and build for a military aircraft environment and which types were simplest to operate with a multiplexed EOA. Not all sensor types met the full range of performance and environmental requirements. EOA development problems provided information on directions to pursue in future fly-by-light flight control development programs. Lessons learned in the development of the EOA and sensor hardware are summarized.

  7. Towards integrated approaches to advance understanding of ecohydrological systems across scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    It is increasingly recognised that the processes and connections in our landscapes are influencing the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Fundamental scientific understanding of the functioning of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems is required for an integrated and sustainable management of landscapes and riverscapes to maintain their ecosystem services and biological integrity at multiple scales. This talk will show how the interactions and feedbacks in ecohydrological systems can be quantitatively assessed through a number of novel, integrated approaches. Importantly, this talk will discuss the need to understand the role of vegetation on water partitioning at the terrestrial and aquatic interface. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are interacting at every scale level and cross-scale investigations are extremely useful to gain an integrated understanding of ecohydrological systems. Environmental tracers are valuable tools to understand the functioning of ecohydrological systems at the landscape scale in terms of understand flow paths, sources of water and associated biogeochemical interactions. Extensive empirical studies were conducted at the plot and hillslope scale to understand ecohydrological systems, and in particular, soil-vegetation-water interlinkages. This empirically based understanding was then integrated into spatially distributed, tracer-aided models to understand mixing of water, flows to the stream and water age distribution at the catchment scale. Finally, remote sensing techniques were used to integrate empirically based findings and to extrapolate system understanding to cross-regional scales, specifically in terms of studying hydroclimatic variability, vegetation dynamics and consequent changes of plant water use and water partitioning.

  8. Integrating movement in academic classrooms: understanding, applying and advancing the knowledge base.

    PubMed

    Webster, C A; Russ, L; Vazou, S; Goh, T L; Erwin, H

    2015-08-01

    In the context of comprehensive and coordinated approaches to school health, academic classrooms have gained attention as a promising setting for increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time among children. The aims of this paper are to review the rationale and knowledge base related to movement integration in academic classrooms, consider the practical applications of current knowledge to interventions and teacher education, and suggest directions for future research. Specifically, this paper (i) situates movement integration amid policy and research related to children's health and the school as a health-promoting environment; (ii) highlights the benefits of movement integration; (iii) summarizes movement integration programs and interventions; (iv) examines factors associated with classroom teachers' movement integration; (v) offers strategies for translating research to practice and (vi) forwards recommendations for future inquiry related to the effectiveness and sustainability of efforts to integrate movement into classroom routines. This paper provides a comprehensive resource for developing state-of-the-art initiatives to maximize children's movement in academic classrooms as a key strategy for important goals in both education and public health.

  9. Advances in integrated system heath management system technologies : overview of NASA and industry collaborative activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixit, Sunil; Brown, Steve; Fijany, Amir; Park, Han; Mackey, Ryan; James, Mark; Baroth, Ed

    2005-01-01

    This paper will describe recent advances in ISHM technologies made through collaboration between NASA and industry. In particular, the paper will focus on past, present, and future technology development and maturation efforts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and its industry partner, Northrop Grumman lntegrated Systems (NGIS).

  10. Community College Advanced Technology Centers: Meeting America's Need for Integrated, Comprehensive Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Richard; And Others

    By entering into partnerships with business and industry, community colleges are able to offset the high cost of remaining current with training techniques, job market skill requirements, and state-of-the-art hardware. The construction of advanced technology centers (ATCs) located on community college campuses is one key element supporting these…

  11. Integrating Social Neuroscience and Social Work: Innovations for Advancing Practice-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matto, Holly C.; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the social work profession, there is ongoing interest in building a social science agenda that can address the complex practice-based questions faced by social work professionals today. Methodological innovations and unique funding opportunities have already significantly advanced research on social work practice. Still, there is…

  12. Advances in flavanoid glycosyltransferase research: integrating recent findings with long-term citrus studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavonoid glycosides are required for a number of crucial roles in planta and have the potential for development in a variety of agricultural, medicinal, and biotechnological applications. A number of recent advancements have been made in characterizing glycosyltransferases, the enzymes that are res...

  13. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Fundementals of Workplace Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraeling, Vicki

    This module is one of a series of instructional guides developed by Project TEAM (Technical Education Advancement Modules), a cooperative demonstration program for high technology training for unemployed, underemployed, and existing industrial employees whose basic technical skills are in need of upgrading. The module is a 27-hour overview course…

  14. Putting Old Tensions to Rest: Integrating Multicultural Education and Global Learning to Advance Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Harvey; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Miller, Angela E.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural education and global learning have long been acknowledged by higher education professionals to be necessary in advancing student development. Both of these agendas overlap in significant ways and can be characterized as two sides of the same coin. Notwithstanding, there has been a historical divide, even a tension between these two…

  15. Language Learners as Teachers: Integrating Service-Learning and the Advanced Language Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreneche, Gabriel Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the applications of service-learning pedagogy for an advanced Spanish language course through a case study conducted at Rollins College, a comprehensive liberal arts institution in Winter Park, Florida. The paper discusses diverse theories on service-learning pedagogy, explaining how and why this teaching…

  16. The Ford Partnership for Advanced Studies: A New Case for Curriculum Integration in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinser, Richard; Poledink, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The Ford Motor Company launched a new pre-engineering curriculum for high schools in the Fall of 2004. Building on an earlier manufacturing program, the development process for the Ford Partnership for Advanced Studies took approximately three years. Ford and the course designers wanted the new program to incorporate the best principles and…

  17. Special Features of the Advanced Loans Module of the ABCD Integrated Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Smet, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "advanced loans" module of the relatively new library software, ABCD, is an addition to the normal loans module and it offers a "generic transaction decision-making engine" functionality. The module requires extra installation effort and parameterisation, so this article aims to explain to the many potentially interested libraries,…

  18. R-matrix calculations of differential and integral cross sections for low-energy electron collisions with ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, M. M.; Brigg, W. J.; Tennyson, J.

    2012-08-01

    Electron collisions with C2H5OH are studied up to impact energies of 10 eV using several theoretical models. Calculated differential cross sections suggest that the extrapolation to low angles used to extend experimental data and hence give integral cross sections significantly underestimates the large, dipole-driven forward scattering cross section. An improved set of values for the rotationally-unresolved elastic cross section is proposed; the corresponding rotationally resolved cross sections are also presented. Static exchange plus polarisation calculations find a very broad shape resonance in each of the 2A' and 2A'' symmetries in the 7 eV collision region however no resonance at lower energies, in qualitative agreement with the interpretation of some but not all dissociative electron attachment measurements.

  19. Preliminary Data from an Advanced Dementia Consult Service: Integrating Research, Education, and Clinical Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Catic, Angela G.; Mitchell, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Hospitalized patients with advanced dementia often receive care that is of limited clinical benefit and inconsistent with preferences. We designed an Advanced Dementia Consult Service and conducted a pre and post pilot study to evaluate it in a Boston hospital. Consults were conducted by geriatricians and palliative care nurse practitioner. They consisted of structured consultation, counseling and provision of an information booklet to the family, and post-discharge follow-up with the family and primary care providers. Patients > 65 admitted with advanced dementia were identified and consults were solicited using pop-ups programmed into the computerized provider order entry (POE) system. In the initial 3-month period, patients received usual care (N=24). In the subsequent 3-month period, consults were provided to patients for whom it was requested (N=5). Data were obtained from the electronic medical record and proxies interviews (admission, 1-month post-discharge). The patients’ mean age in the combined sample (N=29) was 85.4, 58.6% were from nursing homes, and 86.2% of their proxies stated comfort was the goal of care. Nonetheless, their hospitalizations were characterized by high rates of intravenous antibiotics (86.2%), > 5 venipunctures (44.8%), and radiological exams (96.6%). Acknowledging the small sample size, there were trends towards better outcomes in the intervention group including: higher proxy knowledge of the disease, greater communication between proxies and providers, more advance care planning, lower re-hospitalization rates, and fewer feeding tube insertions after discharge. Targeted consultation for advanced dementia is feasible and may promote greater engagement of proxies and goal-directed care for patients after discharge. PMID:24219202

  20. Modelling and assessment of advanced processes for integrated environmental control of coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, J.G.; Bloyd, C.N.; McMichael, F.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1984-07-01

    The key objective of this research is the development of a computer based model for the assessment of integrated environmental control (IEC) systems for conventional and advanced coal fired power plant designs. Efforts during the period April 1-June 30, 1984 focused on, (1) testing of a preliminary integrated model linking pre-combustion and post-combustion control options for conventional plants; (2) documentation of the analytical models of existing control technology options; (3) development and preliminary testing of a second model design for the propagation and analysis of uncertainty; and (4) development of new analytical models needed for IEC assessments. Activities and accomplishments in each of these areas are described. 4 references, 13 figures, 4 tables.

  1. A self-sustaining advanced lignocellulosic biofuel production by integration of anaerobic digestion and aerobic fungal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan; Ruan, Zhenhua; Zhong, Yingkui; Archer, Steven; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    High energy demand hinders the development and application of aerobic microbial biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials. In order to address this issue, this study focused on developing an integrated system including anaerobic digestion and aerobic fungal fermentation to convert corn stover, animal manure and food wastes into microbial lipids for biodiesel production. Dairy manure and food waste were first anaerobically digested to produce energy and solid digestate (AD fiber). AD fiber and corn stover were then processed by a combined alkali and acid hydrolysis, followed by fungal lipid accumulation. The integrated process can generate 1L biodiesel and 1.9 kg methane from 12.8 kg dry dairy manure, 3.1 kg dry food wastes and 12.2 kg dry corn stover with a positive net energy of 57 MJ, which concludes a self-sustaining lignocellulosic biodiesel process and provides a new route to co-utilize corn stover and organic wastes for advanced biofuel production.

  2. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dual Convertor Controller Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Bell, Mark E.; Dolce, James L.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center developed a nonnuclear representation of a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) consisting of a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), Dual Convertor Controller (DCC) EMs (engineering models) 2 and 3, and associated support equipment, which were tested in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The DCC was designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to actively control a pair of ASCs. The first phase of testing included a Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS), which was developed by JHU/APL and simulates the operation and electrical behavior of a pair of ASCs in real time via a combination of hardware and software. RSIL provides insight into the electrical interactions between a representative radioisotope power generator, its associated control schemes, and realistic electric system loads. The first phase of integration testing included the following spacecraft bus configurations: capacitive, battery, and super-capacitor. A load profile, created based on data from several missions, tested the RPS's and RSIL's ability to maintain operation during load demands above and below the power provided by the RPS. The integration testing also confirmed the DCC's ability to disconnect from the spacecraft when the bus voltage dipped below 22 volts or exceeded 36 volts. Once operation was verified with the DASCS, the tests were repeated with actual operating ASCs. The goal of this integration testing was to verify operation of the DCC when connected to a spacecraft and to verify the functionality of the newly designed RSIL. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  3. The Role of Technical Advances in the Adoption and Integration of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Roxanne E.; Rothrock, Nan E.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Spiegel, Brennan; Tucker, Carole A.; Crane, Heidi M.; Forrest, Christopher B.; Patrick, Donald L.; Fredericksen, Rob; Shulman, Lisa M.; Cella, David; Crane, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are gaining recognition as key measures for improving the quality of patient care in clinical care settings. Three factors have made the implementation of PROs in clinical care more feasible: increased use of modern measurement methods in PRO design and validation, rapid progression of technology (e.g., touch screen tablets, Internet accessibility, and electronic health records (EHRs)), and greater demand for measurement and monitoring of PROs by regulators, payers, accreditors, and professional organizations. As electronic PRO collection and reporting capabilities have improved, the challenges of collecting PRO data have changed. Objectives To update information on PRO adoption considerations in clinical care, highlighting electronic and technical advances with respect to measure selection, clinical workflow, data infrastructure, and outcomes reporting. Methods Five practical case studies across diverse healthcare settings and patient populations are used to explore how implementation barriers were addressed to promote the successful integration of PRO collection into the clinical workflow. The case studies address selecting and reporting of relevant content, workflow integration, pre-visit screening, effective evaluation, and EHR integration. Conclusions These case studies exemplify elements of well-designed electronic systems, including response automation, tailoring of item selection and reporting algorithms, flexibility of collection location, and integration with patient health care data elements. They also highlight emerging logistical barriers in this area, such as the need for specialized technological and methodological expertise, and design limitations of current electronic data capture systems. PMID:25588135

  4. Integrating social neuroscience and social work: innovations for advancing practice-based research.

    PubMed

    Matto, Holly C; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica

    2010-04-01

    Throughout the social work profession, there is ongoing interest in building a social science agenda that can address the complex practice-based questions faced by social work professionals today. Methodological innovations and unique funding opportunities have already significantly advanced research on social work practice. Still, there is enthusiastic discussion of how to ensure that such capacity development helps the profession move forward in ways that make use of the biological sciences and that facilitate social work-specific contributions to the larger interdisciplinary scientific community. This article describes how the social work profession can make use of biomedical knowledge and technological advances from social neuroscience to inform psychosocial treatment development, and it illustrates an application to social work practice by giving an example of a substance abuse treatment development process built on social neuroscientific research.

  5. An integrated approach: advances in the use of Clostridium for biofuel.

    PubMed

    Kök, M Samil

    2015-01-01

    Almost 90% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, which are both limited and polluting, hence the need to find alternative sources. Biofuels can provide a sustainable and renewable source of energy for the future. Recent significant advances in genetic engineering and fermentation technology have made microbial bio-based production of chemicals from renewable resources more viable. Clostridium species are considered as promising micro-organisms for the production of a wide range of chemicals for industrial use. However, a number of scientific challenges still need to be overcome to facilitate an economically viable production system. These include the use of cheap non-food-based substrates, a better understanding of the metabolic processes involved, improvement of strains through genetic engineering and innovation in process technology. This paper reviews recent developments in these areas, advancing the use of Clostridium within an industrial context especially for the production of biofuels.

  6. An integrated approach: advances in the use of Clostridium for biofuel.

    PubMed

    Kök, M Samil

    2015-01-01

    Almost 90% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, which are both limited and polluting, hence the need to find alternative sources. Biofuels can provide a sustainable and renewable source of energy for the future. Recent significant advances in genetic engineering and fermentation technology have made microbial bio-based production of chemicals from renewable resources more viable. Clostridium species are considered as promising micro-organisms for the production of a wide range of chemicals for industrial use. However, a number of scientific challenges still need to be overcome to facilitate an economically viable production system. These include the use of cheap non-food-based substrates, a better understanding of the metabolic processes involved, improvement of strains through genetic engineering and innovation in process technology. This paper reviews recent developments in these areas, advancing the use of Clostridium within an industrial context especially for the production of biofuels. PMID:27160660

  7. Integrated safeguards testing laboratories in support of the advanced fuel cycle initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A; Demuth, Scott F; Klasky, Kristen L; Lee, Haeok; Miller, Michael C; Sprinkle, James K; Tobin, Stephen J; Williams, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    A key enabler for advanced fuel cycle safeguards research and technology development for programs such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is access to facilities and nuclear materials. This access is necessary in many cases in order to ensure that advanced safeguards techniques and technologies meet the measurement needs for which they were designed. One such crucial facility is a hot cell based laboratory which would allow developers from universities, national laboratories, and commercial companies to perform iterative research and development of advanced safeguards instrumentation under realistic operating conditions but not be subject to production schedule limitations. The need for such a facility arises from the requirement to accurately measure minor actinide and/or fission product bearing nuclear materials that cannot be adequately shielded in glove boxes. With the contraction of the DOE nuclear complex following the end of the cold war, many suitable facilities at DOE sites are increasingly costly to operate and are being evaluated for closure. A hot cell based laboratory that allowed developers to install and remove instrumentation from the hot cell would allow for both risk mitigation and performance optimization of the instrumentation prior to fielding equipment in facilities where maintenance and repair of the instrumentation is difficult or impossible. These benefits are accomplished by providing developers the opportunity to iterate between testing the performance of the instrumentation by measuring realistic types and amounts of nuclear material, and adjusting and refining the instrumentation based on the results of these measurements. In this paper, we review the requirements for such a facility using the Wing 9 hot cells in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Chemistry and Metallurgy Research facility as a model for such a facility and describe recent use of these hot cells in support of AFCI.

  8. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metalloproteinase-13 in human chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Zafar; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Akhtar, Nahid; Ramamurthy, Sangeetha; Voss, Frank R; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The major risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA) is aging, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are only partly understood. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can activate chondrocytes and induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In the present study, we examined the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on AGE-modified-BSA (AGE-BSA)-induced activation and production of TNFα and MMP-13 in human OA chondrocytes. Methods Human chondrocytes were derived from OA cartilage by enzymatic digestion and stimulated with in vitro-generated AGE-BSA. Gene expression of TNFα and MMP-13 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. TNFα protein in culture medium was determined using cytokine-specific ELISA. Western immunoblotting was used to analyze the MMP-13 production in the culture medium, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the activation of NF-κB. DNA binding activity of NF-κB p65 was determined using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. IκB kinase (IKK) activity was determined using an in vitro kinase activity assay. MMP-13 activity in the culture medium was assayed by gelatin zymography. Results EGCG significantly decreased AGE-stimulated gene expression and production of TNFα and MMP-13 in human chondrocytes. The inhibitory effect of EGCG on the AGE-BSA-induced expression of TNFα and MMP-13 was mediated at least in part via suppression of p38-MAPK and JNK activation. In addition, EGCG inhibited the phosphorylating activity of IKKβ kinase in an in vitro activity assay and EGCG inhibited the AGE-mediated activation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB by suppressing the degradation of its inhibitory protein IκBα in the cytoplasm. Conclusions These novel pharmacological actions of EGCG on AGE-BSA-stimulated human OA chondrocytes provide new suggestions that EGCG or EGCG-derived compounds may inhibit cartilage degradation by suppressing AGE

  9. Guidelines for Implementing Advanced Distribution Management Systems-Requirements for DMS Integration with DERMS and Microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Chen; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-08-01

    This guideline focuses on the integration of DMS with DERMS and microgrids connected to the distribution grid by defining generic and fundamental design and implementation principles and strategies. It starts by addressing the current status, objectives, and core functionalities of each system, and then discusses the new challenges and the common principles of DMS design and implementation for integration with DERMS and microgrids to realize enhanced grid operation reliability and quality power delivery to consumers while also achieving the maximum energy economics from the DER and microgrid connections.

  10. An Integrated Theory for Predicting the Hydrothermomechanical Response of Advanced Composite Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    An integrated theory is developed for predicting the hydrothermomechanical (HDTM) response of fiber composite components. The integrated theory is based on a combined theoretical and experimental investigation. In addition to predicting the HDTM response of components, the theory is structured to assess the combined hydrothermal effects on the mechanical properties of unidirectional composites loaded along the material axis and off-axis, and those of angleplied laminates. The theory developed predicts values which are in good agreement with measured data at the micromechanics, macromechanics, laminate analysis and structural analysis levels.

  11. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 2, book 4: Integrated advanced technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Gary A.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) program provides both an opportunity and a requirement to increase our upper stage capabilities with the development and applications of new technologies. Issues such as man rating, space basing, reusability, and long lunar surface storage times drive the need for new technology developments and applications. In addition, satisfaction of mission requirements such as lunar cargo delivery capability and lunar landing either require new technology development or can be achieved in a more cost-effective manner with judicious applications of advanced technology. During the STV study, advanced technology development requirements and plans have been addressed by the Technology/Advanced Development Working Group composed of NASA and contractor representatives. This report discusses the results to date of this working group. The first section gives an overview of the technologies that have potential or required applications for the STV and identifies those technologies baselined for the STV. Figures are provided that list the technology categories and show the priority placed on those technology categories for either the space-based or ground-based options. The second section covers the plans and schedules for incorporating the technologies into the STV program.

  12. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 2, book 4: Integrated advanced technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Gary A.

    1991-04-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) program provides both an opportunity and a requirement to increase our upper stage capabilities with the development and applications of new technologies. Issues such as man rating, space basing, reusability, and long lunar surface storage times drive the need for new technology developments and applications. In addition, satisfaction of mission requirements such as lunar cargo delivery capability and lunar landing either require new technology development or can be achieved in a more cost-effective manner with judicious applications of advanced technology. During the STV study, advanced technology development requirements and plans have been addressed by the Technology/Advanced Development Working Group composed of NASA and contractor representatives. This report discusses the results to date of this working group. The first section gives an overview of the technologies that have potential or required applications for the STV and identifies those technologies baselined for the STV. Figures are provided that list the technology categories and show the priority placed on those technology categories for either the space-based or ground-based options. The second section covers the plans and schedules for incorporating the technologies into the STV program.

  13. Advancing Renewable Materials by Integrated Light and X-ray Scattering - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Akpalu, Yvonne A

    2010-06-30

    Polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs), a group of newly developed, commercially available biopolymers, and their composites have the potential to replace petroleum-based amorphous and semicrystalline polymers currently in use for consumer packaging, adhesives, and coating applications and to have significant advantages in medical applications such as tissue engineering. While the potential of PHAs is recognized in the literature and has even been realized in some cases, knowledge of these systems is decades behind that of synthetic polymers. Composites based on PHAs, furthermore, are just emerging in the research community. We argue that widespread adoption of nano-enhanced PHA materials can only be achieved through a proper characterization of the nanofiller morphology and its impact on the polymer matrix. Our goal is to build a robust understanding of the structure-processing relationships of PHAs to make it possible to achieve fundamental control over the final properties of these biopolymers and their bionanocomposites and to develop cost-effective manufacturing technologies for them. With the ultimate goal to design PHA polymer nanocomposites with tailored properties, we have performed a systematic study of the influence of cooling rate on the thermal properties and morphology of linear PHAs (PHB Mw = 690,000 g/mol; PHBV Mw = 407,000 g/mol, 8 mol % HV) and branched (PHBHx, Mw = 903, 000 g/mol, 7.2 mol % Hx) copolymers. Structure-property relations for silica/PHBHx nanocomposites were also investigated. Our studies show that simple two-phase composite models do not account for the molecular weight dependent enhancement in the modulus. Although improvement of the mechanical properties (stiffness/modulus and toughness) must be due to alteration of the matrix by the nanoparticle filler, the observed improvement was not caused by the change of crystallinity or spherulitic morphology. Since the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites can be affected by many factors

  14. Faculty Professional Development: Advancing Integrative Social Pedagogy Using ePortfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhika, Rajendra; Francis, Andrea; Miller, Dionne

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the work of three faculty members across two different professional development seminars at LaGuardia Community College. It illustrates how their work was guided and is linked together by a common thread--the use of ePortfolio to foster integrative social pedagogy--as a result of their participation in these seminars. This…

  15. Technologies for Inclusive Education: Beyond Traditional Integration Approaches. Advances in Educational Technologies and Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barres, David Griol; Carrion, Zoraida Callejas; Lopez-Cozar Delgado, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    By providing students with the opportunities to receive a high quality education regardless of their social or cultural background, inclusive education is a new area that goes beyond traditional integration approaches. These approaches hope to provide the educative system with the ability to adapt to the diversity of its students. Technologies for…

  16. Advances in directed self assembly integration and manufacturability at 300 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathsack, Benjamen; Somervell, Mark; Muramatsu, Makato; Tanouchi, Keiji; Kitano, Takahiro; Nishimura, Eiichi; Yatsuda, Koichi; Nagahara, Seiji; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Akai, Keiji; Ozawa, Mariko; Romo Negreira, Ainhoa; Tahara, Shigeru; Nafus, Kathleen

    2013-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) has the potential to extend scaling for both line/space and hole patterns. DSA has shown the capability for pitch reduction (multiplication), hole shrinks, CD self-healing as well as a pathway towards LWR and pattern collapse improvement [1-10]. TEL has developed a DSA development ecosystem (collaboration with customers, consortia, inspection vendors and material suppliers) to successfully demonstrate directed PS-PMMA DSA patterns using chemo-epitaxy (lift-off and etch guide) and grapho-epitaxy integrations on 300 mm wafers. New processes are being developed to simplify process integration, to reduce defects and to address design integration challenges with the long term goal of robust manufacturability. For hole DSA applications, a wet development process has been developed that enables traditional post-develop metrology through the high selectivity removal of PMMA cylindrical cores. For line/ space DSA applications, new track, cleans and etch processes have been developed to improve manufacturability. In collaboration with universities and consortia, fundamental process studies and simulations are used to drive process improvement and defect investigation. To extend DSA resolution beyond a PS-PMMA system, high chi materials and processes are also explored. In this paper, TEL's latest process solutions for both hole and line/space DSA process integrations are presented.

  17. Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications [Invited].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Javidi, Bahram; Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Stern, Adrian

    2013-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sensing and imaging technologies have been extensively researched for many applications in the fields of entertainment, medicine, robotics, manufacturing, industrial inspection, security, surveillance, and defense due to their diverse and significant benefits. Integral imaging is a passive multiperspective imaging technique, which records multiple two-dimensional images of a scene from different perspectives. Unlike holography, it can capture a scene such as outdoor events with incoherent or ambient light. Integral imaging can display a true 3D color image with full parallax and continuous viewing angles by incoherent light; thus it does not suffer from speckle degradation. Because of its unique properties, integral imaging has been revived over the past decade or so as a promising approach for massive 3D commercialization. A series of key articles on this topic have appeared in the OSA journals, including Applied Optics. Thus, it is fitting that this Commemorative Review presents an overview of literature on physical principles and applications of integral imaging. Several data capture configurations, reconstruction, and display methods are overviewed. In addition, applications including 3D underwater imaging, 3D imaging in photon-starved environments, 3D tracking of occluded objects, 3D optical microscopy, and 3D polarimetric imaging are reviewed. PMID:23385893

  18. Integration of Stem Cell to Chondrocyte-Derived Cartilage Matrix in Healthy and Osteoarthritic States in the Presence of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Rupak; Comella, Kristin; Butler, Ryan; Castellanos, Glenda; Brazille, Bryn; Claude, Andrew; Agarwal, Arvind; Liao, Jun; Ramaswamy, Sharan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of integrating tissue engineered cartilage derived from human bone marrow derived stem cells (HBMSCs) to healthy as well as osteoarthritic cartilage mimics using hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles immersed within a hydrogel substrate. Healthy and diseased engineered cartilage from human chondrocytes (cultured in agar gels) were integrated with human bone marrow stem cell (HBMSC)-derived cartilaginous engineered matrix with and without HA, and evaluated after 28 days of growth. HBMSCs were seeded within photopolymerizable poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels. In addition, we also conducted a preliminary in vivo evaluation of cartilage repair in rabbit knee chondral defects treated with subchondral bone microfracture and cell-free PEGDA with and without HA. Under in vitro conditions, the interfacial shear strength between tissue engineered cartilage derived from HBMSCs and osteoarthritic chondrocytes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) when HA nanoparticles were incorporated within the HBMSC culture system. Histological evidence confirmed a distinct spatial transition zone, rich in calcium phosphate deposits. Assessment of explanted rabbit knees by histology demonstrated that cellularity within the repair tissues that had filled the defects were of significantly higher number (p < 0.05) when HA was used. HA nanoparticles play an important role in treating chondral defects when osteoarthritis is a co-morbidity. We speculate that the calcified layer formation at the interface in the osteoarthritic environment in the presence of HA is likely to have attributed to higher interfacial strength found in vitro. From an in vivo standpoint, the presence of HA promoted cellularity in the tissues that subsequently filled the chondral defects. This higher presence of cells can be considered important in the context of accelerating long-term cartilage remodeling. We conclude that HA nanoparticles play an important role in engineered

  19. Precision measurement of the top quark mass in the lepton + jets channel using a matrix element method with Quasi-Monte Carlo integration

    SciTech Connect

    Lujan, Paul Joseph

    2009-12-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the top quark mass obtained from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron using the CDF II detector. The measurement uses a matrix element integration method to calculate a t$\\bar{t}$ likelihood, employing a Quasi-Monte Carlo integration, which enables us to take into account effects due to finite detector angular resolution and quark mass effects. We calculate a t$\\bar{t}$ likelihood as a 2-D function of the top pole mass mt and ΔJES, where ΔJES parameterizes the uncertainty in our knowledge of the jet energy scale; it is a shift applied to all jet energies in units of the jet-dependent systematic error. By introducing ΔJES into the likelihood, we can use the information contained in W boson decays to constrain ΔJES and reduce error due to this uncertainty. We use a neural network discriminant to identify events likely to be background, and apply a cut on the peak value of individual event likelihoods to reduce the effect of badly reconstructed events. This measurement uses a total of 4.3 fb-1 of integrated luminosity, requiring events with a lepton, large ET, and exactly four high-energy jets in the pseudorapidity range |η| < 2.0, of which at least one must be tagged as coming from a b quark. In total, we observe 738 events before and 630 events after applying the likelihood cut, and measure mt = 172.6 ± 0.9 (stat.) ± 0.7 (JES) ± 1.1 (syst.) GeV/c2, or mt = 172.6 ± 1.6 (tot.) GeV/c2.

  20. Improved estimation of intrinsic growth r(max) for long-lived species: integrating matrix models and allometry.

    PubMed

    Dillingham, Peter W; Moore, Jeffrey E; Fletcher, David; Cortes, Enric; Curtis, K Alexandra; James, Kelsey C; Lewison, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic population growth rate (r(max)) is an important parameter for many ecological applications, such as population risk assessment and harvest management. However, r(max) can be a difficult parameter to estimate, particularly for long-lived species, for which appropriate life table data or abundance time series are typically not obtainable. We describe a method for improving estimates of r(max) for long-lived species by integrating life-history theory (allometric models) and population-specific demographic data (life table models). Broad allometric relationships, such as those between life history traits and body size, have long been recognized by ecologists. These relationships are useful for deriving theoretical expectations for r(max), but r(max) for real populations may vary from simple allometric estimators for "archetypical" species of a given taxa or body mass. Meanwhile, life table approaches can provide population-specific estimates of r(max) from empirical data, but these may have poor precision from imprecise and missing vital rate parameter estimates. Our method borrows strength from both approaches to provide estimates that are consistent with both life-history theory and population-specific empirical data, and are likely to be more robust than estimates provided by either method alone. Our method uses an' allometric constant: the product of r(max) and the associated generation time for a stable-age population growing at this rate. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the mean and variance of this allometric constant across well-studied populations from three vertebrate taxa (birds, mammals, and elasmobranchs) and found that the mean was approximately 1.0 for each taxon. We used these as informative Bayesian priors that determine how much to "shrink" imprecise vital rate estimates for a data-limited population toward the allometric expectation. The approach ultimately provides estimates of r(max) (and other vital rates) that reflect a balance

  1. Improved estimation of intrinsic growth r(max) for long-lived species: integrating matrix models and allometry.

    PubMed

    Dillingham, Peter W; Moore, Jeffrey E; Fletcher, David; Cortes, Enric; Curtis, K Alexandra; James, Kelsey C; Lewison, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic population growth rate (r(max)) is an important parameter for many ecological applications, such as population risk assessment and harvest management. However, r(max) can be a difficult parameter to estimate, particularly for long-lived species, for which appropriate life table data or abundance time series are typically not obtainable. We describe a method for improving estimates of r(max) for long-lived species by integrating life-history theory (allometric models) and population-specific demographic data (life table models). Broad allometric relationships, such as those between life history traits and body size, have long been recognized by ecologists. These relationships are useful for deriving theoretical expectations for r(max), but r(max) for real populations may vary from simple allometric estimators for "archetypical" species of a given taxa or body mass. Meanwhile, life table approaches can provide population-specific estimates of r(max) from empirical data, but these may have poor precision from imprecise and missing vital rate parameter estimates. Our method borrows strength from both approaches to provide estimates that are consistent with both life-history theory and population-specific empirical data, and are likely to be more robust than estimates provided by either method alone. Our method uses an' allometric constant: the product of r(max) and the associated generation time for a stable-age population growing at this rate. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the mean and variance of this allometric constant across well-studied populations from three vertebrate taxa (birds, mammals, and elasmobranchs) and found that the mean was approximately 1.0 for each taxon. We used these as informative Bayesian priors that determine how much to "shrink" imprecise vital rate estimates for a data-limited population toward the allometric expectation. The approach ultimately provides estimates of r(max) (and other vital rates) that reflect a balance

  2. Development and integration of the Army's Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) HWIL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSueur, Kenneth G.; Lowry, William; Morris, Joe

    2006-05-01

    The Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) is a suite of state-of-the-art hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation / test capabilities designed to meet the life-cycle testing needs of multi-spectral systems. This paper presents the major AMSTAR facility design concepts and each of the Millimeter Wave (MMW), Infrared (IR), and Semi-Active Laser (SAL) in-band scene generation and projection system designs. The emergence of Multispectral sensors in missile systems necessitates capabilities such as AMSTAR to simultaneous project MMW, IR, and SAL wave bands into a common sensor aperture.

  3. Development and integration of the Army's advanced multispectral simulation test acceptance resource (AMSTAR) HWIL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSueur, Kenneth G.; Lowry, William; Morris, Joe

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) is a suite of state-of-the-art Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation / test capabilities designed to meet the life-cycle testing needs of multi-spectral systems. This paper presents the major AMSTAR facility design concepts and each of the Millimeter Wave (MMW), Infrared (IR), and Semi-Active Laser (SAL) in-band scene generation and projection system designs. The emergence of Multispectral sensors in missile systems necessitates capabilities such as AMSTAR to simultaneous project MMW, IR, and SAL wave bands into a common sensor aperture.

  4. Integrated Design for Manufacturing of Braided Preforms for Advanced Composites Part I: 2D Braiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan Tao; Ko, Frank K.; Hu, Hong

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a 2D braiding design system for advanced textile structural composites was based on dynamic models. A software package to assist in the design of braided preform manufacturing has been developed. The package allows design parameters (machine speeds, fiber volume fraction, tightness factor, etc.) to be easily obtained and the relationships between said parameters to be demonstrated graphically. The fabirc geometry model (FGM) method was adopted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the composites. Experimental evidence demonstrates the success of the use of dynamic models in the design software for the manufacture of braided fabric preforms.

  5. Pilot vehicle interface on the advanced fighter technology integration F-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dana, W. H.; Smith, W. B.; Howard, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper focuses on the work load aspects of the pilot vehicle interface in regard to the new technologies tested during AMAS Phase II. Subjects discussed in this paper include: a wide field-of-view head-up display; automated maneuvering attack system/sensor tracker system; master modes that configure flight controls and mission avionics; a modified helmet mounted sight; improved multifunction display capability; a voice interactive command system; ride qualities during automated weapon delivery; a color moving map; an advanced digital map display; and a g-induced loss-of-consciousness and spatial disorientation autorecovery system.

  6. Process Integration Study of Cache Valley Cheese Plant [Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Applications and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, A.

    1991-10-01

    This work has carried out in two phases: Phase 1; identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2; evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses were undertaken, including the evaluation of a heat pump installed as a recommendation of Phase 1.

  7. Labeling the Structural Integrity of Nanoparticles for Advanced In Situ Tracking in Bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Meder, Fabian; Thomas, Steffi S; Fitzpatrick, Laurence W; Alahmari, Amirah; Wang, Suxiao; Beirne, Jason G; Vaz, Gizela; Redmond, Gareth; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2016-04-26

    Observing structural integrity of nanoparticles is essential in bionanotechnology but not always straightforward to measure in situ and in real-time. Fluorescent labels used for tracking intrinsically nonfluorescent nanomaterials generally do not allow simultaneous observation of integrity. Consequently, structural changes like degradation and disassembly cannot easily be followed in situ using fluorescence signals. We show that thioflavin T (ThT), a fluorophore and molecular rotor known to tag specific fibril structures in amyloids, can "label" the structural integrity of widely used and intrinsically nonfluorescent, silica nanoparticles (SiNPs). Entrapment of ThT in SiNPs controls the fluorohphore's relaxation pathway and leads to a red-shifted fluorescence spectrum providing real time information on SiNP integrity. The dynamic change of ThT fluorescence during degradation of doped SiNPs is found much higher than that of common labels fluorescein and rhodamine. Degradation kinetics of core-shell structures recorded by ThT fluorescence and light scattering prove the capability to clearly distinguish structural features during SiNPs degradation and allow obtaining degradation kinetics in vitro, in biological media, in serum, and in cells. The effect is transferable to different types of materials, here shown for ThT incorporated SiNPs with tightly tailorable sizes (9-100 nm), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) nanoparticles, and iron-doped-SiNPs (FeSiNPs). We thus suggest molecular rotors such as ThT as additional labels to effectively and easily sense nanoparticle structural status in situ and to enhance understanding and development of programmed nanoparticle disassembly in bionanotechnology. PMID:26959685

  8. Recent Advances in the Method of Forces: Integrated Force Method of Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    Stress that can be induced in an elastic continuum can be determined directly through the simultaneous application of the equilibrium equations and the compatibility conditions. In the literature, this direct stress formulation is referred to as the integrated force method. This method, which uses forces as the primary unknowns, complements the popular equilibrium-based stiffness method, which considers displacements as the unknowns. The integrated force method produces accurate stress, displacement, and frequency results even for modest finite element models. This version of the force method should be developed as an alternative to the stiffness method because the latter method, which has been researched for the past several decades, may have entered its developmental plateau. Stress plays a primary role in the development of aerospace and other products, and its analysis is difficult. Therefore, it is advisable to use both methods to calculate stress and eliminate errors through comparison. This paper examines the role of the integrated force method in analysis, animation and design.

  9. Integrated nitrogen removal biofilter system with ceramic membrane for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Son, Dong-Jin; Yun, Chan-Young; Kim, Woo-Yeol; Zhang, Xing-Ya; Kim, Dae-Gun; Chang, Duk; Sunwoo, Young; Hong, Ki-Ho

    2016-12-01

    The pre-denitrification biofilm process for nitrogen removal was combined with ceramic membrane with pore sizes of 0.05-0.1 µm as a system for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater. The system was operated under an empty bed hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h, recirculation ratio of 3, and transmembrane pressure of 0.47 bar. The system showed average removals of organics, total nitrogen, and solids as high as 93%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Rapid nitrification could be achieved and denitrification was performed in the anoxic filter without external carbon supplements. The residual particulate organics and nitrogen in effluent from biofilm process could be also removed successfully through membrane filtration and the removal of total coliform was noticeably improved after membrane filtration. Thus, a system composed of the pre-denitrification biofilm process with ceramic membrane would be a compact and flexible option for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater. PMID:27108849

  10. Integration of advanced technologies to enhance problem-based learning over distance: Project TOUCH.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Joshua; Caudell, Thomas; Wilks, David; Keep, Marcus F; Mitchell, Steven; Buchanan, Holly; Saland, Linda; Rosenheimer, Julie; Lozanoff, Beth K; Lozanoff, Scott; Saiki, Stanley; Alverson, Dale

    2003-01-01

    Distance education delivery has increased dramatically in recent years as a result of the rapid advancement of communication technology. The National Computational Science Alliance's Access Grid represents a significant advancement in communication technology with potential for distance medical education. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the TOUCH project (Telehealth Outreach for Unified Community Health; http://hsc.unm.edu/touch) with special emphasis on the process of problem-based learning case development for distribution over the Access Grid. The objective of the TOUCH project is to use emerging Internet-based technology to overcome geographic barriers for delivery of tutorial sessions to medical students pursuing rotations at remote sites. The TOUCH project also is aimed at developing a patient simulation engine and an immersive virtual reality environment to achieve a realistic health care scenario enhancing the learning experience. A traumatic head injury case is developed and distributed over the Access Grid as a demonstration of the TOUCH system. Project TOUCH serves as an example of a computer-based learning system for developing and implementing problem-based learning cases within the medical curriculum, but this system should be easily applied to other educational environments and disciplines involving functional and clinical anatomy. Future phases will explore PC versions of the TOUCH cases for increased distribution. PMID:12526062

  11. Integrated magnetic and kinetic control of advanced tokamak plasmas on DIII-D based on data-driven models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, D.; Walker, M. L.; Ferron, J. R.; Liu, F.; Schuster, E.; Barton, J. E.; Boyer, M. D.; Burrell, K. H.; Flanagan, S. M.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R. J.; Holcomb, C. T.; Humphreys, D. A.; Hyatt, A. W.; Johnson, R. D.; La Haye, R. J.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T. C.; Park, J. M.; Penaflor, B. G.; Shi, W.; Turco, F.; Wehner, W.; the ITPA-IOS Group members; experts

    2013-06-01

    The first real-time profile control experiments integrating magnetic and kinetic variables were performed on DIII-D in view of regulating and extrapolating advanced tokamak scenarios to steady-state devices and burning plasma experiments. Device-specific, control-oriented models were obtained from experimental data using a generic two-time-scale method that was validated on JET, JT-60U and DIII-D under the framework of the International Tokamak Physics Activity for Integrated Operation Scenarios (Moreau et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 063009). On DIII-D, these data-driven models were used to synthesize integrated magnetic and kinetic profile controllers. The neutral beam injection (NBI), electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) systems and ohmic coil provided the heating and current drive (H&CD) sources. The first control actuator was the plasma surface loop voltage (i.e. the ohmic coil), and the available beamlines and gyrotrons were grouped to form five additional H&CD actuators: co-current on-axis NBI, co-current off-axis NBI, counter-current NBI, balanced NBI and total ECCD power from all gyrotrons (with off-axis current deposition). Successful closed-loop experiments showing the control of (a) the poloidal flux profile, Ψ(x), (b) the poloidal flux profile together with the normalized pressure parameter, βN, and (c) the inverse of the safety factor profile, \\bar{\\iota}(x)=1/q(x) , are described.

  12. A flammability and combustion model for integrated accident analysis. [Advanced light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Plys, M.G.; Astleford, R.D.; Epstein, M. )

    1988-01-01

    A model for flammability characteristics and combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures is presented for application to severe accident analysis of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR's). Flammability of general mixtures for thermodynamic conditions anticipated during a severe accident is quantified with a new correlation technique applied to data for several fuel and inertant mixtures and using accepted methods for combining these data. Combustion behavior is quantified by a mechanistic model consisting of a continuity and momentum balance for the burned gases, and considering an uncertainty parameter to match the idealized process to experiment. Benchmarks against experiment demonstrate the validity of this approach for a single recommended value of the flame flux multiplier parameter. The models presented here are equally applicable to analysis of current LWR's. 21 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Advanced sluicing system test report for single shell tank waste retrieval integrated testing

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-05-29

    This document describes the testing performed by ARD Environmental, Inc., and Los Alamos Technical Associates of the LATA/ARD Advanced Sluicing System, in support of ACTR Phase 1 activities. Testing was to measure the impact force and pressures of sluicing streams at three different distances, as measured by the Government supplied load cell. Simulated sluicing of large simulated salt cake and hard pan waste coupons was also performed. Due to operational difficulties experienced with the Government supplied load cell, no meaningful results with respect to sluice stream impact pressure distribution or stream coherence were obtained. Sluice testing using 3000 psi salt cake simulants measured waste retrieval rates of approximately 12 Ml/day (17.6 ft{sup 3}/hr). Rates as high as 314 m{sup 3}/day (463 ft{sup 3}/hr) were measured against the lower strength salt cake simulants.

  14. LSST system analysis and integration task for an advanced science and application space platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    To support the development of an advanced science and application space platform (ASASP) requirements of a representative set of payloads requiring large separation distances selected from the Science and Applications Space Platform data base. These payloads were a 100 meter diameter atmospheric gravity wave antenna, a 100 meter by 100 meter particle beam injection experiment, a 2 meter diameter, 18 meter long astrometric telescope, and a 15 meter diameter, 35 meter long large ambient deployable IR telescope. A low earth orbit at 500 km altitude and 56 deg inclination was selected as being the best compromise for meeting payload requirements. Platform subsystems were defined which would support the payload requirements and a physical platform concept was developed. Structural system requirements which included utilities accommodation, interface requirements, and platform strength and stiffness requirements were developed. An attitude control system concept was also described. The resultant ASASP concept was analyzed and technological developments deemed necessary in the area of large space systems were recommended.

  15. Advances in Integrative Nanomedicine for Improving Infectious Disease Treatment in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Schwartz, Gary E.; Boyer, Nancy N.; Koithan, Mary; Brooks, Audrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Infectious diseases present public health challenges worldwide. An emerging integrative approach to treating infectious diseases is using nanoparticle (NP) forms of traditional and alternative medicines. Advantages of nanomedicine delivery methods include better disease targeting, especially for intracellular pathogens, ability to cross membranes and enter cells, longer duration drug action, reduced side effects, and cost savings from lower doses. Methods We searched Pubmed articles in English with keywords related to nanoparticles and nanomedicine. Nanotechnology terms were also combined with keywords for drug delivery, infectious diseases, herbs, antioxidants, homeopathy, and adaptation. Results NPs are very small forms of material substances, measuring 1–100 nanometers along at least one dimension. Compared with bulk forms, NPs’ large ratio of surface-area-to-volume confers increased reactivity and adsorptive capacity, with unique electromagnetic, chemical, biological, and quantum properties. Nanotechnology uses natural botanical agents for green manufacturing of less toxic NPs. Discussion Nanoparticle herbs and nutriceuticals can treat infections via improved bioavailability and antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines may contain source and/or silica nanoparticles because of their traditional manufacturing processes. Homeopathy, as a form of nanomedicine, has a promising history of treating epidemic infectious diseases, including malaria, leptospirosis and HIV/AIDS, in addition to acute upper respiratory infections. Adaptive changes in the host’s complex networks underlie effects. Conclusions Nanomedicine is integrative, blending modern technology with natural products to reduce toxicity and support immune function. Nanomedicine using traditional agents from alternative systems of medicine can facilitate progress in integrative public health approaches to infectious

  16. Development of advanced blanket performance under irradiation and system integration through JUPITER-II project

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Katsunori; Kohyama, Akira; Tanaka, Satoru; Namba, C.; Terai, T.; Kunugi, T.; Muroga, Takeo; Hasegawa, Akira; Sagara, A.; Berk, S.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Sze, Dai Kai; Petti, D. A.; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Morley, Neil B.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Snead, Lance L.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2008-12-01

    This report describes an outline of the activities of the JUPITER-II collaboration (japan-USA program of Irradiation/Integration test for Fusion Research-II), Which has bee carried out through six years (2001-2006) under Phase 4 of the collabroation implemented by Amendment 4 of Annex 1 to the DOE (United States Department of Energy)-MEXT (Ministry of Education ,Culture,Sports,Science and Technology) Cooperation. This program followed the RTNS-II Program (Phase1:1982-4986), the FFTF/MOTA Program (Phase2:1987-1994) and the JUPITER Program (Phase 3: 1995-2000) [1].

  17. Technology readiness assessment of advanced space engine integrated controls and health monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is given for an integrated control and health monitoring system (ICHM) system that is designed to be used with hydrogen-oxygen rocket engines. The minimum required ICHM functions, system elements, technology readiness, and system cost are assessed for a system which permits the operation of H-O engines that are space-based, reusable, and descent throttleable. Based on the evaluation of the H-O ICHM, it is estimated that the minimum system requirements for demonstration on an engine system testbed will require an investment of 30 to 45 million dollars over six years.

  18. Nationwide Buildings Energy Research enabled through an integrated Data Intensive Scientific Workflow and Advanced Analysis Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Lansing, Carina S.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Hathaway, John E.; Guillen, Zoe C.; Dirks, James A.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Stephan, Eric G.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-28

    Modern workflow systems enable scientists to run ensemble simulations at unprecedented scales and levels of complexity, allowing them to study system sizes previously impossible to achieve, due to the inherent resource requirements needed for the modeling work. However as a result of these new capabilities the science teams suddenly also face unprecedented data volumes that they are unable to analyze with their existing tools and methodologies in a timely fashion. In this paper we will describe the ongoing development work to create an integrated data intensive scientific workflow and analysis environment that offers researchers the ability to easily create and execute complex simulation studies and provides them with different scalable methods to analyze the resulting data volumes. The integration of simulation and analysis environments is hereby not only a question of ease of use, but supports fundamental functions in the correlated analysis of simulation input, execution details and derived results for multi-variant, complex studies. To this end the team extended and integrated the existing capabilities of the Velo data management and analysis infrastructure, the MeDICi data intensive workflow system and RHIPE the R for Hadoop version of the well-known statistics package, as well as developing a new visual analytics interface for the result exploitation by multi-domain users. The capabilities of the new environment are demonstrated on a use case that focusses on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) building energy team, showing how they were able to take their previously local scale simulations to a nationwide level by utilizing data intensive computing techniques not only for their modeling work, but also for the subsequent analysis of their modeling results. As part of the PNNL research initiative PRIMA (Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis) the team performed an initial 3 year study of building energy demands for the US Eastern

  19. Integrating focal adhesion dynamics, cytoskeleton remodeling, and actin motor activity for predicting cell migration on 3D curved surfaces of the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Choong; Wood, Levi; Neal, Devin; Kamm, Roger D; Asada, H Harry

    2012-11-01

    An integrative cell migration model incorporating focal adhesion (FA) dynamics, cytoskeleton and nucleus remodeling and actin motor activity is developed for predicting cell migration behaviors on 3-dimensional curved surfaces, such as cylindrical lumens in the 3-D extracellular matrix (ECM). The work is motivated by 3-D microfluidic migration experiments suggesting that the migration speed and direction may vary depending on the cross sectional shape of the lumen along which the cell migrates. In this paper, the mechanical structure of the cell is modeled as double elastic membranes of cell and nucleus. The two elastic membranes are connected by stress fibers, which are extended from focal adhesions on the cell surface to the nuclear membrane. The cell deforms and gains traction as transmembrane integrins distributed over the outer cell membrane bind to ligands on the ECM, form focal adhesions, and activate stress fibers. Probabilities at which integrin ligand-receptor bonds are formed as well as ruptures are affected by the surface geometry, resulting in diverse migration behaviors that depend on the curvature of the surface. Monte Carlo simulations of the integrative model reveal that (a) the cell migration speed is dependent on the cross sectional area of the lumen with a maximum speed at a particular diameter or width, (b) as the lumen diameter increases, the cell tends to spread and migrate around the circumference of the lumen, while it moves in the longitudinal direction as the lumen diameter narrows, (c) once the cell moves in one direction, it tends to stay migrating in the same direction despite the stochastic nature of migration. The relationship between the cell migration speed and the lumen width agrees with microfluidic experimental data for cancer cell migration.

  20. Advanced Car-Parrinello Techniques: Path Integrals and Nonadiabaticity in Condensed Matter Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, D.

    Extensions of Car-Parrinello (CP) ab initio molecular dynamics are presented for efficient treatments of nuclear quantum effects and electronically nonadiabatic processes in the realm of condensed matter simulations. Ab initio path integrals, being a combination of CP propagation of the electrons in conjunction with path integral MD sampling of the nuclei, allow to investigate quantum phenomena, such as the influence of zero-point motion and proton tunneling, in chemically complex systems. Nonadiabatic ab initio simulations rely on the coupling of the Kohn-Sham ground state, S 0, and the first excited electronic state, S 1, obtained within the restricted open-shell Kohn- Sham (ROKS) approach using Tully's surface hopping algorithm. The efficient evaluation of the nonadiabatic couplings together with an "on-the-fly" updating scheme makes possible nonadiabatic ab initio simulations of systems of similar complexity as those typically studied by ground-state CP methods. This method is thus ideally suited to study photoinduced reactions of large molecular systems, particularly in condensed phases.

  1. Advances in the integration of transcriptional regulatory information into genome-scale metabolic models.

    PubMed

    Vivek-Ananth, R P; Samal, Areejit

    2016-09-01

    A major goal of systems biology is to build predictive computational models of cellular metabolism. Availability of complete genome sequences and wealth of legacy biochemical information has led to the reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks in the last 15 years for several organisms across the three domains of life. Due to paucity of information on kinetic parameters associated with metabolic reactions, the constraint-based modelling approach, flux balance analysis (FBA), has proved to be a vital alternative to investigate the capabilities of reconstructed metabolic networks. In parallel, advent of high-throughput technologies has led to the generation of massive amounts of omics data on transcriptional regulation comprising mRNA transcript levels and genome-wide binding profile of transcriptional regulators. A frontier area in metabolic systems biology has been the development of methods to integrate the available transcriptional regulatory information into constraint-based models of reconstructed metabolic networks in order to increase the predictive capabilities of computational models and understand the regulation of cellular metabolism. Here, we review the existing methods to integrate transcriptional regulatory information into constraint-based models of metabolic networks.

  2. Application Evaluation of Air-Sparging and Aerobic Bioremediation in PAM(Physical Aquifer Model) with Advanced and Integrated Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, U.; Ko, J.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Kwon, S.; Ha, J.; Lim, J.; Han, K.

    2010-12-01

    It is generally difficult for a single process to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated with various organic compounds such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) because those contaminants show different chemical properties in two phases (e.g. soil and groundwater). Therefore, it is necessary to design an in-situ remediation system which can remove various contaminants simultaneously. For the purpose, we constructed integrated well module which can apply several remediation process such as air sparging, soil vapor extraction, and bioventing. The advanced integrated module consisted of three main parts such as head, body, and end cap. First of all, head part has three 3.6-cm-diameter stainless lines and can simultaneously inject air or extract NAPL, respectively. Secondly, body part has two 10-cm-height screen intervals with 100-mesh stainless inserts for unsaturated and smear zone. Lastly, we constructed three different sizes of end caps for injection and extraction from a saturated zone. We assumed that the integrated module can play bioremediation, air sparging, cometabolic sparging, chemical oxidation. In this study, we examined application of air sparing and aerobic bioremediation of toluene in Physical Aquifer Model (PAM) with an integrated well module. During air sparging experiments, toluene concentration decreased by injection of air. In addition, we accomplished bioremediation experiment to evaluate removal of toluene by indigenous microbes in PAM with continuous air injection. From the two experiments result, we confirmed that air sparging and aerobic bioremediation processes can be simultaneously carried out by an intergrated well module.

  3. From microarray to biology: an integrated experimental, statistical and in silico analysis of how the extracellular matrix modulates the phenotype of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Kyker, Kimberly D; Hauser, Paul J; Saban, Ricardo; Buethe, David D; Dozmorov, Igor; Centola, Michael B; Culkin, Daniel J; Hurst, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    A statistically robust and biologically-based approach for analysis of microarray data is described that integrates independent biological knowledge and data with a global F-test for finding genes of interest that minimizes the need for replicates when used for hypothesis generation. First, each microarray is normalized to its noise level around zero. The microarray dataset is then globally adjusted by robust linear regression. Second, genes of interest that capture significant responses to experimental conditions are selected by finding those that express significantly higher variance than those expressing only technical variability. Clustering expression data and identifying expression-independent properties of genes of interest including upstream transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs), ontologies and networks or pathways organizes the data into a biologically meaningful system. We demonstrate that when the number of genes of interest is inconveniently large, identifying a subset of "beacon genes" representing the largest changes will identify pathways or networks altered by biological manipulation. The entire dataset is then used to complete the picture outlined by the "beacon genes." This allow construction of a structured model of a system that can generate biologically testable hypotheses. We illustrate this approach by comparing cells cultured on plastic or an extracellular matrix which organizes a dataset of over 2,000 genes of interest from a genome wide scan of transcription. The resulting model was confirmed by comparing the predicted pattern of TREs with experimental determination of active transcription factors.

  4. Current advances of integrated processes combining chemical absorption and biological reduction for NO x removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Han; Xia, Yinfeng; Liu, Nan; Lu, Bi-Hong; Li, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emitted from the fossil-fuel-fired power plants cause adverse environmental issues such as acid rain, urban ozone smoke, and photochemical smog. A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process under development is regarded as a promising alternative to the conventional selective catalytic reduction processes for NO x removal from the flue gas because it is economic and environmentally friendly. CABR process employs ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate [Fe(II)EDTA] as a solvent to absorb the NO x following microbial denitrification of NO x to harmless nitrogen gas. Meanwhile, the absorbent Fe(II)EDTA is biologically regenerated to sustain the adequate NO x removal. Compared with conventional denitrification process, CABR not only enhances the mass transfer of NO from gas to liquid phase but also minimize the impact of oxygen on the microorganisms. This review provides the current advances of the development of the CABR process for NO x removal from the flue gas.

  5. Integrating advanced writing content into a scholarly inquiry in nursing course.

    PubMed

    Mandleco, Barbara L; Bohn, Christina; Callister, Lynn C; Lassetter, Jane; Carlton, Troy

    2012-02-17

    Since there are few data examining methods to help students learn to write in a scholarly manner, the purposes of this project were to (1) evaluate students' learning of writing content integrated into a Scholarly Inquiry in Nursing course by examining differences in scores on a writing assessment taken at the beginning and end of the course; and (2) examine student confidence ratings relative to writing to see if it improved during the course. After obtaining IRB approval and informed consent, the CLIPS pre and post assessment mean scores of 82 students in a Scholarly Inquiry in Nursing course were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Confidence ratings in formal and informal writing were also obtained from a subsample of 47 students. Mean scores improved in 12 out of 26 assessment categories related to punctuation, correct usage of words, and sentence construction. Student mean confidence ratings increased each month.

  6. Cellular ferroelectrets for electroactive polymer hybrid systems: soft matter integrated devices with advanced functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Graz, Ingrid; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Keplinger, Christoph; Bartu, Petr; Buchberger, Gerda; Ortwein, Christoph; Bauer, Siegfried

    2008-03-01

    Thin polymer foams with a closed cell void-structure can be internally charged by silent or partial discharges within the voids. The resulting material, which carries positive and negative charges on the internal void surfaces is called a ferroelectret. Ferroelectrets behave like typical ferroelectrics, hence they provide a novel class of ferroic materials. The soft foams are strongly piezoelectric in the 3-direction, but show negligible piezoelectric response in the transverse direction. This, together with a very low pyroelectric coefficient, make ferroelectrets highly suitable for flexible electroactive transducer element which can be integrated in thin bendable organic electronic devices. Here we describe some fundamental characteristics of cellular ferroelectrets and present a number of promising examples for a possible combination with various functional polymer systems. Our examples focus on flexible ferroelectret field-effect transistor systems for large-area sensor skins and microphones, flexible large-array position detectors (touchpad), and stretchable large-array pressure sensors.

  7. 3D Navigation and Integrated Hazard Display in Advanced Avionics: Workload, Performance, and Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Alexander, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the ability for pilots to estimate traffic location in an Integrated Hazard Display, and how such estimations should be measured. Twelve pilots viewed static images of traffic scenarios and then estimated the outside world locations of queried traffic represented in one of three display types (2D coplanar, 3D exocentric, and split-screen) and in one of four conditions (display present/blank crossed with outside world present/blank). Overall, the 2D coplanar display best supported both vertical (compared to 3D) and lateral (compared to split-screen) traffic position estimation performance. Costs of the 3D display were associated with perceptual ambiguity. Costs of the split screen display were inferred to result from inappropriate attention allocation. Furthermore, although pilots were faster in estimating traffic locations when relying on memory, accuracy was greatest when the display was available.

  8. Integration of Photovoltaics into Building Energy Usage through Advanced Control of Rooftop Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, Michael R; Nutaro, James J; Irminger, Philip; Ollis, Benjamin; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Fugate, David L

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to forecast photovoltaic (PV) power in kW based on a neural network linkage of publicly available cloud cover data and on-site solar irradiance sensor data. We also describe a control approach to utilize rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs) to support renewable integration. The PV forecasting method is validated using data from a rooftop PV panel installed on the Distributed Energy, Communications, and Controls (DECC) laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The validation occurs in multiple phases to ensure that each component of the approach is the best representation of the actual expected output. The control of the RTU is based on model predictive methods.

  9. Advances in environmental genomics: towards an integrated view of micro-organisms and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Philippe N; Médigue, Claudine; Normand, Philippe

    2008-02-01

    Microbial genome sequencing has, for the first time, made accessible all the components needed for both the elaboration and the functioning of a cell. Associated with other global methods such as protein and mRNA profiling, genomics has considerably extended our knowledge of physiological processes and their diversity not only in human, animal and plant pathogens but also in environmental isolates. At a higher level of complexity, the so-called meta approaches have recently shown great promise in investigating microbial communities, including uncultured micro-organisms. Combined with classical methods of physico-chemistry and microbiology, these endeavours should provide us with an integrated view of how micro-organisms adapt to particular ecological niches and participate in the dynamics of ecosystems.

  10. Potential for integrated optical circuits in advanced aircraft with fiber optic control and monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The current Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program is reviewed and the potential role of IOCs in FOCSI applications is described. The program is intended for building, environmentally testing, and demonstrating operation in piggyback flight tests (no active control with optical sensors) of a representative sensor system for propulsion and flight control. The optical sensor systems are to be designed to fit alongside the bill-of-materials sensors for comparison. The sensors are to be connected to electrooptic architecture cards which will contain the optical sources and detectors to recover and process the modulated optical signals. The FOCSI program is to collect data on the behavior of passive optical sensor systems in a flight environment and provide valuable information on installation amd maintenance problems for this technology, as well as component survivability (light sources, connectors, optical fibers, etc.).

  11. Alignment and integration of large optical systems based on advanced metrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliverti, M.; Riva, M.; Moschetti, M.; Pariani, G.; Genoni, M.; Zerbi, F. M.

    Optical alignment is a key activity in opto-mechanical system Integration. Traditional techniques require adjustable mounting, driven by optical references that allows the tuning of the optics position along all 6 Degree of Freedom. Nevertheless, the required flexibility imposes reduced stiffness and consequently less stability of the system. The Observatory of Brera (OAB) started few years ago a research activity focused onto the overcoming of this limits exploiting the high metrology performances of Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) with the main objectives of relax the manufacturing tolerances and maximize mounting stiffness. Through the T-REX grants, OAB acquired all the instrumentation needed for that activity furthermore considering the ESPRESSO project training and testing also oriented to large scale instrumentation like the E-ELT one. We will present in this paper the definition of the VLTs convergence point and the feasibility study of large mirrors alignment done by mechanical measurements methods. skip=8pt

  12. Integration and Exploitation of Advanced Visualization and Data Technologies to Teach STEM Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, M. A.; Garrow, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    We live in an age where the volume of content available online to the general public is staggering. Integration of data from new technologies gives us amazing educational opportunities when appropriate narratives are provided. We prepared a distance learning credit bearing module that showcased many currently available data sets and state of the art technologies. It has been completed by many thousands of students with good feedback. Module highlights were the wide ranging and varied online activities which taught a wide range of STEM content. For example: it is well known that on Captain Scott's Terra Nova Expedition 1910-13, three researchers completed the "the worst journey in the world" to study emperor penguins. Using their primary records and clips from location filmed television documentaries we can tell their story and the reasons why it was important. However using state of the art content we can go much further. Using satellite data students can trace the path the researchers took and observe the penguin colony that they studied. Linking to modern Open Access literature students learn how they can estimate the numbers of animals in this and similar locations. Then by linking to freely available data from Antarctic Automatic Weather Stations students can learn quantitatively about the climatic conditions the animals are enduring in real time. They can then download and compare this with the regional climatic record to see if their observations are what could be expected. By considering the environment the penguins live in students can be taught about the evolutionary and behavioural adaptations the animals have undergone to survive. In this one activity we can teach a wide range of key learning points in an engaging and coherent way. It opened some students' eyes to the range of possibilities available to learn about our, and other planets. The addition and integration of new state of the art techniques and data sets only increases the opportunities to

  13. Integrating Body and Organ Size in Drosophila: Recent Advances and Outstanding Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mirth, Christen Kerry; Shingleton, Alexander W.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, fundamental strides in physiology and genetics have allowed us to finally grasp the developmental mechanisms regulating body size, primarily in one model organism: the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila, as in all animals, final body size is regulated by the rate and duration of growth. These studies have identified important roles for the insulin and the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathways in regulating the growth rate of the larva, the stage most important in determining final adult size. Furthermore, they have shown that the insulin/TOR pathway interacts with hormonal systems, like ecdysone and juvenile hormone, to regulate the timing of development and hence the duration of growth. This interaction allows the growing larvae to integrate cues from the environment with environmentally sensitive developmental windows to ensure that optimal size and proportions are reached given the larval rearing conditions. Results from this work have opened up new avenues of studies, including how environmental cues are integrated to regulate developmental time and how organs maintain proportional growth. Other researchers interested in the evolution of body size are beginning to apply these results to studies of body size evolution and the generation of allometry. With these new findings, and with the developments to come, the field of size control finds itself in the fortunate position of finally being able to tackle century old questions of how organisms achieve final adult size and proportions. This review discusses the state of the art of size control from a Drosophila perspective, and outlines an approach to resolving outstanding issues. PMID:22654869

  14. Developing a common framework for integrated solid waste management advances in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Olley, Jane E; IJgosse, Jeroen; Rudin, Victoria; Alabaster, Graham

    2014-09-01

    This article describes the municipal solid waste management system in Managua, Nicaragua. It updates an initial profile developed by the authors for the 2010 UN-HABITAT publication Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities and applies the methodology developed in that publication. In recent years, the municipality of Managua has been the beneficiary of a range of international cooperation projects aimed at improving municipal solid waste management in the city. The article describes how these technical assistance and infrastructure investments have changed the municipal solid waste management panorama in the city and analyses the sustainability of these changes. The article concludes that by working closely with the municipal government, the UN-HABITAT project Strengthening Capacities for Solid Waste Management in Managua was able to unite these separate efforts and situate them within a strategic framework to guide the evolution of the municipal solid waste management system in the forthcoming years. The creation of this multi-stakeholder platform allowed for the implementation of joint activities and ensured coherence in the products generated by the different projects. This approach could be replicated in other cities and in other sectors with similar effect. Developing a long term vision was essential for the advancement of municipal solid waste management in the city. Nevertheless, plan implementation may still be undermined by the pressures of the short term municipal administrative government, which emphasize operational over strategic investment.

  15. Analysis of line integrated electron density using plasma position data on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Y. U.; Chung, J.

    2010-10-15

    A 280 GHz single-channel horizontal millimeter-wave interferometer system has been installed for plasma electron density measurements on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. This system has a triangular beam path that does not pass through the plasma axis due to geometrical constraints in the superconducting tokamak. The term line density on KSTAR has a different meaning from the line density of other tokamaks. To estimate the peak density and the mean density from the measured line density, information on the position of the plasma is needed. The information has been calculated from tangentially viewed visible images using the toroidal symmetry of the plasma. Interface definition language routines have been developed for this purpose. The calculated plasma position data correspond well to calculation results from magnetic analysis. With the position data and an estimated plasma profile, the peak density and the mean density have been obtained from the line density. From these results, changes of plasma density themselves can be separated from effects of the plasma movements, so they can give valuable information on the plasma status.

  16. Identification and Resolution of Safety Issues for the Advanced Integral Type PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woong Sik; Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Hho Jung

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the interim results of a study on the identification and resolution of safety issues for the AIPWR licensing. The safety issues discussed in this paper include (1) policy issues for which decision-makings are needed for the procedural requirements of licensing system in the regulatory policy point of view, (2) technical issues for which either development of new requirements or amendment of some existing requirements is needed, or (3) other technical issues for which safety verifications are required. The study covers (a) the assessment of applicability of the issues identified from the previous studies to the case of the AIPWR, (b) identification of safety issues through analysis of the international experiences in the design and licensing of advanced reactors, and technical review of the AIPWR design, and (c) development of the resolutions of safety issues, and application of the resolutions to the amendment of regulatory requirements and the licensing review of the AIPWR. As the results of this study, a total of twenty eight safety issues was identified: fourteen issues from the previous studies, including the establishment of design safety goals; four issues from the foreign practices and experiences, including the risk-informed licensing; and ten issues by the AIPWR design review, including reliability of passive safety systems. Ten issues of them have been already resolved and the succeeding study is under way to resolve the remaining ones. (authors)

  17. Automated, Miniaturized and Integrated Quality Control-on-Chip (QC-on-a-Chip) for Advanced Cell Therapy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartmann, David; Rothbauer, Mario; Kuten, Olga; Barresi, Caterina; Visus, Carmen; Felzmann, Thomas; Ertl, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The combination of microfabrication-based technologies with cell biology has laid the foundation for the development of advanced in vitro diagnostic systems capable of evaluating cell cultures under defined, reproducible and standardizable measurement conditions. In the present review we describe recent lab-on-a-chip developments for cell analysis and how these methodologies could improve standard quality control in the field of manufacturing cell-based vaccines for clinical purposes. We highlight in particular the regulatory requirements for advanced cell therapy applications using as an example dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines to describe the tangible advantages of microfluidic devices that overcome most of the challenges associated with automation, miniaturization and integration of cell-based assays. As its main advantage lab-on-a-chip technology allows for precise regulation of culturing conditions, while simultaneously monitoring cell relevant parameters using embedded sensory systems. State-of-the-art lab-on-a-chip platforms for in vitro assessment of cell cultures and their potential future applications for cell therapies and cancer immunotherapy are discussed in the present review.

  18. Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Parker, R.

    2014-01-01

    Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.

  19. Integrating organic micropollutant removal into tertiary filtration: Combining PAC adsorption with advanced phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Johannes; Sperlich, Alexander; Jekel, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Direct addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to a deep-bed filter was investigated at pilot-scale as a single advanced treatment stage for simultaneous removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) and phosphorus from secondary effluent. PAC doses of 10-50 mg/L were assessed with regard to their impacts on filter performance and removal of 15 selected OMPs over a period of 18 months. The PAC was effectively retained by the filter and had no negative effect on filter head loss. Filter runtime until particle breakthrough depended mainly on coagulant dose and did not decrease significantly due to the additional PAC load. Removal of suspended solids and phosphorus by coagulation was effective independent of the PAC dose. A PAC dose of 35 mg/L PAC was suitable to remove well-adsorbing OMPs (e.g. carbamazepine, diclofenac) by >80% and medium adsorbing OMPs (e.g. primidone, sulfamethoxazole) by 50-80%. Median removals were 50-80% for well-adsorbing and 30-50% for medium adsorbing OMPs with 20 mg/L PAC. Abatement of all OMPs was low (<50%) with 10 mg/L PAC, possibly because of the high effluent organic matter content (median dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 11.2 mg/L). In addition to adsorptive removal, relevant concentration decreases of certain OMPs (e.g. 4-formylaminoantipyrine) were attributed to biological transformation in the filter. Adsorption onto accumulating PAC in the top layer of the filter bed led to improved OMP adsorption with increasing filter runtime. The comparison of OMP removal in the pilot filter with laboratory adsorption tests demonstrates that batch test results can be applied to estimate adsorptive OMP removal in real applications.

  20. Integrating organic micropollutant removal into tertiary filtration: Combining PAC adsorption with advanced phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Johannes; Sperlich, Alexander; Jekel, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Direct addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to a deep-bed filter was investigated at pilot-scale as a single advanced treatment stage for simultaneous removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) and phosphorus from secondary effluent. PAC doses of 10-50 mg/L were assessed with regard to their impacts on filter performance and removal of 15 selected OMPs over a period of 18 months. The PAC was effectively retained by the filter and had no negative effect on filter head loss. Filter runtime until particle breakthrough depended mainly on coagulant dose and did not decrease significantly due to the additional PAC load. Removal of suspended solids and phosphorus by coagulation was effective independent of the PAC dose. A PAC dose of 35 mg/L PAC was suitable to remove well-adsorbing OMPs (e.g. carbamazepine, diclofenac) by >80% and medium adsorbing OMPs (e.g. primidone, sulfamethoxazole) by 50-80%. Median removals were 50-80% for well-adsorbing and 30-50% for medium adsorbing OMPs with 20 mg/L PAC. Abatement of all OMPs was low (<50%) with 10 mg/L PAC, possibly because of the high effluent organic matter content (median dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 11.2 mg/L). In addition to adsorptive removal, relevant concentration decreases of certain OMPs (e.g. 4-formylaminoantipyrine) were attributed to biological transformation in the filter. Adsorption onto accumulating PAC in the top layer of the filter bed led to improved OMP adsorption with increasing filter runtime. The comparison of OMP removal in the pilot filter with laboratory adsorption tests demonstrates that batch test results can be applied to estimate adsorptive OMP removal in real applications. PMID:26210030

  1. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  2. Integrated Graphics Operations and Analysis Lab Development of Advanced Computer Graphics Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheaton, Ira M.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this project is to aid the IGOAL in researching and implementing algorithms for advanced computer graphics. First, this project focused on porting the current International Space Station (ISS) Xbox experience to the web. Previously, the ISS interior fly-around education and outreach experience only ran on an Xbox 360. One of the desires was to take this experience and make it into something that can be put on NASA s educational site for anyone to be able to access. The current code works in the Unity game engine which does have cross platform capability but is not 100% compatible. The tasks for an intern to complete this portion consisted of gaining familiarity with Unity and the current ISS Xbox code, porting the Xbox code to the web as is, and modifying the code to work well as a web application. In addition, a procedurally generated cloud algorithm will be developed. Currently, the clouds used in AGEA animations and the Xbox experiences are a texture map. The desire is to create a procedurally generated cloud algorithm to provide dynamically generated clouds for both AGEA animations and the Xbox experiences. This task consists of gaining familiarity with AGEA and the plug-in interface, developing the algorithm, creating an AGEA plug-in to implement the algorithm inside AGEA, and creating a Unity script to implement the algorithm for the Xbox. This portion of the project was unable to be completed in the time frame of the internship; however, the IGOAL will continue to work on it in the future.

  3. Science-Based Approach for Advancing Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy: Integrating Numerical Simulations with Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulos, F.; Kang, S.; Chamorro, L. P.; Hill, C.

    2011-12-01

    The field of MHK energy is still in its infancy lagging approximately a decade or more behind the technology and development progress made in wind energy engineering. Marine environments are characterized by complex topography and three-dimensional (3D) turbulent flows, which can greatly affect the performance and structural integrity of MHK devices and impact the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE). Since the deployment of multi-turbine arrays is envisioned for field applications, turbine-to-turbine interactions and turbine-bathymetry interactions need to be understood and properly modeled so that MHK arrays can be optimized on a site specific basis. Furthermore, turbulence induced by MHK turbines alters and interacts with the nearby ecosystem and could potentially impact aquatic habitats. Increased turbulence in the wake of MHK devices can also change the shear stress imposed on the bed ultimately affecting the sediment transport and suspension processes in the wake of these structures. Such effects, however, remain today largely unexplored. In this work a science-based approach integrating state-of-the-art experimentation with high-resolution computational fluid dynamics is proposed as a powerful strategy for optimizing the performance of MHK devices and assessing environmental impacts. A novel numerical framework is developed for carrying out Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) in arbitrarily complex domains with embedded MHK devices. The model is able to resolve the geometrical complexity of real-life MHK devices using the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method along with a wall model for handling the flow near solid surfaces. Calculations are carried out for an axial flow hydrokinetic turbine mounted on the bed of rectangular open channel on a grid with nearly 200 million grid nodes. The approach flow corresponds to fully developed turbulent open channel flow and is obtained from a separate LES calculation. The specific case corresponds to that studied

  4. Integrating Compassionate, Collaborative Care (the "Triple C") Into Health Professional Education to Advance the Triple Aim of Health Care.

    PubMed

    Lown, Beth A; McIntosh, Sharrie; Gaines, Martha E; McGuinn, Kathy; Hatem, David S

    2016-03-01

    Empathy and compassion provide an important foundation for effective collaboration in health care. Compassion (the recognition of and response to the distress and suffering of others) should be consistently offered by health care professionals to patients, families, staff, and one another. However, compassion without collaboration may result in uncoordinated care, while collaboration without compassion may result in technically correct but depersonalized care that fails to meet the unique emotional and psychosocial needs of all involved. Providing compassionate, collaborative care (CCC) is critical to achieving the "triple aim" of improving patients' health and experiences of care while reducing costs. Yet, values and skills related to CCC (or the "Triple C") are not routinely taught, modeled, and assessed across the continuum of learning and practice. To change this paradigm, an interprofessional group of experts recently recommended approaches and a framework for integrating CCC into health professional education and postgraduate training as well as clinical care. In this Perspective, the authors describe how the Triple C framework can be integrated and enhance existing competency standards to advance CCC across the learning and practice continuum. They also discuss strategies for partnering with patients and families to improve health professional education and health care design and delivery through quality improvement projects. They emphasize that compassion and collaboration are important sources of professional, patient, and family satisfaction as well as critical aspects of professionalism and person-centered, relationship-based high-quality care. PMID:26717505

  5. Integrating Compassionate, Collaborative Care (the "Triple C") Into Health Professional Education to Advance the Triple Aim of Health Care.

    PubMed

    Lown, Beth A; McIntosh, Sharrie; Gaines, Martha E; McGuinn, Kathy; Hatem, David S

    2016-03-01

    Empathy and compassion provide an important foundation for effective collaboration in health care. Compassion (the recognition of and response to the distress and suffering of others) should be consistently offered by health care professionals to patients, families, staff, and one another. However, compassion without collaboration may result in uncoordinated care, while collaboration without compassion may result in technically correct but depersonalized care that fails to meet the unique emotional and psychosocial needs of all involved. Providing compassionate, collaborative care (CCC) is critical to achieving the "triple aim" of improving patients' health and experiences of care while reducing costs. Yet, values and skills related to CCC (or the "Triple C") are not routinely taught, modeled, and assessed across the continuum of learning and practice. To change this paradigm, an interprofessional group of experts recently recommended approaches and a framework for integrating CCC into health professional education and postgraduate training as well as clinical care. In this Perspective, the authors describe how the Triple C framework can be integrated and enhance existing competency standards to advance CCC across the learning and practice continuum. They also discuss strategies for partnering with patients and families to improve health professional education and health care design and delivery through quality improvement projects. They emphasize that compassion and collaboration are important sources of professional, patient, and family satisfaction as well as critical aspects of professionalism and person-centered, relationship-based high-quality care.

  6. New politics, an opportunity for maternal health advancement in eastern myanmar: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Loyer, Adam B; Ali, Mohammed; Loyer, Diana

    2014-09-01

    Myanmar (formerly Burma) is a southeast Asian country, with a long history of military dictatorship, human rights violations, and poor health indicators. The health situation is particularly dire among pregnant women in the ethnic minorities of the eastern provinces (Kachin, Shan, Mon, Karen and Karenni regions). This integrative review investigates the current status of maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar in the context of armed conflict between various separatist groups and the military regime. The review examines the underlying factors contributing to high maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar and assesses gaps in the existing research, suggesting areas for further research and policy response. Uncovered were a number of underlying factors uniquely contributing to maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar. These could be grouped into the following analytical themes: ongoing conflict, health system deficits, and political and socioeconomic influences. Abortion was interestingly not identified as an important contributor to maternal mortality. Recent political liberalization may provide space to act upon identified roles and opportunities for the Myanmar Government, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in a manner that positively impacts on maternal healthcare in the eastern regions of Myanmar. This review makes a number of recommendations to this effect.

  7. Integrated butanol recovery for an advanced biofuel: current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuang; Zhao, Jing-Bo; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu; Yang, Shang-Tian; Sun, Jian-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Butanol has recently gained increasing interest due to escalating prices in petroleum fuels and concerns on the energy crisis. However, the butanol production cost with conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium spp. was higher than that of petrochemical processes due to the low butanol titer, yield, and productivity in bioprocesses. In particular, a low butanol titer usually leads to an extremely high recovery cost. Conventional biobutanol recovery by distillation is an energy-intensive process, which has largely restricted the economic production of biobutanol. This article thus reviews the latest studies on butanol recovery techniques including gas stripping, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, and membrane-based techniques, which can be used for in situ recovery of inhibitory products to enhance butanol production. The productivity of the fermentation system is improved efficiently using the in situ recovery technology; however, the recovered butanol titer remains low due to the limitations from each one of these recovery technologies, especially when the feed butanol concentration is lower than 1 % (w/v). Therefore, several innovative multi-stage hybrid processes have been proposed and are discussed in this review. These hybrid processes including two-stage gas stripping and multi-stage pervaporation have high butanol selectivity, considerably higher energy and production efficiency, and should outperform the conventional processes using single separation step or method. The development of these new integrated processes will give a momentum for the sustainable production of industrial biobutanol. PMID:24535254

  8. Advances in a fully integrated intravascular OCT-ultrasound system for cardiovascular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Joe; Li, Jiawen; Li, Xiang; Yin, Jiechen; Zhang, Jun; Hoang, Khiet; Patel, Pranav; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) are two popular techniques for the detection and determination of atherosclerosis. IVUS allows visualization of plaques while also providing a large penetration depth to determine plaque volume. Intracoronary OCT provides the ability to capture microscopic features associated with high risk plaque. Traditionally to utilize the benefits of both modalities, separate probes and systems had to be used one at a time to image a vessel. We present work required to create a combined OCT IVUS system capable of simultaneous imaging to detect atherosclerotic plaques. A novel integrated probe of size 0.69 mm OD featuring sequential placement of components was created to acquire co-registered images within small coronary vessels. By utilizing commercial graphics processing units (GPUs) real time visualization of acquired data is possible up to a maximum 48 frames per second per channel. In vitro studies on human coronary artery samples as well as in vivo studies in rabbits and pigs show various plaque buildups in both OCT and IVUS images which match histology results, demonstrating the capabilities of the system.

  9. Self-incompatibility in Papaver: advances in integrating the signalling network.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Deborah J; Flores-Ortiz, Carlos; Haque, Tamanna; Lin, Zongcheng; Teng, Nianjun; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2014-04-01

    Self-fertilization, which results in reduced fitness of offspring, is a common problem in hermaphrodite angiosperms. To prevent this, many plants utilize SI (self-incompatibility), which is determined by the multi-allelic S-locus, that allows discrimination between self (incompatible) and non-self (compatible) pollen by the pistil. In poppy (Papaver rhoeas), the pistil S-determinant (PrsS) is a small secreted protein which interacts with the pollen S-determinant PrpS, a ~20 kDa novel transmembrane protein. Interaction of matching pollen and pistil S-determinants results in self-recognition, initiating a Ca²⁺-dependent signalling network in incompatible pollen. This triggers several downstream events, including alterations to the cytoskeleton, phosphorylation of sPPases (soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases) and an MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), increases in ROS (reactive oxygen species) and nitric oxide (NO), and activation of several caspase-like activities. This results in the inhibition of pollen tube growth, prevention of self-fertilization and ultimately PCD (programmed cell death) in incompatible pollen. The present review focuses on our current understanding of the integration of these signals with their targets in the SI/PCD network. We also discuss our recent functional expression of PrpS in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen.

  10. Geo-Semantic Framework for Integrating Long-Tail Data and Model Resources for Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    Often, scientists and small research groups collect data, which target to address issues and have limited geographic or temporal range. A large number of such collections together constitute a large database that is of immense value to Earth Science studies. Complexity of integrating these data include heterogeneity in dimensions, coordinate systems, scales, variables, providers, users and contexts. They have been defined as long-tail data. Similarly, we use "long-tail models" to characterize a heterogeneous collection of models and/or modules developed for targeted problems by individuals and small groups, which together provide a large valuable collection. Complexity of integrating across these models include differing variable names and units for the same concept, model runs at different time steps and spatial resolution, use of differing naming and reference conventions, etc. Ability to "integrate long-tail models and data" will provide an opportunity for the interoperability and reusability of communities' resources, where not only models can be combined in a workflow, but each model will be able to discover and (re)use data in application specific context of space, time and questions. This capability is essential to represent, understand, predict, and manage heterogeneous and interconnected processes and activities by harnessing the complex, heterogeneous, and extensive set of distributed resources. Because of the staggering production rate of long-tail models and data resulting from the advances in computational, sensing, and information technologies, an important challenge arises: how can geoinformatics bring together these resources seamlessly, given the inherent complexity among model and data resources that span across various domains. We will present a semantic-based framework to support integration of "long-tail" models and data. This builds on existing technologies including: (i) SEAD (Sustainable Environmental Actionable Data) which supports curation

  11. Advanced analysis of optical loss factors in polymers for integrated optics circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosc, D.; Maalouf, A.; Messaad, K.; Mahé, H.; Bodiou, L.

    2013-04-01

    In the context of optical transmission in the polymer integrated waveguides, transmission losses are a limiting factor for the development of such a technology. In this paper, we analyze the different features that cause optical losses namely intrinsic absorption of the material and light scattering in the bulk. This analysis of optical transmissions mainly in the telecom C-band (1530-1565 nm) and O-band (1260-1360 nm) is based on measurements in bulk material and solutions. These allow to assess the limiting level of losses induced by the material itself. The results can give the intensity attenuation resulting from defects induced by the waveguide processing. It results that losses by scattering process can reach 0.1 dB/cm at 1550 nm when samples are filtered at 0.2 μm. It is slightly higher at 1320 nm but probably less than 0.2 dB/cm. Most of the optical losses are then due to the intrinsic absorption and can be around 0.7 dB/cm for PMMA, at 1550 nm. Consequently, in the case of channel singlemode waveguides, the global linear loss is higher at this wavelength, and, the additional losses are brought by imperfections of the channel both in the bulk and on the surface. This article also shows that reducing the level of C-H bonds content of the polymers down to 25 × 10-3 cm-3 the material losses are limiting by scattering and can fall down to around 0.2 dB/cm (at 1550 nm).

  12. Development of ITM oxygen technology for integration in IGCC and other advanced power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Phillip A.

    2015-03-31

    Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology is based on the oxygen-ion-conducting properties of certain mixed-metal oxide ceramic materials that can separate oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas, such as air, under a suitable driving force. The “ITM Oxygen” air separation system that results from the use of such ceramic membranes produces a hot, pure oxygen stream and a hot, pressurized, oxygen-depleted stream from which significant amounts of energy can be extracted. Accordingly, the technology integrates well with other high-temperature processes, including power generation. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., the Recipient, in conjunction with a dozen subcontractors, developed ITM Oxygen technology under this five-phase Cooperative Agreement from the laboratory bench scale to implementation in a pilot plant capable of producing power and 100 tons per day (TPD) of purified oxygen. A commercial-scale membrane module manufacturing facility (the “CerFab”), sized to support a conceptual 2000 TPD ITM Oxygen Development Facility (ODF), was also established and operated under this Agreement. In the course of this work, the team developed prototype ceramic production processes and a robust planar ceramic membrane architecture based on a novel ceramic compound capable of high oxygen fluxes. The concept and feasibility of the technology was thoroughly established through laboratory pilot-scale operations testing commercial-scale membrane modules run under industrial operating conditions with compelling lifetime and reliability performance that supported further scale-up. Auxiliary systems, including contaminant mitigation, process controls, heat exchange, turbo-machinery, combustion, and membrane pressure vessels were extensively investigated and developed. The Recipient and subcontractors developed efficient process cycles that co-produce oxygen and power based on compact, low-cost ITMs. Process economics assessments show significant benefits relative to state

  13. Advances in EBSD and EBSD/EDS integration for the characterization of mineralogical samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palasse, L.; Goran, D.; Schwager, T.

    2013-12-01

    (<10 nm) of this technique compared to conventional EBSD. EBSD phase map of an oxide gabbro collected by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 304/305, U1309D. phases: clinopyroxene, clinohypersthene, magnetite, ilmenite, tremolite, plagioclase, quartz, pyrrhotite, apatite, clinochlore. Sample courtesy: Dr. Angela Halfpenny, CSIRO Perth, Australia.

  14. Developing a Patient Care Co-ordination Centre in Trafford, England: lessons from the International Foundation for Integrated Care (IFIC)/Advancing Quality Alliance integrated care fellowship experience.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The NHS and Social Care in England are facing one of the biggest financial challenges for a generation. Commissioners and providers need to work on collaborative schemes to manage the increasing demand on health and social care within a period of financial constraint. Different forms of care co-ordination have been developed at different levels across the world. In the north-west of England, the Trafford health and social care economy have been working through a competitive dialogue process with industry to develop an innovative and dynamic solution to deliver seamless co-ordination for all patients and service users. The strategy is to develop a new Patient Care Co-ordination Centre, which will be responsible for the delivery of co-ordinated, quality care. The Patient Care Co-ordination Centre will work at clinical, service, functional and community levels across multiple providers covering risk stratification, preventative, elective and unscheduled care. I am the clinical lead for the Patient Care Co-ordination Centre and during my year as an Advancing Quality Alliance Integrated Care Fellow, I have had the opportunity to study examples of care coordination from UK and international sites. The learning from these visits has been assimilated into the design process of the Patient Care Co-ordination Centre.

  15. Photonics-on-a-chip: recent advances in integrated waveguides as enabling detection elements for real-world, lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Adam L; Bailey, Ryan C

    2011-01-21

    By leveraging advances in semiconductor microfabrication technologies, chip-integrated optical biosensors are poised to make an impact as scalable and multiplexable bioanalytical measurement tools for lab-on-a-chip applications. In particular, waveguide-based optical sensing technology appears to be exceptionally amenable to chip integration and miniaturization, and, as a result, the recent literature is replete with examples of chip-integrated waveguide sensing platforms developed to address a wide range of contemporary analytical challenges. As an overview of the most recent advances within this dynamic field, this review highlights work from the last 2-3 years in the areas of grating-coupled, interferometric, photonic crystal, and microresonator waveguide sensors. With a focus towards device integration, particular emphasis is placed on demonstrations of biosensing using these technologies within microfluidically controlled environments. In addition, examples of multiplexed detection and sensing within complex matrices--important features for real-world applicability--are given special attention.

  16. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D.; Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Ally, Moonis Raza; Shen, Bo

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test

  17. Functional microimaging: an integrated approach for advanced bone biomechanics and failure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voide, Romain; van Lenthe, G. H.; Schneider, Philipp; Thurner, Philipp J.; Wyss, Peter; Sennhauser, Urs; Stampanoni, Marco; Stauber, Martin; Snedeker, Jess G.; Müller, Ralph

    2006-03-01

    Biomechanical testing is the gold standard to determine bone competence, and has been used extensively. Direct mechanical testing provides detailed information on overall bone mechanical and material properties, but fails in revealing local properties such as local deformations and strains or quantification of fracture progression. Therefore, we incorporated several imaging methods in our mechanical setups in order to get a better insight into bone deformation and failure characteristics. Our aim was to develop an integrative approach for hierarchical investigation of bone, working at different scales of resolution ranging from the whole bone to its ultrastructure. At a macroscopic level, we used high-resolution and high-speed cameras which drastically increased the amount of information obtained from a biomechanical bone test. The new image data proved especially important when dealing with very small bones such as the murine femur. Here the feedback of the camera in the process of aligning and positioning the samples is indispensable for reproducibility. In addition, global failure behavior and fracture initiation can now be visualized with high temporal resolution. At a microscopic level, bone microstructure, i.e. trabecular architecture and cortical porosity, are known to influence bone strength and failure mechanisms significantly. For this reason, we developed an image-guided failure assessment technique, also referred to as functional microimaging, allowing direct time-lapsed 3D visualization and computation of local displacements and strains for better quantification of fracture initiation and progression at the microscopic level. While the resolution of typical desktop micro-computed tomography is around a few micrometers, highly brilliant X-rays from synchrotron radiation permit to explore the nanometer world. This allowed, for the first time, to uncover fully nondestructively the 3D ultrastructure of bone including vascular and cellular structures and to

  18. Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring, SoilCAM project highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, H. K.; Van Der Zee, S. E.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Tsocano, G.

    2013-12-01

    measurements indicate where the remaining crude oil can be found. Water samples from multilevel samplers reveal crude oil present in emulsion in the zone of groundwater fluctuations, highlighting the importance of colloidal transport. Modelling of multiphase flow of the fluctuating groundwater level explains the lack of horizontal displacement of the plume in the area. Geochemistry of the groundwater clearly indicates degradation of hydrocarbons under iron- and sulphate reducing conditions, but changes were too slow to be mapped by time-lapse geophysical measurements during the project period. MODFLOW was used to simulate the regional groundwater flow and transport in the area. Highlights of the results from both test sites will be presented as an integrated overview. Snow removal at Oslo airport

  19. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source) Booster Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.; Marks, S.; Gee, B.; Wong, W.; Meneghetti, J.

    1989-03-01

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs.

  20. Extracellular Matrix-Dependent Generation of Integration- and Xeno-Free iPS Cells Using a Modified mRNA Transfection Method

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-In; Lee, Seo-Young; Hwang, Dong-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) hold great promise in the field of regenerative medicine, especially immune-compatible cell therapy. The most important safety-related issues that must be resolved before the clinical use of iPS cells include the generation of “footprint-free” and “xeno-free” iPS cells. In this study, we sought to examine whether an extracellular matrix- (ECM-) based xeno-free culture system that we recently established could be used together with a microRNA-enhanced mRNA reprogramming method for the generation of clinically safe iPS cells. The notable features of this method are the use of a xeno-free/feeder-free culture system for the generation and expansion of iPS cells rather than the conventional labor-intensive culture systems using human feeder cells or human feeder-conditioned medium and the enhancement of mRNA-mediated reprogramming via the delivery of microRNAs. Strikingly, we observed the early appearance of iPS cell colonies (~11 days), substantial reprogramming efficiency (~0.2–0.3%), and a high percentage of ESC-like colonies among the total colonies (~87.5%), indicating enhanced kinetics and reprogramming efficiency. Therefore, the combined method established in this study provides a valuable platform for the generation and expansion of clinically safe (i.e., integration- and xeno-free) iPS cells, facilitating immune-matched cell therapy in the near future. PMID:27057175

  1. Ultra sensitive magnetic sensors integrating the giant magnetoelectric effect with advanced microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhao

    consisting of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric components shows a promise to make novel ultra-sensitive magnetic sensors capable of operating at room temperature. To achieve such a high sensitivity (˜pT level), piezoelectric sensors are materialized through ME composite laminates, provided piezo-sensors are among the most sensitive while being passive devices at the same time. To further improve the sensitivity and reduce the 1f noise level, several approaches are used such as magnetic flux concentration effect, which is a function of the Metglas sheet aspect ratio, and resonance enhancement. Taking advantage of this effect, the ME voltage coefficient alpha ME=21.46 V/cm·Oe for Metglas 2605SA1/PVDF laminates and alphaME=46.7 V/cm·Oe for Metglas 2605CO/PVDF laminates. The resonance response of Metglas/PZT laminates in FF (Free-Free), FC (Free-Clamped), and CC (Clamped-Clamped) modes are also investigated. alphaME=301.6 V/cm·Oe and the corresponding SNR=4x107 Hz /Oe are achieved for FC mode at resonance frequencies. In addition to this, testing setups were built to characterize the magnetic sensors. LABVIEW codes were also developed to automatize the measurements and consequently get accurate results. Then two commonly used integration methods, i.e., hybrid method and system in package (SIP), are discussed. Then the intrinsic noise analysis including dielectric loss noise, which dominates the intrinsic noise sources, and magnetostrictive noise is introduced. A charge mode readout circuit is made for hybrid method and a voltage mode readout circuit is made for SIP method. For sensors, since SNR is very important since it determines the minimum signal it can detect, the SNR of each configuration is discussed in detail. For charge mode circuit, by taking advantage of the multilayer PVDF configuration, SNR=7.2x10 5 Hz /Oe is achieved at non-resonance frequencies and SNR=2x10 7 Hz /Oe is achieved at resonance frequencies. For voltage mode circuit, a constant SNR=3x103 Hz /Oe

  2. Matrix superpotentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Anatoly G.; Karadzhov, Yuri

    2011-07-01

    We present a collection of matrix-valued shape invariant potentials which give rise to new exactly solvable problems of SUSY quantum mechanics. It includes all irreducible matrix superpotentials of the generic form W=kQ+\\frac{1}{k} R+P, where k is a variable parameter, Q is the unit matrix multiplied by a real-valued function of independent variable x, and P and R are the Hermitian matrices depending on x. In particular, we recover the Pron'ko-Stroganov 'matrix Coulomb potential' and all known scalar shape invariant potentials of SUSY quantum mechanics. In addition, five new shape invariant potentials are presented. Three of them admit a dual shape invariance, i.e. the related Hamiltonians can be factorized using two non-equivalent superpotentials. We find discrete spectrum and eigenvectors for the corresponding Schrödinger equations and prove that these eigenvectors are normalizable.

  3. IMRT With Simultaneous Integrated Boost and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Montejo, Michael E.; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Bentz, Brandon G.; Hunt, Jason P.; Buchman, Luke O.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Hitchcock, Ying J.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of accelerated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy in advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between April 2003 and May 2008, 43 consecutive patients with advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma received accelerated chemoradiation with concurrent cisplatin or cetuximab. The doses for intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost were 67.5, 60.0, and 54 Gy in 30 daily fractions of 2.25, 2.0, and 1.8 Gy to the planning target volumes for gross disease, high-risk nodes, and low-risk nodes, respectively. Results: Of the patients, 90.7% completed chemoradiotherapy as prescribed. The median treatment duration was 43 days (range, 38-55 days). The complete response rate was 74.4%. With median follow-up of 36.7 months (range, 16.8-78.1 months) in living patients, the estimated 1-, 2-, and 5-year locoregional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival rates were 82%, 82%, and 82%; 73%, 65%, and 61%; and 73%, 73%, and 70%, respectively. One treatment-related death occurred from renal failure. Grade 3 mucositis and dermatitis occurred in 13 patients (30.2%) and 3 patients (6.9%), respectively. Grade 2 xerostomia occurred in 12 patients (27.9%). In patients with adequate follow-up, 82% were feeding tube free by 6 months after therapy; 13% remained feeding tube dependent at 1 year. Grade 3 soft-tissue fibrosis, esophageal stricture, osteoradionecrosis, and trismus occurred in 3 patients (6.9%), 5 patients (11.6%), 1 patient (2.3%), and 3 patients (6.9%), respectively. Conclusions: Our results show that intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost with concurrent chemotherapy improved local and regional control. Acute and late toxicities were tolerable and acceptable. A prospective trial of this fractionation regimen is necessary for further assessment of its efficacy and toxicity compared with other approaches.

  4. Advanced Analytic Treatment and Efficient Computation of the Diffraction Integrals in the Extended Nijboer-Zernike Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haver, S.; Janssen, A. J. E. M.

    2013-07-01

    The computational methods for the diffraction integrals that occur in the Extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ-) approach to circular, aberrated, defocused optical systems are reviewed and updated. In the ENZ-approach, the Debye approximation of Rayleigh's integral for the through-focus, complex, point-spread function is evaluated in semi-analytic form. To this end, the generalized pupil function, comprising phase aberrations as well as amplitude non-uniformities, is assumed to be expanded into a series of Zernike circle polynomials, and the contribution of each of these Zernike terms to the diffraction integral is expressed in the form of a rapidly converging series (containing power functions and/or Bessel functions of various kinds). The procedure of expressing the through-focus point-spread function in terms of Zernike expansion coefficients of the pupil function can be reversed and has led to the ENZ-method of retrieval of pupil functions from measured through-focus (inte! nsity) point-spread functions. The review and update concern the computation for systems ranging from as basic as having low NA and small defocus parameter to high-NA systems, with vector fields and polarization, meant for imaging of extended objects into a multi-layered focal region. In the period 2002-2010, the evolution of the form of the diffraction integral (DI) was dictated by the agenda of the ENZ-team in which a next instance of the DI was handled by amending the computation scheme of the previous one. This has resulted into a variety of ad hoc measures, lack of transparency of the schemes, and sometimes prohibitively slow computer codes. It is the aim of the present paper to reconstruct the whole building of computation methods, using consistently more advanced mathematical tools. These tools are -explicit Zernike expansion of the focal factor in the DI, -Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the omnipresent problem of linearizing products ofZernike circle polynomials, -recursions for Bessel

  5. Advancing Research on Developmental Plasticity: Integrating the Behavioral Science and Neuroscience of Mental Health. Proceedings (Chantilly, Virginia, May 12-15, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hann, Della M., Ed.; Huffman, Lynne C., Ed.; Lederhendler, Israel I., Ed.; Meinecke, Douglas, Ed.

    This book represents the proceedings of the Conference on Advancing Research on Developmental Plasticity: Integrating Behavioral Science and the Neuroscience of Mental Health. The conference featured scientific presentations from many leading scientists in behavioral sciences, neuroscience and psychiatry, as well as a poster session for newer…

  6. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport is reported. Supplementary technical data on the following topics are included: (1) 1990's avionics technology assessment; (2) function criticality assessment; (3) flight deck system for total control and functional features list; (4) criticality and reliability assessment of units; (5) crew procedural function task analysis; and (6) recommendations for simulation mechanization.

  7. Integrating Remote Sensing Data, Hybrid-Cloud Computing, and Event Notifications for Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Yun, S.; Lundgren, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Agram, P.; Manipon, G.; Stough, T. M.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Wilson, B. D.; Poland, M. P.; Cervelli, P. F.; Cruz, J.

    2013-12-01

    Space-based geodetic measurement techniques such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) are now important elements in our toolset for monitoring earthquake-generating faults, volcanic eruptions, hurricane damage, landslides, reservoir subsidence, and other natural and man-made hazards. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation with high spatial and temporal resolution has revolutionized both earthquake science and volcanology. Continuous monitoring of surface deformation and surface change before, during, and after natural hazards improves decision-making from better forecasts, increased situational awareness, and more informed recovery. However, analyses of InSAR and GPS data sets are currently handcrafted following events and are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for use in operational response to natural disasters. Additionally, the sheer data volumes needed to handle a continuous stream of InSAR data sets also presents a bottleneck. It has been estimated that continuous processing of InSAR coverage of California alone over 3-years would reach PB-scale data volumes. Our Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis for Monitoring Hazards (ARIA-MH) science data system enables both science and decision-making communities to monitor areas of interest with derived geodetic data products via seamless data preparation, processing, discovery, and access. We will present our findings on the use of hybrid-cloud computing to improve the timely processing and delivery of geodetic data products, integrating event notifications from USGS to improve the timely processing for response, as well as providing browse results for quick looks with other tools for integrative analysis.

  8. Highly integrated hybrid process with ceramic ultrafiltration-membrane for advanced treatment of drinking water: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianning; Wang, Lingyun; Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Jianguo; Sheng, Deyang; Zhang, Xihui

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a highly integrated hybrid process for the advanced treatment of drinking water in dealing with the micro-polluted raw water. A flat sheet ceramic membrane with the pore size of 50∼60 nm for ultrafiltration (UF) is used to integrate coagulation and ozonation together. At the same time, biological activated carbon filtration (BAC) is used to remove the ammonia and organic pollutants in raw water. A pilot study in the scale of 120 m(3)/d has been conducted in Southern China. The mainly-analyzed parameters include turbidity, particle counts, ammonia, total organic carbon (TOC), UV254, biological dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), dissolved oxygen (DO) as well as trans-membrane pressure (TMP). The experiments demonstrated that ceramic UF-membrane was able to remove most of turbidity and suspended particulate matters. The final effluent turbidity reached to 0.14 NTU on average. BAC was effective in removing ammonia and organic matters. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is necessary for the biodegradation of ammonia at high concentration. The removal efficiencies reached to 90% for ammonia with the initial concentration of 3.6 mg/L and 76% for TOC with the initial concentration of 3.8 mg/L. Ozonation can alter the molecular structure of organics in terms of UV254, reduce membrane fouling, and extend the operation circle. It is believed the hybrid treatment process developed in this article can achieve high performance with less land occupation and lower cost compared with the conventional processes. It is especially suitable for the developing countries in order to obtain high-quality drinking water in a cost-effective way.

  9. Challenge problem and milestones for : Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Howard, Robert; McNeish, Jerry A.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the specification of a challenge problem and associated challenge milestones for the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The NEAMS challenge problems are designed to demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards IPSC goals. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. To demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards these goals and requirements, a Waste IPSC challenge problem is specified that includes coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes that describe (1) the degradation of a borosilicate glass waste form and the corresponding mobilization of radionuclides (i.e., the processes that produce the radionuclide source term), (2) the associated near-field physical and chemical environment for waste emplacement within a salt formation, and (3) radionuclide transport in the near field (i.e., through the engineered components - waste form, waste package, and backfill - and the immediately adjacent salt). The initial details of a set of challenge milestones that collectively comprise the full challenge problem are also specified.

  10. Introduction to special section of the Journal of Family Psychology, advances in mixed methods in family psychology: integrative and applied solutions for family science.

    PubMed

    Weisner, Thomas S; Fiese, Barbara H

    2011-12-01

    Mixed methods in family psychology refer to the systematic integration of qualitative and quantitative techniques to represent family processes and settings. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in study design, analytic strategies, and technological support (such as software) that allow for the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods and for making appropriate inferences from mixed methods. This special section of the Journal of Family Psychology illustrates how mixed methods may be used to advance knowledge in family science through identifying important cultural differences in family structure, beliefs, and practices, and revealing patterns of family relationships to generate new measurement paradigms and inform clinical practice. Guidance is offered to advance mixed methods research in family psychology through sound principles of peer review.

  11. Advances in Identification of Clinical Yeast Isolates by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Blake W.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification is being adopted by clinical laboratories for routine identification of microorganisms. To date, the majority of studies have focused on the performance and optimization of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of bacterial isolates. We review recent literature describing the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the routine identification of a variety of yeasts and yeast-like isolates. Specific topics include the effect of optimized or streamlined extraction methods, modified scoring thresholds, expanded reference libraries, and the possibility of conducting antifungal susceptibility testing using MALDI-TOF MS. PMID:23426924

  12. Dosimetric comparisons of VMAT, IMRT and 3DCRT for locally advanced rectal cancer with simultaneous integrated boost

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Gang; Wang, Jiazhou; Xie, Jiang; Peng, Jiayuan; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous integrated boost radiotherapy for preoperative locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) can improve the local control and overall survival rates. The purpose of this study is to compare the dosimetric differences among volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), fixed-field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for the LARC. Ten LARC patients treated in our department using the simultaneous escalate strategy were retrospectively analyzed in this study. All patients had T3 with N+/− and were treated with IMRT. Two additional VMAT and 3DCRT plans were created for each patient. VMAT plans were designed using SmartArc planning module. Both IMRT and SmartArc had similar optimization objectives. The prescription was 50 Gy to the planning clinical target volume (PTV-C) and 56 Gy to the planning gross target volume (PTV-G). The target coverage and organs at risk (OARs) were compared for all the techniques. The paired, two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied for statistical analysis. Results of this study indicate that IMRT and SmartArc were all significantly superior to 3DCRT in most of the relevant values evaluated of target response, OARs and normal tissue sparing. They provided comparable dosimetric parameters for target volume. But IMRT shows better sparing for OARs and normal tissue. PMID:26621840

  13. Dosimetric comparisons of VMAT, IMRT and 3DCRT for locally advanced rectal cancer with simultaneous integrated boost.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Hu, Weigang; Cai, Gang; Wang, Jiazhou; Xie, Jiang; Peng, Jiayuan; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    The simultaneous integrated boost radiotherapy for preoperative locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) can improve the local control and overall survival rates. The purpose of this study is to compare the dosimetric differences among volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), fixed-field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for the LARC. Ten LARC patients treated in our department using the simultaneous escalate strategy were retrospectively analyzed in this study. All patients had T3 with N+/- and were treated with IMRT. Two additional VMAT and 3DCRT plans were created for each patient. VMAT plans were designed using SmartArc planning module. Both IMRT and SmartArc had similar optimization objectives. The prescription was 50 Gy to the planning clinical target volume (PTV-C) and 56 Gy to the planning gross target volume (PTV-G). The target coverage and organs at risk (OARs) were compared for all the techniques. The paired, two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied for statistical analysis. Results of this study indicate that IMRT and SmartArc were all significantly superior to 3DCRT in most of the relevant values evaluated of target response, OARs and normal tissue sparing. They provided comparable dosimetric parameters for target volume. But IMRT shows better sparing for OARs and normal tissue.

  14. Invited commentary: integrating a life-course perspective and social theory to advance research on residential segregation and health.

    PubMed

    Osypuk, Theresa L

    2013-02-15

    Research on racial residential segregation and health typically uses multilevel, population-based, slice-in-time data. Although research using this approach, including that by Kershaw et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(4):299-309), has been valuable, I argue that to advance our understanding of how residential segregation influences health and health disparities, it is critical to incorporate a life-course perspective and integrate social theory. Applying a life-course perspective would entail modeling transitions, cumulative risk, and developmental and dynamic processes and mechanisms, as well as recognizing the contingency of contextual effects on different social groups. I discuss the need for analytic methods appropriate for modeling health effects of distal causes experienced across the life course, such as segregation, that operate through multiple levels and sequences of mediators, potentially across decades. Sociological theories of neighborhood attainment (e.g., segmented assimilation, ethnic resurgence, and place stratification theories) can guide effect-modification tests to help illuminate health effects resulting from intersections of residential processes, race/ethnicity, immigration, and other social determinants of health. For example, nativity and immigration history may crucially shape residential processes and exposures, but these have received limited attention in prior segregation-health literature. PMID:23337313

  15. Non-CAR resists and advanced materials for Massively Parallel E-Beam Direct Write process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourteau, Marie-Line; Servin, Isabelle; Lepinay, Kévin; Essomba, Cyrille; Dal'Zotto, Bernard; Pradelles, Jonathan; Lattard, Ludovic; Brandt, Pieter; Wieland, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The emerging Massively Parallel-Electron Beam Direct Write (MP-EBDW) is an attractive high resolution high throughput lithography technology. As previously shown, Chemically Amplified Resists (CARs) meet process/integration specifications in terms of dose-to-size, resolution, contrast, and energy latitude. However, they are still limited by their line width roughness. To overcome this issue, we tested an alternative advanced non-CAR and showed it brings a substantial gain in sensitivity compared to CAR. We also implemented and assessed in-line post-lithographic treatments for roughness mitigation. For outgassing-reduction purpose, a top-coat layer is added to the total process stack. A new generation top-coat was tested and showed improved printing performances compared to the previous product, especially avoiding dark erosion: SEM cross-section showed a straight pattern profile. A spin-coatable charge dissipation layer based on conductive polyaniline has also been tested for conductivity and lithographic performances, and compatibility experiments revealed that the underlying resist type has to be carefully chosen when using this product. Finally, the Process Of Reference (POR) trilayer stack defined for 5 kV multi-e-beam lithography was successfully etched with well opened and straight patterns, and no lithography-etch bias.

  16. Invited commentary: integrating a life-course perspective and social theory to advance research on residential segregation and health.

    PubMed

    Osypuk, Theresa L

    2013-02-15

    Research on racial residential segregation and health typically uses multilevel, population-based, slice-in-time data. Although research using this approach, including that by Kershaw et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(4):299-309), has been valuable, I argue that to advance our understanding of how residential segregation influences health and health disparities, it is critical to incorporate a life-course perspective and integrate social theory. Applying a life-course perspective would entail modeling transitions, cumulative risk, and developmental and dynamic processes and mechanisms, as well as recognizing the contingency of contextual effects on different social groups. I discuss the need for analytic methods appropriate for modeling health effects of distal causes experienced across the life course, such as segregation, that operate through multiple levels and sequences of mediators, potentially across decades. Sociological theories of neighborhood attainment (e.g., segmented assimilation, ethnic resurgence, and place stratification theories) can guide effect-modification tests to help illuminate health effects resulting from intersections of residential processes, race/ethnicity, immigration, and other social determinants of health. For example, nativity and immigration history may crucially shape residential processes and exposures, but these have received limited attention in prior segregation-health literature.

  17. Advanced X ray Astrophysics Facility-Imaging (AXAF-I) thermal analyses using Integrated Thermal Analysis System (ITAS) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Benny; Cummings, Ramona

    1993-01-01

    The complex geometry and stringent thermal requirements associated with the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-I) necessitate a detailed and accurate thermal analysis of the proposed system. A brief description of said geometry and thermal requirements is included. Among the tools considered for the aforementioned analysis is a PC-compatible version of the Integrated Thermal Analysis System (ITAS). Several bench-mark studies were performed to evaluate the capabilities of ITAS and to compare the corresponding results with those obtained using TRASYS and SINDA. Comparative studies were conducted for a typical Space Station module. Four models were developed using various combinations of the available software packages (i.e. ITAS, SINDA, and TRASYS). Orbital heating and heat transfer calculations were performed to determine the temperature distributions along the surfaces of this module. A comparison of the temperature distributions obtained for each of the four cases is presented. Results of this investigation were used to verify the different ITAS modules including those used for model generation, steady state and transient orbital heating analyses, radiative and convective heat flow analyses, and SINDA/TRASYS model translation. The results suggest that ITAS is well suited to subsequent analyses of the AXAF-I.

  18. Current advances of integrated processes combining chemical absorption and biological reduction for NO x removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Han; Xia, Yinfeng; Liu, Nan; Lu, Bi-Hong; Li, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emitted from the fossil-fuel-fired power plants cause adverse environmental issues such as acid rain, urban ozone smoke, and photochemical smog. A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process under development is regarded as a promising alternative to the conventional selective catalytic reduction processes for NO x removal from the flue gas because it is economic and environmentally friendly. CABR process employs ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate [Fe(II)EDTA] as a solvent to absorb the NO x following microbial denitrification of NO x to harmless nitrogen gas. Meanwhile, the absorbent Fe(II)EDTA is biologically regenerated to sustain the adequate NO x removal. Compared with conventional denitrification process, CABR not only enhances the mass transfer of NO from gas to liquid phase but also minimize the impact of oxygen on the microorganisms. This review provides the current advances of the development of the CABR process for NO x removal from the flue gas. PMID:25149446

  19. Invited Commentary: Integrating a Life-Course Perspective and Social Theory to Advance Research on Residential Segregation and Health

    PubMed Central

    Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2013-01-01

    Research on racial residential segregation and health typically uses multilevel, population-based, slice-in-time data. Although research using this approach, including that by Kershaw et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(4):299–309), has been valuable, I argue that to advance our understanding of how residential segregation influences health and health disparities, it is critical to incorporate a life-course perspective and integrate social theory. Applying a life-course perspective would entail modeling transitions, cumulative risk, and developmental and dynamic processes and mechanisms, as well as recognizing the contingency of contextual effects on different social groups. I discuss the need for analytic methods appropriate for modeling health effects of distal causes experienced across the life course, such as segregation, that operate through multiple levels and sequences of mediators, potentially across decades. Sociological theories of neighborhood attainment (e.g., segmented assimilation, ethnic resurgence, and place stratification theories) can guide effect-modification tests to help illuminate health effects resulting from intersections of residential processes, race/ethnicity, immigration, and other social determinants of health. For example, nativity and immigration history may crucially shape residential processes and exposures, but these have received limited attention in prior segregation-health literature. PMID:23337313

  20. Expression of the Matrix Metalloproteases 2, 14, 24, and 25 and Tissue Inhibitor 3 as Potential Molecular Markers in Advanced Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    de la Peña, Sol; Sampieri, Clara Luz; Ochoa-Lara, Mariana; León-Córdoba, Kenneth; Remes-Troche, José María

    2014-01-01

    Background. During progression of gastric cancer (GC), degradation of the extracellular matrix is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs): changes in the expression of these have been related to unfavorable prognosis in GC. Objective. To analyze the expression of certain MMPs and TIMPs in chronic superficial gastritis (SG) and GC. Methods. The expression of MMPs and TIMPs was determined using qRT-PCR; the expression was classified, using threshold cycle (CT) values, as very high (CT ≤ 25), high (CT = 26–30), moderate (CT = 31–35), low (CT = 36–39), or not detected (CT = 40). Strength of association was estimated between the proteins, which were detected by Western blot, and the risk of developing GC. Results. We found a high expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP14, TIMP1, and TIMP3; moderate one of MMP9 and MMP25, and low one of MMP13 and MMP24 in both tissues. In absolute mRNA levels, significant differences were found in expression of MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25, which are overexpressed in GC compared with SG. The presence of the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 was associated with the risk of developing GC. Conclusions. We consider that MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25 and the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 could be candidates for prognostic molecular markers in GC. PMID:24669030