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Sample records for advanced lead-acid battery

  1. Utilization of a bipolar lead acid battery for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, William O.; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Eckles, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The development of a battery comprised of bipolar lead acid modules is discussed. The battery is designed to satisfy the requirements of the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The battery will have the following design features: (1) conventional lead acid chemistry; (2) thin electrode/active materials; (3) a thin separator; (4) sealed construction (gas recombinant); and (5) welded plastic frames for the external seal.

  2. The development of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Szymborski, J.; Jungst, R.G.

    1993-10-01

    Technical advances in lead-acid battery design have created new opportunities for battery systems in telecommunications, computer backup power and vehicle propulsion power. Now the lead-acid battery has the opportunity to become a major element in the mix of technologies used by electric utilities for several power quality and energy and resource management functions within the network. Since their introduction into industrial applications, Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries have received widespread acceptance and use in critical telecommunications and computer installations, and have developed over 10 years of reliable operational history. As further enhancements in performance, reliability and manufacturing processes are made, these VRLA batteries are expanding the role of battery-based energy storage systems within utility companies portfolios. This paper discusses the rationale and process of designing, optimizing and testing VRLA batteries for specific utility application requirements.

  3. Laboratory evaluation and analysis of advanced lead-acid load-leveling batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. F.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Christianson, C. C.; Marr, J. J.; Smaga, J. A.

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted an extensive evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries developed by the Exide Corporation for load-leveling applications. This paper presents the results of performance and accelerated life tests conducted on these batteries over a five-year period. This paper describes the operational reliability and maintenance requirements for this technology, and also includes analyses of the batteries' thermal characteristics, arsine/stibine emission rates, and cell degradation modes as determined from post-test examinations.

  4. Lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1983-09-20

    A light weight lead-acid battery is disclosed having a positive terminal and a negative terminal and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive and negative bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  5. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  6. Advances in recombinant battery separator mat (RBSM) separators for lead-acid batteries—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zguris, G. C.

    Microglass separators have been used in lead-acid batteries for more than 20 years with excellent results. This type of separator (known as recombinant battery separator mat (RBSM)) has allowed valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology to become a commercial reality. When the concept of the VRLA battery was developed, the requirements of the RBSM separator were not fully known nor appreciated. In many cases, the direction charted for the separator has not been the most beneficial path to follow for separator performance and battery life. In some cases, such as the density of the separator media, experience has shown that the most correct path (low density) does not give rise to long battery life. As VRLA battery technology matures, greater pressure on cost and quality has arisen, especially with the proposed transition to 42 V automotive applications. This paper reviews some of the advances and changes in the RBSM separator made over the last 20 years, and provides some thoughts on future directions for this essential component of the VRLA battery.

  7. Research and development of advanced lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, M. G.; Bowman, D. E.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose was to develop an advanced lead-acid battery based on the concept of forced flow of electrolyte through porous electrodes for enhanced battery performance. The objectives were: specific energy of 42 Wh/kg, energy density of 70 Wh/l, and cycle life of 100 cycles. Accomplishments were: 35 flow-through cells with reduced construction time, higher fiber content in the positive active materials (PAM) with increased strength by a factor of 3, high-density PAM for increased life without utilization losses, confirmation of solid-state relaxation theory, methods for measuring permeability, 31 cycles achieved in C-450, oxygen recombination in many test cells, electrolyte reservoir can be below the top of the cells, and completed designs for positive and negative flow-through grids and for the injection molds to produce the grid/plastic laminates.

  8. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  9. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages.

  10. Lead/acid battery myths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, P. T.

    The lead/acid battery deserves a more positive image than has been traditional heretofore—particularly with respect to a number of aspects that relate to its utility as a power source for electric vehicles. Recent results from a large internationally coordinated research programme indicate that: (i) with proper attention to construction, valve-regulated lead/acid batteries can be deep-discharged many times without capacity loss; (ii) lead/acid batteries can be recharged extremely rapidly so that long journeys of electric vehicles become a realistic possibility; (iii) ranges of over 150 km between charges are achievable, and (iv) the introduction of significant numbers of lead/acid-powered electric vehicles does offer a beneficial environmental impact.

  11. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A sealed, low maintenance battery (10, 100) is formed of a casing (14, 102) having a sealed lid (12, 104) enclosing cell compartments (22, 110) formed by walls (24, 132). The cells comprise a stack (26) of horizontally disposed negative active plates (30) and positive active plates (28) interspersed with porous, resilient separator sheets (30). Each plate has a set of evenly spaced tigs (40, 41) disposed on one side thereof; like polarity tigs being disposed on one side and opposite polarity tigs on the other. Columns of tigs are electrically and mechanically joined by vertical bus bars (46). The bus bars contain outwardly projecting arms (56) of opposite polarity which are electrically joined at each partition wall (24) to electrically connect the cells in series. The stack is compressed by biasing means such as resilient pad (58) attached to the lid or by joining the tigs (52) to the post (48) at a distance less than the thickness of the mat (124). The end bus bars (46) are joined to straps (60, 62) which connect to the terminals (16, 18). The negative plates contain more capacity than the positive plates and the starved electrolyte imbibed in the separator sheets permits pressurized operation during which oxygen diffuses through the separator sheet to the negative plate where it recombines. Excess pressure is relieved through the vent and pressure relief valve (20).

  12. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  13. Advanced separator construction for long life valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. R.

    The performance of absorptive glass mat separators in valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries is strongly influenced by the diameter of the fibres from which they are made. Coarser diameter fibres are beneficial for the compressive properties of separators while finer fibres maintain the uniform distribution of the electrolyte. Studies of cell compression and electrolyte stratification are reported using separators manufactured with segregated layers of fine and coarse fibres incorporated into a single sheet. This construction locates the different classes of fibre at their location of maximum effectiveness. Improvements in battery life in both cyclic and float charge applications are recorded, and compared with single layer separators.

  14. Research, development, and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    A cost and design study was conducted on the production of lead-acid batteries. The major conclusions with regard to a mature level of production, 1000 man-work hours (MWH) per year in 100 MWH installations, are the following: using vertically integrated, automated plants, and a 14 KAH cell design, it is projected that the 100 MWH battery can be manufactured for $76 per kilowatt hour (KWH). The large 10 and 14 kilowatt amphere hour (KAH) cells were found to be more economical than the small 3.4 KAH (6.5 KWH) cell. It is inferred that batteries prepared from large, cell sizes (10 and 14 KAH) will be inherently more reliable due to the reduced number of intercell connections and reduced number of cells requiring maintenance operations, compared to batteries made with small cells (3400 AH). The battery footprint energy density goal can be achieved with tiering of the 14 KAH cell and the specification of somewhat reduced aisle widths on the outside of the strings. Sensitivity studies were performed on the impact of lead price, design cycle life, materials cost reductions, and increase in active materials utilization on the cost of the 100 MWH battery.

  15. High power bipolar lead-acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan

    1991-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), with interest in advanced energy storage systems, is involved in the development of a unique lead acid battery design. This battery utilizes the same combination of lead and lead dioxide active materials present in the automobile starting battery. However, it can provide 2 to 10 times the power while minimizing volume and weight. The typical starting battery is described as a monopolar type using one current collector for both the positive and negative plate of adjacent cells. Specific power as high as 2.5 kW/kg was projected for 30 second periods with as many as 2000 recharge cycles.

  16. Lead-acid battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead-acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). The avoiding of positive plate reversal to prevent reduction of the tin oxide is accomplished by (a) employing an oversized positive plate and pre-charging it; (b) by pre-discharging the negative plate; and/or (c) by placing a circuit breaker (26) in combination with the plates (16, 18) and terminals (22, 24) to remove the load when the voltage of the positive plate falls below a pre-selected level.

  17. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part II: Operation of the negative plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Dumenil, S.; Alias, M.; Christin, R.; de Mascarel, A.; Perrin, M.

    2015-04-01

    The article presents the recent progress in the carbon honeycomb grid technology for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries with absorptive glass-mat separators (AGM-VRLAB). The work is focused on the development of negative current collectors using industrial grade composite honeycomb precursors. The developed model AGM-VRLA cells comprised of one prototype honeycomb negative electrode and two conventional traction positive counter-electrodes show high utilisation of the negative active material and long cycle life both in high-rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling mode and in deep cycling mode. The analysis of the results from the cycle-life tests and the tear-down analysis indicate that the benefits delivered by the novel grids can be related to the low mesh size of the grid, low γ-coefficient, as well as the use of milled carbon fibre additive. The combination of the three, results in the reversibility of the negative active material sulfation process when the electrolyte concentration in the cells is lower than the one traditionally used in the AGM-VRLAB technology. The negative plates show no signs of irreversible degradation after more than 900 cycles in deep cycling mode and more than 2000 capacity turnovers (equivalent cycles) in HRPSoC cycling mode.

  18. Stibine filter for antimonial lead acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carder, J.H.; Le, A.H.; Dacres, C.M.

    1986-07-03

    This patent application relates to storage cells and more particulary to stibine filters for antimonial lead-acid storage cells. The addition of small amounts of antimony to lead produces lead electrodes having greatly improved mechanical properties. This substantially increases the life of lead-acid batteries. Stibine is removed from gases generated in antimonial lead-acid batteries by using a filter having carbon powder (especially activated charcoal) as the active agent.

  19. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  20. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  1. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  2. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Baker, Frederick S.; Armstrong, Beth L.

    2011-09-13

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  3. Developments in lead/acid stationary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosking, Don

    1993-05-01

    Valve-regulated designs of the lead/acid system are securing significant shares of the markets for stationary batteries. This paper discusses the major problems that have been encountered with the introduction of valve-generated technology. Areas that have provided particular difficulties include: (1) acid leakage (container-cover, post-seal and vent leaks); (2) adverse effects of ripple current; (3) variations in float voltage, and (4) initial value of recharge current.

  4. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.; Holden, L. S.; May, G. J.; Newnham, R. H.; Peters, K.

    Given the growing importance of valve-regulated lead/acid technology in many existing and emerging market areas, an expert panel was assembled at the Sixth Asian Battery Conference to answer questions from delegates on various technical and operational aspects of such batteries. Key issues included: advantantages; performance and reliability; thermal runaway; and failure modes. The interaction between the audience and the panel was both vigorous and informative. Overwhelmingly, it was agreed that valve-regulated technology has come of age and offers a dynamic solution to many of the world's energy-storage requirements and opportunities.

  5. Relativity and the lead-acid battery.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev; Blomqvist, Andreas; Larsson, Peter; Pyykkö, Pekka; Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk

    2011-01-01

    The energies of the solid reactants in the lead-acid battery are calculated ab initio using two different basis sets at nonrelativistic, scalar-relativistic, and fully relativistic levels, and using several exchange-correlation potentials. The average calculated standard voltage is 2.13 V, compared with the experimental value of 2.11 V. All calculations agree in that 1.7-1.8 V of this standard voltage arise from relativistic effects, mainly from PbO2 but also from PbSO4.

  6. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, D.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries with gelled electrolyte appeared as a niche market during the 1950s. During the 1970s, when glass-fiber felts became available as a further method to immobilize the electrolyte, the market for VRLA batteries expanded rapidly. The immobilized electrolyte offers a number of obvious advantages including the internal oxygen cycle which accommodates the overcharging current without chemical change within the cell. It also suppresses acid stratification and thus opens new fields of application. VRLA batteries, however, cannot be made completely sealed, but require a valve for gas escape, since hydrogen evolution and grid corrosion are unavoidable secondary reactions. These reactions result in water loss, and also must be balanced in order to ensure proper charging of both electrodes. Both secondary reactions have significant activation energies, and can reduce the service life of VRLA batteries, operated at elevated temperature. This effect can be aggravated by the comparatively high heat generation caused by the internal oxygen cycle during overcharging. Temperature control of VRLA batteries, therefore, is important in many applications.

  7. Closure device for lead-acid batteries

    DOEpatents

    Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1983-01-01

    A closure device for lead-acid batteries includes a filter of granulated activated carbon treated to be hydrophobic combined with means for preventing explosion of emitted hydrogen and oxygen gas. The explosion prevention means includes a vertical open-end tube within the closure housing for maintaining a liquid level above side wall openings in an adjacent closed end tube. Gases vent from the battery through a nozzle directed inside the closed end tube against an impingement surface to remove acid droplets. The gases then flow through the side wall openings and the liquid level to quench any possible ignition prior to entering the activated carbon filter. A wick in the activated carbon filter conducts condensed liquid back to the closure housing to replenish the liquid level limited by the open-end tube.

  8. Determination of the lead-acid battery's dynamic response using Butler-Volmer equation for advanced battery management systems in automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Budde-Meiwes, Heide; Kowal, Julia; Sarfert, Christel; Schoch, Eberhard; Königsmann, Martin; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Micro-hybrid vehicles (μH) are currently starting to dominate the European market and seize constantly growing share of other leading markets in the world. On the one hand, the additional functionality of μH reduces the CO2 emissions and improves the fuel economy, but, on the other hand, the additional stress imposed on the lead-acid battery reduces significantly its expected service life in comparison to conventional vehicles. Because of that μH require highly accurate battery state detection solutions. They are necessary to ensure the vehicle reliability requirements, prolong service life and reduce warranty costs. This paper presents an electrical model based on Butler-Volmer equation. The main novelty of the presented approach is its ability to predict accurately dynamic response of a battery considering a wide range of discharge current rates, state-of-charges and temperatures. Presented approach is fully implementable and adaptable in state-of-the-art low-cost platforms. Additionally, shown results indicate that it is applicable as a supporting tool for state-of-charge and state-of-health estimation and scalable for the different battery technologies and sizes. Validation using both static pulses and dynamic driving profile resulted in average absolute error of 124 mV regarding cranking current rate of 800 A respectively.

  9. Study on sources of charging lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the general characteristics of lead acid batteries and two charging methods of these batteries. For charging of lead batteries was used an intelligent power source K 8012 (from Velleman). The power source allows fixing the level of the battery voltage and battery capacity. The intelligent power source uses the joint method (at constant current and, then, at constant voltage) and warning that indicates different situations in the charging process. Other method of charging presented in the paper is at constant voltage using a stabilized power source. In the paper experimental measurements were carried out using data acquisition card SER 10 BIT (from Conrad) for charging/ discharging of a lead acid battery 12V/9Ah (using an intelligent power source) and charging of another high capacity lead acid battery 12V/47Ah/390 A (using a stabilized power source). At the discharging of the lead acid batteries it were used automotive lamps as electric loads.

  10. Development of new sealed bipolar lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.; Rowlette, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    New light weight composite bipolar plates which can withstand the corrosive environment of the lead acid battery have made possible the construction of a sealed bipolar lead acid battery that promises to achieve very high specific power levels and substantially higher energy densities than conventional lead acid batteries. Performance projections based on preliminary experimental results show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  11. Lightweight, High-Energy Lead/Acid Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1991-01-01

    Concept for lead/acid battery calls for woven-grid bipolar electrodes. Stack of bipolar cells form lead/acid battery. Each cell contains pair of folded electrodes, negative on one side of fold, positive on other. In high-voltage configuration, battery has higher specific energy and power. Rugged, longlived, and maintenance-free. Made from readily available, low-cost materials by standard lead/acid production methods, well suited for use in electronic equipment, aircraft, and electric vehicles for industrial and passenger service.

  12. Technological progress in sealed lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, J.; Nakashima, H.; Kasai, Y.

    A brief review is given of the history of the research and development of sealed lead/acid batteries during the 30 years since, in 1959, the Yuasa Battery Co. introduced a small-sized sealed battery as the power supply for portable television sets. In 1965, Yuasa began the full-scale mass production and sale of a small-sized sealed lead/acid battery under the NOYPER brand. In 1970, the use of a PbCa alloy grid was adopted, and there followed the successful development of a sealed battery with an oxygen-recombination facility. In 1976, Yuasa more or less established the basic technology for the valve-regulated sealed lead/acid battery — the NP battery — which is now the type in general use. Throughout the 1980s, Yuasa, has continued development in order to expand the sphere of application for the production technology of valve-regulated batteries for motorcycles, as well as for stationary duties with large capacities of 100 to 3000 A h. Recently, in order to improve the reliability and boost the output of sealed lead/acid batteries for employment in UPS power sources, Yuasa has been working intently on the design of a valve-regulated lead/acid battery with outstanding characteristics for high-rate discharge and resistance to high temperatures.

  13. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  14. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  15. Abuse tests on sealed lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    LOESCHER,DOUGLAS H.; CRAFTS,CHRIS C.; UNKELHAEUSER,TERRY M.

    2000-03-01

    Abuse tests were conducted on the lead-acid batteries used to power electrical testers used at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant. Batteries were subjected to short circuits, crushes, penetrations, and drops. None of the observed responses would be a threat to nuclear explosive safety in a bay or cell at Pantex. Temperatures, currents, and damage were measured and recorded during the tests.

  16. The LABAT '99 international conference on lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    LABAT'99, the fourth in the series of lead-acid battery conferences held every three years and organized by Professor Pavlov and his Committee from the Central Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources (Bulgarian Academy of Science) was held in Sofia on 7--10 June, 1999. Many excellent papers were presented over the four days, reporting the latest achievements in the theory, design and technology of lead-acid batteries as well as new findings, elucidating the processes during battery operation. The full texts of 25 selected papers will be included in a special volume of the Journal of Power Sources, dedicated to the Conference.

  17. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakes, M.; Woortmeijer, R.; Schmal, D.

    Within the framework of the European project bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS), a new production route is being developed for the bipolar lead-acid battery. The performance targets are 500 W kg -1, 30 Wh kg -1 and 100 000 power-assist life cycles (PALCs). The operation voltage of the battery can be, according to the requirements, 12, 36 V or any other voltage. Tests with recently developed 4 and 12 V prototypes, each of 30 Ah capacity have demonstrated that the PALC can be operated using 10 C discharge and 9 C charge peaks. The tests show no overvoltage or undervoltage problems during three successive test periods of 16 h with 8 h rest in between. The temperature stabilizes during these tests at 40-45 °C using a thermal-management system. The bipolar lead acid battery is operated at an initial 50% state-of-charge. During the tests, the individual cell voltages display only very small differences. Tests are now in progress to improve further the battery-management system, which has been developed at the cell level, during the period no PALCs are run in order to improve the hybrid behaviour of the battery. The successful tests show the feasibility of operating the bipolar lead-acid battery in a hybrid mode. The costs of the system are estimated to be much lower than those for nickel-metal-hydride or Li-ion based high-power systems. An additional advantage of the lead-acid system is that recycling of lead-acid batteries is well established.

  18. Ocular trauma from lead-acid vehicle battery explosions.

    PubMed

    Siebert, S

    1982-02-01

    Ocular trauma caused by lead-acid car battery explosions has been seen in a number of cases presenting to the major teaching hospitals in Adelaide. Injuries range from superficial acid burns to penetrating eye injury and retinal haemorrhage. The cause of the explosions has been ignition of the hydrogen-oxygen gas mixture generated by lead-acid batteries. The risk of explosion is known to battery manufacturing and distributing bodies and methods of avoiding explosions are well known to the industry. It is suggested that efforts should be made to design safe car batteries, and that there is an urgent need to educate the public to the risks involved with the present batteries.

  19. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Y.; Li, A. J.; Finlow, D. E.

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  20. Maintenance free lead acid batteries with immobilized electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Tuphorn, H.

    1984-10-01

    The reducing of antimony in lead-acid batteries in the last 10 years to optimize the maintenance of the batteries on the other hand was to the detriment of the cycle life. In contrast to antimonyfree batteries in conventional construction the immobilization of the electrolyte by gelatinizing permits the production of sealed batteries with highly improved cycle life, high charge acceptance and deep dischargeability. Moreover those batteries do not have a problem of electrolyte stratification. During charging the O/sub 2/-recombination is approximately 75% depending upon the battery size. Because of the O/sub 2/-recombination in this system a wider range of charging potentials of single cells in the battery takes place, which is characteristic of this system.

  1. Simulation of lead-acid battery using model order reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfahanian, Vahid; Ansari, Amir Babak; Torabi, Farschad

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a reduced order model (ROM) based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method has been applied to the coupled one-dimensional electrochemical transport equations in order to efficiently simulate lead-acid batteries, numerically. The governing equations, including conservation of charge in solid and liquid phases and conservation of species are solved simultaneously. The POD-based method for a lead-acid cell is used to simulate a discharge process to show the capability of the present method. The obtained results show that not only the POD-based ROM of lead-acid battery significantly decreases the computational time but also there is an excellent agreement with the results of previous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models.

  2. Durable Bipolar Plates For Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, Thomas J.; Pinsky, Naum

    1990-01-01

    New structure for positive faces of bipolar plates increases longevity of lead/acid batteries. Divides positive-electrode layer into many isolated segments so defects cannot spread across layer. Surfaces treated before assembly to promote adhesion. Ridges on body divide possible electrode into isolated squares, each typically 1 in. on side. Materials supporting electrochemically active components lightweight and resistant to acid.

  3. High-Performance Positive Paste For Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Wen-Hong

    1992-01-01

    Newly formulated paste for application to positive plates of lead/acid batteries imparts higher discharge currents and higher specific energy. Other disadvantages of paste, designated F2: contains no acid or free lead, no extra curing process required, and paste has high porosity, high surface area, and good strength.

  4. Closed loop recycling of lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bied-Charreton, B.

    The traditional lead/acid battery is a recycleable product, irrespective whether it is of an automotive, traction or standby design. The product benefits from the traditional lead metallurgy that has been developed for both primary (mines) and secondary (recycling) smelting. Secondary smelting accounts for 60% of total lead production in Europe, and this market lead the most effectively metal. In secondary smelters, scrapped batteries are crushed and smelted. The polypropylene from the boxes is recycled to produce secondary plastic for battery, automotive, or other miscellaneous uses. The lead metal is refined to be re-used in the battery industry. The acid is retreated. Recycling requires a collection network. The lead/acid battery benefits from the traditional collection network that has been established for scrap-iron and non-ferrous metal scrap. In Western Europe, the recycling rate for scrapped batteries is estimated to be 80 to 90%. All participants in the battery recycling loop agree that the process must be a clean cycle for it to be credible. The collection organization is improving the quality of storage and transportation, especially with regard to the acid that can only be neutralized in correctly-controlled facilities, generally located at the smelters. The smelters themselves tend, through local regulations, to run at the optimum level of protection of the environment.

  5. Development status of a sealed bipolar lead/acid battery for high-power battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, J. L.; Rowlette, J. J.; Drake, E. D.

    A sealed bipolar lead/acid (SBLA) battery is being developed by Arias Research Associates (ARA) which will offer a number of important advantages in applications requiring high power densities. These applications include electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles, uninterruptable power supplies (UPS), electrically-heated catalysts (EHCs) for automobiles, utility-power peak-shaving, and others. The advantages of the SBLA over other types of batteries will by significantly higher power density, together with good energy density, high cycle life, high voltage density, low production cost and zero maintenance. In addition, the lead/acid battery represents a technology which is familiar and accepted by Society, is recyclable within the existing infrastructure, and does not raise the safety concerns of many other new batteries (e.g., fire, explosion and toxic gases). This paper briefly reviews the basic design concepts and issues of the SBLA battery technology, various quasi-bipolar approaches and the results of ARA's development work during the past four years. Performance data are given based on both in-house and independent testing of ARA laboratory test batteries. In addition, performance projections and other characteristics are given for three ARA SBLA battery designs, which are compared with other batteries in three example applications: UPS, EHCs, and EVs. The most notable advantages of the SBLA battery are substantial reductions in product size and weight for the UPS, smaller packaging and longer life for the EHC, and higher vehicle performance and lower cost for the EV, compared to both existing and advanced EV batteries.

  6. Separators and organics for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, Werner

    This review discusses various interactions between organic compounds, brought into the lead-acid battery via the separator, and their subsequent effect on battery performance. Historically, the interrelationship started with certain 'expander' actions on the lead morphology due to lignins, which leached out of the wooden separators of that time. Synthetic separator materials did not show this effect, but gained acceptance as they were far more stable in the hostile battery environment. The partially hydrophobic character of synthetic separators has been overcome by organic surfactants. Other organic compounds have been found to improve further the stability of separators against oxidation. Special organic molecules, namely aldehydes and ketones, have been identified to retard, or even suppress, the adverse effects of metals such as antimony, and thus prolong the cycle-life of traction batteries in heavy-duty applications or reduce water loss from automotive batteries. Knowledge about these interactions has opened ways to improve separators.

  7. Recovery of discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Asadi, Raziyeh

    The aim of this research is to recover discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries. In this work, the effect of two methods (inverse charge and chemical charge) on the reactivation of sulfated active materials was investigated. At the inverse charge, the battery is deeply discharged and the electrolyte of battery is replaced with a new sulfuric acid solution of 1.28 g cm -3. Then, the battery is inversely charged with constant current method (2 A for the battery with the nominal capacity of 40 Ah) for 24 h. At the final stage, the inversely charged battery is directly charged for 48 h. Through these processes, a discarded battery can recover its capacity to more than 80% of a similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. At the chemical charge method, there are some effective parameters that including ammonium persulfate [(NH 4) 2S 2O 8] concentration, recovery temperature and recovery time. The effect of all parameters was optimized by one at a time method. The sulfated battery is deeply discharged and then, its electrolyte was replaced by a 40% ammonium persulfate solution (as oxidant) at temperature of 50 °C. By adding of oxidant solution, the chemical charging of positive and negative plates was performed for optimum time of 1 h. The chemically charged batteries were charged with constant voltage method (2.66 V for the battery with nominal voltage and nominal capacity of 2 V and 10 Ah, respectively) for 24 h. By performing of these processes, a discarded battery can recovers its capacity to more than 84% of the similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. Discharge and cyclelife behaviors of the recovered batteries were investigated and compared with similar healthy battery. The morphology and structure of plates was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after recovery.

  8. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries. PMID:2773946

  9. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries.

  10. High performance positive electrode for a lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Wen-Hong (Inventor); Bullock, Norma K. (Inventor); Petersen, Ralph A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electrode suitable for use as a lead-acid battery plate is formed of a paste composition which enhances the performance of the plate. The paste composition includes a basic lead sulfate, a persulfate and water. The paste may also include lead oxide and fibers. An electrode according to the invention is characterized by good strength in combination with high power density, porosity and surface area.

  11. Stibine/arsine emissions from lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.; Cook, G. M.; Yao, N. P.

    1980-01-01

    Antimonial lead alloys, which also contain some arsenic, have traditionally been used for the fabrication of lead-acid battery electrodes. The possible generation of arsine and stibine during battery operation must be considered in the development of batteries for electric vehicles, utility load-leveling, and solar electricity storage. Research on generation of arsine and stibine is summarized, and exposure limits are given. Published analytical procedures for determination of arsine and stibine and their sensitivities are discussed. The design and testing of a stibine/arsine monitoring field kit are described. A hydrogen-oxygen recombination device can recombine stoichiometric H/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ with about 97% efficiency while scavenging the charge gas of much of the SbH/sub 3/ and AsH/sub 3/; its principles are illustrated. Experiments to estimate exposure of drivers to AsH/sub 3/ and SbH/sub 3/ from lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles are under way. 4 figures, 2 tables. (RWR)

  12. Improved oxides for production of lead/acid battery plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, D. P.

    For many years, the plates of lead/acid batteries have been produced from leady oxide, a mixture of finely divided lead (`free-lead') and lead monoxide. Although this material is generally satisfactory, it suffers from the disadvantages that it is variable in composition and requires complicated and lengthy processing after pasting to remove the residual free-lead. Plates made from leady oxide also require cycling before they achieve their full performance, and this can result in either depressed initial capacity or additional processing cost. There is a growing trend towards the use of pure lead monoxide ( β-PbO) for the production of positive plates. This material is particularly valuable in valve-regulated batteries where cell-to-cell uniformity is essential for proper control of battery performance. It also reduces processing cost since it does not require time-consuming curing to remove free-lead. Red lead (Pb 3O 4) is also being more widely used in industrial batteries since it reduces formation time, and improves initial and high-rate performance. The methods of production of leady oxide, β-PbO and red lead are briefly reviewed and the characteristics of battery-grade materials are described. Particular emphasis is placed on optimum particle-size distribution, and how this can affect the battery performance. The benefits in processing and performance are described together with information on how pure litharge and red lead are used in battery plates.

  13. Progress and challenges in bipolar lead-acid battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    1995-05-01

    Bipolar lead-acid batteries have higher power densities than any other aqueous battery system. Predicted specific powers based on models and prototypes range from 800 kW/kg for 100 ms discharge times to 1.6 kW/kg for 10 s. A 48 V automotive bipolar battery could have 2 1/2 times the cold cranking rate of a monopolar 12 V design in the same size. Problems which have precluded the development of commercial bipolar designs include the instability of substrate materials and enhanced side reactions. Design approaches include pseudo-bipolar configurations, as well as true bipolar designs in planar and tubular configurations. Substrate materials used include lead and lead alloys, carbons, conductive ceramics, and tin-oxide-coated glass fibers. These approaches are reviewed and evaluated.

  14. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work performed from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. The approach for development of both the Improved State-of-the-Art (ISOA) and Advanced lead-acid batteries is three pronged. This approach concentrates on simultaneous optimization of battery design, materials, and manufacturing processing. The 1979 fiscal year saw the achievement of significant progress in the program. Some of the major accomplishments of the year are outlined. 33 figures, 13 tables. (RWR)

  15. Manufacturing and operational issues with lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.; Boden, D. P.; Lakshmi, C. S.; Nelson, R. F.; Prengaman, R. D.

    An expert panel replies to questions on lead-acid technology and performance asked by delegates to the Ninth Asian Battery Conference. The subjects are as follows. Grid alloys: effects of calcium and tin levels on microstructure, corrosion, mechanical and electrochemical properties; effect of alloy-fabrication process on mechanical strength and corrosion resistance; low dross-make during casting of lead-calcium-tin alloys; future of book-mould casting; effect of increasing levels of silver; stability of continuously processed grids at high temperature. Negative-plate expanders: function of lignosulfonates and barium sulfate; benefits of pre-blended expanders; optimum expander formulations. Valve-regulated batteries: effect of oxygen cycle; optimum methods for float charging; charging and deep-cycle lifetimes; reliability testing.

  16. Aging mechanisms and service life of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    In lead-acid batteries, major aging processes, leading to gradual loss of performance, and eventually to the end of service life, are: Anodic corrosion (of grids, plate-lugs, straps or posts). Positive active mass degradation and loss of adherence to the grid (shedding, sludging). Irreversible formation of lead sulfate in the active mass (crystallization, sulfation). Short-circuits. Loss of water. Aging mechanisms are often inter-dependent. For example, corrosion of the grids will lead to increased resistance to current flow, which will in turn impede proper charge of certain parts of the active mass, resulting in sulfation. Active mass degradation may lead to short-circuits. Sulfation may be the result of a loss of water, and so forth. The rates of the different aging processes strongly depend on the type of use (or misuse) of the battery. Over-charge will lead to accelerated corrosion and also to accelerated loss of water. With increasing depth-of-discharge during cycling, positive active mass degradation is accelerated. Some aging mechanisms are occurring only upon misuse. Short-circuits across the separators, due to the formation of metallic lead dendrites, for example, are usually formed only after (excessively) deep discharge. Stationary batteries, operated under float-charge conditions, will age typically by corrosion of the positive grids. On the other hand, service life of batteries subject to cycling regimes, will typically age by degradation of the structure of the positive active mass. Starter batteries are usually aging by grid corrosion, for instance in normal passenger car use. However, starter batteries of city buses, making frequent stops, may age (prematurely) by positive active mass degradation, because the batteries are subject to numerous shallow discharge cycles. Valve-regulated batteries often fail as a result of negative active mass sulfation, or water loss. For each battery design, and type of use, there is usually a characteristic

  17. Development of a lead-acid battery for a hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, A.

    In September 2000, a project reliable, highly optimized lead-acid battery (RHOLAB) started under the UK Foresight Vehicle Programme with the objective of developing an optimized lead-acid battery solution for hybrid electric vehicles. The work is based on a novel, individual, spirally-wound valve-regulated lead-acid 2 V cell optimized for HEV use and low variability. This cell is being used as a building block for the development of a complete battery pack that is managed at the cell level. Following bench testing, this battery pack is to be thoroughly evaluated by substituting it for the Ni-MH pack in a Honda Insight. The RHOLAB cell is based on the 8 Ah Hawker Cyclon cell which has been modified to have current take-off at both ends—the dual-tab design. In addition, a variant has been produced with modified cell chemistry to help deal with problems that can occur when these valve-regulated lead-acid battery (VRLA) cells operate in a partial-state-of-charge condition. The cells have been cycled to a specially formulated test cycle based on real vehicle data derived from testing the Honda Insight on the various test tracks at the Millbrook Proving Grounds in the UK. These cycling tests have shown that the lead-acid pack can be successfully cycled when subjected to the high current demands from the vehicle, which have been measured at up to 15 C on discharge and 8 C during regenerative recharging, and cycle life is looking very promising under this arduous test regime. Concurrent with this work, battery development has been taking place. It was decided early on to develop the 144 V battery as four 36 V modules. Data collection and control has been built-in and special steps taken to minimize the problems of interconnect in this complex system. Development of the battery modules is now at an advanced stage. The project plan then allows for extensive testing of the vehicle with its lead-acid battery at Millbrook so it can be compared with the benchmark tests which

  18. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Karden, E.; Surewaard, E.; Sauer, D. U.

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking.

  19. Epidemiological-environmental study of lead acid battery workers. I. Environmental study of five lead acid battery plants.

    PubMed

    Jones, W; Gamble, J

    1984-10-01

    Industrial hygiene measurements were taken at five lead acid battery plants. The average of all personal samples for H2SO4 was 0.18 mg/m3 with a range of "nondetectable" to 1.7 mg/m3. Highest levels of acid were found in the charging and forming areas of the plants. Stibine and arsine were also detected in the charging and forming areas (means = 0.44 and 0.042 mg/m3, respectively). Arsenic in particulate form was also detected, but levels were low (means = 0.00083 mg/m3). The average mass median aerodynamic diameter of the acid mist as measured by cascade impactors was approximately 5 micron. Air lead results were variable with an overall average of 0.072 mg/m3 and a standard deviation of 0.11 mg/m3.

  20. Electrochemical energy — progress towards a cleaner future: lead/acid batteries and the competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) with conventional architecture may be capable of a range of 72-80 km (45-50 miles) with a 35 Wh kg -1 lead/acid battery with a weight equal to 25% of that of the vehicle. An improved vehicle (such as the GM Impact) with lower energy utilization and architecture that allows greater battery weight may attain 160 km (100 miles). A battery corresponding to the mid-term goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium in an Impact-type vehicle could allow 480 km (300 miles) range. It remains to be seen if this will be technically and economically attained. The EV is more likely to be made practical with the development of a satisfactory polymer-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which will involve the same recharging logistics as those of a gasoline vehicle, with much improved energy efficiency. Considerable progress is still required, but one major problem, the amount of platinum catalyst required per vehicle, appears to have been overcome. A loading of 0.15 g/kW now appears to be feasible, so major production of such vehicles will allow platinum producers to keep pace. The advent of the PEM-fuel-cell/battery hybrid vehicle wiil open up a larger market for rechargeable bateries than that for vehicles which use traction batteries alone. Economics seem to point to the fact that such vehicles will use lead/acid batteries for the hybrid peak power and regenerative braking element.

  1. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  2. Recent advances in lead-acid cell research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, E.

    1980-01-01

    During the last decade it was demonstate that the lead-acid system is capable of proving an attractive energy source of sufficient energy and power per unit weight and volume which allows its sucessful application for electric vehicle propulsion. This is shown by a number of typical examples, such as the relationship between active material properties and capacity at high rates of discharge the effect of acid stratification and others. Simultaneously, the expenditure for the maintenance of lead-acid batteries was minimized by the development of peripheric equipment, as there are means for central-automatic water refill and recombination devices. It is shown that there is still a considerable potential for further improvement which might again strengthen the unique position of the lead-acid system in the market in comparison to competitive systems.

  3. Recent advances in lead-acid cell research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, E.

    1980-01-01

    The lead-acid battery still is and will be for the foreseeable future the most widely used secondary energy storage system. It will maintain this predominant role because of its highly developed technology, its low costs as compared to other secondary systems and its high reliability. During the last decade it has been demonstrated that the lead-acid system is capable of providing an attractive energy source of sufficient energy and power per unit weight and volume which allows its successful application for electric vehicle propulsion. Basic research has contributed in a worldwide effort to the improvement of active material utilization and cycle life as well. This is shown by a number of typical examples, such as the relationship between active material properties and capacity at high rates of discharge, the effect of acid stratification and others. Simultaneously, the expenditure for the maintenance of lead-acid batteries has been minimized by the development of peripheric equipment, as there are means for central-automatic water refill and recombination devices. It is shown that there is still a considerable potential for further improvement which might again strengthen the unique position of the lead-acid system in the market in comparison to competitive systems.

  4. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  5. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  6. The development of a new sealed bipolar lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, A. I.; Rowlette, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    New light weight composite bipolar plates which can withstand the corrosive environment of the lead acid battery have made possible the construction of a sealed bipolar lead acid battery that promises to achieve very high specific power levels and substantially higher energy densities than conventional lead acid batteries. Performance projections based on preliminary experimental results show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  7. SUNRAYCE 93: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-11-03

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring SUNRAYCE 93 to advance tile technology and use of photovoltaics and electric vehicles. Participants will use cars powered by photovoltaic modules and lead-acid storage batteries. This brochure, prepared for students and faculty participating in this race, outlines the health hazards presented by these electrical systems, and gives guidance on strategies for their safe usage. At the outset, it should be noted that working with photovoltaic systems and batteries requires electric vehicle drivers and technicians to have {open_quotes}hands-on{close_quotes} contact with the car on a daily basis. It is important that no one work near a photovoltaic energy system or battery, either in a vehicle or on the bench, unless they familiarize themselves with the components in use, and know and observe safe work practices including the safety precautions described in the manuals provided by the various equipment vendors and this document.

  8. Integrated li-ion ultracapacitor with lead acid battery for vehicular start-stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manla, Emad

    Advancements in automobile manufacturing aim at improving the driving experience at every level possible. One improvement aspect is increasing gas efficiency via hybridization, which can be achieved by introducing a feature called start-stop. This feature automatically switches the internal combustion engine off when it idles and switches it back on when it is time to resume driving. This application has been proven to reduce the amount of gas consumption and emission of greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere. However, the repeated cranking of the engine puts a large amount of stress on the lead acid battery required to perform the cranking, which effectively reduces its life span. This dissertation presents a hybrid energy storage system assembled from a lead acid battery and an ultracapacitor module connected in parallel. The Li-ion ultracapacitor was tested and modeled to predict its behavior when connected in a system requiring pulsed power such as the one proposed. Both test and simulation results show that the proposed hybrid design significantly reduces the cranking loading and stress on the battery. The ultracapacitor module can take the majority of the cranking current, effectively reducing the stress on the battery. The amount of cranking current provided by the ultracapacitor can be easily controlled via controlling the resistance of the cable connected directly between the ultracapacitor module and the car circuitry.

  9. The basic chemistry of gas recombination in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Oxygen-recombination chemistry has been wedded to traditional lead-acid battery technology to produce so-called sealed, or valve-regulated, lead-acid products. Early attempts to incorporate recombination into lead-acid batteries were unsuccessful because of excessive cost, size, and/or complexity, and none were effectively commercialized. Over the past 20 years, recombination systems have been developed and are under going an extensive program of definition and refinement at many battery companies. This paper presents the basic chemistry of oxygen recombination in lead-acid cells and briefly compares it with the more highly developed nickel-cadmium system, which also operates on the oxygen cycle. Aspects of gas and thermal management relevant to valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are discussed in some detail.

  10. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment.

  11. Bipolar lead-acid batteries for electrical actuation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Douglas C.; Gentry, William O.; Hall, David

    1994-01-01

    This document presents in viewgraph format information on bipolar battery development at Johnson Controls, Incorporated. The organization structure, goals, progress to date, future plans, and battery parameters and electrical properties are given.

  12. Bipolar lead-acid batteries for electrical actuation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Douglas C.; Gentry, William O.; Hall, David

    1994-02-01

    This document presents in viewgraph format information on bipolar battery development at Johnson Controls, Incorporated. The organization structure, goals, progress to date, future plans, and battery parameters and electrical properties are given.

  13. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.

    1994-02-01

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and The Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. the reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges.

  14. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.

    1994-02-01

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and The Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. The reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges.

  15. The performance of Ebonex ® electrodes in bipolar lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Keith; Hill, Andrew; Hill, John; Loyns, Andrew; Partington, Tom

    Recent work by Atraverda on the production of an Ebonex ® material that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form bipolar substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries is described. In addition, data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory lead-acid batteries is presented indicating that weight savings of around 40% for a bipolar 36 V design (20 Ah capacity, 5 h rate, 9 kW) are potentially achievable in comparison to more conventional designs containing monopolar lead grids. Results indicate that their use as bipolar substrate materials will provide light-weight, long-lasting lead-acid batteries suitable for automotive, standby and power tool applications.

  16. Development of ultra high power, valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, M. Luisa; Valenciano, Jesús; Ojeda, Araceli

    There is a recent market trend towards industrial battery powered products that demand occasionally very high discharge rates. This fact is today solved by oversizing the battery or by using more expensive high power nickel-cadmium batteries. Within an EC funded project, ultra high power lead-acid batteries for UPS applications are being developed. The batteries are characterised by a thin electrode design linked to the use of novel separator materials to increase the battery life under floating and deep cycling conditions. Battery performance under different working conditions is presented, in comparison to standard products, and the battery improvements and failure mechanisms are also discussed.

  17. The impact of the new 36 V lead-acid battery systems on lead consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prengaman, R. David

    The production of vehicles utilizing 36 V battery systems has begun with the introduction of the Toyota Crown. Other vehicles with 36 V batteries are in the near horizon. These vehicles may contain single or dual battery systems. These vehicles will most likely contain valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. The battery systems developed to date utilize significantly more lead than conventional 12 V batteries. This paper will evaluate the different proposed 36 V battery systems and estimate the lead requirements for each of the competing systems. It will also project the penetration of and resultant increased lead usage of these new batteries into the future.

  18. Reinforced Positive Filler Paste For Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dean B.; Rippel, Wally E.

    1991-01-01

    Lead-coated glass fibers extend battery life. Mixture of lead-coated glass fibers and positive paste form pellets of active material between grid wires of positive battery electrode. Fibers contribute to charge capacity, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stability of electrode.

  19. The Comparative Performance of Batteries: The Lead-Acid and the Aluminum-Air Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Xavier; Ottewill, Gerry A.; Walsh, Frank C.

    1996-08-01

    An experimental program designed to convey, to students aged 16 through undergraduate, the principles of battery electrochemistry through a comparative study of two different systems, the lead acid cell and aluminum air cell, is described.

  20. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., DG-1269 ``Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear... lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit comments by May 13, 2013....

  1. "Stratifiability index" - A quantitative assessment of acid stratification in flooded lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Ebner, Ellen; Börger, Alexander; Gose, Sven; Wenzl, Heinz

    2014-12-01

    A methodology is presented to quantify acid stratification in flooded lead acid batteries and compare different types of batteries regardless of their design features and size by means of the proposed "stratifiability index". This index describes to what degree acid stratification develops in flooded lead acid batteries. Different test procedures are proposed which induce severe acid stratification within 48 h and lead to significantly different degrees of acid stratification. The test procedures are intended to assist in the development and selection of batteries which are less prone to develop severe acid stratification.

  2. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Joern; Meissner, Eberhard; Shirazi, Sepehr

    More and more vehicles hit the European automotive market, which comprise some type of micro-hybrid functionality to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. Most carmakers already offer at least one of their vehicles with an optional engine start/stop system, while some other models are sold with micro-hybrid functions implemented by default. But these car concepts show a wide variety in detail-the term "micro-hybrid" may mean a completely different functionality in one vehicle model compared to another. Accordingly, also the battery technologies are not the same. There is a wide variety of batteries from standard flooded and enhanced flooded to AGM which all are claimed to be "best choice" for micro-hybrid applications. A technical comparison of micro-hybrid cars available on the European market has been performed. Different classes of cars with different characteristics have been identified. Depending on the scope and characteristics of micro-hybrid functions, as well as on operational strategies implemented by the vehicle makers, the battery operating duties differ significantly between these classes of vehicles. Additional laboratory investigations have been carried out to develop an understanding of effects observed in batteries operated in micro-hybrid vehicles pursuing different strategies, to identify limitations for applications of different battery technologies.

  3. Vibration test methods and their experimental research on the performance of the lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Baoxiang; Wang, Hua; He, Xie

    2014-12-01

    As we know, Lead-acid battery is difficult to balance many factors such as the accuracy and the on-line testing requirement. The detecting system, as stated in this article, is based on the vibration test procedure, dynamically following the electrochemical process of the Lead-acid Battery, and collects the real-time state parameters for calculation, analysis and judgment. It also quantizes precisely the degradation and chargeability of the battery and therefore self-adapts to the ideal target values. During the test, it has not charged and discharged large current to the lead-acid battery, it only plus a smaller and shorter time of impulse voltage signal on both ends of lead-acid battery, so the battery measured is damage free, and the system energy consumption is small; Using the load compensation technology, it has solved the influence of load on the test results. What's more, the load characteristics are improved at the same time, it realized the online detection. The vibration detection is based on the adaptive fuzzy inference model which has taken various factors into account, concerning the choices of input aspects which may influence the output value. It realized a number of Lead-acid Battery voltage self-adaption and accomplished a variety of high-precise tests.

  4. A fractional order model for lead-acid battery crankability estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, J.; Cugnet, M.; Laruelle, S.; Grugeon, S.; Sahut, B.; Oustaloup, A.; Tarascon, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    With EV and HEV developments, battery monitoring systems have to meet the new requirements of car industry. This paper deals with one of them, the battery ability to start a vehicle, also called battery crankability. A fractional order model obtained by system identification is used to estimate the crankability of lead-acid batteries. Fractional order modelling permits an accurate simulation of the battery electrical behaviour with a low number of parameters. It is demonstrated that battery available power is correlated to the battery crankability and its resistance. Moreover, the high-frequency gain of the fractional model can be used to evaluate the battery resistance. Then, a battery crankability estimator using the battery resistance is proposed. Finally, this technique is validated with various battery experimental data measured on test rigs and vehicles.

  5. The Brite-EuRam lead-acid electric-vehicle battery project—progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, A.

    As part of its first programme, the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium has a US$4.4 million project assisted by European Community funding. This was initiated by the European members of the Consortium under the Brite-EuRam programme. At the Sixth Asian Battery Conference, an interim report was given on progress on eight of the ten tasks and, now that the project is in its final year, most of these have been completed. The principal objective of the project was to incorporate the findings of this work into demonstration batteries. These would then be tested under the Eucar ECE-15 test regime and this part of the project is now well under way. This paper discusses the results of the research leading up to the design of the battery variants built for evaluation. It also attempts to identify the lessons which have been learnt from this complex programme involving 14 research partners as well as five additional financial sponsors.

  6. Characterization of nano-lead-doped active carbon and its application in lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bo; Jiang, Liangxing; Xue, Haitao; Liu, Fangyang; Jia, Ming; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, nano-lead-doped active carbon (nano-Pb/AC) composite with low hydrogen evolution current for lead-acid battery was prepared by ultrasonic-absorption and chemical-precipitate method. The nano-Pb/AC composite was characterized by SEM, EDS and TEM. The electrochemical characterizations are performed by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in a three-electrode system. Since intermediate adsorption is the rate-determining step, the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is markedly inhibited as the intermediate adsorption impedance of nano-Pb/AC increased. Meanwhile, the working potential of nano-Pb/AC is widened to the whole potential region of Pb negative plate (from -1.36 V to -0.86 V vs. Hg/HgSO4) in lead-acid battery. In addition, nano-Pb can improve the interfacial compatibility between AC and Pb paste, accordingly relieve the symptoms of carbon floatation. Finally, 2.0 V single-cell flooded lead-acid batteries with 1.0 wt.% nano-Pb/AC or 1.0 wt.% AC addition in negative active materials are assembled. The cell performances test results show that the 3 h rate capacity, quick charging performance, high current discharging performance and cycling performance of nano-Pb/AC modified battery are all improved compared with regular lead-acid battery and AC modified lead-acid battery.

  7. The influence of rubber separators on electrochemical behavior of lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, S.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents manufacturing processes; physical, chemical and electrochemical properties; performance in batteries; and their applications of currently available three types of rubber separators. Many aspects of lead-acid battery performance characteristics which are unique electrochemical properties of rubber separators are given. During the early period of lead-acid batteries and their separator development, introduction of microporous hard rubber separators greatly improved performances of lead-acid batteries over wood separators extending battery life and improving cold cranking capabilities. Even after the coming of age of microporous plastic separators, rubber separators have maintained a unique position in the battery industry due to certain performance characteristics which could only be found in microporous rubber separators. Presently, there are several types of separators which differ by their material composition, namely separators made of plastic (polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, phenolic resorcinol), fiber glass, resin impregnated cellulosic paper and rubber. The performance success of microporous hard rubber separators over the years lead to the introduction of two new variations of rubber products. These are electron beam radiation crosslinked microporous flexible rubber separators and coated fiber glass mat separators containing rubber. In addition to providing physical, mechanical and chemical requirements necessary for designing good lead-acid batteries, rubber separators impart electrochemical performance characteristics which enhance overall performance of battery.

  8. Lead acid battery with separator having long fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, V.H.; Palmer, N.I.

    1981-05-05

    A battery separator is provided that has 30-70% polyolefin synthetic pulp, 15-65% siliceous filler and 1-35% by weight of long fibers having lengths of between 1/4 and 1 inch. The long fibers may be polyester fibers or glass fibers or a mixture. Cellulose may be included in an amount up to about 10%. A process for forming the battery separator is also revealed using standard paper making equipment but employing ionic copolymers containing acrylamide in cationic and anionic combination to give good affinity of the siliceous material and polyolefin. Alum and other processing aids are also included as are other procedural steps such as pressing the web.

  9. Review of cast-on-strap joints and strap alloys for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, C. S.

    This review examines the influence of the various parameters involved in the cast-on-strap (COS) process on the quality of the resulting lug-strap joints. In addition, it provides the findings of an investigation on the macroscopic and microscopic features of COS joints in commercial lead-acid batteries. Some examples of the most common defects that can affect the performance and life of batteries are presented. The nature of the fusion at the lug-strap interface for the various lugs and strap alloy compositions used in conventional, hybrid and valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are also discussed.

  10. An overview of the development of lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicles in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramaiah, G.; Subramanian, V. R.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) made an entry into the Indian scene quite recently in the area of passenger transportation, milk floats and other similar applications. The industrial EV market, with various models of fork-lift trucks and platform trucks already in wide use all over India, is a better understood application of EV batteries. The lead/acid traction batteries available in India are not of high-energy density. The best available indigenous lead/acid traction battery has an energy density ( C/5 rate) of 30 W h kg -1 as against 39 W h kg -1 available abroad. This paper reviews the developmental efforts relating to lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicle applications in India, such as prototype road vehicles, commercial vehicles, rail cars, and locomotives. Due to the need for environmental protection and recognition of exhaustible, finite supplies of petroleum fuel, the Indian government is presently taking active interest in EV projects.

  11. A high power spiral wound lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.B.; Sexton, E.D.

    1997-12-01

    Optima Batteries, Inc. is currently in development of a high power (660 W/kg) spiral wound lead-acid 6V battery with a nominal capacity of 15 Ah. Its exceptional power and excellent thermal characteristics make it a promising choice for hybrid electric vehicle applications. The hybrid electric vehicle presents a new and unique challenge for energy storage systems. The batteries require high power for acceleration and hill climbing and good charge acceptance for regenerative braking and overall energy efficiency. Since the on board auxiliary power unit results in much lower demands for battery energy capacity, lead-acid batteries fit quite well into these performance requirements. Many of the remaining challenges involve the development of battery management systems which must function to maintain the battery pack at peak performance and achieve an economical cycle life. Related to the issue of battery management is information about conditions that may cause damage or unbalance of the pack. Experiments are described investigating the effects of extreme cell reversal on battery capacity and cycle life. The results demonstrate the amazing robustness of the lead-acid battery for tolerating over discharge.

  12. Lead-acid battery performance and technology in commercial electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weinlein, C.E.

    1982-06-01

    The lead-acid battery system is promoted for energy storage in electric vehicles for these reasons: the industry is in place, it has the lowest material costs, it is recyclable, it has demonstrated the greatest performance improvements, and it has had more field experience than other batteries. Globe Battery has demonstrated its ability to meet state-of-the-art standards set by Argonne Laboratories in a recent program. The design approach included computerized battery modelling, use of lightweight materials, extensive internal insulation, a single-point watering and venting system, and a unique electrolyte circulation system. The water venting minimizes high electrolyte specific gravities. The electrolyte circulation eliminates a condition known as electrolyte stratification. With these improvements the lead-acid battery is again proving itself to be a tough competitor.

  13. Lead exposure assessment from study near a lead-acid battery factory in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; Liu, Ming; Huang, Yumei; Fan, Ruifang; Su, Yanhua; Hu, Guocheng; Peng, Xiaowu; Peng, Xiaochun

    2012-07-01

    The production of lead-acid battery in China covered about one-third of the world total output and there are more than 2000 lead-acid battery factories. They may cause the major environment lead pollution. Blood lead levels of several hundreds of residents were over 100 μg/L due to the waste discharges from a lead-acid battery factory in Heyuan, Guangdong province. This study aimed to find out the environmental lead sources, the human lead exposure pathways, and the amplitudes from a lead-acid battery factory. The study results showed that lead levels in soil, dust, tree leaves and human blood declined with the distances increased from the production site. Twenty nine of 32 participants had blood lead levels of over 100 μg/L with an exceptional high value of 639 μg/L for one child. This result suggested that the lead-acid battery production from this factory has caused the elevated lead levels in its neighboring environment and residents. Dust intake was the dominant exposure pathway for humans (over 90%). The lead levels found in adult and toddler (6.19 and 50.1 μg/kg/d, respectively) in the polluted area were far higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 25 μg/kg body weight (translated into 3.5 μg/kg/d), which was established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. Blood lead levels within the family members were strongly correlated with the house dust lead levels. Our results in this study suggested that further studies in this area should be performed to assess human exposure and relevant human health risks from living close to lead-acid battery factories.

  14. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries for SLI use in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoi, T.; Furukawa, H.

    Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries for automotive applications have been on the market in Japan for more than ten years. Initially, the batteries were used only for a small-size motorcycle. Today, however, they are widely employed in all sizes of motorcycles. In the meantime, VRLA batteries have also been used for agricultural machines, and even for some types of passenger cars. This paper provides an overview of the progress in the development and application of VRLA batteries for SLI (starting, lighting and ignition) use in Japan and discusses future expected trends.

  15. Results of chopper-controlled discharge life cycling studies on lead acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.; Sidik, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    A group of 108 state of the art nominally 6 volt lead acid batteries were tested in a program of one charge/discharge cycle per day for over two years or to ultimate battery failure. The primary objective was to determine battery cycle life as a function of depth of discharge (25 to 75 percent), chopper frequency (100 to 1000 Hz), duty cycle (25 to 87.5 percent), and average discharge current (20 to 260 A). The secondary objective was to determine the types of battery failure modes, if any, were due to the above parameters. The four parameters above were incorporated in a statistically designed test program.

  16. Optical State-of-Change Monitor for Lead-Acid Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1998-07-24

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cdl or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  17. Failure mechanisms of lead/acid automotive batteries in service in the U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, John H.; Boden, David P.

    Discarded lead/acid batteries were selected at random without regard to brand or condition and these were inspected and tested to determine the causes of failure. Samples were limited to 12-V automotive passenger-car batteries. Their age was determined from the manufacturing code and shipping date. In addition to the cause of failure, information on battery components and construction was also noted. Data are presented showing the principal modes of failure, the effect of geographical location, and the influence of grid alloy on life. In particular, the differences observed between those batteries utilizing calcium alloy for the positive grids and those using antimony alloy are discussed.

  18. New developments in separators for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, W.

    In valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries the electrolyte solution has to be immobilized to ensure tiny channels left open for the transfer of oxygen from the positive to the negative electrode. So far microfibre glassmats have predominantly been used, which based on their high porosity and good wettability of the glass fibres are able to retain durably large electrolyte volumes. The tensile strength of such microfibre glassmats remains unsatisfactory. Developments to produce absorbing mats from organic fibres have recently succeeded due to advanced developments in polymers and in fibre production processes as well as in achieving permanent hydrophilisation. Such polypropylene-microfibremats have excellent tensile and puncture strength and—as pockets—can be well integrated into highly automated assembly processes. Test data for polypropylene-microfibremats are presented and compared to microfibre glassmats. Another approach to hamper the electrolyte in its free mobility is to gel it: batteries with gelled electrolyte have been shown to require conventional microporous separators—both for secure fixing of plate spacing as well as for preventing electronic shorts. Despite their complex filling process gel batteries are well accepted for cycling applications, when simultaneously freedom from maintenance is required. Due to the high power requirements for EV batteries there is a trend towards thinner plates and thinner separation; also substantial pressure on the positive electrode and thus also on the separator is desirable to improve the cycling life decisively. A new separator development is presented, which in spite of high porosity (>80%), suffers only little deformation even under very high pressure. It effectively prevents acid stratification, forms no filling profile and permits oxygen transfer.

  19. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1981-01-15

    Charge efficiencies were determined for ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state-of-charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  20. Nanocrosses of lead sulphate as the negative active material of lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Gao, Pengran; Bu, Xianfu; Kuang, Guizhi; Liu, Wei; Lei, Lixu

    2014-10-01

    Lead sulphate transforms into PbO2 and Pb in the positive and negative electrodes, respectively, when a lead acid battery is charged, thus, it is an active material. It is also generally acknowledged that sulphation results in the failure of lead acid batteries; therefore, it is very interesting to find out how to make lead sulphate more electrochemically active. Here, we demonstrate that nanocrystalline lead sulphate can be used as excellent negative active material in lead acid batteries. The lead sulphate nanocrystals, which are prepared by a facile chemical precipitation of aqueous lead acetate and sodium sulphate in a few minutes, look like crosses with diameter of each arm being 100 nm to 3 μm. The electrode is effectively formed in much shorter time than traditional technique, yet it discharges a capacity of 103 mA h g-1 at the current density of 120 mA g-1, which is 24% higher than that discharged by the electrode made from leady oxide under the same condition. During 100% DOD cycles, more than 80% of that capacity remains in 550 cycles. These results show that lead sulphate can be a nice negative active material in lead acid batteries.

  1. Using Diagnostic Assessment to Help Teachers Understand the Chemistry of the Lead-Acid Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen pre-service and in-service teachers taking a chemistry teaching methods course at a university in Hong Kong were asked to take a diagnostic assessment. It consisted of seven multiple-choice questions about the chemistry of the lead-acid battery. Analysis of the teachers' responses to the questions indicated that they had difficulty in…

  2. The Comparative Performance of Batteries: The Lead-Acid and the Aluminum-Air Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoux, Xavier; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a teaching program that shows how electrochemical principles can be conveyed by means of hands-on experiences of student-centered teaching experiments. Employs the readily available lead-acid cell and the simple aluminum-air cell. Discusses the batteries, equilibrium cell potential, performance comparison, current, electrode separation,…

  3. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for stop-and-go applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, G. J.

    Increasing levels of demand for electrical power for vehicles have prompted a considerable level of research into higher voltage systems. This has resulted in the definition of preliminary standards for 36/42 V systems. The implementation costs for these systems are high and this has led to improvements in 12/14 V power architectures. In particular, alternator power outputs at 14 V have increased and the need for lower emission levels and fuel economy is stimulating a demand for stop-and-go systems. In this type of application, the engine is stopped each time the vehicle comes to a halt, and is restarted when the accelerator is pressed again. The duty cycle that this applies to the battery is quite onerous with many shallow discharge cycles. Flooded lead-acid batteries are unable to meet the requirements and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are essential to meet the demands applied. The background to stop-and-go battery applications is considered and test results on practical batteries are presented to show that under a simulated duty cycle, good performance can be achieved. There is also a need for a higher level of battery management for stop-and-go systems. A practical approach to battery condition monitoring to assess the state-of-charge and state-of-health of the battery is described.

  4. Lead-acid batteries for micro- and mild-hybrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenciano, J.; Fernández, M.; Trinidad, F.; Sanz, L.

    Car manufactures have announced the launch in coming months of vehicles with reduced emissions due to the introduction of new functions like stop-start and regenerative braking. Initial performance request of automotive lead-acid batteries are becoming more and more demanding and, in addition to this, cycle life with new accelerated ageing profiles are being proposed in order to determine the influence of the new functions on the expected battery life. This paper will show how different lead-acid battery technologies comply with these new demands, from an improved version of the conventional flooded SLI battery to the high performance of spiral wound valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. Different approaches have been studied for improving conventional flooded batteries, i.e., either by the addition of new additives for reducing electrolyte stratification or by optimisation of the battery design to extend cycling life in partial state of charge conditions. With respect to VRLA technology, two different battery designs have been compared. Spiral wound design combines excellent power capability and cycle life under different depth of discharge (DoD) cycling conditions, but flat plate design outperform the latter in energy density due to better utilization of the space available in a prismatic enclosure. This latter design is more adequate for high end class vehicles with high electrical energy demand, whereas spiral wound is better suited for high power/long life demand of commercial vehicle. High temperature behaviour (75 °C) is rather poor for both designs due to water loss, and then VRLA batteries should preferably be located out of the engine compartment.

  5. Improved fiber optic device for in situ determination of electrolyte stratification in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdátsy, G.; Benedek, F.; Kokavecz, J.; Szabó, G.; Kornis, J.

    2009-12-01

    A three-channel, highly sensitive, fiber optic device is presented to measure acid concentration in lead-acid batteries during their operation. The refractive index and thereby the concentration of sulfuric acid is measured by a bent, silica glass fiber tip, stripped off its cladding. Sensor heads of the device are small enough to be inserted at different positions in the cell of an ordinary, flooded lead-acid battery. Measuring the concentration of the electrolyte at different depths of the battery cell, acid stratification can be accurately determined. During the test of the instrument, about 0.3 Hz temporal and 0.05 wt % concentration resolutions were achieved while the temperature drift was found to be -0.25 wt %/°C.

  6. Improved fiber optic device for in situ determination of electrolyte stratification in lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Gajdátsy, G; Benedek, F; Kokavecz, J; Szabó, G; Kornis, J

    2009-12-01

    A three-channel, highly sensitive, fiber optic device is presented to measure acid concentration in lead-acid batteries during their operation. The refractive index and thereby the concentration of sulfuric acid is measured by a bent, silica glass fiber tip, stripped off its cladding. Sensor heads of the device are small enough to be inserted at different positions in the cell of an ordinary, flooded lead-acid battery. Measuring the concentration of the electrolyte at different depths of the battery cell, acid stratification can be accurately determined. During the test of the instrument, about 0.3 Hz temporal and 0.05 wt % concentration resolutions were achieved while the temperature drift was found to be -0.25 wt %/degrees C. PMID:20059171

  7. Impairment of chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from lead acid battery workers.

    PubMed

    Governa, M; Valentino, M; Visona, I; Scielso, R

    1988-06-01

    Since lead impairs in vitro the functions of macrophagic cells, we have studied the chemotactic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) obtained from lead acid battery workers who were removed from exposure one month before, because they had an abnormal lead absorption. Controls were 18 age matched subjects without any history of occupational lead exposure. Both lead acid battery workers and controls had no alterations of the blood haematological and metabolic parameters. Chemotaxis was carried on in Boyden chambers using zymosan activated serum as chemotactic stimulus. The chemotactic indexes are 56.4 +/- 8.7 in acid battery workers and 75.6 +/- in controls. The difference, which is statistically significant, shows that lead workers have an impairment of PMNs chemotactic activity.

  8. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  9. A new lead-acid battery for high pulse power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.; Attia, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The development of new electronically conductive materials which can withstand the environment of the positive plates has made possible the construction of a high pulse power sealed bipolar lead-acid battery. The new battery is described and its advantages over other electrochemical systems are outlined. Performance projections show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  10. Charging Algorithm Extends the Life of Lead-acid Batteries: 2001 R and D 100 Award Recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.

    2001-09-27

    Fact sheet describing NREL's work with Recombination Technologies and Optima Batteries to develop a current interrupt charging algorithm to extend the deep life cycle of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries.

  11. Discrete carbon nanotubes increase lead acid battery charge acceptance and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swogger, Steven W.; Everill, Paul; Dubey, D. P.; Sugumaran, Nanjan

    2014-09-01

    Performance demands placed upon lead acid batteries have outgrown the technology's ability to deliver. These demands, typically leading to Negative Active Material (NAM) failure, include: short, high-current surges; prolonged, minimal, overvoltage charging; repeated, Ah deficit charging; and frequent deep discharges. Research shows these failure mechanisms are attenuated by inclusion of carbon allotropes into the NAM. Addition of significant quantities of carbon, however, produces detrimental changes in paste rheology, leading to lowered industrial throughput. Additionally, capacity, cold-cranking performance, and other battery metrics are negatively affected at high carbon loads. Presented here is Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative, a new battery additive comprising discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT) which uniformly disperse within battery pastes during mixing. NS40ZL batteries containing dCNT show enhanced charge acceptance, reserve capacity, and cold-cranking performance, decreased risk of polarization, and no detrimental changes to paste properties, when compared to dCNT-free controls. This work focuses on the dCNT as NAM additives only, but early-stage research is underway to test their functionality as a PAM additive. Batteries infused with Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative address the needs of modern lead acid battery applications, produce none of the detrimental side effects associated with carbon additives, and require no change to existing production lines.

  12. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... identification as Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1269, in the Federal Register on March 12, 2013 (78 FR 15753), for a... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The...

  13. Accelerated life evaluation of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Miller, J. F.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are primarily used in standby and uninterruptable power source applications at present. Manufacturers expect these and/or similar VRLA batteries to provide a life of 1000 to 1500 cycles with deep discharging at operating temperatures of approximately 25 C. However, insufficient data are available to determine their suitability and life in such repetitive cycling applications. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and initiated an accelerated life evaluation of VRLA batteries to acquire this data. The objectives of the ANL accelerated life evaluation are: (1) to use accelerated testing techniques to obtain supporting evidence within 6 months that VRLA batteries have an expected life of more than 500 cycles in deep-discharge applications, and (2) to determine VRLA battery life within a 2 to 3 year time period under conditions (temperature and depth-of-discharge) that simulate those encountered in a utility operating environment.

  14. Low-maintenance, valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries in utility applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, G. M.; Spindler, W. C.

    Electric power utility companies have various needs for lead/acid batteries, and also are beginning to promote customer-side-of-the meter applications for mutual benefits. Increasing use of lead/acid batteries in the future will depend heavily on improving performance and reliability of sealed, recombination designs, and on their versatility for many applications. Classifying various utility uses could be by cycling requirements, depth-of-discharge, power or energy (ratio of watts to hours), or by site (utility or customer). Deep-cycling examples are energy storage, peak-shaving and electric vehicles. Shallow-cycling examples are frequency regulation and reactive power control. Infrequent discharge examples are stationary service and spinning reserve. (Float service for telecommunications and uninterruptible power sources (UPS) applications are not addressed.) Some present and planned installations of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries are surveyed. Performance characteristics will be discussed, including recent results of testing both gel and absorptive glass mat (AGM) types of deep-cycling batteries. Recommendations for future research and development of valve-regulated cell technology are outlined, based on a recent conference organized by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  15. Amersorb: a new high-performance polymeric separator for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, Valérie

    Given the recent improvements in valve-regulated batteries, lead-acid technology is nowadays considered to be well-suited for stationary power applications. Gel and absorptive glass mat (AGM) valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are complementary technologies and provide reliability and efficiency due to progressive optimization of the design and components. Special attention has been paid to the separation system, as its influence on the battery performance has been fully demonstrated. Polymeric calendered ribbed separators are traditionally used in gel VRLA batteries. For this technology, the separator is required to have high pore volume, optimized pore size, low acid displacement and low electrical resistance. It must also support efficient and controlled oxygen transfer. Glass-microfibre separators are presently the preferred material for AGM batteries. In addition to the properties listed for the polymeric type, glass-microfibre separators must not allow any drainage or stratification of the liquid electrolyte, and be able to retain their initial thickness after filling and during the battery life in order to sustain the initial compression in each cell. The Amersorb separator is well adapted to both technologies, for example: (i) the ribbed and corrugated patterns provide improved porosity (pore volume and pore-size distribution); (ii) the flat membrane is not only able to wick and retain the acid, but has also optimal compression properties (low compressibility and excellent springiness).

  16. Effects of phosphoric acid on the lead-acid battery reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Osamu; Iwakura, Chiaki; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Tamura, Hideo

    1986-10-01

    The addition of a small amount of phosphoric acid to 5 M H2SO4 (commercial electrolyte of lead-acid batteries) results in various positive effects on the lead-acid battery reactions: (1) depression of the corrosion rate of the lead substrate through a preferential formation of alpha-PbO2 on the substrate surface; (2) retardation of hard sulfate formation or of deactivation of active materials; and (3) change in the crystal morphology of PbSO2 formed on the discharge of PbO2. Most of these effects results from chemisorption of phosphoric acid on PbSO4 crystals produced in the discharge process of PbO2.

  17. New low-antimony alloy for straps and cycling service in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prengaman, R. David

    Lead-antimony alloys used for the positive grids in lead-acid batteries for cycling service have generally used antimony contents of 4.5 wt.% and above. Tubular batteries for cycling service that impart high compression of the active material to the grid surface via gauntlet use alloys with antimony contents as low as 1.5 wt.%. These batteries are generally employed in less-severe cycling service. Value-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries can give good cycling service without lead-antimony in the positive grid, but require a high tin content and high compression. The change in automotive battery positive grid alloys to lead-calcium-tin and the tin contents of VRLA positive grids and straps have dramatically increased the tin content of the recycled grid and strap lead in the USA, Europe, and Australia. The higher tin contents can contaminate the lead used for lead-antimony battery grids and generally must be removed to low levels to meet the specifications. This study describes a low-antimony alloy that contains a substantial amount of tin. The high tin content reduces the rate of corrosion of low-antimony positive grid alloys, improves conductivity, increases the bond between the grid and the active material, and cycles as well as the traditional 5-6 wt.% antimony alloys employed in conventional flat-plate batteries. The alloy is also used as a corrosion-resistant cast-on strap alloy for automotive batteries for high temperature service, as well as for posts, bushings, and connectors for all wet batteries.

  18. Enhancing the performance of lead-acid batteries with carbon - In pursuit of an understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Patrick T.; Rand, David A. J.; Peters, Ken

    2015-11-01

    The inherently poor dynamic charge-acceptance of the lead-acid battery can be greatly improved by the incorporation of additional carbon to the negative plate. An analysis is undertaken of the various ways by which the carbon may be introduced, and of the proposed mechanisms whereby its presence proves to be beneficial. It is intended that such an investigation should provide a guide to the selection of the optimum carbon inventory.

  19. Chopper-controlled discharge life cycling studies on lead-acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraml, J. J.; Ames, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    State-of-the-art 6 volt lead-acid golf car batteries were tested. A daily charge/discharge cycling to failure points under various chopper controlled pulsed dc and continuous current load conditions was undertaken. The cycle life and failure modes were investigated for depth of discharge, average current chopper frequency, and chopper duty cycle. It is shown that battery life is primarily and inversely related to depth of discharge and discharge current. Failure mode is characterized by a gradual capacity loss with consistent evidence of cell element aging.

  20. Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic data-driven approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Shen, Zheng; Ray, Asok; Rahn, Christopher D.

    2014-12-01

    This short paper presents a recently reported dynamic data-driven method, Symbolic Dynamic Filtering (SDF), for real-time estimation of the state-of-health (SOH) and state-of-charge (SOC) in lead-acid batteries, as an alternative to model-based analysis techniques. In particular, SOC estimation relies on a k-NN regression algorithm while SOH estimation is obtained from the divergence between extracted features. The results show that the proposed data-driven method successfully distinguishes battery voltage responses under different SOC and SOH situations.

  1. Development of 36-V valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmae, T.; Hayashi, T.; Inoue, N.

    A 36-V valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery used in a 42-V power system has been developed for the Toyota Hybrid System-Mild (THS-M) vehicle to meet the large electrical power requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and the increasing power demands on modern automobile electrical systems. The battery has a longer cycle-life in HEV use through the application of ultra high-density active-material and an anti-corrosive grid alloy for the positive plates, special additives for the negative plates, and absorbent glass mat with less contraction for the separators.

  2. Developments in absorptive glass mat separators for cycling applications and 36 V lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, V.; Lambert, U.

    The major markets for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are undergoing a radical upheaval. In particular, the telecommunications industry requires more reliable power supplies, and the familiar 12 V electrical system in cars will probably be soon replaced by a 36/42 V system, or by other electrical systems if part of the automotive market is taken over by hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). In order to meet these new challenges and enable VRLA batteries to provide a satisfactory life in float and cycling applications in the telecommunication field, or in the high-rate-partial-state-of-charge service required by both 36/42 V automobiles and HEVs, the lead-acid battery industry has to improve substantially the quality of present VRLA batteries based on absorptive glass mat (AGM) technology. Therefore, manufacturing steps and cell components have to be optimized, especially AGM separators as these are key components for better production yields and battery performance. This paper shows how the optimal segregation of the coarse and fine fibres in an AGM separator structure can improve greatly the properties of the material. The superior capillarity, springiness and mechanical properties of the 100% glass Amerglass multilayer separator compared with commercial monolayer counterparts with the same specific surface-area is highlighted.

  3. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T.; Handschin, E.

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application.

  4. Maintenance-free 100 ampere-hour, lead acid battery for deep discharge, photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, C.

    1982-06-01

    A new 6-volt 100 AH totally mantenance-free lead-acid battery was developed for deep discharge photovoltaic applications. During this 14-month contract, notable accomplishments are described. Improvement was made in cycle life of 100 AH batteries with horizntal plae orientation. This improvement corroborates prior art work on the horizontal configuraton as applies to cycle life. Eagle-Picher had instituted this work earlier on the 15 AH size CAREFREE battery. The reason for the enhanced performance horizontally is more consistent quantity of electrolyte available along the plate surface. This eliminate preferential electrochemical reaction at any part of the plate surface. Also the horizontal orientation eliminates stratification of electrolyte specific gravity which can occur on vertical oriented batteries. A substantial improvement in cycle life using the partial-state-of-charge cycling routine as conceived by Sandia was demonstrated.

  5. Electrolyte depletion control laws for lead-acid battery discharge optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenno, R.; Nefedov, E.

    2014-12-01

    The technique described in this paper balances the power and energy withdrawn from a battery in galvanostatic discharge control that aims for stabilisation of the electrolyte concentration above the depletion level. This aim is achieved with relatively simple proportional feedback controls that are exponentially stabilising controls for a simple diffusion process that is the core part of battery processes. Although the full mapping of the proposed controls to state is rather complex, it has shown that the transformation works. In practice, these controls can be approximated either with the integrated past controls or with a simple exponential function that depends on a few parameters adjusted to the electrochemical processes in a battery under consideration. The battery control is tested in simulation on a detailed model developed for a lead-acid electrochemical cell.

  6. Design of an efficient electrolyte circulation system for the lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuerk, D.

    The design and operation of an electrolyte circulation system are described. Application of lead acid batteries to electric vehicle and other repetitive deep cycle services produces a nondesirable state in the battery cells, electrolyte stratification. This stratification is the result of acid and water generation at the electrodes during cycling. With continued cycling, the extent of the stratification increases and prevents complete charging with low percentages of overcharge. Ultimately this results in extremely short life for the battery system. The stratification problem was overcome by substantially overcharging the battery. This abusive overcharge produces gassing rates sufficient to mix the electrolyte during the end portion of the charge. Overcharge, even though it is required to eliminate stratification, produces the undesirable results related to high voltage and gassing rates.

  7. Lead-acid bipolar battery assembled with primary chemically formed positive pasted electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, H.; Shamsipur, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Mousavi, M. F.

    Primary chemically formed lead dioxide (PbO 2) was used as positive electrode in preparation of lead-acid bipolar batteries. Chemical oxidation was carried out by both mixing and dipping methods using an optimized amount of ammonium persulfate as a suitable oxidizing agent. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the weight ratio of β-PbO 2 to α-PbO 2 is more for mixing method before electrochemical forming. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate charge transfer resistance of the lead dioxide obtained by mixing and dipping methods before and after electrochemical forming. Four types of bipolar lead-acid batteries were produced with: (1) lead substrate and conventional electroforming; (2) carbon doped polyethylene substrate with conventional electroforming; (3) carbon doped polyethylene substrate with chemical forming after curing and drying steps in oxidant bath, followed by electrochemical forming, and (4) carbon doped polyethylene substrate with primary chemical oxidation in mixing step, followed by conventional electroforming. The capacity and cycle-life tests of the prepared bipolar batteries were performed by a home-made battery tester and using the pulsed current method. The prepared batteries showed low weight, high capacity, high energy density and high power density. The first capacities of bipolar batteries of type 1-4 were found to be 152, 150, 180 and 198 mAh g -1, respectively. The experimental results showed that the prepared 6 V bipolar batteries of type 1-4 have power density (per cell unit) of 59.7, 57.4, 78.46 and 83.30 mW g -1 (W kg -1), respectively.

  8. Electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon current collectors for lead-acid batteries: opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenge, Elod; Jung, Joey; Mahato, Basanta

    Reticulated, open-cell structures based on vitreous carbon substrates electroplated with a Pb-Sn (1 wt.%) alloy were investigated as current collectors for lead-acid batteries. Scanning and backscattered electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, anodic polarization and flooded 2 V single-cell battery testing was employed to characterize the performance of the proposed collectors. A battery equipped with pasted electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) electrodes of 137 cm 2 geometric area, at the time of manuscript submission, completed 500 cycles and over 1500 h of continuous operation. The cycling involved discharges at 63 A kg PAM-1 corresponding to a nominal 0.75 h rate and a positive active mass (PAM) utilization efficiency of 21%. The charging protocol was composed of two voltage limited (i.e. 2.6 V/cell), constant current steps of 35 and 9.5 A kg PAM-1, respectively, with a total duration of about 2 h. The charge factor was 1.05-1.15. The observed cycling behavior in conjunction with the versatility of electrodeposition to produce application-dependent optimized lead alloy coating thickness and composition shows promise for the development of lead-acid batteries using electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon collectors.

  9. Temperature effects on sealed lead acid batteries and charging techniques to prolong cycle life.

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Ronda

    2004-06-01

    Sealed lead acid cells are used in many projects in Sandia National Laboratories Department 2660 Telemetry and Instrumentation systems. The importance of these cells in battery packs for powering electronics to remotely conduct tests is significant. Since many tests are carried out in flight or launched, temperature is a major factor. It is also important that the battery packs are properly charged so that the test is completed before the pack cannot supply sufficient power. Department 2665 conducted research and studies to determine the effects of temperature on cycle time as well as charging techniques to maximize cycle life and cycle times on sealed lead acid cells. The studies proved that both temperature and charging techniques are very important for battery life to support successful field testing and expensive flight and launched tests. This report demonstrates the effects of temperature on cycle time for SLA cells as well as proper charging techniques to get the most life and cycle time out of SLA cells in battery packs.

  10. Structural alteration of spermatozoa in the persons employed in lead acid battery factory.

    PubMed

    Naha, Nibedita; Bhar, R B; Mukherjee, A; Chowdhury, Amal Roy

    2005-04-01

    Lead is one of the industrially heavy metals that caused adverse effects on male reproductive system among battery factory workers, but information on the possible impact of lead on the structural integrity of sperm cell is limited. Thus present study was undertaken to assess the structural details of human spermatozoa of lead acid battery factory workers. Blood and semen samples were collected from total 80 workers (7-15 years exposure) and 40 non-occupationally exposed control subjects. The lead exposed battery factory workers showed lowering (P < 0.001) of sperm count, density, motility and semen volume along with an increase incidence of sperm abnormality and prolong liquefaction time. Structural alteration of sperm cell was prevalent among the exposed population as evidenced by significantly (P < 0.001) low sperm viability, low hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) percentage, high lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane with concomitant alterations of seminal plasma total and dehydro ascorbate level. Sharp depressions, membrane folding and granularity at sperm head surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both blood lead and semen lead was significantly (P < 0.001) higher among the factory workers. Thus it appears plausible that lead may reduce the antioxidant level in seminal plasma and enhance the lipid peroxidative changes in sperm membrane leading to concomitant structural damage of sperm cell surface in the workers employed in lead acid battery factories.

  11. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) and its application in microporous separators for lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. C.; Harvey, M. K.; Ng, J. C.; Scheunemann, U.

    The polyethylene (PE) used in separators for automotive lead/acid batteries is actually UHMW-PE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene). Microporous PE separators were commercialized in the early 1970s. Since then, they have gained in popularity in the lead/acid battery industry, particularly in SLI (starting, lighting and ignition) automotive applications. This paper provides an introductory overview of the UHMW-PE polymer and its contributions to the PE battery separator manufacturing process, battery assembly and battery performance, in comparison with other conventional separators such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glass fibre.

  12. Al/Pb lightweight grids prepared by molten salt electroless plating for application in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bo; Jiang, Liangxing; Hao, Ketao; Liu, Fangyang; Yu, Xiaoying; Xue, Haitao; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a lightweight Pb plated Al (Al/Pb) grid was prepared by molten salt electroless plating. The SEM and bonding strength test show that the lead coating is deposited with a smooth surface and firm combination. CV test shows that the electrochemical properties of Al/Pb electrodes are stable. 2.0 V single-cell flooded lead-acid batteries with Al/Pb grids as negative collectors are assembled and the performances including 20 h capacity, rate capacity, cycle life, internal resistance are investigated. The results show that the cycle life of Al/Pb-grid cells is about 475 cycles and can meet the requirement of lead-acid batteries. Al/Pb grids are conducive to the refinement of PbSO4 grain, and thereby reduce the internal resistance of battery and advance the utilization of active mass. Moreover, weight of Al/Pb grid is only 55.4% of the conventional-grid. In this way, mass specific capacity of Al/Pb-grid negatives is 17.8% higher and the utilization of active mass is 6.5% higher than conventional-grid negatives.

  13. New lead alloys for high-performance lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jullian, E.; Albert, L.; Caillerie, J. L.

    Consumers require lead-acid batteries with a high level of reliability, low cost and improved life, and/or with less weight and good tolerance to high-temperature operation. To reduce the thickness (weight) of the grids, the alloy materials must exhibit higher mechanical properties and improved corrosion resistance. In this study, the performance of negative and positive grids is evaluated in battery tests. The results demonstrate that continuously cast and expanded grids made from barium-doped lead-calcium-tin alloys meet performance requirements. For negative grids, improvement in the mechanical properties can lead to reliable thinner grids. For positive grids, the alloys exhibit improved mechanical properties and greater corrosion resistance. These features provide extremely good creep behaviour during battery operation such that performance under the hot SAE J240 test is superior to that achieved previously with expanded grids.

  14. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part I. Selected key parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Kaiser, F.; Koehler, L.; Albers, J.; Kabza, H.

    Micro-hybrid electric vehicles were launched by BMW in March 2007. These are equipped with brake energy regeneration (BER) and the automatic start and stop function (ASSF) of the internal combustion engine. These functions are based on common 14 V series components and lead-acid (LA) batteries. The novelty is given by the intelligent onboard energy management, which upgrades the conventional electric system to the micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In part I of this publication the key factors for the operation of LA batteries in the MHPS are discussed. Especially for BER one is high dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) for effective boost charging. Vehicle rest time is identified as a particular negative parameter for DCA. It can be refreshed by regular fully charging at elevated charge voltage. Thus, the batteries have to be outstandingly robust against overcharge and water loss. This can be accomplished for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries at least if they are mounted in the trunk. ASSF goes along with frequent high-rate loads for warm cranking. The internal resistance determines the drop of the power net voltage during cranking and is preferably low for reasons of power net stability even after years of operation. Investigations have to be done with aged 90 Ah VRLA-absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries. Battery operation at partial state-of-charge gives a higher risk of deep discharging (overdischarging). Subsequent re-charging then is likely to lead to the formation of micro-short circuits in the absorbent glass mat separator.

  15. Maintenance-free, 100 ampere-hour, lead acid battery for deep discharge, photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, C.

    1982-06-01

    A new 6-volt 100 AH totally maintenance-free lead-acid battery was developed for deep discharge photovoltaic applications. During this 14-month contract, notable accomplishments are described. Improvement was made in cycle life of 100 AH batteries with horizontal plate orientation. This improvement corroborates prior art work on the horizontal configuration as applies to cycle life. Eagle-Picher had instituted this work earlier on the 15 AH size CAREFREE battery. The reason for the enhanced performance horizontally is more consistent quantity of electrolyte available along the plate surface. This eliminates preferential electrochemical reaction at any part of the plate surface. Also the horizontal orientation eliminates stratification of electrolyte specific gravity which can occur on vertical oriented batteries. A substantial improvement in cycle life using the partial-state-of-charge cycling routine as conceived by Sandia was demonstrated. Totally sealed operation was accomplished with oxygen gas recombination of starved electrolyte 100 AH batteries at charge rates of C/100 to C/20. The final design was a sealed, starved electrolyte 100 AH battery to provide oxygen gas recombination with the negative plate.

  16. Application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for storage of solar electricity in stand-alone photovoltaic systems in the northwest areas of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Shounan; Zhou, Qingshen; Kong, Delong; Ma, Jianping

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations for solar electric power generation are being established rapidly in the northwest areas of China, and it is increasingly important for these power systems to have reliable and cost effective energy storage. The lead-acid battery is the more commonly used storage technology for PV systems due to its low cost and its wide availability. However, analysis shows that it is the weakest component of PV power systems. Because the batteries can be over discharged, or operated under partial state of charge (PSOC), their service life in PV systems is shorter than could be expected. The working conditions of batteries in remote area installations are worse than those in situations where technical support is readily available. Capacity-loss in lead-acid batteries operated in remote locations often occurs through sulfation of electrodes and stratification of electrolyte. In northwest China, Shandong Sacred Sun Power Sources Industry Co. Ltd. type GFMU valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are being used in PV power stations. These batteries have an advanced grid structure, superior leady paste, and are manufactured using improved plate formation methods. Their characteristics, and their performance in PV systems, are discussed in this paper. The testing results of GFMU VRLA batteries in the laboratory have shown that the batteries could satisfy the demands of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for PV systems.

  17. High-performance of PbO2 nanowire electrodes for lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, A.; Mistretta, M. C.; Randazzo, S.; Piazza, S.; Sunseri, C.; Inguanta, R.

    2014-06-01

    PbO2 nanowires were obtained by template electrodeposition in polycarbonate membranes and tested as positive electrode for lead-acid battery. Nanowires were grown on the same material acting as current collector that was electrodeposited too. The nanostructured electrodes were assembled in a zero-gap configuration using commercial negative plate and separator. Cell performance was tested by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles in a 5 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. PbO2 nanostructured electrodes were able to deliver at 1C rate an almost constant capacity of about 190 mAh g-1 (85% of active material utilization), close to the theoretical value (224 mAh g-1). The nanowire array provides a very large surface area (about 70 times higher than the geometrical one) that enhances the specific capacity of the battery. SEM images of the as-prepared and cycled electrodes showed that nanowires morphology changes significantly after the initial cycles. Change of morphology led to the formation of very spongy structure, characterized by the presence of macro-voids, which ensured penetration of the electrolyte in the inner areas of the electrode. Besides, PbO2 nanowires showed a very good cycling stability, maintained for more than 1000 cycles. These findings indicate that this new type of electrode might be a promising substitute of positive plates in lead-acid battery.

  18. Effect of compression on the behaviour of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, M.; Döring, H.; Ihmels, K.; Weiss, A.; Vogel, E.; Wagner, R.

    Mechanical pressure applied to the plate group is known to increase the cycle life of lead-acid batteries. However, the mechanism of the active material stabilisation process is not completely understood yet. The evolution of mechanical pressure in a lead-acid battery during a cycle and through cycle life is also a topic with still many open questions. Additionally, the separation systems available today are not able to exert high compression on the electrode plates: glass mats crush when compressed too much and the gel design does not allow any significant pressure generation at all. Daramic have developed the new acid jellying separator (AJS) allowing the application of mechanical pressure on the plate group. This paper reports on The capacity evolution during cycling for cells with different separation systems namely AGM, gel and AJS, under a variety of initial compression levels. The evolution of mechanical pressure on the cell walls during a cycle and through cycle life for different separation systems, and initial compression levels. The condition of the active materials at the end of life for cells cycled under compression. The effect of the addition of phosphoric acid to the electrolyte. The effect of the application of mechanical pressure on the corrosion of pure lead based on cyclic voltammetry measurements under compression. The results of these studies are presented together with some conclusions about the mechanism and effect of compression on a VRLA battery.

  19. Silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes for use in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    Electrochemical properties of silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes for lead-acid batteries are described, and the following possible applications discussed: Determination of individual capacities of positive and negative plates. Monitoring individual electrode behavior during deep discharge and cell reversal. Optimization charge or discharge parameters, by controlling the current such that pre-determined limits of positive or negative half-cell potential are respected. Observation of acid concentration differences, for example due to acid stratification, by measuring diffusion potentials (concentration-cell voltages). Detection of defective cells, and defective plate sets, in a string of cells, at the end of their service life. Silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes, permanently installed in lead-acid cells, may be a means to improve battery management, and therewith to improve reliability and service life. In vented batteries, reference electrodes may be used to limit positive plate polarization during charge, or float-charge. Limiting the positive half-cell potential to an upper, pre-set value would permit to keep anodic corrosion as low as possible. During cycling, discharge could be terminated when the half-cell potential of the positive electrode has dropped to a pre-set limit. This would prevent excessive discharge of the positive electrodes, which could result in an improvement of cycle life. In valve-regulated batteries, reference electrodes may be used to adjust float-charge conditions such as to assure sufficient cathodic polarization of the negative electrodes, in order to avoid sulfation. The use of such reference electrodes could be beneficial particularly in multi-cell batteries, with overall voltages above 12 V, operated in a partial-state-of-charge.

  20. Reliability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for stationary applications.

    SciTech Connect

    De Anda, Mindi Farber; Butler, Paul Charles; Miller, Jennifer L; Moseley, Patrick T.

    2004-03-01

    A survey has been carried out to quantify the performance and life of over 700,000 valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells, which have been or are being used in stationary applications across the United States. The findings derived from this study have not identified any fundamental flaws of VRLA battery technology. There is evidence that some cell designs are more successful in float duty than others. A significant number of the VRLA cells covered by the survey were found to have provided satisfactory performance.

  1. Distribution of current in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries: a thermographic analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streza, M.; Nuţ, C.; Tudoran, C.; Bunea, V.; Calborean, A.; Morari, C.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental method for the investigation of the current distribution in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries has been developed. The information is extracted by analysing the heat dissipation in the electrode during the discharge by using a high-performance IR camera. The effect of the current in the metallic grid can be de-convoluted from the total heat produced in the electrode by numerical processing of the temperature distribution over the electrode surface. By its simplicity and effectiveness, the proposed method has the potential to become an important tool in optimising electrode geometry.

  2. Environmental and biological monitoring in a lead acid battery manufacturing unit in India.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, B; Ravibabu, K; Raghavan, S; Krishnamurthy, V; Rajan, B K; Rajmohan, H R

    2005-07-01

    An environmental and biological monitoring of a lead acid battery manufacturing unit was carried out to measure the respirable particulate matter, lead content in working atmosphere and blood lead levels of workers employed in different sections. The results showed high mean air lead concentration in buffing (1444.45 microg/m(3)), plate cutting (430.14 microg/m(3)) and pasting (277.48 microg/m(3)) sections. The mean blood lead levels of employees in these sections were also higher than the values prescribed by ACGIH.

  3. Resolution in QCM Sensors for the Viscosity and Density of Liquids: Application to Lead Acid Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H2SO4 solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical “resolution limit” to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product (ρη) of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for ρη measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency. PMID:23112618

  4. Resolution in QCM sensors for the viscosity and density of liquids: application to lead acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H(2)SO(4) solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical "resolution limit" to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product [Formula: see text] of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for [Formula: see text] measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency.

  5. Evaluating the performance enhancement of lead acid batteries by forced circulation of the electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, F.; Gilbert, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    Phenomena which may limit the performance of lead-acid batteries are the space charge and corresponding voltage gradient in the boundary between the plates and the electrolyte and also the stratification of the varying density electrolyte during the discharging and charging process. It has been suggested that forced circulation of the electrolyte could improve performance by minimizing these negative effects. However, the amount of benefit has been uncertain. This paper reviews previous work that has been performed to measure and model battery performance. It describes the experimental apparatus that was developed to demonstrate the difference between free and forced circulation of the electrolyte. It then presents experimental data that demonstrates substantial performance improvement results from forced circulation of the electrolyte. These improvements included a 16% improvement in energy output, along with higher power capability.

  6. The key to success: Gelled-electrolyte and optimized separators for stationary lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, Valérie

    The lead acid technology is nowadays considered one of the best suited for stationary applications. Both gel and AGM batteries are complementary technologies and can provide reliability and efficiency due to the constant optimization of the battery design and components. However, gelled-electrolyte batteries remain the preferred technology due to a better manufacturing background and show better performance mainly at low and moderate discharge rates. Especially, using the gel technology allows to get rid of the numerous problems encountered in most AGM batteries: drainage, stratification, short circuits due to dendrites, and mostly premature capacity loss due to the release of internal cell compression. These limitations are the result of the evident lack of an optimal separation system. In gel batteries, on the contrary, highly efficient polymeric separators are nowadays available. Especially, microporous separators based on PVC and silica have shown the best efficiency for nearly 30 years all over the world, and especially in Europe, where the gel technology was born. The improved performance of these separators is explained by the unique extrusion process, which leads to excellent wettability, and optimized physical properties. Because they are the key for the battery success, continuous research and development on separators have led to improved properties, which render the separator even better adapted to the more recent gel technology: the pore size distribution has been optimized to allow good oxygen transfer while avoiding dendrite growth, the pore volume has been increased, the electrical resistance and acid displacement reduced to such an extent that the electrical output of batteries has been raised both in terms of higher capacity and longer cycle life.

  7. ERC nickel cadium battery performance tests and comparisons with lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumley, Robert L.; Hardin, Jasper E.; MacDowall, Randy D.; Burke, Andrew F.

    A battery pack consisting of eighteen 6-V, roll-bonded nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, manufactured by Energy Research Corporation (ERC), was evaluated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program for electric vehicle applications. The purpose of the testing was to determine the capacity and performance characteristics of the battery pack and to obtain data which would permit direct comparison with other selected EV application batteries. Laboratory charge/discharge characterization and vehicle dynamometer tests were performed with the NiCd battery pack in the Battery and Dynamometer Laboratories of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center. Testing was done in accordance with the Electric Vehicle Test Procedures of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J227).

  8. ERC nickel cadium battery performance tests and comparisons with lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Crumley, R.L.; Hardin, J.E.; MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A battery pack consisting of eighteen 6-V, roll-bonded nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, manufactured by Energy Research Corporation (ERC), was evaluated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program for electric vehicle applications. The purpose of the testing was to determine the capacity and performance characteristics of the battery pack and to obtain data which would permit direct comparison with other selected EV application batteries. Laboratory charge/discharge characterization and vehicle dynamometer tests were performed with the NiCd battery pack in the Battery and Dynamometer Laboratories of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center. Testing was done in accordance with the Electric Vehicle Test Procedures of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J227). 8 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Preparation and characterization of nano-structured lead oxide from spent lead acid battery paste.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Yang, Danni; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Kumar, R Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2012-02-15

    As part of contribution for developing a green recycling process of spent lead acid battery, a nanostructural lead oxide was prepared under the present investigation in low temperature calcination of lead citrate powder. The lead citrate, the precursor for preparation of this lead oxide, was synthesized through leaching of spent lead acid battery paste in citric acid solution. Both lead citrate and oxide products were characterized by means of thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the lead citrate was sheet-shape crystal of Pb(C(6)H(6)O(7)) · H(2)O. When the citrate was calcined in N(2) gas, β-PbO in the orthorhombic phase was the main product containing small amount of Pb and C and it formed as spherical particles of 50-60 nm in diameter. On combusting the citrate in air at 370°C (for 20 min), a mixture of orthorhombic β-PbO, tetragonal α-PbO and Pb with the particle size of 100-200 nm was obtained, with β-PbO as the major product. The property of the nanostructural lead oxide was investigated by electrochemical technique, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV). The CV measurements presented the electrochemical redox potentials, with reversibility and cycle stability over 15 cycles.

  10. Blood lead levels among rural Thai children exposed to lead-acid batteries from solar energy conversion systems.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Sanreun, Cherd

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate blood lead levels among Thai children to determine if exposure to lead-acid batteries is associated with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL). We screened 254 children aged 1-14 years old from 2 rural Thai villages for blood lead levels. We also screened 18 of 92 houses in these 2 villages for the presence of environmental lead. The overall prevalence of EBLL (> or = 10 microg/dl) was 43.3% and the mean lead level among study subjects was 9.8 +/- 5.1 microg/dl. The blood lead levels significantly decreased with increasing age. Fifty point eight percent of children who lived in a house with vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL while 23.3% of children who lived in a house without vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between the presence of vented lead-acid batteries and EBLL, after adjusting for other variables. Forty-two point nine percent of house floor dust samples collected near the batteries had elevated lead levels, 7.1% of house floor dust samples collected from other areas in the house had elevated lead levels and 0% of the house floor dust samples collected in houses without vented lead-acid batteries had elevated lead levels. In the sampled houses with vented lead-acid batteries, lead contamination was found in the drinking-water kept in household containers, but not in the tap water or other village sources of water. Improper care and placement of vented lead-acid batteries can result in lead contamination in the home environment causing EBLL in exposed children.

  11. Design of an efficient electrolyte circulation system for the lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Thuerk, D.

    1982-01-01

    Application of lead-acid batteries to electric vehicle and other repetitive deep-cycle services produces a non-desirable state in the battery cells, electrolyte stratification. This stratification is the result of acid and water generation at the electrodes during cycling. Water, which is generated during discharge, rises to the electrolyte surface due to gravity differences, whereas the concentrated sulfuric acid generated during charge falls to the bottom of the container. With continued cycling, the extent of the stratification increases and prevents complete charging with low percentages of overcharge. Ultimately this results in extremely short life for the battery system. The industry presently overcomes the stratification problem by substantially overcharging the battery. This abusive overcharge produces gassing rates sufficient to mix the electrolyte during the end portion of the charge. The amount of recharge typically used to mix the electrolyte ranges from 120% to 140% of the prior discharge. Overcharge, even though it is required to eliminate stratification, produces the undesirable results related to high voltage and gassing rates. The design and operation of an electrolyte circulation system are described. (WHK)

  12. Technical and economic advantages of making lead-acid battery grids by continuous electroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warlimont, H.; Hofmann, T.

    A new continuous electroforming process to manufacture lead grids for automotive and industrial lead-acid batteries has been developed. A galvanic cell comprising a drum cathode for electroforming and a subsequent series of galvanic cells which form a strip galvanizing line are operating in a single, fully continuous, automatic process. Virgin lead or lead scrap may be used as the anode material. The product is grid strip of any specified thickness and design which can be fed into existing strip-pasting equipment. The composition and microstructure of the grid material can be varied to provide increased corrosion resistance and increased paste adherence. A unique feature of the material is its inherent layered composite structure that allows optimization of the properties according to particular functional requirements. Thus, both the specific power and the specific energy of the battery can be increased by reducing weight. The material properties increase the calendar life of the battery by increasing the corrosion resistance of the grid, and increase the cycle-life of the battery by improved adherence of the positive active material. The technical and economic features and competitive advantages of this new technology and product are presented in quantitative terms.

  13. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Research programs on lead-acid batteries are reported that cover active materials utilization, active material integrity, and some technical support projects. Processing problems were encountered and corrected. Components and materials, a lead-plastic composite grid, cell designs, and deliverables are described. Cell testing is discussed, as well as battery subsystems, including fuel gage, thermal management, and electrolyte circulation. (LEW)

  14. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The initial phase of work comprises three factorial experiments to evaluate a variety of component combinations. Goals to be met by these batteries include the following: capacity at 3 h discharge, 20 to 30 kWh; specific energy, 40 Wh/kg; specific power, 1000 W/kg for 15 s; cycle life, 800 cycles to 80% depth; price, $50/kWh. The status of the factorial experiments is reviewed. The second phase of work, design of an advanced battery, has the following goals: 30 to 40 kWh; 60 Wh/kg; 150 W/kg for 15 s; 1000 cycles to 80% depth; $40/kWh. It is not yet possible to say whether these goals can be met. Numerous approaches are under study to increase the utilization of battery chemicals. A battery design with no live electrical connection above the battery is being developed. 52 figures, 52 tables. (RWR)

  15. Fuzzy modelling for the state-of-charge estimation of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, Claudio; Sáez, Doris; Orchard, Marcos E.; Cárdenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fuzzy model based structure for the characterisation of discharge processes in lead-acid batteries. This structure is based on a fuzzy model that characterises the relationship between the battery open-circuit voltage (Voc), the state of charge (SoC), and the discharge current. The model is identified and validated using experimental data that is obtained from an experimental system designed to test battery banks with several charge/discharge profiles. For model identification purposes, two standard experimental tests are implemented; one of these tests is used to identify the Voc-SoC curve, while the other helps to identify additional parameters of the model. The estimation of SoC is performed using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with a state transition equation that is based on the proposed fuzzy model. Performance of the proposed estimation framework is compared with other parametric approaches that are inspired on electrical equivalents; e.g., Thevenin, Plett, and Copetti.

  16. Battery energy-storage systems — an emerging market for lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. F.

    Although the concept of using batteries for lead levelling and peak shaving has been known for decades, only recently have these systems become commercially viable. Changes in the structure of the electric power supply industry have required these companies to seek more cost-effective ways of meeting the needs of their customers. Through experience gained, primarily in the USA, batteries have been shown to provide multiple benefits to electric utilities. Also, lower maintenance batteries, more reliable electrical systems, and the availability of methods to predict costs and benefits have made battery energy-storage systems more attractive. Technology-transfer efforts in the USA have resulted in a willingness of electric utilities to install a number of these systems for a variety of tasks, including load levelling, peak shaving, frequency regulation and spinning reserve. Additional systems are being planned for several additional locations for similar applications, plus transmission and distribution deferral and enhanced power quality. In the absence of US champions such as the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, ILZRO is attempting to mount a technology-transfer programme to bring the benefits of battery energy-storage to European power suppliers. As a result of these efforts, a study group on battery energy-storage systems has been established with membership primarily in Germany and Austria. Also, a two-day workshop, prepared by the Electric Power Research Institute was held in Dublin. Participants included representatives of several European power suppliers. As a result, ESB National Grid of Ireland has embarked upon a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of a battery energy-storage system in their network. Plans for the future include continuation of this technology-transfer effort, assistance in the Irish effort, and a possible approach to the European Commission for funding.

  17. Effects of exposure to lead among lead-acid battery factory workers in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Awad el Karim, M A; Hamed, A S; Elhaimi, Y A; Osman, Y; el Karim, M A

    1986-01-01

    Health effects of occupational exposure to lead were investigated among 92 exposed workers in lead-acid battery factory and 40 nonexposed workers serving as a control group from an oil mill in Khartoum North industrial area. The two groups were closely similar in age, stature, body weight, and socioeconomic conditions. A highly significant increase (P less than .01) was recorded in blood lead, urinary coproporphyrin, and basophilic stippled red blood cells of the exposed group in comparison to the control group. Central nervous system symptoms (insomnia, fatigue, weakness, and drowsiness) were reported by 50% and other symptoms such as abdominal colic and constipation were reported by 41% of the exposed group. Blue line on the gum was detected only on 2% of the exposed group. Strong associations between exposure to lead and the prevalence of central nervous system symptoms, abdominal colic, and constipation were recorded. Exposure to exceedingly high levels of lead in the working environment causes adverse health effects.

  18. Recent new additives for electric vehicle lead-acid batteries for extending the cycle life and capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Kozawa, A.; Sato, A.; Fujita, K.; Brodd, D.

    1997-12-01

    An electrochemically prepared colloidal graphite was found to be an excellent additive for lead-acid batteries. The new additive extends the capacity and cycle life of new and old batteries and can regenerate old, almost dead, batteries. The colloidal graphite is stable in aqueous solution and the extremely fine particles are adsorbed mainly on the positive electrode. This additive has been given the name, {alpha}-Pholon. The amount required is very small: only 6% to 10% of volume of the {alpha}-Pholon solution (about 2% colloidal graphite in water solution). The beneficial effect of the new additive was demonstrated with motorcycle batteries and forklift batteries.

  19. Comparative study for "36 V" vehicle applications: advantages of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lailler, Patrick; Sarrau, Jean-François; Sarrazin, Christian

    From thermal engine equipped vehicles to completely electric ones, evolution of light weight vehicles in the future will take several steps in so far as there is no adequate battery or fuel cell presently available to power these vehicles for "on the road" driving. On the other hand, for city driving, vehicles can be improved a lot in terms of fuel efficiency as well as air pollution, if partly or totally electric propulsion can be developed, manufactured and marketed for appropriate applications. The 36-42 V battery is part of this orientation towards improving the efficiency of thermal vehicles in city driving, while keeping adequate autonomy on the roads. Actually, in city traffic, thermal engines are idle most of the time and stop periods represent a large part of the time spent "driving", using up fuel and polluting air for no use at all. The idea of stopping the engine during these periods, if appropriately managed, might potentially lead to a large improvement in fuel economy as well as air pollution reduction. The association of a higher voltage battery to an alternator-starter device in thermal vehicles, seems to be an interesting way towards that end. In this paper, we are presenting our results of a study we have just completed in relationship with RENAULT & VALEO, supported by the French Ministry of Industry, concerning a comparative evaluation of different automobile energy storage systems, and the definition of specifications as the final step of this study. The main conclusion is that lead-acid will still remain dominant in this role, since its operational cost versus efficiency is by far the lowest of every battery presently considered, more particularly in the less expensive car segments.

  20. Advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.L.; DeLuca, W.H.; Vissers, D.R. )

    1994-11-01

    The idea of battery-powered vehicles is an old one that took on new importance during the oil crisis of 1973 and after California passed laws requiring vehicles that would produce no emissions (so-called zero-emission vehicles). In this overview of battery technologies, the authors review the major existing or near-term systems as well as advanced systems being developed for electric vehicle (EV) applications. However, this overview does not cover all the advanced batteries being developed currently throughout the world. Comparative characteristics for the following batteries are given: lead-acid; nickel/cadmium; nickel/iron; nickel/metal hydride; zinc/bromine; sodium/sulfur; sodium/nickel chloride; zinc/air; lithium/iron sulfide; and lithium-polymer.

  1. Injury Surveillance and Safety Considerations for Large-Format Lead-Acid Batteries Used in Mining Applications

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Miguel Angel; Novak, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Large lead-acid batteries are predominantly used throughout the mining industry to power haulage, utility, and personnel-carrier vehicles. Without proper operation and maintenance, the use of these batteries can introduce mechanical and electrical hazards, particularly in the confined, and potentially dangerous, environment of an underground coal mine. A review of the Mine Safety and Health Administration accident/illness/injury database reveals that a significant number of injuries occur during the maintenance and repair of lead-acid batteries. These injuries include burns from electrical arcing and acid exposure, as well as strained muscles and crushed hands. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health investigated the design and implementation of these batteries to identify safety interventions that can mitigate these inherent hazards. This paper promotes practical design modifications, such as reducing the size and weight of battery assembly lids in conjunction with lift assists, as well as using five-pole cable connectors to improve safety. PMID:27784953

  2. Electrodeposited nanostructured lead dioxide as a thin film electrode for a lightweight lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, D. R. P.; Low, C. T. J.; Walsh, F. C.

    Thin films of nanostructured lead dioxide are investigated as a positive electrode material for a lightweight lead-acid battery. The films are obtained by constant current deposition from electrolytes of lead methanesulfonate in methanesulfonic acid. The films are tested in two conditions namely (a) cyclic voltammetry and (b) constant current battery cycling in sulfuric acid. The charge and discharge current density, charge density and charge efficiency are measured as a function of cycle number. The effect of deposition conditions, such as solution temperature (295 and 333 K), type of substrate and electrolyte additive (hexadecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide), on the electrochemical performance of the PbO 2 in sulfuric acid is investigated. It is found that the as-deposited lead dioxide film is compact and nanostructured β-phase structure. Following successive cycling in sulfuric acid, the compact thin film gradually transforms into a porous microstructure consisting of positive active material (PbO 2 and PbSO 4), several tens of nanometres size. The charge density, discharge density and peak discharge current density of the PbO 2 improve with cycling of the thin film electrode.

  3. Woven-grid sealed quasi-bipolar lead-acid battery construction and fabricating method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quasi-bipolar lead-acid battery construction includes a plurality of bipolar cells disposed in side-by-side relation to form a stack, and a pair of monoplanar plates at opposite ends of the stack, the cell stack and monopolar plates being contained within a housing of the battery. Each bipolar cell is loaded with an electrolyte and composed of a bipolar electrode plate and a pair of separator plates disposed on opposite sides of the electrode plate and peripherally sealed thereto. Each bipolar electrode plate is composed of a partition sheet and two bipolar electrode elements folded into a hairpin configuration and applied over opposite edges of the partition sheet so as to cover the opposite surfaces of the opposite halves thereof. Each bipolar electrode element is comprised of a woven grid with a hot-melt strip applied to a central longitudinal region of the grid along which the grid is folded into the hairpin configuration, and layers of negative and positive active material pastes applied to opposite halves of the grid on opposite sides of the central hot-melt strip. The grid is made up of strands of conductive and non-conductive yarns composing the respective transverse and longitudinal weaves of the grid. The conductive yarn has a multi-stranded glass core surrounded and covered by a lead sheath, whereas the non-conductive yarn has a multi-stranded glass core surrounded and covered by a thermally activated sizing.

  4. Quartz resonator state-of-charge monitor for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernosek, R. W.; Martin, S. J.; Wessendorf, K. O.; Rumpf, A. N.

    We have demonstrated that a thickness shear mode quartz resonator can be used as a real-time, in situ monitor of the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries. The resonator is sensitive to changes in the density and viscosity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. Both of these liquid parameters vary monotonically with the battery state-of-charge. This new monitor is more precise than sampling hydrometers, and since it is compatible with the corrosive electrolyte environment, it can be used for in situ monitoring. A TSM resonator consists of gold electrodes deposited on opposite surfaces of a thin AT-cut quartz crystal. When an RF voltage is applied to the electrodes, a shear strain is introduced in the piezoelectric quartz and mechanical resonance occurs between the surfaces. A liquid in contact with one of the quartz surfaces is viscously entrained, which perturbs the resonant frequency and resonance magnitude. If the surface is smooth, the changes in both frequency and magnitude are proportional to (rho(eta))(exp (1/2)), where rho is the liquid density and eta is the viscosity.

  5. Quartz resonator state-of-charge monitor for lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cernosek, R.W.; Martin, S.J.; Wessendorf, K.O.; Rumpf, A.N.

    1994-06-01

    We have demonstrated that a thickness shear mode quartz resonator can be used as a real-time, in situ monitor of the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries. The resonator is sensitive to hanges in the density and viscosity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. Both of these liquid parameters vary monotonically with the battery state-of-charge. This new monitor is more precise than sampling hydrometers, and since it is compatible with the Corrosive electrolyte environment, it can be used for in situ monitoring. A TSM resonator consists of gold electrodes deposited on opposite surfaces of a thin AT-cut quartz crystal. When an RF voltage is applied to the electrodes, a shear strain is introduced in the piezoelectric quartz and mechanical resonance occurs between the surfaces. A liquid in contact with one of the quartz surfaces is viscously entrained, which perturbs the resonant frequency and resonance magnitude. If the surface is smooth, the changes in both frequency and magnitude are proportional to ({rho}{eta}) {sup {1/2}}, where {rho} is the liquid density and {eta} is the viscosity.

  6. Investigating the use of porous, hollow glass microspheres in positive lead acid battery plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Matthew; Bean, Thomas; Woodland, Travis; Canning, John; Cheng, I. Frank; Edwards, Dean B.

    2014-11-01

    Porous, hollow, glass microspheres (PHGMs) can be used to increase porosity in lead acid battery electrodes to improve the battery's power and energy performance at higher discharge rates. As reported in this paper, the PHGM additives did improve electrolyte storage and porosity in the electrodes. However, the nonconductive PHGMs do reduce the critical volume fraction (CVF) of the electrodes as predicted from conductivity models. The increase in electrode performance due to increased porosity may therefore be partially offset by the drop in capacity due to a lower critical volume fraction. Empirical equations are developed that relate the CFV and porosity of an electrode to the amount, size, and porosity of the additives in that electrode. The porosity estimates made from the empirical equations compare favorably with the experimental data from plates fabricated with these additives. The performance of electrodes with additives is estimated from computer models using the electrode's CVF and porosity as provided by the equations. Tests were performed on plates having volume loadings of PHGMs from 11% to 44% of total solids in positive electrodes to determine their effect on active material utilizations. The results from these discharge tests are reported and compared with theoretical models.

  7. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes.

  8. Search for an optimized cyclic charging algorithm for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. F.; Sexton, E. D.; Olson, J. B.; Keyser, M.; Pesaran, A.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are characterized by relatively poor performance in cyclic applications of the order of two hundred to three hundred 100% depth-of-discharge (DoD) cycles. Failure is due to sulfation of the negative plate and softening of the positive active-material. It is felt that this failure mode arises from abnormally high levels of oxygen recombination that arise due to decreases in separator saturation levels as VRLA batteries age. Charging algorithms have been developed to address this changing condition throughout life. The key step is the finish of charge where, traditionally, low currents and low overcharge limits have been employed with poor results. It has been found that using high finishing currents in an alternating charge-rest algorithm results in proper recharge of the negative plate without creating unacceptable temperature increases. This has resulted in deep-discharge lifetimes of 800 to 1000 cycles, particularly when using a charging algorithm employing only partial recharges (97-100% return) interspersed with full conditioning recharges every 10th cycle. With such minimal average overcharge levels, deep-cycle lifetimes approaching 1000 cycles have been achieved without experiencing failure due to massive grid corrosion.

  9. A multi-point sensor based on optical fiber for the measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao-Paz, Ana M; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge; del Río-Vázquez, Alfredo; Martínez-Peñalver, Carlos; Lago-Ferreiro, Alfonso; Nogueiras-Meléndez, Andrés A; Doval-Gandoy, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a multi-point optical fiber-based sensor for the measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid batteries. It is known that the battery charging process creates stratification, due to the different densities of sulphuric acid and water. In order to study this process, density measurements should be obtained at different depths. The sensor we describe in this paper, unlike traditional sensors, consists of several measurement points, allowing density measurements at different depths inside the battery. The obtained set of measurements helps in determining the charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) of the battery. PMID:22319262

  10. A Multi-Point Sensor Based on Optical Fiber for the Measurement of Electrolyte Density in Lead-Acid Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Paz, Ana M.; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge; del Río-Vázquez, Alfredo; Martínez-Peñalver, Carlos; Lago-Ferreiro, Alfonso; Nogueiras-Meléndez, Andrés A.; Doval-Gandoy, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a multi-point optical fiber-based sensor for the measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid batteries. It is known that the battery charging process creates stratification, due to the different densities of sulphuric acid and water. In order to study this process, density measurements should be obtained at different depths. The sensor we describe in this paper, unlike traditional sensors, consists of several measurement points, allowing density measurements at different depths inside the battery. The obtained set of measurements helps in determining the charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) of the battery. PMID:22319262

  11. Comparative response of lead-acid and nickel-iron batteries to pulsed and constant-current loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F.; Biwer, T. L.; Christianson, C. C.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N. P.

    1983-06-01

    Improved lead acid and nickel iron batteries were developed for use in electric vehicles. The response of these batteries to given discharge conditions differs according to characteristics of each system. The discharge capacity of the lead acid system is reduced at increased discharge rates and its internal resistance is a function of both depth of discharge (DOD) and discharge rate. Open circuit stand times at DOD levels 50% reduce the internal resistance of the lead acid system and provide a corresponding increase in its availability capacity. The discharge capacity and internal resistance of the nickel/iron system are virtually independent of both discharge rate and open circuit stand times during discharge. With pulsed current loads, the available energy and power output of both battery systems are always less than those obtained with equivalent constant current loads due to increased internal power losses. The nickel-iron system exhibits an internal inductance that is significantly greater than that for the lead acid system thereby causing potentially damaging voltage transients. The test procedures and system employed, test data, and methods for predicting battery response are described.

  12. A lead-film electrode on an aluminium substrate to serve as a lead-acid battery plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolshina, L. A.; Kudyakov, V. Ya; Zyryanov, V. G.

    Compact lead layers have been deposited on the surfaces of aluminium and aluminium alloys. These coatings are uniform in thickness and have high porosity. The lead-film electrode produced on aluminium plate can be used as the positive electrode in a lead-acid battery.

  13. An Exploratory Study Of Lead Recovery In Lead-Acid Battery Lifecycle In US Market: An Evidence-Based Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: This research examines lead recovery and recycling in lead-acid batteries (LAB) which account for 88% of US lead consumption. We explore strategies to maximize lead recovery and recycling in the LAB lifecycle. Currently, there is limited information on recycling ra...

  14. Elecrokinetic separation of sulphate and lead from sludge of spent lead acid battery.

    PubMed

    Maruthamuthu, S; Dhanibabu, T; Veluchamy, A; Palanichamy, S; Subramanian, P; Palaniswamy, N

    2011-10-15

    A novel electrokinetic (EK) technique is applied to separate lead and sulphate from the sludge of used/spent lead acid battery. XRD reveals that the sludge is a mixture of (PbO)(4) [Pb(SO(4))], Pb(2)O(3), PbSO(4), Pb(S(2)O(3)) and Pb(2)(SO(4)) which upon DC voltage application in a EK cell employing either titanium electrodes or titanium substrate insoluble anode as electrodes caused migration of sulphates and lead ions respectively into anode and cathode compartments, and accumulation of insoluble lead oxides at the central compartment. The insoluble lead oxides accumulated at the central compartment in the ratio 1:3, respectively for the high oxygen over-voltage Ti-anode (Ti-EK cell) and low oxygen over-voltage TSIA-anode (TSIA-EK cell) shows the superiority of Ti anode over TSIA anode. Also thermal investigation reveals Pb deposited at Ti-cathode is superior to that from TSIA cathode. This process does not release air/soil pollutants which are usually associated with high temperature pyrotechnic process.

  15. Evolution of internal resistance during formation of flooded lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Chris; Deveau, Justin; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-09-01

    This study employs experimental techniques to measure the changing internal resistance of flooded, flat-plate lead-acid batteries during container formation, revealing a novel indicator of formation completeness. In order to measure internal resistance during formation, d.c. current pulses are superimposed over the constant formation current at set intervals, while change in voltage is measured. The resulting "pulsed" internal resistance is divided into ohmic and interfacial components by measuring the ohmic resistance with short d.c. pulses as well as with a.c. injection. Various constant-current container formations are carried out using different current levels, plate thicknesses, and pulsing techniques, yielding an array of resistance trends which are explained using Butler-Volmer kinetic theory. Ohmic and interfacial resistance trends are shown both theoretically and experimentally to eventually decay to a predictable steady-state value as the formation proceeds, suggesting that this internal resistance method can be used to detect the completion of the formation. The same principles are shown to apply to recharge cycles as well, but with potentially limited practical implications in comparison to formation.

  16. Polydivinylferrocene surface modified electrode for measuring state-of-charge of lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Todd; Singh, Pritam; Baker, Murray V.; Issa, Touma B.

    This paper outlines an investigation of the electrochemical behaviour of polymeric divinylferrocene (PDVF) produced by direct polymerisation of divinylferrocene (DVF) monomer on a glassy carbon substrate. The findings indicate that PDVF undergoes reversible reduction/oxidation in neutral and acidic aqueous media containing perchlorate (ClO 4 -) and sulfhate (SO 4 2-). The anodic peak potential of the PDVF shifts linearly to less positive potentials as the sulfuric acid (H 2SO 4) concentration is increased from 1 to 5 M. The polymer film strongly adheres to the glassy carbon surface and is electrochemically stable when subjected to repeated voltammetric cycling in the potential range of -0.2 to +0.8 V vs. Ag|AgCl. The potential of the partially oxidized film of PVDF on a glassy carbon substrate against a Ag|AgCl/KCl reference electrode in sulfuric acid solution is stable, reproducible and varies linearly with the acid concentration in the range of 1-5 M. This observation may be suitable for potentiometrically measuring the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries.

  17. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.J.; Hsu, P.C.; Wu, M.S.; Ho, P.Y.

    2010-05-15

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m{sup 2}. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). (author)

  18. Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries.

    PubMed

    Ho, S F; Sam, C T; Embi, G B

    1998-09-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with

  19. Health hazards of China's lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Huang, Lei; Cherry, Christopher R

    2013-08-03

    Despite China's leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children's blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China's lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world's leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries.This review assesses the role of China's rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure.This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China's growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health impacts of the lead-acid

  20. Health hazards of China's lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Huang, Lei; Cherry, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Despite China's leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children's blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China's lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world's leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries.This review assesses the role of China's rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure.This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China's growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health impacts of the lead-acid

  1. Electrodeposited lead-foam grids on copper-foam substrates as positive current collectors for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Keju; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Huihui; Dai, Zhendong

    2014-02-01

    Contemporary lead-acid batteries have a high internal resistance and a limited utilization of their positive active materials (PAM). In order to alleviate these problems, lead (alloy) foam-based positive electrodes for lead-acid batteries are prepared by electrodepositing lead on a copper-foam substrate. Using scanning electron microscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, finite element analysis, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, the effect of the lead foam collectors on the electrochemical performance of the positive electrodes is characterized. The thickness of the lead coating has a strong effect on the corrosion-stability of the copper-foam substrate. In addition, the charge/discharge performance of the batteries is greatly improved by the lead-foam collectors. At the 20-2 h discharge rates, the utilization efficiency of the PAM of 40-PPI lead-foam battery is improved by 19-36% from the cast-grid battery. Combined with the finite element analysis, it appears that the 3D connected network structure of the positive lead foam electrode can reduce the surface current density, the polarization resistance, and the ohmic resistance of the battery because of its larger contact area with the active material. As a result, the lead foam battery has a higher utilization efficiency of the PAM.

  2. Lead-acid battery with improved cycle life and increased efficiency for lead leveling application and electric road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsel, A.; Schulz, J.; Guetlich, K. F.

    1983-11-01

    Lifetime and efficiency of lead acid batteries are discussed. A gas lift pump was used to prevent acid stratification and to reduce the charging factor (down to 1.03 to 1.05). A re-expansion method was applied and an expander depot and a compound separation were built in. Cycle life is increased from 700 cycles to 1690 cycles. Efficiency is increased by energy and time saving due to the reduced charging factor and by the use of a recombination stopper and a charge indicator with remote control. It is suggested that the lead acid system is still one of the best possibilities for electric road vehicle applications.

  3. The hydrogen economy: a threat or an opportunity for lead-acid batteries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.; Dell, R. M.

    There is mounting concern over the sustainability of global energy supplies. Among the key drivers are: (i) global warming, ocean surface acidification and air pollution, which imply the need to control and reduce anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially emissions from transportation and thermal power stations; (ii) the diminishing reserves of oil and natural gas; (iii) the need for energy security adapted to each country, such as decreasing the dependence on fossil fuel imports (in particular, the vulnerability to volatile oil prices) from regions where there is political or economic instability; (iv) the expected growth in world population with the ever-increasing aspiration for an improved standard-of-living for all, especially in developing and poor nations. Hydrogen is being promoted world-wide as a total panacea for energy problems. As a versatile carrier for storing and transporting energy from any one of a myriad of sources to an electricity generator, it is argued that hydrogen will eventually replace, or at least greatly reduce, the reliance on fossil fuels. Not unexpectedly, the building of a 'hydrogen economy' presents great scientific and technological challenges in production, delivery, storage, conversion, and end-use. In addition, there are many policy, regulatory, economic, financial, investment, environmental and safety questions to be addressed. Notwithstanding these obstacles, it is indeed plausible that hydrogen will become increasingly deployed and will compete with traditional systems of energy storage and supply. Moreover, the case for hydrogen will be greatly strengthened if fuel cells, which are the key enabling technology, become more reliable, more durable, and less expensive. This paper examines the prospects for hydrogen as a universal energy-provider and considers the impact that its introduction might have on the present deployment of lead-acid batteries in mobile, stationary and road transportation applications.

  4. Semen quality and fertility of men employed in a South African lead acid battery plant.

    PubMed

    Robins, T G; Bornman, M S; Ehrlich, R I; Cantrell, A C; Pienaar, E; Vallabh, J; Miller, S

    1997-10-01

    Previous studies of the associations of measures of occupational lead exposure with measures of semen quality and infertility among male workers have produced conflicting results. The current study was undertaken to examine these associations among a population of workers with a broad range of measures of current and historical lead exposure. Ninety-seven lead-exposed workers from a South African lead acid battery facility provided semen samples that were analyzed for sperm density, sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and presence of antisperm antibodies. Questionnaire data were collected for reported histories of sub- or infertility. Current blood leads ranged from 28 to 93 micrograms/dl. Semen lead ranged from 1 to 87 micrograms/dl. Reasonably consistent and significant associations were found between an increased percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology and higher measures of current blood lead, cumulative blood lead, and duration of exposure. An increased percent of immotile sperm was associated only with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) among the lead exposure measures. There were no associations of sperm density or sperm count with any of the lead exposure measures. A weak association of increased percent of sperm with antisperm antibodies with increased semen lead was present. There were no consistent associations of measures of lead exposure with measures of fertility or procreativity. This study, while supporting the association of lead exposure with increased risk of abnormal sperm morphology seen in some previous studies, does not lend support to previously reported associations of sperm density or count or infertility with measures of lead exposure. However, the relatively high range of current blood leads, high prevalence of abnormalities in semen quality, and the lack of a control population, suggest that these negative findings should be interpreted with caution.

  5. A study of lead-acid battery efficiency near top-of-charge and the impact on PV system design

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.W.; Corey, G.P.

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge of the charge efficiency of lead-acid batteries near top-of-charge is important to the design of small photovoltaic systems. In order to know how much energy is required from the photovoltaic array in order to accomplish the task of meeting load, including periodic full battery charge, a detailed knowledge of the battery charging efficiency as a function of state of charge is required, particularly in the high state-of-charge regime, as photovoltaic systems are typically designed to operate in the upper 20 to 30% of battery state-of-charge. This paper presents the results of a process for determining battery charging efficiency near top-of-charge and discusses the impact of these findings on the design of small PV systems.

  6. Modified titanium foil's surface by high temperature carbon sintering method as the substrate for bipolar lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Zhu, Junsheng

    2014-12-01

    Titanium foil can be a type of ideal material as the substrate for bipolar lead-acid battery. However, it can't be directly used because it can be oxidized in the high voltage and strong oxidizing conditions. In this paper, we coat the titanium suboxide on the titanium foil surface by means of the high temperature carbon sintering method for the improvement of corrosion resistance of titanium metal and use it as the substrate to bipolar lead-acid battery to study its effect on the battery performances. Modified titanium foils are characterized by SEM, XRD, corrosion resistance test and electronic conductivity test. The electrochemical properties of the bipolar lead-acid battery are investigated by constant current charge/discharge method. The results demonstrate that the titanium foil carbon-sintered at 800 °C for 2 h has the most excellent chemical stability and electronic conductivity. Initial specific capacities of positive active material of bipolar lead-acid battery with modified titanium as the substrate at 0.25C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C discharge rate are 99.29 mAh g-1, 88.93 mAh g-1, 77.54 mAh g-1, and 65.41 mAh g-1. After 50 cycles, the specific capacity of positive active material at 0.5C is 81.36 mAh g-1 and after 100 cycles, the specific capacity at 1C is 61.92 mAh g-1.

  7. Lead acid battery performance and cycle life increased through addition of discrete carbon nanotubes to both electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugumaran, Nanjan; Everill, Paul; Swogger, Steven W.; Dubey, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary applications are changing the failure mechanisms of lead acid batteries. Sulfation at the negative electrode, acid stratification, and dendrite formation now precede positive electrode failures such as grid corrosion and active material shedding. To attenuate these failures, carbon has been explored as a negative electrode additive to increase charge acceptance, eliminate sulfation, and extend cycle life. Frequently, however, carbon incorporation decreases paste density and hinders manufacturability. Discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT), also known as Molecular Rebar®, are lead acid battery additives which can be stably incorporated into either electrode to increase charge acceptance and cycle life with no change to paste density and without impeding the manufacturing process. Here, full-scale automotive batteries containing dCNT in the negative electrode or both negative and positive electrodes are compared to control batteries. dCNT batteries show little change to Reserve Capacity, improved Cold Cranking, increased charge acceptance, and enhanced overall system efficiency. Life cycle tests show >60% increases when dCNT are incorporated into the negative electrode (HRPSoC/SBA) and up to 500% when incorporated into both electrodes (SBA), with water loss per cycle reduced >20%. Failure modes of cycled batteries are discussed and a hypothesis of dCNT action is introduced: the dCNT/Had Overcharge Reaction Mechanism.

  8. Development of an electrode for lead-acid batteries possessing a high electrochemical utilization factor and invariable cycling characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolshina, L. A.; Kudyakov, V. Ya.; Zyryanov, V. G.

    Investigations have been carried out on the deposition of compact lead layers on the surfaces of various metallic substrates. It is shown that the lead coatings so obtained are non-uniform in thickness and feature high porosities. The lead-film electrode thus produced on the surface of a fine copper grid can be used as a positive electrode in the lead-acid battery.

  9. Influence of the active mass particle suspension in electrolyte upon corrosion of negative electrode of a lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenev, Yu.; Shtompel, G.; Ostapenko, E.; Leonov, V.

    2014-07-01

    The influence of the suspension of positive active mass particles in the electrolyte on the performance of the negative electrode in a lead-acid battery is studied. A significant increase in the rate of corrosion of the lead electrode is shown when slime particles get in contact with its surface, which may result in the rise of macro-defects on the lugs of the negative electrodes.

  10. Screening and assessment of solidification/stabilization amendments suitable for soils of lead-acid battery contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Guo, Guanlin; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Rhee, Jae Seong; Wang, Sen; Li, Fasheng

    2015-05-15

    Lead exposure via ingestion of soil and dust generally occurs at lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling sites. Screening solidification/stabilization (S/S) amendments suitable for lead contaminated soil in an abandoned lead-acid battery factory site was conducted based on its chemical forms and environmental risks. Twelve amendments were used to immobilize the Pb in soil and assess the solidification/stabilization efficiency by toxicity leaching tests. The results indicated that three amendments, KH₂PO₄ (KP), KH₂PO₄:oyster shell power=1:1 (by mass ratio; SPP), and KH₂PO₄:sintered magnesia=1:1 (by mass ratio; KPM) had higher remediation efficiencies that led to a 92% reduction in leachable Pb with the addition of 5% amendments, while the acid soluble fraction of Pb (AS-Pb) decreased by 41-46% and the residual fraction (RS-Pb) increased by 16-25%. The S/S costs of the three selected amendments KP, SPP, and KPM could be controlled to $22.3 per ton of soil when the Pb concentration in soil ranged from 2000 to 3000 mg/kg. The results of this study demonstrated that KP, SPP, and KPM can effectively decrease bioavailability of Pb. These findings could provide basis for decision-making of S/S remediation of lead-acid battery contaminated sites.

  11. Screening and assessment of solidification/stabilization amendments suitable for soils of lead-acid battery contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Guo, Guanlin; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Rhee, Jae Seong; Wang, Sen; Li, Fasheng

    2015-05-15

    Lead exposure via ingestion of soil and dust generally occurs at lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling sites. Screening solidification/stabilization (S/S) amendments suitable for lead contaminated soil in an abandoned lead-acid battery factory site was conducted based on its chemical forms and environmental risks. Twelve amendments were used to immobilize the Pb in soil and assess the solidification/stabilization efficiency by toxicity leaching tests. The results indicated that three amendments, KH₂PO₄ (KP), KH₂PO₄:oyster shell power=1:1 (by mass ratio; SPP), and KH₂PO₄:sintered magnesia=1:1 (by mass ratio; KPM) had higher remediation efficiencies that led to a 92% reduction in leachable Pb with the addition of 5% amendments, while the acid soluble fraction of Pb (AS-Pb) decreased by 41-46% and the residual fraction (RS-Pb) increased by 16-25%. The S/S costs of the three selected amendments KP, SPP, and KPM could be controlled to $22.3 per ton of soil when the Pb concentration in soil ranged from 2000 to 3000 mg/kg. The results of this study demonstrated that KP, SPP, and KPM can effectively decrease bioavailability of Pb. These findings could provide basis for decision-making of S/S remediation of lead-acid battery contaminated sites. PMID:25699676

  12. SUNRAYCE 95: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1994-05-27

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  13. SUNRAYCE 1995: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  14. Procedures for safe handling of off-gases from electric vehicle lead-acid batteries during overcharge

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, S.J.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Loutfy, R.O.; Varma, R.

    1980-01-25

    The potential for generation of toxic gases from lead-acid batteries has long been recognized. Prior to the current interest in electric vehicles, there were no studies specificaly oriented to toxic gas release from traction batteries, however. As the Department of Energy Demonstration Project (in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program) progresses, available data from past studies and parallel health effects programs must be digested into guidance to the drivers and maintenance personnel, tailored to their contact with electric vehicles. The basic aspects of lead-acid battery operation, vehicle use, and health effects of stibine and arsine to provide electric vehicle users with the information behind the judgment that vehicle operation and testing may proceed are presented. Specifically, it is concluded that stibine generation or arsine generation at rapid enough rates to induce acute toxic response is not at all likely. Procedures to guard against low-level exposure until more definitive data on ambient concentrations of the gases are collected are presented for both charging the batteries and driving the vehicles. A research plan to collect additional quantitative data from electric traction batteries is presented.

  15. Nonlinear phenomenon in monocrystalline silicon based PV module for low power system: Lead acid battery for low energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amrani, A.; El Amraoui, M.; El Abbassi, A.; Messaoudi, C.

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, we report the indoor photo-electrical measurements of monocrystalline silicon based photovoltaic (PV) module associated with 4 Ah lead acid battery as a storage unit for low power PV system applications. Concerning the PV module, our measurements show, at low illumination regime, that the short circuit current ISC increases linearly with the illumination power levels. Moreover, for high illumination levels, the mechanism of bimolecular recombination and space charge limitation may be intensified and hence the short current of the PV module ISCMod depends sublinearly on the incident optical power; the behavior is nonlinear. For the open circuit voltage of the PV module VOCMod measurements, a linear variation of the VOCMod versus the short circuit current in semi-logarithmic scale has been noticed. The diode ideality factor n and diode saturation current Is have been investigated; the values of n and Is are approximately of 1.3 and 10-9 A, respectively. In addition, we have shown, for different discharging-charging currents rates (i.e. 0.35 A, 0.2 A and 0.04 A), that the battery voltage decreases with discharging time as well as discharging battery capacity, and on the other hand it increases with the charging time and will rise up until it maximized value. The initial result shows the possibility to use such lead acid battery for low power PV system, which is generally designed for the motorcycle battery.

  16. Studies on electrolyte formulations to improve life of lead acid batteries working under partial state of charge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, J. C.; Soria, M. L.; González, M.; García-Quismondo, E.; Muñoz, A.; Trinidad, F.

    For decades, valve regulated lead acid batteries with gel electrolyte have proved their excellent performance in deep cycling applications. However, their higher cost, when compared with flooded batteries, has limited their use in cost sensitive applications, such as automotive or PV installations. The use of flooded batteries in deep or partial state of charge working conditions leads to limited life due to premature capacity loss provoked by electrolyte stratification. Different electrolyte formulations have been tested, in order to achieve the best compromise between cost and life performance. Work carried out included electrochemical studies in order to determine the electrolyte stability and diffusional properties, and kinetic studies to check the processability of the electrolyte formulation. Finally, several 12 V batteries have been assembled and tested according to different ageing profiles.

  17. Simulation of the current distribution in lead-acid batteries to investigate the dynamic charge acceptance in flooded SLI batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, Julia; Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Karden, Eckhard

    Measurements show that the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) of flooded SLI lead-acid batteries during micro-cycling in conventional and micro-hybrid vehicles is strongly dependent on the short-term history, such as previous charge or discharge, current rate, lowest state of charge in the last 24 h and more. Factors of 10 have been reported. Inhomogeneous current distribution, especially as a result of acid stratification, has been suggested to explain the DCA variability. This hypothesis was investigated by simulation of a two-dimensional macrohomogeneous model. It provides a spatial resolution of three elements in horizontal direction in each electrode and three elements in vertical direction. For an existing set of parameters, different current profiles were analyzed with regard to the current distribution during charging and discharging. In these simulations, a strong impact of the short-term history on current, charge and acid density distribution was found as well as a strong influence of micro-cycles on both charge distribution and acid stratification.

  18. A novel magnetic field probing technique for determining state of health of sealed lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Neeta; Singh, Pritpal; Vassiliou, John K.

    2012-11-01

    State of Health (SOH) is a critical index for a Sealed Lead-Acid (SLA) battery diagnostic which provides the information about battery replacement and aging effects. SOH is a complex function of chemical parameters of a battery such as stratification in electrolyte, electrode structure (sulfation and hard sulfation) in addition to electrical parameters of a battery. This paper describes a method of online determination of stratification, electrode structure, electrode polarization and current profile within the battery under the influence of a magnetic field. An AC magnetic field is used as a noninvasive tool during battery cycles. An induced emf in a secondary coil (SCV) is used as a measure of change in the magnetic field. The H+ proton density varies with change in sulfuric acid (electrolyte) concentration during battery cycles. The magnetic flux lines are affected by the density of H+ protons whose magnetic dipole moments try to align along the magnetic flux lines. The stratification is seen by a 12% decrease in magnetic flux linking from the top to the bottom of the electrolyte in a battery. Additional experimental results demonstrate the variation in magnetic flux linking which correlates with current profile across the electrode and electrode structure.

  19. Development of maintenance-free dry calcium (MFDC) lead-acid battery for automotive use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Tsunenori; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    A maintenance-free, dry calcium (MFDC) developed by the Panasonic Battery (Thailand) Co. Ltd. The battery is designed for automotive applications and is ready for use upon injection of the electrolyte. The MFDC battery employs grids made from a lead-calcium-based alloy. This feature suppresses undesirable loss of electrolyte and enables good recovery of capacity after a long time of storage or a long cycle-life. Moreover, the batteries is a dry-charged type and requires only a low frequency of recharging due to its suppressed self-discharge during storage. Transportation costs are reduced as the battery contains only a small amount of electrolyte during storage.

  20. Maintenance-free lead acid battery for inertial navigation systems aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William R.; Vutetakis, David G.

    1995-05-01

    Historically, Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS) Batteries have utilized vented nickel-cadmium batteries for emergency DC power. The United States Navy and Air Force developed separate systems during their respective INS developments. The Navy contracted with Litton Industries to produce the LTN-72 and Air Force contracted with Delco to produce the Carousel IV INS for the large cargo and specialty aircraft applications. Over the years, a total of eight different battery national stock numbers (NSNs) have entered the stock system along with 75 battery spare part NSNs. The Standard Hardware Acquisition and Reliability Program is working with the Aircraft Battery Group at Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division, Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 536), Wright Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, and Concorde Battery Corporation to produce a standard INS battery. This paper discusses the approach taken to determine whether the battery should be replaced and to select the replacement chemistry. The paper also discusses the battery requirements, aircraft that the battery is compatible with, and status of Navy flight evaluation. Projected savings in avoided maintenance in Navy and Air Force INS Systems is projected to be $14.7 million per year with a manpower reduction of 153 maintenance personnel. The new INS battery is compatible with commercially sold INS systems which represents 66 percent of the systems sold.

  1. Performance characteristics of an electric vehicle lead-acid battery pack at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, P.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge testing data electric car battery pack over initial electrolyte temperature variations between 27 and 55 C are presented. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions and then compared to detailed electric vehicle simulation models. Battery discharge capacity increased with temperature for constant current discharges, and battery energy capacity increased with temperature for constant power discharges. Dynamometer tests of the electric test vehicle showed an increase in range of 25% for the higher electrolyte temperature.

  2. Performance characteristics of an electric vehicle lead-acid battery pack at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, P.

    1982-04-01

    Discharge testing data electric car battery pack over initial electrolyte temperature variations between 27 and 55 C are presented. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions and then compared to detailed electric vehicle simulation models. Battery discharge capacity increased with temperature for constant current discharges, and battery energy capacity increased with temperature for constant power discharges. Dynamometer tests of the electric test vehicle showed an increase in range of 25% for the higher electrolyte temperature.

  3. Gaston Planté and his invention of the lead-acid battery-The genesis of the first practical rechargeable battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzweil, P.

    In 1860, the Frenchman Gaston Planté (1834-1889) invented the first practical version of a rechargeable battery based on lead-acid chemistry-the most successful secondary battery of all ages. This article outlines Planté's fundamental concepts that were decisive for later development of practical lead-acid batteries. The 'pile secondaire' was indeed ahead its time in that an appropriate appliance for charging the accumulator was not available. The industrial success came after the invention of the Gramme machine. In 1879, Planté obtained acceptance for his work by publishing a book entitled Recherches sur l' Electricité. He never protected his inventions by patents, and spent much of his fortune on assisting impoverished scientists.

  4. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  5. Effects of rest time on discharge response and equivalent circuit model for a lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, Lalitha; Hu, Tingshu

    2015-05-01

    This work carries out a detailed investigation on the effects of rest time on the discharge response and the parameters of the Thevenin's equivalent circuit model for a lead acid battery. Traditional methods for battery modeling require a long rest time before a discharging test so that a steady state is reached for the open circuit voltage. In a recent work, we developed an algebraic method for parameter identification of circuit models for batteries by applying discharging tests after variable and possibly very short rest time. This new method opens a door to the understanding of the effects of rest time on battery behavior, which may be used for better simulation, analysis and design of battery powered systems for improved battery efficiency and state of health. As we used the new method to extract circuit parameters after different rest times, we observed some unexpected results on the relationship between the rest time and circuit parameters. The initial voltages on the capacitors can be negative and becomes more negative as the rest time is increased. We also observed that the time constants increase with rest time. Relationships between rest time and other parameters are also reported in this paper.

  6. Modeling of the cranking and charging processes of conventional valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries in micro-hybrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Jun; Lee, Anson; Pyko, Jan

    2014-10-01

    The cranking and charging processes of a VRLA battery during stop-start cycling in micro-hybrid applications were simulated by one dimensional mathematical modeling, to study the formation and distribution of lead sulfate across the cell and analyze the resulting effect on battery aging. The battery focused on in this study represents a conventional VRLA battery without any carbon additives in the electrodes or carbon-based electrodes. The modeling results were validated against experimental data and used to analyze the "sulfation" of negative electrodes - the common failure mode of lead acid batteries under high-rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling. The analyses were based on two aging mechanisms proposed in previous studies and the predictions showed consistency with the previous teardown observations that the sulfate formed at the negative interface is more difficult to be converted back than anywhere else in the electrodes. The impact of cranking pulses during stop-start cycling on current density and the corresponding sulfate layer production was estimated. The effects of some critical design parameters on sulfate formation, distribution and aging over cycling were investigated, which provided guidelines for developing models and designing of VRLA batteries in micro-hybrid applications.

  7. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  8. Study on titanium foil coated with partial reduction titanium dioxide as bipolar lead-acid battery's substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Tang, Shenzhi; Zhu, Junsheng; Guo, Chenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Pure titanium foil cannot be directly as the substrate for the bipolar lead-acid battery due to its surface oxidized into titanium dioxide in the cell cycle. The poor electronic conductivity of titanium dioxide will increase substrate's ohmic resistance and can affect the cell's electrochemical performances. In this paper, titanium foil's surface is coated with a lay of partial reduction titanium dioxide (TiO2-x) which has excellent chemical stability and high electronic conductivity by means of sol-gel method. Through XRD, SEM and four-probe test, it shows that the modified titanium's surface has the most superior crystal structure and morphology and the highest electronic conductivity in the sintering temperature of 800 °C. We subsequently assemble bipolar lead-acid batteries with Ti coated by TiO2-x as the substrate material. The batteries are discovered that when charged and discharged in 3.5 V-4.84 V at 0.5C the voltage between the charge and discharge voltage platform is 0.3 V, and the initial discharge specific capacity can reach 80 mAh g-1. When the current rate is up to 1C and 2C, the initial discharge specific capacity is 70 mAh g-1and 60 mAh g-1. After 100 cycles, the initial specific capacity only decreases 12.5%.

  9. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  10. The lead-acid battery industry in China: outlook for production and recycling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xi; Wu, Yufeng; Gong, Yu; Zuo, Tieyong

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, more than four million (metric) tons (MT) of refined lead went into batteries in China, and 1.5 MT of scrap lead recycled from these batteries was reused in other secondary materials. The use of start-light-ignition (SLI), traction and energy storage batteries has spread in China in recent decades, with their proportions being 25.6%, 47.2% and 27.2%, respectively, in 2012. The total production of these batteries increased from 296,000 kVAh in 2001 to 205.23 MkVAh in 2013, with manufacturing located mainly in the middle and eastern provinces of the country. In this paper, we find that the market share of SLI batteries will decrease slightly, the share of traction batteries will continuously increase with the emergence of clean energy vehicles, and that of energy storage batteries will increase with the development of the wind energy and photovoltaic industries. Accounting for lead consumption in the main application industries, and the total social possession, it is calculated that used lead batteries could generate 2.4 MT of scrap lead in 2014, which is much higher than the 1.5 MT that was recycled in 2013. Thus, the current recycling rate is too low. It is suggested that while building large-scale recycling plants, small-scale plants should be banned or merged. PMID:26341636

  11. The lead-acid battery industry in China: outlook for production and recycling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xi; Wu, Yufeng; Gong, Yu; Zuo, Tieyong

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, more than four million (metric) tons (MT) of refined lead went into batteries in China, and 1.5 MT of scrap lead recycled from these batteries was reused in other secondary materials. The use of start-light-ignition (SLI), traction and energy storage batteries has spread in China in recent decades, with their proportions being 25.6%, 47.2% and 27.2%, respectively, in 2012. The total production of these batteries increased from 296,000 kVAh in 2001 to 205.23 MkVAh in 2013, with manufacturing located mainly in the middle and eastern provinces of the country. In this paper, we find that the market share of SLI batteries will decrease slightly, the share of traction batteries will continuously increase with the emergence of clean energy vehicles, and that of energy storage batteries will increase with the development of the wind energy and photovoltaic industries. Accounting for lead consumption in the main application industries, and the total social possession, it is calculated that used lead batteries could generate 2.4 MT of scrap lead in 2014, which is much higher than the 1.5 MT that was recycled in 2013. Thus, the current recycling rate is too low. It is suggested that while building large-scale recycling plants, small-scale plants should be banned or merged.

  12. Basics and advances in battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.P.; Bolin, W.D.

    1995-03-01

    One of the most common components in both the utility and industrial/commercial power system is the station battery. In many cases, the original design is marginal or inadequate; the maintenance and testing is practically nonexistent; but the system is called upon during emergency conditions and is expected to perform flawlessly. This paper will begin with the basic battery theory starting with the electrochemical cell. A working knowledge of the battery cell is important to understand typical problems such as hydrogen production, sulfating, and battery charging. The paper will then lead into a discussion of some of the common batteries and battery chargers. While this paper will concentrate primarily on the lead acid type of battery, the theory can be utilized on other types such as the Nickel-Cadmium. A reference will be made to industry standards and codes which are used for the design, installation, and maintenance of battery systems. Along with these standards will be a discussion of the design considerations, maintenance and testing, and, finally, some advanced battery system topics such as individual battery cell voltage equalizers and battery pulsing units. The goal of this paper is to provide the reader with a basic working understanding of a battery system. Only with that knowledge can a person be expected to design and/or properly maintain a battery system which may be called upon during an emergency to minimize the effects of a normal power outage, to minimize personnel hazards and to reduce property damage.

  13. The Use of Pristine and Intercalated Graphite Fiber Composites as Buss Bars in Lead-Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opaluch, Amanda M.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted as a part of the Firefly Energy Space Act Agreement project to investigate the possible use of composite materials in lead acid batteries. Specifically, it examined the use of intercalated graphite composites as buss bars. Currently, buss bars of these batteries are made of lead, a material that is problematic for several reasons. Over time, the lead is subject to both corrosion at the positive plate and sulfation at the negative plate, resulting in decreased battery life. In addition, the weight and size of the lead buss bars make for a heavy and cumbersome battery that is undesirable. Functionality and practicality of lead buss bars is adequate at best; consequently, investigation of more efficient composite materials would be advantageous. Practically speaking, graphite composites have a low density that is nearly one fourth that of its lead counterpart. A battery made of less dense materials would be more attractive to the consumer and the producer because it would be light and convenient. More importantly, low weight would be especially beneficial because it would result in greater overall power density of the battery. In addition to power density, use of graphite composite materials can also increase the life of the battery. From a functional standpoint, corrosion and sulfation at the positive and negative plates are major obstacles when considering how to extend battery life. Neither of these reactions are a factor when graphite composites replace lead parts because graphite is chemically non-reactive with the electrolyte within the battery. Without the problem of corrosion or sulfation, battery life expectancy can be almost doubled. The replacement of lead battery parts with composite materials is also more environmentally favorable because of easy disposal of organic materials. For this study, both pristine and bromine intercalated single-ply graphite fiber composites were created. The composites were fabricated in such a way as to

  14. Performance characteristics of an electric-vehicle lead-acid battery pack at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.

    1982-04-01

    Data are presented for discharge testing of an 18-Exide IV electric car battery pack over initial electrolyte temperature variations between 27 and 55/sup 0/C. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions and then compared to detailed electric vehicle simulation models. Results showed that battery discharge capacity increased with temperature for constant current discharges, and that battery energy capacity increased with temperature for constant power discharges. Dynamometer test of the GE Electric Test Vehicle showed an increase in range of 25% for the highest electrolyte temperature.

  15. Stannous sulfate as an electrolyte additive for lead acid battery made from a novel ultrafine leady oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Yuan, Xiqing; Li, Lei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Yucheng; Sun, Xiaojuan; Liang, Sha; Hu, Jingping; Kumar, R. Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2015-07-01

    The effects of SnSO4 as an electrolyte additive on the microstructure of positive plate and electrochemical performance of lead acid battery made from a novel leady oxide are investigated. The novel leady oxide is synthesized through leaching of spent lead paste in citric acid solution. The novel leady oxides are used to prepare working electrode (WE) subjected to electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. Moreover, the novel leady oxides are used as active materials of positive plate assembled as a testing battery of 1.85 A h capacity. In CV tests, SEM/EDX results show that the major crystalline phase of the paste in WE after CV cycles is PbSO4. The larger column-shaped PbSO4 crystals easily generate in the paste of WE without an electrolyte additive of SnSO4. However, PbSO4 crystals significantly become smaller with the addition of SnSO4 in the electrolyte. In batteries testing, SEM results show that an electrolyte additive of SnSO4 could effectively decrease PbO2 particle size in the positive active materials of the teardown battery at the end of charging procedure. It is indicated that an electrolyte additive of SnSO4 could have a positive influence on restraining larger particles of irreversible sulfation in charge/discharge cycles of battery testing.

  16. Investigation of lead dendrite growth in the formation of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for electric bicycle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yanzhen; Hu, Jingcheng; Ye, Wenmei; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhou, Gang; Guo, Yonglang

    2015-07-01

    The battery temperature, H2SO4 distribution, Pb2+ ion concentration and composition of the plates during the plate soaking of the 12 V 12 Ah valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery are studied. A simulated cell composed by two pure Pb plates and the absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator is used to investigate the growth of the lead dendrite in the separator, which is verified by analyzing the faulty batteries after the formation and the failure batteries after the usage. It is found that the H2SO4 is exhausted very quickly after filling and the separator near the plates can become neutral during soaking. Low acidity, high temperature and small PbSO4 particle size will increase the Pb2+ ion concentration. Higher Pb2+ ion concentration makes more PbSO4 tend to deposit on the coarse glass fibers, develop along them and even enwrap the entire fiber. And the fine PbSO4 crystals are continually transformed into large PbSO4 crystals via dissolution-deposition. In the subsequent charge, these PbSO4 crystals will be reduced to the club-shaped lead dendrites and may lead to short circuit of the battery.

  17. Testing and evaluation of an industrial lead-acid battery for utility load-leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.; Corp, D.; Folke, E.; Tillery, G.; Loutfy, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Constant-power/constant-voltage charging, as well as constant-current/constant-voltage charging, was investigated. Electrolyte stratification observed in the battery during cycling indicates discharge of the battery from the top down. Uneven concentration of acid during charge may be avoided by mixing. This study shows that a minimization in cycle time can be achieved by proper choice of charge/discharge parameters.

  18. Program to analyze the failure mode of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerbrod, David

    1986-03-01

    The electrical characteristics of large lead-acid cells from nuclear power plants were studied. The overall goal was to develop non-destructive tests to predict cell failure using this easily obtained information. Cell capacitance, internal resistance, reaction resistance for hydrogen evolution and cell capacity were measured on a lead-calcium cell in good condition. A high float voltage and low internal resistance were found to correlate with good cell capacity in cells selected from a set of six lead-antimony cells in poor conditions.

  19. Electrochemical and Mechanical Behavior of Lead-Silver and Lead-Bismuth Casting Alloys for Lead-Acid Battery Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osório, Wislei R.; Peixoto, Leandro C.; Garcia, Amauri

    2015-09-01

    The present study focuses on the interrelation of microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance of Pb-Ag and Pb-Bi casting alloys, which can be used in the manufacture of lead-acid battery components, as potential alternatives to alloys currently used. A water-cooled solidification system is used, in which vertical upward directional solidification is promoted permitting a wide range of microstructures to be investigated. Correlations between microstructural arrays, tensile strengths, and corrosion resistances of Pb-1 wt pct Ag, Pb-2.5 wt pct Ag, Pb-1 wt pct Bi, and Pb-2.5 wt pct Bi alloys are envisaged. It is shown that a compromise between corrosion resistance (represented by the corrosion current density) and mechanical properties (represented by the ultimate tensile strength) can be obtained. Comparisons between specific strengths and mechanical/corrosion ratios are also made. It is also shown that, for microstructures solidified under cooling rates higher than 10 K/s, the Pb-Ag alloys exhibit higher specific strength and mechanical/corrosion ratio. In contrast, for casting processes in which the cooling rates are lower than 5 K/s, the dilute Pb-Bi alloy ( i.e., 1 wt pct Bi) is shown to have more appropriate requirements for lead-acid battery components. Comparisons between specific strengths, mechanical/corrosion ratio, and relative weight and cost with Pb-Sn and Pb-Sb alloys are also made.

  20. Distribution and integrated assessment of lead in an abandoned lead-acid battery site in Southwest China before redevelopment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-06-01

    Lead-acid battery sites have contributed enormous amounts of lead to the environment, significantly affecting its global biogeochemical cycle and leaving the potential risks to human health. An abandoned lead-acid battery site prepared for redevelopment was selected in order to study the distribution of lead in soils, plants, rhizosphere soils and soil solutions. In total, 197 samples from 77 boreholes were collected and analyzed. Single extractions by acetic acid (HOAc) were conducted to assess the bioavailability and speciation of lead in soils for comparison with the parts of the plants that are aboveground. Health risks for future residential development were evaluated by the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model. The results indicated that lead concentrations in 83% of the soil samples exceeded the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (350 mg/kg for Pb) and mainly occurred at depths between 0 and 1.5 m while accumulating at the surface of demolished construction waste and miscellaneous fill. Lead concentrations in soil solutions and HOAc extraction leachates were linked closely to the contents of aboveground Broussonetia papyrifera and Artemisia annua, two main types of local plants that were found at the site. The probability density of lead in blood (PbB) in excess of 10 µg/dL could overtake the 99% mark in the residential scenario. The findings provided a relatively integrated method to illustrate the onsite investigations and assessment for similar sites before remediation and future development from more comprehensive aspects.

  1. Distribution and integrated assessment of lead in an abandoned lead-acid battery site in Southwest China before redevelopment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-06-01

    Lead-acid battery sites have contributed enormous amounts of lead to the environment, significantly affecting its global biogeochemical cycle and leaving the potential risks to human health. An abandoned lead-acid battery site prepared for redevelopment was selected in order to study the distribution of lead in soils, plants, rhizosphere soils and soil solutions. In total, 197 samples from 77 boreholes were collected and analyzed. Single extractions by acetic acid (HOAc) were conducted to assess the bioavailability and speciation of lead in soils for comparison with the parts of the plants that are aboveground. Health risks for future residential development were evaluated by the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model. The results indicated that lead concentrations in 83% of the soil samples exceeded the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (350 mg/kg for Pb) and mainly occurred at depths between 0 and 1.5 m while accumulating at the surface of demolished construction waste and miscellaneous fill. Lead concentrations in soil solutions and HOAc extraction leachates were linked closely to the contents of aboveground Broussonetia papyrifera and Artemisia annua, two main types of local plants that were found at the site. The probability density of lead in blood (PbB) in excess of 10 µg/dL could overtake the 99% mark in the residential scenario. The findings provided a relatively integrated method to illustrate the onsite investigations and assessment for similar sites before remediation and future development from more comprehensive aspects. PMID:26921546

  2. Use of secondary lead for new generations of lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Guibert, A.; Chaumont, B.; Albert, L.; Caillerie, J. L.; Ueberschaer, A.; Höhn, R.; Davis, W.; Weighall, M. J.

    Secondary lead will become more and more the main source of raw material for battery producers. The final objective of this study is to define maximum levels of impurities compatible with the use of secondary lead for oxide production for maintenance-free automotive batteries. Today, statistical investigations show that the quality of secondary lead can vary with the smelter, and can be adjusted in certain cases, but it is necessary to evaluate more accurately the effect of each harmful impurity (alone or in combination). Impurities affect principally the self-discharge of batteries. Addition of impurities to the electrolyte has been proved to give non-realistic values of their real influence in batteries. In order to obtain accurate results of the effect of impurities at various levels, syntheses of Barton or mill oxides containing Bi or Ag added to lead of high purity have been undertaken. It has been clearly shown that levels up to 200 ppm Bi or 40 ppm Ag can be admitted without significant differences in the performances of automotive batteries.

  3. Characterization, performance, and prediction of a lead-acid battery under simulated electric vehicle driving requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.; Bozek, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A state-of-the-art 6-V battery module in current use by the electric vehicle industry was tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center to determine its performance characteristics under the SAE J227a driving schedules B, C, and D. The primary objective of the tests was to determine the effects of periods of recuperation and long and short periods of electrical regeneration in improving the performance of the battery module and hence extendng the vehicle range. A secondary objective was to formulate a computer program that would predict the performance of this battery module for the above driving schedules. The results show excellent correlation between the laboratory tests and predicted results. The predicted performance compared with laboratory tests was within +2.4 to -3.7 percent for the D schedule, +0.5 to -7.1 percent for the C schedule, and better than -11.4 percent for the B schedule.

  4. Response of lead-acid batteries to chopper-controlled discharge. [for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of tests on an electric vehicle battery, using a simulated electric vehicle chopper-speed controller, show energy output losses up to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges at the same average current of 100 A. However, an energy output increase of 22 percent is noticed at the 200 A average level and 44 percent increase at the 300 A level using pulse discharging. Because of these complex results, electric vehicle battery/speed controller interactions must be considered in vehicle design.

  5. Response of lead-acid batteries to chopper-controlled discharge: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary results of simulated electric vehicle, chopper, speed controller discharge of a battery show energy output losses up to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges at the same average discharge current of 100 amperes. These energy losses are manifested as temperature rises during discharge, amounting to a two-fold increase for a 400-ampere pulse compared to the constant current case. Because of the potentially large energy inefficiency, the results suggest that electric vehicle battery/speed controller interaction must be carefully considered in vehicle design.

  6. Response of lead-acid batteries to chopper-controlled discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary results of simulated electric vehicle, chopper, speed controller discharge of a battery show energy output losses at up to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges at the same average discharge current of 100 A. These energy losses are manifested as temperature rises during discharge, amounting to a two-fold increase for a 400-A pulse compared to the constant current case. Because of the potentially large energy inefficiency, the results suggest that electric vehicle battery/speed controller interaction must be carefully considered in vehicle design.

  7. Role of electrical resistance of electrodes in modeling of discharging and charging of flooded lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, K. S.

    2015-03-01

    Electrical resistance of both the electrodes of a lead-acid battery increases during discharge due to formation of lead sulfate, an insulator. Work of Metzendorf [1] shows that resistance increases sharply at about 65% conversion of active materials, and battery stops discharging once this critical conversion is reached. However, these aspects are not incorporated into existing mathematical models. Present work uses the results of Metzendorf [1], and develops a model that includes the effect of variable resistance. Further, it uses a reasonable expression to account for the decrease in active area during discharge instead of the empirical equations of previous work. The model's predictions are compared with observations of Cugnet et al. [2]. The model is as successful as the non-mechanistic models existing in literature. Inclusion of variation in resistance of electrodes in the model is important if one of the electrodes is a limiting reactant. If active materials are stoichiometrically balanced, resistance of electrodes can be very large at the end of discharge but has only a minor effect on charging of batteries. The model points to the significance of electrical conductivity of electrodes in the charging of deep discharged batteries.

  8. A novel ultrafine leady oxide prepared from spent lead pastes for application as cathode of lead acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Danni; Liu, Jianwen; Wang, Qin; Yuan, Xiqing; Zhu, Xinfeng; Li, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Yuchen; Sun, Xiaojuan; Kumar, R. Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2014-07-01

    A novel ultrafine leady oxide has been prepared from a combustion-calcination process of lead citrate precursor (Pb3(C6H5O7)2·3H2O), by hydrometallurgical leaching of spent lead pastes firstly. The leady oxides are used to assemble lead acid battery which are subjected to cyclic voltammetry (CV) and battery testing. Various key properties of the new oxides, such as morphology, crystalline phases, degree of oxidation, apparent density and water and acid absorption value have been characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that leady oxides synthesized at different calcination temperatures mainly comprise β-PbO, α-PbO and Pb. Unlike traditional leady oxide, the new oxide product prepared at 375 °C has a rod-like morphology with greater porous structure, and appears smaller density, lower value of acid absorption and larger propensity for water absorption. In battery testing, the 20 h rate and 1C rate discharge time have exceeded 26 h and 40 min, respectively. Results reveal that the leady oxide prepared at 375 °C exhibits excellent electrochemical performance and initial capacity as positive active material. While leady oxide obtained at 450 °C presents a relatively improved cycle life. Further work is to optimize the battery manufacturing process for better cycle performance.

  9. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    DOEpatents

    Weintraub, Alvin; MacCormack, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  10. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

  11. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  12. The addition of red lead to flat plate and tubular valve regulated miners cap lamp lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferg, E. E.; Loyson, P.; Poorun, A.

    The study looked at the use of red lead in the manufacturing of valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) miners cap lamp (MCL) batteries that were made with either flat plate or tubular positive electrodes. A problem with using only grey oxide in the manufacture of thick flat plate or tubular electrodes is the poor conversion of the active material to the desired lead dioxide. The addition of red lead to the initial starting material improves the formation efficiency but is considerably more expensive thereby increasing the cost of manufacturing. The study showed that by carefully controlling the formation conditions in terms of the voltage and temperature of a battery, good capacity performance can be achieved for cells made with flat plate electrodes that contain up to 25% red lead. The small amount of red lead in the active cured material reduces the effect of electrode surface sulphate formation and allows the battery to achieve its rated capacity within the first few cycles. Batteries made with flat plate positive electrodes that contained more that 50% red lead showed good initial capacity but had poor structural active material bonding. The study showed that MCL batteries made with tubular positive electrodes that contained less than 75% red lead resulted in a poorly formed electrode with limited capacity utilization. Pickling and soaking times of the tubular electrodes should be kept at a minimum thereby allowing higher active material utilization during subsequent capacity cycling. The study further showed that it is beneficial to use higher formation rates in order to reduce manufacturing time and to improve the active material characteristics.

  13. The distribution of blood lead levels and job titles among lead-acid battery workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, Kun-Yu; Shin, Wen-Yi; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2002-07-01

    There were several reports about elevated blood lead levels in lead battery workers. However, their subjects came from only one or several plants. We visited all the 23 registered lead-acid battery plants in Taiwan and collected their health examination records in 1992, the blood lead analyses of which were completed in 3 medical college hospitals. In total, we have obtained 1726 records. The average blood lead concentration was 37.1 ug/dl, and 37% of blood lead levels were more than 40 ug/dl (action level). The overall participation rate for health examination among employees was 69.4%. The participation rates were different among both plant sizes and job titles. Assuming that there was no peculiar variation within the four working zones (plate manufacture jobs, assembly jobs, part-time exposure jobs, and office jobs) in each plant, and that blood lead levels of our samples were stable after deleting newly hired workers, we estimated that the blood lead distributions of 2486 employees in these plants were 63.3%, 26.4%, 9.25% and 1.05% for below 40, 40-59, 60-79, and above 80 ug/dl respectively. We conclude that such an analysis should be performed each year to monitor the effectiveness of occupational hygiene in workplace of lead battery plants.

  14. Extreme low-maintenance, lead/acid battery for photovoltaic power-supply systems in remote, tropical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirodker, R. P.

    Thousands of villages in India are still without supplies of mains electricity. Their remote locations make grid connection almost impossible, mainly because of the high costs of transmission. The best alternative is to equip these places with solar photovoltaic systems, and suitable batteries, that will meet the requirements not only for household lighting, televisions and fans, but also for linking the villages with telecommunications systems so that these communities can be brought into development projects. A comparison between nickel/cadmium and both sealed maintenance-free and flooded types of lead/acid batteries has demonstrated the economical and functional superiority of the last-mentioned of the three technologies. A design with very-low-antimony alloys and with a specific cell construction that requires no maintenance over a period of at least one year has been evaluated, especially with respect to water consumption in cycling simulations. The operating conditions relate to solar-powered telecommunications applications. The use of catalytic gas-recombination vent plugs further reduces the maintenance to such a level that the water topping-up frequency is zero during the entire life of the battery.

  15. Evaluation of lead—calcium—tin—aluminium grid alloys for valve-regulated lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S.; Liu, H. K.; Dou, S. X.; Skyllas-Kazacos, M.

    Cast lead-calcium alloys have been generally employed in valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA)_batteries since they appeared in the early 1970s. Some minor elements such as aluminium, silver, bismuth and some alkaline earth metals are also added to lead-calcium alloys to improve the alloy properties and the battery performance. A convenient method for the addition of aluminium into the alloy, compared with other methods reported, is presented. On addition to lead—calcium alloys,bismuth can form a BiCa compound according to the de-bismuthizing equation: 3Pb 3Ca+2Bi→Bi 2Ca 3+9Pb. There is a slight solubility of Bi 2Ca 3 in the lead at its melting point (327°C) with an amount of 0.048 wt.% resident bismuth. It is confirmed that the creep strength and the corrosion resistance is distinctly increased by the addition of silver into the grid alloy, but the associated gassing problem should be considered when such alloys are employed in VRLA batteries. Addition of sodium can refine grain sizes and increase the mechanical properties of the grid alloy, but the corrosion resistance of sodium-contained grids is inferior. A general description of experiments and application of tin, aluminium, bismuth, silver and sodium as additives in lead—calcium alloys is given.

  16. Interactions between lignosulphonates and the components of the lead-acid battery. Part 1. Adsorption isotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrvold, Bernt O.

    The expander performs at least five different tasks in the battery. It is a fluidiser for the negative paste. It controls the formation stage of the battery. It controls the shape and size of the lead sulphate crystals formed upon discharge, and thus prevents the sintering of the active mass. It controls the rate of the lead to lead sulphate oxidation during discharge. Finally, it affects the charge acceptance. To gain more understanding of these different effects the interaction between lead, lead(II) oxide, lead(IV) oxide, lead sulphate, barium sulphate and carbon black and the experimental lignosulphonate (LS) expander UP-414 has been investigated. We also compared with Vanisperse A and several other lignosulphonates, to elucidate the mechanisms operating. In most cases, we have studied concentration ranges that are both higher and lower than those normally encountered in batteries. There is no adsorption of lignosulphonates to pure lead surfaces. Adsorption to lead sulphate is a slow process. In the presence of lead ions lignosulphonates will also adsorb to lead. The adsorption to lead(II) oxide is a fast process, and a strong adsorption occurs. In all these cases, it is preferably the high molecular weight fraction that interacts with the solid surfaces. Lead ions leaching from the surface complexes with lignosulphonates to give a more hydrophobic species. This allows the normally negatively charged lignosulphonate to adsorb to the negatively charged substrates. The lignosulphonates have an ability to complex lead ions and keep them solvated. This confirms previous observations of the lignosulphonates ability to promote the dissolution-precipitation mechanism for lead sulphate formation on the expense of the solid-state reaction.

  17. Lead poisoning among household members exposed to lead-acid battery repair shops in Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Ostrowski, S; Burr, G; Jackson-Hunt, L; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-12-01

    To investigate the risk of lead poisoning among household members exposed to 'backyard' battery repair shops (BBRS) in Kingston, Jamaica, environmental and blood lead (PbB) were measured at 24 households (112 individuals) with a BBRS worker or located at a BBRS premises and at 18 neighbourhood control households (74 individuals). Elevated PbB (greater than or equal to 25 micrograms per decilitre [micrograms/dl]) was common among subjects of all ages living at BBRS premises, especially among children less than age 12, 43% of whom had PbB greater than 70 micrograms/dl. Potentially hazardous soil and house dust lead levels were also common at BBRS premises, where 84% of yards had soil lead levels above 500 parts per million (geometric mean 3388 parts per million [ppm] at BBRS premises households with a BBRS worker). Geometric mean blood and environmental lead levels were significantly lower at control households, where less than 10% of subjects in all age groups had elevated PbB (maximum 33 micrograms/dl). Sharing a premises with a BBRS was a stronger determinant of household blood lead and environmental contamination than was the presence of a BBRS worker in a household. Blood lead levels were associated with soil and house dust lead levels in all age groups. We conclude that small battery repair shops, which have also been described in other developing countries, create a high lead poisoning risk for nearby residents.

  18. Epidemiological-environmental study of lead acid battery workers. II. Acute effects of sulfuric acid on the respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Hancock, J.

    1984-10-01

    Two hundred and twenty-five (225) workers in five lead acid battery plants were administered a questionnaire containing work-related symptoms, underwent spirometry, and had personal samples for H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ taken over the shift. Most personal samples were less than 1 mg/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Mass median aerodynamic diameter of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ from area samples in the formation areas was 2.6-10 ..mu..m. Workers with a higher exposure to acid did not have an increased rate of acute work-related symptoms. Changes in pulmonary function over the shift were not related to levels of airborne lead or airborne acid, sex, age, or smoking status. In acclimated workers, there is no evidence of acute symptoms or reductions in pulmonary function over the shift at concentrations less than 1 mg/m/sup 3/.

  19. Modeling the crystal distribution of lead-sulfate in lead-acid batteries with 3D spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, Moritz; Badeda, Julia; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-04-01

    For the reliability of lead-acid batteries it is important to have an accurate prediction of its response to load profiles. A model for the lead-sulfate growth is presented, which is embedded in a physical-chemical model with 3D spatial resolution is presented which is used for analyzing the different mechanism influencing the cell response. One import factor is the chemical dissolution and precipitation of lead-sulfate, since its dissolution speed limits the charging reaction and the accumulation of indissolvable of lead-sulfate leads to capacity degradation. The cell performance/behavior is not only determined by the amount of the sulfate but also by the radii and distribution of the crystals. The presented model can be used to for an improved understanding of the interaction of the different mechanisms.

  20. Effect of a mineral additive on the electrical performances of the positive plate of lead acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foudia, M.; Matrakova, M.; Zerroual, L.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the performance of the positive electrode of lead-acid battery. The use of the additive in the positive paste is to increase the capacity and cycle life of the positive active material. Mineral porous additives, dispersed uniformly in the PAM, may act as acid reservoirs and favor the ionic diffusion. The results show that the addition of mineral additive in the paste before oxidation influences the composition and the crystal size of the PAM after oxidation. We observe a remarkable improvement of the discharge capacity of the PAM for an amount of additive ranging between 1 and 5%. Nano-sized particles of PbO2 with amorphous character are obtained. XRD, TG and DSC, SEM, and galvanostatic discharge were used as techniques of investigation.

  1. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    PubMed

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process.

  2. Micro-structural design and function of an improved absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Y.; Kishimoto, K.; Sugiyama, S.; Sakaguchi, S.

    Two important properties of absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators are examined in order to design optimum separators for advanced valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Acid stratification in the separator depends on its micro-glass-fibre diameter, and it is found that the extent of stratification can be estimated based on hydrodynamics theory. Decreasing the plate-group pressure of the separator in the wetted state is also investigated, and it is considered that the phenomenon is caused by the balance between the fibre strength and the surface tension of acid solution. Given these results, the way to design AGM separators according to purpose has been identified. Accordingly, a new AGM separator has been developed and this functions both to suppress stratification and to maintain plate-group pressure.

  3. Improved lead recovery and sulphate removal from used lead acid battery through electrokinetic technique.

    PubMed

    Soundarrajan, C; Sivasankar, A; Maruthamuthu, S; Veluchamy, A

    2012-05-30

    This paper presents improvement in lead (Pb) recovery and sulphate removal from used Pb acid battery (ULAB) through Electrokinetic technique, a process aimed to eliminate environmental pollution that arises due to emission of gases and metal particles from the existing high temperature pyrometallurgical process. Two different cell configurations, (1) one with Nafion membrane placed between anode and middle compartments and Agar membrane between cathode and middle compartments and (2) another with only Agar membrane placed between both sides of the middle compartments were designed for the Pb and sulphate separation from ULAB. This paper concludes that the cell with only Agar membranes performed better than the cell with Nafion and Agar membranes in combinations and also explains the mechanism underlying the chemical and electrochemical processes in the cell.

  4. Impedance measurements on lead-acid batteries for state-of-charge, state-of-health and cranking capability prognosis in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanke, Holger; Bohlen, Oliver; Buller, Stephan; De Doncker, Rik W.; Fricke, Birger; Hammouche, Abderrezak; Linzen, Dirk; Thele, Marc; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    Various attempts have been made to use impedance measurements for online analysis and offline modelling of lead-acid batteries. This presentation gives an overview on the latest and successful approaches based on impedance measurements to assess state-of-charge (SoC), state-of-health (SoH) and cranking capability of lead-acid batteries. Furthermore, it is shown that impedance data can serve as a basis for dynamic battery models for the simulation of vehicle power-supply systems. The methods and procedures aim for a reliable prediction of battery performance in electric vehicles, hybrid cars and classical automotive applications. Although, it will become obvious that impedance measurements give valuable information on the battery state, typically the information needs to be combined with other conventional algorithms or self-learning tools to achieve reliable and stable results for real-world applications.

  5. Recent improvements in PbO2 nanowire electrodes for lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, Alessandra; Piazza, Salvatore; Sunseri, Carmelo; Inguanta, Rosalinda

    2015-02-01

    Lead oxide nanowires are an attractive alternative to conventional pasted electrodes, owing to their high surface area leading to high specific energy batteries. Here, we report the performance of template electrodeposited PbO2 nanowires used as positive electrodes. Nanostructured electrodes were tested at constant charge/discharge rate from 2 C to 10 C, with a cut-off potential of 1.2 V and discharge depth up to 90% of the gravimetric charge. These new type of electrodes are able to work at very high C-rate without fading, reaching an efficiency of about 90% with a very good cycling stability. In particular, after an initial stabilization, a specific capacity of about 200 mAh g-1, very close to the theoretical one of 224 mAh g-1, was drained for more than 1000 cycles at a C-rate higher than 1 C with an efficiency close to 90%. This behaviour significantly distinguishes PbO2 nanostructured electrodes from the conventional ones with pasted active material. In addition, discharge at a quasi-constant voltage of about 2.1 V, without reaching the cut-off potential also at high C-rate, occurs. This implies a quasi-constant energy supply during fast discharge. According to these findings, innovative applications as hybrid or electrical mobility or buffer in renewable energy plants can be envisaged.

  6. Three-layered absorptive glass mat separator with membrane for application in valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidenov, V.; Pavlov, D.; Cherneva, M.

    During charge and discharge of the lead-acid cell equal amounts of H 2SO 4 participate in the reactions at the two types of plates (electrodes). However, the charge and discharge reactions at the positive plates involve also 2 mol of water per every mole of reacted PbO 2. Consequently, a concentration difference appears in the electrolyte between the two electrodes (horizontal stratification), which affects the reversibility of the processes at the two electrodes and thus the cycle life of the battery. The present paper proposes the use of a three-layered absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator, the middle layer playing the role of a membrane that divides (separates) the anodic and cathodic electrolyte spaces, and controls the exchange rates of H 2SO 4, H + ions, O 2 and H 2O flows between the two electrode spaces. To be able to perform this membrane function, the thinner middle AGM layer (0.2 mm) is processed with an appropriate polymeric emulsion to acquire balanced hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties, which sustain constant H 2SO 4 concentration in the two electrode spaces during cycling. Three types of polymeric emulsions have been used for treatment of the membrane: (a) polyvinylpyrollidonestyrene (MPVS), (b) polyvinylpyrrolidone "Luviskol" (MPVP), or (c) polytetrafluorethylene modified with Luviskol (MMAGM). It is established experimentally that the MMAGM membrane maintains equal acid concentration in the anodic and cathodic spaces (no horizontal stratification) during battery cycling and hence ensures longer cycle life performance.

  7. Lead acetate trihydrate precursor route to synthesize novel ultrafine lead oxide from spent lead acid battery pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jiakuan; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Hu, Yuchen; Yang, Danni; Yuan, Xiqing; Yu, Wenhao; Dong, Jinxin; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Lei; Vasant Kumar, R.; Liang, Sha

    2014-12-01

    A novel green recycling process is investigated to prepare lead acetate trihydrate precursors and novel ultrafine lead oxide from spent lead acid battery pastes. The route contains the following four processes. (1) The spent lead pastes are desulphurized by (NH4)2CO3. (2) The desulphurized pastes are converted into lead acetate solution by leaching with acetic acid solution and H2O2; (3) The Pb(CH3COO)2·3H2O precursor is crystallized and purified from the lead acetate solution with the addition of glacial acetic acid; (4) The novel ultrafine lead oxide is prepared by the calcination of lead acetate trihydrate precursor in N2 or air at 320-400 °C. Both the lead acetate trihydrate and lead oxide products are characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, and SEM techniques. The calcination products are mainly α-PbO, β-PbO, and a small amount of metallic Pb. The particle size of the calcination products in air is significantly larger than that in N2. Cyclic voltammetry measurements of the novel ultrafine lead oxide products show good reversibility and cycle stability. The assembled batteries using the lead oxide products as cathode active materials show a good cyclic stability in 80 charge/discharge cycles with the depth of discharge (DOD) of 100%.

  8. Advanced battery development

    SciTech Connect

    Diegle, R.B.; McWilliams, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the US Department Of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to: establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications. 6 figs.

  9. A novel flow battery-A lead-acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead(II). Part VI. Studies of the lead dioxide positive electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletcher, Derek; Zhou, Hantao; Kear, Gareth; Low, C. T. John; Walsh, Frank C.; Wills, Richard G. A.

    The structure of thick lead dioxide deposits (approximately 1 mm) formed in conditions likely to be met at the positive electrode during the charge/discharge cycling of a soluble lead-acid flow battery is examined. Compact and well adherent layers are possible with current densities >100 mA cm -2 in electrolytes containing 0.1-1.5 M lead(II) and methanesulfonic acid concentrations in the range 0-2.4 M; the solutions also contained 5 mM hexadecyltrimethylammonium cation, C 16H 33(CH 3) 3N +. From the viewpoint of the layer properties, the limitation is stress within the deposit leading to cracking and lifting away from the substrate; the stress appears highest at high acid concentration and high current density. There are, however, other factors limiting the maximum current density for lead dioxide deposition, namely oxygen evolution and the overpotential associated with the deposition of lead dioxide. A strategy for operating the soluble lead-acid flow battery is proposed.

  10. Development of a charge algorithm for the optimized charging of a 120-V flooded lead-acid lighthouse battery with forced electrolyte destratification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, D.

    1989-10-01

    Proper charging was identified as the most important requirement for the reliable and economical operation of a battery that is part of the hybrid power system for remote lighthouses. Therefore a charge algorithm was developed to optimize charging of a flooded lead-acid battery with forced electrolyte destratification. This algorithm is independent of the operating temperature, the state of charge and the battery age. It controls charging according to the weakest battery module in the pack and is able in the course of several cycles to automatically equalize the performance of the modules in the battery pack without excessive overcharging. The charge algorithm prevents overheating due to bad battery connectors and quite generally responds to all causes of poor charge acceptance with a gentle treatment of the battery during charging.

  11. Enhanced performance of starter lighting ignition type lead-acid batteries with carbon nanotubes as an additive to the active mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marom, Rotem; Ziv, Baruch; Banerjee, Anjan; Cahana, Beni; Luski, Shalom; Aurbach, Doron

    2015-11-01

    Addition of various carbon materials into lead-acid battery electrodes was studied and examined in order to enhance the power density, improve cycle life and stability of both negative and positive electrodes in lead acid batteries. High electrical-conductivity, high-aspect ratio, good mechanical properties and chemical stability of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, unmodified and mofified with carboxylic groups) position them as viable additives to enhance the electrodes' electrical conductivity, to mitigate the well-known sulfation failure mechanism and improve the physical integration of the electrodes. In this study, we investigated the incorporation-effect of carbon nanotubes (CNT) to the positive and the negative active materials in lead-acid battery prototypes in a configuration of flooded cells, as well as gelled cells. The cells were tested at 25% and 30% depth-of-discharge (DOD). The positive effect of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) utilization as additives to both positive and negative electrodes of lead-acid batteries was clearly demonstrated and is explained herein based on microscopic studies.

  12. The use of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate as positive active material additive for valve regulated lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Hu, Chiyu; Tang, Shenzhi; Zhu, Junsheng; Guo, Chenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Conventional tetrabasic lead sulfate used as positive active material additive shows the results of the low effective lead dioxide conversion rate due to the large grain size and crossed the crystal structure. In this paper, we study on a type of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate. Through the XRD and SEM test and Material Studio software calculation, the purity of tetrabasic lead sulfate is very high, the grain size of the nanometer 4BS is almost unanimous, and can be controlled below 200 nm. When charged and discharged in 1.75 V-2.42 V with the current density of 40 mA g-1, 80 mA g-1 and 160 mA g-1, the effective lead dioxide conversion rate of nanometer 4BS after formation can achieve to 83.48%, 71.42%, and 66.96%. Subsequently, the nanometer 4BS as additive is added to positive paste of lead-acid battery. When the batteries are tested galvanostatically between 1.75 V and 2.42 V at 0.25 C charge and 0.5 C discharge rates at room temperature. The ratio of adding nanometer 4BS is 0%, 1% and 4% and the initial discharge specific capacities are 60 mAh g-1, 65 mAh g-1 and 68 mAh g-1. After 80 cycles, the initial discharge capacity of positive active material with 1% nanometer 4BS decreased less than 10%, while adding 4% nanometer 4BS, the initial discharge capacity doesn't decrease obviously.

  13. Evaluation of preventive and control measures for lead exposure in a South African lead-acid battery recycling smelter.

    PubMed

    Dyosi, Sindiswa

    2007-10-01

    In South Africa, new lead regulations released in February 2002 served as motivation for a cross-sectional study investigating the effectiveness of preventive and control measures implemented in a lead smelter that recycles lead-acid batteries. Twenty-two workers were observed and interviewed. Structured questionnaires were used to gather workers' personal information, perception about their work environment, health risks, and work practices. Retrospective data from air monitoring and medical surveillance programs were obtained from the plant's records. The smelter implemented a number of control measures for lead exposure, including engineering controls, administrative controls, and, as a last resort, personal protective equipment. Engineering controls were rated the best control measure and included local exhaust ventilation systems and wet methods. Positive pressure systems were used in the offices and laboratory. The local exhaust ventilation system was rated the best engineering control measure. Although control measures were used, areas such as smelting and refinery had average lead in air levels above 0.15 mg/m(3), the occupational exposure limit for lead. This was a concern especially with regard to the smelting area because those workers had the second highest mean blood lead levels; workers in the battery breaking area had the highest. Regular use of personal protective equipment by some workers in the "lead exposure zones" was not observed. Although the mean blood lead levels had been below 40 micro g/dL for more than 90% of the workers since 2001, more than 70% of workers reported concerns about their health while working in the smelter. Even though control measures were implemented, they were not adequate because in some areas lead in air exceeded the occupational exposure limit. Therefore, improvement of existing measures and regular monitoring of personal protective equipment use were included in the recommendations given to the smelter.

  14. Potentiometric measurement of state-of-charge of lead-acid battery by using a bridged ferrocene surface modified electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Touma B.; Singh, Pritam; Baker, Murray V.

    Alkanethiol bridged, 3-(11-mercaptoundecyl)[3](1,1‧) ferrocenophane and 3-(11-mercaptoundecyl)[5](1,1‧) ferrocenophane were synthesized and their electrochemical behaviour in aqueous sulphuric acid electrolyte investigated. It is found that these compounds, chemisorbed on a gold substrate, undergo reversible electrochemical oxidation/reduction. The anodic and cathodic peak potentials are independent of the acid concentration in the range 1.0 × 10 -2 to 1.0 × 10 -7 M but change linearly with the acid concentration in the range 1-5 M. While this behaviour is similar to that for other ferrocenes like [3](1,1‧) ferrocenophane and [5](1,1‧) ferrocenophane the materials are much more chemically stable in aqueous sulphuric acid media. The presence of thiol group enhances the retainability of the bridged ferrocene while maintaining its chemical stability. The possibility of applying this observation for determining state-of-charge of lead-acid battery is discussed.

  15. Recovery of lead from lead paste in spent lead acid battery by hydrometallurgical desulfurization and vacuum thermal reduction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunjian; Qiu, Keqiang

    2015-06-01

    Lead sulfate, lead oxides and lead metal are the main component of lead paste in spent lead acid battery. When lead sulfate was desulfurized and transformed into lead carbonate by sodium carbonate, lead metal and lead oxides remained unchanged. Lead carbonate is easily decomposed to lead oxide and carbon dioxide under high temperature. Namely, vacuum thermal process is the reduction reaction of lead oxides. A compatible environmental process consisted of hydrometallurgical desulfurization and vacuum thermal reduction to recycle lead was investigated in this research. Lead paste was firstly desulfurized with sodium carbonate, by which, the content of sulfur declined from 7.87% to 0.26%. Then, the desulfurized lead paste was reduced by charcoal under vacuum. Under the optimized reaction conditions, i.e., vacuum thermal reduction at temperature 850°C under 20 Pa for 45 min, a 22.11×10(-2) g cm(-2) min(-1) reduction rate, and a 98.13% direct recovery ratio of fine lead (99.77%) had been achieved, respectively.

  16. Modeling the impact of paste additives and pellet geometry on paste utilization within lead acid batteries during low rate discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargonen, Muhammed M.

    2015-01-01

    When designing a lead acid battery, there are many factors to consider in order to obtain the best compromise of cost, performance, and ease of manufacturability. We use a modeling approach to study some of the key factors which affect the amount of active material which can be utilized during a low rate discharge. We investigate the effects of pellet size, pellet geometry, disconnected grid mesh borders, and inert paste additives. Furthermore, we look at how the internal path length resistance within a pellet is dependent on those features. Our findings correlate well with earlier works, and help to explain some of the previously observed phenomenon. It is observed that utilization is indeed affected by pellet size, but small grid mesh sizes on the order of ∼4 mm edge lengths are necessary in order to realize a significant benefit. Utilization is presented as a function of pellet size, aspect ratio of the pellets, and the loading level of the inert additives in the pellets up to ten percent by volume.

  17. Removal of sulfuric acid mist from lead-acid battery plants by coal fly ash-based sorbents.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yuehong; Wei, Xiangyu; Fang, Yu; Lan, Bingyan; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-04-01

    Sorbents from coal fly ash (CFA) activated by NaOH, CaO and H2O were prepared for H2SO4 mist removal from lead-acid battery plants. The effects of parameters including temperature, time, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid during sorbent preparation were investigated. It is found that the synthesized sorbents exhibit much higher removal capacity for H2SO4 mist when compared with that of raw coal fly ash and CaO except for H2O activated sorbent and this sorbent was hence excluded from the study because of its low capacity. The H2SO4 mist removal efficiency increases with the increasing of preparation time length and temperature. In addition, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid also impact the removal efficiency, and the optimum preparation conditions are identified as: a water/solid ratio of 10:1 at 120 °C for 10h, a CFA:CaO weight ratio of 10:1, and a NaOH solution concentration of 3 mol/L. The formation of rough surface structure and an increased surface area after NaOH/CaO activation favor the sorption of H2SO4 mist and possible sorption mechanisms might be electrostatic attractions and chemical precipitation between the surface of sorbents and H2SO4 mist.

  18. An evaluation of the significance of mouth and hand contamination for lead absorption in lead-acid battery workers.

    PubMed

    Far, H S; Pin, N T; Kong, C Y; Fong, K S; Kian, C W; Yan, C K

    1993-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of ingestion through hand and mouth contamination in the absorption of lead in 25 lead-acid battery workers. Levels of personal exposure to airborne lead ranged from 0.004 to 2.58 mg/m3 [geometric mean 0.098, with 25% of samples exceeding threshold limit values (ACGIH) of 0.15 mg/m3]; the mean (SD) blood lead level was 48.9 (10.8) micrograms/dl. Mean hand lead contents increased 33-fold from preshift levels on Monday mornings (33.5 micrograms/500 ml) to midshift levels on Thursday afternoons (1121 micrograms/500 ml). Mouth lead contents increased 16-fold from 0.021 micrograms/50 ml on Mondays to 0.345 micrograms/50 ml on Thursdays. The typical Malay racial habit of feeding with bare hands and fingers without utensils (closely associated with mouth and hand lead levels on Mondays) explained the bulk of the variance in blood lead levels (40%), with mouth lead on Thursdays (closely associated with poor personal hygiene) explaining a further 10%. Air lead was not a significant explanatory variable. The implementation of a programme of reinforcing hand-washing and mouth-rinsing practices resulted in a reduction of the blood lead level by 11.5% 6 months later. These results indicate that parenteral intake from hand and mouth contamination is an important cause of lead absorption in lead-exposed workers.

  19. Reductive smelting of spent lead-acid battery colloid sludge in a molten Na2CO3 salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu-jie; Tang, Chao-bo; Tang, Mo-tang; Chen, Yong-ming

    2015-08-01

    Lead extraction from spent lead-acid battery paste in a molten Na2CO3 salt containing ZnO as a sulfur-fixing agent was studied. Some influencing factors, including smelting temperature, reaction time, ZnO and salt dosages, were investigated in detail using single-factor experiments. The optimum conditions were determined as follows: T = 880°C; t = 60 min; Na2CO3/paste mass ratio = 2.8:1; and the ZnO dosage is equal to the stoichiometric requirement. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of lead reached 98.14%. The results suggested that increases in temperature and salt dosage improved the direct recovery rate of lead. XRD results and thermodynamic calculations indicated that the reaction approaches of lead and sulfur were PbSO4→Pb and PbSO4→ZnS, respectively. Sulfur was fixed in the form of ZnS, whereas the molten salt did not react with other components, serving only as a reaction medium.

  20. Testing of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron, the Globe ISOA lead-acid, and the Westinghouse nickel-iron battery subsystems in an electric-vehicle environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, R.; Bryant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Three full size developmental batteries were tested with electric vehicles; two nickel-iron batteries and a lead-acid battery. Constant speed and driving schedule tests were done on a chassis dynamometer. Several aspects of battery performance were evaluated for capacity, recharge efficiency, voltage response, and self discharge. Each of these three batteries exhibited some strengths and some weaknesses.

  1. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney; Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has also been added directly to

  2. Health hazards of China’s lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite China’s leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children’s blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China’s lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world’s leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries. This review assesses the role of China’s rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure. This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China’s growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health

  3. Recovery of lead from smelting fly ash of waste lead-acid battery by leaching and electrowinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuh-Shun; Shih, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash that was enriched with lead (Pb), formed as an intermediate in waste lead-acid battery (WLAB) smelting, was recycled by the hydro-electrometallurgy. Characterization of fly ash thereof indicated that the Pb was in the forms of PbSO4 (anglesite) and Pb2OSO4 (lanarkite). Nitric acid and sodium hydroxide were firstly used to study the leaching of the fly ash sample, which was affected by leachant dosage and solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L). At an S/L of 60gL(-1), the leachability of Pb was 43% and 67% in 2M acidic and basic solutions, respectively, based on an average 70wt% of Pb in the original fly ash. Anglesite was completely soluble in NaOH and lanarkite was mildly soluble in HNO3. Pb was recovered from the pregnant leach solution within an electrolytic cell constructed with graphite or RuO2/IrO2-coated titanium (Ti-DSA) anodes and a stainless steel cathode. Properties of anodes deposited with lead dioxides were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The optimized parameters of electrowinning were 2M NaOH leachant, a current density of 0.75Adm(-2) and an electrolytic process duration of 120min, which yielded a Pb removal of higher than 99% and a specific energy consumption of 0.57Whg(-1). This process constitutes an eco-friendly and economic alternative to the presently utilized secondary pyrometallurgy for treating lead-containing fly ash. PMID:27072618

  4. Seeking enhanced lead/acid battery performance through the use of conductive tin-dioxide-coated glass-flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Lim, O.; Ozgun, H.; Rand, D. A. J.

    1994-02-01

    The aim of this research is to raise the level of active-material utilization in the positive plates of lead/acid batteries (without diminishing other performance characteristics) and, thereby, to increase the energy output per unit weight. The strategy is to increase the electrical conductivity of the material by adding a proprietary particulate that consists of glass-flakes coated with a thin (less than 5 microns) layer of tin dioxide. The particulates are incorporated in positive plates that are prepared as automotive designs under a wide range of processing conditions, i.e., paste densities, acid-to-oxide ratios, low-/high-temperature (3BS/4BS) curing. Plate performance is evaluated in terms of active-material utilization, cold-cranking capability, repetitive reserve capacity, and life endurance under the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) procedure. Compared with untreated cells, the following benefits of adding the particulates to positive plates have been confirmed: (1) acceleration of the formation process; (2) increase in the BET surface area of formed materials; (3) improvement in active-material utilization at the 5-h and 20-h discharge rates; (4) maintenance of cycleability under repetitive, reserve-capacity duty; (5) increase in cycle life under the JIS schedule. The encouraging outcomes of this research suggest that further benefits are likely to be gained by designing elongated particulates of lighter weight. This will increase the number of counts per unit area and, thereby, will improve the contact between the individual particles of the positive active material and will further enhance the electrical conductivity of the plate.

  5. Recovery of lead from smelting fly ash of waste lead-acid battery by leaching and electrowinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuh-Shun; Shih, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash that was enriched with lead (Pb), formed as an intermediate in waste lead-acid battery (WLAB) smelting, was recycled by the hydro-electrometallurgy. Characterization of fly ash thereof indicated that the Pb was in the forms of PbSO4 (anglesite) and Pb2OSO4 (lanarkite). Nitric acid and sodium hydroxide were firstly used to study the leaching of the fly ash sample, which was affected by leachant dosage and solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L). At an S/L of 60gL(-1), the leachability of Pb was 43% and 67% in 2M acidic and basic solutions, respectively, based on an average 70wt% of Pb in the original fly ash. Anglesite was completely soluble in NaOH and lanarkite was mildly soluble in HNO3. Pb was recovered from the pregnant leach solution within an electrolytic cell constructed with graphite or RuO2/IrO2-coated titanium (Ti-DSA) anodes and a stainless steel cathode. Properties of anodes deposited with lead dioxides were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The optimized parameters of electrowinning were 2M NaOH leachant, a current density of 0.75Adm(-2) and an electrolytic process duration of 120min, which yielded a Pb removal of higher than 99% and a specific energy consumption of 0.57Whg(-1). This process constitutes an eco-friendly and economic alternative to the presently utilized secondary pyrometallurgy for treating lead-containing fly ash.

  6. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  7. A new valve-regulated lead/acid automotive battery for use in original equipment and supply to the replacement market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouache, S.; Douady, J. P.; Fossati, G.; Pascon, C.

    Valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries have been available since the beginning of the 1970s for stationary applications. Nevertheless, the development and the commercialization of VRLA starter batteries have been very slow and mainlyrestricted to certain niche markets. This is due to the difficulty in designing products that comply with the technical specificationsrequired by the operating conditions of modern cars, and that have both a high level of reliability and a cost in accordance with the needs ofthe automotive market. The STR (sealed technology with gas recombination) battery has been developed in order to place on the automotiveoriginal equipment and replacement markets a battery with the benefits of the VRLA technology, namely: absolutely no maintenance; cleanand safe; good open-circuit storage; good cycling ability; performance comparable with that of flooded batteries (i.e., cranking powerand reserve capacity, charge acceptance, rechargeability, and life). Due to the technical choices made for the components and forthe manufacturing process, the STR battery is today manufactured on a production line very similar to that for a flooded battery, with agood level of productivity and the same reliability as the best flooded batteries. For all these reasons, the STR battery is producedat a cost that is acceptable for automotive applications.

  8. A Study on Electric Power Smoothing System for Lead-Acid Battery of Stand-Alone Natural Energy Power System Using EDLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yan; Shibata, Ryosuke; Yamamura, Naoki; Ishida, Muneaki

    To resolve energy shortage and global warming problem, renewable natural resource and its power system has been gradually generalizing. However, the power fluctuation suppressing in short period and the balance control of consumption and supply in long period are two of main problems that need to be resolved urgently in natural energy power system. In Stand-alone Natural Energy Power System (SNEPS) with power energy storage devices, power fluctuation in short period is one of the main reasons that recharge cycle times increase and lead-acid battery early failure. Hence, to prolong the service life of lead-acid battery and improve power quality through suppressing the power fluctuation, we proposed a method of electric power smoothing for lead-acid battery of SNEPS using bi-directional Buck/Boost converter and Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) in this paper. According to the test data of existing SNEPS, a power fluctuation condition is selected and as an example to analyze the validity of the proposed method. The analysis of frequency characteristics indicates the power fluctuation is suppressed a desired range in the target frequency region. The experimental results of confirmed the feasibility of the proposed system and the results well satisfy the requirement of system design.

  9. Novel lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composite materials for possible applications as positive electrode grid in lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolshina, L. A.; Yolshina, V. A.; Yolshin, A. N.; Plaksin, S. V.

    2015-03-01

    Novel lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composites which melt at temperature of the melting point of lead were investigated as possible positive current collectors for lead acid batteries in sulfuric acid solution. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, difference scanning calorimetry, cyclic voltammetry and prolonged corrosion tests were employed to characterize the effect of the newly proposed lead-carbon metallic composites on the structure and electrochemical properties of positive grid material. Both lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composite materials show the similar electrochemical characteristics to metallic lead in the voltage range where the positive electrodes of lead acid batteries operate. It has been shown that carbon both as graphene and graphite does not participate in the electrochemical process but improve corrosion and electrochemical characteristics of both metallic composite materials. No products of interaction of lead with sulfuric acid were formed on the surface of graphene and graphite so as it was not found additional peaks of carbon discharge on voltammograms which could be attributed to the carbon. Graphene inclusions in lead prevent formation of leady oxide nanocrystals which deteriorate discharge characteristics of positive electrode of LAB. Both lead-graphene alloy and lead-graphite metallic composite proved excellent electrochemical and corrosion behavior and can be used as positive grids in lead acid batteries of new generation.

  10. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  11. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  12. Model prediction for ranking lead-acid batteries according to expected lifetime in renewable energy systems and autonomous power-supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Julia; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Bindner, Henrik; Cronin, Tom; Lundsager, Per; Kaiser, Rudi

    Predicting the lifetime of lead-acid batteries in applications with irregular operating conditions such as partial state-of-charge cycling, varying depth-of-discharge and different times between full charging is known as a difficult task. Experimental investigations in the laboratory are difficult because each application has its own specific operation profile. Therefore, an experimental investigation is necessary for each application and, moreover, for each operation strategy. This paper presents a lifetime model that allows comparison of the impact of different operating conditions, different system sizing and different battery technologies on battery lifetime. It is a tool for system designers and system operators to select appropriate batteries, to do a proper system design (sizing of the battery, power generators and loads), and to implement an optimized operation strategy (end-of-charge voltage, frequency of full charging, gassing periods, maximum depth-of-discharge). The model is a weighted Ah throughput approach based on the assumption that operating conditions are typically more severe than those used in standard tests of cycling and float lifetime. The wear depends on the depth-of-discharge, the current rate, the existing acid stratification, and the time since the last full charging. The actual Ah throughput is continuously multiplied by a weight factor that represents the actual operating conditions. Even though the modelling approach is mainly heuristic, all of the effects that are taken into account are based on a detailed analysis and understanding of ageing processes in lead-acid batteries. The 'normal' user can adapt the model to different battery types simply from the data sheet information on cycle lifetime and float lifetime.

  13. Analysis of life cycle costs for electric vans with advanced battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.; Miller, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of advanced Zn/Br/sub 2/, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis reveals specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries.

  14. Analysis of life cycle costs for electric vans with advanced battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.; Miller, J.F.

    1988-11-01

    The performance of advanced Zn/Br/sub 2/, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis revealed specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Changes in electrode microstructure and charge efficiency produced by pulsed discharge of electric vehicle lead acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Caulder, S.; Dowgiallo, E.; Simon, A.

    1982-08-01

    Comparison of battery plates with invariant vs. pulsed current discharges showed greater electrolyte stratification and a more rapid detrimental change in active material microstructure for the batteries receiving the pulsed discharges. This microstructural change could not be reversed by subsequent invariant current discharges. No significant differences in grid corrosion rate were noted in the two discharge modes.

  16. Corrosion management of PbCaSn alloys in lead-acid batteries: Effect of composition, metallographic state and voltage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, E.; Bourguignon, G.; Steinmetz, J.

    Since several years, lead calcium-based alloys have supplanted lead antimony alloys as structural materials for positive grids of lead-acid batteries in many applications, especially for VRLA batteries. Nevertheless, the positive grid corrosion probably remains one of the causes of rapid and premature failure of lead-acid batteries. The objective of the present study is to present a comprehensive study of the PbCaSn alloy corrosion in function of their composition, metallographic state and voltage conditions (discharge, overcharge, floating and cycling conditions). For that, four alloys PbCaSn x wt.% (x = 0, 0.6, 1.2, 2) were synthesized in two extreme metallurgical conditions and tested by four electrochemical lab-tests. Weight loss measurements and analyses by SEM, EPMA and XRD allowed to monitor the oxidation tests and to characterize the corrosion layers after the oxidation tests. The results show that the tin level in PbCaSn alloys should be adapted on the calcium concentration and the rate of overageing process, to maintain the beneficial effect of tin in service during the battery lifetime. According to our results, a Sn/Ca ratio of 2.5 gives good corrosion resistance in all potential conditions. Nevertheless, when tin level is too high, the corrosion layers can peel off from the metal, which involves a lack of cohesion between the collector and the paste, in cycling conditions. The anodic potential undergone by the metal is a second main factor determining the corrosion, especially the floating conditions and the frequency of deep discharge and overcharge. Thus the adjustment of the charge controller parameters of a battery system is a necessity to increase the lifetime of the grids and maintain a good rechargeability.

  17. Acid aging behavior of polycarbonates for flame retardant plastic containers for central office and ups* lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Feder, D.O.; Babusci, L.D.; Kelleher, P.G.; Ryan, J.T.

    1983-10-01

    In these studies, the degradation of polycarbonates in battery acid was assessed by monitoring changes in impact resistance and melt flow rate. The effects of stress were investigated. Rates of hydrolysis were obtained from the rates of change in melt viscosity and allow estimation of service life at room conditions. These studies have shown that hydrolytic degradation of polycarbonates in battery acid results in severe reductions in strength and impact properties. These results provide a mechanistic explanation of premature stress crack failures observed in covers of polycarbonate battery containers in telephone central office reserve power usage. Potential implications of these results on the design, life and reliability of polycarbonate jars and covers for UPS and central office stationary reserve batteries are discussed.

  18. An in situ generated carbon as integrated conductive additive for hierarchical negative plate of lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, M.; Ganesan, M.; Ambalavanan, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report an in situ generated carbon from sugar as additive in the Negative Active Mass (NAM) which enhances the charge-discharge characteristics of the lead-acid cells. In situ formed sugar derived carbon (SDC) with leady oxide (LO) provides a conductive network and excellent protection against NAM irreversible lead sulfation. The effect of SDC and carbon black (CB) added negative plates are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results show that subtle changes in the addition of carbon to NAM led to subsequent changes on the performance during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operations in lead-acid cells. Furthermore, SDC added cells exhibit remarkable improvement in the rate capability, active material utilization, cycle performance and charge acceptance compared to that of the conventional CB added cells. The impact of SDC with LO at various synthesis conditions on the electrochemical performance of the negative plate is studied systematically.

  19. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.L.

    1993-08-01

    A technology assessment is given for electric batteries with potential for use in electric powered vehicles. Parameters considered include: specific energy, specific power, energy density, power density, cycle life, service life, recharge time, and selling price. Near term batteries include: nickel/cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Mid term batteries include: sodium/sulfur, sodium/nickel chloride, nickel/metal hydride, zinc/air, zinc/bromine, and nickel/iron systems. Long term batteries include: lithium/iron disulfide and lithium- polymer systems. Performance and life testing data for these systems are discussed. (GHH)

  20. A novel leady oxide combined with porous carbon skeleton synthesized from lead citrate precursor recovered from spent lead-acid battery paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuchen; Yang, Jiakuan; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yanlin; Wang, Junxiong; Yuan, Xiqing; Vasant Kumar, R.; Liang, Sha; Hu, Jingping; Wu, Xu

    2016-02-01

    A novel nanostructured leady oxides comprising porous carbon skeleton has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of lead citrate precursor, recovered from spent lead-acid battery paste. The influences of O2 percentage in the calcination atmosphere (O2/N2 mixture) and the temperature on leady oxide product characteristics are studied by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The major crystalline phases of the products are identified as lead oxides, metallic Pb, and carbon. Porous carbon is observed as skeletons within the leady oxide (PbO containing some Pb metal) particles. Mass percentage of Pb metal in the leady oxide increases with increasing the proportion of oxygen in the calcination atmosphere. However, the amount of carbon decreases from approximately 8.0 to 0.3 wt%, and the porous carbon skeleton structure is gradually damaged with oxygen concentration increasing. A model about the thermal decomposition of lead citrate precursor is firstly proposed to elucidate these observations. The nanostructured leady oxides combined with porous carbon can be directly used as precursor of active materials in a new lead acid battery.

  1. Transformation of inert PbSO 4 deposit on the negative electrode of a lead-acid battery into its active state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Juhua; Li, Wenjun; Dai, Zhongyi; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Zhenmin

    Different forms of lead sulfate (PbSO 4) are produced in both the cathode and anode in the course of discharging of a lead-acid battery. However, their difference in reaction activity has not been well recognized up to now. From this work, it is shown the cathode product PbSO 4(O) due to oxidation of Pb is rather inert and its accumulation could lead to decrease of the battery capacity and life; on the other hand, the anode product PbSO 4(R) due to reduction of PbO 2 has a much active property and is readily reversible in the charging-discharging recycles. To restore the battery capacity, it is critical to solve the deactivation of cathode by transforming PbSO 4(O) into PbSO 4(R). For such a purpose, inverse charging is performed, and a procedure from PbSO 4(O) to PbO 2 and to PbSO 4(R) is conducted under a series of measurements with cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The results of inverse charging tests show that the new capacity of a sulfated battery is more than twice of the initial value, which proves the validity of the mechanism outlined.

  2. Updated status of conductance/capacity correlation studies to determine the state-of-health of automotive and stand-by lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feder, D. O.; Hlavac, M. J.; McShane, S. J.

    1994-02-01

    For the past seven years, Midtronics has developed and manufactured battery conductance testers for determining the condition of automotive batteries. This paper presents a further refinement of the technology. Studies by automobile manufacturers, automotive battery manufacturers, as well as testing by Midtronics and an independent test laboratory have established the utility of conductance technology in evaluating the condition of automotive batteries, even at very low states-of-charge. The use of conductance to determine the state-of-health of stand-by batteries has attracted increasing worldwide interest among both battery manufacturers and users. Attention has focused first on the area of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries (VRBs) for which there are no reliable diagnostics other than a cumbersome discharge test. Several recent studies have demonstrated the validity of conductance testing as an accurate predictor of battery capacity in railroad, electric power utility, stand-by power and telecommunications applications. Other benefits includes: (1) for the first time, tests have resulted in the accumulation and publication of large quantities of actual capacity data for individual valve-regulated cells and batteries that will serve as a standard against which conductance results can be compared; (2) results of these capacity tests have shown both unusually wide-spread capacity variation and significant numbers of premature capacity failures in valve-regulated cells over a wide range of applications in telecommunications, UPS, photovoltaic and railroad signaling systems; these failures have appeared to occur without regard to specific manufacturers, design, application or use environment; (3) in addition, both users and manufacturers have generally become more knowledgeable of performance characteristics, ageing mechanisms and failure modes of valve-regulated cells, so that it is now clearly recognized that the number of serious failure modes significantly

  3. Influence of paste composition and curing program used for the production of positive plates with PbSnCa grids on the performance of lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, D.; Dimitrov, M.; Rogachev, T.; Bogdanova, L.

    The cycle life performance of lead acid batteries with PbSnCa grids is strongly affected by the structure and properties of PAM and of the interface PAM/grid. The latter interface is formed during curing and formation of the positive plates. The processes that take place on curing of positive lead acid battery plates produced with Concast or Conroll PbSnCa grids and 3PbOPbSO 4·H 2O (3BS) or 4PbOPbSO 4· xH 2O (4BS) pastes are discussed in this paper. The enhanced processes of Sn and Ca segregation in the alloy of the grids during plate curing lead to the formation of a thin layer of a new phase, composed of the intermetallic compound (Pb 1- xSn x) 3Ca, in the spaces between the metal grains or sub-grains. This layer makes the interface heterogeneous and exerts a detrimental effect on the cycle life of the battery. In order to suppress its effect on battery performance, the thickness of this layer should be reduced by reducing the content of Ca in the grid alloy. During plate curing, the heterogeneous surface of the grid alloy is oxidized under the action of oxygen and H 2O at elevated temperature and the alkaline solution in the paste pores. A corrosion layer is formed comprising a thin sub-layer (CL1) and a thick partially hydrated lead oxide sub-layer (CL2). The 4BS/CL2 contact surface is larger and more stable than that between the 3BS particles and the CL2 layer. Both 3BS and 4BS particles are bonded to the CL2 layer through their hydrated layers. When curing is conducted at temperatures above 80 °C, 3BS particles are converted into 4BS ones which contain water. It has been established that positive plates produced with 4BS plates cured at 50 °C have the longest cycle life and adequate capacity performance, but a bit low power output. Positive plates prepared with 3BS pastes, which are then converted into 4BS ones during plate curing at 90 °C, have high initial capacity and power performance, but shorter cycle life. Batteries with plates produced with 4BS

  4. Methanothermal reduction of mixtures of PbSO4 and PbO2 to synthesize ultrafine α-PbO powders for lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Pengran; Liu, Yi; Lv, Weixin; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Wei; Bu, Xianfu; Li, Guanghua; Lei, Lixu

    2014-11-01

    Three artificial mixtures of PbSO4 and PbO2 as well as the active materials obtained directly from the positive plates of spent batteries have been solvothermally treated in methanol at 140 °C for 24 h, which produce mainly PbO·PbSO4. The PbO·PbSO4 can be easily desulphated with ammonium carbonate to produce PbCO3, which can be calcined to form α-PbO to be used as positive active material of lead acid batteries. The α-PbO powders are irregular particles and highly electrochemically active, which discharges around 165 mAh g-1 at 5 mA g-1, 80 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 and 60 mAh g-1 at 400 mA g-1 with excellent cyclic stability in 50 cycles. SEM investigations show that the as-formed PbO·PbSO4 may inherit and enhance the morphological characteristics of PbSO4, and carbonation of PbO·PbSO4 does not destroy the rod-like characteristics. For the active material from the positive plates of spent lead acid batteries, the discharge capacities are 170 mAh g-1 at the current density of 5 mA g-1, and 60 mAh g-1 at 400 mA g-1, which is also similar. In 50 cycles, its capacity loss is only 5%.

  5. Voltammetric and morphological study of lead electrodeposition on copper substrate for application of a lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, I. A.; Matsuo, T. T.; Siqueira, J. L. P.; de Almeida, M. R. H.

    Electrodeposition of lead on copper was investigated experimentally, mainly the adherence of the lead plate and, if possible to obtain films with characteristics suitable for use in lead battery technology. Under potentiodynamic and chronopotentiometric conditions, the lead films deposited from alkaline glycerol solutions on copper were sufficiently adherent for this substrate showed to be potentially useful as a cathode for lead deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs showed that there was no dendritic growth of lead film on copper substrate, which is thus acceptable as a support in battery plates. With the help of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), an explanation has been offered for the adherence of the lead deposits to the copper substrate. It was concluded that lead film deposited prior to lead bulk deposition favors the adhesion of the electrodeposits.

  6. Enhanced performance of Zn(II)-doped lead-acid batteries with electrochemical active carbon in negative mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Hu, Chen; Chen, Liying; Zhang, Dong; Ding, Ping; Chen, Dong; Liu, Hao; Chen, Jian; Wu, Xianzhang; Lai, Xiaokang

    2016-10-01

    The effect and mechanism of Zn(II) on improving the performances of lead-acid cell with electrochemical active carbon (EAC) in negative mass is investigated. The hydrogen evolution of the cell is significantly reduced due to the deposition of Zn on carbon surface and the increased porosity of negative mass. Zn(II) additives can also improve the low-temperature and high-rate capacities of the cell with EAC in negative mass, which ascribes to the formation of Zn on lead and carbon surface that constructs a conductive bridge among the active mass. Under the co-contribution of EAC and Zn(II), the partial-state-of-charge cycle life is greatly prolonged. EAC optimizes the NAM structure and porosity to enhance the charge acceptance and retard the lead sulfate accumulation. Zn(II) additive reduces the hydrogen evolution during charge process and improves the electric conductivity of the negative electrode. The cell with 0.6 wt% EAC and 0.006 wt% ZnO in negative mass exhibits 90% reversible capacity of the initial capacity after 2100 cycles. In contrast, the cell with 0.6 wt% EAC exhibits 84% reversible capacity after 2100 cycles and the control cell with no EAC and Zn(II) exhibits less than 80% reversible capacity after 1350 cycles.

  7. The roles of cellular and dendritic microstructural morphologies on the corrosion resistance of Pb-Sb alloys for lead acid battery grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osório, Wislei R.; Rosa, Daniel M.; Garcia, Amauri

    During the past 20 years, lead acid batteries manufacturers have modified grid manufacturing processes and the chemical composition of the used alloys in order to decrease battery grid weight as well as to reduce the production costs, and to increase the battery life-time cycle and the corrosion resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular and dendritic microstructures of two different Pb-Sb alloys on the resultant corrosion behavior. A water-cooled unidirectional solidification system was used to obtain cellular and dendritic structures. Macrostructural and microstructural aspects along the casting have been characterized by optical microscopy and SEM techniques. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves were used to analyze the corrosion resistance of samples in a 0.5 M H 2SO 4 solution at 25 °C. For cellular microstructures the corrosion rate decreases with increasing cell spacing. In contrast, finer dendritic spacings exhibit better corrosion resistance than coarser ones. The microstructural pre-programming may be used as an alternative way to produce Pb alloy components in conventional casting, rolled-expanded, and continuous drum casting with better corrosion resistance.

  8. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  9. Investigation of organic expanders effects on the electrochemical behaviors of new synthesized nanostructured lead dioxide and commercial positive plates of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Alipour, Mahboobeh

    Positive electrode with uniform lead dioxide nanostructures was directly synthesized by pulsed current electrochemical method on the lead substrate in 4.8 M sulfuric acid solution. The effect of synthesis parameters were studied by the "one at a time" method on the morphology and particle size of lead dioxide. The composition, morphology and structure were investigated using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). The effect of conventional organic expanders including humic acid, 1,2-acid (α-hydroxy β-naphtoic acid) and Vanillex was studied on the electrochemical behaviors of the prepared positive electrodes by cyclic voltammetry and on the discharge capacity and cyclelife of commercial positive plates. The used organic expanders improve the performance of negative plates but, they have not positive effects on the performance of positive electrodes of lead-acid batteries.

  10. The effect of current density and thickness of the active mass upon the corrosion rate of the spines of lead-acid battery plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogatchev, T.; Papazov, G.; Pavlov, D.

    The effect of current density and the thickness of the active mass upon the corrosion of the spines of tubular lead-acid batteries has been determined by measuring the corrosion rate by the weight loss method. The presence of antimony in the alloy decreases the overvoltage of the corrosion reaction. Study of electrodes of different active mass layer thickness shows that with increase in thickness the corrosion rate decreases. If the thickness is above 3 mm, the corrosion rate remains constant, and is affected only by the nature of the alloy. The density of the active mass does not affect the corrosion behaviour of the electrodes. The experimental results confirm the validity of the oxygen corrosion model.

  11. Role of tin in the depassivation of PbCaSn alloys maintained in deep discharge conditions of lead/acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Steyer, P.; Rocca, E.; Hilger, J.P.; Steinmetz, J.

    1998-12-31

    The tin content of the lead-calcium-tin alloys, used in the positive grids of the lead/acid batteries, must be controlled at a sufficient level to avoid passivation, mainly under deep discharge conditions. The passivation phenomenon is attributed to the formation of a semiconductive PbO layer, growing under a porous superficial layer of PbSO{sub 4}. Electrochemical measurements, as well as TEM and SIMS experiments have established that the PbO growth is controlled by the diffusion of O{sup {minus}{minus}} ions and that tin additions increase the conductivity of the oxide layer. This conductivity could be explained by a mechanism of percolation through a conductive oxide (tin rich oxide as SnO{sub 2}...) network as a result of tin segregation at the PbO grain boundaries.

  12. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the

  13. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  14. Uncovering the Evolution of Lead In-Use Stocks in Lead-Acid Batteries and the Impact on Future Lead Metabolism in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Lujun; Tian, Jinping

    2016-05-17

    This study aims to illustrate the evolution of lead in-use stocks, particularly in lead-acid batteries (LABs), and their impact on future lead metabolism in China. First, we used a bottom-up methodology to study the evolution of lead in-use stocks in China from 2000 to 2014. It was found that the lead in-use stocks increased from 0.91 to 7.75 Mt. The principal driving force of such change is the rapid development of LABs-driven electric vehicles. Then, we proposed three scenarios, low, baseline, and high in-use stocks, to project the lead demand and supply toward 2030. The results show that the LAB demand will decrease as a result of competition and replacement by lithium ion batteries. The lead demand in China will come to a peak around 2018-2020 under the three scenarios, then reduce to 3.7, 4.6, and 5.3 Mt/yr in 2030. Meanwhile, primary lead outputs will follow the increase of zinc production in China. Secondary lead recovered from spent LABs will also increase gradually. The overall unused lead stocks in 2030 will be 49.6, 44.8, and 41.2 Mt under the three scenarios, some 3.5-5.7 times as big as the lead in-use stocks. Thus, a large amount of lead will have to be safely stockpiled or exported in China. PMID:27145338

  15. Health risk assessment of various metal(loid)s via multiple exposure pathways on children living near a typical lead-acid battery plant, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-05-01

    Manufacture of lead-acid batteries is of widespread interest because of its emissions of heavy metals and metalloids into environment, harming environmental quality and consequently causing detrimental effects on human health. In this study, exposure pathways and health risks of children to heavy metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, As, etc) were investigated based on field sampling and questionnaire. Pb was one of the most abundant elements in children's blood, with an elevated blood lead level of 12.45 μg dL(-1). Soil/dust and food were heavily polluted by targeted metal(loid)s. Food ingestion accounted for more than 80% of the total exposure for most metal(loid)s. The non-cancer risks to children were 3-10 times higher than the acceptable level of 1, while the cancer risks were 5-200 times higher than the maximum acceptable level of 1.0 × 10(-4). The study emphasized the significance of effective environmental management, particularly to ensure food security near battery facilities.

  16. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [165 Ah, 36. 5 Wh/kg

    SciTech Connect

    Bodamer, G.W.; Branca, G.C.; Cash, H.R.; Chrastina, J.R.; Yurick, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Progress during the 1979 fiscal year is reported. All the tooling and capital equipment required for the pilot line production has been installed. A limited amount of plate production has been realized. A highly automated and versatile testing facility was established. The fabrication and testing of the initial calculated design is discussed. Cell component adjustments and the trade-offs associated with those changes are presented. Cells are being evaluated at the 3-hour rate. They have a capacity of 165 Ah and an energy density of 36.5 Wh/kg, and have completed 105 cycles to date. Experimental results being pursued under the advanced battery development program to enhance energy density and cycle life are presented. Data on the effects of different electrolyte specific gravity, separators, retainers, paste densities, battery additives and grid alloy composition on battery performance are presented and evaluated. Advanced battery prototype cells are under construction. Quality Assurance activities are summarized. They include monitoring the cell and battery fabrication and testing operations as well as all relevant documentation procedures. 12 figures, 28 tables.

  17. Influence of high past lead-in-air exposures on the lead-in-blood levels of lead-acid battery workers with continuing exposure.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, D G; Hinkamp, D L; Robins, T G; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1991-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between air lead levels and blood lead levels in 132 lead-acid battery workers in two plants who were followed for 30 months between 1983 and 1985 with frequent air lead and blood lead determinations. Both plants converted to more modern, expanded-metal battery manufacturing technologies around 1978 with associated reductions in mean air lead exposures from greater than 100 to less than 30 micrograms/m3. In multiple regression analyses including consideration of job category, seniority, age, ethnicity, gender, and smoking habit as covariates, there was a highly significant association of blood lead in micrograms/dL with air lead in micrograms/m3 (partial R2 = .20, P less than .0001) among the 68 workers in plant B but no association (P = .91) in plant A. Restriction of the regression analysis to those 44 workers in plant B with less than or equal to 22 years of seniority yielded the most significant air lead-blood lead association (partial R2 = .36, P less than .0001). Among the remaining 24 plant B workers, seniority, but not air lead, had a significant positive association with blood lead. Despite very stable air lead levels over the 30-month study, the 51 workers in plant A with more than 20 years' seniority had a mean decline of 0.04 microgram/dL in mean blood lead over the study period, whereas the 13 workers in plant A with less than or equal to 20 years' seniority had a mean increase of 7.6 microgram/dL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Epidemiological-environemental study of lead acid battery workers. III. Chronic effects of sulfuric acid on the respiratory system and teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Hancock, J.; Meckstroth, R.L.

    1984-10-01

    The effects of long-term exposure to sulfuric acid mist on the teeth and respiratory system were studied in 248 workers in five plants manufacturing lead acid batteries. The prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and wheezing as determined by questionnaire were not associated with estimates of cumulative acid exposure. There was only one case of irregular opacities seen on the chest radiographs. There was no statistically significant association of reduced FEV/sub 1/ peak flow, FEF/sub 50/, and FEF/sub 75/ with acid exposure although the higher exposed group had lower mean values. FVC in the high exposure group showed a statistically significant reductioon compared to the low exposure group but there was no significant association when exposure was analyzed as a continuous variable. The ratio of observed to expected prevalence of teeth etching and erosion was about four times greater in the high acid-exposure group. The earliest case of etching occured after 4 months exposure to an estimated average exposure of 0.23 mg/m/sup 3/ sulfuric acid.

  19. Development of positive electrodes with an SnO 2 coating by applying a sputtering technique for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurisawa, Isamu; Shiomi, Masaaki; Ohsumi, Shigeharu; Iwata, Masashi; Tsubota, Masaharu

    In order to prevent positive grid corrosion and to obtain a long life for positive electrodes of lead-acid batteries, a conductive and corrosion resistant SnO 2 (tin dioxide) layer was formed on a Ti (titanium) substrate by a conventional dip-coating method. However, it is impossible to apply this method to a Pb (lead) substrate, because the dip-coating method needs a calcination process, at a temperature higher (conventionally from 450 to 600°C) than the melting point of Pb ( Tm: 327°C). For this reason, an SnO 2 layer to protect the substrate against passivation and/or corrosion was formed on Ti and/or Pb electrodes by applying sputtering, a method which is often used in the production of semiconductors. This improved electrode, with an SnO 2 layer, was not corroded at all, even though the thickness of the SnO 2 layer was only about 15 μm. The biggest problem of the SnO 2 layer is that it dissolves in sulfuric acid when the positive electrode is polarized below 0.5 V (versus Pb/PbSO 4). This suggests that this electrode should not be subjected to deep discharge.

  20. Effects of lead exposure on the status of platelet indices in workers involved in a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Barman, Tapu; Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of Pb exposure on the status of platelet indices in workers exposed to Pb during lead-acid battery plant process. Platelet indices and blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 male workers. BLLs were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Platelet indices in the samples were quantified by using the Sysmex KX-21 hematology analyzer. The levels of platelet count (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT) and mean platelet mass (MPM) were significantly decreased and platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) and mean platelet volume were increased with an increase in BLLs. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the platelet count (β -0.143, P=0.005), PCT (β -0.115, P=0.023) and MPM (β -0.110, P=0.030) were negatively associated with BLLs and P-LCR (β 0.122, P=0.016) was positively associated with BLLs. The variable of body mass index showed a positive association with PCT (β 0.105, P=0.032) and MPM (β 0.101, P=0.039). The results of the study may indicate that lead exposure may impair coagulation function through endothelial tissue injury and reduction of nitric oxide.

  1. Absorptive glass mat separator surface modification and its influence on the heat generation in valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenchev, Boris; Dimitrov, Mitko; Boev, Victor; Aleksandrova, Albena

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the results from a comparative study between two types of valve-regulated lead-acid battery cells, with uncoated and polymer composite coated absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators. The volt-ampere characteristics of the studied cells, recorded at different ambient temperatures, show that the cells with polymer coated separators have significantly lower overcharge (recombinant) current than the cells with conventional untreated AGM separator. During overcharge, the higher recombinant current in the cells with plain separator leads to higher cell temperature than that of the cells with polymer coated AGM separator. The possibility to avoid thermal runaway (TR) is also illustrated during polarization of the cells at 2.65 V. After 320 h, a conventional cell has C/4 current (trend to TR), while the cells with composite coating sustain low (C/26) constant current for long period of time (at least 650 h). The cycle life test indicates stable operation of the cells with coated separator, while the conventional cell reaches high recombinant current and thus, it is susceptible to thermal runaway phenomena.

  2. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part I. Results based on kernel density estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weckler, M.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In March 2007 the BMW Group has launched the micro-hybrid functions brake energy regeneration (BER) and automatic start and stop function (ASSF). Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology are applied in vehicles with micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In both part I and part II of this publication vehicles with MHPS and AGM batteries are subject to a field operational test (FOT). Test vehicles with conventional power system (CPS) and flooded batteries were used as a reference. In the FOT sample batteries were mounted several times and electrically tested in the laboratory intermediately. Vehicle- and battery-related diagnosis data were read out for each test run and were matched with laboratory data in a data base. The FOT data were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional, nonparametric kernel estimation for clear data presentation. The data show that capacity loss in the MHPS is comparable to the CPS. However, the influence of mileage performance, which cannot be separated, suggests that battery stress is enhanced in the MHPS although a battery refresh function is applied. Anyway, the FOT demonstrates the unsuitability of flooded batteries for the MHPS because of high early capacity loss due to acid stratification and because of vanishing cranking performance due to increasing internal resistance. Furthermore, the lack of dynamic charge acceptance for high energy regeneration efficiency is illustrated. Under the presented FOT conditions charge acceptance of lead-acid (LA) batteries decreases to less than one third for about half of the sample batteries compared to new battery condition. In part II of this publication FOT data are presented by multiple regression analysis (Schaeck et al., submitted for publication [1]).

  3. Nanostructuring effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on electrochemical properties of carbon foam as constructive electrode for lead acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kumari, Saroj; Mathur, Rakesh B.; Dhakate, Sanjay R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, nanostructuring effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on electrochemical properties of coal tar pitch (CTP) based carbon foam (CFoam) was investigated. The different weight fractions of MWCNTs were mixed with CTP and foam was developed from the mixture of CTP and MWCNTs by sacrificial template technique and heat treated at 1,400 and 2,500 °C in inert atmosphere. These foams were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and potentiostat PARSTAT for cyclic voltammetry. It was observed that, bulk density of CFoam increases with increasing MWCNTs content and decreases after certain amount. The MWCNTs influence the morphology of CFoam and increase the width of ligaments as well as surface area. During the heat treatment, stresses exerting at MWCNTs/carbon interface accelerate ordering of the graphene layer which have positive effect on the electrochemical properties of CFoam. The current density increases from 475 to 675 mA/cm2 of 1,400 °C heat treated and 95 to 210 mA/cm2 of 2,500 °C heat-treated CFoam with 1 wt% MWCNTs. The specific capacitance was decreases with increasing the scan rate from 100 to 1,000 mV/s. In case of 1 % MWCNTs content CFoam the specific capacitance at the scan rate 100 mV/s was increased from 850 to 1,250 μF/cm2 and 48 to 340 μF/cm2 of CFoam heat treated at 1,400 °C and 2,500 °C respectively. Thus, the higher value surface area and current density of MWCNTs-incorporated CFoam heat treated to 1,400 °C can be suitable for lead acid battery electrode with improved charging capability.

  4. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  5. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part II. Impedance of the positive plate revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Delaille, A.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Mattera, F.

    In the second part of this publication series, dedicated to the pulse charge of the lead-acid battery, a special attention is paid to the impedance spectrum of the positive plate as a source for estimation of the electrostatic capacitance of the double layer (C dl) on the surface of the positive active mass. The impedance spectra were measured at open circuit for different states of charge (SoC) in H 2SO 4 with specific gravity 1.24 and 1.28 g ml -1. A substantial difference was observed in the impedance spectra of partially charged and partially discharged positive plates keeping the same value of the SOC. The impedance data were subjected to inductance error correction, followed by differential impedance analysis (DIA). Considering the results from DIA, the recently published equivalent circuits of the positive plate in charged and in discharged state and the gel-crystal model of the lead dioxide, we proposed a model of the positive plate in partial state of charge (PSoC). The analysis of the obtained experimental results using this model and DIA show that the double layer capacitance is not frequency distributed. The influence of the state of charge and state of health on the model parameters is discussed. One of the most interesting results is the dependence of C dl on SOC-it features a hysteresis at which the values of C dl during the charge are 5-6 times higher than the corresponding ones during the discharge. This result was discussed in terms of changes in the double layer structure considering the gel-crystal model of the lead dioxide. During the discharge in H 2SO 4 with specific gravity 1.28 g ml -1 a passivation process was detected as a high frequency pseudo-inductive loop in the Nyquist plots in PSoC. The passivation time constant is higher at 50-60% SOC and decreases to zero in the end of the discharge. During the charge in both electrolytes, pseudo-inductive time constant was observed too. It was attributed to the phenomena of the dehydration of Pb

  6. Characterization of lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon and its excellent performance of extending lead-acid battery cycle life for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Pengyang; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Rongbo; Yi, Fenyun; Shi, Guang; Li, Aiju; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-07-01

    In this work, lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon (Pb@C) is prepared as the additive of negative active mass (NAM), aiming to enhance the electrochemical characteristics of the lead-acid battery. The characters of the Pb@C materials and their electrochemical properties are characterized by XRD, SEM, back-scattering electron image (BESI) and electrochemical methods. The lead (Ⅱ) ions disperse well in the carbon bulk of the obtained Pb@C materials as observed, and these materials exhibit remarkable higher specific capacitance and higher hydrogen evolution over-potential compared with original carbons. Many 2 V lead-acid batteries are assembled manually in our lab, and then the batteries are disassembled after formation and high-rate-partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Results manifest that the Pb@C additives exhibit high affinity to lead and act as a porous-skeleton in the formation process as well as under HRPSoC cycling conditions, leading to the small and fine formation of PbSO4 particles and accordingly higher active material utilization rate more than 50%, better cycling performance and charging acceptance. Besides, excellent cycle performances of these batteries have great relationship with the dazzling hydrogen evolution performance of Pb@C materials. A possible working mechanism is also proposed based on the testing data in this paper.

  7. Rechargeable batteries: advances since 1977. [Collection of US patents

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is based on US patents (including DOE patents) issued since January 1978 that deal with rechargeable batteries. It both supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the patent literature. Subjects treated are as follows: lead-acid batteries (grids, electrodes, terminals and connectors, polyolefin separators, polyvinyl chloride separators, other polymeric separators, other separators, electrolytes, venting techniques, hydrogen-oxygen recombination, general construction and fabrication), lithium batteries (metal chalcogenide cathodes, chalcogenide electrolyte compositions, chalcogenide batteries, lithium anodes, cathodes, lithium-thionyl chloride batteries, lithium-bromine batteries, electrolyte additives and other processes), sodium-sulfur batteries (general battery design, sulfur electrodes, sealing and casing design, current collectors, other processes), alkaline zinc and iron electrode batteries (silver-zinc, nickel-zinc, air-zinc, other zinc electrode processes, iron electrode batteries), zinc-halogen batteries (electrodes, electrolyte additives, other zinc-halogen batteries, zinc-manganese dioxide acid electrolyte), nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries (nickel-cadmium electrodes, other processes for nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-hydrogen electrodes, other processes for nickel-hydrogen batteries, other nickel-containing batteries), and other battery systems (battery systems and design, other processes). (RWR)

  8. Advanced battery development in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Shimotake, H.; Nelson, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Batteries for load-leveling and electric-vehicle applications are under development in the United States. The most difficult requirements for these applications are long cycle life, high power density, and low cost. Steady progress is being made in developing advanced batteries. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring development of sodium-sulfur, zinc-bromine, zinc-chloride, and aluminum-air batteries. Exploratory research is being conducted on a variety of cell systems, such as lithium-metal sulfide, alkali metal-sulfur, glass electrolyte, and low-temperature organic electrolyte. This paper reviews the US government effort in the development of advanced batteries and discusses some of the key systems.

  9. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    The promise of very high specific energy and power was not yet achieved for practical battery systems. Some recent approaches are discussed for new approaches to achieving high performance for lithium/DeS2 cells and sodium/metal chloride cells. The main problems for the development of successful LiAl/FeS2 cells were the instability of the FeS2 electrode, which has resulted in rapidly declining capacity, the lack of an internal mechanism for accommodating overcharge of a cell, thus requiring the use of external charge control on each individual cell, and the lack of a suitable current collector for the positive electrode other than expensive molybdenum sheet material. Much progress was made in solving the first two problems. Reduction of the operating temperatures to 400 C by a change in electrolyte composition has increased the expected life to 1000 cycles. Also, a lithium shuttle mechanism was demonstrated for selected electrode compositions that permits sufficient overcharge tolerance to adjust for the normally expected cell-to-cell deviation in coulombic efficiency. Sodium/sulfur batteries and sodium/metal chloride batteries have demonstrated good reliability and long cycle life. For applications where very high power is desired, new electrolyte coinfigurations would be required. Design work was carried out for the sodium/metal chloride battery that demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high specific energy and high power for large battery cells having thin-walled high-surface area electrolytes.

  10. Electric Ground Support Equipment Advanced Battery Technology Demonstration Project at the Ontario Airport

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Jeremy Diez; Jeffrey Wishart; James Francfort

    2013-07-01

    The intent of the electric Ground Support Equipment (eGSE) demonstration is to evaluate the day-to-day vehicle performance of electric baggage tractors using two advanced battery technologies to demonstrate possible replacements for the flooded lead-acid (FLA) batteries utilized throughout the industry. These advanced battery technologies have the potential to resolve barriers to the widespread adoption of eGSE deployment. Validation testing had not previously been performed within fleet operations to determine if the performance of current advanced batteries is sufficient to withstand the duty cycle of electric baggage tractors. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. The demonstration project also grew the relationship with Southwest Airlines (SWA), our demonstration partner at Ontario International Airport (ONT), located in Ontario, California. The results of this study have encouraged a proposal for a future demonstration project with SWA.

  11. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS2 cells and bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 Wh/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes.

  12. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  13. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air. PMID:24926965

  14. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  15. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

  16. Recent advances in lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Shaw, Leon L.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention lately because they have very high theoretical specific energy (2500 Wh kg-1), five times higher than that of the commercial LiCoO2/graphite batteries. As a result, they are strong contenders for next-generation energy storage in the areas of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and storage systems for renewable energy such as wind power and solar energy. However, poor cycling life and low capacity retention are main factors limiting their commercialization. To date, a large number of electrode and electrolyte materials to address these challenges have been investigated. In this review, we present the latest fundamental studies and technological development of various nanostructured cathode materials for Li-S batteries, including their preparation approaches, structure, morphology and battery performance. Furthermore, the development of other significant components of Li-S batteries including anodes, electrolytes, additives, binders and separators are also highlighted. Not only does the intention of our review article comprise the summary of recent advances in Li-S cells, but also we cover some of our proposals for engineering of Li-S cell configurations. These systematic discussion and proposed directions can enlighten ideas and offer avenues in the rational design of durable and high performance Li-S batteries in the near future.

  17. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-01-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  18. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-02-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  19. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, Brian A.; Taylor, A. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  20. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1998-11-24

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

  1. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  2. Influence of bismuth on the age-hardening and corrosion behaviour of low-antimony lead alloys in lead/acid battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Huynh, T. D.; Haigh, N. P.; Douglas, J. D.; Rand, D. A. J.; Lakshmi, C. S.; Hollingsworth, P. A.; See, J. B.; Manders, J.; Rice, D. M.

    The effects of bismuth additions in the range 0.006-0.086 wt.% on the metallurgical and electrochemical properties of Pb-1.5 wt.% Sb alloy are investigated. The self-discharge behaviour of batteries produced with grids of the doped alloys is also evaluated. Addition of bismuth is found to exert no significant effects on the age-hardening behaviour, general microstructure or grain size of the alloy. It does, however, influence the morphology of the eutectic in the inter-dendritic regions. The latter changes from a mainly lamellar to an irregular type with increasing bismuth content. The corrosion rate of the grid decreases with increase of the bismuth content. Attack occurs preferentially in the inter-dendritic regions where there is an enrichment of both antimony and bismuth. Electron-probe microanalysis shows that the corrosion zone consists of a tri-layered structure, namely: a dense, continuous, inner layer (PbO 1.1); a central layer (PbO 1.8·PbSO 4); a porous outer layer n(PbO 1.8)·PbSO 4, with n=2-8. In the latter, the value of n increases in the direction of corrosive penetration into the grid. Data from atomic absorption spectrometric analysis reveal that bismuth, after oxidative leaching from the grid substrate, is retained mainly in the corrosion layer. A key observation is that bismuth (i.e., up to ˜0.09 wt.%) does not affect the self-discharge behaviour of batteries.

  3. Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    1999-10-06

    The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

  4. [Distribution characteristics of lead in different particle size fractions of surface soil of a lead-acid battery factory contaminated site].

    PubMed

    Yue, Xi; Sun, Ti-chang; Huang, Jin-lou

    2013-09-01

    In this research, six topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in the heavy-metal lead contaminated soil of one lead battery factory in south-west China as research object, which were later divided into seven particle size fractions, and analyzed for the lead concentration as well as the correlation between the lead concentration and the organic matter content. The result showed that five soil samples were contaminated with lead with different pollution levels, and there were two different trends in the changes of lead concentration as of the change of soil particle size. The lead concentration of the three samples from sewage treatment workshop, the workshop A and the workshop B, showed a first declining and then ascending trend with the decreasing particle size. The lead concentration of the soil samples of the packing workshop and the former production workshop A showed a decreasing trend when the particle size decreased. The lead concentration and the organic matter content showed a positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.8232). Soil organic matter has the ability of lead enrichment, and the ability declines with the decreasing particle size. Soil texture may be an important factor for the interaction between soil organic matter and lead distribution.

  5. [Distribution characteristics of lead in different particle size fractions of surface soil of a lead-acid battery factory contaminated site].

    PubMed

    Yue, Xi; Sun, Ti-chang; Huang, Jin-lou

    2013-09-01

    In this research, six topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in the heavy-metal lead contaminated soil of one lead battery factory in south-west China as research object, which were later divided into seven particle size fractions, and analyzed for the lead concentration as well as the correlation between the lead concentration and the organic matter content. The result showed that five soil samples were contaminated with lead with different pollution levels, and there were two different trends in the changes of lead concentration as of the change of soil particle size. The lead concentration of the three samples from sewage treatment workshop, the workshop A and the workshop B, showed a first declining and then ascending trend with the decreasing particle size. The lead concentration of the soil samples of the packing workshop and the former production workshop A showed a decreasing trend when the particle size decreased. The lead concentration and the organic matter content showed a positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.8232). Soil organic matter has the ability of lead enrichment, and the ability declines with the decreasing particle size. Soil texture may be an important factor for the interaction between soil organic matter and lead distribution. PMID:24289023

  6. International Lead Zinc Research Organization-sponsored field-data collection and analysis to determine relationships between service conditions and reliability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in stationary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. A.; Moseley, P. T.; Butler, P. C.

    The International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories, has initiated a multi-phase project with the following aims: to characterize relationships between valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, service conditions, and failure modes; to establish the degree of correlation between specific operating procedures and PCL; to identify operating procedures that mitigate PCL; to identify best-fits between the operating requirements of specific applications and the capabilities of specific VRLA technologies; to recommend combinations of battery design, manufacturing processes, and operating conditions that enhance VRLA performance and reliability. In the first phase of this project, ILZRO has contracted with Energetics to identify and survey manufacturers and users of VRLA batteries for stationary applications (including electric utilities, telecommunications companies, and government facilities). The confidential survey is collecting the service conditions of specific applications and performance records for specific VRLA technologies. From the data collected, Energetics is constructing a database of the service histories and analyzing the data to determine trends in performance for particular technologies in specific service conditions. ILZRO plans to make the final report of the analysis and a version of the database (that contains no proprietary information) available to ILZRO members, participants in the survey, and participants in a follow-on workshop for stakeholders in VRLA reliability. This paper presents the surveys distributed to manufacturers and end-users, discusses the analytic approach, presents an overview of the responses to the surveys and trends that have emerged in the early analysis of the data, and previews the functionality of the database being constructed.

  7. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications. PMID:27268064

  8. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications.

  9. Research on Advanced Thin Film Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, Ronald B.

    2003-11-24

    During the past 7 years, the Tufts group has been carrying out research on advanced thin film batteries composed of a thin film LiCo02 cathode (positive electrode), a thin film LiPON (lithium phosphorous oxynitride) solid electrolyte, and a thin film graphitic carbon anode (negative electrode), under grant DE FG02-95ER14578. Prior to 1997, the research had been using an rfsputter deposition process for LiCoOi and LiPON and an electron beam evaporation or a controlled anode arc evaporation method for depositing the carbon layer. The pre-1997 work led to the deposition of a single layer cell that was successfully cycled for more than 400 times [1,2] and the research also led to the deposition of a monolithic double-cell 7 volt battery that was cycled for more than 15 times [3]. Since 1997, the research has been concerned primarily with developing a research-worthy and, possibly, a production-worthy, thin film deposition process, termed IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition) for depositing each ofthe electrodes and the electrolyte of a completely inorganic solid thin film battery. The main focus has been on depositing three materials - graphitic carbon as the negative electrode (anode), lithium cobalt oxide (nominally LiCoCb) as the positive electrode (cathode), and lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) as the electrolyte. Since 1998, carbon, LiCoOa, and LiPON films have been deposited using the IBAD process with the following results.

  10. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. Fifty-five battery experts from government, industry and universities participated in the survey by providing their opinions on the use of several battery types for six space missions, and their predictions of likely technological advances that would impact the development of these batteries. The results of the survey predict that only four battery types are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the safety and reliability requirements for space applications within the next 15 years.

  11. A critical overview of definitions and determination techniques of the internal resistance using lithium-ion, lead-acid, nickel metal-hydride batteries and electrochemical double-layer capacitors as examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Marongiu, Andrea; Drillkens, Julia; Sinhuber, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-11-01

    The internal resistance (Ri) is one of the key parameters that determine the current state of electrochemical storage systems (ESS). It is crucial for estimating cranking capability in conventional cars, available power in modern hybrid and electric vehicles and for determining commonly used factors such as state-of-health (SoH) and state-of-function (SoF). However, ESS are complex and non-linear systems. Their Ri depends on many parameters such as current rate, temperature, SoH and state-of-charge (SoC). It is also a fact that no standardized methodologies exist and many different definitions and ways of Ri determination are being used. Nevertheless, in many cases authors are not aware of the consequences that occur when different Ri definitions are being used, such as possible misinterpretations, doubtful comparisons and false figures of merit. This paper focuses on an application-oriented separation between various Ri definitions and highlights the differences between them. The investigation was based on the following technologies: lead-acid, lithium-ion and nickel metal-hydride batteries as well as electrochemical double-layer capacitors. It is not the target of this paper to provide a standardized definition of Ri but to give researchers, engineers and manufacturers a possibility to understand what the term Ri means in their own work.

  12. Antimony poisoning in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, W.; Radel, C.; Scholten, F.

    Linear potential sweep measurements were conducted using rotating lead-disc electrodes in sulfuric acid electrolyte containing antimony. Within the range investigated hydrogen evolution at the negative electrode is shown to be a monotonic function of the quantity of antimony deposited on the electrode surface. In the potential range -950 mV to -1150 mV versus Hg/Hg 2SO 4 the antimony deposition on lead electrodes is time dependent only; at more negative potentials the deposition rate decreases with over-voltage. At potentials <-1320 mV antimony purging occurs. Various additives to the electrolyte were investigated to determine their ability to suppress the hydrogen evolution; aromatic aldehydes and wood flour were found to be effective. A possible mechanism is discussed.

  13. A comparison of portable XRF and ICP-OES analysis for lead on air filter samples from a lead ore concentrator mill and a lead-acid battery recycler.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill, and at a lead-acid battery recycler. Lead is mined as its sulfidic ore, galena, which is often associated with zinc and silver. The ore typically is concentrated, and partially separated, on site by crushing and differential froth flotation of the ore minerals before being sent to a primary smelter. Besides lead, zinc and iron are also present in the airborne dusts, together with insignificant levels of copper and silver, and, in one area, manganese. The disposal of used lead-acid batteries presents environmental issues, and is also a waste of recoverable materials. Recycling operations allow for the recovery of lead, which can then be sold back to battery manufacturers to form a closed loop. At the recycling facility lead is the chief airborne metal, together with minor antimony and tin, but several other metals are generally present in much smaller quantities, including copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Samplers used in these studies included the closed-face 37 mm filter cassette (the current US standard method for lead sampling), the 37 mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25 mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25 mm Button sampler, and the open-face 25 mm cassette. Mixed cellulose-ester filters were used in all samplers. The filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of the various metals, particularly lead, that could be analyzed by the specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer under study, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25 mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37 mm filters. For lead at the mine concentrate mill, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass

  14. A comparison of portable XRF and ICP-OES analysis for lead on air filter samples from a lead ore concentrator mill and a lead-acid battery recycler.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill, and at a lead-acid battery recycler. Lead is mined as its sulfidic ore, galena, which is often associated with zinc and silver. The ore typically is concentrated, and partially separated, on site by crushing and differential froth flotation of the ore minerals before being sent to a primary smelter. Besides lead, zinc and iron are also present in the airborne dusts, together with insignificant levels of copper and silver, and, in one area, manganese. The disposal of used lead-acid batteries presents environmental issues, and is also a waste of recoverable materials. Recycling operations allow for the recovery of lead, which can then be sold back to battery manufacturers to form a closed loop. At the recycling facility lead is the chief airborne metal, together with minor antimony and tin, but several other metals are generally present in much smaller quantities, including copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Samplers used in these studies included the closed-face 37 mm filter cassette (the current US standard method for lead sampling), the 37 mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25 mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25 mm Button sampler, and the open-face 25 mm cassette. Mixed cellulose-ester filters were used in all samplers. The filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of the various metals, particularly lead, that could be analyzed by the specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer under study, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25 mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37 mm filters. For lead at the mine concentrate mill, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass

  15. Advances in rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.; Stiles, J. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The lithium molybdenum disulfide system as demonstrated in a C size cell, offers performance characteristics for applications where light weight and low volume are important. A gravimetric energy density of 90 watt hours per kilogram can be achieved in a C size cell package. The combination of charge retention capabilities, high energy density and a state of charge indicator in a rechargeable cell provides power package for a wide range of devices. The system overcomes the memory effect in Nicads where the full capacity of the battery cannot be utilized unless it was utilized on previous cycles. The development of cells with an advanced electrolyte formulation led to an improved rate capability especially at low temperatures and to a significantly improved life cycle.

  16. Reliability modelling system for analysis of advanced battery technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, C. H.; Hostick, C. J.; Nakaoka, R. K.

    1985-05-01

    Key considerations in evaluating the reliability of advanced battery technologies include the impact of cell failures on battery performance and cost. Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed interactive microcomputer based simulation models to help battery developers use cell reliability data to calculate the expected performance of new battery technologies. Key benefits of this model include its capability to estimate the effect of cell failures upon: (1) battery system discharge performance, (2) system cycle life, and (3) system economic performance (tradeoffs between capital investment and lifetime operating costs).

  17. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Carla

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  18. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  19. Recent developments and likely advances in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Andrew; Howard, Wilmont

    Advances in lithium-ion battery technology since the last International Power Sources Symposium in Amsterdam in September 2003 are reviewed. Cost and safety are still seen as important factors limiting further expansion of application of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium bis-oxalato borate electolyte salt and lithium iron phosphate cathode material are being actively investigated.

  20. Advances and Future Challenges in Printed Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ricardo E; Costa, Carlos M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in thin and flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society's needs for applications such as radio frequency sensing, interactive packaging, and other consumer products. Printed batteries comply with these requirements and are an excellent alternative to conventional batteries for many applications. Flexible and microbatteries are also included in the area of printed batteries when fabricated using printing technologies. The main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, developments, and printing techniques of printed batteries are presented and discussed in this Review. The state-of-the-art takes into account both the research and industrial levels. On the academic level, the research progress of printed batteries is divided into lithium-ion and Zn-manganese dioxide batteries and other battery types, with emphasis on the different materials for anode, cathode, and separator as well as in the battery design. With respect to the industrial state-of-the-art, materials, device formulations, and manufacturing techniques are presented. Finally, the prospects and challenges of printed batteries are discussed.

  1. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  2. Design options for automotive batteries in advanced car electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, K.

    The need to reduce fuel consumption, minimize emissions, and improve levels of safety, comfort and reliability is expected to result in a much higher demand for electric power in cars within the next 5 years. Forecasts vary, but a fourfold increase in starting power to 20 kW is possible, particularly if automatic stop/start features are adopted to significantly reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Increases in the low-rate energy demand are also forecast, but the use of larger alternators may avoid unacceptable high battery weights. It is also suggested from operational models that the battery will be cycled more deeply. In examining possible designs, the beneficial features of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries made with compressed absorbent separators are apparent. Several of their attributes are considered. They offer higher specific power, improved cycling capability and greater vibration resistance, as well as more flexibility in packaging and installation. Optional circuits considered for dual-voltage supplies are separate batteries for engine starting (36 V) and low-power duties (12 V), and a universal battery (36 V) coupled to a d.c.-d.c. converter for a 12-V equipment. Battery designs, which can be made on commercially available equipment with similar manufacturing costs (per W h and per W) to current products, are discussed. The 36-V battery, made with 0.7 mm thick plates, in the dual-battery system weighs 18.5 kg and has a cold-cranking amp (CCA) rating of 790 A at -18°C to 21.6 V (1080 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 25.4 V). The associated, cycleable 12-V battery, provides 1.5 kW h and weighs 24.6 kg. Thus, the combined battery weight is 43.1 kg. The single universal battery, with cycling capability, weighs 45.4 kg, has a CCA rating of 810 A (441 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 24.7 V), and when connected to the d.c.-d.c. converter at 75% efficiency provides a low-power capacity of 1.5 kW h.

  3. Advances in understanding mechanisms underpinning lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurbach, Doron; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Nazar, Linda F.; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The rechargeable lithium-air battery has the highest theoretical specific energy of any rechargeable battery and could transform energy storage if a practical device could be realized. At the fundamental level, little was known about the reactions and processes that take place in the battery, representing a significant barrier to progress. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the chemistry and electrochemistry that govern the operation of the lithium-air battery, especially the reactions at the cathode. The mechanisms of O2 reduction to Li2O2 on discharge and the reverse process on charge are discussed in detail, as are their consequences for the rate and capacity of the battery. The various parasitic reactions involving the cathode and electrolyte during discharge and charge are also considered. We also provide views on understanding the stability of the cathode and electrolyte and examine design principles for better lithium-air batteries.

  4. Advances in understanding mechanisms underpinning lithium–air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurbach, Doron; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Nazar, Linda F.; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The rechargeable lithium–air battery has the highest theoretical specific energy of any rechargeable battery and could transform energy storage if a practical device could be realized. At the fundamental level, little was known about the reactions and processes that take place in the battery, representing a significant barrier to progress. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the chemistry and electrochemistry that govern the operation of the lithium–air battery, especially the reactions at the cathode. The mechanisms of O2 reduction to Li2O2 on discharge and the reverse process on charge are discussed in detail, as are their consequences for the rate and capacity of the battery. The various parasitic reactions involving the cathode and electrolyte during discharge and charge are also considered. We also provide views on understanding the stability of the cathode and electrolyte and examine design principles for better lithium–air batteries.

  5. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Karner

    2012-04-01

    The UltraBattery retrofit project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs).

  6. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  7. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  8. Thermal batteries - Recent advances and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, K. K.; Laakso, E. R.

    A development status evaluation is presented for lithium aluminum-iron disulfide thermal battery systems employing inorganic salt eutectic electrolytes. A performance comparison is conducted between an LiAl/FeS2 battery and a similarly constructed Ca/CaCrO4 battery; it is found that the former is superior in virtue of both greater service life and greater energy density; energy densities of LiAl/FeS2 cells will with further development reach an energy density four times greater than that of the Ca/CaCrO4 type. In addition, LiAl/FeS2 batteries exhibit little or no electrical noise under low drain.

  9. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.; Peters, B.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Teprovich, J.; Coughlin, J.; Neikirk, K.; Fisher, C.

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  10. Design considerations for advanced battery concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical representation for the charge and discharge of a sodium-sulfur cell is developed. These equations are then used as the basis for a computerized model to examine the effects of cell arrangement in the design of a large multi-kilowatt battery from a group of hypothetical individual cells with known variations in their ampere hour capacity and internal resistance. The cycling characteristics of 216 individual cells arranged in six different configurations are evaluated with the view towards minimizing the adverse effects that are introduced due to the stoichastic aspects of groupings of cells, as well as the possibility of cell failures in both the open and shorted mode. Although battery systems based on sodium-sulfur cells are described in this example, any of the newer electrochemical systems can be fitted into this framework by making appropriate modifications to the basic equations.

  11. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature by acknowledged experts that draw heavily on the authors' own research but are sufficiently general to provide the lithium ion researcher with enough guidance to the current literature and the current thinking in the field. Some of the literature references may be too current as there are numerous citations of conference proceedings which may be easily accessible to the lithium ion scientist or engineer but are not likely to be available to the interested chemist coming to the field for the first time. One author expresses the hope and expectation that properly peer-reviewed articles will appear in due course and the interested reader should look out for them in future. From the point of view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer, the book covers most of the topics that are of current interest. Two areas are treated by inference in the various chapters but are not specifically granted chapters of their own. One of these is safety and abuse tolerance and the other is cost. Since there are a number of groups active in the investigation of abuse tolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission and obviously the cost factor is a driver for commercial development. The book should be instructive to the chemical community provided the average chemist can obtain some guidance from an electrochemist or battery engineer. Many of the measurements and techniques referred to (e.g. impedance, capacities, etc.) may be somewhat unfamiliar and confusing in the context they are used. Chemists who persevere and can obtain some guidance will find some rich opportunities for the

  12. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  13. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  14. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  15. Hughes advanced nickel-cadmium batteries: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogner, R. Sam

    1991-01-01

    After delivering a significant data base on boilerplate and prototype advanced nickel cadmium (Ni/Cd) battery cells, Hughes decided to start using the Advanced Ni/Cd batteries on several of their flight programs. The advanced cell can been operated at 80 percent depth of discharge (DOD) for more than 10 years, and possibly 15 years, in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) applications. This cell offers an important weight saving over the standard Ni/Cd cell that is usually only operated at 50 to 60 percent DOD in GEO applications. The negative and positive electrodes are manufactured using electrochemical deposition methods which reduce the sinter corrosion problems encountered by the chemical deposition process used in the standard cells. The degradable nylon separators used in standard cells was replaced by polymer impregnated Zirconia separators.

  16. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. The objectives were: to identify advanced battery systems capable of meeting the requirements of various types of space missions, with significant advantages over currently available batteries, to obtain an accurate estimate of the anticipated improvements of these advanced systems, and to obtain a consensus for the selection of systems most likely to yield the desired improvements. Few advanced systems are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the additional requirements of safety and reliability within the next 15 years. The few that have this potential are: (1) regenerative fuel cells, both alkaline and solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) types for large power systems; (2) lithium-intercalatable cathodes, particularly the metal ozides intercalatable cathodes (MnO2 or CoO2), with applications limited to small spacecrafts requiring limited cycle life and low power levels; (3) lithium molten salt systems (e.g., LiAl-FeS2); and (4) Na/beta Alumina/Sulfur or metal chlorides cells. Likely technological advances that would enhance the performance of all the above systems are also identified, in particular: improved bifunctional oxygen electrodes; improved manufacturing technology for thin film lithium electrodes in combination with polymeric electrolytes; improved seals for the lithium molten salt cells; and improved ceramics for sodium/solid electrolyte cells.

  17. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed reviewmore » of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.« less

  18. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed review of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.

  19. Space Station Freedom advanced photovoltaics and battery technology development planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brender, Karen D.; Cox, Spruce M.; Gates, Mark T.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) usable electrical power is planned to be built up incrementally during assembly phase to a peak of 75 kW end-of-life (EOL) shortly after Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) is achieved in 1999. This power will be provided by planar silicon (Si) arrays and nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries. The need for power is expected to grow from 75 kW to as much as 150 kW EOL during the evolutionary phase of SSF, with initial increases beginning as early as 2002. Providing this additional power with current technology may not be as cost effective as using advanced technology arrays and batteries expected to develop prior to this evolutionary phase. A six-month study sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and conducted by Boeing Defense and Space Group was initiated in Aug. 1991. The purpose of the study was to prepare technology development plans for cost effective advanced photovoltaic (PV) and battery technologies with application to SSF growth, SSF upgrade after its arrays and batteries reach the end of their design lives, and other low Earth orbit (LEO) platforms. Study scope was limited to information available in the literature, informal industry contacts, and key representatives from NASA and Boeing involved in PV and battery research and development. Ten battery and 32 PV technologies were examined and their performance estimated for SSF application. Promising technologies were identified based on performance and development risk. Rough order of magnitude cost estimates were prepared for development, fabrication, launch, and operation. Roadmaps were generated describing key issues and development paths for maturing these technologies with focus on SSF application.

  20. Optimal shifting of Photovoltaic and load fluctuations from fuel cell and electrolyzer to lead acid battery in a Photovoltaic/hydrogen standalone power system for improved performance and life time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesfahunegn, S. G.; Ulleberg, Ø.; Vie, P. J. S.; Undeland, T. M.

    Cost reduction is very critical in the pursuit of realizing more competitive clean and sustainable energy systems. In line with this goal a control method that enables minimization of the cost associated with performance and life time degradation of fuel cell and electrolyzer, and cost of battery replacement in PV/hydrogen standalone power systems is developed. The method uses the advantage of existing peak shaving battery to suppress short-term PV and load fluctuations while reducing impact on the cycle life of the battery itself. This is realized by diverting short-term cyclic charge/discharge events induced by PV/load power fluctuations to the upper band of the battery state of charge regime while operating the fuel cell and electrolyzer systems along stable (smooth) power curves. Comparative studies of the developed method with two other reference cases demonstrate that the proposed method fares better with respect to defined performance indices as fluctuation suppression rate and mean state of charge. Modeling of power electronics and design of controllers used in the study are also briefly discussed in Appendix A.

  1. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  2. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney; Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  3. Recent advances in NiMH battery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetcenko, M. A.; Ovshinsky, S. R.; Reichman, B.; Young, K.; Fierro, C.; Koch, J.; Zallen, A.; Mays, W.; Ouchi, T.

    Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) is a commercially important rechargeable battery technology for both consumer and industrial applications due to design flexibility, excellent energy and power, environmental acceptability and cost. [1] From the initial product introduction in 1991 of cylindrical cells having an energy of 54 Wh kg -1, today's small consumer cells have a specific energy over 100 Wh kg -1. Numerous licensed manufacturers produce a myriad of NiMH products ranging from 30 mAh button cells to a wide variety of consumer cylindrical products, prismatic cells up to 250 Ah for electric buses and 6 Ah multicell modules for hybrid electric vehicles. Power has increased from under 200 to 1200 W kg -1 commercially and up to 2000 W kg -1 at a development level [2]. Early NiMH batteries had limited operating temperatures while today's batteries can provide excellent power at cold temperatures of -30 °C and provide over 90% capacity at 70 °C. Many of these product performance advances are a result of innovations to the metal hydride and nickel hydroxide materials. We will report on some of these key material advances which provide today's NiMH performance and new materials to allow higher energy, power and significant cost reduction.

  4. Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, Rodney

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the research that was completed under project title Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

  5. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  6. Exide eyeing technology for high-powered battery

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Exide Corp. said recently it may soon produce a graphite battery with more than three times the power of today's most advanced production batteries--but with half their weight, far smaller size, and only a third the cost. The Reading-based Exide, the world's largest maker of lead-acid batteries, said it has preliminarily agreed to pay $20 million for a controlling interest in Lion Compact Energy, a privately held company that's researching dual-graphite battery technology said to be cleaner cheaper and more efficient. Exide hopes to turn the technology into the products; it said initial applications include smaller battery-operated devices such as cell phones, cameras, laptop computers, power tools and certain military equipment. Larger devices would follow, and could include wheel chairs, motorcycles, replacement for lead-acid batteries in cars and trucks and, potentially, all-electric vehicles.

  7. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  8. Lessons learned in acquiring new regulations for shipping advanced electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.; Hammel, C.; Altemos, E.A.

    1994-12-01

    In 1990, the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the US Department of Energy established its ad hoc EV Battery Readiness Working Group to identify regulatory barriers to the commercialization of advanced EV battery technologies and facilitate the removal of these barriers. A Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) was formed to address the regulatory issues associated with the domestic and international shipment of these new battery technologies. The SSWG invites major industrial developers of advanced battery technologies to join as members and work closely with appropriate domestic and international regulatory authorities to develop suitable regulations and procedures for the safe transport of these new battery technologies. This paper describes the domestic and international regulatory processes for the transport of dangerous goods; reviews the status of shipping regulations for sodium-beta and lithium batteries; and delineates the lessons learned to date in this process. The sodium-beta battery family was the first category of advanced EV batteries to be addressed by the SSWG. It includes both sodium/sulfur and sodium/metal chloride batteries. Their efforts led to the establishment of a UN number (UN 3292) in the UN Recommendations, for cold cells and batteries, and establishment of a US Department of Transportation general exemption (DOT-E-10917) covering cold and hot batteries, as well as cold cells. The lessons learned for sodium-beta batteries, over the period of 1990--94, are now being applied to the development of regulations for shipping a new generation of lithium battery technologies (lithium-polymer and lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries).

  9. Oxidation-Resistant Coating For Bipolar Lead/Acid Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolstad, James J.

    1993-01-01

    Cathode side of bipolar substrate coated with nonoxidizable conductive layer. Coating prepared as water slurry of aqueous dispersion of polyethylene copolymer plus such conductive fillers as tin oxide, titanium, tantalum, or tungsten oxide. Applied easily to substrate of polyethylene carbon plastic. As slurry dries, conductive, oxidation-resistant coating forms on positive side of substrate.

  10. Proceedings of the tenth annual battery conference on applications and advances

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This is a collection of papers presented at the 1995 Annual Battery Conference on Application and Advances. The goal of the conference is to fill the need for improved communication between the developers and users of battery systems and the designers of interfacing electronic power conversion and control components and systems. The Conference attempts to attain that goal through deliberations on issues involving the interactions between those battery and electronic systems in commercial, industrial, space and military applications.

  11. Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, 2nd, California State University, Long Beach, Jan. 14-16, 1986, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, R. L. (Editor); Frank, H. A. (Editor); Pickett, D. F., Jr. (Editor); Eliash, B. M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Various papers on battery applications and advances are presented. The general topics considered include: power systems in biomedical applications, batteries in electronic and computer applications, batteries in transportation and energy systems, space power systems, aircraft power systems, applications in defense systems, battery safety issues, and quality assurance and manufacturing.

  12. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... following listing of intellectual property in the Federal Register on January 19, 2011 (76 FR 3118). A... Department of the Army Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially Exclusive, or Non- Exclusive Licenses; Battery Day Patent Licensing...

  13. Assessment of Potential for Batteries in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. E.

    1983-01-01

    Different battery technologies for energy storage in space missions were examined. One of the best ways of the possibilities of high energy density batteries were determined by looking at more conventional batteries (i.e., lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, etc.). The theoretical specific energy density for state of the art batteries and the usable energy density for a reasonable life expectancy are outlined. The most mature of these couples is lead acid, which achieves nearly 20% of its theoretical capacity. The nickel-cadmium couple, has matured to where the active capacity is 17% of its theoretical capacity. The achievements are used to measure the practicality of more advanced batteries and to estimate what is needed for future high power space systems.

  14. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications: Nontechnical summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, G. L.

    This paper provides an overview of the performance characteristics of the most prominent batteries under development for electric vehicles (EV's) and compares these characteristics to the USABC Mid-Term and Long-Term criteria, as well as to typical vehicle-related battery requirements. Most of the battery performance information was obtained from independent tests, conducted using simulated driving power profiles, for DOE and EPRI at Argonne National Laboratory. The EV batteries are categorized as near-term, mid-term, and long-term technologies based on their relative development status, as well as our estimate of their potential availability as commercial EV batteries. Also, the performance capabilities generally increase in going from the near-term to the mid-term and on to the long-term technologies. To date, the USABC has chosen to fund a few selected mid-term and long-term battery technologies.

  15. Magnum(R) NiCd advanced nickel-cadmium battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoles, Darren

    1995-01-01

    The Power Systems Department of Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., located in Colorado Springs, Colorado, had developed a long-life advanced Nickel-Cadmium battery cell for aerospace applications. This battery cell, known as the MAGNUM NiCd cell, offers significant life expectancy increase over traditional NiCd battery cells. In addition, it offers significant cost reduction from the Super NiCd battery cell (developed by Hughes Aircraft Company and manufactured by the Power Systems Department of Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc.).

  16. Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) research program annual review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-08-01

    This document presents a summary of the evaluation and comments provided by the review panel for the FY 2005 Department of Energy (DOE) Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) program annual review.

  17. Status and evaluation of hybrid electric vehicle batteries for short term applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Himy, A.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this task is to compile information regarding batteries which could be use for electric cars or hybrid vehicles in the short term. More specifically, this study applies lead-acid batteries and nickel-cadmium battery technologies which are more developed than the advanced batteries which are presently being investigated under USABC contracts and therefore more accessible in production efficiency and economies of scale. Moreover, the development of these batteries has advanced the state-of-the-art not only in terms of performance and energy density but also in cost reduction. The survey of lead-acid battery development took the biggest part of the effort, since they are considered more apt to be used in the short-term. Companies pursuing the advancement of lead-acid batteries were not necessarily the major automobile battery manufacturers. Innovation is found more in small or new companies. Other battery systems for short-term are discussed in the last part of this report. We will review the various technologies investigated, their status and prognosis for success in the short term.

  18. It`s the battery, stupid

    SciTech Connect

    Moskal, B.S.

    1994-10-03

    Electric cars in California by 1998 are seen to run on lead-acid batteries, carrying two people about 50 miles on a hot day. Performance may not approach near that of a family car but with an advanced battery, consumers may realize satisfactory performance. However, this would entail overwhelming costs and, chances are, the electric vehicle would fail in the US market. In addition to the fact that a 2% zero emissions vehicle by 1998 in California would not affect air quality, battery technology has yet to be commercially viable. Current models of leading automakers are described.

  19. Rechargeable Zn-air batteries: Progress in electrolyte development and cell configuration advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Ivey, D. G.; Xie, Z.; Qu, W.

    2015-06-01

    Zn-air batteries, which are cost-effective and have high energy density, are promising energy storage devices for renewable energy and power sources for electric transportation. Nevertheless, limited charge and discharge cycles and low round-trip efficiency have long been barriers preventing the large-scale deployment of Zn-air batteries in the marketplace. Technology advancements for each battery component and the whole battery/cell assembly are being pursued, with some key milestones reached during the past 20 years. As an example, commercial Zn-air battery products with long lifetimes and high energy efficiencies are being considered for grid-scale energy storage and for automotive markets. In this review, we present our perspectives on improvements in Zn-air battery technology through the exploration and utilization of different electrolyte systems. Recent studies ranging from aqueous electrolytes to nonaqueous electrolytes, including solid polymer electrolytes and ionic liquids, as well as hybrid electrolyte systems adopted in Zn-air batteries have been evaluated. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each electrolyte, as well as the fundamental electrochemistry of Zn and air electrodes in different electrolytes, are the focus of this paper. Further consideration is given to detailed Zn-air battery configurations that have been studied and applied in commercial or nearing commercial products, with the purpose of exposing state-of-the-art technology innovations and providing insights into future advancements.

  20. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  1. Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-17

    Sodium-metal chloride batteries, ZEBRA, are considered as one of the most important electrochemical devices for stationary energy storage applications because of its advantages of good cycle life, safety, and reliability. However, sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries, the most promising redox chemistry in ZEBRA batteries, still face great challenges for the practical application due to its inevitable feature of using Ni cathode (high materials cost). In this work, a novel intermediate-temperature sodium-iron chloride (Na-FeCl2) battery using a molten sodium anode and Fe cathode is proposed and demonstrated. The first use of unique sulfur-based additives in Fe cathode enables Na-FeCl2 batteries can be assembled in the discharged state and operated at intermediate-temperature (<200°C). The results in this work demonstrate that intermediate-temperature Na-FeCl2 battery technology could be a propitious solution for ZEBRA battery technologies by replacing the traditional Na-NiCl2 chemistry.

  2. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  3. Advances in nickel hydrogen technology at Yardney Battery Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, J. G.; Hall, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    The current major activites in nickel hydrogen technology being addressed at Yardney Battery Division are outlined. Five basic topics are covered: an update on life cycle testing of ManTech 50 AH NiH2 cells in the LEO regime; an overview of the Air Force/industry briefing; nickel electrode process upgrading; 4.5 inch cell development; and bipolar NiH2 battery development.

  4. Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Kirby, Brent W.; Xu, Wu; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-11-12

    In this study, we reported an intermediate-temperature (~150°C) sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery. With a reduced operating temperature, this novel battery can potentially reduce the cost and safety issues associated with the conventional high-temperature (300~350°C) Na-S battery. A dense β"-Al2O3 solid membrane and tetraglyme were utilized as the electrolyte separator and catholyte solvent in this battery. Solubility tests indicated that cathode mixture of Na2S4 and S exhibited extremely high solubility in tetraglyme (e.g., > 4.1 M for Na2S4 + 4 S). CV scans of Na2S4 in tetraglyme revealed two pairs of redox couples with peaks at around 2.22 and 1.75 V, corresponding to the redox reactions of polysulfide species. The discharge/charge profiles of the Na-S battery showed a slope region and a plateau, indicating multiple steps and cell reactions. In-situ Raman measurements during battery operation suggested that polysulfide species were formed in the sequence of Na2S5 + S → Na2S5 + Na2S4→ Na2S4 + Na2S2 during discharge and in a reverse order during charge. This battery showed dramatic improvement in rate capacity and cycling stability over room-temperature Na-S batteries, which makes it attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  5. Advances and development of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevey, James Edward

    Lithium-ion battery technologies have always been accompanied by severe safety issues; therefore recent research efforts have focused on improving battery safety. In large part, the hazardous nature of lithium-ion batteries stems from the high flammability of liquid electrolytes. Consequently, numerous researchers have attempted to replace liquid electrolytes with nonflammable solid electrolytes in order to avoid potential safety problems. Unfortunately, current solid electrolytes are incapable of performing as effectively as liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries due to inferior electrochemical capabilities. While some "all-solid-state" batteries have found niche application, further technological advancement is required for large scale replacement of liquid-based batteries. The goal of this research is to develop all-solid-state batteries that can outperform liquid batteries and understand the mechanisms that dictate battery operation and behavior. This involves fabrication of highly conducting solid electrolytes, production and analyzation of batteries employing state-of-the-art electrode materials, and generation of high power and high energy density lithium batteries. In this dissertation, the first objective was to manufacture highly conducting solid electrolytes that are stable in contact with lithium metal. Numerous characterization techniques were used to gain understanding of physical and chemical properties of solid electrolytes, as well as mechanisms for fast ion conduction. A new process for production of highly conducting and stable solid electrolytes is developed and materials are used to evaluate performance of electrodes in an all-solid-state construction. The second objective of this work was to research the performance of both positive and negative electrodes incorporating solid electrolyte. Evaluation of electrochemical results allowed for a good understanding of reaction mechanisms taking place within composite battery materials and at

  6. High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project Advanced Space-Rated Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has an agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation New Energy Investment Company, Ltd. (CNOOC), under the United States-China EcoPartnerships Framework, to create a bi-national entity seeking to develop technically feasible and economically viable solutions to energy and environmental issues. Advanced batteries have been identified as one of the initial areas targeted for collaborations. CWRU invited NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) personnel from the Electrochemistry Branch to CWRU to discuss various aspects of advanced battery development as they might apply to this partnership. Topics discussed included: the process for the selection of a battery chemistry; the establishment of an integrated development program; project management/technical interactions; new technology developments; and synergies between batteries for automotive and space operations. Additional collaborations between CWRU and NASA GRC's Electrochemistry Branch were also discussed.

  7. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  8. "Buried-Anode" Technology Leads to Advanced Lithium Batteries (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A technology developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has sparked a start-up company that has attracted funding from the Advanced Projects Research Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). Planar Energy, Inc. has licensed NREL's "buried-anode" technology and put it to work in solid-state lithium batteries. The company claims its large-format batteries can achieve triple the performance of today's lithium-ion batteries at half the cost, and if so, they could provide a significant boost to the emerging market for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  9. Advanced nickel-cadmium batteries for geosynchronous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, David F.; Lim, Hong S.; Krause, Stanley J.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1987-01-01

    A nickel cadmium battery was developed that can be operated at 80 percent depth of discharge in excess of 10 years in a geosynchronous orbit application, and has about a 30 percent weight savings per spacecraft over present nickel cadmium batteries when used with a 1000 watts eclipse load. The approach used in the development was to replace nylon separators with inert polymer impregnated zirconia, use electrochemically deposited plates in place of conventional chemically precipitated ones, and use an additive to extend negative plate lifetime. The design has undergone extensive testing using both engineering and protoflight cell configurations.

  10. Impact of increased electric vehicle use on battery recycling infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Hammel, C.; Jungst, R.

    1996-12-01

    State and Federal regulations have been implemented that are intended to encourage more widespread use of low-emission vehicles. These regulations include requirements of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and regulations pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the Energy Policy Act. If the market share of electric vehicles increases in response to these initiatives, corresponding growth will occur in quantities of spent electric vehicle batteries for disposal. Electric vehicle battery recycling infrastructure must be adequate to support collection, transportation, recovery, and disposal stages of waste battery handling. For some battery types, such as lead-acid, a recycling infrastructure is well established; for others, little exists. This paper examines implications of increasing electric vehicle use for lead recovery infrastructure. Secondary lead recovery facilities can be expected to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead-acid electric vehicle battery recycling. However, they face stringent environmental constraints that may curtail capacity use or new capacity installation. Advanced technologies help address these environmental constraints. For example, this paper describes using backup power to avoid air emissions that could occur if electric utility power outages disable emissions control equipment. This approach has been implemented by GNB Technologies, a major manufacturer and recycler of lead-acid batteries. Secondary lead recovery facilities appear to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead waste from electric vehicles, but growth in that capacity could be constrained by environmental regulations. Advances in lead recovery technologies may alleviate possible environmental constraints on capacity growth.

  11. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen spacecraft cell and battery design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Wright, Doug; Repplinger, Ron

    1995-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) NiH2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth orbital satellites and have accumulated more than 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard NiH2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV NiH2 technology flight heritage and database. The advanced cell design offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell configuration and a reduced parts count. The internal electrode stack is a prismatic flat-plate arrangement. The flat individual cell pressure vessel provides a maximum direct thermal path for removing heat from the electrode stack. The cell geometry also minimizes multiple-cell battery packaging constraints by using an established end-plateltie-rod battery design. A major design advantage is that the battery support structure is efficiently required to restrain only the force applied to a portion of the end cell. As the cells are stacked in series to achieve the desired system voltage, this increment of the total battery weight becomes small. The geometry of the DPV cell promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and places all cell terminals along the length of the battery. The resulting ability to minimize intercell wiring offers additional design simplicity and significant weight savings. The DPV battery design offers significant cost and weight savings advantages while providing minimal design risks. Cell and battery level design issues will be addressed including mechanical, electrical and thermal design aspects. A design performance analysis will be presented at both

  12. Relativity and the mercury battery.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Pyykkö, Pekka

    2011-10-01

    Comparative, fully relativistic (FR), scalar relativistic (SR) and non-relativistic (NR) DFT calculations attribute about 30% of the mercury-battery voltage to relativity. The obtained percentage is smaller than for the lead-acid battery, but not negligible.

  13. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Sally Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the

  14. Impacts of EV battery production and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

    1996-06-01

    Electric vehicles batteries use energy and produce environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for four selected battery types (sodium-sulfur, nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, and advanced lead-acid), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. Nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, for example, but energy requirements for the production of cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for metal hydride electrodes, while the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

  15. Energizing the batteries for electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, L.

    1993-07-01

    This article reports of the nickel-metal-hydride battery and its ability to compete with the lead-acid battery in electric-powered vehicles. The topics of the article include development of the battery, the impetus for development in California environmental law, battery performance, packaging for the battery's hazardous materials, and the solid electrolyte battery.

  16. Advanced materials for next generation NiMH portable, HEV and EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ovshinsky, S.R.; Dhar, S.K.; Fetcenko, M.A.; Corrigan, D.A.; Reichman, B.; Young, K.; Fierro, C.; Venkatesan, S.; Gifford, P.; Koch, J.

    1998-07-01

    While Ovonic NiMH batteries are already in high volume commercial production for portable applications, advances in materials technology have enabled performance improvements in specific energy (100 Wh/kg), specific power (600-1000 W/kg), high temperature operation, charge retention, and voltage stability. Concurrent with technology advances, Ovonic NiMH batteries have established performance and commercial milestones in electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, as well as scooter, motorcycle and bicycle applications. As important as these advances, significant manufacturing cost reductions have also occurred which allow continued growth of NiMH technology. In this paper, advances in performance, applications and cost reduction are discussed with particular emphasis on the improved proprietary metal hydride and nickel hydroxide materials that make such advances possible.

  17. Advanced Materials for Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status, Challenges and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a β"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300~350°C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

  18. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, XC; Xia, GG; Lemmon, JP; Yang, ZG

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a beta ''-Al(2)O(3) solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 degrees C ). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Advanced hydrogen electrode for hydrogen-bromide battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosek, Jack A.; Laconti, Anthony B.

    1987-01-01

    Binary platinum alloys are being developed as hydrogen electrocatalysts for use in a hydrogen bromide battery system. These alloys were varied in terms of alloy component mole ratio and heat treatment temperature. Electrocatalyst evaluation, performed in the absence and presence of bromide ion, includes floating half cell polarization studies, electrochemical surface area measurements, X ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis and corrosion measurements. Results obtained to date indicate a platinum rich alloy has the best tolerance to bromide ion poisoning.

  20. Investigation of novel electrolyte systems for advanced metal/air batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui

    It is a worldwide challenge to develop advanced green power sources for modern portable devices, transportation and stationary power generation. Metal/air batteries and fuel cells clearly stand out in view of their high specific energy, high energy efficiency and environment-friendliness. Advanced metal/air batteries based on metal ion conductors and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operated at elevated temperatures (>120°C) can circumvent the limitations of current technologies and bring considerable advantages. The key is to develop suitable electrolytes to enable these new technologies. In this thesis research, investigation of novel electrolytes systems for advanced metal/air batteries and PEM fuel cells is conducted. Novel polymer gel electrolyte systems, [metal salt/ionic liquid/polymer] and [metal salt/liquid polyether/polymer] are prepared. Such systems contain no volatile solvents, conduct metal ions (Li+ or Zn 2+) with high ionic conductivity, possess wide electrochemical stability windows, and exhibit wide operating temperature ranges. They promise to enable non-aqueous, all-solid-state, thin-film Li/air batteries and Zn/air batteries. They are advantageous for application in other battery systems as well, such as rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. In the case of proton exchange membranes, polymer gel electrolyte systems [acid/ionic liquid/polymer] are prepared. Especially, H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI is demonstrated as prospective proton exchange membranes for PEM fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Comprehensive electrochemical characterization, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and spectroscopy analysis (NMR and FTIR) are carried out to investigate these novel electrolyte systems and their ion transport mechanisms. The design and synthesis of novel ionic liquids and electrolyte systems based on them for advantageous application in various electrochemical power sources are highlighted in this work.

  1. Research Advances: Paper Batteries, Phototriggered Microcapsules, and Oil-Free Plastic Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemists continue to work at the forefront of materials science research. Recent advances include application of bioengineering to produce plastics from renewable biomass instead of petroleum, generation of paper-based batteries, and development of phototriggerable microcapsules for chemical delivery. In this article, the author provides summaries…

  2. Engineered woven gauntlets to improve the performance of lead/acid tubular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzaghi, G.

    Several research studies have recently demonstrated that adequate compression of positive active material is one of the key determinants of the life of lead/acid batteries. The superior life displayed by batteries with tubular plates, as opposed to those with flat pasted plates, is related to the ability of the gauntlet to retain the active material around each conductive spine of the tubular plate. Woven multi-tubular gauntlets with engineered fabric structure offer higher resistance to chemical oxidation, better energy utilization due to enhanced elastic compression of the active material, and longer trouble-free battery life. Test results are presented to demonstrate that the choice of the gauntlet affects both the performance and life of the cells.

  3. Developing New Electrolytes for Advanced Li-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McOwen, Dennis Wayne

    The use of renewable energy sources is on the rise, as new energy generating technologies continue to become more efficient and economical. Furthermore, the advantages of an energy infrastructure which relies more on sustainable and renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly apparent. The most readily available of these renewable energy sources, wind and solar energy in particular, are naturally intermittent. Thus, to enable the continued expansion and widespread adoption of renewable energy generating technology, a cost-effective energy storage system is essential. Additionally, the market for electric/hybrid electric vehicles, which both require efficient energy storage, continues to grow as more consumers seek to reduce their consumption of gasoline. These vehicles, however, remain quite expensive, due primarily to costs associated with storing the electrical energy. High-voltage and thermally stable Li-ion battery technology is a promising solution for both grid-level and electric vehicle energy storage. Current limitations in materials, however, limit the energy density and safe operating temperature window of the battery. Specifically, the state-of-the-art electrolyte used in Li-ion batteries is not compatible with recently developed high-voltage positive electrodes, which are one of the most effectual ways of increasing the energy density. The electrolyte is also thermally unstable above 50 °C, and prone to thermal runaway reaction if exposed to prolonged heating. The lithium salt used in such electrolytes, LiPF6, is a primary contributor to both of these issues. Unfortunately, an improved lithium salt which meets the myriad property requirements for Li-ion battery electrolytes has eluded researchers for decades. In this study, a renewed effort to find such a lithium salt was begun, using a recently developed methodology to rapidly screen for desirable properties. Four new lithium salts and one relatively new but uncharacterized lithium salt were

  4. Review and recent advances in battery health monitoring and prognostics technologies for electric vehicle (EV) safety and mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvanizaniani, Seyed Mohammad; Liu, Zongchang; Chen, Yan; Lee, Jay

    2014-06-01

    As hybrid and electric vehicle technologies continue to advance, car manufacturers have begun to employ lithium ion batteries as the electrical energy storage device of choice for use in existing and future vehicles. However, to ensure batteries are reliable, efficient, and capable of delivering power and energy when required, an accurate determination of battery performance, health, and life prediction is necessary. This paper provides a review of battery prognostics and health management (PHM) techniques, with a focus on major unmet needs in this area for battery manufacturers, car designers, and electric vehicle drivers. A number of approaches are presented that have been developed to monitor battery health status and performance, as well as the evolution of prognostics modeling methods. The goal of this review is to render feasible and cost effective solutions for dealing with battery life issues under dynamic operating conditions.

  5. Energy impacts in producing and recycling EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This article reports that choosing the best EV battery involves more than a quest for greater range per charge, as total energy cycle assessment of batteries demonstrates. Much has been written about the performance characteristics of electric vehicle (EV) batteries, but information about materials and the production and recycling processes is not as readily available. Such information has not been the primary focus of interest, since designs and processes are still under development, and much of the information is proprietary. An overview of four electric vehicle batteries--advanced lead/acid, sodium/sulfur, nickel/cadmium and nickel/metal hydride--highlights significant differences in energy consumption during production and recycling of materials used in the batteries. Certain realities apply to these batteries, despite their technical distinctions. First, and most obvious, the batteries will make up a significant fraction, 20--40%, of vehicle mass. Impacts are increased because some batteries with lifetimes shorter than the vehicle`s will need replacement at least once. Another insight is that battery recyclability is being considered at the design stage because the electric vehicle is being born green, that is, environmentally benign from the onset. In contrast to the small consumer cells now simply being shredded, EV batteries will be large enough to warrant disassembly and material segregation as the first step in recycling. Electrode and electrolyte materials in advanced batteries are nonstandard in the automotive industry, so process information is not readily available.

  6. Organic anodes and sulfur/selenium cathodes for advanced Li and Na batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chao

    To address energy crisis and environmental pollution induced by fossil fuels, there is an urgent demand to develop sustainable, renewable, environmental benign, low cost and high capacity energy storage devices to power electric vehicles and enhance clean energy approaches such as solar energy, wind energy and hydroenergy. However, the commercial Li-ion batteries cannot satisfy the critical requirements for next generation rechargeable batteries. The commercial electrode materials (graphite anode and LiCoO 2 cathode) are unsustainable, unrenewable and environmental harmful. Organic materials derived from biomasses are promising candidates for next generation rechargeable battery anodes due to their sustainability, renewability, environmental benignity and low cost. Driven by the high potential of organic materials for next generation batteries, I initiated a new research direction on exploring advanced organic compounds for Li-ion and Na-ion battery anodes. In my work, I employed croconic acid disodium salt and 2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone disodium salt as models to investigate the effects of size and carbon coating on electrochemical performance for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The results demonstrate that the minimization of organic particle size into nano-scale and wrapping organic materials with graphene oxide can remarkably enhance the rate capability and cycling stability of organic anodes in both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. To match with organic anodes, high capacity sulfur and selenium cathodes were also investigated. However, sulfur and selenium cathodes suffer from low electrical conductivity and shuttle reaction, which result in capacity fading and poor lifetime. To circumvent the drawbacks of sulfur and selenium, carbon matrixes such as mesoporous carbon, carbonized polyacrylonitrile and carbonized perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride are employed to encapsulate sulfur, selenium and selenium sulfide. The resulting composites exhibit

  7. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  8. Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

  9. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles.

  10. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles. PMID:23651993

  11. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.

  12. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Nanowires as Advanced Conductive Agents for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Li, Xuan; Zhao, Xinyi; Feng, Jinkui; Qian, Yitai

    2015-09-01

    Copper nanowires (CuNW) are synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method and test as advanced conductive agents for lithium ion batteries. Anode prepared with CuNW and graphite show improved rate ability and excellent cycling stability even at high rate. AC-impedance of CuNW added electrode is much lower than that of electrodes containing carbon black only. This implies the CuNW could lower the electronical resistance. PMID:26716306

  13. 1992 five year battery forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Amistadi, D.

    1992-12-01

    Five-year trends for automotive and industrial batteries are projected. Topic covered include: SLI shipments; lead consumption; automotive batteries (5-year annual growth rates); industrial batteries (standby power and motive power); estimated average battery life by area/country for 1989; US motor vehicle registrations; replacement battery shipments; potential lead consumption in electric vehicles; BCI recycling rates for lead-acid batteries; US average car/light truck battery life; channels of distribution; replacement battery inventory end July; 2nd US battery shipment forecast.

  14. An assessment of research and development leadership in advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bruch, V.L.

    1994-02-01

    Due to the recently enacted California regulations requiring zero emission vehicles be sold in the market place by 1998, electric vehicle research and development (R&D) is accelerating. Much of the R&D work is focusing on the Achilles` heel of electric vehicles -- advanced batteries. This report provides an assessment of the R&D work currently underway in advanced batteries and electric vehicles in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Although the US can be considered one of the leading countries in terms of advanced battery and electric vehicle R&D work, it lags other countries, particularly France, in producing and promoting electric vehicles. The US is focusing strictly on regulations to promote electric vehicle usage while other countries are using a wide variety of policy instruments (regulations, educational outreach programs, tax breaks and subsidies) to encourage the use of electric vehicles. The US should consider implementing additional policy instruments to ensure a domestic market exists for electric vehicles. The domestic is the largest and most important market for the US auto industry.

  15. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

  16. Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications

    SciTech Connect

    Posthumus, K.J.C.M.; Schillemans, R.A.A.; Kluiters, E.C.

    1996-11-01

    Since 1981 the Electrochemistry Group of TNO carries out a research program for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) with respect to batteries and fuel cells. Part of this Advanced Batteries program was the evaluation of possible alternatives for the nowadays applied batteries in conventional diesel electric submarines and ships. From this evaluation the high temperature sodium-sulfur battery proved to be the most promising candidate. To investigate the feasibility of the sodium-sulfur battery for naval application, calculations have been made on the expected performance within the two envisaged applications. To validated the calculation experimental testing was carried out on the submarine application. During operational missions the application hardly requires any supply of heating energy. Within the submarine application there is no need for installing a cooling system for the battery. Shock and vibration tests on a 10 kWh module did not lead to any measurable decrease in performance. Calculations show that the operational characteristics of a submarine equipped with sodium sulfur batteries outperform a submarine equipped with the traditional lead acid batteries. The short lifetime is the most important limitation in all applications.

  17. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  18. Rational design of metal oxide nanocomposite anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Yu, Shenglan; Yuan, Tianzhi; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Yinzhu

    2015-05-01

    Metal-oxide anodes represent a significant future direction for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, their practical applications are still seriously hampered by electrode disintegration and capacity fading during cycling. Here, we report a rational design of 3D-staggered metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode directly fabricated by pulsed spray evaporation chemical vapor deposition, where various oxide nanocomponents are in a staggered distribution uniformly along three dimensions and across the whole electrode. Such a special design of nanoarchitecture combines the advantages of nanoscale materials in volume change and Li+/electron conduction as well as uniformly staggered and compact structure in atom migration during lithiation/delithiation, which exhibits high specific capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The rational design of metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode opens up new possibilities for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  19. Battery-Charge-State Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Charge-state model for lead/acid batteries proposed as part of effort to make equivalent of fuel gage for battery-powered vehicles. Models based on equations that approximate observable characteristics of battery electrochemistry. Uses linear equations, easier to simulate on computer, and gives smooth transitions between charge, discharge, and recuperation.

  20. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  1. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  2. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Bennett, William

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair lunar lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy as compared to today's state-of-the-art batteries. Based on customer requirements, the specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery level at 0 degrees Celsius (degrees Celcius) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation over 0 to 30 degrees C, and 200 cycles are targeted. The team, consisting of members from NASA Glenn Research Center, Johnson Space Center, and Jet Propulsion laboratory, surveyed the literature, compiled information on recent materials developments, and consulted with other battery experts in the community to identify advanced battery materials that might be capable of achieving the desired results with further development. A variety of electrode materials were considered, including layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. lithium-sulfur systems were also considered. Hypothetical cell constructs that combined compatible anode and cathode materials with suitable electrolytes, separators, current collectors, headers, and cell enclosures were modeled. While some of these advanced materials are projected to obtain the desired electrical performance, there are risks that also factored into the decision making process. The risks include uncertainties due to issues such as safety of a system containing some of these materials, ease of scaling-up of large batches of raw materials, adaptability of the materials to processing using established

  3. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program. III

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.

    1982-02-01

    This report reviews the status of the Department of Energy Subelement on Electrochemical Storage Systems. It emphasizes material presented at the Fourth US Department of Energy Battery and Electrochemical Contractors' Conference, held June 2-4, 1981. The conference stressed secondary batteries, however, the aluminum/air mechanically rechargeable battery and selected topics on industrial electrochemical processes were included. The potential contributions of the battery and electrochemical technology efforts to supported technologies: electric vehicles, solar electric systems, and energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, are reviewed. The analyses of the potential impact of these systems on energy technologies as the basis for selecting specific battery systems for investigation are noted. The battery systems in the research, development, and demonstration phase discussed include: aqueous mobile batteries (near term) - lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, zinc/nickel-oxide; advanced batteries - aluminum/air, iron/air, zinc/bromine, zinc/ferricyanide, chromous/ferric, lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur; and exploratory batteries - lithium organic electrolyte, lithium/polymer electrolyte, sodium/sulfur (IV) chloroaluminate, calcium/iron disulfide, lithium/solid electrolyte. Supporting research on electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials, ionic conducting solid electrolytes, and electrocatalysis is reviewed. Potential energy saving processes for the electrowinning of aluminum and zinc, and for the electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds are included.

  4. Electric battery research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-16

    Electric-battery research programs are receiving less funding, and efforts have been made to phase out the still-unsuccessful effort to produce a commercially viable automotive battery. Lead-acid and nickel-iron batteries are top contenders for commercial applications, but a short life span continues to limit their usefulness. Until electric cars can compete (when gasoline approaches $2.50 a gallon) the market does not look hopeful. (DCK)

  5. Vehicles testing of near-term batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. C.; Hardy, K. S.; Sandberg, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Vehicles test results are reported for nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and improved lead-acid batteries developed under the Near-Term Battery Program sponsored by the Department of Energy. The batteries have demonstrated a range improvement of up to 90% over current lead-acid batteries due to improved energy density and ampere-hour capacity, combined with relatively small weight and volume. However, the nickel-iron battery requires a substantial development effort in packaging the circulating electrolyte system and handling the generated hydrogen volume, while the nickel-zinc batteries tested suffer from short cycle life.

  6. USABC Development of 12 Volt Battery for Start-Stop Application: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tataria, H.; Gross, O.; Bae, C.; Cunningham, B.; Barnes, J. A.; Deppe, J.; Neubauer, J.

    2015-02-01

    Global automakers are accelerating the development of fuel efficient vehicles, as a part of meeting regional regulatory CO2 emissions requirements. The micro hybrid vehicles with auto start-stop functionality are considered economical solutions for the stringent European regulations. Flooded lead acid batteries were initially considered the most economical solution for idle-stop systems. However, the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at lower state-of-charge (SOC) was limiting the life of the batteries. While improved lead-acid batteries with AGM and VRLA features have improved battery longevity, they do not last the life of the vehicle. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (or USABC, a consortium of GM, Ford, and Chrysler) analyzed energy storage needs for a micro hybrid automobile with start-stop capability, and with a single power source. USABC has analyzed the start-stop behaviors of many drivers and has developed the requirements for the start-stop batteries (Table 3). The testing procedures to validate the performance and longevity were standardized and published. The guideline for the cost estimates calculations have also been provided, in order to determine the value of the newly developed modules. The analysis effort resulted in a set of requirements which will help the battery manufacturers to develop a module to meet the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) micro hybrid vehicle requirements. Battery developers were invited to submit development proposals and two proposals were selected for 50% cost share with USABC/DOE.

  7. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  8. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; et al

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  9. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  10. Battery selection for space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  11. Battery selection for space experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  12. Novel nitrogen-based organosulfur electrodes for advanced intermediate temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visco, S. J.; Dejonghe, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced secondary batteries operating at intermediate temperatures (100 to 200 C) have attracted considerable interest due to their inherent advantages (reduced corrosion and safety risks) over higher temperature systems. Current work in this laboratory has involved research on a class of intermediate temperature Na/beta double prime- alumina/RSSR batteries conceptually similar to Na/S cells, but operating within a temperature range of 100 to 150 C, and having an organosulfur rather than inorganic sulfur positive electrode. The organosulfur electrodes are based on the reversible, two electron eduction of organodisulfides to the corresponding thiolate anions, RSSR + 2 electrons yield 2RS(-), where R is an organic moiety. Among the advantages of such a generic redox couple for battery research is the ability to tailor the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of the RSSR molecule through choice of the organic moiety. The viscosity, liquidus range, dielectric constant, equivalent weight, and redox potential can in fact be verified in a largely predictable manner. The current work concerns the use of multiple nitrogen organosulfur molecules, chosen for application in Na/RSSR cells for their expected oxidizing character. In fact, a Na/RSSR cell containing one of these materials, the sodium salt of 5-mercapto 1-methyltetrazole, yielded the highest open circuit voltage obtained yet in the laboratory; 3.0 volts in the charged state and 2.6 volts at 100 percent discharge. Accordingly, the cycling behavior of a series of multiple nitrogen organodisulfides as well as polymeric organodisulfides are presented in this manuscript.

  13. 46 CFR 111.15-2 - Battery construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Each fully charged lead-acid battery must have a specific gravity that meets section 22 of IEEE 45-2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (c) Batteries must not evolve hydrogen at a rate...

  14. 46 CFR 111.15-2 - Battery construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Each fully charged lead-acid battery must have a specific gravity that meets section 22 of IEEE 45-2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (c) Batteries must not evolve hydrogen at a rate...

  15. 46 CFR 111.15-2 - Battery construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Each fully charged lead-acid battery must have a specific gravity that meets section 22 of IEEE 45-2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (c) Batteries must not evolve hydrogen at a rate...

  16. 46 CFR 111.15-2 - Battery construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each fully charged lead-acid battery must have a specific gravity that meets section 22 of IEEE 45-2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (c) Batteries must not evolve hydrogen at a rate...

  17. 46 CFR 111.15-2 - Battery construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Each fully charged lead-acid battery must have a specific gravity that meets section 22 of IEEE 45-2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (c) Batteries must not evolve hydrogen at a rate...

  18. Impact of modern battery design and the implications for primary and secondary lead production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, M. W.; Manders, J. E.; Eckfeld, S.; Prengaman, R. D.

    The emerging change in the automobile industry with the advent of the 42 V electrical operating system will impose a revolutionary change not only on the car industry, but also on the battery industry overall. The implications of this change will be felt by the battery producers, most of whom will require new or advanced production techniques for 36 V batteries, and subsequently by their suppliers of raw material. The demand for batteries of higher quality—in particular, the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery, which is the battery of choice for the new automotive system—will place much higher demands upon the quality of the raw materials used in battery manufacture. It has been well documented that high-quality raw materials, such as lead, acid and separators, are a requirement in order to guarantee battery performance. The presence of impurities (antimony, arsenic, tellurium, etc.) in the enclosed system of the VRLA battery will impart problems such as dry-out, self-discharge and negative-plate capacity loss which will result in premature failure of the battery. One major problem for both primary and secondary lead producers is the presence of these impurities in their metal streams. Of particular interest to the smelters are the levels of antimony and silver. The latter element is increasing to alarming levels. With changing battery technology, both elements will pose serious problems to the lead producers in maintaining high-quality lead under the present cost structure. Some of the challenges that face the lead industry in meeting the demands of VRLA battery producers for product of higher quality are examined in this paper.

  19. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  20. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  1. Physics-based simulation of the impact of demand response on lead-acid emergency power availability in a datacenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, A.; Wang, D.; Narayanan, I.; Sivasubramaniam, A.; Fathy, H. K.

    2015-02-01

    This paper uses a one-dimensional, physics-based model of a valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery to examine the impact of demand response on uninterruptible power supply (UPS) availability in a datacenter. Datacenters are facilities that provide services such as cloud computing, web search, etc. They are also large electricity consumers. An energy-efficient 15 MW datacenter, for instance, may pay 1 m per month for electricity. Datacenters often utilize VRLA batteries to ensure high reliability in serving their computational demand. This motivates the paper's central question: to what extent does the use of datacenter UPS batteries for demand response affect their availability for their primary purpose (namely, emergency power)? We address this question using a physics-based model of the coupled diffusion-reaction dynamics of VRLA batteries. We discretize this model using finite differences, and simulate it for different datacenter battery pack sizes. The results show that for a typical datacenter power demand profile, a VRLA battery pack sized for UPS functionality can provide demand response with only a minimal loss of UPS availability.

  2. Conceptual design of electrical balance of plant for advanced battery energy storage facility. Annual report, March 1979. [20-MW, 100 MWh

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale efforts are in progress to develop advanced batteries for utility energy storage systems. Realization of the full benefits available from those systems requires development, not only of the batteries themselves, but also the ac/dc power converter, the bulk power interconnecting equipment, and the peripheral electric balance of plant equipment that integrate the battery/converter into a properly controlled and protected energy system. This study addresses these overall system aspects; although tailored to a 20-MW, 100-MWh lithium/sulfide battery system, the technology and concepts are applicable to any battery energy storage system. 42 figures, 14 tables. (RWR)

  3. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  4. Energy and environmental impacts of electric vehicle battery production and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

    1995-12-31

    Electric vehicle batteries use energy and generate environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for 4 selected battery types (advanced lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, nickel-cadmium, and nickel-metal hydride), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. For example, although the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, energy requirements for production of the cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for the metal hydride electrodes, but the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

  5. Field Operations Program Chevrolet S-10 (Lead-Acid) Accelerated Reliability Testing - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort; J. Argueta; M. Wehrey; D. Karner; L. Tyree

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes the Accelerated Reliability testing of five lead-acid battery-equipped Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles by the US Department of Energy's Field Operations Program and the Program's testing partners, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Southern California Edison (SCE). ETA and SCE operated the S-10s with the goal of placing 25,000 miles on each vehicle within 1 year, providing an accelerated life-cycle analysis. The testing was performed according to established and published test procedures. The S-10s' average ranges were highest during summer months; changes in ambient temperature from night to day and from season-to-season impacted range by as much as 10 miles. Drivers also noted that excessive use of power during acceleration also had a dramatic effect on vehicle range. The spirited performance of the S-10s created a great temptation to inexperienced electric vehicle drivers to ''have a good time'' and to fully utilize the S-10's acceleration capability. The price of injudicious use of power is greatly reduced range and a long-term reduction in battery life. The range using full-power accelerations followed by rapid deceleration in city driving has been 20 miles or less.

  6. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  7. Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

  8. 76 FR 3118 - Notice of Availability of Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... acid and boric acid (US 7,524,579 B1). 5. ARL 04-29--Safer, Less Expensive Lithium Ion Batteries (US 7...). 10. ARL 09-18--Increasing Performance by Reducing Resistance in Lithium Ion Batteries. Filed with... for Next Generation 5V Li-ion Batteries. Provisional filed with USPTO on 7/6/2010 (S/N 61/...

  9. Pulse charging of lead-acid traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Pulse charging, as a method of rapidly and efficiently charging 300 amp-hour lead-acid traction cells for an electric vehicle application was investigated. A wide range of charge pulse current square waveforms were investigated and the results were compared to constant current charging at the time averaged pulse current values. Representative pulse current waveforms were: (1) positive waveform-peak charge pulse current of 300 amperes (amps), discharge pulse-current of zero amps, and a duty cycle of about 50%; (2) Romanov waveform-peak charge pulse current of 300 amps, peak discharge pulse current of 15 amps, and a duty of 50%; and (3) McCulloch waveform peak charge pulse current of 193 amps, peak discharge pulse current of about 575 amps, and a duty cycle of 94%. Experimental results indicate that on the basis of amp-hour efficiency, pulse charging offered no significant advantage as a method of rapidly charging 300 amp-hour lead-acid traction cells when compared to constant current charging at the time average pulse current value. There were, however, some disadvantages of pulse charging in particular a decrease in charge amp-hour and energy efficiencies and an increase in cell electrolyte temperature. The constant current charge method resulted in the best energy efficiency with no significant sacrifice of charge time or amp-hour output. Whether or not pulse charging offers an advantage over constant current charging with regard to the cell charge/discharge cycle life is unknown at this time.

  10. The NASA "PERS" Program: Solid Polymer Electrolyte Development for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    In fiscal year 2000, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The ultimate objective of this development program, which was referred to as the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS), was to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. Out of a total of 38 proposals received in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) solicitation, 18 proposals (13 contracts and 5 grants) were selected for initial award to address these technical challenges. Brief summaries of technical approaches, results and accomplishments of the PERS Program development efforts are presented. With Agency support provided through FY 2004, the PERS Program efforts were concluded in 2005, as internal reorganizations and funding cuts resulted in shifting programmatic priorities within NASA. Technically, the PERS Program participants explored, to various degrees over the lifetime of the formal program, a variety of conceptual approaches for developing and demonstrating performance of a viable advanced solid polymer electrolyte possessing the desired attributes, as well as several participants addressing all components of an integrated cell configuration. Programmatically, the NASA PERS Program was very successful, even though the very challenging technical goals for achieving a viable solid polymer electrolyte material or

  11. New electric-vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.

    1994-12-31

    Electric vehicles that can`t reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900`s electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car`s worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today`s electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors` Impact, for example, uses starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon`s new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda travelled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck travelled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour. 12 refs.

  12. 40 CFR 273.2 - Applicability-batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 273. (1) The requirements of this part apply to persons managing batteries, as...) Batteries not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not apply to persons managing the following batteries: (1) Spent lead-acid batteries that are managed under 40 CFR part 266,...

  13. 40 CFR 273.2 - Applicability-batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 273. (1) The requirements of this part apply to persons managing batteries, as...) Batteries not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not apply to persons managing the following batteries: (1) Spent lead-acid batteries that are managed under 40 CFR part 266,...

  14. 40 CFR 273.2 - Applicability-batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 273. (1) The requirements of this part apply to persons managing batteries, as...) Batteries not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not apply to persons managing the following batteries: (1) Spent lead-acid batteries that are managed under 40 CFR part 266,...

  15. 40 CFR 273.2 - Applicability-batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 273. (1) The requirements of this part apply to persons managing batteries, as...) Batteries not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not apply to persons managing the following batteries: (1) Spent lead-acid batteries that are managed under 40 CFR part 266,...

  16. 40 CFR 273.2 - Applicability-batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 273. (1) The requirements of this part apply to persons managing batteries, as...) Batteries not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not apply to persons managing the following batteries: (1) Spent lead-acid batteries that are managed under 40 CFR part 266,...

  17. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  18. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  19. Recent Progress in Self‐Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high‐performance lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder‐free electrodes for LIBs, self‐supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self‐supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder‐free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full‐cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self‐supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed. PMID:27711259

  20. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  1. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembledmore » into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.« less

  2. Recent Advances and Prospects of Cathode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xingde; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-23

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) receive significant attention for electrochemical energy storage and conversion owing to their wide availability and the low cost of Na resources. However, SIBs face challenges of low specific energy, short cycling life, and insufficient specific power, owing to the heavy mass and large radius of Na(+) ions. As an important component of SIBs, cathode materials have a significant effect on the SIB electrochemical performance. The most recent advances and prospects of inorganic and organic cathode materials are summarized here. Among current cathode materials, layered transition-metal oxides achieve high specific energies around 600 mW h g(-1) owing to their high specific capacities of 180-220 mA h g(-1) and their moderate operating potentials of 2.7-3.2 V (vs Na(+) /Na). Porous Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 /C nanomaterials exhibit excellent cycling performance with almost 100% retention over 1000 cycles owing to their robust structural framework. Recent emerging cathode materials, such as amorphous NaFePO4 and pteridine derivatives show interesting electrochemical properties and attractive prospects for application in SIBs. Future work should focus on strategies to enhance the overall performance of cathode materials in terms of specific energy, cycling life, and rate capability with cationic doping, anionic substitution, morphology fabrication, and electrolyte matching.

  3. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembled into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.

  4. Recent Progress in Self‐Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high‐performance lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder‐free electrodes for LIBs, self‐supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self‐supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder‐free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full‐cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self‐supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed.

  5. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  6. Waste product profile: Household batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. )

    1994-04-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of profiles -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the waste stream. These profiles highlight a product, explain how it fits into integrated waste management systems, and provide current data on recycling and markets for the product. This profile does not cover wet cell lead-acid batteries such as car batteries. Household batteries include primary batteries, which cannot be recharged, and secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Household batteries are available in many sizes including bottom, AAA, AA, C, D, N, and 9-volt. In 1991, 3.8 billion household batteries, or 145,000 tons, were incinerated or landfilled in the US. Due to a limited number of programs collecting batteries, the recycling rate is very small. An EPA study estimated than in 1989, 52% of the cadmium and 88% of the mercury in MSW came from household batteries.

  7. Thermal Management of Batteries in Advanced Vehicles Using Phase-Change Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G.-H.; Gonder, J.; Lustbader, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-12-01

    This Powerpoint presentation examines battery thermal management using PCM and concludes excellent performance in limiting peak temperatures at short period extensive battery use; although, vehicle designers will need to weigh the potential increase in mass and cost associated with adding PCM against the anticipated benefits.

  8. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel-Hydrogen Spacecraft Cell and Battery Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Wright, R. Doug; Repplinger, Ron S.

    1996-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth-orbiting satellites and have accumulated more that 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard Ni-H2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV Ni-H2 technology flight heritage and database. A design performance analysis is presented at both the cell and battery level. The DPV is capable of delivering up to 76 Watthours per kilogram (Wh/kg) at the cell level and 70 Wh/kg at the full battery level. This represents a 40 percent increase in specific energy at the cell level and a 60 percent increase in specific energy at the battery level compared to current IPV Ni-H2 technology.

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XII, LEARNING ABOUT BATTERY SERVICING AND TESTING (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THID MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF LEAD-ACID STORAGE BATTERIES USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) BATTERY COMPONENTS AND CONSTRUCTION, (2) CHEMICAL ACTION IN BATTERIES, (3) THE BATTERY AND THE CHARGING CIRCUIT, (4) BATTERY CHARGING VOLTAGE, (5) EFFECTS OF…

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XIII, BATTERY SERVICE AND TESTING PROCEDURES--PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO FAMILIARIZE THE TRAINEE WITH PROCEDURES FOR SERVICING LEAD-ACID STORAGE BATTERIES USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) ELECTROLYTE AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY, (2) BATTERY CHARGING, (3) STORAGE BATTERY TYPES AND DESIGN, (4) BATTERY CAPACITY RATINGS, (5) BATTERY INSTALLATION, SERVICING, AND…

  11. Status of electric vehicle battery development and manufacturing activities outside of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, J. H.

    1985-12-01

    A study was conducted to summarize and analyze current activities outside of the United States in battery technology for electric vehicles. Emphasis was placed on batteries which are either commercially available now or may be fully developed within the next ten years. The battery systems of greatest interest currently are sodium/sulfur, nickel/iron, zinc/bromine, and advanced lead/acid. The countries with the largest programs are England, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany. Performance and cost goals for each system do not vary significantly from one country to another, with the possible exception of the Soviet Union. The number of joint ventures and consortia that have formed in recent years has increased, and international cooperation is now an important feature of current activities in battery technology. US Executive Branch policy is now very supportive of joint ventures. For this and other reasons, organizations in the United States could benefit from increased involvement in cooperative international activities.

  12. Crash Models for Advanced Automotive Batteries: A Review of the Current State of the Art

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; Gorti, Sarma B.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Kumar, Abhishek; Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T.; Pannala, Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan; Slattery, Stuart R.; Wang, Hsin

    2015-02-01

    Safety is a critical aspect of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery design. Impact/crash conditions can trigger a complex interplay of mechanical contact, heat generation and electrical discharge, which can result in adverse thermal events. The cause of these thermal events has been linked to internal contact between the opposite electrodes, i.e. internal short circuit. The severity of the outcome is influenced by the configuration of the internal short circuit and the battery state. Different loading conditions and battery states may lead to micro (soft) shorts where material burnout due to generated heat eliminates contact between the electrodes, or persistent (hard) shorts which can lead to more significant thermal events and potentially damage the entire battery system and beyond. Experimental characterization of individual battery components for the onset of internal shorts is limited, since it is impractical to canvas all possible variations in battery state of charge, operating conditions, and impact loading in a timely manner. This report provides a survey of modeling and simulation approaches and documents a project initiated and funded by DOT/NHTSA to improve modeling and simulation capabilities in order to design tests that provide leading indicators of failure in batteries. In this project, ORNL has demonstrated a computational infrastructure to conduct impact simulations of Li-ion batteries using models that resolve internal structures and electro-thermo-chemical and mechanical conditions. Initial comparisons to abuse experiments on cells and cell strings conducted at ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Carderock MD for parameter estimation and model validation have been performed. This research has provided insight into the mechanisms of deformation in batteries (both at cell and electrode level) and their relationship to the safety of batteries.

  13. Positive thin electrodes obtained from hydrothermally synthesized 4BS for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Yusta, M.; Morales, J.; Sánchez, L.

    Tetrabasic lead sulfate, 4 PbO·PbSO 4 (4BS), was prepared from an aqueous suspension of leady oxide by using a simple hydrothermal method. Digesting the paste at a moderate temperature (125 °C) and heating for a short time (30 min) ensured the obtainment of particles of small, uniform size. The material was deposited on a lead alloy substrate 0.2 mm thick by spraying from aqueous suspensions. The deposits were highly uniform and homogeneous, with a coating thickness of 100 μm. A multi-step charge algorithm involving no preliminary soaking provided the best 4BS → PbO 2 conversion. The resulting electrodes delivered a capacity of 115 Ah kg -1 with excellent capacity retention over more than 500 cycles at 100% depth of discharge (DOD).

  14. Apparent Consumption vs. Total Consumption--A Lead-Acid Battery Case Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.; Buckingham, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report compares estimates of U.S. apparent consumption of lead with estimates of total U.S. consumption of this mineral commodity from a materials flow perspective. The difference, attributed to the amount of lead contained in imported and exported products, was found to be significant for this sector. The study also assesses the effects of including mineral commodities incorporated in manufactured products on the interpretation of observed trends in minerals consumption and trade. Materials flow is a systems approach to understanding what happens to the materials we use from the time a material is extracted, through its processing and manufacturing, to its ultimate disposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides accurate and detailed mineral production and mineral commodity consumption statistics that are essential for government, nongovernment organizations, and the public to gain a better understanding of how and where materials are used and their effect on the environment and society. Published statistics on mineral apparent consumption are limited to estimates of consumption of raw material forms (ore, concentrate, and [or] refined metal). For this study, apparent consumption is defined as mine production + secondary refined production + imports (concentrates and refined metal) ? exports (concentrates and refined metal) + adjustments for government and industry stock changes. These estimates do not account for the amount of mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are imported to the United States, nor do they deduct the amount of these mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are exported from the United States. When imports or exports of manufactured products contribute significantly to the total use of a particular raw material, an estimate of consumption that does not consider the incorporated forms of these mineral commodities within imported or exported manufactured products can be either under- or overreported (depending on the net trade flow). Factors that influence consumption and trade patterns include variations in industry structure, labor or financial markets, legislation, and technology. As U.S. trade patterns of manufactured products change, omitting mineral commodities incorporated into these goods as part of U.S. mineral commodity consumption estimates may affect the interpretation of observed trends in minerals consumption and trade. Although it may be desirable to include minerals contained in manufactured products as part of consumption estimates, collection and estimation of these data are sometimes difficult. Consumption and trade data for every traded product may not be readily available. Compiling comprehensive consumption statistics for mineral commodities, which have many end uses, each including multiple products, may be time consuming. For these reasons, studies of all mineral commodities are not feasible. Mineral commodity selection for this study is based on data accessibility considerations and the relative importance of lead contained in imported and exported products when considered part of total U.S. lead consumption. Lead was selected for this initial evaluation of total mineral consumption because of the need to understand the consumption pattern of this potentially toxic metal and its compounds, the relative simplicity of this sector?s end-use structure, and the availability of trade data. This study draws upon the findings of an earlier lead consumption study (Biviano and others, 1999) conducted by the USGS for the period 1984 to 1993, but uses a different study methodology for an industry whose structure has changed from that considered in the earlier study. Figure 1 shows the quantity of material contributing to U.S. total consumption of lead metal from domestic and foreign industrial sectors in 2004, based upon trade data reported by the USGS and the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC). For

  15. Experimental analysis of lead-in-air sources in lead-acid battery manufacture.

    PubMed

    Caplan, K J; Knutson, G W

    1979-07-01

    Plant-scale experimental sampling programs were carried out to determine the contribution to the lead-in-air exposure from (a) fork-truck transport of pasted plates in racks and (b) manual loading and unloading of plates from racks. Fork-truck transport was found not significant under "clean" conditions. Manual loading and unloading was found significant.

  16. Bipolar battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

  17. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  18. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-04-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  19. Advanced Modular "All in One" Battery System with Intelligent Autonomous Cell Balancing Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, X.; Pasquier, E.; Defer, M.; Koch, M.; Knorr, W.

    2008-09-01

    A new generation of energy storage systems based on Li-ion technology emerged at the end of the last century.To perform the first tests in safe conditions, Saft designed a simple electronic.Today, all Li-ion batteries for autonomous applications such as drones, launchers, missiles, torpedoes and "human" applications such as cellular, laptop, hybrid vehicle and nearly sub-marines need a Battery Management System.The minimum in terms of functions is the overcharge and over-discharge protections.For a battery made of 2 cells connected in series or more, a balancing system is added to maintain the available energy during all the life of the battery. For stringent/demanding applications, the state of charge and state of health are calculated by one or more computers.It is now time to take benefit of the past 10 years of Saft's experience in the domain to re-evaluate the constraints of Li-ion batteries and provide customers with improved products by optimizing the battery management.Benefits of electronic for satellite applications:• Full control over battery.• Confidence whatever the possible change of conditions in environment.• The battery system can resist long exposure to gradient conditions with mitigated and stabilized impact on performances.• The balancing function allow to use all the energy of all the cells: optimize of installed energy (compact design, mass saving). It started out with the basic fact that electrochemists are not intended to be space rated electronic experts and vice versa, even if Saft has a good heritage in the electronic battery management system. Consequently, considering heritage and expertise in their respective core businesses, Saft and ASP teamed up.It became necessary to provide an "all in one" modular energy storage system with intelligent autonomous cell balancing management.

  20. High rate partial-state-of-charge operation of VRLA batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The world market for 12 V SLI batteries currently stands at around US$ 12 billion. The lack of a serious challenge from other battery types has allowed lead-acid products to serve this market exclusively, with minimal demand for product improvement through research and development, and a sharp competition has, over time, cut sales prices to commodity levels. The electrochemical storage of energy in automobiles now faces the possibility of a major change, in the form of the proposed 36/42 V electrical systems for vehicles that remain primarily powered by internal combustion engines, and of the hybrid electric vehicle. The duty cycle for these two applications sees the battery held at a partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) for most of its life and required to supply, and to accept, charge at unprecedented rates. The remarkable advances achieved with VRLA battery technology for electric vehicles during the past 8-10 years will be of only passing value in overcoming the challenges posed by high rate PSoC service in 36/42 V and HEV duty. This is because the failure modes seen in PSoC are quite different from those faced in EV (deep cycle) use. The replacement of the 12 V SLI will not take place rapidly. However, if the applications which take its place are to be satisfied by a lead-acid product (probably VRLA), rather than by a battery of a different chemistry, a program of development as successful as that mounted for deep cycle duty will be required. The present phase of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) R&D program has begun to shed light on those aspects of the function of a VRLA battery which currently limit its life in high rate PSoC duty. The program is also pursuing the several technologies which show promise of overcoming those limits, including multiple tab plate design, mass transport facilitation and minor component (both beneficial and detrimental impurity) management. This paper presents a brief review of the changes which are taking place in

  1. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangyin; Zhao, Xinsheng; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2012-08-16

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes have been grown, for the first time, on graphite felt (N-CNT/GF) by a chemical vapor deposition approach and examined as an advanced electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The unique porous structure and nitrogen doping of N-CNT/GF with increased surface area enhances the battery performance significantly. The enriched porous structure of N-CNTs on graphite felt could potentially facilitate the diffusion of electrolyte, while the N-doping could significantly contribute to the enhanced electrode performance. Specifically, the N-doping (i) modifies the electronic properties of CNT and thereby alters the chemisorption characteristics of the vanadium ions, (ii) generates defect sites that are electrochemically more active, (iii) increases the oxygen species on CNT surface, which is a key factor influencing the VRFB performance, and (iv) makes the N-CNT electrochemically more accessible than the CNT. PMID:26295765

  2. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangyin; Zhao, Xinsheng; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2012-08-16

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes have been grown, for the first time, on graphite felt (N-CNT/GF) by a chemical vapor deposition approach and examined as an advanced electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The unique porous structure and nitrogen doping of N-CNT/GF with increased surface area enhances the battery performance significantly. The enriched porous structure of N-CNTs on graphite felt could potentially facilitate the diffusion of electrolyte, while the N-doping could significantly contribute to the enhanced electrode performance. Specifically, the N-doping (i) modifies the electronic properties of CNT and thereby alters the chemisorption characteristics of the vanadium ions, (ii) generates defect sites that are electrochemically more active, (iii) increases the oxygen species on CNT surface, which is a key factor influencing the VRFB performance, and (iv) makes the N-CNT electrochemically more accessible than the CNT.

  3. A comparison of battery testing protocols: Those used by the U.S. advanced battery consortium and those used in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, David C.; Christophersen, Jon P.; Bennett, Taylor; Walker, Lee K.; Wang, Fang; Liu, Shiqiang; Fan, Bin; Bloom, Ira

    2016-02-01

    Two testing protocols, QC/T 743 and those used by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), were compared using cells based on LiFePO4/graphite chemistry. Differences in the protocols directly affected the data and the performance decline mechanisms deduced from the data. In all cases, the rate of capacity fade was linear with time. Overall, the testing protocols produced very similar data when the testing conditions and metrics used to define performance were similar. The choice of depth of discharge and pulse width had a direct effect on the apparent rate of resistance increased and estimated cell life. At greater percent depth of discharge (%DOD) and pulse width, the estimated life was shorter that at lower %DOD and shorter pulse width. This indicates that cells which were at the end of life based on the USABC protocol were not at end of life based on the QC/T 743 protocol by a large margin.

  4. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  5. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium–nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg−1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium–nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs. PMID:26864635

  6. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density.

    PubMed

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-02-11

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg(-1), higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  7. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  8. Progress in the development of recycling processes for electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Jungst, R.G.; Clark, R.P.

    1994-08-01

    Disposition of electric vehicle (EV) batteries after they have reached the end of their useful life is an issue that could impede the widespread acceptance of EVs in the commercial market. This is especially true for advanced battery systems where working recycling processes have not as yet been established. The DOE sponsors an Ad Hoc Electric Vehicle Battery Readiness Working Group to identify barriers to the introduction of commercial EVs and to advise them of specific issues related to battery reclamation/recycling, in-vehicle battery safety, and battery shipping. A Sub-Working Group on the reclamation/recycle topic has been reviewing the status of recycling process development for the principal battery technologies that are candidates for EV use from the near-term to the long-term. Recycling of near-term battery technologies, such as lead-acid and nickel/cadmium, is occurring today and it is believed that sufficient processing capacity can be maintained to keep up with the large number of units that could result from extensive EV use. Reclamation/recycle processes for midterm batteries are partially developed. Good progress has been made in identifying processes to recycle sodium/sulfur batteries at a reasonable cost and pilot scale facilities are being tested or planned. A pre-feasibility cost study on the nickel/metal hydride battery also indicates favorable economics for some of the proposed reclamation processes. Long-term battery technologies, including lithium-polymer and lithium/iron disulfide, are still being designed and developed for EVs, so descriptions for prototype recycling processes are rather general at this point. Due to the long time required to set up new, full-scale recycling facilities, it is important to develop a reclamation/recycling process in parallel with the battery technologies themselves.

  9. Progress in the development of recycling processes for electric vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungst, R. G.; Clark, R. P.

    Disposition of electric vehicle (EV) batteries after they have reached the end of their useful life is an issue that could impede the widespread acceptance of EV's in the commercial market. This is especially true for advanced battery systems where working recycling processes have not as yet been established. The DOE sponsors an Ad Hoc Electric Vehicle Battery Readiness Working Group to identify barriers to the introduction of commercial EV's and to advise them of specific issues related to battery reclamation/recycling, in-vehicle battery safety, and battery shipping. A Sub-Working Group on the reclamation/recycle topic has been reviewing the status of recycling process development for the principal battery technologies that are candidates for EV use from the near-term to the long-term. Recycling of near-term battery technologies, such as lead-acid and nickel/cadmium, is occurring today and it is believed that sufficient processing capacity can be maintained to keep up with the large number of units that could result from extensive EV use. Reclamation/recycle processes for midterm batteries are partially developed. Good progress has been made in identifying processes to recycle sodium/sulfur batteries at a reasonable cost and pilot scale facilities are being tested or planned. A pre-feasibility cost study on the nickel/metal hydride battery also indicates favorable economics for some of the proposed reclamation processes. Long-term battery technologies, including lithium-polymer and lithium/iron disulfide, are still being designed and developed for EV's, so descriptions for prototype recycling processes are rather general at this point. Due to the long time required to set up new, full-scale recycling facilities, it is important to develop a reclamation/recycling process in parallel with the battery technologies themselves.

  10. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  11. Wheelchair batteries: driving cycles and testing.

    PubMed

    Kauzlarich, J J; Ulrich, V; Bresler, M; Bruning, T

    1983-07-01

    The battery performance of electric wheelchairs was measured under indoor and outdoor conditions, and simulated driving cycles for these two environments were derived from these tests. Driving cycles were used to bench-test deep discharge wet cell and gel cell lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and experimental nickel-zinc batteries. Results of this study support the conclusion that deep discharge wet cell lead-acid batteries satisfy wheelchair requirements and are the most economical choice. The effect of simulated wheelchair controller pulse width modulation on battery discharge compared to d.c. discharge was found to be negligible. A simple model analogous to Miner's Rule (3) plus results plotted on a Ragone chart of average power versus discharge time were found to correlate the effect of the highly variable actual power requirements of an electric wheelchair. Miner's Rule can predict battery performance for a given driving cycle.

  12. Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1993-03-25

    Argonne National Laboratory's Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) tests advanced batteries under simulated electric and hybrid vehicle operating conditions. The ADL facilities also include a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The battery evaluations and post-test examinations help identify factors that limit system performance and life, and the most-promising R D approaches for overcoming these limitations. Since 1991, performance characterizations and/or life evaluations have been conducted on eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/S, Zn/Br, Ni/MH, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cd, Ni/Fe, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy's. Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE/OTT/EHP), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Transportation Program. The results obtained are discussed.

  13. Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1993-03-25

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) tests advanced batteries under simulated electric and hybrid vehicle operating conditions. The ADL facilities also include a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The battery evaluations and post-test examinations help identify factors that limit system performance and life, and the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming these limitations. Since 1991, performance characterizations and/or life evaluations have been conducted on eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/S, Zn/Br, Ni/MH, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cd, Ni/Fe, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy`s. Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE/OTT/EHP), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Transportation Program. The results obtained are discussed.

  14. Enhancing Interfacial Bonding between Anisotropically Oriented Grains Using a Glue-Nanofiller for Advanced Li-Ion Battery Cathode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejung; Lee, Sanghan; Cho, Hyeon; Kim, Junhyeok; Lee, Jieun; Park, Suhyeon; Joo, Se Hun; Kim, Su Hwan; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Song, Hyun-Kon; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Cho, Jaephil

    2016-06-01

    Formation of a glue-nanofiller layer between grains, consisting of a middle-temperature spinel-like Lix CoO2 phase, reinforces the strength of the incoherent interfacial binding between anisotropically oriented grains by enhancing the face-to-face adhesion strength. The cathode treated with the glue-layer exhibits steady cycling performance at both room-temperature and 60 °C. These results represent a step forward in advanced lithium-ion batteries via simple cathode coating. PMID:27074141

  15. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee -Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-11

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190°C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg, which is 3 times higher than that of conventional tubular Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 280°C, was obtained for planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 190°C over a long-term cell test (1000 cycles). The high energy density and superior cycle stability are attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials (NaCl and Ni) at 190°C. The results reported in this work demonstrate that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at anmore » intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.« less

  16. Proper battery system design for GAS experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogero, Stephen A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the GAS experimenter to design a battery system that meets mission success requirements while at the same time reducing the hazards associated with the battery system. Lead-acid, silver-zinc and alkaline chemistry batteries will be discussed. Lithium batteries will be briefly discussed with emphasis on back-up power supply capabilities. The hazards associated with different battery configurations will be discussed along with the controls necessary to make the battery system two-fault tolerant.

  17. Automotive batteries. (Bibliography from the Global Mobility database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and marketing of automotive batteries. Included are nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, sodium sulfur, zinc-air, lead-acid, and polymer batteries. Testing includes life-cycling, performance and peak-power characteristics, and vehicle testing of near-term batteries. Also mentioned are measurement equipment, European batteries, and electric vehicle battery development. (Contains a minimum of 76 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Automotive batteries. (Bibliography from the Global Mobility database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and marketing of automotive batteries. Included are nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, sodium sulfur, zinc-air, lead-acid, and polymer batteries. Testing includes life-cycling, performance and peak-power characteristics, and vehicle testing of near-term batteries. Also mentioned are measurement equipment, European batteries, and electric vehicle battery development. (Contains a minimum of 71 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Automotive batteries. (Bibliography from the Global Mobility database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and marketing of automotive batteries. Included are nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, sodium sulfur, zinc-air, lead-acid, and polymer batteries. Testing includes life-cycling, performance and peak-power characteristics, and vehicle testing of near-term batteries. Also mentioned are measurement equipment, European batteries, and electric vehicle battery development.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Study of installed and life-cycle costs for batteries in photovoltaic power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    The overall objective of the study reported was to estimate the installed and life-cycle costs of 9 battery technologies in a range of photovoltaic application types and sizes. For each battery type is given: a description of the battery technology, the battery factory price analysis, and the installed and life-cycle cost estimates for the battery in each of the applications evaluated. Battery types include: conventional lead-acid; sealed lead-acid; redox; zinc-bromine batteries of two types; zinc chloride; iron redox; lithium-metal sulfide; and sodium-sulfur. Applications include: shopping center; high school; multiple residence; hotel/motel; remote residence; and single residence. (LEW)