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Sample records for advanced level examination

  1. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  2. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  3. Early Identification of Students Predicted to Enroll in Advanced, Upper-Level High School Courses: An Examination of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRose, Diego S.; Clement, Russell W.

    2011-01-01

    Broward County Public Schools' Research Services department uses logistic regression analysis to compute an indicator to predict student enrollment in advanced high school courses, for students entering ninth grade for the first time. This prediction indicator, along with other student characteristics, supports high school guidance staffs in…

  4. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  5. Predicting success on the Advanced Placement Biology Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Lesa Hanlin

    Four hundred sixty students in four public high schools were used as subjects to determine which of eleven academic and demographic factors studied were significant predictors of success for the Advanced Placement Biology Examination. Factors studied were attendance, class rank, gender, grade level at the time of the examination, grade point average, level of prerequisite biology course, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the year prior to the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the same year as the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, proposed major in college, race, and SAT mathematics, verbal, and combined score. Significant relationships were found to exist between the Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and attendance, class rank, gender, grade level at the time of the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, grade point average, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the year prior to the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the same year as the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, race, and SAT scores. Significant relationships were not found to exist between Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and level prerequisite biology course and Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and proposed major in college. A multiple regression showed the best combination of predictors to be attendance, SAT verbal score, and SAT mathematics score. Discriminant analysis showed the variables in this study to be good predictors of whether the student would pass the Advanced Placement Biology Examination (score a 3, 4, or 5) or fail the Advanced Placement Biology Examination (score a 1 or 2). These results demonstrated that significant predictors for the Advanced Placement Biology Examination do exist and can be used to assist in the prediction of scores, prediction of passing or failing, the identification of

  6. Skimming & Scanning. Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward B.

    Part of a series intended to develop essential specialized reading skills, this text/workbook is designed to provide instruction and practice in skimming and scanning for students reading at the seventh through tenth grade reading levels, considered the advanced level. Part 1 of the book deals with skimming. A lesson defines skimming (the rapid…

  7. NTTC Course 315: Advanced Water Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is the examination booklet used for a home study course in water treatment. This course is the advanced part of a series produced by the Department of the Navy. This publication is designed to be used in conjunction with a course textbook. Each of the four examinations contained in this document are referenced to a specific…

  8. Examining Chemistry at CSE Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeoman, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of centralized examination system in assessing affective and other non-cognitive abilities of students in England. Describes three modes of teaching and assessment: (1) syllabus set and examined by Regional Boards; (2) school, or small group of schools, may set syllabus which is examined by the Board; (3)…

  9. Performance of Project Advance Students on the AP Biology Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Project Advance biology students (N=60) with Advanced Placement (AP) candidates (N=15,947) nationally on College Entrance Examination Board AP biology test. The research, conducted to determine comparability of the program as valid measures of academic achievement, determined that Project Advance students scored above the…

  10. Some Thoughts on Oral Examinations for Advanced Students in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Hiroki

    1977-01-01

    The difficulties of assessing and grading fluency in Japanese for advanced students on oral examinations is discussed. Factors of accuracy of grammar and vocabulary, pronunciation, and ease of expression are discussed. (CHK)

  11. Reassessing the Economic Value of Advanced Level Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Michael; Noyes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the economic return to Advanced level (A-level) mathematics was examined. The analysis was based upon a series of log-linear models of earnings in the 1958 National Child Development Survey (NCDS) and the National Survey of 1980 Graduates and Diplomates. The core finding was that A-level mathematics had a unique earnings premium…

  12. Advanced Placement Chemistry: Project Advance and the Advanced Placement Program: A Comparison of Students' Performance on the AP Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Syracuse University Project Advance (PA) chemistry students (N=35) with advanced placement (AP) candidates on the AP chemistry examination. PA students scored slightly above the national average on the examination, and students who performed well (B or better) in AP chemistry also did well on the examination. (JN)

  13. NDE (nondestructive examination) development for ceramics for advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, R.W. , Powell, TN ); Johnson, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) project was initiated in 1983 to meet the ceramic technology needs of DOE's advanced heat engines programs (i.e., advanced gas turbines and low heat rejection diesels). The objective is to establish an industrial ceramic technology base for reliable and cost-effective high-temperature components. Reliability of ceramics was recognized as the major technology need. To increase the material reliability of current and new ceramics, advances were needed in component design methodology, materials processing technology, and data base/life prediction. Nondestructive examination (NDE) was identified as one of the key elements in the approach to high-reliability components. An assessment was made of the current status of NDE for structural ceramics, and a report was prepared containing the results and recommendations for needed development. Based on these recommendations, a long-range NDE development program has been established in the CTAHE project to address these needs.

  14. SNAB: A New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Of all the sciences, biology has probably made the most rapid progress in recent years and the need for this to be reflected in a new Advanced Level biology course has long been recognised in the UK. After wide-ranging consultation and successful piloting in over 50 schools and colleges in England and Wales, the new Salters-Nuffield Advanced…

  15. Examination of College Performance by National Merit Scholarship Program Recognition Level. Research Report 2011-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Jessica P.; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the validity of the selection process used for the National Merit Scholarship Program (NMSP) to identify scholarship winners. Namely, this study examined whether students who advanced to higher NMSP recognition levels (Commended Students, Semifinalists, and various levels of award winners) had higher college performance,…

  16. Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capabilities Alternatives Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Bryan; Bill Landman; Porter Hill

    2012-12-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for the Advanced Post-Irradiation Capabilities (APIEC) project in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE O 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets”. The Alternatives Analysis considered six major alternatives: ? No Action ? Modify Existing DOE Facilities – capabilities distributed among multiple locations ? Modify Existing DOE Facilities – capabilities consolidated at a few locations ? Construct New Facility ? Commercial Partnership ? International Partnerships Based on the alternatives analysis documented herein, it is recommended to DOE that the advanced post-irradiation examination capabilities be provided by a new facility constructed at the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  17. Examining the Role of Advanced Placement[R] Exam Participation in 4-Year College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chajewski, Michael; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between Advanced Placement (AP) exam participation and enrollment in a 4-year postsecondary institution. A positive relationship was expected given that the primary purpose of offering AP courses is to allow students to engage in college-level academic work while in high school, and…

  18. Advancing Excellence in Urban Schools: A Report on Advanced Placement Examinations in the Great City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Caroline, Ed.

    This is the first comprehensive study to examine Advanced Placement (AP) course-taking patterns and subject test results in the nation's urban schools. This study investigates both Great City Schools' (GCS) AP scores and scores for a national sample of test takers. The GCS data set includes 58 large urban public school districts. The primary…

  19. Assessing Advance Care Planning: Examining Autonomous Selections in an Advance Directive.

    PubMed

    Klugman, Craig M; Tolwin, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the management of completed advance directives including why participants completed a document, what procedures and values they chose, with whom they held end-of-life conversations, and where they stored their document. Participants elected to complete a SurveyMonkey survey that was made available to individuals who wrote an advance directive through TexasLivingWill.org; 491 individuals elected to fill out the survey, aged 19 to 94 years. The survey asked multiple questions about why participants completed an advance directive, where they would store it, and with whom they had conversations about their end-of-life wishes. A list of procedures and values allowed participants to indicate what they refused or requested in their advance directive. Advance directives are most often completed to allow patients to prepare and control the healthcare they wish to receive when dying. One-half to two-thirds of individuals refuse common end-of-life medical procedures, and the rest request the procedures. We found a correlation between the choice to refuse or request a procedure and the age of the participant. Participants reported that their end-of-life conversations most often occurred with their spouse. Respondents often reported that their advance directive was stored with their physician and power of attorney for healthcare, conversations with those individuals rarely happened. Advance directives document patients' requests for and refusals of end-of-life care. Physicians and surrogates need to be better educated so that the documents are part of a meaningful conversation with the patient. Because patients' choices change over their lifespan, these documents need to be revisited regularly and not completed as a onetime event. PMID:26399671

  20. A Validity Study of the General Examinations of the College Level Examination Program (CLEP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losak, John

    Two studies investigated the effects of earning college credits for freshman year courses--as a result of performance on the College Level Examination Program's (CLEP) General Examinations--on later academic success. These are multiple choice tests of English composition, social science, natural science, humanities, and mathematics. Both studies…

  1. Examining Guidelines for Developing Accurate Proficiency Level Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye

    2006-01-01

    One attempt to make scores from large-scale assessments more interpretable has been to provide proficiency level scores to describe the meaning of student performance on tests. This study has examined the accuracy of Ercikan and Julian's (2002) guidelines for developing proficiency level scores and the classification accuracy of proficiency level…

  2. TEM Examination of Advanced Alloys Irradiated in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Gan, PhD

    2007-09-01

    Successful development of materials is critical to the deployment of advanced nuclear power systems. Irradiation studies of candidate materials play a vital role for better understanding materials performance under various irradiation environments of advanced system designs. In many cases, new classes of materials have to be investigated to meet the requirements of these advanced systems. For applications in the temperature range of 500 800ºC which is relevant to the fast neutron spectrum burner reactors for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) and ferritic martensitic steels (e.g., MA957 and others) are candidates for advanced cladding materials. In the low temperature regions of the core (<600ºC), alloy 800H, HCM12A (also called T 122) and HT 9 have been considered.

  3. Examining Occupational Anxiety Level of Mathematics Teachers for Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasdemir, Cahit

    2015-01-01

    The research aims to examine the occupational anxiety level of Mathematics teacher candidates according to some variables. The research sample included a total of 132 prospective teachers studying in Mathematics Teaching at Siirt University, Faculty of Education in the spring term of 2104-2015 academic year. The "Teacher Concern…

  4. The Adult Performance Level Program: A Serious and Deliberate Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.; Cervero, Ronald M.

    Noting that the Federal adult education program, Adult Performance Level Program (APL), only affects 1% of its target population, the author examines the program and concludes with seven major observations: (1) Increased attention should be given to the admonition, "Users of the instrument should have a general knowledge of the principles of…

  5. The Adult Performance Level Program: A Serious and Deliberate Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.; Cervero, Ronald M.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the claims of the developers of the Adult Performance Level (APL) program to improve the teaching and testing of adults enrolled in federally supported adult basic education programs, identifies APL's theoretical problems, scrutinizes the technical aspects of its development, and evaluates the role of the U.S. Office of Education in these…

  6. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  7. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M., Ed.; Sonnert, Gerhard, Ed.; Tai, Robert H., Ed.; Klopfenstein, Kristin, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With an annual yearly growth rate of 9.3 percent over the last two decades, Advanced Placement courses have become a juggernaut in American high school education. AP courses are routinely perceived as an indicator of educational rigor, and many schools push to enroll low-income or minority students in these courses in the hope of preparing them…

  8. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  9. Assessing an Advanced Level Introductory Sociology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesler, Venessa A.; Fermin, Baranda J.; Schneider, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, the governing council of the American Sociological Association (ASA) appointed Professor Caroline Persell of New York University to launch a task force with the goal of creating an advanced high school sociology curriculum that would also be a model for introductory sociology courses in colleges and universities. The principle goal of the…

  10. Designing and Implementing a New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Angela; Reiss, Michael J.; Rowell, Cathy; Scott, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a new advanced level biology course, piloted from September 2002 in England with around 1200 students. This paper discusses the reasons for developing a new advanced biology course at this time, the philosophy of the project and how the materials are being written and the specification devised. The aim of the…

  11. Advancing the Science of Community-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Beehler, Sarah; Deutsch, Charles; Green, Lawrence W.; Hawe, Penelope; McLeroy, Kenneth; Miller, Robin Lin; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Schensul, Jean J.; Schulz, Amy J.; Trimble, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Community interventions are complex social processes that need to move beyond single interventions and outcomes at individual levels of short-term change. A scientific paradigm is emerging that supports collaborative, multilevel, culturally situated community interventions aimed at creating sustainable community-level impact. This paradigm is rooted in a deep history of ecological and collaborative thinking across public health, psychology, anthropology, and other fields of social science. The new paradigm makes a number of primary assertions that affect conceptualization of health issues, intervention design, and intervention evaluation. To elaborate the paradigm and advance the science of community intervention, we offer suggestions for promoting a scientific agenda, developing collaborations among professionals and communities, and examining the culture of science. PMID:21680923

  12. Nonnative Teachers Teaching at the Advanced Level: Challenges and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Heidi; Crane, Cori; Sprang, Katherine A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses whether students can learn a second language well enough to teach at advanced academic levels and if so, what program would help them achieve this level. Proposes that by teaching advanced courses, graduate students, whose language development usually receives scant attention, will have the opportunity to improve their linguistic…

  13. Comparing Content in Selected GCE A Levels and Advanced GNVQs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In an action research project, four British further education colleges compared mandatory units of three Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs)--business, art and design, and health and social care--with related General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A-level) syllabuses. Activities included a detailed comparison…

  14. An Examination of Two Policy Networks Involved in Advancing Smokefree Policy Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines smokefree policy networks in two cities—Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri—one that was successful in achieving widespread policy success, and one that was not. Descriptive social network analyses and visual network mapping were used to compare importance and contact relationships among actors involved in the smokefree policy initiatives. In Kansas City, where policy adoption was achieved, there was a higher level of connectivity among members, with network members being in contact with an average of more than five people, compared to just over two people for the St. Louis network. For both cities, despite being recognized as important, politicians were in contact with the fewest number of people. Results highlight the critical need to actively engage a variety of stakeholders when attempting city wide public health policy change. As evident by the success in smokefree policy adoption throughout Kansas City compared to St. Louis, closer linkages and continued communication among stakeholders including the media, coalitions, public health agencies, policymakers, and other partners are essential if we are to advance and broaden the impact of public health policy. Results indicate that the presence of champions, or those that play leadership roles in actively promoting policy by linking individuals and organizations, play an important role in advancing public health policy. Those working in public health should examine their level of engagement with the policy process and implement strategies for improving that engagement through relationship building and ongoing interactions with a variety of stakeholders, including policymakers. PMID:26371022

  15. An Examination of Two Policy Networks Involved in Advancing Smokefree Policy Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J

    2015-09-01

    This study examines smokefree policy networks in two cities—Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri—one that was successful in achieving widespread policy success, and one that was not. Descriptive social network analyses and visual network mapping were used to compare importance and contact relationships among actors involved in the smokefree policy initiatives. In Kansas City, where policy adoption was achieved, there was a higher level of connectivity among members, with network members being in contact with an average of more than five people, compared to just over two people for the St. Louis network. For both cities, despite being recognized as important, politicians were in contact with the fewest number of people. Results highlight the critical need to actively engage a variety of stakeholders when attempting city wide public health policy change. As evident by the success in smokefree policy adoption throughout Kansas City compared to St. Louis, closer linkages and continued communication among stakeholders including the media, coalitions, public health agencies, policymakers, and other partners are essential if we are to advance and broaden the impact of public health policy. Results indicate that the presence of champions, or those that play leadership roles in actively promoting policy by linking individuals and organizations, play an important role in advancing public health policy. Those working in public health should examine their level of engagement with the policy process and implement strategies for improving that engagement through relationship building and ongoing interactions with a variety of stakeholders, including policymakers. PMID:26371022

  16. The Internal Validation of Level II and Level III Respiratory Therapy Examinations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouett, Michael L.

    This project began with the delineation of the roles and functions of respiratory therapy personnel by the American Association for Respiratory Therapy. In Phase II, The Psychological Corporation used this delineation to develop six proficiency examinations, three at each of two levels. One exam at each level was designated for the purpose of the…

  17. Development of Occupational Therapy Proficiency Examinations. Therapist Level, Assistant Level. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Examination Service, New York, NY.

    Criterion-referenced proficiency examinations have been prepared for entry level occupational therapists and entry level occupational therapy assistants. Item development was based on a task inventory solicited from occupational therapists throughout the country, with six occupational therapists reviewing test development. A small scale pilot test…

  18. Examining the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Nathan Anthony; Schlaff, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Context: A popular form of pregnancy physical activity (PA) is prenatal yoga. However, little is known about the intensity and energy cost of this practice. Aims: To examine the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga. Methods: Pregnant women in a prenatal yoga class (n = 19) wore a Sense Wear Armband during eleven 60 min classes each, and self-reported demographic variables, height and weight, prepregnancy weight, and PA behaviors and beliefs. Sense Wear Armband data included kilocalories, metabolic equivalent (MET) values, and time spent in various intensities. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were utilized to describe energy expenditure and intensity. Results: Energy expenditure averaged 109 ± 8 kcals, and the average MET value was 1.5 ± 0.02. On average, 93% and 7% of classes were sedentary and moderate intensity PA, respectively. Conclusions: Time spent in a prenatal yoga class was considered to be primarily a sedentary activity. Future research should utilize larger samples, practice type, and skill level to increase generalizability. PMID:26865776

  19. Advanced Placement Course Enrollment and School-Level Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; McGaha-Garnett, Valerie; Burley, Hansel

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined access to Advanced Placement (AP) courses as a function of these school characteristics (e.g., percentage of ethnic minority and lower socioeconomic status) and then examined AP course enrollment as a function of both access to AP courses and these school characteristics. Using structural equation modeling techniques,…

  20. Predicting Advanced Placement Examination Success from FCAT Scores. Research Brief. Volume 0709

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Brown, Shelly; Tirado, Arleti

    2008-01-01

    Advanced Placement courses are offered at M-DCPS for students to acquire college credit or advanced college academic standing. A system has been developed in the past by the College Board to use the PSAT for 10th grade students to estimate their potential for AP Examination success. The same test has recently been applied in this district to 9th…

  1. An Examination of Blood Lead Levels in Thai Nielloware Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Thampoophasiam, Prapin; Thetkathuek, Anamai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the lead levels in blood samples from nielloware workers, to determine airborne lead levels, to describe the workers' hygiene behaviors, and to ascertain and describe any correlations between lead levels in blood samples and lead levels in airborne samples. Methods Blood samples and airborne samples from 45 nielloware workers were collected from nielloware workplaces in Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province, Thailand. Lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), at a wavelength of 283.3 nm. FAAS was used especially adequate for metals at relatively high concentration levels. Results The geometric mean of the 45 airborne lead levels was 81.14 µg/m3 (range 9.0-677.2 µg/m3). The geometric mean blood lead level of the 45 workers was 16.25 µg/dL (range 4.59-39.33 µg/dL). No worker had a blood lead level > 60 µg/dL. A statistically significantly positive correlation was found between airborne lead level and blood lead levels (r = 0.747, p < 0.01). It was observed that personal hygiene was poor; workers smoked and did not wash their hands before drinking or eating. It was concluded that these behaviors had a significant correlation with blood lead levels (p < 0.001). Conclusion Improvements in working conditions and occupational health education are required due to the correlation found between blood leads and airborne lead levels. PMID:23019534

  2. Effects of Examiner Training on Open-Ended, Higher Taxonomic Level Questioning in Oral Certification Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Marchais, Jacques E.; Jean, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    A 5-year study investigated the effect of training on question-asking skills of 42 licensing examiners in orthopedic surgery. Results indicate that a three-hour training session resulted in examiners' asking many more open-ended and/or problem-solving questions, suggesting the effectiveness of the training program. (Author/MSE)

  3. Examining the Impact of Entry Level Qualifications on Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background: This article considers the impact of pupils studying for entry-level qualifications on their intentions of remaining in education. Such qualifications are intended to re-engage young people who are performing below expected levels and give them the opportunity to learn at a pace that suits them. Purpose: This article specifically…

  4. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  5. Examining the target levels of state renewable portfolio standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helwig, Laurence Douglas

    At present 37 U.S. states have passed Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) or have a legislative driven goal that supports investment in renewable energy (RE) technologies. Previous research has identified economic, governmental, ideological and infrastructural characteristics as key predictors of policy adoption and renewable energy deployment efforts (Carley, 2009; Davis & Davis, 2009; Bohn & Lant, 2009; Lyon & Yin, 2010). To date, only a few studies have investigated the target levels of renewable portfolio standards. Carley & Miller (2012) found that policies of differing stringencies were motivated by systematically different factors that included governmental ideology. The purpose of this dissertation is to replicate and expand upon earlier models that predicted RPS adoption and RE deployment efforts by adding regulatory, infrastructural and spatial characteristics to predict RPS target levels. Hypotheses were tested using three alternative measurements of RPS target level strength to determine to what extent a combination of explanatory variables explain variation in policy target levels. Multivariate linear regression and global spatial autocorrelation results indicated that multiple state internal determinants influenced RPS target level including average electricity price, state government ideology and to a lesser extent actual RE potential capacity. In addition, some diffusion effects were found to exist that indicated that states are setting their RPS target levels lower than their neighboring states and a local geo-spatial clustering effect was observed in the target levels for a grouping of northeastern states.

  6. Examining Culture and Performance at Different Middle School Level Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Martin Omar; Marcoulides, George A.; Heck, Ronald H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose and test a model of school culture and examine data from schools in Southern California to identify educationally important aspects of teacher-perceived cultural variables and how these perceptions differentially impact school performance in K-8 and middle school structures.…

  7. Licensure--Entry-Level Examinations. Introduction and Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Rowland A.

    1992-01-01

    One-third to one-half of all candidates for dental licensure in 35 states fail part of their initial examination, but most pass the second with little or no attempt at knowledge or clinical skills improvement. These data highlight discussion of issues in dental licensure, including the validity of clinical skills testing. (MSE)

  8. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffing, Anne; Jensen, Travis J.; Strickland, Lucas Marshall; Meserole, Stephen; Tallant, David

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  9. Examining the Levels of Job Satisfaction among Peer Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Althea Rochelle

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on assessing the levels of job satisfaction among peer evaluators in a large, metropolitan public K-12 school district in Florida. Peer evaluators were defined as former classroom teachers with five or more years of teaching experience who observe and evaluate teachers with two or more years of teaching experience. Seventy-eight…

  10. Do high school chemistry examinations inhibit deeper level understanding of dynamic reversible chemical reactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeldon, R.; Atkinson, R.; Dawes, A.; Levinson, R.

    2012-07-01

    Background and purpose : Chemistry examinations can favour the deployment of algorithmic procedures like Le Chatelier's Principle (LCP) rather than reasoning using chemical principles. This study investigated the explanatory resources which high school students use to answer equilibrium problems and whether the marks given for examination answers require students to use approaches beyond direct application of LCP. Sample : The questionnaire was administered to 162 students studying their first year of advanced chemistry (age 16/17) in three high achieving London high schools. Design and methods : The students' explanations of reversible chemical systems were inductively coded to identify the explanatory approaches used and interviews with 13 students were used to check for consistency. AS level examination questions on reversible reactions were analysed to identify the types of explanations sought and the students' performance in these examinations was compared to questionnaire answers. Results : 19% of students used a holistic explanatory approach: when the rates of forward and reverse reactions are correctly described, recognising their simultaneous and mutually dependent nature. 36% used a mirrored reactions approach when the connected nature of the forward and reverse reactions is identified, but not their mutual dependency. 42% failed to recognize the interdependence of forward and reverse reactions (reactions not connected approach). Only 4% of marks for AS examination questions on reversible chemical systems asked for responses which went beyond either direct application of LCP or recall of equilibrium knowledge. 37% of students attained an A grade in their AS national examinations. Conclusions : Examinations favour the application of LCP making it possible to obtain the highest grade with little understanding of reversible chemical systems beyond a direct application of this algorithm. Therefore students' understanding may be attenuated so that they are

  11. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  12. An Intermediate Advanced Level Israeli Hebrew Refresher Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Haim

    "An Intermediate-Advanced Level Israeli Hebrew Refresher Course" comprises an audiolingual course in seven volumes. "Book I" contains introductory notes on Israeli Hebrew, the sound system, and phonology drills. These preface 21 lessons (three units of seven lessons each) which consist of vocabulary practices, narratives, dialogs, grammar notes,…

  13. An Intermediate-Advanced Level Laotian Refresher Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    These instructional materials have been prepared for students who have completed an introductory college-level Laotian course of one year or more or have had an "intensive" course of several months. The "Refresher" materials contained in Book I are intended to prepare the student for the intermediate-advanced materials in Books II and III. Each of…

  14. An Intermediate-Advanced Level Malay Refresher Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Oliver; And Others

    The first unit of this eight-volume refresher course in intermediate-advanced level Malay presents a detailed description of the Malay sound system, with phonological examples in both official (Latin) orthography and phonetic transcription. The remaining units in Book I--Part One (Units 2-4) and the five units in the second volume (Book I--Part…

  15. Teaching Physics at Advanced Level: A Question of Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Leonard; Rogers, Laurence

    1996-01-01

    Questions whether didactic methods employed for teaching physics at the advanced level can adequately match the variety of needs of students in the contemporary context. Offers a framework for promoting a style of teaching that is responsive and versatile. Contains 14 references. (Author/JRH)

  16. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

  17. Cognitive Levels of Questions Used by Iranian EFL Teachers in Advanced Reading Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khorsand, Narjess

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive levels of questions used by Iranian EFL teachers in advanced reading comprehension tests. Twenty teachers participated in this study and generated 215 questions which were then categorized according to Bloom's taxonomy. This taxonomy consists of six major categories which starts from the simplest behavior to the…

  18. Advanced Placement European History: An Anatomy of the Essay Examination, 1956-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackey, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The College Board's Advanced Placement European History examination has evolved over the course of its first half-century of existence in virtually all respects: the types and subject matter of questions asked (and not asked); the nature of the history those questions reflect; the number of questions both offered and to be answered, as well as how…

  19. An Analysis of Advanced Placement (AP®) Examinations in Economics and Comparative Government and Politics. Research Report No. 2001-4. ETS RR-01-17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Hunter M.; Oltman, Philip K.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) Examinations in Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, and Comparative Government and Politics were studied to examine college course performance and gender differences. It was concluded that students who had received college credit for AP performed as well or better in higher-level college courses in Macroeconomics and…

  20. Measuring Success: Examining Achievement and Perceptions of Online Advanced Placement Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sharon; Barbour, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare student performance on Advanced Placement (AP) exams from 2009 to 2011 at Florida Virtual School and to explore student perceptions of their online course experience compared with the classroom-based AP experiences. The data indicated that students performed at levels comparable to the national sample but…

  1. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Fox, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  2. An Examination of the Quality of Literacy Skill Assessments across Levels of Second-Grade, Spanish-Speaking, English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the quality of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) across a sample of second-grade English Language (EL) learners with varying degrees of English proficiency (e.g., students with beginning, early intermediate, intermediate, early advanced, and advanced levels). DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency…

  3. Advanced biologically plausible algorithms for low-level image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Valentina I.; Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Markin, Sergey N.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-08-01

    At present, in computer vision, the approach based on modeling the biological vision mechanisms is extensively developed. However, up to now, real world image processing has no effective solution in frameworks of both biologically inspired and conventional approaches. Evidently, new algorithms and system architectures based on advanced biological motivation should be developed for solution of computational problems related to this visual task. Basic problems that should be solved for creation of effective artificial visual system to process real world imags are a search for new algorithms of low-level image processing that, in a great extent, determine system performance. In the present paper, the result of psychophysical experiments and several advanced biologically motivated algorithms for low-level processing are presented. These algorithms are based on local space-variant filter, context encoding visual information presented in the center of input window, and automatic detection of perceptually important image fragments. The core of latter algorithm are using local feature conjunctions such as noncolinear oriented segment and composite feature map formation. Developed algorithms were integrated into foveal active vision model, the MARR. It is supposed that proposed algorithms may significantly improve model performance while real world image processing during memorizing, search, and recognition.

  4. Advanced Initiation Systems Manufacturing Level 2 Milestone Completion Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R; Schmidt, M

    2009-10-01

    Milestone Description - Advanced Initiation Systems Detonator Design and Prototype. Milestone Grading Criteria - Design new generation chip slapper detonator and manufacture a prototype using advanced manufacturing processes, such as all-dry chip metallization and solvent-less flyer coatings. The advanced processes have been developed for manufacturing detonators with high material compatibility and reliability to support future LEPs, e.g. the B61, and new weapons systems. Perform velocimetry measurements to determine slapper velocity as a function of flight distance. A prototype detonator assembly and stripline was designed for low-energy chip slappers. Pictures of the prototype detonator and stripline are shown. All-dry manufacturing processes were used to address compatibility issues. KCP metallized the chips in a physical vapor deposition system through precision-aligned shadow masks. LLNL deposited a solvent-less polyimide flyer with a processes called SLIP, which stands for solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization. LANL manufactured the high-surface-area (HSA) high explosive (HE) pellets. Test fires of two chip slapper designs, radius and bowtie, were performed at LLNL in the High Explosives Application Facility (HEAF). Test fires with HE were conducted to establish the threshold firing voltages. pictures of the chip slappers before and after test fires are shown. Velocimetry tests were then performed to obtain slapper velocities at or above the threshold firing voltages. Figure 5 shows the slapper velocity as a function of distance and time at the threshold voltage, for both radius and bowtie bridge designs. Both designs were successful at initiating the HE at low energy levels. Summary of Accomplishments are: (1) All-dry process for chip manufacture developed; (2) Solventless process for slapper materials developed; (3) High-surface area explosive pellets developed; (4) High performance chip slappers developed; (5) Low-energy chip

  5. Joint Leveling for Advanced Kienbock’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Ryan P.; Van Steyn, Marlo O.; Gyuricza, Cassie; Adams, Amelia; Weiland, Andrew J.; Gelberman, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The use of joint leveling procedures to treat Kienbock’s disease has been limited by the degree of disease advancement. This study was designed to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes of wrists with more advanced Kienbock’s disease (stage IIIB) to wrists with less advanced disease (stage II/IIIA) following radius shortening osteotomy. METHODS This retrospective study enrolled 31 adult wrists (30 patients, mean age 39 years), treated by radius shortening osteotomy between two institutions for either stage IIIB (n=14) or stage II/IIIA (n=17) disease. Evaluation was carried out at a mean of 74 months (IIIB, 77 months; II/IIIA, 72 months). Radiographic assessment determined disease progression. Clinical outcomes were determined by validated patient-based and objective measures. RESULTS Patient-based outcome ratings of wrists treated for stage IIIB were similar to those with stage II/IIIA [QuickDASH (15 vs 12:p=.63), MMWS (84 vs 87:p=.59), VAS pain (1.2 vs 1.7:p=.45), VAS function (2.6 vs 2.1:p=.59)]. The average flexion/extension arc was 102° for wrists with stage IIIB and 106° for wrists with stage II/IIIA Kienbock’s (p=.70). Grip strength was 77% of the opposite side for stage IIIB wrists versus 85% for stage II/IIIA (p=.25). Postoperative carpal height ratio and radioscaphoid angle were worse (p<.05) for wrists treated for stage IIIB (0.46:65°) than stage II/IIIA (0.53:53°) disease. Radiographic disease progression occurred in 7 wrists (6 stage II/IIIA: 1 stage IIIB). The one stage IIIB wrist that progressed underwent wrist arthrodesis. CONCLUSIONS In this limited series, clinical outcomes of radius shortening using validated, patient-based assessment instruments and objective measures failed to demonstrate predicted “clinically relevant” differences between stage II/IIIA and IIIB Kienbock’s. Provided the high percentage successful clinical outcomes in this case series of 14 stage IIIB wrists, we believe that static carpal malalignment

  6. A Symptom-Level Examination of Parent-Child Agreement in the Diagnosis of Anxious Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine parent-child agreement, at the symptom level, in the assessment of anxiety in youths. Differences between agreement at the diagnostic and symptom levels were explored as well as differences in agreement across symptom categories. Differences in the direction of disagreement across symptom categories were also examined.…

  7. Advanced level set segmentation of the right atrium in MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siqi; Kohlberger, Timo; Kirchberg, Klaus J.

    2011-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a common heart arrhythmia, and can be effectively treated with ablation. Ablation planning requires 3D models of the patient's left atrium (LA) and/or right atrium (RA), therefore an automatic segmentation procedure to retrieve these models is desirable. In this study, we investigate the use of advanced level set segmentation approaches to automatically segment RA in magnetic resonance angiographic (MRA) volume images. Low contrast to noise ratio makes the boundary between the RA and the nearby structures nearly indistinguishable. Therefore, pure data driven segmentation approaches such as watershed and ChanVese methods are bound to fail. Incorporating training shapes through PCA modeling to constrain the segmentation is one popular solution, and is also used in our segmentation framework. The shape parameters from PCA are optimized with a global histogram based energy model. However, since the shape parameters span a much smaller space, it can not capture fine details of the shape. Therefore, we employ a second refinement step after the shape based segmentation stage, which follows closely the recent work of localized appearance model based techniques. The local appearance model is established through a robust point tracking mechanism and is learned through landmarks embedded on the surface of training shapes. The key contribution of our work is the combination of a statistical shape prior and a localized appearance prior for level set segmentation of the right atrium from MRA. We test this two step segmentation framework on porcine RA to verify the algorithm.

  8. The Advanced Placement Physics Examinations: Test Development and Free-Response Section Readings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurray, Terri; Cain, L. S.

    2003-11-01

    The Advanced Placement Physics B and C Examinations are developed by a Test Development Committee consisting of both high school and college teachers appointed by The College Board. We will discuss the creation of the tests from their conception to their administration to more than 60,000 high school students each year. We will also discuss the reading of the free response sections for each exam. A group of readers, consisting of interested and motivated high school AP physics teachers and college instructors who teach comparable courses, is appointed to read the free response sections during June of each year. Two experienced readers, one of whom is a member of the Test Development Committee, will share information in this talk on becoming involved with the AP program as a reader.

  9. Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2002-01-01

    A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

  10. A Mixed Methods Study: African American Students' Performance Trends and Perceptions Towards Advanced Placement Literature Courses and Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buford, Brandie J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the perceptions of African American students pertaining to their engagement in Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition course and Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition examination. A purposive sampling design was employed to select 12 participants from one urban…

  11. The Advanced Labs Website: resources for upper-level laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Isea, Ramon

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Labs web resource collection is an effort to create a central, comprehensive information base for college/university faculty who teach upper-level undergraduate laboratories. The website is produced by the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT). It is a part of ComPADRE, the online collection of resources in physics and astronomy education, which itself is a part of the National Science Foundation-funded National Science Digital Library (NSDL). After a brief review of its history, we will discuss the current status of the website while describing the various types of resources available at the site and presenting examples of each. We will detail a step-by-step procedure for submitting resources to the website. The resource collection is designed to be a community effort and thus welcomes input and contributions from its users. We will also present plans, and will seek audience feedback, for additional website services and features. The constraints, roadblocks, and rewards of this project will also be addressed.

  12. Interrater reliability of quantitative ultrasound using force feedback among examiners with varied levels of experience

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Catheeja; Monfaredi, Reza; Hernandez, Haniel J.; Pennington, Donte; Woletz, Paula; McIntosh, Valerie; Adams, Bernadette; Blackman, Marc R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Quantitative ultrasound measures are influenced by multiple external factors including examiner scanning force. Force feedback may foster the acquisition of reliable morphometry measures under a variety of scanning conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of force-feedback image acquisition and morphometry over a range of examiner-generated forces using a muscle tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantom. Methods. Sixty material thickness measures were acquired from a muscle tissue mimicking phantom using B-mode ultrasound scanning by six examiners with varied experience levels (i.e., experienced, intermediate, and novice). Estimates of interrater reliability and measurement error with force feedback scanning were determined for the examiners. In addition, criterion-based reliability was determined using material deformation values across a range of examiner scanning forces (1–10 Newtons) via automated and manually acquired image capture methods using force feedback. Results. All examiners demonstrated acceptable interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = .98, p < .001) for material thickness measures obtained using force feedback. Individual examiners exhibited acceptable reliability with the criterion-based reference measures (ICC > .90, p < .001), independent of their level of experience. The measurement error among all examiners was 1.5%–2.9% across all applied stress conditions. Conclusion. Manual image capture with force feedback may aid the reliability of morphometry measures across a range of examiner scanning forces, and allow for consistent performance among examiners with differing levels of experience. PMID:27366647

  13. Examining the Role of Gender in Career Advancement at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Kakoli; Gotway Crawford, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, efforts to promote gender parity in the healing and public health professions have met with only partial success. We provide a critical update regarding the status of women in the public health profession by exploring gender-related differences in promotion rates at the nation's leading public health agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using personnel data drawn from CDC, we found that the gender gap in promotion has diminished across time and that this reduction can be attributed to changes in individual characteristics (e.g., higher educational levels and more federal work experience). However, a substantial gap in promotion that cannot be explained by such characteristics has persisted, indicating continuing barriers in women's career advancement. PMID:20075327

  14. Examining the role of gender in career advancement at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Roy, Kakoli; Gotway Crawford, Carol A

    2010-03-01

    During the past decade, efforts to promote gender parity in the healing and public health professions have met with only partial success. We provide a critical update regarding the status of women in the public health profession by exploring gender-related differences in promotion rates at the nation's leading public health agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using personnel data drawn from CDC, we found that the gender gap in promotion has diminished across time and that this reduction can be attributed to changes in individual characteristics (e.g., higher educational levels and more federal work experience). However, a substantial gap in promotion that cannot be explained by such characteristics has persisted, indicating continuing barriers in women's career advancement. PMID:20075327

  15. Bach, Beethoven, Bourdieu: "Cultural Capital" and the Scholastic Canon in England's A-Level Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article applies Bourdieu's notion of "cultural capital" to historical, documentary research which investigates the construction of a scholastic canon within England's A-level music examinations. A digest of the ways in which this canon evolved between 1951 and 1986 is presented in support of the idea that examiners' responses to emerging…

  16. Examining the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale at the Item Level with Rasch Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Lin; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric quality of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) with data collected from 554 teachers in a U.S. Midwestern state. The many-facet Rasch model was used to examine several potential contextual influences (years of teaching experience, school context, and levels of emotional exhaustion)…

  17. Using Speaking Test Data to Define the Advanced Proficiency Level for L2 Arabic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Summer

    2015-01-01

    Reaching the Advanced level of proficiency in speaking is a common goal of second language learners, but data on advanced learners of less commonly taught languages such as Arabic are scarce. This mixed-methods study reports words-per-minute and type-token ratios for three ACTFL levels--10 Intermediate Mid, 10 Advanced Mid, and 8…

  18. Development of Proficiency Examinations and Procedures for Two Levels of Respiratory Therapy Personnel. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psychological Corp., New York, NY.

    Under the guidance of an advisory committee from the American Association for Respiratory Therapy (AART), The Psychological Corporation developed three forms of two criterion-referenced proficiency examinations to measure the skills, understandings, and knowledge required in entry level jobs for two levels of respiratory therapy personnel. The…

  19. In-Class Examinations in College-Level Science: New Theory, New Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sheila; Raphael, Jacqueline B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses innovations in testing methods in college-level science. Highlights previous efforts at reform, new thinking, new practices, and computer-generated exams and scoring systems. Reports on focus group interviews that explore student recollections of in-class examinations in college-level science. (24 references) (JRH)

  20. An Examination of Perceptions Associated with Enrollment Procedures and Students Placement in Advanced Placement Courses in Northeast Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidrine, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate participation rates of minorities and economically disadvantaged students in Advanced Placement programs in selected high schools in Northeast Louisiana. Advanced Placement programs in high schools generally promote higher level education courses. The focus of the investigation was perceptions held by…

  1. Finding a Balance: Fifteen Institutional Case Studies on the Relationship between Part-Time Work and Advanced Level Study. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann, Ed.; Spours, Ken, Ed.

    This document presents and discusses case studies that examined the relationship between part-time employment and advanced level study at 15 schools in Essex, England. "Foreword" (David Jones) provides a brief overview of the project. "Finding a Balance--Fifteen Institutional Case Studies on the Relationship between Part-time Work and Advanced…

  2. Examination of loop-operator-initiated events for the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Durney, J.L.; Majumdar, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a unique high-flux test reactor having nine major test positions for irradiation of reactor materials. These test positions contain inpile tubes (IPT) that are connected to external piping and equipment (loops) to provide the high-temperature, high-pressure environment for the testing. The design of the core has intimately integrated the IPTs into the fuel region by means of a serpentine fuel arrangement resulting in a close reactivity coupling between the loop thermal hydraulics and the core. Consequently, operator actions potentially have an impact on the reactor power transients resulting from off-normal conditions in these facilities. This paper examines these operator-initiated events and their consequences. The analysis of loop-operator-initiated events indicates there is no damage to the reactor core even when assuming no operator intervention for mitigation. However, analysis does assume a scram occurs when required by the reactor protection systems.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-09-01

    the equation for relativistic mass. In fact, Einstein came to the conclusion that the only sensible definition of mass is the rest mass and this point ought at least to be mentioned. When discussing de Broglie's relation, the text states: `Each photon has energy hf which is equivalent to mass m on a scale mc2 = hf'. This may lead some to think that the photon has mass, especially when this relationship is compared with the equation for relativistic mass, which seems then to imply that the photon has non-zero rest mass. de Broglie came to his relation via the connection between the momentum and energy of a photon so that pc=hf and the de Broglie relationship then follows. When discussing particle physics, forces between particles mediated by virtual photons are discussed and it is stated that `the exchange is impossible to detect and hence the term virtual is used to describe the photon'. Of course, the exchange is not impossible to detect as it is the cause of the detectable force between the particles. These quibbles aside, the book is a comprehensive reference that students and teachers will find useful. The accompanying Course Guide has a lot of very useful material in it. It gives students advice on the transition from GCSE to A-level, sections on essential mathematics, data analysis, laboratory work, communication and IT skills, advice on assessment, A-level grade criteria and information about how Key Skills are incorporated into A-level physics. A very useful section, given Mr Breithaupt's experience as an examiner at this level, is the section on model answers, which shows exactly what examiners are looking for when they mark A-level scripts. My one reservation here regards units and dimensions: the technique of dimensional analysis is explained and there is advice on using equations to derive the units of answers. It was then disappointing to see that when example calculations were given, units were not consistently used in all steps of the calculations: it

  4. Too Soon to Give Up? Re-examining the Value of Advance Directives

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Benjamin H.; Green, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In the face of mounting criticism against advance directives, we describe how a novel, computer-based decision aid addresses some of these important concerns. This decision aid, Making Your Wishes Known: Planning Your Medical Future, translates an individual’s values and goals into a meaningful advance directive that explicitly reflects their healthcare wishes and outlines a plan for how they wish to be treated. It does this by 1) educating users about advance care planning; 2) helping individuals identify, clarify, and prioritize factors that influence their decision-making about future medical conditions; 3) explaining common end-of-life medical conditions and life-sustaining treatment; 4) helping users articulate a coherent set of wishes with regard to advance care planning—in the form of an advance directive readily interpretable by physicians; and 5) helping individuals both choose a spokesperson, and prepare to engage family, friends, and healthcare providers in discussions about advance care planning. PMID:20379910

  5. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 1 models

    SciTech Connect

    Sattison, M.B.; Thatcher, T.A.; Knudsen, J.K.; Schroeder, J.A.; Siu, N.O.

    1996-03-01

    INEL has been involved in the development of plant-specific Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) models for the past two years. These models were developed for use with the SAPHIRE suite of PRA computer codes. They contained event tree/linked fault tree Level 1 risk models for the following initiating events: general transient, loss-of-offsite-power, steam generator tube rupture, small loss-of-coolant-accident, and anticipated transient without scram. Early in 1995 the ASP models were revised based on review comments from the NRC and an independent peer review. These models were released as Revision 1. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has sponsored several projects at the INEL this fiscal year to further enhance the capabilities of the ASP models. Revision 2 models incorporates more detailed plant information into the models concerning plant response to station blackout conditions, information on battery life, and other unique features gleaned from an Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation quick review of the Individual Plant Examination submittals. These models are currently being delivered to the NRC as they are completed. A related project is a feasibility study and model development of low power/shutdown (LP/SD) and external event extensions to the ASP models. This project will establish criteria for selection of LP/SD and external initiator operational events for analysis within the ASP program. Prototype models for each pertinent initiating event (loss of shutdown cooling, loss of inventory control, fire, flood, seismic, etc.) will be developed. A third project concerns development of enhancements to SAPHIRE. In relation to the ASP program, a new SAPHIRE module, GEM, was developed as a specific user interface for performing ASP evaluations. This module greatly simplifies the analysis process for determining the conditional core damage probability for a given combination of initiating events and equipment failures or degradations.

  6. Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This paper explains how advanced inverter functions (sometimes called 'smart inverters') contribute to the integration of high levels of solar PV generation onto the electrical grid and covers the contributions of advanced functions to maintaining grid stability. Policy and regulatory considerations associated with the deployment of advanced inverter functions are also introduced.

  7. The Leader's Leader: Examining the HR Executive's Role as Performance Coach at the Management Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strodel, Neil; Novak, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Higher education human resource professionals know the importance of performance management and coaching for university employees. However, the standards of performance often are not enforced to those in high-level positions. Neil Strodel and Christopher Novak examine how HR leaders are in a unique position to extend performance coaching to those…

  8. The Fear Factor: Students' Experiences of Test Anxiety when Taking A-Level Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Suzanne; Daly, Anthony Leslie; Spalding, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that explored students' experiences of test anxiety when taking A-level examinations. Four focus groups were convened with a sample of 19 participants in the south of England to explore the triggers of test anxiety and the perceived need for interventions to assist high test-anxious students cope…

  9. Examining Perceived Control Level and Instability as Predictors of First-Year College Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Hall, Nathan C.; Guay, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the intraindividual level and instability of perceived academic control (PC) among first-year college students, and their predictive effects on academic achievement. Two studies were conducted measuring situational (state) PC on different schedules: Study 1 (N = 242) five times over a 6-month period and…

  10. Assessment of Morale in Further Education Students Studying for A-Level Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigley, Stephen C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an empirical study of psychological morale in further education students. Success in A-level examinations is dependant on a number of factors, not only intellectual ability but also morale and other personality factors. This investigation aimed to assess the influence of these factors in the 16-18 years age range.…

  11. Examining the Satisfaction Levels of Continual Professional Development Provided by a Rural Accounting Professional Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halabi, Abdel K.

    2014-01-01

    The Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) recognises education as a lifelong process, and there is a need for continuing education and training to be available to rural communities. This paper examines the satisfaction levels of accounting continual professional development (CPD) when provided by a rural accounting…

  12. Examining Perspectives of Entry-Level Teacher Candidates: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    This study examines entry-level teacher candidates on career choice, professional goals and view on a teacher's role. The candidates were enrolled in two elementary teacher education programs in the People's Republic of China and the United States of America. A total of 66 participants responded in writing to three questions about why they decided…

  13. Examining Teachers' Use of iPads: Comfort Level, Perception, and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Navarrete, Cesar C.; Scordino, Robert; Kang, Jina; Ko, Yujung; Lim, Mihyun

    2016-01-01

    While there is evidence of the growing popularity of iPads and other tablets in K-12 education, little is understood about how teachers use these devices in their instruction. This study examines 342 teachers' comfort level with and perception toward iPad use and any changes that occurred over the implementation year. Using a mixed-methods design,…

  14. National diagnostic reference level initiative for computed tomography examinations in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Korir, Geoffrey K; Wambani, Jeska S; Korir, Ian K; Tries, Mark A; Boen, Patrick K

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the computed tomography (CT) examination frequency, patient radiation exposure, effective doses and national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) associated with CT examinations in clinical practice. A structured questionnaire-type form was developed for recording examination frequency, scanning protocols and patient radiation exposure during CT procedures in fully equipped medical facilities across the country. The national annual number of CT examinations per 1000 people was estimated to be 3 procedures. The volume-weighted CT dose index, dose length product, effective dose and NDRLs were determined for 20 types of adult and paediatric CT examinations. Additionally, the CT annual collective effective dose and effective dose per capita were approximated. The radiation exposure during CT examinations was broadly distributed between the facilities that took part in the study. This calls for a need to develop and implement diagnostic reference levels as a standardisation and optimisation tool for the radiological protection of patients at all the CT facilities nationwide. PMID:25790825

  15. Health sector reforms in Kenya: an examination of district level planning.

    PubMed

    Oyaya, Charles O; Rifkin, Susan B

    2003-04-01

    The paper examines health sector reforms in Kenya at the district level based on the Government of Kenya's Health Policy Framework of 1994. The authors present the context of and historical perspective to health sector reforms in Kenya and discuss the major reform policies including decentralization to the district level. The authors then review intended policy outcomes, investigating assumptions on which the implementation and effectiveness of the reform agenda at the local level are based. The authors argue that emphasis on outcomes rather than process has not supported sustainable reforms or achieved the government's goal of improving health and ensuring equity for the citizens of the country. PMID:12644333

  16. EPS in Environmental Microbial Biofilms as Examined by Advanced Imaging Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, T. R.; Lawrence, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    lectin-binding- analysis has been suggested as a suitable approach to image glycoconjugates within the polymer matrix of biofilm communities. More recently synchrotron radiation is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool for studying biological samples. Hard X-ray excitation can be used to map elemental composition whereas IR imaging allows examination of biological macromolecules. A further technique called soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy (STXM) has the advantage of both techniques and may be employed to detect elements as well as biomolecules. Using the appropriate spectra, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) microscopy allows quantitative chemical mapping at 50 nm resolution. In this presentation the applicability of LSM and STXM will be demonstrated using several examples of different environmental biofilm systems. The techniques in combination provide a new view of complex microbial communities and their interaction with the environment. These advanced imaging techniques offer the possibility to study the spatial structure of cellular and polymeric compounds in biofilms as well as biofilm microhabitats, biofilm functionality and biofilm processes.

  17. Physical Activity in Deprived Communities in London: Examining Individual and Neighbourhood-Level Factors

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Paul; Phillips, Gemma; Petticrew, Mark; Hayes, Richard; Bottomley, Christian; Yu, Ge; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Moore, Derek; Frostick, Caroline; Lock, Karen; Renton, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of this study were to examine relationships between neighbourhood-level and individual-level characteristics and physical activity in deprived London neighbourhoods. Methods In 40 of the most deprived neighbourhoods in London (ranked in top 11% in London by Index of Multiple Deprivation) a cross-sectional survey (n = 4107 adults aged > = 16 years), neighbourhood audit tool, GIS measures and routine data measured neighbourhood and individual-level characteristics. The binary outcome was meeting the minimum recommended (CMO, UK) 5×30 mins moderate physical activity per week. Multilevel modelling was used to examine associations between physical activity and individual and neighbourhood-level characteristics. Results Respondents living more than 300 m away from accessible greenspace had lower odds of achieving recommended physical activity levels than those who lived within 300 m; from 301–600 m (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.5–0.9) and from 601–900 m (OR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4–0.8). There was substantial residual between-neighbourhood variance in physical activity (median odds ratio = 1.7). Other objectively measured neighbourhood-level characteristics were not associated with physical activity levels. Conclusions Distance to nearest greenspace is associated with meeting recommended physical activity levels in deprived London neighbourhoods. Despite residual variance in physical activity levels between neighbourhoods, we found little evidence for the influence of other measured neighbourhood-level characteristics. PMID:23922717

  18. Examining the Satisfaction of Educational Leaders and Their Intent to Pursue Career Advancement in Public School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Tracey L.; Rosser, Vicki J.

    2007-01-01

    This statewide study examined selected demographic characteristics, worklife experiences, and personal issues that influence the satisfaction of administrators (assistant principals, principals, assistant superintendents) and their intent to leave their positions and careers or pursue career advancement in public school administration. The results…

  19. Factors Associated with Mathematics Achievement and Participation in Advanced Mathematics Courses: An Examination of Gender Differences from an International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye; McCreith, Tanya; Lapointe, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    This article reports results of an exploratory study examining factors that might be associated with achievement in mathematics and participation in advanced mathematics courses in Canada, Norway, and the United States of America (USA). These factors, which were not directly related to schooling accounted for large degrees of variability, 24% to…

  20. Serum Prosaposin Levels Are Increased in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koochekpour, Shahriar; Hu, Siyi; Vellasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Bernardo, Ruiz; Azabdaftari, Gissue; Dalin, Guo-xiang; Zhau, Haiyen E.; Chung, Leland W.; Vessella, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND We previously cloned prosaposin (PSAP) from metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPCa) cells and demonstrated its genomic amplification and/or overexpression in metastatic PCa cell lines, xenografts, and lymph node metastases. The clinicohistopathological significance of serum-PSAP levels and its tissue expression and association with predictive or prognostic variable in primary or advanced PCa are not known. METHODS We examined PSAP expression by immunohistochemical staining during early embryogenic development of the prostate and within a large tissue microarray which included 266 benign and malignant prostate tissues. In addition, serum PSAP levels in the age-adjusted normal male population and in 154 normal individuals and patients with primary or mCRPCa were measured by an ELISA assay. RESULTS Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a significant and inverse association between PSAP expression and clinical stage II and III tumors, dominant Gleason patterns 3 and 4, and seminal vesicle invasion. In the normal male population, the lowest serum-PSAP level was detected before puberty, peaked at the most reproductive age group (20–39 years old), and then, decreased to a range between the two groups for men above 40 years old. Regardless of age and when compared with normal individuals, serum-PSAP levels significantly decreased in primary organ-confined PCa, but increased in those with mCRPCa. CONCLUSION Our results show that PSAP has the potential to differentiate between primary and advanced PCa. Additional large-scale studies are needed to define the usefulness of tissue expression or serum-PSAP levels as a diagnostic or prognostic marker or as a therapeutic target in PCa. PMID:21630292

  1. Circulating APRIL levels are correlated with advanced disease and prognosis in rectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lascano, V; Hahne, M; Papon, L; Cameron, K; Röeder, C; Schafmayer, C; Driessen, L; van Eenennaam, H; Kalthoff, H; Medema, J P

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that the tumor necrosis factor family member a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) enhances intestinal tumor growth in various preclinical tumor models. Here, we have investigated whether APRIL serum levels at time of surgery predict survival in a large cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We measured circulating APRIL levels in a cohort of CRC patients (n=432) using a novel validated monoclonal APRIL antibody (hAPRIL.133) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) setup. APRIL levels were correlated with clinicopathological features and outcome. Overall survival was examined with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated. We observed that circulating APRIL levels were normally distributed among CRC patients. High APRIL expression correlated significantly with poor outcome measures, such as higher stage at presentation and development of lymphatic and distant metastases. Within the group of rectal cancer patients, higher circulating APRIL levels at time of surgery were correlated with poor survival (log-rank analysis P-value 0.008). Univariate Cox regression analysis for overall survival in rectal cancer patients showed that patients with elevated circulating APRIL levels had an increased risk of poor outcome (hazard ratio (HR) 1.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-2.76; P-value 0.009). Multivariate analysis in rectal cancer patients showed that APRIL as a prognostic factor was dependent on stage of disease (HR 1.25; 95% CI 0.79-1.99; P-value 0.340), which was related to the fact that stage IV rectal cancer patients had significantly higher levels of APRIL. Our results revealed that APRIL serum levels at time of surgery were associated with features of advanced disease and prognosis in rectal cancer patients, which strengthens the previously reported preclinical observation of increased APRIL levels correlating with disease progression. PMID:25622308

  2. Advancement of Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Emiley, Mark S.; Agte, Jeremy S.; Sandusky, Robert R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) is a method for optimization of an engineering system, e.g., an aerospace vehicle. BLISS consists of optimizations at the subsystem (module) and system levels to divide the overall large optimization task into sets of smaller ones that can be executed concurrently. In the initial version of BLISS that was introduced and documented in previous publications, analysis in the modules was kept at the early conceptual design level. This paper reports on the next step in the BLISS development in which the fidelity of the aerodynamic drag and structural stress and displacement analyses were upgraded while the method's satisfactory convergence rate was retained.

  3. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:26927164

  4. Urine formaldehyde level is inversely correlated to mini mental state examination scores in senile dementia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhiqian; Zhang, Jinling; Luo, Wenhong; Wang, Weishan; Li, Fangxu; Li, Hui; Luo, Hongjun; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Jiangning; Wan, You; He, Rongqiao

    2011-01-01

    It is widely known that exogenous formaldehyde exposure induces human cognitive impairment and animal memory loss; and recent studies show that formaldehyde at pathological levels induces Aβ deposition and misfolding of tau protein to form globular amyloid-like aggregates. Endogenous formaldehyde may be a marker for progressive senile dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of endogenous formaldehyde in urine of senile dementia and mini mental state examination (MMSE) scores. Formaldehyde level was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (with fluorescence detection) in human urine from dementia patients (n=141), patients with hypertension (n=33) or diabetes (n=16) and healthy individuals (n=38), autopsy hippocampus samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and brains of three types of AD animal model: namely, senescence accelerated mice (SAMP8), APP-transgenic mice and APP/PS1-transgenic mice. In a double-blind study, there was marked elevation of urine formaldehyde levels in patients (n=91) with dementia, and a slight increase in patients (n=50) with mild cognitive impairment. Urine formaldehyde level was inversely correlated with mini mental state examination scores (Rs=-0.441, p<0.0001). Furthermore, formaldehyde levels were significantly increased in the autopsy hippocampus from Alzheimer's patients (n=4). In SAMP8 brains the formaldehyde level was significantly increased, suggesting that the endogenous formaldehyde is related to aging in mice. The brain formaldehyde level in APP/PS1-transgenic (n=8) mice at age of 3 months and APP-transgenic (n=8) mice at age of 6 months was increased (0.56 ± 0.02 mM), respectively, as compared with their respective age-matched controls, when these two types of AD-like animals, respectively, started to form Aβ deposits and memory loss obviously. According to the level of formaldehyde in the brain of the transgenic mice, we treated normal mice with formaldehyde (0.5m

  5. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control System Technologies: Nondestructive Examination Technologies - FY11 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-08-30

    Licensees of commercial nuclear power plants in the US are expected to submit license renewal applications for the period of operation of 60 to 80 years which has also been referred to as long term operation (LTO). The greatest challenges to LTO are associated with degradation of passive components as active components are routinely maintained and repaired or placed through maintenance programs. Some passive component degradation concerns include stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of metal components, radiation induced embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), degradation of buried piping, degradation of concrete containment structures, and degradation of cables. Proactive management of passive component aging employs three important elements including online monitoring of degradation, early detection of degradation at precursor stages, and application of prognostics for the prediction of remaining useful life (RUL). This document assesses several nondestructive examination (NDE) measurement technologies for integration into proactive aging management programs. The assessment is performed by discussing the three elements of proactive aging management identified above, considering the current state of the industry with respect to adopting these key elements, and analyzing measurement technologies for monitoring large cracks in metal components, monitoring early degradation at precursor stages, monitoring the degradation of concrete containment structures, and monitoring the degradation of cables. Specific and general needs have been identified through this assessment. General needs identified include the need for environmentally rugged sensors are needed that can operate reliably in an operating reactor environment, the need to identify parameters from precursor monitoring technologies that are unambiguously correlated with the level of pre-macro defect damage, and a methodology for identifying regions where precursor damage is most likely to initiate.

  6. A Mixed Methods Approach to Examining an Advanced Placement Program in One Connecticut Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docimo, Chelsey L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this eleventh grade Advanced Placement (AP) program study was to determine factors associated with AP placement and subsequent student performance. This research was considered to be a mixed methods case study with elements of arrested action research. One hundred and twenty-four students, four guidance counselors, three AP…

  7. Examining Advanced Technologies for Benefits to Persons with Sensory Impairments. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Daniel E., Sr.

    This final report describes activities and products of an 18-month study on improving access of persons with sensory impairments to media, telecommunications, electronic correspondence, and other communications devices by means of technological advancements. Ten scenarios were developed which describe potential applications of: (1) Braille devices…

  8. Advancing Diversity Agendas on Campus: Examining Transactional and Transformational Presidential Leadership Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Eckel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This study draws on the experiences and insights of current college and university presidents to understand whether transactional, transformational or a combination of these leadership strategies advances an institution-wide diversity agenda. The qualitative elite interview study demonstrates that both styles of leadership appear important and…

  9. GNVQ science at advanced level: motivation and self-esteem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, J.

    1995-07-01

    An interview study carried out in the pilot year of the new GNVQ in science at A-level has shown that the use of grading criteria, which require independent learning, as a method of assessment is better for students' motivation and self-esteem.

  10. An Intermediate-Advanced Level Dutch Refresher Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This refresher course in Dutch consists of eight volumes (Books I-IV, each in two parts). Book I, which begins on the intermediate level, presents the sound system of Dutch with accompanying drills. These provide practice in sound-to-spelling correspondence, and contrastive English-Dutch phonology. Books II and III are comprised of six units of…

  11. An Intermediate-Advanced Level Cambodian Refresher Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purtle, Dale I.; And Others

    This eight-volume audiolingual course in Standard Cambodian has been prepared for students who have completed either an introductory college-level course of one year or have had an intensive course of several months. Material in the first two volumes, "Book I--Part One" and "Book I--Part Two," introduces the sound system with phonology drills and…

  12. An Intermediate-Advanced Level Thai Refresher Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaweevongs, Chuan: And Others

    The audiolingual materials in this six-volume Thai series have been prepared for students who have either completed an introductory college-level Thai course of one year or more, or have had an intensive course of several months. The first two volumes, Books I and II, consist of five units each, with each unit containing the following lessons--(1)…

  13. Victims' Responses to Stalking: An Examination of Fear Levels and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Podaná, Zuzana; Imríšková, Romana

    2016-03-01

    Fear for the stalking victim's own safety or the safety of people close to them is of primary research interest due to the fact that fear is often required as a necessary condition for repetitive intrusive behavior to be defined as stalking. This study examines factors that increase levels of fear in stalking victims and analyzes their coping strategies, making use of data from a victimization survey among citizens of the Czech Republic (N = 2,503). Overall, 147 stalking victims were identified in the sample. Results show that female victims, those stalked by male offenders, and victims pursued over a long period of time, are most fearful. Higher levels of fear are elicited by strangers as opposed to partners or acquaintances. Among stalking practices, only direct aggression is significantly associated with fear, whereas monitoring the victim (comprising typical stalking behavior such as following the victim) increases the perception of the seriousness of stalking, but does not influence the victim's fear. In addition, three behavioral coping strategies have been identified: proactive behavior (47% of victims), avoidance (30%), and passivity (23%). The examination of the association between these coping strategies and victims' fear reveals that female victims, whose behavior is proactive, express higher levels of fear than male victims and than those choosing avoidance or passivity strategies. Overall, the study confirms gender differences in both the level of fear and coping strategies, and lends further support to appeals for eliminating the fear requirement from the stalking definition. PMID:25392391

  14. An Advanced Review of Speech-Language Pathology: Preparation for Praxis and Comprehensive Examination. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste; Hegde, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    This second edition book is tailor made for speech-language pathology students preparing to take departmental comprehensive examinations as well as the Praxis Examination in Speech-Language Pathology. In addition, this inclusive book is a terrific teaching tool for university faculty---offering preview outlines, brief introductions, and summaries.…

  15. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 2 models

    SciTech Connect

    Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.; Rempe, J.L.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Accident Sequence Precursor program pursues the ultimate objective of performing risk significant evaluations on operational events (precursors) occurring in commercial nuclear power plants. To achieve this objective, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is supporting the development of simple probabilistic risk assessment models for all commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) in the U.S. Presently, only simple Level 1 plant models have been developed which estimate core damage frequencies. In order to provide a true risk perspective, the consequences associated with postulated core damage accidents also need to be considered. With the objective of performing risk evaluations in an integrated and consistent manner, a linked event tree approach which propagates the front end results to back end was developed. This approach utilizes simple plant models that analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude and timing of a radioactive release to the environment, and calculate the consequences for a given release. Detailed models and results from previous studies, such as the NUREG-1150 study, are used to quantify these simple models. These simple models are then linked to the existing Level 1 models, and are evaluated using the SAPHIRE code. To demonstrate the approach, prototypic models have been developed for a boiling water reactor, Peach Bottom, and a pressurized water reactor, Zion.

  16. High Achievement on Advanced Placement Exams: The Relationship of School-Level Contextual Factors to Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify school- and district-level variables that relate to advanced academic achievement, as defined by the ratio of number of scores of 3, 4, or 5 on Advanced Placement exams to school enrollment. The study initially included 46 variables for 339 public high schools in one Midwestern state. Hierarchical linear…

  17. Diagnostic reference levels and patient doses in computed tomography examinations in Greece.

    PubMed

    Simantirakis, G; Hourdakis, C J; Economides, S; Kaisas, I; Kalathaki, M; Koukorava, C; Manousaridis, G; Pafilis, C; Tritakis, P; Vogiatzi, S; Kamenopoulou, V; Dimitriou, P

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a national survey that was performed in Greece for the establishment of national Dose Reference Levels (DRLs) for seven common adult Computed Tomography (CT) examinations. Volumetric computed tomography dose index and dose-length product values were collected from the post-data page of 65 'modern' systems that incorporate tube current modulation. Moreover, phantom dose measurements on 26 'older' systems were performed. Finally, the effective dose to the patient from a typical acquisition during these examinations was estimated. The suggested national DRLs are generally comparable with respective published values from similar European studies, with the exception of sinuses CT, which presents significantly higher values. This fact, along with the large variation of the systems' dose values that were observed even for scanners of the same type, indicates a need for further patient protection optimisation without compromising the clinical outcome. PMID:24891405

  18. Examining portfolio-based assessment in an upper-level biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Brittany Ann

    Historically, students have been viewed as empty vessels and passive participants in the learning process but students actually are active forming their own conceptions. One way student learning is impacted is through assessment. Alternative assessment, which contrasts traditional assessment methods, takes into account how students learn by promoting engagement and construction of knowledge This dissertation explores portfolio-based assessment, a method of alternative assessment, which requires students to compose a purposeful collection of work demonstrating their knowledge in an upper-level biology course. The research objectives include characterizing and contributing to the understanding of portfolio-based assessment in higher education, examining reflection and inquiry portfolio components, determining student knowledge of biological concepts, and investigating student integrative thinking through the transformation of reflections into concept webs One main finding includes the majority of reflections categorized as naive or novice in quality. There was no difference in quality of reflections among biological topic. There was a relatively equal amount of high and low cognitive level questions. Students' knowledge of biological concepts significantly increased from the beginning to end of the course. Student written reflections were transformed into concept webs to allow for examination of student integrative thinking. Concepts, relationships, and interconnections in concept webs showed variation but declined by the end of the semester This study is one of the first examining portfolio-based assessment in an upper-level biology course We do not contend that this method of assessment is the only way to promote student learning but portfolio-based assessment may be a tool that can transform science education but currently the role of portfolio-based assessment in science education remains unclear. Additional research needs to be conducted before we will fully

  19. ADVANCED UTILITY SIMULATION MODEL DESCRIPTION OF MODIFICATIONS TO THE STATE LEVEL MODEL (VERSION 3.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents modifications to the state level model portion of the Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM), one of four stationary source emission and control cost forecasting models developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The AUSM model...

  20. Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography Examination and Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels in Mazandaran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Janbabanezhad Toori, A.; Shabestani-Monfared, A.; Deevband, M.R.; Abdi, R.; Nabahati, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical X-rays are the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. While the benefits of Computed Tomography (CT) are well known in accurate diagnosis, those benefits are not risk-free. CT is a device with higher patient dose in comparison with other conventional radiation procedures. Objective This study is aimed at evaluating radiation dose to patients from Computed Tomography (CT) examination in Mazandaran hospitals and defining diagnostic reference level (DRL). Methods Patient-related data on CT protocol for four common CT examinations including brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic were collected. In each center, Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) measurements were performed using pencil ionization chamber and CT dosimetry phantom according to AAPM report No. 96 for those techniques. Then, Weighted Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIW), Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI vol) and Dose Length Product (DLP) were calculated. Results The CTDIw for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic ranged (15.6-73), (3.8-25. 8), (4.5-16.3) and (7-16.3), respectively. Values of DLP had a range of (197.4-981), (41.8-184), (131-342.3) and (283.6-486) for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic, respectively. The 3rd quartile of CTDIW, derived from dose distribution for each examination is the proposed quantity for DRL. The DRLs of brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic are measured 59.5, 17, 7.8 and 11 mGy, respectively. Conclusion Results of this study demonstrated large scales of dose for the same examination among different centers. For all examinations, our values were lower than international reference doses. PMID:26688796

  1. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments Among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    PubMed Central

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and drinking settings of 16,745 undergraduate students. The findings revealed that drinking patterns for intramural/club athletes remained relatively consistent at all quantity levels; however, intercollegiate athletes consumed alcohol in higher quantities. Further, intramural/club athletes drank in almost every drinking setting, whereas intercollegiate athletes were more limited. The drinking patterns and settings suggest a stronger social motivation for drinking among intramural/club athletes than among intercollegiate athletes and point to a need to specify competition level when studying college athletes. PMID:25767148

  2. Examining movement variability in the basketball free-throw action at different skill levels.

    PubMed

    Button, Chris; MacLeod, Morven; Sanders, Ross; Coleman, Simon

    2003-09-01

    The analysis of variability both within and between performers can reveal important information about how athletes satisfy situational constraints. Transitory changes in the basketball free-throw shot were examined across different stages in skill development. Six female basketball players were selected, representing a range of playing expertise (pretest: 0-90% baskets scored). Each participant was video recorded performing 30 shots. Contrary to predictions, there was not a clear pattern of a reduction in trajectory variability with increasing skill level. However, improvements in skill level were associated with an increasing amount of intertrial movement consistency from the elbow and wrist joints. It is suggested that the angular motions of the elbow and wrist joints were compensated for each other toward the end of each throw to adapt to subtle changes in release parameters of the ball. PMID:14510290

  3. Advances in low-level jet research and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbo; He, Mingyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong

    2014-02-01

    The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fire, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made significant achievements during the past five or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classification, definition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fields. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse definitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fields. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

  4. A retrospective examination of in-home educational visits to reduce childhood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, B. |; Pawel, D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-05-01

    A number of human health effects from lead are well known. However, the means for reducing lead exposure in children has been a subject of uncertainty. This paper presents results of a retrospective study of educational lead reduction interventions in Milwaukee, Wisconsin for children who had elevated blood lead levels between 20 and 24 {micro}g/dl. The study examined Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) records of baseline and follow-up blood lead measurements. A study group of children received an in-home educational visit by an MHD paraprofessional. The educational visits last about an hour and the importance of reducing lead exposure, nutritional suggestions, and dust clean-up practices and behavioral changes that can reduce lead exposure are discussed. After the intervention, the average observed blood lead level declined by 4.2 {micro}g/dl or by about 21%. A decline of 1.2 {micro}g/dl (6%) was also observed in a reference group of 226 children who did not receive an MHD in-home visit. The decline in the reference group may be partially due to education at the clinics taking the blood samples. The study group had a decline in blood lead levels 3.1 {micro}g/dl (15%) greater than the reference group, with the difference between groups being statistically significant with a P value of less than 0.001. Although significant exposures remained in most of the children studied, important lead reductions were observed with this relatively inexpensive and simple intervention. Education in the homes of families at risk for lead poisoning may be an effective component of programs to reduce blood lead levels.

  5. Examining elementary school children's level of enjoyment of traditional tag games vs. interactive dance games.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan; Zhang, Peng; Podlog, Leslie William

    2014-01-01

    Enjoyment has been implicated as a determinant of physical activity among children and adolescents. However, the effect of different sport activities on children's enjoyment remains largely unexplored. This study examined whether children's enjoyment in physical education (PE) varied as a function of learning activities. Participants were 210 third- through sixth-grade children who had a 30 min PE class every week. Participants responded to a standardized self-report enjoyment survey measuring their enjoyment level in a PE class during which they participated in tag games. Students completed the same questionnaire when involved in interactive dance games in PE. The results revealed that children reported significantly higher scores in enjoyment toward interactive dance games than they did toward traditional games (p < .01). Also, girls exhibited higher enjoyment toward interactive dance games than boys did (p < .05). However, no gender difference emerged on enjoyment toward traditional games. In conclusion, it is practical and meaningful to integrate interactive dance games into PE. PMID:24111947

  6. Characteristics of advanced-level dietetics practice: a model and empirical results.

    PubMed

    Bradley, R T; Young, W Y; Ebbs, P; Martin, J

    1993-02-01

    This article, which is the first of a two-part series, presents results for the first objective of The American Dietetic Association (ADA) 1991 Dietetic Practice Study: to determine the characteristics of advanced-level dietetics practice. A nationwide mail survey of ADA members was conducted on a stratified random sample of 8,012 beyond-entry-level (registered before April 1988) registered dietitians who were members of dietetic practice groups (DPGs). The sample was supplemented with two randomly selected control groups of 1,000 entry-level and 1,000 beyond-entry-level registered dietitians. The overall response rate was 63.1%. The 5,852 usable returns were representative of the dietetics population surveyed. A model of advanced-level professional practice was developed that specified minimum necessary requirements for advanced practitioners on five components: education and experience, professional achievement, approach to practice, professional role positions, and professional role contacts; measurement of a sixth component, advanced-level practice performance, was unsuccessful. A series of validation analyses found the model to be a statistically sound and reliable means of distinguishing advanced practitioners from other groups of dietitians in 8 of every 10 cases. A total of 461 (8.9%) dietitians met all requirements of the model and were classified as advanced practitioners. Projected estimations of advanced practitioners in the population of beyond-entry-level ADA members who are also members of DPGs ranged between 2,126 and 2,640 dietitians (3.5% to 4.3% of the ADA membership).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8423288

  7. Levels of acute inflammatory biomarkers in advanced prostate cancer patients with α2-macroglobulin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, Yuhsaku; Ohtani, Hideki; Egawa, Shin; Baba, Shiro; Akahoshi, Tohru

    2011-12-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), α1-acid glycoprotein (α1AG) and ceruloplasmin (CP) are acute inflammatory biomarkers that increase in various conditions including infection, inflammation, malignancy and tissue disturbance. In contrast, α2-macroglobulin (α2M) is involved in inflammation through its function as a carrier protein of IL-6. We had previously reported on advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients with multiple distant bone metastases in whom serum α2M levels were markedly decreased (α2M deficiency). However, the relationship between serum levels of α2M and acute inflammatory biomarkers in PCa patients with or without α2M deficiency has not been demonstrated. In the present study, we examined serum levels of CRP, SAA, IL-6, α1AT, α1AG and CP in PCa patients with or without α2M deficiency to establish clinical significance and changes in these biomarkers during PCa disease progression. We found that upon addition of recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6) to serum from PCa patients with α2M deficiency, since a function of α2M is to bind and stabilize IL-6, the α2M-IL-6 complex and free endogenous IL-6 were not detectable. Serum levels of the α2M-independent markers, α1AT, α1AG and CP, in all PCa patients regardless of α2M deficiency were significantly higher than in healthy controls, but those of the α2M-dependent molecules, CRP, SAA and IL-6, were not increased in PCa patients with α2M deficiency. Therefore, quantitation of both α2M-dependent (CRP, SAA and IL-6) and α2M-independent (α1AT, α1AG and CP) acute inflammatory biomarkers in advanced PCa patients may be an auxiliary indicator, together with prostate-specific antigen (PSA), to monitor PCa disease progression. PMID:21894431

  8. Fabrication and nondestructive examination development for advanced components and materials for the SP-100 space reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Peter J.; Dobrzynski, Walter J.

    1993-01-01

    Significant progress has now been made in the development of fabrication and Nondestructive Examination techniques for the SP-100 Space Reactor. All major fabrication challenges have been faced and overcome. Methods are in place for the fabrication and inspection of composite fuel cladding, the reactor honeycomb core, cold forging of the core support nozzle course, and electron beam welding of the auxiliary cooling loop system. Specifications and procedures have been developed and proven on actual hardware for electron beam welding, gas tungsten arc welding, heat treatment, solvent cleaning, chemical cleaning, ultrasonic inspection, helium leak testing, dye penetrant and microfocus rod anode radiography. Signicant work remains to be done but no problems have been identified which would prevent fabrication of the high temperature SP-100 Space Reactor.

  9. Temporal trends of time to antiretroviral treatment initiation, interruption and modification: examination of patients diagnosed with advanced HIV in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephen T; Law, Matthew G; Cooper, David A; Keen, Phillip; McDonald, Ann; Middleton, Melanie; Woolley, Ian; Kelly, Mark; Petoumenos, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV prevention strategies are moving towards reducing plasma HIV RNA viral load in all HIV-positive persons, including those undiagnosed, treatment naïve, on or off antiretroviral therapy. A proxy population for those undiagnosed are patients that present late to care with advanced HIV. The objectives of this analysis are to examine factors associated with patients presenting with advanced HIV, and establish rates of treatment interruption and modification after initiating ART. Methods We deterministically linked records from the Australian HIV Observational Database to the Australian National HIV Registry to obtain information related to HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with advanced HIV diagnosis. We used survival methods to evaluate rates of ART initiation by diagnosis CD4 count strata and by calendar year of HIV diagnosis. Cox models were used to determine hazard of first ART treatment interruption (duration >30 days) and time to first major ART modification. Results Factors associated (p<0.05) with increased odds of advanced HIV diagnosis were sex, older age, heterosexual mode of HIV exposure, born overseas and rural–regional care setting. Earlier initiation of ART occurred at higher rates in later periods (2007–2012) in all diagnosis CD4 count groups. We found an 83% (69, 91%) reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption comparing 2007–2012 versus 1996–2001 (p<0.001), and no difference in ART modification for patients diagnosed with advanced HIV. Conclusions Recent HIV diagnoses are initiating therapy earlier in all diagnosis CD4 cell count groups, potentially lowering community viral load compared to earlier time periods. We found a marked reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption, and found no difference in rates of major modification to ART by HIV presentation status in recent periods. PMID:25865372

  10. Evaluation of Salivary Leptin Levels in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Advanced Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Afshin; Bayani, Mojtaba; Torabi, Sepehr; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mohammadnejhad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Leptin is a hormone-like protein produced by the adipose tissue. It plays an important role in protection of host against inflammation and infection. Some studies have reported changes in leptin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva and blood serum of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare the salivary leptin levels in patients with advanced periodontitis and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the salivary samples of healthy individuals and patients with advanced periodontitis with clinical attachment loss >5mm were obtained using a standardized method and the leptin levels were measured in the salivary samples by means of ELISA. The effects of the periodontal status and sex on the salivary leptin levels of both groups were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Results: The means ± standard deviation (SD) of salivary leptin levels in healthy subjects and patients with advanced periodontitis were 34.27±6.88 and 17.87±5.89 pg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of sex on the salivary leptin levels was not significant (P=0.91), while the effect of advanced periodontitis on the salivary leptin levels was significant compared to healthy individuals (P<0.0001). Conclusions: In patients with advanced periodontitis, the salivary leptin levels were significantly lower compared to healthy individuals. Thus, assessment of salivary leptin can be done as a non-invasive and simple method to determine the susceptibility of patients to advanced periodontitis. PMID:27536322

  11. Advances in examining preferences for similarity in seating: Revisiting the aggregation index.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Past research finds that people prefer to sit next to others who are similar to them in a variety of dimensions such as race, sex, and physical appearance. This preference for similarity in seating arrangements is called aggregation and is most commonly measured with the aggregation index (Campbell, Kruskal, & Wallace, Sociometry 29, 1-15, 1966). The aggregation index compares the observed dissimilarity in seating with the amount of dissimilarity that would be expected if seats were chosen randomly. However, the current closed-form equations for this method limit the ease, flexibility, and inferences that researchers have. This paper presents a new approach for studying aggregation that uses bootstrapped resampling of the seating environment to estimate the aggregation index parameters. This method, compiled as an executable program, SocialAggregation, reads a seating chart matrix provided by the researcher and automatically computes the observed number of dissimilar adjacencies, and simulates random seating preferences. The current method's estimates not only converge with those of the original method, but it also handles a wider variety of situations and also allows for more precise hypothesis testing by directly modeling the distribution of the seating arrangements. Developing a better measure of aggregation opens new possibilities for understanding intergroup biases, and allows researchers to examine aggregation more efficiently. PMID:25427955

  12. Score Distributions, General Examinations, College-Level Examination Program; Candidates Tested Through the United States Armed Forces Institute, July 1965-December 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    Score distributions were obtained for 43,877 candidates tested through the United States Armed Forces Institute (USAFI) on all five College-Level Entrance Program (CLEP) General Examinations. Findings included the following: (1) the majority of candidates were between ages 19 and 22; (2) 69.3% had completed high school but only 20.7% had attended…

  13. An Exploration of Learners' Conceptions of Language, Culture, and Learning in Advanced-Level Spanish Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewelow, Isabelle; Mitchell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study, which examines learners' rating of culture in relation to other concepts in advanced Spanish courses and their justification of the ratings attributed. Open-ended responses, elicited from a questionnaire completed by 179 respondents, were analysed line by line using an interpretive approach. Data…

  14. Educating advanced level practice within complex health care workplace environments through transformational practice development.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sally; Jackson, Carrie; Webster, Jonathan; Manley, Kim

    2013-10-01

    Over the past 20 years health care reform has influenced the development of advanced level practitioner roles and expectations. How advanced level practitioners work to survive the highly stimulating, yet sometimes overwhelming aspects of balancing high quality provision with political reform agendas, amidst economic constraint is considered. Transformational approaches (encompassing education and practice led service development) can provide, promote and 'provoke' a harnessing of complex issues workplace environment to produce creative solutions. Transformational Practice Development provides a structured, rigorous, systematic approach that practitioners, teams and health care consumers alike can utilise to achieve skills and attributes needed for successful innovation. The authors present case study materials from action orientated locally delivered Practice Development, as a complex strategic intervention approach to influence and promote advanced level practice expertise. Initiated through facilitation of transformational leadership, and resultant team based improvements, we present how strategic collaborative processes can harness work chaos and complexity to provide sustainable and productive workplace cultures of effectiveness. PMID:23453607

  15. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  16. Estimating the population dose from nuclear medicine examinations towards establishing diagnostic reference levels

    PubMed Central

    Niksirat, Fatemeh; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mehrangiz; Gholami, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study conducted a review on nuclear medicine (NM) services in Mazandaran Province with a view to establish adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and provide updated data on population radiation exposure resulting from diagnostic NM procedures. Materials and Methods: The data were collected from all centers in all cities of Mazandaran Province in the North of Iran from March 2014 to February 2015. The 75th percentile of the distribution and the average administered activity (AAA) were calculated and the average effective dose per examination, collective effective dose to the population and annual effective dose per capita were estimated using dose conversion factors. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (version 18) software using descriptive statistics. Results: Based on the data of this study, the collective effective dose was 95.628 manSv, leading to a mean effective dose of 0.03 mSv per capita. It was also observed that the myocardial perfusion was the most common procedure (50%). The 75th percentile of the distribution of administered activity (AA) represents the DRL. The AAA and the 75th percentile of the distribution of AA are slightly higher than DRL of most European countries. Conclusions: Myocardial perfusion is responsible for most of the collective effective dose and it is better to establish national DRLs for myocardial perfusion and review some DRL values through the participation of NM specialists in the future. PMID:26917891

  17. Young driver licensing: examination of population-level rates using New Jersey's state licensing database.

    PubMed

    Curry, Allison E; Pfeiffer, Melissa R; Durbin, Dennis R; Elliott, Michael R; Kim, Konny H

    2015-03-01

    Recent surveys have provided insight on the primary reasons why US teens delay licensure but are limited in their ability to estimate licensing rates and trends. State administrative licensing data are the ideal source to provide this information but have not yet been analyzed for this purpose. Our objective was to analyze New Jersey's (NJ) licensing database to: (1) describe population-based rates of licensure among 17- to 20-year-olds, overall and by gender and zip code level indicators of household income, population density, and race/ethnicity; and (2) examine recent trends in licensure. We obtained records on all licensed NJ drivers through June 2012 from the NJ Motor Vehicle Commission's licensing database and determined each young driver's age at the time of intermediate and full licensure. Data from the US Census and American Community Survey were used to estimate a fixed cohort of NJ residents who turned 17 years old in 2006-2007 (n=255,833). Licensing data were used to estimate the number of these drivers who obtained an intermediate license by each month of age (numerators) and, among those who obtained an intermediate license, time to graduation to full licensure. Overall, 40% of NJ residents-and half of those who ultimately obtained a license by age 21-were licensed within a month of NJ's minimum licensing age of 17, 64% by their 18th birthday, and 81% by their 21st birthday. Starkly different patterns of licensure were observed by socioeconomic indicators; for example, 65% of 17-year-olds residing in the highest-income zip codes were licensed in the first month of eligibility compared with 13% of residents living in the lowest-income zip codes. The younger an individual obtained their intermediate license, the earlier they graduated to a full license. Finally, the rate and timing of licensure in NJ has been relatively stable from 2006 to 2012, with at most a 1-3% point decline in rates. These findings support the growing body of literature suggesting

  18. Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Perry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

  19. Guide for the Training and Qualification of Welding Personnel. Level II - Advanced Welders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Welding Society, Miami, FL.

    This guide is designed to help education and training facilities develop and administer competency-based training programs to qualify and certify trainees in accordance with the American Welding Society (AWS) requirements for level II (advanced) welders. Presented first are the scope, objectives, and requirements of the AWS…

  20. The Relationship between Teaching Styles and Autonomy among Iranian Female EFL Teachers, Teaching at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baradaran, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed at inspecting the existence of a significant relationship between teachers' teaching styles and their Autonomy. For this reason, two questionnaires with regard to the main variables were given to 175 female English language teachers, teaching at advanced levels. Moreover, non-parametric Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis…

  1. ESL for Hotel/Hospitality Industry. Level: Advanced Beginner/Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Suffolk County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Northport, NY.

    This document contains 16 lesson plans for an advanced beginning and intermediate course in work-related English for non-English- or limited-English-speaking entry-level employees in the hotel and hospitality industry. Course objectives are as follows: helping participants understand and use job-specific vocabulary; receive and understand…

  2. An Intermediate-Advanced Level German Refresher Course: Book 3, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Book three, part two, of an intermediate-advanced level German refresher course for college students is presented. The volume consists of 42 lessons of text material and 42 prerecorded tapes. A typical unit is made up of spontaneous dialogues, substitution drills, and tests. A dialogue for listening is a short conversation between German speakers…

  3. An Intermediate-Advanced Level German Refresher Course: Book 4, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Book four, part two, of an intermediate-advanced level German refresher course for college students is presented. The volume consists of 25 lessons of text material and 50 prerecorded tapes. A typical lesson with its two accompanying tapes is made up of interrogation, military terminology drill, and a comprehension test. The materials of the first…

  4. An Intermediate-Advanced Level German Refresher Course: Book 4, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Book four, part one, of an intermediate-advanced level German refresher course for college students is presented. The volume consists of 25 lessons of text material and 50 prerecorded tapes. A typical lesson with its two accompanying tapes is made up of interrogation, military terminology drill, and a comprehension test. The materials of the first…

  5. An Intermediate-Advanced Level German Refresher Course: Book 2, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Book two, part two, of an intermediate-advanced level German refresher course for college students is presented. The volume consists of 42 lessons of text material and 42 prerecorded tapes. A typical unit is made up of spontaneous dialogues, substitution drills, and tests. A dialogue for listening is a short conversation between German speakers…

  6. An Intermediate-Advanced Level German Refresher Course: Book 3, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Book three, part one, of an intermediate-advanced level German refresher course for college students ls presented. The volume consists of 42 lessons of text material and 42 prerecorded tapes. A typical unit is made up of spontaneous dialogues, substitution drills, and tests. A dialogue for listening is a short conversation between German speakers…

  7. An Intermediate-Advanced Level German Refresher Course: Book 2, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Book two, part one, of an intermediate-advanced level German refresher course for college students is presented. The volume consists of 42 lessons of text material and 42 prerecorded tapes. A typical unit is made up of spontaneous dialogues, substitution drills, and tests. A dialogue for listening is a short conversation between German speakers…

  8. Saving Lower-Enrollment, Advanced-Level Elective Programs: A Way to Get Blood from Turnips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Leon C.

    An innovative, flexible scheduling technique for advanced levels of a foreign language program is described. The technique, predicated on individualized pacing and continuous progress, is generalizable to all elective programs, and offers a workable solution to satisfy the enrollment "numbers game" and to lend breadth and depth to the curricula of…

  9. Advancing Ecological Models to Compare Scale in Multi-Level Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David James

    2016-01-01

    Education systems as units of analysis have been metaphorically likened to ecologies to model change. However, ecological models to date have been ineffective in modelling educational change that is multi-scale and occurs across multiple levels of an education system. Thus, this paper advances two innovative, ecological frameworks that improve on…

  10. Advanced Level Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Their Engagement in Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…

  11. Modes of Governmentality in an Online Space: A Case Study of Blog Activities in an Advanced Level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko M.; Sato, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the validity of the incorporation of online communication in language education classes as a practice free of power politics. By examining blog activities in an advanced-level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom at a university in the USA, we show that the blog's postings and readers' comments evoke certain modes of…

  12. Do High School Chemistry Examinations Inhibit Deeper Level Understanding of Dynamic Reversible Chemical Reactions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, R.; Atkinson, R.; Dawes, A.; Levinson, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Chemistry examinations can favour the deployment of algorithmic procedures like Le Chatelier's Principle (LCP) rather than reasoning using chemical principles. This study investigated the explanatory resources which high school students use to answer equilibrium problems and whether the marks given for examination answers…

  13. Medical educators’ perspectives of teaching physical examinations using ultrasonography at the undergraduate level

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Irene; Wishart, Ian; Kaminska, Malgorzata; McLaughlin, Kevin; Weeks, Sarah; Lautner, David; Baxter, Heather; Wright, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography is increasingly used for teaching physical examination in medical schools. This study seeks the opinions of educators as to which physical examinations would be most enhanced by the addition of ultrasonography. We also asked when ultrasound-aided physical examination teaching could have deleterious effects if used outside its intended scope. Methods All of the educators from the University of Calgary Master Teacher Program were invited to complete a 22-item paper-based survey. Survey items were generated independently by two investigators, with input from an expert panel (n = 5). Results Of the 36 educators, 27 (75%) completed the survey. Examinations identified to be potentially most useful included: measuring the size of the abdominal aorta, identifying the presence/absence of ascites, identifying the presence/absence of pleural effusions, and measuring the size of the bladder. Examinations thought to be potentially most harmful included: identifying the presence/absence of intrauterine pregnancy, measuring the size of the abdominal aorta, and identifying the presence/absence of pericardial effusion. Conclusions Examinations that are potentially the most useful may also be potentially the most harmful. When initiating an ultrasound curriculum for physical examinations, educators should weigh the risks and benefits of examinations chosen. PMID:26451201

  14. Serum neuron specific enolase levels correlate with patient prognosis for advanced lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Feng; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Liyan; Wang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and prognostic value of neuron specific enolase (NSE) levels in serum of advanced lung cancer patients, we analyzed serum NSE level of 110 advanced lung cancer patients (case group), 100 benign lung disease patients (benign disease group), and 100 healthy persons (control group). Case group patients were divided by NSE level into ≥25 ng/mL (52 cases) and <25 ng/mL (58 cases) groups to analyze overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The results showed the serum NSE levels of case group patients were significantly higher than those of control or benign disease group patients (P<0.05). Serum NSE levels of small cell lung cancer patients were significantly higher than those of patients with other tumor pathologies (all P<0.05). Median OS significantly differed between patients with NSE levels ≥25 ng/mL (23.7 months) and <25 ng/mL (31.4 months) (P<0.05). Median PFS also significantly differed between patients with NSE levels ≥25 ng/mL (13.5 months) and <25 ng/mL (17.6 months) (χ 2=9.992; P<0.05). Tumor pathology (RR=4.136), patient performance status score (RR=2.903), and serum NSE level (RR=2.338) were factors influencing OS (P<0.05). Patient performance status score (RR=2.903), number of chemotherapy lines (RR=1.776), and serum NSE level (RR=2.075) were influencing factors in patients’ PFS (P<0.05). In brief, serum NSE level significantly correlates with advanced lung cancer patient prognosis and may be useful as an auxiliary index to predict prognosis. PMID:26309614

  15. Examining the Level of Convergence among Self-Regulated Learning Microanalytic Processes, Achievement, and a Self-Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…

  16. Results of Scoping Tests Examining the Effects of Gilsulate, Aluminum Silicate and Defoamers on the Operation of Conductivity Level Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R.F.

    1999-02-17

    Scoping tests have been completed examining the effects of Gilsulate, sodium aluminum silicate, and some organic materials on the operation of tank level conductivity probes. This report documents the results of scoping studies completed to examine the effect of those materials on conductivity probes.

  17. Five levels of PACS modularity: integrating 3D and other advanced visualization tools.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kenneth C; Filice, Ross W; Philbin, James F; Siegel, Eliot L; Nagy, Paul G

    2011-12-01

    The current array of PACS products and 3D visualization tools presents a wide range of options for applying advanced visualization methods in clinical radiology. The emergence of server-based rendering techniques creates new opportunities for raising the level of clinical image review. However, best-of-breed implementations of core PACS technology, volumetric image navigation, and application-specific 3D packages will, in general, be supplied by different vendors. Integration issues should be carefully considered before deploying such systems. This work presents a classification scheme describing five tiers of PACS modularity and integration with advanced visualization tools, with the goals of characterizing current options for such integration, providing an approach for evaluating such systems, and discussing possible future architectures. These five levels of increasing PACS modularity begin with what was until recently the dominant model for integrating advanced visualization into the clinical radiologist's workflow, consisting of a dedicated stand-alone post-processing workstation in the reading room. Introduction of context-sharing, thin clients using server-based rendering, archive integration, and user-level application hosting at successive levels of the hierarchy lead to a modularized imaging architecture, which promotes user interface integration, resource efficiency, system performance, supportability, and flexibility. These technical factors and system metrics are discussed in the context of the proposed five-level classification scheme. PMID:21301923

  18. Monitoring entry-level practice: keeping the national council licensure examination for registered nurses current.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Anne; Kenny, Lorraine

    2007-01-01

    The National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses assesses whether a candidate has the ability to provide safe and effective nursing care upon entry into practice. It is essential that this assessment be current and relevant to nursing practice. The authors discuss methods that are used to provide evidence to support the 2007 NCLEX-RN Test Plan and to maintain the currency of the examination. PMID:17496823

  19. Correlation of the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination Given in July to Intern American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training Examination Scores: A Predictor of Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Katherine; Franzen, Doug; Heitz, Corey; Emery, Matthew; Poznanski, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is great variation in the knowledge base of Emergency Medicine (EM) interns in July. The first objective knowledge assessment during residency does not occur until eight months later, in February, when the American Board of EM (ABEM) administers the in-training examination (ITE). In 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) released the EM Advanced Clinical Examination (EM-ACE), an assessment intended for fourth-year medical students. Administration of the EM-ACE to interns at the start of residency may provide an earlier opportunity to assess the new EM residents’ knowledge base. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the NBME EM-ACE, given early in residency, with the EM ITE. Secondary objectives included determination of the correlation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 or 2 scores with early intern EM-ACE and ITE scores and the effect, if any, of clinical EM experience on examination correlation. Methods This was a multi-institutional, observational study. Entering EM interns at six residencies took the EM-ACE in July 2013 and the ABEM ITE in February 2014. We collected scores for the EM-ACE and ITE, age, gender, weeks of clinical EM experience in residency prior to the ITE, and USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. Pearson’s correlation and linear regression were performed. Results Sixty-two interns took the EM-ACE and the ITE. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the ITE and the EM-ACE was 0.62. R-squared was 0.5 (adjusted 0.4). The coefficient of determination was 0.41 (95% CI [0.3–0.8]). For every increase of one in the scaled EM-ACE score, we observed a 0.4% increase in the EM in-training score. In a linear regression model using all available variables (EM-ACE, gender, age, clinical exposure to EM, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 scores), only the EM-ACE score was significantly associated with the ITE (p<0.05). We observed significant colinearity among the EM

  20. Can We Trust Levelled Texts? An Examination of Their Reliability and Quality from a Linguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Brandy; Fang, Zhihui

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade in the United States, levelled texts, or "little books" with finely graduated levelling of text difficulty, have regained their status as a literacy staple for beginning readers. Despite their resurgence, questions remain regarding the reliability and quality of these books. In this study, we conducted a detailed analysis of…

  1. An Examination of Teacher's Occupational Burnout Levels in Terms of Organizational Confidence and Some Other Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglar, Caglar

    2011-01-01

    An effort is made in this research to determine the correlations between primary school teachers' levels of confidence in their organization and their burnout levels and other variables. The research population is composed of teachers teaching in the primary schools located in the city center of Adiyaman in 2009-2010 academic year whereas the…

  2. The relationship of certified flight instructors' emotional intelligence levels on flight student advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokeness, Mark Merrill

    Aviation researchers estimate airline companies will require nearly 500,000 pilots in the next 20 years. The role of a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) is to move student pilots to professional pilots with training typically conducted in one-on-one student and instructor sessions. The knowledge of aviation, professionalism as a teacher, and the CFI’s interpersonal skills can directly affect the successes and advancement of a student pilot. A new and emerging assessment of people skills is known as emotional intelligence (EI). The EI of the CFI can and will affect a flight students’ learning experiences. With knowledge of emotional intelligence and its effect on flight training, student pilot dropouts from aviation may be reduced, thus helping to ensure an adequate supply of pilots. Without pilots, the growth of the commercial aviation industry will be restricted. This mixed method research study established the correlation between a CFI’s measured EI levels and the advancement of flight students. The elements contributing to a CFI’s EI level were not found to be teaching or flight-related experiences, suggesting other life factors are drawn upon by the CFI and are reflected in their emotional intelligence levels presented to flight students. Students respond positively to CFIs with higher levels of emotional intelligence. Awareness of EI skills by both the CFI and flight student contribute to flight student successes and advancement.

  3. Decreased melatonin levels and increased levels of advanced oxidation protein products in the seminal plasma are related to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Ewa Maria; Piwowar, Agnieszka; Zeman, Michal; Stebelová, Katarína; Thalhammer, Theresia

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin, an indolamine secreted by the pineal gland, is known as a powerful free-radical scavenger and wide-spectrum antioxidant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to correlate markers of oxidative protein damage (advanced oxidation protein products, AOPPs) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with melatonin levels in the seminal plasma of men with azoospermia (n=37), theratozoospermia (n=29) and fertile controls (normozoospermia, n=37). Melatonin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The levels of AOPP as well as TAC efficiency (determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. The concentration of melatonin and AOPP significantly differed in azoospermic (P<0.0001) and theratozoospermic (P<0.0001) patients versus fertile men, and correlated negatively (r=-0.33, P=0.0016). The TAC levels were significantly higher in azoospermia than in theratozoospermia (P=0.0022) and the control group (P=0.00016). In azoospermia, the AOPP concentration was also significantly higher than that observed in theratozoospermia (P=0.00029). Decreased levels of melatonin together with elevated AOPP altered the oxidative-antioxidative balance in the ejaculate, thereby reducing fertility. Therefore, melatonin and AOPP levels may serve as additional diagnostic markers of semen quality and male reproductive potential. PMID:25218686

  4. A prospective study of the value of pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging examinations for advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    CSUTAK, CSABA; ORDEANU, CLAUDIA; NAGY, VIORICA MAGDALENA; POP, DIANA CRISTINA; BOLBOACA, SORANA DANIELA; BADEA, RADU; CHIOREAN, LILIANA; DUDEA, SORIN MARIAN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Cervical cancer has high incidence and mortality in developing countries. It is the only gynecological malignancy that is clinically staged. Staging at the time of diagnosis is crucial for treatment planning. After radiation therapy, clinical examination is limited because of radiation changes. An imaging method relatively unaffected by radiation changes would be useful for the assessment of therapy results and for management. We sought to demonstrate the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the pre- and post-treatment assessment of cervical cancer. Methods This was a prospective study, carried out between November 2012 and October 2014 on 18 subjects with advanced-stage cervical cancer diagnosed by colposcopy. The disease stage was determined clinically according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) criteria. Only patients with disease stage ≥ IIB or IIA with one of the tumor dimensions > 4 cm were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent abdominal-pelvic contrast-enhanced MRI as part of the workup. Tumor size, local invasion, involved pelvic lymph nodes, and staging according to MRI criteria were evaluated. Clinical and MRI examinations were also performed after chemoradiotherapy. After chemoradiotherapy, 94% of the patients (17 of 18) were treated surgically. Results Eighteen patients aged 32–67 met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled: 10 stage IIB, 6 stage IIIA, 1 stage IIA and 1 stage IIIB, according to clinical staging. Using histopathological findings as a reference, MRI staging accuracy was 83.3%. The concordance of the clinical stage with MRI stage at the first examination was 56%. Parametrial involvement was assessed on pretreatment and post-treatment MRI, with post-treatment MRI compared with histology. There was no statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-therapy gynecological examinations (GYN) and the corresponding MRI assessments as to tumor size

  5. Procedural justice climate and group power distance: an examination of cross-level interaction effects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jixia; Mossholder, Kevin W; Peng, T K

    2007-05-01

    In this article, the authors extend research on the cross-level effects of procedural justice climate by theorizing and testing its interaction with group power distance. The results indicated that group power distance moderated the relationships between procedural justice climate and individual-level outcomes (organizational commitment and organization-directed citizenship behavior). More specifically, a larger group power distance was found to attenuate the positive cross-level effects of procedural justice climate. Implications for procedural justice climate research are discussed. PMID:17484550

  6. "School" Reading and Multiple Texts: Examining the Metacognitive Development of Secondary-Level Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Mellinee; Watson, Patricia; Elliot, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This practitioner-research study investigated the reading behaviors of preservice teachers from diverse content disciplines as they engaged in reading multiple texts pertaining to a historical topic. Through participant-observer field notes, reader response journals, reflective essays, and participant debriefing, the authors examined the…

  7. The Examination of Sport's Effects over High School Students' Resiliency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mustafa Yasar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the resiliency of high school education students and to compare it by athletic or non-athletic factors. A sample of 728 (284 girls, 444 boys) high school students who were chosen randomly among pupils studying in Gaziantep provided responses. High School Version of California Resiliency Rating Scale which was…

  8. An Examination of Self-Directed Learning Readiness in Executive-Level Fire Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the self-directed learning readiness in executive fire officers in relation to the independent variables of personality type, educational attainment, and professional designation. This research utilized a quantitative design. This study utilized the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Self-Directed…

  9. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and…

  10. The Effects of Test Difficulty Level on Undergraduates' Perception of Examination Difficulties and Their State Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, L. Quinn; Lindsey, Jimmy D.

    The effects of test difficulty on the perception of examination difficulties and state anxiety are investigated. Thirty undergraduate students were administered the Educational Psychology Recognition Test and Test Perception Inventory to assess task difficulty and perception of exam difficultness. A modified version of the State-Trait Anxiety…

  11. Correlates of Level and Change in the Mini-Mental State Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current project was to determine (a) the cognitive abilities assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE; M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein, & P. R. McHugh, 1975), (b) whether the same abilities are associated with MMSE performance among people of different ages, and (c) whether the same abilities are involved in changes…

  12. Addressing South Carolina's Secondary Level Teacher Attrition Problem: Examining Teachers' Self Efficacy, Attitudes, and Assertions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Trisha Hargett

    2010-01-01

    The present study contributes to the limited body of research pertaining to secondary teacher efficacy and its relationship to career persistence, gender, ethnicity, contract status, and years of teaching. In addition, this study examines the concepts of student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management as subscales used to…

  13. Examining the Effects of Skill Level and Reading Modality on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reading skill and reading modality (oral versus silent) on reading comprehension. A normative sample of sixth-grade students (N = 74) read texts aloud and silently and then answered questions about what they read. Skill in word reading fluency was assessed by the Test of Word Reading…

  14. Examining Male Underachievement in Public Education: Action Research at a District Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mary Ann; Lee, Sang Min; Goodman, William; Yacco, Summer

    2008-01-01

    Educational statistics and worldwide media have reported a gender gap in academic achievement, with boys falling behind girls with regard to grades, high school graduation, and college enrollment and retention. This mixed methods study involved interviews with educators and the examination of quantitative data to investigate this issue in a school…

  15. Examination of Students' Digital Gaming Habits at Secondary School Level in Elazig Province of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikail, Tel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the opinions of the secondary school students on digital games were examined. The research is a screening model research and has a descriptive feature. It was carried out with 521 secondary school students in Elazig (a province in eastern part of Turkey) [MSS1] in 2013. Almost all of the participants use computer. More than half of…

  16. The Influence of Higher Education on Law Enforcement Entry Level Examination Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paprota, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Entry into a career in law enforcement is most often dependent upon the aspiring candidate's relative success on a competitive, written, multiple-choice examination. In the state of New Jersey, as in many states, civil service laws preclude consideration of formal educational attainment when establishing the ordinal, eligibles lists for law…

  17. Cognitive Levels and Approaches Taken by Students Failing Written Examinations in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegner, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at the Technical University Berlin involving students who twice failed the written examination in the first semester course Linear Algebra for Engineers in order to better understand the reasons behind their failure. The study considered student understanding in terms of Bloom's taxonomy and the ways in which students…

  18. THE COUNCIL ON COLLEGE-LEVEL EXAMINATIONS AND THE COMPREHENSIVE COLLEGE TESTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURNS, RICHARD L.

    THE TESTS ARE MEANS AVAILABLE TO THE INDIVIDUAL TO SEEK RECOGNITION FOR LEARNING OBTAINED FROM A CORRESPONDENCE COURSE, PRIVATE INSTRUCTION, TV COURSES, ON-THE-JOB TRAINING, GROUP DISCUSSIONS, AND PRIVATE LECTURES. THE COUNCIL BELIEVES THAT ACADEMIC CREDIT BY EXAMINATION FOR THESE UNAFFILIATED STUDENTS IS THE KEY TO THE FLEXIBILITY, INNOVATION,…

  19. Examining Online Forum Discussions as Practices of Digital Literacy in College-Level ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauler, Clara Vaz

    2012-01-01

    This research study examines the role of digital media, more specifically online forums, in the development of academic literacy and language learning in English as a Second Language (ESL) college writing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition suggest that participation in online forum discussions can potentially foster collaboration,…

  20. Examining effects of sea level rise and marsh crabs on Spartina patens using mesocosms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal salt marshes provide essential ecosystem services but face increasing threats from habitat loss, eutrophication, changing precipitation patterns, and accelerating rates of sea level rise (SLR). Recent studies have suggested that herbivory and burrowing by native salt mars...

  1. Examining the Relationship of Content to Gender-Based Performance Differences in Advanced Placement Exams. Research Report No. 2002-12. ETS RR-02-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Gary; Kostin, Irene; Morgan, Rick

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the content of the questions in a number of Advanced Placement Examinations and to attempt to identify content that is related to gender-based performance differences. Free-response questions for ten forms of the AP® Exams in U.S. History, European History, Biology, Microeconomics, and Macroeconomics were…

  2. Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)-based Assessment of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) Course in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Amini, Mitra; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Paydar, Shahram; Ali, Jameel; Sefidbakht, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of advance trauma life support (ATLS®) training on general surgery residents clinical reasoning skills using the national boards-style objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Methods: This cross-sectional single-center study was conducted in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences including 51 surgery residents that participated in a mandatory national board style OSCE between May 2014 and May 2015. OSCE scores of two groups of general surgery residents including 23 ATLS® trained and 28 non-ATLS® trained were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. The exam was graded out of 20 points and the passing score was ≥14 including 40% trauma cases. Results: There were 8(15.7%) women and 43(84.3%) men among the participants with mean age of 31.12 ± 2.69 and 33.67 ± 4.39 years in women and men respectively. Overall 7 (87.5%) women and 34 (79.07%) men passed the OSCE. The trauma section OSCE score was significantly higher in the ATLS® trained participants when compared to non-ATLS®(7.79 ± 0.81vs.6.90 ± 1.00; p=0.001). In addition, the total score was also significantly higher in ATLS® trained residents (16.07 ± 1.41 vs. 14.60 ± 1.40; p=0.001). There was no association between gender and ATLS® score (p=0.245) or passing the OSCE (p=0.503). Conclusion: ATLS® training is associated with improved overall OSCE scores of general surgery residents completing the board examinations suggesting a positive transfer of ATLS learned skills to management of simulated surgical patients including trauma cases. PMID:27331063

  3. Examining predator–prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator–prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator–prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator–prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  4. Helping Students Understand Media: Examining the Efficacy of Interdisciplinary Media Training at the University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans C.

    2015-01-01

    Crowded curriculums and restrictive program requirements often mean that comprehensive media literacy education is impractical at the university level, and that media literacy competencies can be addressed only in the form of narrowly focused lessons integrated into existing classes. This study considers the extent to which such limited lessons…

  5. Examining the Effect of Teacher Guidance on Collaborative Argumentation in Middle Level Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pi-Sui; Van Dyke, Margot; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of teacher guidance on the quality of collaborative argumentation in middle level classrooms. Each of six science classes was randomly assigned to either the intervention (teacher guidance) or control condition (minimal teacher guidance). The verbal collaborative argumentation that occurred…

  6. Examining the Discourse on the Limit Concept in a Beginning-Level Calculus Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucler, Beste

    2013-01-01

    Existing research on limits documents many difficulties students encounter when learning about the concept. There is also some research on teaching of limits but it is not yet as extensive as the research on student learning about limits. This study explores the discourse on limits in a beginning-level undergraduate calculus classroom by focusing…

  7. Examining Learning Approaches of Science Student Teachers According to the Class Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tural Dincer, Guner; Akdeniz, Ali Riza

    2008-01-01

    There are many factors influence the level of students' achievement in education. Studies show that one of these factors is "learning approach of a student". Research findings generally have identified two approaches of learning: deep and surface. When a student uses the deep approach, he/she has an intrinsic interest in subject matter and is…

  8. The Effects of Educational Level and Practical Experience on Performance in Pharmacy Law Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grussing, Paul G.; Purohit, Anal A.

    1982-01-01

    Entry level and senior students given identical pharmacy law units were compared and effects of prior internship and externship experience assessed. Seniors' achievement gain was greater, but prior practical experience showed little effect on achievement. Retention was statistically significant for sophomores 9 to 12 months post-instruction, and…

  9. A Quantitative Examination Whether Education Mitigates Stress Levels among Law Enforcement Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metts, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Stress is damaging if it is continual, overwhelming. and prolonged. Law enforcement officers face stressful events daily. A relationship exists between stress levels and the physical and psychological effects to the human body. Although there is a general understanding of the damage stress can do physically and psychologically, many elements that…

  10. The Way Ahead for Finnish Comprehensive School? Examining State-Level School Administrators' Theory of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salonen-Hakomäki, Sanna-Mari; Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    A significant body of evidence shows that the goals of educational reforms are seldom fully achieved. Some research suggests that the problem lies in state-level curriculum reform work that lacks a sufficient understanding of the educational reality. However, views and perceptions among the central architects of the reforms have not been…

  11. Orphans of the AIDS Epidemic: An Examination of Clinical Level Problems of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Jennifer; Forehand, Rex

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The percentage of children with clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing problems before and after maternal death from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was contrasted with two comparison groups: children whose mothers were human immunodeficiency virus infected but continued to live and children whose mothers were not…

  12. Constructivist Pedagogy in Asynchronous Online Education: Examining Proactive Behavior and the Impact on Student Engagement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Linda; Shmerling, Shirley; Karren, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Asynchronous learning environments have gained popularity over the past decade and have rapidly gained acceptance in both the academic and business worlds. This study investigates the impact that student characteristics of proactive behavior and learning style preference have on student engagement levels when a collaborative learning process such…

  13. Contrasts in Mathematical Challenges in A-Level Mathematics and Further Mathematics, and Undergraduate Mathematics Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Ellie

    2014-01-01

    This article describes part of a study which investigated the role of questions in students' approaches to learning mathematics at the secondary-tertiary interface, focussing on the enculturation of students at the University of Oxford. Use of the Mathematical Assessment Task Hierarchy taxonomy revealed A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics…

  14. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  15. Disproportionality among African American Students at the Secondary Level: Examining the MID Disability Category

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasper, Andrea D.; Bouck, Emily C.

    2013-01-01

    Concern and research involving the overrepresentation of African American students in the category of mild intellectual disability (MID) has existed for over four decades. Yet, little research focuses exclusively on the disproportionate representation of African American students at the secondary level. This study analyzed the National…

  16. Further Examination of the Influence of Caregiver Staffing Levels on Nursing Home Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.; Engberg, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Weak empirical evidence exists showing that nursing home staffing levels influence quality of care. We propose that weak findings have resulted in many prior analyses because research models have underspecified the labor composition needed to influence care processes that, in turn, influence quality of care. In this analysis, we specified…

  17. Examination of atmospheric ammonia levels near hog CAFOs, homes, and schools in Eastern North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Sacoby M.; Serre, Marc L.

    Hog concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) release ammonia (NH 3) in Eastern North Carolina (NC) to the atmosphere which is potentially hazardous for nearby human populations at community locations particularly homes and schools. We present NH 3 weekly average concentrations that were collected using passive diffusion tubes from October 2003 to May 2004 (20 sites) and from July 2004 to October 2004 (23 sites) near community locations in close proximity to hog CAFOs. The data for each phase of sampling was stratified by distance from the nearest hog CAFO. The mean Phase I levels were 16, 8, 7 and 5 ppb for distances <0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, and 2 km or more, respectively. The mean levels for Phase II were 29, 16, and 11 ppb for distances <0.5, 0.5-1, and 1 km or more, respectively. The results of the distance stratification are the best results of this study and provide the strongest evidence that distance to one or more CAFOs is the key variable in controlling weekly NH 3 atmospheric concentration at the community level in Eastern NC. Statistical analyses confirmed that source terms such as distance to a hog CAFO and live weight per operation, as well as temperature, wind speed and wind direction were important predictors of atmospheric NH 3 at community locations. The results indicate potential zones of exposure for human populations who live or go to school near hog CAFOs.

  18. The relationship between education level and Mini Mental State Examination domains among older Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Matallana, Diana; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Cano, Carlos; Reyes, Pablo; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of education on the performance in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) domains, we included 2,861 Mexican Americans aged 65 and older from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) followed from 1993–1994 until 2004–2005. The MMSE was examined as total score (0–30) or divided in two global domains: 1) no-memory (score 0–24): Orientation, attention, and language; and 2) memory (score 0–6): working and delayed memory. Mean age and total MMSE were 72.7 and 24.6 at wave 1, and 81.7 and 20.5 at wave 5. Spanish speaking subjects had lower years of education (4.1 vs. 7.4, p<.0001), they had significantly higher adjusted (by age, education, and gender) mean scores for memory, no-memory and the total MMSE compared with English speaking subjects across the five waves of follow-up. In multivariate longitudinal analyses over 11 years of follow-up, subjects with more years of education performed better than those less educated, especially in no-memory and the total MMSE. Spanish speaking subjects with 4–6 years of education had higher memory scores than those speaking English (estimate 0.40, standard error [SE] = 0.14, p<.001), 7–11 (estimate 0.27, SE= 0.13, p<.01) or 12+ (estimate 0.44, SE= 0.13, p<.001). This suggests that cultural factors and factors related to preferred language use may determine variations in MMSE performance. Since the memory domain of the MMSE is less affected by education, it may be used along with other cognitive tests in older populations with low education. PMID:20538969

  19. Fairness at the collective level: a meta-analytic examination of the consequences and boundary conditions of organizational justice climate.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Daniel S; Caleo, Suzette; Carpenter, Nichelle C; Horner, Margaret T; Bernerth, Jeremy B

    2012-07-01

    This article uses meta-analytic methods (k = 38) to examine the relationship between organizational justice climate and unit-level effectiveness. Overall, our results suggest that the relationship between justice and effectiveness is significant (ρ = .40) when both constructs are construed at the collective level. Our results also indicate that distributive justice climate was most strongly linked with unit-level performance (e.g., productivity, customer satisfaction), whereas interactional justice was most strongly related to unit-level processes (e.g., organizational citizenship behavior, cohesion). We also show that a number of factors moderate this relationship, including justice climate strength, the level of referent in the justice measure, the hierarchical level of the unit, and how criteria are classified. We elaborate on these findings and attempt to provide a clearer direction for future research in this area. PMID:22486364

  20. Examining the Dynamic Structure of Daily Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior at Multiple Levels of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Beltz, Adriene M.; Gates, Kathleen M.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days) of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101) of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders (PDs). Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days) we found support for a two-factor Internalizing–Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals) we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Disinhibition structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic. PMID:26732546

  1. Examining Screening-Level Multimedia Models Through a Comparison Framework for Landfill Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Two models for evaluating transport and fate of benzene were studied and compared in this paper. A fugacity model and an analytical environmental multimedia model (AEMM) were used to reconcile fate and mass transfer of benzene observed in a landfill site. The comparison of two models were based on average concentrations and partition behavior of benzene among three different phases i.e., air, soil, and groundwater. In the study of fugacity method about 99.6 % of the total benzene flux was distributed into air from landfill source. According to AEMM the diffusion gas flux was also predominant mechanism for benzene released from landfill and advection of gas and liquid was second dominant transport mechanism at steady-state conditions. Overall study of fugacity modeling (Level I and II) confirms the fate and transport mechanism of benzene released from landfill by comparing it with AEMM. However, the values of predicted concentrations, advection, and diffusion flux of benzene using fugacity model were different from AEMM results due to variation in input parameters. In comparison with experimental observations, fugacity model showed more error difference as compared to AEMM as fugacity model is treated as a single unit box model. This study confirms that fugacity model is a screening level tool to be used in conjunction with detailed remediation followed by AEMM that can be evolved as strategic decision-making stage.

  2. Examining Screening-Level Multimedia Models Through a Comparison Framework for Landfill Management.

    PubMed

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Two models for evaluating transport and fate of benzene were studied and compared in this paper. A fugacity model and an analytical environmental multimedia model (AEMM) were used to reconcile fate and mass transfer of benzene observed in a landfill site. The comparison of two models were based on average concentrations and partition behavior of benzene among three different phases i.e., air, soil, and groundwater. In the study of fugacity method about 99.6 % of the total benzene flux was distributed into air from landfill source. According to AEMM the diffusion gas flux was also predominant mechanism for benzene released from landfill and advection of gas and liquid was second dominant transport mechanism at steady-state conditions. Overall study of fugacity modeling (Level I and II) confirms the fate and transport mechanism of benzene released from landfill by comparing it with AEMM. However, the values of predicted concentrations, advection, and diffusion flux of benzene using fugacity model were different from AEMM results due to variation in input parameters. In comparison with experimental observations, fugacity model showed more error difference as compared to AEMM as fugacity model is treated as a single unit box model. This study confirms that fugacity model is a screening level tool to be used in conjunction with detailed remediation followed by AEMM that can be evolved as strategic decision-making stage. PMID:26342953

  3. Examining the Dynamic Structure of Daily Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior at Multiple Levels of Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Aidan G C; Beltz, Adriene M; Gates, Kathleen M; Molenaar, Peter C M; Simms, Leonard J

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days) of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101) of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders (PDs). Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days) we found support for a two-factor Internalizing-Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals) we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Disinhibition structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic. PMID:26732546

  4. Effects of academic examination stress on eating behavior and blood lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Pollard, T M; Steptoe, A; Canaan, L; Davies, G J; Wardle, J

    1995-01-01

    The influence of academic examination stress on eating behavior and lipid profiles and the moderating effect of dietary restraint, trait anxiety, and social support availability was assessed in university students. One hundred and seventy-nine students were divided into exam-stress groups (51 women, 64 men) and control groups (48 women, 16 men) and were assessed at baseline and then within 2 weeks of exams or an equivalent point for the control group. Perceived stress, emotional well-being, and fasting lipid profiles were measured, and dietary information was collected by interview. The exam-stress group reported significant increases in perceived stress and deterioration in emotional well-being at the exam sessions compared with baseline sessions. No general effects of exam stress on food intake were observed, and there was no interaction between stress and dietary restraint. However, students in the exam-stress group with high trait anxiety and low social support showed significant increases in total energy intake between baseline and exam sessions, whereas individuals with low trait anxiety and high social support showed a reduction in energy intake. Students with high trait anxiety and low social support showed increases between baseline and exam sessions in the amount of fat and saturated fat consumed. Women in the exam-stress group taking oral contraceptives showed a significant increase in total cholesterol between baseline and exam sessions. The results are discussed in relation to the effects of naturally occurring episodic stress on health behavior and on lipid profiles. PMID:16250770

  5. Organizational efforts to affirm sexual diversity: a cross-level examination.

    PubMed

    Button, S B

    2001-02-01

    A growing number of organizations have enacted policies intended to recognize and affirm sexual diversity in the workforce. This research demonstrates that the more prevalent these policies, the less likely sexual minority members are to experience treatment discrimination. Further, as expected, more equitable treatment was associated with higher levels of satisfaction and commitment among lesbian and gay employees. Treatment discrimination was also systematically related to the use of 3 identity management strategies (i.e., counterfeiting, avoiding, integrating). Findings also illustrate the importance of considering individual attributes in diversity research. In particular, group identity attitudes were associated with work-related attitudes and identity management. Overall, the research demonstrates the importance of organizational efforts to affirm sexual diversity and highlights the need for future research in this area. PMID:11302229

  6. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  7. An Examination of the Characteristics, Duties, and Training Needs of District Level Technology Coordinators in Mississippi School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Vicki Michelle Nash

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics, duties, and training needs of district level technology coordinators in Mississippi school districts. Prior research was limited on the role of technology coordinators in the United States, and no research was found in the literature that focused specifically on technology…

  8. An Examination of the Relationship between Acculturation Level and PTSD among Central American Immigrants in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankey, Sarita Marie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between acculturation level and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence in Central American immigrants in the United States. Central American immigrants represent a population that is a part of the Latino/Hispanic Diaspora in the United States. By the year 2050 the United States…

  9. An Examination of Tri-Level Collaboration around Student Achievement Using the Gap Analysis Approach: Central Office Leadership Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamas, Sonia Rodarte

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this study examined collaboration around student achievement at the central office leadership level in the Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD). This study is one of three concurrent studies focused on collaboration around student achievement in the PUSD that include…

  10. A Note on the Probability of Errors in Decisions Based on Tests of the College Level Examination Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Lee L.

    College Level Examination Program (CLEP) Tests were normed on a national basis, administering the test to nationwide samples of subjects. Norms appear in the booklet, CLEP Scores: Interpretation and Use, and consist of the test score means for groups of students receiving grades of A, B, C, D, and F in the relevant course, the proportion of…

  11. The Examination of the Needs and Stress Levels of the Parents of Handicapped Children in Terms of Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ender, Durualp; Kubra, Kocabas; Asli, Arslan; Kezban, Ozaydin

    2011-01-01

    The investigation was concerned with the examination of the needs and stress levels of the parents of mentally disabled children in terms of some variables. The study included parents (15 mothers and 13 fathers) of 28 mentally disabled children composed of 14 girls and 14 boys who were getting education in the School of Practice and Work Center…

  12. An Examination of Tri-Level Collaboration around Student Achievement Using the Gap Analysis Approach: School Site Leadership Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Esther Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this project examined collaboration around student achievement at the school site leadership level in the Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD). This project is one of three concurrent studies focused on collaboration around student achievement in the PUSD that include…

  13. Social Support and Well-Being in Contemporary Greek Society: Examination of Multiple Indicators at Different Levels of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    An extensive and coherent body of social and psychological research has identified social ties and supportive relationships as important predictors of well-being and quality of life. This paper examines the relationships between structural and functional indicators of supportive relations and well-being in Greece at different levels of analysis…

  14. Examination of University Students' Level of Satisfaction and Readiness for E-Courses and the Relationship between Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topal, Arzu Deveci

    2016-01-01

    The success of a distance education program can be evaluated according to student satisfaction, aside from comprehensive examinations, projects and presentations. The purpose of this research study is to determine both the relationship between e-course satisfaction and online learning readiness by ascertaining student levels, and the effect of the…

  15. An Examination of State and Trait Anxiety Levels among College Students Based on the Students' Alcohol Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalesky, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study examines anxiety and level of alcohol consumption among college freshman and sophomore student's to determine if state and trait anxiety are significant factors in high risk alcohol consumption or binge drinking. The State Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were administered to…

  16. An Examination of Perceptions, Attitudes, and Levels of Job Satisfaction of Faculty Teaching in a Distance Education Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Distance education programs have been encumbered with numerous issues concerning the quality of the delivery of distance education. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions, attitudes, and levels of job satisfaction for faculty teaching in a distance online education environment. This study explored theories and concepts relating…

  17. Examining a Financial Climate of Support: How Institutional-Level Financial Aid Relates to Teamwork, Leadership, and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Denson, Nida; Johnson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Financial aid plays a critical role in college access and student success. It plays an increasingly important role as the college-going population continues to diversify and the cost of college continues to rise at both public and private institutions. In this study, the authors examined whether institutional level financial aid has any direct…

  18. Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

    2005-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

  19. A new hydrostatic leveling system developed for the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Kivioja, L. A.

    1998-09-18

    As a result of the calibration tests performed with the first prototype units using the new measurement principle, we believe that the described leveling method is stable and accurate to the micron level with a sufficiently large range for the expected elevation changes of the support girders used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Although long-term studies with this system have not been conducted, we believe that after installation this system requires little or no servicing for long periods of time. The methods described in this paper cover only the elevation changes of individual vessels. However, changes in the tilt of a girder must also be known. Therefore, a combination of tiltmeters in conjunction with this hydrostatic level system (HLS) would be most suitable for measuring the tilt and elevation changes of the APS girders.

  20. Correlation of Simulation Examination to Written Test Scores for Advanced Cardiac Life Support Testing: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Suzanne L.; Anderson, Craig L.; Yang, Luanna; Canales, Cecilia; Amin, Alpesh; Lotfipour, Shahram; McCoy, C. Eric; Langdorf, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) courses are evaluated using written multiple-choice tests. High-fidelity simulation is a widely used adjunct to didactic content, and has been used in many specialties as a training resource as well as an evaluative tool. There are no data to our knowledge that compare simulation examination scores with written test scores for ACLS courses. Objective To compare and correlate a novel high-fidelity simulation-based evaluation with traditional written testing for senior medical students in an ACLS course. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study to determine the correlation between simulation-based evaluation and traditional written testing in a medical school simulation center. Students were tested on a standard acute coronary syndrome/ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest scenario. Our primary outcome measure was correlation of exam results for 19 volunteer fourth-year medical students after a 32-hour ACLS-based Resuscitation Boot Camp course. Our secondary outcome was comparison of simulation-based vs. written outcome scores. Results The composite average score on the written evaluation was substantially higher (93.6%) than the simulation performance score (81.3%, absolute difference 12.3%, 95% CI [10.6–14.0%], p<0.00005). We found a statistically significant moderate correlation between simulation scenario test performance and traditional written testing (Pearson r=0.48, p=0.04), validating the new evaluation method. Conclusion Simulation-based ACLS evaluation methods correlate with traditional written testing and demonstrate resuscitation knowledge and skills. Simulation may be a more discriminating and challenging testing method, as students scored higher on written evaluation methods compared to simulation. PMID:26594288

  1. Wind-Snow Interactions and Treeline Advance in the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming: A Coupled Examination Using Dendroecology and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, G.; Crawford, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Research suggests that broad-scale increases in temperature facilitated an abrupt initiation of upper treeline advance beginning in the 1950s at climatic treelines throughout a large portion of the southern and central Rocky Mountains. Despite this regional trend, patterns of finer scale variability often imply the likely influence of both wind-snow interactions and temperature on driving regeneration dynamics in these climatically-sensitive ecotones. This is particularly true for mountain ranges subject to consistently strong winds, such as the Medicine Bow Mountains of southeast Wyoming. A rich history of treeline work exists for this area, yet questions remain regarding how influential wind and snowpack variability are in governing climate-vegetation interactions within upper treeline ecotones and whether this varies according to the level of wind exposure. Here we present a coupled examination using dendroecology and remote sensing to test the hypothesis that sufficient snow cover is required in order for the ecological manifestation of increasing temperatures to appear at upper treeline; namely treeline advance. We used dendroecological methods to reconstruct the history of colonization on the two highest peaks in the range (Medicine Bow Peak Massif and Kannaday Peak). We sampled a total of six sites by placing nested-belt transects on two south-facing and one north-facing site for each peak. To gauge the influence of wind-snow interactions at each site, we analyzed remotely-sensed images. We selected three sets of LANDSAT images for each mountain peak based on years with maximum, minimum, and mean snowfall conditions to capture the entire range of variability. Results demonstrate that snow cover can be a critical modifier of treeline advance, especially on wind-exposed slopes and on mountain peaks with a relatively dry hydroclimatology, where a protective snow layer is only evident during high snow years. Overall, this research suggests that the role of wind

  2. Using photovoice to examine community level barriers affecting maternal health in rural Wakiso district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, David; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Ndejjo, Rawlance; George, Asha

    2015-05-01

    Uganda continues to have poor maternal health indicators including a high maternal mortality ratio. This paper explores community level barriers affecting maternal health in rural Wakiso district, Uganda. Using photovoice, a community-based participatory research approach, over a five-month period, ten young community members aged 18-29 years took photographs and analysed them, developing an understanding of the emerging issues and engaging in community dialogue on them. From the study, known health systems problems including inadequate transport, long distance to health facilities, long waiting times at facilities and poor quality of care were confirmed, but other aspects that needed to be addressed were also established. These included key gender-related determinants of maternal health, such as domestic violence, low contraceptive use and early teenage pregnancy, as well as problems of unclean water, poor sanitation and women's lack of income. Community members appreciated learning about the research findings precisely hence designing and implementing appropriate solutions to the problems identified because they could see photographs from their own local area. Photovoice's strength is in generating evidence by community members in ways that articulate their perspectives, support local action and allow direct communication with stakeholders. PMID:26278841

  3. Towards proposition of a diagnostic reference level for mammographic examination in the greater Khorasan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Bahreyni Toossi, M T; Zare, H; Bayani Roodi, Sh; Hashemi, M; Akbari, F; Malekzadeh, M

    2013-06-01

    Although, over the past few years, the application of mammography has risen up sharply in Iran, very little, if any, has been reported of the extent of patient's dose from this type of imaging. The purpose of this study was to establish local diagnostic reference level (DRL) arising from mammography in the great Khorasan province of Iran. It is generally assumed that the glandular tissue is the most vulnerable type of breast tissue. Therefore, the mean glandular dose (MGD) has been widely accepted as the most appropriate dosimetric quantity to predict the risk of radiation-induced cancer. Literary, DRL for mammography is defined as the 75th percentile of MGD distribution. In Khorasan province, 7 out of 40 centres were randomly selected. In this work, 100 patients were studied. Thermoluminescence dosimeters have been used to measure entrance surface doses (ESDs). Since, it is difficult to directly measure MGD, Monte Carlo model-based conversion factors were utilised to conclude MGD from ESD. The results have revealed that patients dose is varied widely. The measured ESDs ranged from 0.74 to 19.81 mGy for the craniocaudal (CC) view and 1.20 to 25.79 mGy for the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view. The average MGDs per image were 0.88 and 1.11 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. Based on the internationally adopted definition, DRL arising from mammography tests for Khorasan is 1.33 mGy. Implementation of a dose reduction programme is suggested because of the large variations observed in patient MGD values. In this study, the DRL value is significantly lower than the corresponding values suggested by other researchers elsewhere. PMID:23209184

  4. High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Park

    2006-12-01

    High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

  5. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  6. System-level performance of LTE-Advanced with joint transmission and dynamic point selection schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Määttänen, Helka-Liina; Hämäläinen, Kari; Venäläinen, Juha; Schober, Karol; Enescu, Mihai; Valkama, Mikko

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we present a practical coordinated multipoint (CoMP) system for LTE-Advanced. In this CoMP system, cooperation is enabled for cell-edge users via dynamic switching between the normal single-cell operation and CoMP. We first formulate a general CoMP system model of several CoMP schemes. We then investigate a practical finite-rate feedback design that simultaneously supports interference coordination, joint transmission (JT), and dynamic point selection (DPS) with a varying number of cooperating transmission points while operating a single-cell transmission as a fallback mode. We provide both link-level and system-level results for the evaluation of different feedback options for general CoMP operation. The results show that there are substantial performance gains in cell-edge throughputs for both JT and DPS CoMP over the baseline Release 10 LTE-Advanced with practical feedback options. We also show that CoMP can enable improved mobility management in real networks.

  7. PHYSICAL FIDELITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR NRC ADVANCED REACTOR CONTROL ROOM TRAINING SIMULATORS USED FOR INSPECTOR/EXAMINER TRAINING

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Miller, Mark; Cochrum, Steven

    2010-11-07

    This paper describes research into the physical fidelity requirements of control room simulators to train U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff for their duties as inspectors and license examiners for next-generation nuclear power plants. The control rooms of these power plants are expected to utilize digital instrumentation and controls to a much greater extent than do current plants. The NRC is assessing training facility needs, particularly for control room simulators, which play a central role in NRC training. Simulator fidelity affects both training effectiveness and cost. Research has shown high simulation fidelity sometimes positively affects transfer to the operational environment but sometimes makes no significant difference or actually impedes learning. The conditions in which these different effects occur are often unclear, especially for regulators (as opposed to operators) about whom research is particularly sparse. This project developed an inventory of the tasks and knowledges, skills, and abilities that NRC regulators need to fulfill job duties and used expert panels to characterize the inventory items by type and level of cognitive/behavioral capability needed, difficulty to perform, importance to safety, frequency of performance, and the importance of simulator training for learning these capabilities. A survey of current NRC staff provides information about the physical fidelity of the simulator on which the student trained to the control room to which the student was assigned and the effect lack of fidelity had on learning and job performance. The study concludes that a high level of physical fidelity is not required for effective training of NRC staff.

  8. Advancing Recovery: Implementing Evidence-Based Treatment for Substance Use Disorders at the Systems Level

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Laura A.; Rieckmann, Traci; Abraham, Amanda; Molfenter, Todd; Capoccia, Victor; Roman, Paul; Gustafson, David H.; McCarty, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A multisite evaluation examined the process and outcomes of Advancing Recovery, a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation initiative to overcome barriers to implementing evidence-based treatments within alcohol and drug treatment systems. Method: We report findings from a 3-year, mixed-method study of how treatment systems promoted two evidence-based practices: medication-assisted treatment and continuing care management. We compared outcomes and implementation strategies across 12 state/county agencies responsible for alcohol and drug treatment and their selected treatment centers. Each partnership received 2 years of financial and technical support to increase adoption of evidence-based treatments. Results: Partnerships flexibly applied the Advancing Recovery model to promote the adoption of evidence-based treatments. Most sites achieved a measurable increase in the numbers of patients served with evidence-based practices, up from a baseline of virtually no use. Rates of adopting medication-based treatments were higher than those for continuing care management. Partnerships used a menu of top-down and bottom-up strategies that varied in specifics across sites but shared a general process of incremental testing and piecemeal adaptation. Conclusions: Supported partnerships between providers and policymakers can achieve wider adoption of evidence-based treatment practices. Systems change unfolds through a trial-and-error process of adaptation and political learning that is unique to each treatment system. This leads to considerable state and local variation in implementation strategies and outcomes. PMID:22456246

  9. Uric acid level and elevated blood pressure in US adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Lauren F; Navas-Acien, Ana; Brady, Tammy M; Miller, Edgar R; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J

    2012-04-01

    Uric acid is associated with cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults, including chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and hypertension. We examined the association between uric acid and elevated blood pressure in a large, nationally representative cohort of US adolescents, a population with a relatively low prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Among 6036 adolescents 12 to 17 years of age examined in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the mean age was 14.5 years, 17% were obese (body mass index: ≥95th percentile), and 3.3% had elevated blood pressure. Mean serum uric acid level was 5.0 mg/dL, and 34% had a uric acid level ≥5.5 mg/dL. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index percentile, the odds ratio of elevated blood pressure, defined as a systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥95th percentile for age, sex, and height, for each 0.1-mg/dL increase in uric acid level was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.16-1.65). Compared with <5.5 mg/dL, participants with a uric acid level ≥5.5 mg/dL had a 2.03 times higher odds of having elevated blood pressure (95% CI: 1.38-3.00). In conclusion, increasing levels of serum uric acid are associated with elevated blood pressure in healthy US adolescents. Additional prospective studies and clinical trials are needed to determine whether uric acid is merely a marker in a complex metabolic pathway or causal of hypertension and, thus, a potential screening and therapeutic target. PMID:22353609

  10. Increased Levels of Circulating Advanced Glycation End-Products in Menopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Deng-Ho; Chiang, Tsay-I; Chang, I-Chang; Lin, Fu-Huang; Wei, Cheng-Chung; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) can accumulate in organs and tissues during ageing and diabetes. Increased levels of AGEs are found in the bone tissue of patients with osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate circulating AGEs in patients with osteoporosis. Methods: We evaluated plasma AGEs, osteoporosis-related biomarkers, and bone mass in 82 menopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia, 16 young women with osteopenia, and 43 healthy women without osteoporosis or osteopenia. Results: Higher levels of serum AGEs were found in the osteoporosis or osteopenia group compared to healthy women (P < 0.0001). A negative correlation was observed between serum AGEs and lumbar spine bone density (BMD of lumbar spine, r = -0.249, P = 0.028; T-score of lumbar spine, r = -0.261, P = 0.021). Women with a increased level of serum AGEs (> 8.12 U/mL) had a 5.34-fold risk of osteopenia regarding lumbar spine T-score and a 3.31-fold risk of osteopenia regarding the hip T-score. Conclusion: Serum AGEs could be used to monitor the severity and progression of osteoporosis. An increased serum level of AGEs was associated with impaired bone formation and was a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Targeting AGEs may represent a novel therapeutic approach for primary or secondary osteoporosis. PMID:24688308

  11. Barriers and Facilitators to Career Advancement by Top-Level, Entry-Level and Non-Administrative Women in Public School Districts: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Eman Ibrahim El-Desouki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the barriers and facilitators to career advancement among women administrators occupying top-level positions, those occupying entry-level positions and those in non-administrative positions in both rural and urban public school districts in central Pennsylvania. The need to increase the awareness of the…

  12. A Suggested Syllabus for the Advanced Level English Course at Gendarmerie Schools Command in Accordance with NATO STANAG 6001 Level 3 Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare a suggested syllabus in accordance with NATO Stanag 6001 Level 3 perspective for the Advanced Level English Course at Gendarmerie Schools Command which is subordinate to Gendarmerie General Command. It is believed that this study will contribute to other studies in the context of NATO Stanag 6001 language…

  13. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  14. Urinary enterolactone associated with liver enzyme levels in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qunwei; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Gu, Aihua

    2015-07-14

    Phyto-oestrogens are a family of plant-derived xeno-oestrogens that appear to have beneficial effects on human health. To date, no data are available about phyto-oestrogen consumption affecting liver health in a population. The present study aimed to explore the relationship of urinary phyto-oestrogen metabolites with serum liver enzymes in US adults. A nationally representative sample of US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-10 was analysed. The cross-sectional study sample consisted of 6438 adults with data on urinary phyto-oestrogen levels, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transaminase (GGT) concentrations and data on other potential confounders. Multivariate logistic regression and linear regression were applied to assess associations between urinary phyto-oestrogen levels and ALT, AST, ALP and GGT concentrations. We found a remarkable association between urinary enterolactone and GGT in both adult males (OR 0.37, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.61; P= 0.003) and females (OR 0.37, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.54; P= 0.009). Moreover, elevated enterolactone levels were inversely associated with ALT and AST levels in adult males. However, no association was present between levels of urinary daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol or genistein with liver enzyme levels in this population. The present study results provide epidemiological evidence that urinary enterolactone levels are associated with liver GGT levels in humans. This suggests a potential protective effect of enterolactone on human liver function. However, the underlying mechanisms still need further investigation. PMID:25990984

  15. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated. PMID:20413888

  16. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. PMID:26930506

  17. Examining Transformative Faculty Development Factors to Advance Technology Adoption and Diffusion at a Campus-Based Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKissic, Stephanie Camille

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method research, in the context of a case study was to examine faculty concerns with integrating technologies and the influences and motivations that lead to technology adoption and diffusion in the classroom. Specifically, the study examined the conceptual frameworks of Rogers' Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) and…

  18. Work/Life Satisfaction Policy in ADVANCE Universities: Assessing Levels of Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Leslie E.; Dilks, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Work/life satisfaction policies are seen as key to recruiting, retaining, and advancing high quality faculty. This article explores the work/life policies prevalent at NSF ADVANCE institutions (PAID, Catalyst, and IT). We systematically review ADVANCE university websites (N = 124) and rank 9 categories of work/life policy including dual career…

  19. System-Level Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jack; Wiser, Jack; Brown, Greg; Florin, Dominic; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2014-01-01

    To support future NASA deep space missions, a radioisotope power system utilizing Stirling power conversion technology was under development. This development effort was performed under the joint sponsorship of the Department of Energy and NASA, until its termination at the end of 2013 due to budget constraints. The higher conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle compared with that of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in previous missions (Viking, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Laboratory) offers the advantage of a four-fold reduction in Pu-238 fuel, thereby extending its limited domestic supply. As part of closeout activities, system-level testing of flight-like Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with a flight-like ASC Controller Unit (ACU) was performed in February 2014. This hardware is the most representative of the flight design tested to date. The test fully demonstrates the following ACU and system functionality: system startup; ASC control and operation at nominal and worst-case operating conditions; power rectification; DC output power management throughout nominal and out-of-range host voltage levels; ACU fault management, and system command / telemetry via MIL-STD 1553 bus. This testing shows the viability of such a system for future deep space missions and bolsters confidence in the maturity of the flight design.

  20. Married Women's Justification of Intimate Partner Violence in Bangladesh: Examining Community Norm and Individual-Level Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S

    2015-01-01

    One-third of the women worldwide experience intimate partner violence (IPV) that increases their vulnerability to both short- and long-term physical, sexual, reproductive, and mental health problems. Surprisingly, IPV is justified by many women globally. Although the IPV literature to date is mostly focused on risk factors associated with actual occurrences, little is known on attitudinal acceptance of such violence. Also, despite the growing scholarship of community influence and health link, IPV research has relatively overlooked the effects of norms at the community level. Using a representative national sample of 13,611 married women in Bangladesh, this study examined the association of community attitudes and women's individual attitudes toward wife beating. The results revealed that women living in communities with permissive attitudes toward wife beating were more likely to justify husbands' beating (OR=4.5). Women married at a younger age, who had less than primary-level education, lived in households categorized as poor or middle class, and did not consume media appeared to be at higher risk for justifying wife beating. This research adds to a growing research body on community influences on health by examining IPV attitudes and community norms link. PMID:26439820

  1. Multi-level examination of correlates of active transportation to school among youth living within 1 mile of their school

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Active transportation to school is a method by which youth can build physical activity into their daily routines. We examined correlates of active transportation to school at both individual- (characteristics of the individual and family) and area- (school and neighborhood) levels amongst youth living within 1 mile (1.6 km) of their school. Methods Using the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey, we selected records of students (n = 3 997) from 161 schools that resided in an urban setting and lived within 1 mile from their school. Student records were compiled from: (1) individual-level HBSC student questionnaires; (2) area-level administrator (school) questionnaires; and (3) area-level geographic information system data sources. The outcome, active transportation to school, was determined via a questionnaire item describing the method of transportation that individual students normally use to get to school. Analyses focused on factors at multiple levels that potentially contribute to student decisions to engage in active transportation. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were employed. Results Approximately 18% of the variance in active transportation was accounted for at the area-level. Several individual and family characteristics were associated with engagement in active transportation to school including female gender (RR vs. males = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.91), having ≥2 cars in the household (RR vs. no cars = 0.87, 0.74-0.97), and family socioeconomic status (RR for ‘not well off’ vs. ‘very well off’ = 1.14, 1.01-1.26). Neighborhood characteristics most strongly related to active transportation were: the length of roads in the 1 km buffer (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.23, 1.00-1.42), the amount of litter in the neighborhood (RR for ‘major problem’ vs. ‘no problem’ = 1.47, 1.16-1.57), and relatively hot climates (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.33 CI

  2. Providing a navigable route for acute medicine nurses to advance their practice: a framework of ascending levels of practice.

    PubMed

    Lees-Deutsch, Liz; Christian, Jan; Setchfield, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article conveys concerns raised by delegates at the International SAM Conference (Manchester, 2015) regarding how to advance nursing practice in acute medicine. It endeavors to capture the essence of 'how to advance practice' and 'how to integrate advanced practice' within the workforce structures of an acute medicine unit (AMU). It addresses the production of tacit knowledge and the recognition and integration of this to developing the nursing workforce. The current context of NHS efficiencies and recruitment issues emphasize the value of retaining tacit knowledge. Uniquely, this article offers an early conceptual framework through which levels of advancement and potential transition points to advance nursing practice in acute medicine are articulated. Determining how to advance requires identification of prior accomplishments such as, tacit knowledge, experiential learning, CPD, specialist courses and management experience. This requires nurses to make judicious decisions to advance their practice and the distinction between 'amassing experience' and 'career progression'. It aims to stimulate thinking around the practicalities of advancement, the value of tacit knowledge and potential realization through the framework trajectory. PMID:27441313

  3. Effects of chronic sleep deprivation on autonomic activity by examining heart rate variability, plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium levels.

    PubMed

    Takase, Bonpei; Akima, Takashi; Satomura, Kimio; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Mastui, Takemi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kurita, Akira

    2004-10-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is associated with cardiovascular events. In addition, autonomic activity determined from the levels of the heart rate variability (HRV), plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium (Mg) are important in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular events. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of chronic sleep deprivation on autonomic activity by examining the HRV, plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium levels. Thirty (30) healthy male college students ranging in age from 20 to 24 years of age (average 22 +/- 1 years; mean +/- SD) with no coronary risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia or a family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) were included in the study. Over a 4-week period, the volunteers' plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and erythrocyte-Mg were measured. The study was made during the 4 weeks before and immediately after college finals exams. HRV, obtained from 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, included time and frequency domain indices. The HRV indices and erythrocyte-Mg decreased while norepinephrine increased during chronic sleep deprivation. It is concluded that chronic sleep deprivation causes an autonomic imbalance and decreases intracellular Mg, which could be associated with chronic sleep deprivation-induced cardiovascular events. PMID:15754837

  4. Power of the policy: how the announcement of high-stakes clinical examination altered OSCE implementation at institutional level

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been widely applied as a high-stakes examination for assessing physicians’ clinical competency. In 1992, OSCE was first introduced in Taiwan, and the authorities announced that passing the OSCE would be a prerequisite for step-2 medical licensure examination in 2013. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of the announced national OSCE policy on implementation of OSCE at the institutional level. Further, the readiness and the recognition of barriers toward a high-stakes examination were explored. Methods In 2007 and 2010, the year before and after the announcement of high-stakes OSCE policy in 2008, respectively, questionnaires on the status of OSCE implementation were distributed to all hospitals with active OSCE programs in Taiwan. Information on OSCE facilities, equipment, station length, number of administrations per year, and the recognition of barriers to the success of implementing an OSCE were collected. The missing data were completed by telephone interviews. The OSCE format, administration, and facilities before and after the announcement of the nationwide OSCE policy were compared. Results The data were collected from 17 hospitals in 2007 and 21 in 2010. Comparing the OSCE formats between 2007 and 2010, the number of stations increased and the station length decreased. The designated space and the equipment for OSCE were also found to have been improved. As for the awareness of OSCE implementation barriers, the hospital representatives concerned mostly about the availability and quality of standardized patients in 2007, as well as space and facilities in 2010. Conclusions The results of this study underscored an overall increase in the number of OSCE hospitals and changes in facilities and formats. While recruitment and training of standardized patients were the major concerns before the official disclosure of the policy, space and facilities became the focus of attention after

  5. Examining the ground and first excited states of methyl peroxy radical with high-level coupled-cluster theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copan, Andreas V.; Schaefer, Henry F., III; Agarwal, Jay

    2015-10-01

    Peroxy radicals (RO2) are intermediates in fuel combustion, where they engage in efficiency-limiting autoignition reactions. They also participate in atmospheric chemistry leading to the formation of unwanted tropospheric ozone. Advances in spectroscopic techniques have allowed for the possibility of employing the lowest (?) electronic transition of RO2 as a tool to selectively monitor these species, enabling accurate kinetic values to be obtained. Herein, high-level ab initio methods are employed to systematically refine spectroscopic predictions for the methyl peroxy radical (CH3O2), one of the most abundant peroxy radicals in the atmosphere. In particular, vibrationally corrected geometries and anharmonic vibrational frequencies for both the ground (?) and first excited (?) state are predicted using coupled-cluster theory with up to perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] and large atomic natural orbital basis sets. Equation-of-motion coupled-cluster theory is utilised to compute vertical ? transition properties; a radiative lifetime of 4.7 ms is suggested for the excited state. Finally, we predict the adiabatic excitation energy (T0) via systematic extrapolation to the complete basis limit of coupled-cluster with up to full quadruples (CCSDTQ). After accounting for several approximations, and including an anharmonic zero-point vibrational energy correction, we match experiment for this transition to within 9 cm-1. Dedicated to Professor Sourav Pal.

  6. An Examination of Advanced Placement Scores for Black Male Students from Connecticut, Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jeanine L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which differences in student performance were present between Black males in Connecticut, Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Texas on selected AP examinations from the 2001 through the 2012 exam years. Specific AP exams included in this study were the English Language and…

  7. Advanced Nanoporous Materials for Micro-Gravimetric Sensing to Trace-Level Bio/Chemical Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing. PMID:25313499

  8. Fuzzy logic control of water level in advanced boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chaung; Lee, Chi-Szu; Raghavan, R.; Fahrner, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    The feedwater control system in the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is more challenging to design compared to other control systems in the plant, due to the possible change in level from void collapses and swells during transient events. A basic fuzzy logic controller is developed using a simplified ABWR mathematical model to demonstrate and compare the performance of this controller with a simplified conventional controller. To reduce the design effort, methods are developed to automatically tune the scaling factors and control rules. As a first step in developing the fuzzy controller, a fuzzy controller with a limited number of rules is developed to respond to normal plant transients such as setpoint changes of plant parameters and load demand changes. Various simulations for setpoint and load demand changes of plant performances were conducted to evaluate the modeled fuzzy logic design against the simplified ABWR model control system. The simulation results show that the performance of the fuzzy logic controller is comparable to that of the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, However, the fuzzy logic controller produced shorter settling time for step setpoint changes compared to the simplified conventional controller.

  9. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2002-12-19

    /NETL managed National Mineral Sequestration Working Group we have already significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH){sub 2}. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach will provide a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. Ab initio techniques will also

  10. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya; M.J. McKelvy; G.H. Wolf; R.W. Carpenter; D.A. Gormley; J.R. Diefenbacher; R. Marzke

    2006-03-01

    significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO2 mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH)2. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO2 mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach has provided a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. We used ab initio techniques to significantly advance our understanding of atomic-level processes at the solid/solution interface by

  11. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2003-12-19

    /NETL managed National Mineral Sequestration Working Group we have already significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH){sub 2}. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach will provide a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. Ab initio techniques will also

  12. Physical Activity Level of Korean Adults with Chronic Diseases: The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ho-Seong; An, Ah-Reum; Choi, Ho-Chun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Heon; Oh, Seung-Min; Seo, Young-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Proper physical activities are known to be helpful in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, the physical activity level of patients with chronic diseases is low. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the physical activity compliance of patients with hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2010-2012 Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We included 13,873 individuals in the analysis. The level of physical activity compliance was measured by performing multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results In the univariate analysis, the subjects with hypertension or diabetes tended to comply with the physical activity guidelines less faithfully than their healthy counterparts. The proportion of subjects with hypertension who were insufficiently physically active was 65.4% among the men and 75.8% among the women. For diabetes, the proportions were 66.7% and 76.8%, respectively. No significant difference was found between the subjects with dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant difference in physical activity compliance was observed between the subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts for both sexes. Conclusion The patients with hypertension or diabetes tended to have lower physical activity prevlaence than their healthy counterparts. However, for dyslipidemia, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Given the significance of physical activities in the management of chronic diseases, the physical activities of these patients need to be improved. PMID:26634091

  13. Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise: Advancing coastal management through integrated research and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Rising sea level represents a significant threat to coastal communities and ecosystems through land loss, altered habitats, and increased vulnerability to coastal storms and inundation. This threat is exemplified in the northern Gulf of Mexico where low topography, expansive marshes, and a prevalence of tropical storms have already resulted in extensive coastal impacts. The development of robust predictive capabilities that incorporate complex biological processes with physical dynamics are critical for informed planning and restoration efforts for coastal ecosystems. Looking to build upon existing predictive modeling capabilities and allow for use of multiple model (i.e., ensemble) approaches, NOAA initiated the Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise program in 2010 to advance physical/biological integrative modeling capabilities in the region with a goal to provide user friendly predictive tools for coastal ecosystem management. Focused on the northern Gulf of Mexico, this multi-disciplinary project led by the University of Central Florida will use in situ field studies to parameterize physical and biological models. These field studies will also result in a predictive capability for overland sediment delivery and transport that will further enhance marsh, oyster, and submerged aquatic vegetation models. Results from this integrated modeling effort are envisioned to inform management strategies for reducing risk, restoration and breakwater guidelines, and resource sustainability for project planning, among other uses. In addition to the science components, this project incorporates significant engagement of the management community through a management applications principle investigator and an advisory management committee. Routine engagement between the science team and the management committee, including annual workshops, are focused on ensuring the development of applicable, relevant, and useable products and tools at the conclusion of this project. Particular

  14. Development of advanced cloud parameterizations to examine air quality, cloud properties, and cloud-radiation feedback in mesoscale models

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, In Young

    1993-09-01

    The distribution of atmospheric pollutants is governed by dynamic processes that create the general conditions for transport and mixing, by microphysical processes that control the evolution of aerosol and cloud particles, and by chemical processes that transform chemical species and form aerosols. Pollutants emitted into the air can undergo homogeneous gas reactions to create a suitable environment for the production by heterogeneous nucleation of embryos composed of a few molecules. The physicochemical properties of preexisting aerosols interact with newly produced embryos to evolve by heteromolecular diffusion and coagulation. Hygroscopic particles wig serve as effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), while hydrophobic particles will serve as effective ice-forming nuclei. Clouds form initially by condensation of water vapor on CCN and evolve in a vapor-liquid-solid system by deposition, sublimation, freezing, melting, coagulation, and breakup. Gases and aerosols that enter the clouds undergo aqueous chemical processes and may acidity hydrometer particles. Calculations for solar and longwave radiation fluxes depend on how the respective spectra are modified by absorbers such as H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, chlorofruorocarbons, and aerosols. However, the flux calculations are more complicated for cloudy skies, because the cloud optical properties are not well defined. In this paper, key processes such as tropospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics parameterizations, and radiation schemes are reviewed in terms of physicochemical processes occurring, and recommendations are made for the development of advanced modules applicable to mesoscale models.

  15. Examining single-source secondary impacts estimated from brute-force, decoupled direct method, and advanced plume treatment approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, James T.; Baker, Kirk R.; Napelenok, Sergey L.; Roselle, Shawn J.

    2015-06-01

    In regulatory assessments, there is a need for reliable estimates of the impacts of precursor emissions from individual sources on secondary PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns) and ozone. Three potential methods for estimating these impacts using Eulerian grid photochemical models are the brute-force (B-F) method, the decoupled direct method (DDM), and advanced plume treatment (APT). Here, we systematically inter-compare and assess the B-F, DDM, and APT approaches using hypothetical sources in a consistent modeling platform for a wide range of source conditions (i.e., emissions amount and composition, location within two California air basins, and stack parameters). The impacts of NOx and VOC sources on ozone and SO2 sources on PM2.5 sulfate calculated by these methods are in general agreement. The agreement is evident in the similar magnitudes, spatial patterns, and strong correlations among the impacts. This result, along with previous model evaluations based on similar Eulerian grid modeling, builds confidence in the reliability of the impact estimates. Disagreement among methods is evident in calculations of PM2.5 nitrate impacts associated with NH3 and NOx sources. Numerical instabilities in DDM sensitivity calculations compromise the nitrate impact estimates from that approach. The B-F and APT methods, which use brute-force differencing to identify impacts, are affected by numerical artifacts to a lesser degree than (H)DDM, with the artifacts being more prominent for APT than B-F. Overall, our results indicate that the (H)DDM, B-F, and APT approaches are viable for use in estimating single-source impacts for ozone and secondary PM2.5 sulfate, while the B-F method appears to be the most reliable for estimating nitrate impacts. There is a need for additional field study measurements to better constrain model estimates of single-source secondary impacts.

  16. Advanced-Level Testing of Foreign Language Proficiency: An Interim Report of the Post A-Level Spanish Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ife, Anne E.; Standish, Peter

    This is a preliminary report concerning the development of tests which measure the linguistic ability in Spanish of English students at the beginning of their post A-level courses. The Palspan (Post A-level Spanish project) pilot test battery is comprised of five sub-tests of between 45 and 90 minutes in length which test for speaking, listening,…

  17. Advances in Instrumentation for Quantification of Isotopic Nitrous Oxide from ppb levels to 100%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, F.; Gupta, M.; Leen, J.; Provencal, R. A.; Owano, T. G.; Baer, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    The isotopic composition of trace gases provides information of their origin and fate that cannot be determined from their concentration measurements alone. Biological source and loss processes, like bacterial production of nitrous oxide, are typically accompanied by isotopic selectivity associated with the kinetics of bond formation and destruction. Of the three important biologically mediated greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), the understanding of nitrous oxide isotopic budget in air lags behind the other two gases primarily due to the relatively low concentration of N2O in ambient air (~320 ppb). Furthermore, the origin of nitrates in rivers, lakes, ocean and other water supplies may be determined from analyses of isotopic nitrous oxide produced via chemical reduction or biological conversion. These processes can produce nitrous oxide at levels considerably greater than those present in ambient air. To date, analyses of isotopic nitrous oxide requires either pre-concentration of samples containing low concentrations or dilution of samples with high concentrations. We report significant advances of instrumentation for real-time measurements of site-specific isotopic nitrogen (δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ15N, δ18O) and mixing ratio [N2O] of nitrous oxide over a very wide range of mole fractions in air. Specifically, LGR's Isotopic N2O Analyzer can report site-specific isotopic nitrogen and isotopic oxygen continuously in flows ranging from 0.2 to over 20 ppm (parts per million) nitrous oxide in air (with preconcentration or dilution). Furthermore, for samples of limited volume, a batch technique may be used for similar isotopic measurements in discrete samples containing 0.2 ppm to 100% nitrous oxide (e.g., sample volumes from bacterial digestion can be as little as 1-10 mL). This novel technology, which employs cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) and a mid-infrared laser (4.56 microns) and does not require any cryogenic components, has been

  18. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  19. Teaching Groups as Foci for Evaluating Performance in Cost-Effectiveness of GCE Advanced Level Provision: Some Practical Methodological Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Antony

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes subject teaching-group effectiveness in English and Welsh General Certification of Education (GCE) Advanced Level prior to a linking to resources; suggests cross-classified multilevel models with weighted random effects for disentangling student, group, and teacher effects; finds that teacher effects are considerable, but cannot find…

  20. Low Endogenous Secretory Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products Levels Are Associated With Inflammation and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Di Pino, Antonino; Urbano, Francesca; Zagami, Rose Maria; Filippello, Agnese; Di Mauro, Stefania; Piro, Salvatore; Purrello, Francesco; Rabuazzo, Agata Maria

    2016-04-01

    Pre-diabetes is associated with advanced vascular damage. Our data shows that subjects with pre-diabetes exhibited low esRAGE plasma levels and gene expression, which are inversely related with markers of inflammation and atherosclerotic risk. PMID:26885882

  1. 34 CFR 350.65 - What level of participation is required of trainees in an Advanced Rehabilitation Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What level of participation is required of trainees in an Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Project? 350.65 Section 350.65 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY...

  2. Strategic Alliance to Advanced Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Jule Dee

    2004-01-01

    This document (book) reports on the Strategic Alliance to Advance Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level, funded by National Science Foundation. It was a collaborative partnership involving the Rockford Public Schools, Rock Valley College, and Northern Illinois…

  3. Overview of the 2006 NCHEC Advanced-Level Certification Feasibility Study Results: The Impetus of a Positive Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Dixie L.; Alley, Kelly Bishop; Aduroja, Amos

    2008-01-01

    Through the 6-year National Health Educator Competencies Update Project (CUP), in 2004, the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, Inc. (NCHEC), American Association for Health Education (AAHE), and Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) completed verification of advanced-level competencies and subcompetencies for health…

  4. The Extraction and Partial Purification of Bacterial DNA as a Practical Exercise for GCE Advanced Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, A. C.; Hayes, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a relatively simple method of extraction and purification of bacterial DNA. This technique permits advanced secondary-level science students to obtain adequate amounts of DNA from very small pellets of bacteria and to observe some of its polymer properties. (ML)

  5. Ontario Basic Skills. Career Planning. A Thematic Unit for Integrated Curriculum: Advanced Level. [Student Workbook and] Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marcia; And Others

    This set of publications, consisting of a student workbook and teacher's manual, is designed for use by adult learners registered in the advanced level of the career planning course of the Ontario (Canada) Basic Skills program. The student workbook contains units on the following topics: introduction to career planning, self-assessment for…

  6. Examining Variation in Recombination Levels in the Human Female: A Test of the Production-Line Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Rowsey, Ross; Gruhn, Jennifer; Broman, Karl W.; Hunt, Patricia A.; Hassold, Terry

    2014-01-01

    The most important risk factor for human aneuploidy is increasing maternal age, but the basis of this association remains unknown. Indeed, one of the earliest models of the maternal-age effect—the “production-line model” proposed by Henderson and Edwards in 1968—remains one of the most-cited explanations. The model has two key components: (1) that the first oocytes to enter meiosis are the first ovulated and (2) that the first to enter meiosis have more recombination events (crossovers) than those that enter meiosis later in fetal life. Studies in rodents have demonstrated that the first oocytes to enter meiosis are indeed the first to be ovulated, but the association between the timing of meiotic entry and recombination levels has not been tested. We recently initiated molecular cytogenetic studies of second-trimester human fetal ovaries, allowing us to directly examine the number and distribution of crossover-associated proteins in prophase-stage oocytes. Our observations on over 8,000 oocytes from 191 ovarian samples demonstrate extraordinary variation in recombination within and among individuals but provide no evidence of a difference in recombination levels between oocytes entering meiosis early in fetal life and those entering late in fetal life. Thus, our data provide a direct test of the second tenet of the production-line model and suggest that it does not provide a plausible explanation for the human maternal-age effect, meaning that—45 years after its introduction—we can finally conclude that the production-line model is not the basis for the maternal-age effect on trisomy. PMID:24995869

  7. The association between interleukin-4 -590C/T genetic polymorphism, IL-4 serum level, and advanced endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Malutan, Andrei M.; Drugan, Tudor; Ciortea, Razvan; Mihu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Aim of the study was to investigate interleukin (IL)-4 serum levels in patients with advanced endometriosis and whether IL-4 promoter region (-590C/T) genetic polymorphism is involved in genetic susceptibility to endometriosis. Material and methods IL-4 serum levels and IL-4 -590C/T genetic polymorphism were determined for 80 patients with advanced endometriosis and 85 healthy fertile women using a multiplex cytokine kit, with a Luminex 200 system; high molecular weight genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and further analyzed by PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-PFLP). The relationship between IL-4 serum levels, genotypes and haplotypes and the presence of endometriosis was explored. Results Interleukin 4 serum levels were significantly higher in the endometriosis group compared to controls (138,459 compared to 84,710, p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in IL-4 serum levels between genotypes. There were no differences in IL-4 -590C/T genotypes and allele frequencies between control women and patients with endometriosis (χ2 = 0.496, and χ2 = 0.928, OR = 1.3636, CI: 0.725-2.564). Conclusions The results suggest that in patients with advanced stages of endometriosis there is a higher serum level of IL-4, and that this value, or the presence of the disease, is not influenced by the presence of IL-4 -590C/T genetic polymorphism. PMID:27536203

  8. The Process of Advance Care Planning in HCT Candidates and Proxies: Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Anxiety Levels

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Katharine E.; Forti, Allison M.; Russell, Gregory B.; Naik, Seema; Hurd, David; McQuellon, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hematopoietic cell transplant candidate and proxy advance care planning (ACP) behavior and attitudes. A total of 49 candidates and 44 proxies completed the Advance Directive Attitudes Survey, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Family Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In all, 45% of candidates reported completing an advance directive (AD), while only 26% had ADs on file; 80% of candidates discussed ACP wishes with their loved ones and 15% discussed ACP wishes with their medical team. The AD completers were significantly (1) older, (2) more positive about ADs, and (3) were less likely to believe that health events happen by chance. Discrepancies between reported ACP behavior and communication with health care practitioners have implications for end-of-life care. PMID:23946253

  9. The process of advance care planning in HCT candidates and proxies: self-efficacy, locus of control, and anxiety levels.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Katharine E; Forti, Allison M; Russell, Gregory B; Naik, Seema; Hurd, David; McQuellon, Richard P

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hematopoietic cell transplant candidate and proxy advance care planning (ACP) behavior and attitudes. A total of 49 candidates and 44 proxies completed the Advance Directive Attitudes Survey, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Family Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In all, 45% of candidates reported completing an advance directive (AD), while only 26% had ADs on file; 80% of candidates discussed ACP wishes with their loved ones and 15% discussed ACP wishes with their medical team. The AD completers were significantly (1) older, (2) more positive about ADs, and (3) were less likely to believe that health events happen by chance. Discrepancies between reported ACP behavior and communication with health care practitioners have implications for end-of-life care. PMID:23946253

  10. The Relationship between Diver Experience Levels and Perceptions of Attractiveness of Artificial Reefs - Examination of a Potential Management Tool

    PubMed Central

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E.; Wheeler, Philip M.; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial reefs are increasingly used worldwide as a method for managing recreational diving since they have the potential to satisfy both conservation goals and economic interests. In order to help maximize their utility, further information is needed to drive the design of stimulating resources for scuba divers. We used a questionnaire survey to explore divers’ perceptions of artificial reefs in Barbados. In addition, we examined reef resource substitution behaviour among scuba divers. Divers expressed a clear preference for large shipwrecks or sunken vessels that provided a themed diving experience. Motives for diving on artificial reefs were varied, but were dominated by the chance of viewing concentrated marine life, increased photographic opportunities, and the guarantee of a ‘good dive’. Satisfaction with artificial reef diving was high amongst novices and declined with increasing experience. Experienced divers had an overwhelming preference for natural reefs. As a management strategy, our results emphasize the capacity of well designed artificial reefs to contribute towards the management of coral reef diving sites and highlight a number of important areas for future research. Suggested work should validate the present findings in different marine tourism settings and ascertain support of artificial reefs in relationship to level of diver specialization. PMID:23894372

  11. The relationship between diver experience levels and perceptions of attractiveness of artificial reefs - examination of a potential management tool.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2013-01-01

    Artificial reefs are increasingly used worldwide as a method for managing recreational diving since they have the potential to satisfy both conservation goals and economic interests. In order to help maximize their utility, further information is needed to drive the design of stimulating resources for scuba divers. We used a questionnaire survey to explore divers' perceptions of artificial reefs in Barbados. In addition, we examined reef resource substitution behaviour among scuba divers. Divers expressed a clear preference for large shipwrecks or sunken vessels that provided a themed diving experience. Motives for diving on artificial reefs were varied, but were dominated by the chance of viewing concentrated marine life, increased photographic opportunities, and the guarantee of a 'good dive'. Satisfaction with artificial reef diving was high amongst novices and declined with increasing experience. Experienced divers had an overwhelming preference for natural reefs. As a management strategy, our results emphasize the capacity of well designed artificial reefs to contribute towards the management of coral reef diving sites and highlight a number of important areas for future research. Suggested work should validate the present findings in different marine tourism settings and ascertain support of artificial reefs in relationship to level of diver specialization. PMID:23894372

  12. Complementary or competing climates? Examining the interactive effect of service and ethical climates on company-level financial performance.

    PubMed

    Myer, Adam T; Thoroughgood, Christian N; Mohammed, Susan

    2016-08-01

    By bending rules to please their customers, companies with high service climates may be less ethical but ultimately more profitable. In this article, we pose the question of whether being ethical comes at a cost to profits in customer-oriented firms. Despite the organizational reality that multiple climates coexist at a given time, research has largely ignored these types of questions, and the simultaneous analysis of multiple climate dimensions has received little empirical attention to date. Given their scientific and practical importance, this study tested complementary and conflicting perspectives regarding interactions between service (outcome-focused) and ethical (process-focused) climates on company-level financial performance. Drawing on a sample of 16,862 medical sales representatives spread across 77 subsidiary companies of a large multinational corporation in the health care product industry, we found support for a complementary view. More precisely, results revealed that profitability was enhanced, not diminished, in service-oriented firms that also stressed the importance of ethics. Results suggest studying the interactive effects of multiple climates is a more fruitful approach than examining main effects alone. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27149606

  13. A spatial econometric panel data examination of endogenous versus exogenous interaction in Chinese province-level patenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSage, James P.; Sheng, Yuxue

    2014-07-01

    We examine the provincial-level relationship between domestic Chinese intellectual property (IP) and knowledge stocks using a space-time panel model and data set covering monthly patent activity over the period 2002-2010. The goal of the modeling exercise is to explore the elasticity response of IP to knowledge stocks classified by type of creator (universities and research institutes, enterprises, and individuals). A focus is on spatial and time dependence in the relationship between knowledge stocks and IP, which implies spatial spillovers and diffusion over time. Many past studies of regional knowledge production have focused on patent applications as a proxy for regional output from the knowledge production process. However, this ignores the distinction between patent applications and patents granted, with the latter reflecting a decision and ability to convert knowledge produced into IP. This study differs in its focus on the regional relation between IP and knowledge stocks and the space-time dynamics of these. Using patents granted as a proxy for IP, and past patent applications as a proxy for regional knowledge stocks, allows us to explore the implied quality of knowledge production by various types of creators. Because Chinese patent applications have grown by 22 %, questions have been raised about the quantity versus quality of these applications. Our findings shed light on this issue.

  14. Examining Supply Chain Resilience for the Intermodal Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a significant programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing and transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and High Level Waste (HLW) in the United States, including shipments entering the country from locations outside U.S borders. In any shipment of SNF/HLW, there are multiple chains; a jurisdictional chain as the material moves between jurisdictions (state, federal, tribal, administrative), a physical supply chain (which mode), as well as a custody chain (which stakeholder is in charge/possession) of the materials being transported. Given these interconnected networks, there lies vulnerabilities, whether in lack of communication between interested stakeholders or physical vulnerabilities such as interdiction. By identifying key links and nodes as well as administrative weaknesses, decisions can be made to harden the physical network and improve communication between stakeholders. This paper examines the parallel chains of oversight and custody as well as the chain of stakeholder interests for the shipments of SNF/HLW and the potential impacts on systemic resiliency. Using the Crystal River shutdown location as well as a hypothetical international shipment brought into the United States, this paper illustrates the parallel chains and maps them out visually.

  15. The Major Functions of the Open-Book Examination at the University Level: A Factor Analytic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theophilides, Christos; Dionysiou, Omiros

    1996-01-01

    Principal component analysis of responses of 173 teacher education students showed that students recognized 5 major functions for open-book examinations. They thought that open-book examinations reduced examination stress and enabled them to monitor their progress toward graduation more effectively. (SLD)

  16. Water Relations and the Vacuolated Plant Cell: A Brief Study of the Topic at Advanced Level in School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayford, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses concepts needed to understand plant water relations and results of a study designed to examine the understanding of these concepts by students preparing for A-level examinations. Focuses on students who have learned the topic using the old terminology compared with students adopting the new suggested terms. (Author/JN)

  17. [Current Advances and Future Development of Thyroid Ultrasound Examination--Steps toward State-of-the-Art Laboratory Medicine in Fukushima].

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hiroki

    2015-03-01

    Since the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, large quantities of radionuclides have leaked into the surrounding environment. Fukushima Prefecture started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project including Thyroid Ultrasound Examination to screen for thyroid cancer in all residents aged 0 to 18 years at the time of the nuclear accident. This accident also led to increased interest in thyroid ultrasound examination in Japan. This article reviews the studies to establish ultrasound diagnostic criteria for thyroid nodules and the clinical guidelines of thyroid nodule management, both of which are fundamental to Thyroid Ultrasound Examination in Fukushima. This article also reviews a study designed to clarify the actual frequency of sonographically detected thyroid nodular lesions among Japanese children, which will become appropriate reference data to interpret the results from Thyroid Ultrasound Examination. Further advances in the screening and management of thyroid diseases are important responsibilities of clinicians and researchers in Fukushima. PMID:26524862

  18. Varying levels of difficulty index of skills-test items randomly selected by examinees on the Korean emergency medical technician licensing examination

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to characterize the difficulty index of the items in the skills test components of the class I and II Korean emergency medical technician licensing examination (KEMTLE), which requires examinees to select items randomly. Methods: The results of 1,309 class I KEMTLE examinations and 1,801 class II KEMTLE examinations in 2013 were subjected to analysis. Items from the basic and advanced skills test sections of the KEMTLE were compared to determine whether some were significantly more difficult than others. Results: In the class I KEMTLE, all 4 of the items on the basic skills test showed significant variation in difficulty index (P<0.01), as well as 4 of the 5 items on the advanced skills test (P<0.05). In the class II KEMTLE, 4 of the 5 items on the basic skills test showed significantly different difficulty index (P<0.01), as well as all 3 of the advanced skills test items (P<0.01). Conclusion: In the skills test components of the class I and II KEMTLE, the procedure in which examinees randomly select questions should be revised to require examinees to respond to a set of fixed items in order to improve the reliability of the national licensing examination. PMID:26883810

  19. A County-Level Examination of the Relationship Between HIV and Social Determinants of Health: 40 States, 2006-2008

    PubMed Central

    Z, Gant; M, Lomotey; H.I, Hall; X, Hu; X, Guo; R, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social determinants of health (SDH) are the social and physical factors that can influence unhealthy or risky behavior. Social determinants of health can affect the chances of acquiring an infectious disease – such as HIV – through behavioral influences and limited preventative and healthcare access. We analyzed the relationship between social determinants of health and HIV diagnosis rates to better understand the disparity in rates between different populations in the United States. Methods: Using National HIV Surveillance data and American Community Survey data at the county level, we examined the relationships between social determinants of health variables (e.g., proportion of whites, income inequality) and HIV diagnosis rates (averaged for 2006-2008) among adults and adolescents from 40 states with mature name-based HIV surveillance. Results: Analysis of data from 1,560 counties showed a significant, positive correlation between HIV diagnosis rates and income inequality (Pearson correlation coefficient ρ = 0.40) and proportion unmarried – ages >15 (ρ = 0.52). There was a significant, negative correlation between proportion of whites and rates (ρ = -0.67). Correlations were low between racespecific social determinants of health indicators and rates. Conclusions/Implications: Overall, HIV diagnosis rates increased as income inequality and the proportion unmarried increased, and rates decreased as proportion of whites increased. The data reflect the higher HIV prevalence among non-whites. Although statistical correlations were moderate, identifying and understanding these social determinants of health variables can help target prevention efforts to aid in reducing HIV diagnosis rates. Future analyses need to determine whether the higher proportion of singles reflects higher populations of gay and bisexual men. PMID:22408698

  20. Final Report Full-Scale Test of DWPF Advanced Liquid-Level and Density Measurement Bubblers

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.; Weeks, G.E.

    1999-07-01

    As requested by the Technical Task Request (1), a full-scale test was carried out on several different liquid-level measurement bubblers as recommended from previous testing (2). This final report incorporates photographic evidence (Appendix B) of the bubblers at different stages of testing, along with the preliminary results (Appendix C) which were previously reported (3), and instrument calibration data (Appendix D); while this report contains more detailed information than previously reported (3) the conclusions remain the same. The test was performed under highly prototypic conditions from November 26, 1996 to January 23, 1997 using the full-scale SRAT/SME tank test facilities located in the 672-T building at TNX. Two different types of advanced bubblers were subjected to approximately 58 days of slurry operation; 14 days of which the slurry was brought to boiling temperatures.The test showed that the large diameter tube bubbler (2.64 inches inside diameter) operated successfully throughout the2-month test by not plugging with the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 deg Cand several days of boiling temperatures. However, a weekly blow-down with air or water is recommended to minimize the slurry which builds up.The small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) operated successfully on a daily basis in the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 degrees C and several days of boiling temperatures. However, a daily blow-down with air, or air and water, is necessary to maintain accurate readings.For the small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) there were varying levels of success with the lower water-flow tubes and these tubes would have to be cleaned by blowing with air, or air and water, several times a day to maintain them plug free. This

  1. Barriers to Advanced Placement for Latino Students at the High-School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan A.; Pearsall, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding about Latino student underrepresentation in advanced placement (AP) coursework, this investigation explored the factors that inhibit and/or encourage Latino student enrollment in AP coursework at one suburban public high school in the Western United States. Latino high-school students and their parents…

  2. Advanced Placement Strategy: A Framework for Identifying School-Level Barriers to AP Success. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batiwalla, Mary

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, Tennessee counted nearly 7,000 students in the senior cohort whose academic skills when they entered high school suggested they were on track to earn college credits through Advanced Placement (AP) exams. Yet just over half of these students actually graduated with an AP credit, and less than a third of the economically disadvantaged…

  3. Travel and Tourism Module. An Advanced-Level Option For Distribution and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Intended as an advanced option for distributive education students in the twelfth grade, this travel and tourism module is designed to cover a minimum of ten weeks or a maximum of twenty weeks. Introductory material includes information on employment demands, administrative considerations, course format, teaching suggestions, expected outcomes,…

  4. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  5. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss "small-group apprenticeships (SGAs)" as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments…

  6. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Discusses small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method for introducing cell culture techniques to high school participants. Teaches cell culture practices and introduces advance imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Clarifies and illuminates the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships. (Author/KHR)

  7. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

  8. Prekindergarten in Public Schools: An Examination of Elementary School Principals' Perceptions, Needs, and Confidence Levels in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shue, Pamela L.; Shore, Rebecca A.; Lambert, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a statewide survey that examined the perceptions and needs of elementary school principals in North Carolina who have prekindergarten classrooms on their campus. The survey examined principals' knowledge about early childhood education and their attitudes towards prekindergarten. Results suggest that few…

  9. The Analytic Onion: Examining Training Issues from Different Levels of Analysis. Interim Technical Paper for Period July 1989-June 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Theodore A.; Chin, Keric B. O.

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on different levels of analysis using the metaphor of the layers of an onion to help organize and structure thinking on research issues concerning training. It discusses the core of the "analytic onion," the biological level, and seven levels of analysis that surround that core: the individual, the…

  10. The value of lactate dehydrogenase serum levels as a prognostic and predictive factor for advanced pancreatic cancer patients receiving sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Giampieri, Riccardo; Sobrero, Alberto; Labianca, Roberto; Ferrari, Daris; Barni, Sandro; Aitini, Enrico; Zaniboni, Alberto; Boni, Corrado; Caprioni, Francesco; Mosconi, Stefania; Fanello, Silvia; Berardi, Rossana; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Cinquini, Michela; Torri, Valter; Scartozzi, Mario; Cascinu, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Although lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels, indirect markers of angiogenesis, are associated with a worse outcome in several tumours, their prognostic value is not defined in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, high levels are associated even with a lack of efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, contributing to explain negative results in clinical trials. We assessed the role of LDH in advanced pancreatic cancer receiving sorafenib. Seventy-one of 114 patients included in the randomised phase II trial MAPS (chemotherapy plus or not sorafenib) and with available serum LDH levels, were included in this analysis. Patients were categorized according to serum LDH levels (LDH ≤vs.> upper normal rate). A significant difference was found in progression free survival (PFS) and in overall survival (OS) between patients with LDH values under or above the cut-off (PFS: 5.2 vs. 2.7 months, p = 0.0287; OS: 10.7 vs. 5.9 months, p = 0.0021). After stratification according to LDH serum levels and sorafenib treatment, patients with low LDH serum levels treated with sorafenib showed an advantage in PFS (p = 0.05) and OS (p = 0.0012). LDH appears to be a reliable parameter to assess the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer patients, and it may be a predictive parameter to select patients candidate to receive sorafenib. PMID:26397228

  11. The value of lactate dehydrogenase serum levels as a prognostic and predictive factor for advanced pancreatic cancer patients receiving sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Giampieri, Riccardo; Sobrero, Alberto; Labianca, Roberto; Ferrari, Daris; Barni, Sandro; Aitini, Enrico; Zaniboni, Alberto; Boni, Corrado; Caprioni, Francesco; Mosconi, Stefania; Fanello, Silvia; Berardi, Rossana; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Cinquini, Michela; Torri, Valter; Scartozzi, Mario; Cascinu, Stefano

    2015-10-27

    Although lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels, indirect markers of angiogenesis, are associated with a worse outcome in several tumours, their prognostic value is not defined in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, high levels are associated even with a lack of efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, contributing to explain negative results in clinical trials. We assessed the role of LDH in advanced pancreatic cancer receiving sorafenib. Seventy-one of 114 patients included in the randomised phase II trial MAPS (chemotherapy plus or not sorafenib) and with available serum LDH levels, were included in this analysis. Patients were categorized according to serum LDH levels (LDH ≤ vs.> upper normal rate). A significant difference was found in progression free survival (PFS) and in overall survival (OS) between patients with LDH values under or above the cut-off (PFS: 5.2 vs. 2.7 months, p = 0.0287; OS: 10.7 vs. 5.9 months, p = 0.0021). After stratification according to LDH serum levels and sorafenib treatment, patients with low LDH serum levels treated with sorafenib showed an advantage in PFS (p = 0.05) and OS (p = 0.0012). LDH appears to be a reliable parameter to assess the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer patients, and it may be a predictive parameter to select patients candidate to receive sorafenib. PMID:26397228

  12. An Examination of New Zealand Teachers' Attributions and Perceptions of Behaviour, Classroom Management, and the Level of Formal Teacher Training Received in Behaviour Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Anita; Little, Steven G.; Akin-Little, Angeleque

    2011-01-01

    The way in which behaviour is perceived and managed by teachers can influence the classroom environment. The current study examined teachers' perceptions of the cause of school behavioural problems and the effectiveness of positive behavioural interventions. It also examined the level of formal training participants have received in behaviour…

  13. A Multi-Level Examination of the Association between Older Social Models in the School Environment and Overweight and Obesity among Younger Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Papadakis, Sophia

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined how school characteristics are associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the student- and school-level characteristics associated with being overweight and obese among 12,049 students in grades 9 and 10 ("junior students") attending 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada. The sample was 49.2%…

  14. Innovative Training Experience for Advancing Entry Level, Mid-Skilled and Professional Level URM Participation in the Geosciences Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoro, M. H.; Johnson, A.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of URMs in the U.S. Geosciences workforce remains proportionally low compared to their representation in the general population (Bureau of Labor Sta.s.cs, 2014). Employment in this and related industries is projected to grow 32% by 2030 for minority workers (Gillula and Fullenbaum, 2014), corresponding to an additional 48,000 jobs expected to be filled by minorities (National Research Council, 2014). However, there is a shortage of employees with proper training in the hard sciences (Holeywell, 2014; Ganzglass, 2011), as well as craft skills (Hoover and Duncan, 2013), both important for middle skill employment. Industry recognizes the need for developing and retaining a diverse workforce, therefore we hightlight a program to serve as a potential vanguard initative for developing an innovative training experience for URM and underserved middle skilled workers with essential knowledge, experience and skills necessary to meet the demands of the Geosciences industry's growing need for a safe, productive and diverse workforce. Objectives are for participants to achieve the following: understanding of geosciences workforce trends and associated available opportunities; mastery of key environmental, health and safety topics; improvements in decision making skills and preparedness for responding to potential environmental, health and safety related situations; and engagement in one-on-one coaching sessions focused on resume writing, job interviewing and key "soft skills" (including conflict resolution, problem solving and critical observation, representing 3 major skills that entry- level workers typically lack.

  15. The Examination of the Correlation between Social Physique Anxiety Levels and Narcissism Levels of the Students Who Studied at the SPES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gezer, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to discover the correlation between social physique anxiety levels and narcissism levels of the students of the school of the physical education and sports. A total of 308 students who studied at different academic departments of the school of the physical education and sports of Mustafa Kemal University participated in…

  16. Do the Low Levels of Reading Course Material Continue? An Examination in a Forensic Psychology Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clump, Michael A.; Doll, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Clump, Bauer, and Bradley (2004) and Burchfield and Sappington (2000) previously found extremely low levels of reading in undergraduate psychology courses. The current study investigated whether these low levels of reading are also found with graduate students, or if this value is altered by only investigating individuals who show continued…

  17. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  18. Monetary Policy Rules, Supply Shocks, and the Price-Level Elasticity of Aggregate Demand: A Graphical Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyer, Ben L.; Maggs, Gary E.

    1995-01-01

    Utilizes two-dimensional price and output graphs to demonstrate the way that the price-level elasticity of aggregate demand affects alternative monetary policy rules designed to cope with random aggregate supply shocks. Includes graphs illustrating price-level, real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), nominal GDP, and nominal money supply targeting.…

  19. Noise induced hearing loss in dance music disc jockeys and an examination of sound levels in nightclubs.

    PubMed

    Bray, Adam; Szymański, Marcin; Mills, Robert

    2004-02-01

    Noise exposure, hearing loss and associated otological symptoms have been studied in a group of 23 disc jockeys using a questionnaire and pure tone audiometry. The level of noise exposure in the venues where they work has also been studied using Ametek Mk-3 audio dosimeters. Three members of the study group showed clear evidence of noise-induced hearing loss on audiometry, 70 per cent reported temporary threshold shift after sessions and 74 per cent reported tinnitus. Sound levels of up to 108 dB(A) were recorded in the nightclubs. The average level for a typical session was 96 dB(A) which is above the level at which the provision of ear protection is mandatory for employers in industry. It can be concluded that DJs are at substantial risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss and noise exposure in nightclubs frequently exceeds safe levels. PMID:14979949

  20. Leveling the Little Pagoda: The Impact of College Examinations, and Their Elimination, on Rural Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Many have argued that, despite the meritocratic ideals of equal access and social mobility that underpin examination-governed education hierarchies, the rural majority are typically excluded or eliminated in the early stages of the competition. The scholastic nature of the uniform curricula, much of which has little relevance to rural life,…

  1. Examination of Learner and Situation Level Variables: Choice of Speech Act and Request Strategy by Spanish L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriscak, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on variation within a group of learners of Spanish (N = 253) who produced requests and complaints via a written discourse completion task. It examines the effects of learner and situational variables on production--the effect of proficiency and addressee-gender on speech-act choice and the effect of perception of imposition on…

  2. Examination of Socialization Level of University Students Engaged in Sports Activities According to Their Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Mehmet; Karagözoglu, Cengiz; Dervent, Fatih; Arslantas, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the university students who participate in sports have been examined in terms of their socialization relative to the participation in sport activities and the locus of control. Students are thought to be engaged in many activities in addition to their lessons during their student tenure at higher education institutions. Their…

  3. Seeking Visual Clarity an Examination of Font Legibility and Visual Presentation for Elementary-Level Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Theresa Tetrick

    2010-01-01

    This study examined font and layout alternatives for mild special education children in third through sixth grade. Of this group, twelve were boys and two were girls, seven were suburban students and seven were urban students. During the first phase, the students were observed reading four different fonts, then the participant named the easiest…

  4. Interpreting Assessment Reports. Grades 3-8 and 10 (Exit Level) and End-of-Course Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Student Assessment.

    This guide provides information about the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) and Texas end-of-course examinations. It displays and explains examples of the TAAS and end-of-course standard and optional reports to assist school personnel in understanding and interpreting student performance data as required by the Texas Education Code. The…

  5. Using Personality Data in Higher Education: A Preliminary Examination of Personality Differences Based on Professional Orientation and Skill Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Joel L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between groups of psychology students and groups of psychology professionals based on the personality trait of Extraversion, and its facets, as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). Previous applications of the NEO PI-R have focused on personnel…

  6. The Effect of Concept Mapping on L2 Writing Performance: Examining Possible Effects of Trait-Level Writing Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machida, Naoko; Dalsky, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students' learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students' writing anxiety.…

  7. An Examination of the Effects of Parental Involvement/Intervention on Student Development at the College/University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchette, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis contributes to the literature on helicopter parents, and their relation to student development theory. A secondary examination of approximately 1800 randomized results from the 2007 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) was tested using the following statistical tests: Mann-Whitney Test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test,…

  8. Higher Education Enrollments and Student Success in Times of Budget Scarcity: Examining System-Level Impacts in Recessionary Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetstein, Matthew; Hays, Brianna; Nguyen, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to extend the literature on higher education enrollment patterns during times of recession by examining patterns of enrollment and successful course completion in one of the world's largest higher education systems--the California Community College system. The data are drawn from publicly available data sources on the web. CCC…

  9. The Strategy of Defense: A Critical Examination of Global Conflict. A Secondary Level Curriculum for Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Better Education, Alexandria, VA.

    The purpose of this guide is to encourage a rational understanding of the problems associated with nuclear armaments and to present a constructive approach to finding a solution. Each unit is introduced with a review of new terms, after which the topic is summarized and then is concluded with a vocabulary review and unit examination. Unit 1…

  10. Efficacy of pemetrexed-based regimen in relapsed advanced thymic epithelial tumors and its association with thymidylate synthetase level

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinyu; Song, Zhengbo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Due to the rarity of thymic epithelial tumors (TET), no standard chemotherapy regimen has been identified in the relapsed setting. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of a pemetrexed-based regimen in advanced TET as palliative treatment after failure of previous chemotherapy, and to detect its association with thymidylate synthetase (TS) level. Methods Patients with pathologically confirmed TET and treated with pemetrexed-based regimen were evaluated from 2006 to 2014 in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. TS mRNA level was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Kaplan–Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results A total of 22 TET patients were identified, of whom eight had thymoma and 14 had thymic carcinoma. In total, the objective response rate and disease control rate of the 22 patients were 22.7% and 68.2%, respectively. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.5 months and 34.9 months, respectively. A trend of lower TS mRNA levels existed in patients with disease control compared to those with progressive disease (268.0±160.5×10−4 vs 567.0±445.0×10−4, P=0.065). Conclusion Patients with advanced TET may benefit from pemetrexed-based regimen therapy. TS mRNA level is valuable for predicting the efficacy of pemetrexed in TET. PMID:27524908

  11. Practical Exercises for the Study of Community Ecology at Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of short-term modular experiments which focus on community structure (standing crop biomass) and function (system energy flow). One exercise examines decomposers while another shows energy use by individuals. Equipment needed, procedures used, and results obtained are included. (Author/DH)

  12. Research, development and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-08-01

    An advanced lead acid storage battery was developed to the preprototype cell and module design stage. Each module is equipped with a low cost tray, automatic watering system, and air-lift pumps for increased acid circulation in each cell. With the qualified alloy catastrophic positive grid corrosion will not limit cell cycle life. An accelerated shallow cycle regime at room ambient tested 60 cell designs for the active material shedding failure mode. It is found that an antishedding active material additive reduces positive active material shedding significantly and extend the cycle life of both the positive and the negative plate. Equations relating cell design to deep cycle life are developed from the factorial tests on the 60 cells.

  13. Basic-Level Category Discriminations by 7- and 9-Month-Olds in an Object Examination Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Denis; Powell, Daisy; Volein, Agnes

    2003-01-01

    Examined 7- and 9-month-olds' ability to categorize cats and dogs as separate from one another. Found that both groups formed a cat category that included novel cats but excluded a dog and an eagle, and formed a dog category that included novel dogs and a novel cat but excluded an eagle. Results mirrored those of 3- to 4-month-olds with visual…

  14. Examining the Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' Ethical Reasoning Levels and Their Academic Dishonesty Levels: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Emre

    2011-01-01

    Academic dishonesty has recently been described as an epidemic illness and a phenomenon to be definitely prevented. Accordingly, prospective teachers are expected to have high ethical judgement levels. The section who suffers most from academic dishonesty is also teachers who serve in various ranks. Individuals with high ethical judgement levels…

  15. Language Assessment Scales, Level 2, LAS II, for Grades 6 and Up, English/Spanish. Examiner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sharon E.; De Avila, Edward A.

    Language Assessment Scales, Level 2 (LAS II) are used to assess the linguistic proficiency of limited-English-speaking or non-English-speaking adolescents. LAS II, like its predecessor, LAS I, provides a picture of oral linguistic proficiency based on a student's performance across four linguistic subsystems: phonemic, lexical, syntactic and…

  16. Examining Differences in the Levels of False Memories in Children and Adults Using Child-Normed Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Jeffrey S.; Rhodes, Matthew G.

    2008-01-01

    Several previous studies have demonstrated that children, when compared with adults, exhibit both lower levels of veridical memory and fewer intrusions when given semantically associated lists. However, researchers have drawn these conclusions using semantically associated word lists that were normed with adults, which may not lead to the same…

  17. Assessing the Potential for Openness: A Framework for Examining Course-Level OER Implementation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judith, Kate; Bull, David

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of open educational resources (OER) at the course level in higher education poses numerous challenges to education practitioners--ranging from discoverability challenges to the lack of knowledge on how to best localize and utilize OER as courseware. Drawing on case studies of OER initiatives globally, the article discusses…

  18. An Examination of the Effects of Flow on Learning in a Graduate-Level Introductory Operations Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Barbara D.; Rossin, Don; Guo, Yi Maggie; Ro, Young K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of flow on learning outcomes in a graduate-level operations management course. Flow was assessed through an overall flow score, four dimensions of flow, and three characteristics of flow activities. Learning outcomes were measured objectively through multiple-choice quiz scores and subjectively using measures…

  19. The Examination of the Basic Skill Levels of the Students in Accordance with the Perceptions of Teachers, Parents and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotaman, Davut

    2008-01-01

    In this research, the level of possession of the students' basic skills that are anticipated to be cultivated into student by the new elementary education program were evaluated in terms of the perceptions of teachers, parents and students. For the sample groups of this research, the 4th and 5th grade students (527) from 16 schools, the parents…

  20. An Examination of the Adult Performance Level Project and Its Effects upon Adult Literacy Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    The Adult Performance Level (APL) project, which developed and validated a series of objectives for adult functional competency free from school-based notions of literacy, is the most widely accepted approach to adult literacy and adult literacy education in the United States today. Yet a review of the project and its impact reveals that the APL…

  1. Using a Simulated Selection Interview as a Final Examination in a Graduate-Level Personnel Selection Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottke, Janet L.; Valencia, Leslie A.; Shultz, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Actively engaged participants in the learning process typically demonstrate superior learning outcomes, better retention, and more satisfaction with the learning experience. The authors present the use of a simulated selection interview (SSI) as a culminating experience in a graduate-level personnel selection course as a way to engage students…

  2. Examining how p16(INK4a) expression levels are linked to handgrip strength in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tung-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Han, Der-Sheng; Huang, Ying-Hsin; Chen, Chi-Ling; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies have shown that p16(INK4a) is more highly expressed in the human body during senescence, studies on its relevance to handgrip strength among old adults, are relatively sparse. We enrolled 205 community-dwelling old adults aged 65 years and older without specific medical conditions. Handgrip strength of the dominant hand was measured. Low handgrip strength was defined as the lowest quartile of handgrip strength among the participants. RNA was extracted from peripheral white blood cells. Use quantitative polymerase chain reaction to estimate the p16(INK4a) mRNA expression level. The average handgrip strength was 25.22 ± 8.98 kg, and gender difference was observed. In the linear regression model, the p16(INK4a) mRNA expression level was significantly negatively associated with handgrip strength in men but not in women. The β coefficient, representing the change of handgrip strength for each increment in the p16(INK4a) mRNA expression level, was -0.208 (p = 0.024) among old men. The negative association remained after additional covariates adjustment. In the multiple logistic regression model among old men, the odds ratio (OR) of low handgrip strength was 1.246 (p = 0.032). In this study, we observed the p16(INK4a) mRNA expression level was negative associated with handgrip strength among community-dwelling old men. PMID:27549351

  3. Trailblazers: An Examination of Community College Black Women in Senior Level Administrator Roles--Their Stories through Their Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Bruce, Tameka Lazette

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how Black women who work in senior level administrative positions at community colleges were able to establish successful career paths. The literature review draws from the theoretical framework of critical race theory, the Black feminist thought, and critical race feminism. The use of counter-stories establishes a platform for…

  4. Examining the Relation between Metacognitive Understanding of What Is Listened to and Metacognitive Awareness Levels of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to reveal the relation between the Metacognitive Understanding of What is Listened to and the Metacognitive Awareness Levels of Secondary School Students. 210 students, who were at 5, 6, 7, and 8th Grades studying at Turgut Ozal Secondary School in Bulanik County of the city of Mus, participated in the study. The…

  5. Examining how p16INK4a expression levels are linked to handgrip strength in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Tung-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Han, Der- Sheng; Huang, Ying-Hsin; Chen, Chi-Ling; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies have shown that p16INK4a is more highly expressed in the human body during senescence, studies on its relevance to handgrip strength among old adults, are relatively sparse. We enrolled 205 community-dwelling old adults aged 65 years and older without specific medical conditions. Handgrip strength of the dominant hand was measured. Low handgrip strength was defined as the lowest quartile of handgrip strength among the participants. RNA was extracted from peripheral white blood cells. Use quantitative polymerase chain reaction to estimate the p16INK4a mRNA expression level. The average handgrip strength was 25.22 ± 8.98 kg, and gender difference was observed. In the linear regression model, the p16INK4a mRNA expression level was significantly negatively associated with handgrip strength in men but not in women. The β coefficient, representing the change of handgrip strength for each increment in the p16INK4a mRNA expression level, was −0.208 (p = 0.024) among old men. The negative association remained after additional covariates adjustment. In the multiple logistic regression model among old men, the odds ratio (OR) of low handgrip strength was 1.246 (p = 0.032). In this study, we observed the p16INK4a mRNA expression level was negative associated with handgrip strength among community-dwelling old men. PMID:27549351

  6. Using NASA Earth Observations as a Tool to Examine PM2.5 Levels in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, L.; Roberts-Pierel, J.; Gundy, J.; Barker, M.; Ferrare, R. A.; Sawamura, P.; Scarino, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface-level particulate matter (PM2.5) strongly impacts air quality and, other than surface-level ozone, is known for being the most destructive pollutant to both a person's lungs and overall health. Because of its small size, PM2.5 is able to travel deep enough into a person's lungs to cause significant damage. PM2.5 monitoring is executed primarily through ground monitors, but the readings are limited to only the specific area where the ground monitors are located. Satellite data can sample a larger area, and therefore provides a more comprehensive reading. This study utilized multiple measurements of aerosol data including MODIS, airborne in-situ and LIDAR readings collected by the DISCOVER-AQ team, and ground monitoring stations in the Houston, Texas area. Comparing measurements from these sources produced a more robust understanding of near-surface air pollution. Analyzing measurements from the aircraft and from ground-based monitoring sites can help in evaluating future ground-level pollution measurements from space. Increased accuracy when monitoring can help officials assess and forecast air quality. Efficient air quality forecasts will help the general public take the necessary health precautions, such as avoiding prolonged outdoor activity, when PM2.5 levels are high.

  7. A "space experiment" examining the response of a geosynchronous quartz crystal oscillator to various levels of solar activity.

    PubMed

    LaLumondiere, Stephen D; Moss, Steven C; Camparo, James C

    2003-03-01

    Viewing the frequency history of the high-quality quartz crystal oscillator onboard Milstar FLT-1 as a "space experiment," we have examined the response of the crystal to various solar flares that have occurred over the past 4 years. Our results show that, even for the largest solar flares that can be expected, timekeeping onboard a geosynchronous communications satellite need not be unduly perturbed by the enhanced space-radiation environment of a solar flare, so long as the ground station can take mitigating action within a few hours of the flare's onset. PMID:12699153

  8. An advanced static var compensator based on a three level IGBT inverter modelling analysis and active power filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draou, Azeddine

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the dynamic performance analysis of an Advanced Static Var Compensator (ASVC) using three-level neutral point-clamped voltage source inverter. The paper presents the principles of operating and the method of reference currents generation. The dynamic behaviour of the system is further analysed using Matlab/Simulink with SimPower Systems toolbox through a set of simulation tests. The results obtained have been applied to an active power filter which might lead to the design of a robust controller for current harmonics and reactive power applications

  9. Contact, Attitude and Motivation in the Learning of Catalan at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Colleen; Serrano, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical complexity of current understandings of second language (L2) identity has brought the study of language learning motivations from basic concepts of intrinsic, integrative and instrumental motives to a more dynamic construct that interacts with background factors, learning contexts and proficiency levels. This cross-sectional study…

  10. Advanced Monitoring Initiative Project: US-Mexico Border Ground-level Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-Level Ozone Concentrations Based on Satellite Observations and Ground Surface Monitoring Data in Support of Environmental Health Decisions U.S. - Mexico Border 2012 Program - The U.S.-Mexico border is a dynamic region extending more than 3,100 kilometers from the Gulf of M...

  11. Homemade Equipment for the Teaching of Electrochemistry at Advanced Level. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, K. M.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a detailed description for the construction of equipment needed to investigate acid/base equilibria through the measurement of pH and potentiometric titrations. Suggested experiments and calibration techniques are explained. This information helps to solve the problems of inadequate, expensive equipment required for A-level chemistry…

  12. The relationship between human resource investments and organizational performance: a firm-level examination of equilibrium theory.

    PubMed

    Subramony, Mahesh; Krause, Nicole; Norton, Jacqueline; Burns, Gary N

    2008-07-01

    It is commonly believed that human resource investments can yield positive performance-related outcomes for organizations. Utilizing the theory of organizational equilibrium (H. A. Simon, D. W. Smithburg, & V. A. Thompson, 1950; J. G. March & H. A. Simon, 1958), the authors proposed that organizational inducements in the form of competitive pay will lead to 2 firm-level performance outcomes--labor productivity and customer satisfaction--and that financially successful organizations would be more likely to provide these inducements to their employees. To test their hypotheses, the authors gathered employee-survey and objective performance data from a sample of 126 large publicly traded U.S. organizations over a period of 3 years. Results indicated that (a) firm-level financial performance (net income) predicted employees' shared perceptions of competitive pay, (b) shared pay perceptions predicted future labor productivity, and (c) the relationship between shared pay perceptions and customer satisfaction was fully mediated by employee morale. PMID:18642983

  13. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors. PMID:12587031

  14. Biotechnology apprenticeship for secondary-level students: teaching advanced cell culture techniques for research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer R; Kotur, Mark S; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors. PMID:12587031

  15. Advanced age and the mechanics of uphill walking: a joint-level, inverse dynamic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Jason R.; Kram, Rodger

    2013-01-01

    We sought to gain insight into age-related muscular limitations that may restrict the uphill walking ability of old adults. We hypothesized that: 1) old adults would exhibit smaller peak ankle joint kinetics and larger peak hip joint kinetics than young adults during both level and uphill walking and 2) these age-related differences in ankle and hip joint kinetics would be greatest during uphill vs. level walking. We quantified the sagittal plane ankle, knee, and hip joint kinetics of 10 old adults (mean ± SD, age: 72 ± 5 yrs) and 8 young adults (age: 27 ± 5 yrs) walking at 1.25 m/s on a dual-belt, force-measuring treadmill at four grades (0°, +3°, +6°, +9°). As hypothesized, old adults walked with smaller peak ankle joint kinetics (e.g., power generation: −18% at +9°) and larger peak hip joint kinetics (e.g., power generation: +119% at +9°) than young adults, most evident during the late stance phase of both level and uphill conditions. Old adults performed two to three times more single support positive work than young adults via muscles crossing the knee. In partial support of our second hypothesis, the age-related reduction in peak ankle joint moments was greater during uphill (−0.41 Nm/kg) vs. level (−0.30 Nm/kg) walking. However, old adults that exhibited reduced propulsive ankle function during level walking could perform 44% more trailing leg positive ankle joint work to walk uphill. Our findings indicate that maintaining ankle power generation and trailing leg propulsive function should be the primary focus of “prehabilitation” strategies for old adults to preserve their uphill walking ability. PMID:23850328

  16. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  17. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22-54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ-related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm's fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  18. Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam Basin, Northern Tibet: A framework for examining the links between glaciation, lake level changes and alluvial fan formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, L.A.; Finkel, R.C.; Haizhou, M.; Barnard, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Qaidam Basin in Northern Tibet is one of the largest hyper-arid intermontane basins on Earth. Alluvial fans, pediment surfaces, shorelines and a thick succession of sediments within the basin, coupled with moraines and associated landforms in the adjacent high mountain catchments of the Kunlun Mountains, record a complex history of Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental change and landscape evolution. The region provides an ideal natural laboratory to examine the interaction between tectonics and climate within a continent-continent collision zone, and to quantify rates of landscape evolution as controlled by climate and the associated glacial and hydrological changes in hyper-arid and adjacent high-altitude environments. Geomorphic mapping, analysis of landforms and sediments, and terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide surface exposure and optically stimulated luminescence dating serve to define the timing of formation of Late Quaternary landforms along the southern and northwestern margins of the Qaidam Basin, and in the Burhan Budai Shan of the Kunlun Mountains adjacent to the basin on the south. These dates provide a framework that suggests links between climatic amelioration, deglaciation, lake desiccation and alluvial fan evolution. At least three glacial advances are defined in the Burham Budai Shan of the Kunlun Mountains. On the northern side of this range these occurred in the penultimate glacial cycle or early in the last glacial cycle, during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)/Lateglacial and during the Holocene. On the south side of the range, advances occurred during the penultimate glacial cycle, MIS-3, and possibly the LGM, Lateglacial or Holocene. Several distinct phases of alluvial fan sedimentation are likewise defined. Alluvial fans formed on the southern side of the Kunlun Mountains prior to 200 ka. Ice-contact alluvial fans formed during the penultimate glacial and during MIS-3. Extensive incised alluvial fans that form the main valley fills north of

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection Recurrences Among Household Members: An Examination of Host, Behavioral, and Pathogen-Level Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Loren G.; Eells, Samantha J.; David, Michael Z.; Ortiz, Nancy; Taylor, Alexis R.; Kumar, Neha; Cruz, Denise; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Many patients suffer from recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections, but there are few data examining recurrence predictors. Methods. We followed adults and children after treatment for S. aureus skin infections and their household contacts in Los Angeles and Chicago. We surveyed subjects for S. aureus body colonization, household fomite contamination, and behavioral and clinical factors at baseline and 3 and 6 months later. Using repeated measures modeling, we examined host, pathogen, behavioral, and clinical factors associated with recurrence. Results. Among 330 index subjects, 182 (55%) were infected with an isolate of the USA300 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) genetic background. Recurrences occurred in 39% by month 3 and 51% by month 6. Among 588 household contacts, 10% reported a skin infection by month 3 and 13% by month 6. Among index subjects, recurrence was associated with (P < .05) Los Angeles site, diabetes, recent hospitalization, recent skin infection, recent cephalexin use, and household S. aureus or MRSA fomite contamination; recurrence was inversely associated with recent contact sports participation. In the multivariate model, independent predictors of recurrence in index patients were recent hospitalization, household MRSA fomite contamination, and lack of recent contact sports participation. Among household contacts, independent predictors of subsequent skin infection were Chicago site, antibiotic use in the prior year, and skin infection in the prior 3 months. Conclusions. In our longitudinal study, patients with a S. aureus skin infection were more likely to suffer a recurrence if household fomites were MRSA contaminated. Interventions to prevent recurrence may be enhanced by decontamination of household fomites. PMID:25428411

  20. Recent advances in the compilation of holocene relative Sea-level database in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Vacchi, M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Nikitina, D.

    2015-12-01

    Reconstruction of relative sea level (RSL) has implications for investigation of crustal movements, calibration of earth rheology models and the reconstruction of ice sheets. In recent years, efforts were made to create RSL databases following a standardized methodology. These regional databases provided a framework for developing our understanding of the primary mechanisms of RSL change since the Last Glacial Maximum and a long-term baseline against which to gauge changes in sea-level during the 20th century and forecasts for the 21st. Here we present two quality-controlled Holocene RSL database compiled for North America. Along the Pacific coast of North America (British Columbia, Canada to California, USA), our re-evaluation of sea-level indicators from geological and archaeological investigations yield 841 RSL data-points mainly from salt and freshwater wetlands or adjacent estuarine sediment as well as from isolation basin. Along the Atlantic coast of North America (Hudson Bay, Canada to South Carolina, USA), we are currently compiling a database including more than 2000 RSL data-points from isolation basin, salt and freshwater wetlands, beach ridges and intratidal deposits. We outline the difficulties and solutions we made to compile databases in such different depostional environment. We address complex tectonics and the framework to compare such large variability of RSL data-point. We discuss the implications of our results for the glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) models in the two studied regions.

  1. Advanced Gestational Age Increases Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Levels in Abstinent Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F.; Savich, Renate D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Methods: Patients were recruited during one of the first prenatal care visits and followed-up to term. Abstinence was confirmed by maternal self-report and by alcohol biomarkers. Biomarkers assessed in the mother included serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate, and whole blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth). In addition, PEth was measured in a dry blood spot card obtained from a newborn. For %CDT analysis, serum samples were collected at baseline and at term and analyzed by an internationally validated high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection method. Results: At recruitment (mean gestational age 22.6 ± 7.3 weeks), the mean %CDT concentration was 1.49 ± 0.30%, while at term, it increased to 1.67 ± 0.28% (P = 0.001). Using a conventional cutoff concentration %CDT >1.7%, 22.9 and 45.7% of the sample would be classified as ‘positive’ for this biomarker at recruitment and at term, respectively (P = 0.011 ). Conclusion: These results suggest that a conventional cutoff of 1.7% might be too low for pregnant women and would generate false-positive results. We propose that %CDT >2.0% be used as a cutoff concentration indicative of alcohol exposure in pregnant women. The sensitivity of %CDT at this cutoff for heavy drinking during pregnancy needs to be assessed further. PMID:22878591

  2. An examination of the southern California field test for the systematic accumulation of the optical refraction error in geodetic leveling.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, R.O.; Brown, B.W., Jr.; Gilmore, T.D.; Mark, R.K.; Wilson, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Appraisals of the two levelings that formed the southern California field test for the accumulation of the atmospheric refraction error indicate that random error and systematic error unrelated to refraction competed with the systematic refraction error and severely complicate any analysis of the test results. If the fewer than one-third of the sections that met less than second-order, class I standards are dropped, the divergence virtually disappears between the presumably more refraction contaminated long-sight-length survey and the less contaminated short-sight-length survey. -Authors

  3. Proof of Learning Outcome by the Advanced Clinical Competency Examination Trial after the Long-term Student's Practice in Pharmaceutical Education.

    PubMed

    Komori, Koji; Kataoka, Makoto; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Takumi; Nakatani, Takafumi; Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Mitamura, Shinobu; Hane, Yumiko; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    At Setsunan University, a debrief session (a poster session) is commonly performed by the students who have completed the long-term students' practice. Since the valuable changes in practical competency of the students cannot be evaluated through this session, we specified items that can help evaluate and methods that can help estimate the students' competency as clinical pharmacists. We subsequently carried out a trial called the "Advanced Clinical Competency Examination". We evaluated 103 students who had concluded the students' practice for the second period (Sep 1, 2014, to Nov 16, 2014): 70 students (called "All finish students") who had completed the practice in a hospital and pharmacy, and 33 students (called "Hospital finish students") who had finished the practice at a hospital only. The trial was executed in four stages. In the first stage, students drew pictures of something impressive they had learned during the practice. In the second stage, students were given patient cases and were asked, "What is this patient's problem?" and "How would you solve this problem?". In the third stage, the students discussed their answers in a group. In the fourth stage, each group made a poster presentation in separate rooms. By using a rubric, the teachers evaluated each student individually, the results of which showed that the "All finish students" could identify more problems than the "Hospital finish students". PMID:27592830

  4. INL Initial Input to the Mission Need for Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capability A Non-Major System Acquisition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vince Tonc

    2010-04-01

    Consolidated and comprehensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) capabilities will enable the science and engineering understanding needed to develop the innovative nuclear fuels and materials that are critical to the success of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) programs. Existing PIE capabilities at DOE Laboratories, universities, and in the private sector are widely distributed, largely antiquated, and insufficient to support the long-range mission needs. In addition, DOE’s aging nuclear infrastructure was not designed to accommodate modern, state-of-the-art equipment and instrumentation. Currently, the U.S. does not have the capability to make use of state-of-the-art technology in a remote, hot cell environment to characterize irradiated fuels and materials on the micro, nano, and atomic scale. This “advanced PIE capability” to make use of state-of-the-art scientific instruments in a consolidated nuclear operating environment will enable comprehensive characterization and investigation that is essential for effectively implementing the nuclear fuels and materials development programs in support of achieving the U.S. DOE-NE Mission.

  5. Levels of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Various Inflammatory Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tetsuro; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tokuda, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Yagi, Kazuma; Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis. Among them, sRAGE was detectable in BALF of 73 patients (94%). In patients with ARDS and vasculitis, the sRAGE levels were significantly higher than in the control subjects and those with interstitial pneumonia. The sRAGE levels were positively correlated with total cell counts in BALF and serum levels of surfactant protein-D, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein. There was an inverse correlation between PaO2/FIO2 ratio and sRAGE levels. These results indicate that sRAGE in BALF might be considered as a biomarker of lung inflammatory disorders, especially ARDS and vasculitis. PMID:27147899

  6. Levels of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Various Inflammatory Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kamo, Tetsuro; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tokuda, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Yagi, Kazuma; Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis. Among them, sRAGE was detectable in BALF of 73 patients (94%). In patients with ARDS and vasculitis, the sRAGE levels were significantly higher than in the control subjects and those with interstitial pneumonia. The sRAGE levels were positively correlated with total cell counts in BALF and serum levels of surfactant protein-D, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein. There was an inverse correlation between PaO2/FIO2 ratio and sRAGE levels. These results indicate that sRAGE in BALF might be considered as a biomarker of lung inflammatory disorders, especially ARDS and vasculitis. PMID:27147899

  7. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from intact classes. A researcher-constructed Biology Cognitive Skills Test was used to collect the quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and students' personal documents. The data showed that the participants utilized concept mapping in various ways and they described positive experiences while being engaged in its use. The main challenge cited by teachers was the limited time available for more consistent use. The results showed that the use of concept mapping in advanced level biology can lead to learning gains that exceed those achieved in classes where mainly traditional methods are used. The students in the concept mapping experimental groups performed significantly better than their peers in the control group on both the lower-order (F(1) = 21.508; p < .001) and higher-order (F(1) = 42.842, p < .001) cognitive items of the biology test. A mean effect size of .56 was calculated representing the contribution of treatment to the students' performance on the test items.

  8. Helicopter far-field acoustic levels as a function of reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Philip

    1990-07-01

    During the design of a helicopter, the weight, engine, rotor speed, and rotor geometry are given significant attention when considering the specific operations for which the helicopter will be used. However, the noise radiated from the helicopter and its relationship to the design variables is currently not well modeled with only a limited set of full-scale field test data to study. In general, limited field data have shown that reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach numbers result in reduced far-field noise levels. The status of a recent helicopter noise research project is reviewed. It is designed to provide flight experimental data which may be used to further understand helicopter main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number effects on far-field acoustic levels. Preliminary results are presented relative to tests conducted with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter operating with both the rotor speed and the flight speed as the control variable. The rotor speed was operated within the range of 107 to 90 percent NR at nominal forward speeds of 35, 100, and 155 knots.

  9. Helicopter far-field acoustic levels as a function of reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Philip

    1990-01-01

    During the design of a helicopter, the weight, engine, rotor speed, and rotor geometry are given significant attention when considering the specific operations for which the helicopter will be used. However, the noise radiated from the helicopter and its relationship to the design variables is currently not well modeled with only a limited set of full-scale field test data to study. In general, limited field data have shown that reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach numbers result in reduced far-field noise levels. The status of a recent helicopter noise research project is reviewed. It is designed to provide flight experimental data which may be used to further understand helicopter main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number effects on far-field acoustic levels. Preliminary results are presented relative to tests conducted with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter operating with both the rotor speed and the flight speed as the control variable. The rotor speed was operated within the range of 107 to 90 percent NR at nominal forward speeds of 35, 100, and 155 knots.

  10. A two-level structure for advanced space power system automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.; Chankong, Vira

    1990-01-01

    The tasks to be carried out during the three-year project period are: (1) performing extensive simulation using existing mathematical models to build a specific knowledge base of the operating characteristics of space power systems; (2) carrying out the necessary basic research on hierarchical control structures, real-time quantitative algorithms, and decision-theoretic procedures; (3) developing a two-level automation scheme for fault detection and diagnosis, maintenance and restoration scheduling, and load management; and (4) testing and demonstration. The outlines of the proposed system structure that served as a master plan for this project, work accomplished, concluding remarks, and ideas for future work are also addressed.

  11. The Impact of Item Position in Multiple-Choice Test on Student Performance at the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollennu, Sam Nii Nmai; Etsey, Y. K. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of item position in multiple-choice test on student performance at the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) level in Ghana. The sample consisted of 810 Junior Secondary School (JSS) Form 3 students selected from 12 different schools. A quasi-experimental design was used. The instrument for the project…

  12. Digital Equity in Education: A Multilevel Examination of Differences in and Relationships between Computer Access, Computer Use and State-Level Technology Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) state assessment and a survey of state-level technology policies, this study examined digital equity in education as a multilevel organizational phenomenon with data from 70,382 students in 3,479 schools and 40 states. Students in rural schools or schools with higher…

  13. CBM Reading, Mathematics, and Written Expression at the Secondary Level: Examining Latent Composite Relations among Indices and Unique Predictions with a State Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of research has examined the utility of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for data-based decision making at the secondary level. As schools move to multitiered systems of service delivery, it is conceivable that multiple screening measures will be used that address various academic subject areas. The value of including different CBM…

  14. An examination of the frequency and severity of injuries and incidents at three levels of professional football

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R. D.; Fuller, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of injury to professional footballers during European international and English Premier and First Division league matches. METHODS: Videotaped recordings of 29, 49, and 93 matches from the 1996 European Championship, 1996/1997 English Premier season and 1994 to 1997 English First Division seasons respectively were analysed. During each match, several relevant variables, including the number of fouls, injuries, time of incident, player identity, and injury mechanism, were recorded. RESULTS: Significantly more free kicks were awarded during international matches than during league matches; however, there were no significant differences between the numbers of free kicks awarded over the three First Division seasons assessed. Between 1.7 and 3.0% of fouls resulted in a player requiring treatment for injury, but only 15-28% of all injuries resulted from foul play. In all "non-foul" situations, in which injury resulted, at least 60% still involved player to player contact. No significant differences in injury frequency were observed between playing positions or match halves. CONCLUSIONS: The results equate to a total of 808 players per season from the estimated 2600 players in the four English professional football leagues sustaining a match injury that caused them to miss at least one game. The large number of underlying "non-injury" incidents is identified as the reason for this level of injury rather than a higher ratio of "injury" to "non-injury" incidents in professional football compared with other occupations. 


 PMID:9865406

  15. Development and Deployment of Advanced Corrosion Monitoring Systems for High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, M. T.; Edgemon, G. L.; Mickalonis, J. I.; Mizia, R. E.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest--in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and AEA Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

  16. Development and deployment of advanced corrosion monitoring systems for high-level waste tanks.

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, M. T.; Edgemon, G. L.; Mickalonis, J. I.; Mizia, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest - in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and M A Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

  17. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  18. Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and monitoring of tropical forests requires accurate information on their extent and change dynamics. Cloud cover, sensor errors and technical barriers associated with satellite remote sensing data continue to prevent many national and sub-national REDD+ initiatives from developing their reference deforestation and forest degradation emission levels. Here we present a framework for large-scale historical forest cover change analysis using free multispectral satellite imagery in an extremely cloudy tropical forest region. The CLASlite approach provided highly automated mapping of tropical forest cover, deforestation and degradation from Landsat satellite imagery. Critically, the fractional cover of forest photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrates calculated by CLASlite provided scene-invariant quantities for forest cover, allowing for systematic mosaicking of incomplete satellite data coverage. A synthesized satellite-based data set of forest cover was thereby created, reducing image incompleteness caused by clouds, shadows or sensor errors. This approach can readily be implemented by single operators with highly constrained budgets. We test this framework on tropical forests of the Colombian Pacific Coast (Chocó) – one of the cloudiest regions on Earth, with successful comparison to the Colombian government’s deforestation map and a global deforestation map. PMID:25678933

  19. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  20. Clinical Significance of CA125 Level after the First Cycle of Chemotherapy on Survival of Patients with Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Maria; Chang, Min Young; Yoo, Hanna; Lee, Kyung Eun; Chay, Doo Byung; Cho, Hanbyoul; Kim, Young Tae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the most powerful cancer antigen 125 (CA125)-related prognostic factor for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to identify cut-off values that distinguish patients with a poor prognosis from those with a good prognosis. Materials and Methods We included 223 patients who received staging laparotomy and were diagnosed with stage IIC–IV serous EOC. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the most significant prognostic factor among the following variables: serum CA125 before surgery and after the first, second, and sixth cycles of chemotherapy; the nadir CA125 value; the relative percentage change in CA125 levels after the first and second cycles of chemotherapy compared to baseline CA125; CA125 half-life; time to nadir; and time to normalization of the CA125 level. Results The CA125 level after the first chemotherapy cycle was the most significant independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS). Time to normalization (p=0.028) and relative percentage change between CA125 levels at baseline and after the first chemotherapy cycle (p=0.021) were additional independent prognostic factors in terms of OS. The CA125 level after the first chemotherapy cycle (p=0.001) and time to normalization (p<0.001) were identified as independent prognostic factors for progression free survival (PFS). Conclusion Among well-established CA125-related prognostic factors, serum CA125 levels after the first cycle of chemotherapy and time to normalization were the most significant prognostic factors for both OS and PFS. PMID:26996555

  1. The Effect of Information About Gynecological Examination on the Anxiety Level of Women Applying to Gynecology Clinics: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Ulker, Kahraman; Kivrak, Yuksel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Crowded hospital outpatient clinics and endless waiting lines that make patients feel overlooked tend to exaggerate patients’ anxiety levels. In addition, fear of pain, shyness, religious and traditional thoughts, women’s sexual role in society, and previous information and experience also contribute to people’s anxiety levels with regard to gynecologic examination. Objectives: We aimed to analyze the effect of specific information about gynecologic examination on anxiety levels of women applying to gynecology clinics. Materials and Methods: In this randomized prospective study, the women applying for a gynecological examination were randomly allocated into control, intervention 1, and intervention 2 groups. Power analysis indicated that in order to achieve a one-point decrease from the previous anxiety score of 43.85 ± 5.41 at one side alpha 0.05 with a power of 80%, at least 79 women were needed in each group. Four medical school students interviewed 75 women (25 in control, 25 in intervention 1, and 25 in intervention 2). The data were collected using the demographic, social, and economic data form, and the Turkish version of the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). The women in the intervention 1 and 2 groups were instructed to read a paper that contained brief information about the gynecological examination procedure and the profits obtained from forests, respectively. All participants, including the women in the control group, filled the STAI by themselves. The three groups were compared appropriately. Results: The demographics pertaining to age, gravidity and parity, miscarriage, induced abortion, ectopic pregnancy, offspring number, place of residence, working status, education level and previous experience of gynecological examination did not differ among the groups (P > 0.05). According to the STAI scores, all groups had mild state (control: 40.20 ± 10.53, intervention 1: 42.00 ± 11.98, and intervention 2: 39.53 ± 10.32) and severe

  2. Diastolic Dysfunction of Aging Is Independent of Myocardial Structure but Associated with Plasma Advanced Glycation End-Product Levels

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Duncan J.; Somaratne, Jithendra B.; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Prior, David L.; Yii, Michael; Kenny, James F.; Newcomb, Andrew E.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Black, Mary Jane; Kelly, Darren J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Heart failure is associated with abnormalities of myocardial structure, and plasma levels of the advanced glycation end-product (AGE) Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) correlate with the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Aging is associated with diastolic dysfunction and increased risk of heart failure, and we investigated the hypothesis that diastolic dysfunction of aging humans is associated with altered myocardial structure and plasma AGE levels. Methods We performed histological analysis of non-ischemic left ventricular myocardial biopsies and measured plasma levels of the AGEs CML and low molecular weight fluorophores (LMWFs) in 26 men undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery who had transthoracic echocardiography before surgery. None had previous cardiac surgery, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, or heart failure. Results The patients were aged 43–78 years and increasing age was associated with echocardiographic indices of diastolic dysfunction, with higher mitral Doppler flow velocity A wave (r = 0.50, P = 0.02), lower mitral E/A wave ratio (r = 0.64, P = 0.001), longer mitral valve deceleration time (r = 0.42, P = 0.03) and lower early diastolic peak velocity of the mitral septal annulus, e’ (r = 0.55, P = 0.008). However, neither mitral E/A ratio nor mitral septal e’ was correlated with myocardial total, interstitial or perivascular fibrosis (picrosirius red), immunostaining for collagens I and III, CML, and receptor for AGEs (RAGE), cardiomyocyte width, capillary length density, diffusion radius or arteriolar dimensions. Plasma AGE levels were not associated with age. However, plasma CML levels were associated with E/A ratio (r = 0.44, P = 0.04) and e’ (r = 0.51, P = 0.02) and LMWF levels were associated with E/A ratio (r = 0.49, P = 0.02). Moreover, the mitral E/A ratio remained correlated with plasma LMWF levels in all patients (P = 0.04) and the mitral

  3. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Levels of Urinary Metals in the U.S. Youth and Adult Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Patricia A.; Bishop, Ellen E.; Wang, Jiantong; Swahn, Monica H.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed 12 urine metals in tobacco smoke-exposed and not exposed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our analysis included age, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in cadmium and lead and creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted data for group comparisons are presented. Smokers’ had higher cadmium, lead, antimony, and barium levels than nonsmokers. Highest lead levels were in the youngest subjects. Lead levels among adults with high second-hand smoke exposure equaled smokers. Older smokers had cadmium levels signaling the potential for cadmium-related toxicity. Given the potential toxicity of metals, our findings complement existing research on exposure to chemicals in tobacco smoke. PMID:19742163

  4. Effect of Intensive Non-Surgical Treatment on the Level of Serum Inflammatory Markers in Advanced Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Radafshar, G.; Shad, B.; Ariamajd, E.; Geranmayeh, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether non-surgical periodontal treatment is associated with changes in serological markers of systemic inflammation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five systemically healthy subjects with severe generalized periodontitis meeting the inclusion criteria participated in a four-month single blind interventional trial of which thirty-two completed the study. Periodontal parameters and inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma fibrinogen] and also the white blood cell count (WBC) were evaluated prior to and four months after delivery of intensive non-surgical periodontal therapy with simultaneous lavage of chlorhexidine 0.1% from the tip of the ultrasonic instrument into the pockets. Results: Significant differences in serum CRP levels were observed four months after treatment compared to the baseline (1.85, SD=1.93 vs 2.46, SD=2.32, respectively, P<0.0001). Periodontal treatment also resulted in a significant difference in WBC and neutrophil counts compared to the baseline (P<0.0001). The reduction in fibrinogen levels was not significant at the end of the research period. Significant improvement in the pocket probing depth and clinical attachment level for pockets with initially 4–6 mm and then more than 7 mm depth was observed. Changes in plaque and bleeding scores were also statistically significant (82.75 vs. 35.84 and 19.03 vs. 1.81, respectively). Conclusion: Periodontal treatment is effective in reducing CRP levels and white blood cell count, while fibrinogen levels are not influenced by periodontal therapy. Periodontal treatment may therefore decrease the systemic inflammatory burden in patients with advanced periodontitis. PMID:21998772

  5. ASSESSMENT OF CLINICAL IMAGE QUALITY IN PAEDIATRIC ABDOMINAL CT EXAMINATIONS: DEPENDENCY ON THE LEVEL OF ADAPTIVE STATISTICAL ITERATIVE RECONSTRUCTION (ASiR) AND THE TYPE OF CONVOLUTION KERNEL.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Joel; Båth, Magnus; Ledenius, Kerstin; Caisander, Håkan; Thilander-Klang, Anne

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different combinations of convolution kernel and the level of Adaptive Statistical iterative Reconstruction (ASiR™) on diagnostic image quality as well as visualisation of anatomical structures in paediatric abdominal computed tomography (CT) examinations. Thirty-five paediatric patients with abdominal pain with non-specified pathology undergoing abdominal CT were included in the study. Transaxial stacks of 5-mm-thick images were retrospectively reconstructed at various ASiR levels, in combination with three convolution kernels. Four paediatric radiologists rated the diagnostic image quality and the delineation of six anatomical structures in a blinded randomised visual grading study. Image quality at a given ASiR level was found to be dependent on the kernel, and a more edge-enhancing kernel benefitted from a higher ASiR level. An ASiR level of 70 % together with the Soft™ or Standard™ kernel was suggested to be the optimal combination for paediatric abdominal CT examinations. PMID:26922785

  6. Examining the Relationship among Reading Curriculum-Based Measures, Level of Language Proficiency, and State Accountability Test Scores with Middle School Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Nicole Osterman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive ability of oral reading fluency (R-CBM) on a sixth grade high-stakes assessment with ELL and non-ELL students, as well as determine the average rate of growth on R-CBM and how that relates to level of English Proficiency. The participants in the current study included 350 sixth grade…

  7. The correlation between LDH serum levels and clinical outcome in advanced biliary tract cancer patients treated with first line chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Faloppi, Luca; Del Prete, Michela; Gardini, Andrea Casadei; Santini, Daniele; Silvestris, Nicola; Bianconi, Maristella; Giampieri, Riccardo; Valgiusti, Martina; Brunetti, Oronzo; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Lai, Eleonora; Dessì, Alessandra; Cascinu, Stefano; Scartozzi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    LDH may represent an indirect marker of neo-angiogenesis and worse prognosis in many tumour types. We assessed the correlation between LDH and clinical outcome for biliary tract cancer (BTC) patients treated with first-line chemotherapy. Overall, 114 advanced BTC patients treated with first-line gemcitabine and cisplatin were included. Patients were divided into two groups (low vs. high LDH), according to pre-treatment LDH values. Patients were also classified according to pre- and post-treatment variation in LDH serum levels (increased vs. decreased). Median progression free survival (PFS) was 5.0 and 2.6 months respectively in patients with low and high pre-treatment LDH levels (p = 0.0042, HR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37–0.87). Median overall survival (OS) was 7.7 and 5.6 months (low vs. high LDH) (p = 0.324, HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.54–1.24). DCR was 71% vs. 43% (low vs. high LDH) (p = 0.002). In 38 patients with decreased LDH values after treatment, PFS and OS were respectively 6.2 and 12.1 months, whereas in 76 patients with post-treatment increased LDH levels, PFS and OS were respectively 3.0 and 5.1 months (PFS: p = 0.0009; HR = 0.49; 95% IC: 0.33–0.74; OS: p < 0.0001; HR = 0.42; 95% IC: 0.27–0.63). Our data seem to suggest that LDH serum level may predict clinical outcome in BTC patients receiving first-line chemotherapy. PMID:27063994

  8. The predictability of serum anti-Müllerian level in IVF/ICSI outcomes for patients of advanced reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of in-vitro fertilization outcomes has been much debated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the practicability of combining serum AMH level with biological age as a simple screening method for counseling IVF candidates of advanced reproductive age with potential poor outcomes prior to treatment initiation. Methods A total of 1,538 reference patients and 116 infertile patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years enrolled in IVF/ICSI cycles were recruited in this retrospective analysis. A reference chart of the age-related distribution of serum AMH level for Asian population was first created. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years were then divided into three groups according to the low, middle and high tertiles the serum AMH tertiles derived from the reference population of matching age. The cycle outcomes were analyzed and compared among each individual group. Results For reference subjects aged greater than or equal to 40 years, the serum AMH of the low, middle and high tertiles were equal or lesser than 0.48, 0.49-1.22 and equal or greater than 1.23 ng/mL respectively. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with AMH levels in the low tertile had the highest cycle cancellation rate (47.6%) with zero clinical pregnancy. The nadir AMH level that has achieved live birth was 0.56 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the 36.4th percentile of AMH level from the age-matched reference group. The optimum cut-off levels of AMH for the prediction of nonpregnancy and cycle cancellation were 1.05 and 0.68 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions Two criteria: (1) age greater than or equal to 40 years and (2) serum AMH level in the lowest tertile (equal or lesser than 33.3rd percentile) of the matching age group, may be used as markers of futility for counseling IVF/ICSI candidates. PMID:21843363

  9. Racial Differences in Self-Rated Health at Similar Levels of Physical Functioning: An Examination of Health Pessimism in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Rooks, Ronica N.; Albert, Steven M.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Brenes, Gretchen A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Koster, Annemarie; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Newman, Anne B.

    2009-01-01

    Background The health pessimism hypothesis suggests that Black elders are more pessimistic about health than Whites and therefore tend to report lower self-rated health (SRH) at comparable health status. The current analysis examined the factors associated with SRH and tested the health pessimism hypothesis among older adults at similar levels of physical functioning. Methods The study example included 2,729 Health, Aging, and Body Composition study participants aged 70–79 years. We used hierarchical logistic regression to examine the association between race and SRH while adjusting for demographic, physical health, and psychosocial factors. The analyses were repeated for participants at similar levels of objective functioning to test the health pessimism hypothesis. Results The association between race and SRH remained independent of physical and psychosocial health variables, with Whites being 3.7 times more likely than Black elders to report favorable SRH. This association was significant at each level of physical functioning and greater at the higher (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5) versus lower (OR = 2.2) levels of functioning. Conclusions The results suggest greater health pessimism among Black elders and expand previous work by including objective functioning in multidimensional models to deconstruct race variations in the SRH of older adults. PMID:19176485

  10. CEA serum level as early predictive marker of outcome during EGFR-TKI therapy in advanced NSCLC patients.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Francesco; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Aloe, Rosalia; Bortesi, Beatrice; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Tiseo, Marcello

    2015-08-01

    Considering the role of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serum levels as potential useful predictive marker during chemotherapy treatment, we studied its applicability in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Our retrospective cohort consists of 79 patients (33 EGFR mutated and 46 EGFR wild type or unknown) affected by advanced NSCLC, for whom CEA serum values at the beginning of TKI therapy and after the first month of treatment were available, regardless of treatment line. Baseline CEA value, percentage of CEA reduction after 1 month, and percentage of patients with ≥20 % CEA decrease after 1 month (CEA response) were correlated with disease control rate (DCR), progression-free (PFS), and overall (OS) survival, according to EGFR mutational status. Median baseline CEA levels were significantly higher in EGFR mutated (40.9 ng/ml; interquartile range (IQR) 8.9-197.6) than in wild-type cases (6.2 ng/ml; IQR 2.8-12.8; p = 0.003). Both percentage reduction in CEA levels (-10.7 vs. +13.4 %) and percentage of cases with CEA response (42 vs. 20 %) were significantly higher in mutated vs. wild-type/unknown patients (p = 0.007 and p = 0.027, respectively). In wild-type/unknown patients, CEA response was significantly correlated with DCR (p = 0.001) and resulted as a significant predictor of PFS both in univariate (p = 0.002) and in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio (HR) 0.27; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.66; p = 0.004); only a trend was found for OS prediction (p = 0.082). In EGFR-mutated group, CEA reduction did not show any correlation either with PFS or OS. CEA response after 1 month of EGFR-TKI therapy could be a useful marker, worthy to further studies, as early predictor of treatment outcome in EGFR wild-type/unknown unselected NSCLC cases for which no molecular predictor is yet available. PMID:25731731

  11. A pilot trial to examine the association between circulating endothelial cell levels and vascular injury in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Shirazian, Shayan; Grant, Candace; Rambhujun, Vikash; Sharma, Ritika; Patel, Ronak; Islam, Shahidul; Mattana, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objective While albuminuria is a marker for progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), both albuminuric and normoalbuminuric patients appear prone to vascular injury. This pilot study examines the association between circulating endothelial cell (CEC) levels and vascular injury in patients with T2DM and CKD. Methods In this cross-sectional study, eligible adult patients had T2DM, and stage 3 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73m 2). CEC levels were tested by Janssen Diagnostics, LLC using an immuno-magnetic bead-based assay. CEC levels were compared to levels in a previously tested normal population. Correlations between CEC levels and other vascular injury markers (urine albumin, von-Willebrand factor antigen, hs-CRP, uric acid) were performed. Results Patients included 40 adults of which nineteen were normoalbuminuric.  Mean CEC levels (38.7, SD 38.1 cells) were significantly higher than the normal population (M = 21±18 cells, p<0.001; N = 249), including in the normoalbuminuric subgroup (M = 42.9±42.5 cells, p<0.001). CEC levels were significantly correlated with uric acid levels (r=0.33, p=0.039). Conclusions CEC levels in patients with T2DM and CKD, both albuminuric and normoalbuminuric, are significantly higher than a normal population, suggesting the presence of vascular injury in both groups. Future studies are needed to evaluate the role of CECs as a biomarker to predict outcomes in normoalbuminuric patients with CKD. PMID:27303625

  12. An Examination of Institutional Advancement Vice Presidents' Reports at Four-Year Public and Private Historically Black Colleges and Universities Regarding Their Use of the Five Minds to Promote Stewardship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Mya T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, collective case study was to examine institutional advancement vice presidents' reports at four-year public and private historically Black colleges and universities regarding their use of the five minds identified by Gardner's (2006) model to promote stewardship within their institutions. Gardner (2006)…

  13. Toward a Student-Centered Understanding of Intensive Writing and Writing-to-Learn in the Spanish Major: An Examination of Advanced L2 Spanish Students' Learning in the Writing-Intensive Spanish Content Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Robert Marvin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to build upon our understanding of the place and value of writing in the advanced foreign language curriculum. Specifically, the study examines how students in writing-intensive Spanish-major courses are affected by the writing-intensive (WI) requirement at the University of Minnesota. Writing-Across-the-Curriculum…

  14. An Investigation of the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Career Development and Advancement of Mid-Level Women in Student Affairs Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corral, Christine R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the performance appraisal experience of 14 mid-level women in student affairs administration at four-year colleges and universities in Northern Illinois using a qualitative research approach involving personal interviews. Previous research on career development and advancement of mid-level women in student…

  15. Impaired clearance of accumulated lysosomal glycogen in advanced Pompe disease despite high-level vector-mediated transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Bird, Andrew; Li, Songtao; Young, Sarah P.; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Infantile-onset glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) causes death early in childhood from cardiorespiratory failure in absence of effective treatment, whereas late-onset Pompe disease causes a progressive skeletal myopathy. The limitations of enzyme replacement therapy could potentially be addressed with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy. Methods AAV vectors containing tissue-specific regulatory cassettes, either liver-specific or muscle-specific, were administered to 12 and 17 month old Pompe disease mice to evaluate the efficacy of gene therapy in advanced Pompe disease. Biochemical correction was evaluated through GAA activity and glycogen content analyses of the heart and skeletal muscle. Western blotting, urinary biomarker, and Rotarod performance were evaluated following vector administration. Results The AAV vector containing the liver-specific regulatory cassette secreted high-level hGAA into the blood and corrected glycogen storage in the heart and diaphragm. The biochemical correction of the heart and diaphragm was associated with efficacy, as reflected by increased Rotarod performance; however, the clearance of glycogen from skeletal muscles was relatively impaired, in comparison with younger Pompe disease mice. An alternative vector containing a muscle-specific regulatory cassette transduced skeletal muscle with high efficiency, but also failed to achieve complete clearance of accumulated glycogen. Decreased transduction of the heart and liver in older mice, especially in females, was implicated as a cause for reduced efficacy in advanced Pompe disease. Conclusion The impaired efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in old Pompe disease mice emphasized the need for early treatment to achieve full efficacy. PMID:19621331

  16. Iron Levels in Hepatocytes and Portal Tract Cells Predict Progression and Outcome of Patients with Advanced Chronic Hepatitis C1

    PubMed Central

    Lambrecht, Richard W.; Sterling, Richard K.; Naishadham, Deepa; Stoddard, Anne M.; Rogers, Thomas; Morishima, Chihiro; Morgan, Timothy R.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Iron might influence severity and progression of non-hemochromatotic liver diseases. We assessed the relationships between iron, variants in HFE, and progression and outcomes using data from the HALT-C Trial. We determined whether therapy with pegylated interferon (PegIFN) affects iron variables. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to groups given long-term therapy with PegIFN (n=400) or no therapy (n=413) for 3.5 y and followed for up to 8.7 y (median 6.0 y). Associations between patient characteristics and iron variables, at baseline and over time, were made using Kaplan-Meier analyses, Cox regression models, and repeated measures analysis of covariance. Iron was detected by Prussian blue staining. Results Patients with poor outcomes (increase in Child-Turcotte-Pugh score to ≥ 7, development of ascites, encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, death) had significantly higher baseline scores for stainable iron in hepatocytes and cells in portal tracts than those without outcomes. Staining for iron in portal triads correlated with lobular and total Ishak inflammatory and fibrosis scores (P<0.0001). High baseline levels of iron in triads increased the risk for poor outcome (hazard ratio=1.35, P=0.02). Iron staining decreased in hepatocytes but increased in portal stromal cells over time (P<0.0001). Serum levels of iron and total iron binding capacity decreased significantly over time (P <0.0001), as did serum ferritin (P=0.0003). Long-term therapy with PegIFN did not affect levels of iron staining. Common variants in HFE did not correlate with outcomes, including development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusions Degree of stainable iron in hepatocytes and portal tract cells predicts progression and clinical and histological outcomes of patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C. Long-term therapy with low-dose PegIFN did not improve outcomes or iron variables. PMID:21335007

  17. Study by Correspondence; An Enquiry Into Correspondence Study for Examinations for Degrees and Other Advanced Qualifications, Carried Out Under the Direction of Professor E.G. Wedell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatter, Ronald; Subramanian, S.

    This study centered on the extent of adult correspondence study in Great Britain, student objectives, and reasons for success or failure in study for the General Certificate of Education, higher degrees, and other advanced qualifications. Enrollment questionnaires from 13,304 students, and 2,090 responses to a retrospective survey, were used.…

  18. Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education in Ghana: A Symposium To Examine Current Practices and Identify Future Directions (1st, Ajumako, Central Region, Ghana, June 25-26, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The Girls' Education Unit (GEU) of the Basic Education Division of Ghana Education Service (GES) organized this Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education (AAGE) symposium to address the issues of girls' education, to construct a comprehensive picture of what interventions related to girls' education are currently being implemented, and identify…

  19. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo JV; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as “incurable” diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy. PMID:24179708

  20. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo Jv; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-08-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as "incurable" diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy. PMID:24179708

  1. Assessing the effectiveness of interventions to promote advance directives among older adults: a systematic review and multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Gina; Dubois, Marie-France; Wagneur, Bernard

    2008-10-01

    Many studies have investigated the effectiveness of interventions in promoting advance directives (ADs) but there is uncertainty as to what works best, and in whom. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence in this regard, using both classical meta-analysis approaches and multi-level analyses. Eleven databases were searched for relevant reports published through March 2007. All prospective studies were eligible, whether involving a single group or several and, in the latter case, regardless of the allocation mechanism. Outcomes included formal and informal ADs assessed by chart review or self-report. Heterogeneous sets of outcomes were pooled under a random-effects model. The search yielded 55 studies, half of which targeted outpatients. Most groups of subjects were educated in a single session led by one healthcare professional. Outcomes were measured within six months of the intervention in 73% of cases. The largest set of single-arm studies yielded an overall AD completion rate of 45.6%. Across randomized trials, the largest pooled odds ratio was 4.0, decreasing to 2.6 when all comparative studies were included. Multi-variable analyses identified the provision of oral information over multiple sessions as the most successful intervention. This was true regardless of the target population. These findings support the effectiveness of educational interventions in increasing the formulation of ADs and provide practical advice on how best to achieve this goal. PMID:18644667

  2. Pushing CT and MR Imaging to the Molecular Level for Studying the “Omics”: Current Challenges and Advancements

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Shih, Yi-Yu

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, medical imaging has made the transition from anatomical imaging to functional and even molecular imaging. Such transition provides a great opportunity to begin the integration of imaging data and various levels of biological data. In particular, the integration of imaging data and multiomics data such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and pharmacogenomics may open new avenues for predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. However, to promote imaging-omics integration, the practical challenge of imaging techniques should be addressed. In this paper, we describe key challenges in two imaging techniques: computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and then review existing technological advancements. Despite the fact that CT and MRI have different principles of image formation, both imaging techniques can provide high-resolution anatomical images while playing a more and more important role in providing molecular information. Such imaging techniques that enable single modality to image both the detailed anatomy and function of tissues and organs of the body will be beneficial in the imaging-omics field. PMID:24738056

  3. A Census Tract–Level Examination of Social Determinants of Health among Black/African American Men with Diagnosed HIV Infection, 2005–2009—17 US Areas

    PubMed Central

    Gant, Zanetta; Gant, Larry; Song, Ruiguang; Willis, Leigh; Johnson, Anna Satcher

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV disproportionately affects black men in the United States: most diagnoses are for black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM). A better understanding of the social conditions in which black men live and work may better explain why HIV incidence and diagnosis rates are higher than expected in this population. Methods Using data from the National HIV Surveillance System and the US Census Bureau's American Community Survey, we examined the relationships of HIV diagnosis rates and 5 census tract–level social determinants of health variables for 21,948 black MSM and non-MSM aged ≥15 years residing in 17 areas in the United States. We examined federal poverty status, marital status, education level, employment status, and vacancy status and computed rate ratios (RRs) and prevalence odds ratios (PORs), using logistic regression with zero-inflated negative binomial modeling. Results Among black MSM, HIV diagnosis rates decreased as poverty increased (RR: 0.54). At the time of HIV diagnosis, black MSM were less likely than black non-MSM to live in census tracts with a higher proportion below the poverty level (POR: 0.81) and with a higher proportion of vacant houses (POR: 0.86). In comparison, housing vacancy was positively associated with HIV diagnosis rates among black non-MSM (RR: 1.65). HIV diagnosis rates were higher for black MSM (RR: 2.75) and non-MSM (RR: 4.90) whose educational level was low. Rates were significantly lower for black MSM (RR: 0.06) and non-MSM (RR: 0.26) as the proportion unemployed and the proportion married increased. Conclusions This exploratory study found differences in the patterns of HIV diagnosis rates for black MSM and non-MSM and provides insight into the transmission of HIV infection in areas that reflect substantial disadvantage in education, housing, employment, and income. PMID:25268831

  4. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  5. A multi-level approach of evaluating crew resource management training: a laboratory-based study examining communication skills as a function of team congruence.

    PubMed

    Sauer, J; Darioly, A; Mast, M Schmid; Schmid, P C; Bischof, N

    2010-11-01

    The article proposes a multi-level approach for evaluating communication skills training (CST) as an important element of crew resource management (CRM) training. Within this methodological framework, the present work examined the effectiveness of CST in matching or mismatching team compositions with regard to hierarchical status and competence. There is little experimental research that evaluated the effectiveness of CRM training at multiple levels (i.e. reaction, learning, behaviour) and in teams composed of members of different status and competence. An experiment with a two (CST: with vs. without) by two (competence/hierarchical status: congruent vs. incongruent) design was carried out. A total of 64 participants were trained for 2.5 h on a simulated process control environment, with the experimental group being given 45 min of training on receptiveness and influencing skills. Prior to the 1-h experimental session, participants were assigned to two-person teams. The results showed overall support for the use of such a multi-level approach of training evaluation. Stronger positive effects of CST were found for subjective measures than for objective performance measures. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work provides some guidance for the use of a multi-level evaluation of CRM training. It also emphasises the need to collect objective performance data for training evaluation in addition to subjective measures with a view to gain a more accurate picture of the benefits of such training approaches. PMID:20967655

  6. Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Marsha Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…

  7. Advanced MicroObserver UGS integration with and cueing of the BattleHawk squad level loitering munition and UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Bob; Finklea, John; Kershaw, James; Loughman, Cathy; Shaffner, Patti; Frost, Dean; Deller, Sean

    2014-06-01

    Textron's Advanced MicroObserver(R) is a next generation remote unattended ground sensor system (UGS) for border security, infrastructure protection, and small combat unit security. The original MicroObserver(R) is a sophisticated seismic sensor system with multi-node fusion that supports target tracking. This system has been deployed in combat theaters. The system's seismic sensor nodes are uniquely able to be completely buried (including antennas) for optimal covertness. The advanced version adds a wireless day/night Electro-Optic Infrared (EOIR) system, cued by seismic tracking, with sophisticated target discrimination and automatic frame capture features. Also new is a field deployable Gateway configurable with a variety of radio systems and flexible networking, an important upgrade that enabled the research described herein. BattleHawkTM is a small tube launched Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) with a warhead. Using transmitted video from its EOIR subsystem an operator can search for and acquire a target day or night, select a target for attack, and execute terminal dive to destroy the target. It is designed as a lightweight squad level asset carried by an individual infantryman. Although BattleHawk has the best loiter time in its class, it's still relatively short compared to large UAVs. Also it's a one-shot asset in its munition configuration. Therefore Textron Defense Systems conducted research, funded internally, to determine if there was military utility in having the highly persistent MicroObserver(R) system cue BattleHawk's launch and vector it to beyond visual range targets for engagement. This paper describes that research; the system configuration implemented, and the results of field testing that was performed on a government range early in 2013. On the integrated system that was implemented, MicroObserver(R) seismic detections activated that system's camera which then automatically captured images of the target. The geo-referenced and time-tagged Micro

  8. CBM Reading, Mathematics, and Written Expression at the Secondary Level: Examining Latent Composite Relations Among Indices and Unique Predictions With a State Achievement Test

    PubMed Central

    Codding, Robin S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of research has examined the utility of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for data-based decision making at the secondary level. As schools move to multitiered systems of service delivery, it is conceivable that multiple screening measures will be used that address various academic subject areas. The value of including different CBM indices measures is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the relationship among a variety of reading, writing, and mathematics CBM indices administered to 249 seventh-grade students; (b) investigate amount and patterns of growth; and (c) examine predictive validity to a high-stakes state test using latent factor analysis and multiple indicator growth models. Results indicated strong correspondence among CBM types for fall static scores but weak relationships among slopes. Different patterns of growth were yielded for CBM writing than for CBM reading and mathematics. Findings from this study suggested that although reading, mathematics, and writing CBM were independently and moderately related to both English Language Arts and Math test scores, reading was the strongest predictor when all 3 CBM constructs were considered jointly. PMID:26347201

  9. Environmental Risk Score as a New Tool to Examine Multi-Pollutants in Epidemiologic Research: An Example from the NHANES Study Using Serum Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Tao, Yebin; Meeker, John D.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2014-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and plasticizers play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. Most epidemiologic studies have examined environmental pollutants individually, but in real life, we are exposed to multi-pollutants and pollution mixtures, not single pollutants. Although multi-pollutant approaches have been recognized recently, challenges exist such as how to estimate the risk of adverse health responses from multi-pollutants. We propose an “Environmental Risk Score (ERS)” as a new simple tool to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research. Methods and Results We examined 134 environmental pollutants in relation to serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2006. Using a two-stage approach, stage-1 for discovery (n = 10818) and stage-2 for validation (n = 4615), we identified 13 associated pollutants for total cholesterol, 9 for HDL, 5 for LDL and 27 for triglycerides with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and serum nutrient levels. Using the regression coefficients (weights) from joint analyses of the combined data and exposure concentrations, ERS were computed as a weighted sum of the pollutant levels. We computed ERS for multiple lipid outcomes examined individually (single-phenotype approach) or together (multi-phenotype approach). Although the contributions of ERS to overall risk predictions for lipid outcomes were modest, we found relatively stronger associations between ERS and lipid outcomes than with individual pollutants. The magnitudes of the observed associations for ERS were comparable to or stronger than those for socio-demographic factors or BMI. Conclusions This study suggests ERS is

  10. 34 CFR 350.65 - What level of participation is required of trainees in an Advanced Rehabilitation Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What... an Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Project? 350.65 Section 350.65 Education Regulations of... Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Project? Individuals who are receiving training under an...

  11. 34 CFR 350.65 - What level of participation is required of trainees in an Advanced Rehabilitation Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What... an Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Project? 350.65 Section 350.65 Education Regulations of... Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Project? Individuals who are receiving training under an...

  12. 34 CFR 350.65 - What level of participation is required of trainees in an Advanced Rehabilitation Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What... an Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Project? 350.65 Section 350.65 Education Regulations of... Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Project? Individuals who are receiving training under an...

  13. 34 CFR 350.65 - What level of participation is required of trainees in an Advanced Rehabilitation Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What... an Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Project? 350.65 Section 350.65 Education Regulations of... Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Project? Individuals who are receiving training under an...

  14. Low Serum Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Elevated Urinary Mandelic Acid, and Strontium Levels in Adult Men According to the US 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Héroux, Paul; Zhang, Qunwei; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Gu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the effects of environmental exposure of chemicals on androgenic system in the general population. We studied 5,107 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011–2012). Methods Urinary, serum, and blood levels of 15 subclasses comprising 110 individual chemicals were analyzed for their association with serum testosterone levels. The subjects were divided into high and low testosterone groups according to the median testosterone concentration (374.51 ng/dL). Odds ratios (ORs) of individual chemicals in association with testosterone were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for age, ethnicity, cotinine, body mass index, creatinine, alcohol, and the poverty income ratio. Results Adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of exposure were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.21; Ptrend = 0.044), 1.84 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.34; Ptrend = 0.018) for the association between urinary mandelic acid, and strontium quartiles with low testosterone concentrations in adult men, respectively. However, no association was observed for the remaining chemicals with testosterone. Conclusions The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest that elevations in urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels are negatively related to low serum testosterone levels in adult men. PMID:25996772

  15. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults: 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Moon, Ae Eun

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in adults aged 20 or older (n = 5,483) using 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, which represents national data in Korea. Key study results were as follows: First, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels decreased significantly with an increase in MSS (p = 0.004), shown by serum 25(OH)D levels after adjusting the variables (age, gender, BMI, TC, HDL-C, FBS, SBP, and DBP, etc.). These were 17.30 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 0, 17.13 ± 0.15 ng/ml for MSS 1, 17.02 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 2, 16.60 ± 0.20 ng/ml for MSS 3, 16.55 ± 0.28 ng/ml for MSS 4, and 15.52 ± 0.50 ng/ml for MSS 5. Second, after adjusting the related variables, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.004) in the metabolic syndrome group (16.49 ± 0.19 ng/ml) than the non-metabolic syndrome group (17.16 ± 0.09 ng/ml). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and the increased levels of its components are inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in Korean adults. PMID:26236105

  16. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults: 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Moon, Ae Eun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in adults aged 20 or older (n = 5,483) using 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, which represents national data in Korea. Key study results were as follows: First, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels decreased significantly with an increase in MSS (p = 0.004), shown by serum 25(OH)D levels after adjusting the variables (age, gender, BMI, TC, HDL-C, FBS, SBP, and DBP, etc.). These were 17.30 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 0, 17.13 ± 0.15 ng/ml for MSS 1, 17.02 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 2, 16.60 ± 0.20 ng/ml for MSS 3, 16.55 ± 0.28 ng/ml for MSS 4, and 15.52 ± 0.50 ng/ml for MSS 5. Second, after adjusting the related variables, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.004) in the metabolic syndrome group (16.49 ± 0.19 ng/ml) than the non-metabolic syndrome group (17.16 ± 0.09 ng/ml). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and the increased levels of its components are inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in Korean adults. PMID:26236105

  17. Serum ferritin levels are positively associated with bone mineral density in elderly Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Shik; Jang, Ji Su; Lee, Dong Ryul; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Do Han, Kyung; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Do Hoon

    2014-11-01

    A possible negative effect of iron overload on bone metabolism has been suggested by the fact that patients with hemochromatosis, thalassemia, and sickle cell anemia have lower bone mineral density than the general population. However, the influence of iron overload on bone health in the general population is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Koreans. A total of 2,943 subjects aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were included in this study. Age, physical activity, current smoking status, alcohol consumption, education level, household income, and dietary assessment were surveyed by a face-to-face interview. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and other biochemical markers, including serum ferritin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone, were assayed. After adjusting for age and body mass index, we found an association between BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck and levels of alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and daily intake of calcium and protein. Serum ferritin levels were positively associated with BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck after adjusting for all covariates in men, but not in women. This study suggests a positive association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in elderly South Korean men without hematologic disorders. Further study is warranted to verify the effects of iron on bone metabolism. PMID:24337956

  18. Examination of Libby, Montana, Fill Material for Background Levels of Amphibole from the Rainy Creek Complex Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, David T.; Langer, William H.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    Natural background levels of Libby-type amphibole in the sediment of the Libby valley in Montana have not, up to this point, been determined. The purpose of this report is to provide the preliminary findings of a study designed by both the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and performed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The study worked to constrain the natural background levels of fibrous amphiboles potentially derived from the nearby Rainy Creek Complex. The material selected for this study was sampled from three localities, two of which are active open-pit sand and gravel mines. Seventy samples were collected in total and examined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. All samples contained varying amounts of feldspars, ilmenite, magnetite, quartz, clay minerals, pyroxene minerals, and non-fibrous amphiboles such as tremolite, actinolite, and magnesiohornblende. Of the 70 samples collected, only three had detectable levels of fibrous amphiboles compatible with those found in the rainy creek complex. The maximum concentration, identified here, of the amphiboles potentially from the Rainy Creek Complex is 0.083 percent by weight.

  19. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria. PMID:26458904

  20. An Investigation to Advance the Technology Readiness Level of the Centaur Derived On-orbit Propellant Storage and Transfer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvernail, Nathan L.

    This research was carried out in collaboration with the United Launch Alliance (ULA), to advance an innovative Centaur-based on-orbit propellant storage and transfer system that takes advantage of rotational settling to simplify Fluid Management (FM), specifically enabling settled fluid transfer between two tanks and settled pressure control. This research consists of two specific objectives: (1) technique and process validation and (2) computational model development. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of this technology, the corresponding FM techniques and processes must be validated in a series of experimental tests, including: laboratory/ground testing, microgravity flight testing, suborbital flight testing, and orbital testing. Researchers from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) have joined with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) team to develop a prototype FM system for operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Testing of the integrated system in a representative environment will raise the FM system to TRL 6. The tests will demonstrate the FM system and provide unique data pertaining to the vehicle's rotational dynamics while undergoing fluid transfer operations. These data sets provide insight into the behavior and physical tendencies of the on-orbit refueling system. Furthermore, they provide a baseline for comparison against the data produced by various computational models; thus verifying the accuracy of the models output and validating the modeling approach. Once these preliminary models have been validated, the parameters defined by them will provide the basis of development for accurate simulations of full scale, on-orbit systems. The completion of this project and the models being developed will accelerate the commercialization of on-orbit propellant storage and transfer technologies as well as all in

  1. Electrokinetic treatment of polluted soil at pilot level coupled to an advanced oxidation process of its wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, B.; Ramos, L.; Garibay, A.; Pérez-Corona, M.; Cuevas, M. C.; Cárdenas, J.; Teutli, M.; Bustos, E.

    2016-02-01

    Soil contaminated with hydrocarbons is a current problem of great importance. These contaminants may be toxic, can retain water and block gas exchange with the atmosphere, which produces a poor-quality soil unsuitable for ecological health. Electroremediation is among the treatments for the removal of such contaminants. In this research, a pilot-level electroremediation test was applied using a circular arrangement of electrodes with a Ti cathode at the middle of the cell surrounded by six IrO2-Ta2O5 | Ti anodes. The presence of an NaOH electrolyte helps to develop the electromigration and electro-osmosis of gasoline molecules (at 1126 mg kg-1) surrounded by Na+ ions. The hydrocarbons are directed towards the cathode and subsequently removed in an aqueous Na+ - hydrocarbon solution, and the -OH migrates to the anode. During electrokinetic treatment, the physicochemical characteristics of the soil close to either the cathode or anode and at the half-cell were evaluated during the three weeks of treatment. During that time, more than 80% of hydrocarbons were removed. Hydrocarbons removed by the electrokinetic treatment of gasoline-polluted soil were collected in a central wastewater compartment and subsequently treated with a Fenton-type advanced oxidation process. This achieved more than 70% mineralization of the hydrocarbons to CO2 and H2O within 1.5 h; its low toxicity status was verified using the Deltatox® kit test. With this approach, the residual water complied with the permissible limits of COD, pH, and electrical conductivity for being discharged into water bodies, according to Mexican norm NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996.

  2. A screening level fate model of organic contaminants from advanced water treatment in a potable water supply reservoir.

    PubMed

    Hawker, Darryl W; Cumming, Janet L; Neale, Peta A; Bartkow, Michael E; Escher, Beate I

    2011-01-01

    Augmentation of potable water sources by planned indirect potable reuse of wastewater is being widely considered to address growing water shortages. Environmental buffers such as lakes and dams may act as one of a series of barriers to potable water contamination stemming from micropollutants in wastewater. In South-East Queensland, Australia, current government policy is to begin indirect potable reuse of water from reverse osmosis equipped advanced water treatment plants (AWTPs) when the combined capacity of its major storages is at 40% capacity. A total of 15 organic contaminants including NDMA and bisphenol A have been publically reported as detected in recycled water from one of South-East Queensland's AWTPs, while another 98 chemicals were analysed for, but found to be below their detection limit. To assess the natural attenuation in Lake Wivenhoe, a Level III fugacity based evaluative fate model was constructed using the maximum concentrations of these contaminants detected as input data. A parallel aquivalence based model was constructed for those contaminants, such as dichloroacetic acid, dalapon and triclopyr, which are ionised in the environment of Lake Wivenhoe. A total of 247 organic chemicals of interest, including disinfection by-products, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, xenoestrogens and industrial chemicals, were evaluated with the model to assess their potential for natural attenuation. Out of the 15 detected chemicals, trihalomethanes are expected to volatilise with concentrations in the outflow from the dam approximately 400 times lower than influent from the AWTPs. Transformation processes in water are likely to be more significant for NDMA and pharmaceuticals such as salicylic acid and paracetamol as well as for caffeine and the herbicides dalapon and triclopyr. For hydrophobic contaminants such as cholesterol and phenolic xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol and bisphenol A, equilibrium between water

  3. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) METOP Stress Analysis Report (Qual Level Random Vibration) A1 Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehitretter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis of the primary structure of the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) Advanced Microwave Sounding Units-A, A1 Module performed using the Meteorological Operational (METOP) Qualification Level 9.66 grms Random Vibration PSD Spectrum is presented. The random vibration structural margins of safety and natural frequency predictions are summarized.

  4. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers…

  5. Urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites in the U.S. population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Manori J; Barr, Dana B; Reidy, John A; Malek, Nicole A; Hodge, Carolyn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Brock, John W; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M

    2004-01-01

    We measured the urinary monoester metabolites of seven commonly used phthalates in approximately 2,540 samples collected from participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2000, who were greater than or equal to 6 years of age. We found detectable levels of metabolites monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in > 75% of the samples, suggesting widespread exposure in the United States to diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate or diisobutylphthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, respectively. We infrequently detected monoisononyl phthalate, mono-cyclohexyl phthalate, and mono-n-octyl phthalate, suggesting that human exposures to di-isononyl phthalate, dioctylphthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate, respectively, are lower than those listed above, or the pathways, routes of exposure, or pharmacokinetic factors such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination are different. Non-Hispanic blacks had significantly higher concentrations of MEP than did Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Compared with adolescents and adults, children had significantly higher levels of MBP, MBzP, and MEHP but had significantly lower concentrations of MEP. Females had significantly higher concentrations of MEP and MBzP than did males, but similar MEHP levels. Of particular interest, females of all ages had significantly higher concentrations of the reproductive toxicant MBP than did males of all ages; however, women of reproductive age (i.e., 20-39 years of age) had concentrations similar to adolescent girls and women 40 years of age. These population data on exposure to phthalates will serve an important role in public health by helping to set research priorities and by establishing a nationally representative baseline of exposure with which population levels can be compared. PMID:14998749

  6. Relationship between Blood Mercury Level and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: Results from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Kim, Young A; Yang, Ae-Ri; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2014-01-01

    Limited epidemiologic data is available regarding the cardiovascular effects of mercury exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury exposure from fish consumption and cardiovascular disease in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV 2008~2009). Survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) adjusted for fish consumption frequency, age, education, individual annual income, household annual income, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), alcohol consumption status, and smoking status. The mean blood mercury level in the population was 5.44 μg/L. Trends toward increased blood mercury levels were seen for increased education level (P=0.0011), BMI (P<0.0001), WC (P<0.0001), and fish (i.e., anchovy) consumption frequency (P=0.0007). The unadjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.450 [95% confidential interval (CI): 1.106~1.901] times higher than that of the lowest quartile. The fish consumption-adjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.550 (95% CI: 1.131~2.123) times higher than that of the lowest quartile, and the OR for myocardial infarction or angina in the highest blood mercury quartile was 3.334 (95% CI: 1.338~8.308) times higher than that of the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between blood mercury levels and stroke. These findings suggest that mercury in the blood may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension and myocardial infarction or angina in the general Korean population. PMID:25580399

  7. A large-scale examination of the nature and efficacy of teachers' practices to engage parents: assessment, parental contact, and student-level impact.

    PubMed

    Seitsinger, Anne M; Felner, Robert D; Brand, Stephen; Burns, Amy

    2008-08-01

    As schools move forward with comprehensive school reform, parents' roles have shifted and been redefined. Parent-teacher communication is critical to student success, yet how schools and teachers contact parents is the subject of few studies. Evaluations of school-change efforts require reliable and useful measures of teachers' practices in communicating with parents. The structure of teacher-parent-contact practices was examined using data from multiple, longitudinal cohorts of schools and teachers from a large-scale project and found to be a reliable and stable measure of parent contact across building levels and localities. Teacher/school practices in contacting parents were found to be significantly related to parent reports of school contact performance and student academic adjustment and achievement. Implications for school improvement efforts are discussed. PMID:19083369

  8. A Multi-level Examination of how the Organizational Context Relates to Readiness to Implement Prevention and Evidence-Based Programming in Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Chilenski, Sarah M.; Olson, Jonathan R.; Schulte, Jill A.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Spoth, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Prior theoretical and empirical research suggests that multiple aspects of an organization’s context are likely related to a number of factors, from their interest and ability to adopt new programming, to client outcomes. A limited amount of the prior research has taken a more community-wide perspective by examining factors that associate with community readiness for change, leaving how these findings generalize to community organizations that conduct prevention or positive youth development programs unknown. Thus for the current study, we examined how the organizational context of the Cooperative Extension System (CES) associates with current attitudes and practices regarding prevention and evidence-based programming. Attitudes and practices have been found in the empirical literature to be key indicators of an organization’s readiness to adopt prevention and evidence-based programming. Based on multi-level mixed models, results indicate that organizational management practices distinct from program delivery may affect an organization’s readiness to adopt and implement new prevention and evidence-based youth programs, thereby limiting the potential public health impact of evidence-based programs. Openness to change, openness of leadership, and communication were the strongest predictors identified within this study. An organization’s morale was also found to be a strong predictor of an organization’s readiness. The findings of the current study are discussed in terms of implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:25463014

  9. A multi-level examination of how the organizational context relates to readiness to implement prevention and evidence-based programming in community settings.

    PubMed

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Olson, Jonathan R; Schulte, Jill A; Perkins, Daniel F; Spoth, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Prior theoretical and empirical research suggests that multiple aspects of an organization's context are likely related to a number of factors, from their interest and ability to adopt new programming, to client outcomes. A limited amount of the prior research has taken a more community-wide perspective by examining factors that associate with community readiness for change, leaving how these findings generalize to community organizations that conduct prevention or positive youth development programs unknown. Thus for the current study, we examined how the organizational context of the Cooperative Extension System (CES) associates with current attitudes and practices regarding prevention and evidence-based programming. Attitudes and practices have been found in the empirical literature to be key indicators of an organization's readiness to adopt prevention and evidence-based programming. Based on multi-level mixed models, results indicate that organizational management practices distinct from program delivery may affect an organization's readiness to adopt and implement new prevention and evidence-based youth programs, thereby limiting the potential public health impact of evidence-based programs. Openness to change, openness of leadership, and communication were the strongest predictors identified within this study. An organization's morale was also found to be a strong predictor of an organization's readiness. The findings of the current study are discussed in terms of implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:25463014

  10. Using the Many-Facet Rasch Model to Evaluate Standard-Setting Judgments: Setting Performance Standards for Advanced Placement® Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliski, Pamela; Wind, Stefanie A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Morgan, Deanna; Plake, Barbara; Reshetar, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    The Many-Facet Rasch (MFR) Model is traditionally used to evaluate the quality of ratings on constructed response assessments; however, it can also be used to evaluate the quality of judgments from panel-based standard setting procedures. The current study illustrates the use of the MFR Model by examining the quality of ratings obtained from a…

  11. Gender Differences on the College Board Achievement Tests and the Advanced Placement Examinations: Effect Sizes Versus Some Upper-Tail Ratios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.

    Gender differences were determined for scores on the 14 College Entrance Examination Board achievement tests taken between 1982 and 1985. Effect sizes showed a tendency for males to score higher relative to females, while the percentage of male examinees increased. Based on Cohen's classification of effect sizes, differences in six of the 14 tests…

  12. Relationship between blood levels of heavy metals and lung function based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV–V

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Ah Young; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Young Sam; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Chung, Kyung Soo; Jung, Ji Ye

    2015-01-01

    Background Heavy metal exposure may contribute to inflammation in the lungs via increased oxidative stress, resulting in tissue destruction and obstructive lung function (OLF). In this study, we evaluated the relationship between lead and cadmium levels in blood, and lung function in the Korean population. Methods Pooled cross-sectional data from 5,972 subjects who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012 were used for this study. OLF was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) <0.7. Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure levels of lead and cadmium in blood. Results Adjusted means for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status in blood lead and cadmium levels were increased with age and were higher in men and current smokers. The FEV1/FVC ratio was lower in the highest quartile group of lead (78.4% vs 79.0%; P=0.025) and cadmium (78.3% vs 79.2%; P<0.001) concentrations, compared with those in the lowest quartile groups. Multiple linear regression demonstrated an inverse relationship between the FEV1/FVC ratio and concentrations of lead (estimated −0.002; P=0.007) and cadmium (estimated −0.005; P=0.001). Of the 5,972 subjects, 674 (11.3%) were classified into the OLF group. Among current smokers, the risk of OLF was higher in subjects in the highest quartile group of cadmium concentration than in those in the lowest quartile group (odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval 1.06–3.57). Conclusion We demonstrated a significant association between the FEV1/FVC ratio and blood concentrations of lead and cadmium in the Korean population. The risk for OLF was elevated with increasing concentrations of cadmium among current smokers. PMID:26345298

  13. High serum level of C-reactive protein is associated with worse outcome of patients with advanced-stage NSCLC treated with erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Fiala, Ondrej; Pesek, Milos; Finek, Jindrich; Topolcan, Ondrej; Racek, Jaroslav; Minarik, Marek; Benesova, Lucie; Bortlicek, Zbynek; Poprach, Alexandr; Buchler, Tomas

    2015-12-01

    Erlotinib is a low molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) directed at epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), widely used in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although introduction of EGFR-TKIs have significantly extended survival of advanced-stage NSCLC patients, their efficacy in the entire patient population is relatively low. Aside from activating EGFR mutations, no reliable biochemical or molecular predictors of response to erlotinib have been established. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the association of baseline serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) with outcomes in patients with advanced-stage NSCLC treated with erlotinib. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 595 patients with advanced-stage NSCLC (IIIB or IV) treated with erlotinib. Serum CRP was measured using an immunoturbidimetric method. High baseline levels of CRP (≥10 mg/l) were measured in 387 (65 %) patients, and normal levels (<10 mg/l) were measured in 208 (35 %) patients. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients with high CRP was 1.8 and 7.7 compared to 2.8 and 14.4 months for patients with low CRP (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards model revealed that CRP was significantly associated with PFS and also with OS (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.57, p < 0.001, and HR = 1.63, p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the results of the conducted retrospective study suggest that high baseline level of CRP was independently associated with worse outcome of patients with advanced-stage NSCLC treated with erlotinib. CRP is a commonly used biomarker which is simple and easy to detect, and thus, it is feasible for the use in the routine clinical practice. PMID:26088452

  14. Enabling more capability within smaller pixels: advanced wafer-level process technologies for integration of focal plane arrays with readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temple, Dorota S.; Vick, Erik P.; Lueck, Matthew R.; Malta, Dean; Skokan, Mark R.; Masterjohn, Christopher M.; Muzilla, Mark S.

    2014-05-01

    Over the past decade, the development of infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) has seen two trends: decreasing of the pixel size and increasing of signal-processing capability at the device level. Enabling more capability within smaller pixels can be achieved through the use of advanced wafer-level processes for the integration of FPAs with silicon (Si) readout integrated circuits (ROICs). In this paper, we review the development of these wafer-level integration technologies, highlighting approaches in which the infrared sensor is integrated with three-dimensional ROIC stacks composed of multiple layers of Si circuitry interconnected using metal-filled through-silicon vias.

  15. The degradation of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir2.1, depends on the expression level: examination with fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masayoshi; Kano, Masataka; Matsuda, Hiroko

    2013-08-28

    The expression of ion channels is regulated by their synthesis as well as degradation, and some ion channels are degraded in an expression level-dependent way. Recently, new techniques of fluorescent proteins have been developed and seem to be useful to study protein degradation. To examine the regulation of the degradation of strongly inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.1) and the usefulness of the fluorescent proteins, we constructed Kir2.1 fusion proteins with SNAP tag and fluorescent timer (FT). The SNAP tag, which covalently binds to a specific membrane-permeable fluorescent dye, enables a pulse-chase experiment with fluorescence. When the SNAP-Kir2.1 proteins were expressed in 293T cells by low and high expression plasmids, the half-life of the fusion protein expressed by a high-expression plasmid was shorter (18.2±1.9 h) than that expressed by a low-expression plasmid (35.1+2.3h). The addition of Ba(2+), a selective blocker of Kir2.1, slowed the degradation, suggesting a current-dependency of degradation. Consistently, patch-clamp recording showed that cultivation in the presence of Ba(2+) increased the whole cell conductance of SNAP-Kir2.1. Since the fluorescence of FT changes gradually changes from green to red, the green/red ratio should allow us to monitor the changes in the degradation rate of FT-Kir2.1. Using this method, we confirmed the slower degradation by Ba(2+). The results suggest a homeostatic regulation of the degradation of Kir2.1 in the 293T cells, and the usefulness of fluorescence-based methods for examining the degradation of ion channels. PMID:23850646

  16. May serum levels of advanced oxidized protein products serve as a prognostic marker of disease duration in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, José-Manuel; Martín de Pablos, Angel; García-Sánchez, María-Isabel; Méndez-Lucena, Carolina; Damas-Hermoso, Fátima; Rus, Macarena; Chacón, José; Fernández, Emilio

    2013-04-10

    Protein and amine halogenation is a type of oxidative stress induced by phagocytic overstimulation, and its role in Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been discerned. We have detected that advanced oxidized protein products, markers of protein halogenation, are reliably enhanced in serum of patients with PD (n=60) relative to control subjects (n=45, p<0.012), and to a lesser extent in the cerebrospinal fluid. Amine halogenation, as evaluated through 3-chlorotyrosine, is not affected. Mieloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide levels, halogenative factors of phagocytes, are devoid of changes. Levels of advanced oxidized protein products are progressively reduced over time, and the duration of PD is larger in the Hoehn-Yahr-stage-2/3 patients (n=34) with low serum levels (R(2)=0.0145, p<0.003). Levodopa treatment contributes to this reduction (R(2)=0.259, p<0.001). These protein products are not cytotoxic, unlike 3-chlorotyrosine, but they are known to form inflammatory mediators after conjugation with serum albumin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that the serum level of advanced oxidized protein products is a prognostic marker of PD duration, and these oxidized proteins could participate in the development of parkinsonian neurodegeneration. PMID:23121480

  17. Effects of Levels of Automation for Advanced Small Modular Reactors: Impacts on Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc

    2014-07-01

    The Human-Automation Collaboration (HAC) research effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The DOE AdvSMR program focuses on plant design and management, reduction of capital costs as well as plant operations and maintenance costs (O&M), and factory production costs benefits.

  18. Utilizing Computer and Multimedia Technology in Generating Choreography for the Advanced Dance Student at the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Irma Amado

    This study describes a pilot program utilizing various multimedia computer programs on a MacQuadra 840 AV. The target group consisted of six advanced dance students who participated in the pilot program within the dance curriculum by creating a database of dance movement using video and still photography. The students combined desktop publishing,…

  19. Structure and Complexity of Oral Narratives in Advanced-Level Spanish: A Comparison of Three Learning Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the narratives of three groups of advanced speakers of Spanish with different learning backgrounds. The first group was made up of heritage speakers; the second group was composed of missionaries that had recently returned from a two-year sojourn in a Spanish-speaking country; and the third group comprised students who had…

  20. Which Advanced Mathematics Courses Influence ACT Score? A State Level Analysis of the Iowa Class of 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between specific advanced mathematics courses and college readiness (as determined by ACT score). The ACT organization has found a consistent relationship between taking a minimum core number of mathematics courses and higher ACT scores (mathematics and composite) (ACT, Inc., 2012c). However, the extent to…

  1. A clustered randomised trial examining the effect of social marketing and community mobilisation on the age of uptake and levels of alcohol consumption by Australian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John Winston; Osborn, Amber; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne; Leslie, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Throughout the world, alcohol consumption is common among adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use and misuse have prognostic significance for several adverse long-term outcomes, including alcohol problems, alcohol dependence, school disengagement and illicit drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether randomisation to a community mobilisation and social marketing intervention reduces the proportion of adolescents who initiate alcohol use before the Australian legal age of 18, and the frequency and amount of underage adolescent alcohol consumption. Method and analysis The study comprises 14 communities matched with 14 non-contiguous communities on socioeconomic status (SES), location and size. One of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention. Baseline levels of adolescent alcohol use were estimated through school surveys initiated in 2006 (N=8500). Community mobilisation and social marketing interventions were initiated in 2011 to reduce underage alcohol supply and demand. The setting is communities in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). Students (N=2576) will complete school surveys in year 8 in 2013 (average age 12). Primary outcomes: (1) lifetime initiation and (2) monthly frequency of alcohol use. Reports of social marketing and family and community alcohol supply sources will also be assessed. Point estimates with 95% CIs will be compared for student alcohol use in intervention and control communities. Changes from 2006 to 2013 will be examined; multilevel modelling will assess whether random assignment of communities to the intervention reduced 2013 alcohol use, after accounting for community level differences. Analyses will also assess whether exposure to social marketing activities increased the intervention target of reducing alcohol supply by parents and community members. Trial registration ACTRN12612000384853. PMID:23355674

  2. AN EXAMINATION OF THE ADVANCES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF PREVENTION OF TOOTH DECAY IN YOUNG CHILDREN SINCE THE SURGEON GENERAL’S REPORT ON ORAL HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T.; Tanzer, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda that incomplete at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and PVP-iodine may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diammine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the US. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the Surgeon General's Report. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice. PMID:19837019

  3. An examination of the advances in science and technology of prevention of tooth decay in young children since the Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T; Tanzer, Jason M

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing, although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine (PVI-I) may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diamine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the United States. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the report Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice. PMID:19837019

  4. Overall Response Rate, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival With Targeted and Standard Therapies in Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: US Food and Drug Administration Trial-Level and Patient-Level Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Gideon M.; Karuri, Stella W.; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Khozin, Sean; Kazandjian, Dickran; Tang, Shenghui; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Keegan, Patricia; Pazdur, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To conduct analyses exploring trial-level and patient-level associations between overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) trials. Methods We identified 14 trials (N = 12,567) submitted to US Food and Drug Administration since 2003 of treatments for advanced NSCLC. Only randomized, active-controlled trials with more than 150 patients were included. Associations between trial-level PFS hazard ratio (HR), OS HR, and ORR odds ratio were analyzed using a weighted linear regression model. Patient-level responder analyses comparing PFS and OS between patients with and without an objective response were performed using pooled data from all studies. Results In the trial-level analysis, the association between PFS and ORR was strong (R2 = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98). There was no association between OS and ORR (R2 = 0.09; 95% CI, 0 to 0.33) and OS and PFS (R2 = 0.08; 95% CI, 0 to 0.31). In the patient-level responder analyses, patients who achieved a response had better PFS and OS compared with nonresponders (PFS: HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.42; OS: HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.43). Conclusion On a trial level, there is a strong association between ORR and PFS. An association between ORR and OS and between PFS and OS was not established, possibly because of cross-over and longer survival after progression in the targeted therapy and first-line trials. The patient-level analysis showed that responders have a better PFS and OS compared with nonresponders. A therapy in advanced NSCLC with a large magnitude of effect on ORR may have a large PFS effect. PMID:25667291

  5. Advance Organizer Strategy for Educable Mentally Retarded and Regular Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Moon K.

    The study examined the effects of an advance organizer on the learning and retention of facts and concepts obtained from a sound film by educable mentally retarded (N=30) and regular children (N=30) in a mainstreamed secondary public school class. Also examined was the interaction between the advance organizer and ability levels of the Ss. Results…

  6. Thirty years of research on the level of service scales: a meta-analytic examination of predictive accuracy and sources of variability.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Stockdale, Keira C; Wormith, J Stephen

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of the Level of Service (LS) scales, their predictive accuracy and group-based differences in risk/need, across 128 studies comprising 151 independent samples and a total of 137,931 offenders. Important potential moderators were examined including ethnicity, gender, LS scale variant, geographic region, and type of recidivism used to measure outcome. Results supported the predictive accuracy of the LS scales and their criminogenic need domains for general and violent recidivism overall, and among broad subgroups of interest, including females and ethnic minorities. Although results indicated that gender and ethnicity were not substantive sources of effect size variability, significant differences in effect size magnitude were found when analyses were conducted by geographic region. Canadian samples consistently demonstrated the largest effect sizes, followed by studies conducted outside North America, and then studies conducted in the United States. This pattern was observed irrespective of gender, ethnicity, LS domain, LS variant, or type of recidivism outcome, suggesting geographic region may be an important source of effect size variation. We discuss possible factors underlying this pattern of results and identify areas for future research. PMID:24274046

  7. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Examinations of the origins of polyatomic ions and advances in the sampling of particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, Travis

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation provides a general introduction to Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation (LA) sampling, with an examination of analytical challenges in the employment of this technique. It discusses the origin of metal oxide ions (MO+) in LA-ICP-MS, as well as the effect of introducing helium and nitrogen to the aerosol gas flow on the formation of these polyatomic interferences. It extends the study of polyatomic ions in LA-ICP-MS to metal argide (MAr+) species, an additional source of possible significant interferences in the spectrum. It describes the application of fs-LA-ICP-MS to the determination of uranium isotope ratios in particulate samples.

  8. Advanced access appointments

    PubMed Central

    Hudec, John C.; MacDougall, Steven; Rankin, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of advanced access (same-day physician appointments) on patient and provider satisfaction and to determine its association with other variables such as physician income and patient emergency department use. DESIGN Patient satisfaction survey and semistructured interviews with physicians and support staff; analysis of physician medical insurance billings and patient emergency department visits. SETTING Cape Breton, NS. PARTICIPANTS Patients, physicians, and support staff of 3 comparable family physician practices that had not implemented advanced access and an established advanced access practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported provider and patient satisfaction, physician office income, and patients’ emergency department use. RESULTS The key benefits of implementation of advanced access were an increase in provider and patient satisfaction levels, same or greater physician office income, and fewer less urgent (triage level 4) and nonurgent (triage level 5) emergency department visits by patients. CONCLUSION Currently within the Central Cape Breton Region, 33% of patients wait 4 or more days for urgent appointments. Findings from this study can be used to enhance primary care physician practice redesign. This research supports many benefits of transitioning to an advanced access model of patient booking. PMID:20944024

  9. Treatment of chronic diabetic lower extremity ulcers with advanced therapies: a prospective, randomised, controlled, multi-centre comparative study examining clinical efficacy and cost.

    PubMed

    Zelen, Charles M; Serena, Thomas E; Gould, Lisa; Le, Lam; Carter, Marissa J; Keller, Jennifer; Li, William W

    2016-04-01

    Advanced therapies such as bioengineered skin substitutes (BSS) and dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) have been shown to promote healing of chronic diabetic ulcers. An interim analysis of data from 60 patients enrolled in a prospective, randomised, controlled, parallel group, multi-centre clinical trial showed that dHACM (EpiFix®, MiMedx Group Inc., Marietta, GA) is superior to standard wound care (SWC) and BSS (Apligraf®, Organogenesis, Inc., Canton, MA) in achieving complete wound closure within 4-6 weeks. Rates and time to closure at a longer time interval and factors influencing outcomes remained unassessed; therefore, the study was continued in order to achieve at least 100 patients. With the larger cohort, we compare clinical outcomes at 12 weeks in 100 patients with chronic lower extremity diabetic ulcers treated with weekly applications of Apligraf (n = 33), EpiFix (n = 32) or SWC (n = 35) with collagen-alginate dressing as controls. A Cox regression was performed to analyse the time to heal within 12 weeks, adjusting for all significant covariates. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to compare time-to-heal within 12 weeks for the three treatment groups. Clinical characteristics were well matched across study groups. The proportion of wounds achieving complete closure within the 12-week study period were 73% (24/33), 97% (31/32), and 51% (18/35) for Apligraf, EpiFix and SWC, respectively (adjusted P = 0·00019). Subjects treated with EpiFix had a very significant higher probability of their wounds healing [hazard ratio (HR: 5·66; adjusted P: 1·3 x 10(-7) ] compared to SWC alone. No difference in probability of healing was observed for the Apligraf and SWC groups. Patients treated with Apligraf were less likely to heal than those treated with EpiFix [HR: 0·30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0·17-0·54; unadjusted P: 5·8 x 10(-5) ]. Increased wound size and presence of hypertension were significant factors that influenced healing. Mean

  10. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  11. A cross-sectional examination of socio-demographic and school-level correlates of children’s school travel mode in Ottawa, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Active school transport (AST) is an important source of children’s daily physical activity (PA). However, decreasing rates of AST have been reported in multiple countries during the last decades. The purpose of the present study was to examine the socio-demographic and school-level correlates of AST. Methods A stratified sample of children (N = 567, mean age = 10.0 years; 57.8% female) was recruited in the Ottawa area. Four sources of data were used for analyses: 1) child questionnaire including questions on school travel mode and time; 2) parent questionnaire providing information on household socio-demographic characteristics; 3) school administrator survey assessing school policies and practices pertaining to PA; and 4) school site audit performed by the study team. Generalized linear mixed models were used to identify socio-demographic and school-level correlates of AST while controlling for school clustering. Results Individual factors associated with higher odds of AST were male gender (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.30-3.03), journey time <5 minutes vs. >15 minutes (OR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.17-4.37), and 5–15 minutes vs. >15 minutes (OR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.27-4.03). Children were more likely to engage in AST if school administrators reported that crossing guards were employed (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.22-4.30), or if they expressed major or moderate concerns about crime in the school neighbourhood (OR = 3.34; 95% CI = 1.34-8.32). In schools that identified safe routes to school and where traffic calming measures were observed, children were much more likely to engage in AST compared to schools without these features (OR = 7.87; 95% CI = 2.85-21.76). Moreover, if only one of these features was present, this was not associated with an increased likelihood of AST. Conclusion These findings suggest that providing crossing guards may facilitate AST. Additionally, there was a synergy between the

  12. From educational theory to improved praxis and student retention in the coordinated teaching and examination of optical, optoelectronic, and control aspects of Irish and Scottish third level courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Norman D.; McMillan, D. G. E.; Polley, D.

    2005-06-01

    The development of optical engineering, photonics, optical telecommunications and networking courses in the Carlow Institute of Technology are briefly outlined in its national and local historic context. The experience of running various pioneering technician and degree courses in Carlow using assessment procedures designed to test specified learning outcomes is described. A critical review of the use of these educational methods for optical engineering is then made based on the personal experience of one of the author's postgraduate experience in studying in both the Glasgow universities. A differential study is presented of the Scottish and Irish experience, made from the point of view of best practice in educational methodology, as it applies specifically to teaching the high level skills required for engineering design in optical engineering programmes. Details on technology teacher training are presented and some discussion is given on relevant educational initiatives for this area. Possibly the first ever quantitative taxonometric analysis of the 2003-4 examination papers from a leading Institute of Technology in Ireland is undertaken to provide an insight into the present practice of the lecturers and educational managers running this programme. This analysis reveals the coordinated teamwork involved in the course implementation and identifies that various roles that are taken by individual courses in the context of balancing appropriately the whole educational programme. Critical observations on some of the programmes for technician, technologist and degree programmes should enable the delivery to be improved. The statistical analysis of results should also deliver improvements in retention rates of the students. The paper ends with a observations on some useful lessons to be drawn from this wide-ranging review of world, Scottish and Irish experience.

  13. Evaluating the effect of low-level laser therapy on healing of tentomized Achilles tendon in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by light microscopical and gene expression examinations.

    PubMed

    Aliodoust, Morteza; Bayat, Mohammad; Jalili, Mohammad Reza; Sharifian, Zainalabedin; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Akbari, Mohammad; Bayat, Mehrnoush; Khoshvaghti, Amir; Bayat, Homa

    2014-07-01

    Tendon healing is impaired in individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). According to research, there is considerable improvement in the healing of surgically tenotomized Achilles tendons following low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in non-diabetic, healthy animals. This study uses light microscopic (LM) and semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses to evaluate the ability of LLLT in healing Achilles tendons from streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. A total of 88 rats were randomly divided into two groups, non-diabetic and diabetic. DM was induced in the rats by injections of STZ. The right Achilles tendons of all rats were tenotomized 1 month after administration of STZ. Laser-treated rats were treated with a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser that had a 632.8-nm wavelength and 7.2-mW average power. Experimental group rats received a daily dose of 0.014 J (energy density, 2.9 J/cm(2)). Control rats did not receive LLLT. Animals were sacrificed on days 5, 10, and 15 post-operatively for semi-quantitative LM and semi-quantitative RT-PCR examinations of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) gene expression. The chi-square test showed that LLLT significantly reduced inflammation in non-diabetic rats compared with their non-diabetic controls (p = 0.02). LLLT significantly decreased inflammation in diabetic rats on days 5 (p = 0.03) and 10 (p = 0.02) compared to the corresponding control diabetic rats. According to the student's t test, LLLT significantly increased TGF-β1 gene expression in healthy (p = 0.000) and diabetic (p = 0.000) rats compared to their relevant controls. The He-Ne laser was effective in altering the inflammatory reaction and increasing TGF-β1 gene production. PMID:24622817

  14. A longitudinal examination of maternal, family, and area-level experiences of racism on children's socioemotional development: Patterns and possible explanations.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Nazroo, James; Kelly, Yvonne

    2015-10-01

    The association between experienced racial discrimination and poor health is now well documented, particularly among adult populations. However, longitudinal studies of the association between racism and child health are limited, and evidence on how racial discrimination experienced by members of children's immediate environment impact on child development, and the mechanisms by which this occurs, is scarce. We examined the longitudinal association between maternal, family, and area-level experiences of racial discrimination, and children's socioemotional development. We proposed that exposure to racial discrimination would be detrimental to children's socioemotional development via two mother-centred stress pathways: a worsening in maternal mental health, and an increase in harsh parenting practices. Data on ethnic minority mothers and their children were drawn from waves 3 to 5 (2006-2012) of the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Results of longitudinal path analyses show a strong association between maternal and family experiences of racial discrimination in wave 3, and a worsening in mother's mental health in wave 4. Maternal and family experiences of racial discrimination at wave 3 had an indirect effect on children's socioemotional development at wave 5. This occurred mainly via a worsening in mother's mental health, although some events of racial discrimination experienced by the mother and other family members also impacted negatively on children's socioemotional development via an increase in harsh parenting practices. We found a direct effect of maternal and family experiences of racial discrimination on children's socioemotional development. Our findings document the harm of growing up in a racist environment on the socioemotional development of children, and provide some evidence for the role of mother-centred stress mechanisms in linking vicarious exposure to racial discrimination to children's socioemotional development. PMID:26301485

  15. Advanced methods for modeling water-levels and estimating drawdowns with SeriesSEE, an Excel add-in

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith; Garcia, C. Amanda; Fenelon, Joe; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    Water-level modeling is used for multiple-well aquifer tests to reliably differentiate pumping responses from natural water-level changes in wells, or “environmental fluctuations.” Synthetic water levels are created during water-level modeling and represent the summation of multiple component fluctuations, including those caused by environmental forcing and pumping. Pumping signals are modeled by transforming step-wise pumping records into water-level changes by using superimposed Theis functions. Water-levels can be modeled robustly with this Theis-transform approach because environmental fluctuations and pumping signals are simulated simultaneously. Water-level modeling with Theis transforms has been implemented in the program SeriesSEE, which is a Microsoft® Excel add-in. Moving average, Theis, pneumatic-lag, and gamma functions transform time series of measured values into water-level model components in SeriesSEE. Earth tides and step transforms are additional computed water-level model components. Water-level models are calibrated by minimizing a sum-of-squares objective function where singular value decomposition and Tikhonov regularization stabilize results. Drawdown estimates from a water-level model are the summation of all Theis transforms minus residual differences between synthetic and measured water levels. The accuracy of drawdown estimates is limited primarily by noise in the data sets, not the Theis-transform approach. Drawdowns much smaller than environmental fluctuations have been detected across major fault structures, at distances of more than 1 mile from the pumping well, and with limited pre-pumping and recovery data at sites across the United States. In addition to water-level modeling, utilities exist in SeriesSEE for viewing, cleaning, manipulating, and analyzing time-series data.

  16. Advanced Placement Course Description. Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program is a cooperative educational effort of secondary schools, colleges, and the College Board that consists of 30 college-level courses and examinations in 17 academic disciplines for highly motivated students in secondary schools. AP courses are offered in more than 11,000 high schools and are recognized by nearly…

  17. Examination of Science Achievement in the 8th Grade Level in Turkey in Terms of National and International Exams Depending upon Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalmis, Erkan H.; Avgin, Sakine S.; Demir, Papatya; Yildirim, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of demographic characteristics of students in Turkey upon their performance in TIMSS, an international assessment exam and Secondary Education Transition Examination which is a national exam (OGS). One of the fields of sciences, biology is taken into account as student performance. As a result…

  18. An Evaluation of Two Different Methods of Assessing Independent Investigations in an Operational Pre-University Level Examination in Biology in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Explored aspects of assessment of extended investigation ("project") practiced in the operational examinations of The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES) for the perspective of construct validity. Samples of the 1993 (n=333) and 1996 (n=259) biology test results reveal two methods of assessing the project. (MAK)

  19. The Historical Development of the Content of High School-Level Consumer Education: An Examination of Selected Texts, 1938-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Robert O.

    A study examined historical changes in the content of consumer education and factors associated with these changes. Analysis was based on key writings on consumer education and an examination of fifteen high school texts published between 1938 and 1978. Only a few topics--budgeting, savings and investment, life insurance, and housing--received…

  20. High Level Requirements for the Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Johnson; Hyung Lee; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), has been tasked with the important mission of ensuring that nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy source in the U.S. The motivations behind this mission include cost-effectively meeting the expected increases in the power needs of the country, reducing carbon emissions and reducing dependence on foreign energy sources. In the near term, to ensure that nuclear power remains a key element of U.S. energy strategy and portfolio, the DOE-NE will be working with the nuclear industry to support safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants. In the long term, to meet the increasing energy needs of the U.S., the DOE-NE will be investing in research and development (R&D) and working in concert with the nuclear industry to build and deploy new, safer and more efficient nuclear power plants. The safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants and designing, licensing and deploying new reactor designs, however, will require focused R&D programs as well as the extensive use and leveraging of advanced modeling and simulation (M&S). M&S will play a key role in ensuring safe and efficient operations of existing and new nuclear reactors. The DOE-NE has been actively developing and promoting the use of advanced M&S in reactor design and analysis through its R&D programs, e.g., the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) and Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) programs. Also, nuclear reactor vendors are already using CFD and CSM, for design, analysis, and licensing. However, these M&S tools cannot be used with confidence for nuclear reactor applications unless accompanied and supported by verification and validation (V&V) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) processes and procedures which provide quantitative measures of uncertainty for specific applications. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation

  1. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gizis, Michalis; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Siakavellas, Spyros I.; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Vlachogiannakos, John; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Daikos, George L.; Papatheodoridis, George V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3) exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3) levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P < 0.01). sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P < 0.001 for both) but to CVH patients as well (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P = 0.019) or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r = 0.698, P < 0.001). In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease. PMID:27595094

  2. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Bamias, Giorgos; Gizis, Michalis; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Koutsounas, Ioannis; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Vlachogiannakos, John; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Daikos, George L; Papatheodoridis, George V; Ladas, Spiros D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3) exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3) levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P < 0.01). sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P < 0.001 for both) but to CVH patients as well (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P = 0.019) or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r = 0.698, P < 0.001). In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease. PMID:27595094

  3. A thick photoresist process for advanced wafer level packaging applications using JSR THB-151N negative tone UV photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, Vempati; Kripesh, Vaidyanathan; Yoon, Seung Wook; Tay, Andrew A. O.

    2006-09-01

    The development of thick photoresist molds using JSR THB-151N negative tone UV photoresist for the electroplating of interconnects in advanced packaging technologies has been demonstrated. Two different thick photoresist molds 65 and 130 µm high with aspect ratios of up to 2.6 have been fabricated with good reproducibility using single and double coating processes. Optimized lithography parameters using a UV aligner to achieve straight and near-vertical side-wall profiles are also reported. Near-vertical side walls similar to that obtained using SU-8 photoresist have been obtained. JSR photoresist has been found to be easily striped with no residues in solvent stripper solutions, making it suitable for wafer bumping applications and the processing of MEMS devices. Through-mold electroplating of copper and solder is also demonstrated. The simultaneous fabrication of 1167 000 high density interconnects on 8 inch wafers, using lithography and electroplating technologies, is also reported.

  4. Application of an Integrated Assessment Model with state-level resolution for examining strategies for addressing air, climate and energy goals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Climate Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used for exploring future scenarios and examining strategies that address air pollution, climate change, and energy goals. GCAM includes technology-rich representations of the energy, transportati...

  5. Climate Change and Examples of Combined HyspIRI VSWIR/TIR Advanced Level Products for Urban Ecosystems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that 60-80% of the world population will live in urban environments by the end of this century. This growth of the urban population will effect the climate. This slide presentation examines the use of combined HyspIRI Visible ShortWave Infrared (VSWIR)/Thermal Infrared (TIR) to observe, monitor, measure and model many of the components that comprise urban ecosystems cycles.

  6. Teaching Thermodynamics and Kinetics to Advanced General Chemistry Students and to Upper-Level Undergraduate Students Using PV Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyengar, Srinivasan S.; deSouza, Romualdo T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe how complex concepts in macroscopic chemistry, namely, thermodynamics and kinetics, can be taught at considerable depth both at the first-year undergraduate as well as upper levels. We begin with a careful treatment of PV diagrams, and by pictorially integrating the appropriate area in a PV diagram, we introduce work. This starting…

  7. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  8. [Examination procedures].

    PubMed

    Vassault, A; Arnaud, J; Szymanovicz, A

    2010-12-01

    Examination procedures have to be written for each examination according to the standard requirements. Using CE marked devices, technical inserts can be used, but because of their lack of homogeneity, it could be easier to document their use as a standard procedure. Document control policy applies for those procedures, the content of which could be as provided in this document. Electronic manuals can be used as well. PMID:21613016

  9. Examining the relationship between brominated flame retardants (BFR) exposure and changes of thyroid hormone levels around e-waste dismantling sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Qian; Wang, Feifei; Nie, Jing; Qian, Yan

    2010-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) released from e-waste related activities may affect the health of local people. Assessing the impact of e-waste exposure during recycling and dismantling activities on local people's thyroid hormone levels is an area of ongoing research. During November and December 2008, the process of e-waste recycling and dismantling was investigated, and 236 occupation-exposed people and 89 non-occupation-exposed people approximate to the e-waste recycling sites were surveyed; their thyroid hormone levels (THs), thyrotropins (TSH) and BFRs levels in serum were assayed. Multiple regression models were constructed to analyze the changes of serum THs and TSH in the people living in the exposure area (exposure group) and the people in the control group. Covariates known to be or likely to be associated with THs, TSH and BFRs levels were analyzed. Lower level of Triiodothyronine (T(3)) in both occupation-exposed and non-occupation-exposed group were observed (p<0.01), when compared with the control group, and the same trend was obtained for free triiodothyronine (fT(3)) and free thyroxine (fT4) (p<0.01). However, no significant difference in thyroxine (T(4)) was found between the two groups. The level of TSH in the e-waste recycling occupational-exposed group ranged from 0.00 to 5.00microIU/ml with a mean of 1.26microIU/ml, whereas the level of TSH in the control group was from 0.03 to 5.54microIU/ml with a mean of 1.57microIU/ml. This study revealed that people having worked on e-waste recycling and dismantling had significantly lower TSH compared with the control group (p<0.01). Moreover, the level of BDE-205 is positively associated with the level of T4, as confirmed by the linear regression model (unstandardized regression coefficient, beta=0.25, rho=0.001) and a weaker positive relation was also found between the levels of BDE-126 and T4. Meanwhile, a weak negative relation was found between the levels of PBB 103 and T3, and between the levels

  10. Dietary factors associated with high serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal women with the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V), 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Se Young

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Serum ferritin levels are significantly increased after menopause and greatly affect women's health. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary and non-dietary factors associated with high ferritin levels in postmenopausal women. SUBJECTS/METHODS Among adult women in 2010-2012, qualified postmenopausal women (n = 3880) were separated into quartiles of serum ferritin. The variable differences among the quartiles of ferritin were determined using either procsurvey chi-square test (χ2-test) among categorical variables, or GLM (Generalized Linear Model) among continuous variables. The odds ratio for high ferritin in relation to dietary factors was also determined using procsurvery logistic analysis. RESULTS Age, obesity, drinking habit, and blood glucose levels were found to be significant indicators of high serum ferritin level after adjusting for all confounding factors. Among the food groups, grain, milk, vegetable, and seaweed intakes were significantly associated with high ferritin levels, but after adjusting for all confounding factors, only grains and vegetables remained significant factors. Among the nutrient groups, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C intake were significant factors, but after adjustment, none of the nutrient groups analyzed were associated with a high risk of ferritin. CONCLUSION Age, obesity, drinking habit, and glucose levels, as well as inadequate intakes of grains and vegetables, were found to be significantly associated with high serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:26865920

  11. Advanced chronic kidney disease populations have elevated trimethylamine N-oxide levels associated with increased cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Kim, Richard B; Morse, Bridget L; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Tang, Mila; Muirhead, Norman; Barrett, Brendan; Holmes, Daniel T; Madore, Francois; Clase, Catherine M; Rigatto, Claudio; Levin, Adeera

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is more common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and traditional risk factors do not adequately predict those at risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Recent evidence suggests elevated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), created by gut microflora from dietary L-carnitine and choline, is associated with CV events. We investigated the relationship of TMAO levels in patients with stages 3b and 4 CKD to ischemic CV events using the CanPREDDICT cohort, a Canada-wide observational study with prospective 3-year follow-up of adjudicated CV events. Baseline samples were obtained for 2529 CKD patients. TMAO, choline, and L-carnitine levels were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. Baseline median TMAO level was high for the whole cohort (20.41 μM; interquartile range [IQR]: 12.82-32.70 μM). TMAO was independently associated with CV events (hazard ratio 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.42 / 1 SD lnTMAO) after adjusting for all potential CV risk factors. Those in the highest TMAO quartile had significantly higher risk of CV events (adjusted hazard ratio 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.43; P = 0.0351) in the analysis of recurring ischemic events. Among those with stage 3b CKD (hazard ratio 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.87 / 1 SD lnTMAO), independent of kidney function, TMAO levels identified those at highest risk for events. Our results suggest that TMAO may represent a new potentially modifiable CV risk factor for CKD patients. Further studies are needed to determine sources of variability and if lowering of TMAO reduces CV risk in CKD. PMID:27083288

  12. Chickpeas and hummus are associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and levels of some cardiovascular risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiologic studies assessing chickpea/hummus consumption and the association with nutrient intake, diet quality, and health biomarkers are lacking. The association between chickpea/hummus consumption and nutrient intake, dietary quality, and health biomarkers was examined in adults using data fro...

  13. From Student to Entry-Level Professional: Examining the Role of Language and Written Communications in the Reacculturation of Aerospace Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, T. E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Argues that language and written communication play a critical role in the reacculturation process that enables individuals to make a successful transition from the academic world to a professional environment. Reports results of a mail survey examining the technical communications abilities of aerospace engineering students and the technical…

  14. A Simplified Indicator of Social Well-Being in the United States: Examining the Ecological Impact of Family Formation within a County Level Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jeremy R.

    2012-01-01

    In 1995, a study entitled "Does Marriage Matter?" was published by Linda Waite in the journal of "Demography," which was concerned with the direction of such causal relationships. While Waite's examination of the causal relationships associated with marriage, and most other analyses of this type, is primarily concerned with the individual level…

  15. An Examination of the Effects of State Level Policy in Changing Professional Preparation: A Case Study of Virginia Principal Preparation Programs and Regulatory Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bost, Dana Nannette

    2009-01-01

    This is a case study of the implementation of 8 VAC 20-542-530(2), a state policy governing the internship component of Virginia principal preparation programs. The purpose of the study was to examine the implementation of the policy and its effectiveness for changing professional practice in Virginia. States hold the responsibility for…

  16. Examining the relationship between the prevalence of guns and homicide rates in the USA using a new and improved state-level gun ownership proxy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Determining the relationship between gun ownership levels and firearm homicide rates is critical to inform public health policy. Previous research has shown that state-level gun ownership, as measured by a widely used proxy, is positively associated with firearm homicide rates. A newly developed proxy measure that incorporates the hunting license rate in addition to the proportion of firearm suicides correlates more highly with state-level gun ownership. To corroborate previous research, we used this new proxy to estimate the association of state-level gun ownership with total, firearm, and non-firearm homicides. Using state-specific data for the years 1981-2010, we modelled these rates as a function of gun ownership level, controlling for potential confounding factors. We used a negative binomial regression model and accounted for clustering of observations among states. We found that state-level gun ownership as measured by the new proxy, is significantly associated with firearm and total homicides but not with non-firearm homicides. PMID:24740937

  17. Differential effects of "Advanced glycation endproducts" and beta-amyloid peptide on glucose utilization and ATP levels in the neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Loske, C; Garcia De Arriba, S; Schinzel, R; Huber, J; Münch, G

    2004-03-01

    Beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) and "Advanced glycation endproducts" (AGEs) are components of the senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been proposed that both AGEs and Abeta exert many of their effects, which include the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, through RAGE ("receptor for advanced glycation endproducts"). To investigate whether Abeta and AGEs cause similar or identical effects on cell survival and energy metabolism, we have compared the effects of a model-AGE and Abeta on cell viability, ATP level, glucose consumption and lactate production in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. The results show that AGEs and Abeta increase glucose consumption and decrease ATP levels in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, both compounds decrease mitochondrial activity measured by the MTT assay. However, only AGEs decrease the number of cells and significantly increase lactate production. These data indicate that both AGEs and Abeta can cause differential disturbances in neuronal metabolism, which may contribute to the pathophysiological findings in Alzheimer's disease. However, their signalling pathways are apparently quite distinct, a fact which should stimulate a more detailed investigation in this field, e.g. for the purpose of a rational design of potential "neuroprotective" RAGE antagonists. PMID:14991463

  18. Examens (Examinations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riviere, Francoise

    1980-01-01

    Describes the structure of the United Nations (Geneva) French language test, with exerpts from the listening comprehension portion of the test. The test is given to professional candidates to determine their level of functional proficiency in French. (AM)

  19. A Level-1 Tracking Trigger for the CMS upgrade using stacked silicon strip detectors and advanced pattern technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudoul, G.

    2013-01-01

    Experience at high luminosity hadrons collider experiments shows that tracking information enhances the trigger rejection capabilities while retaining high efficiency for interesting physics events. The design of a tracking based trigger for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is an extremely challenging task, and requires the identification of high-momentum particle tracks as a part of the Level 1 Trigger. Simulation studies show that this can be achieved by correlating hits on two closely spaced silicon strip sensors, and reconstructing tracks at L1 by employing an Associative Memory approach. The progresses on the design and development of this micro-strip stacked prototype modules and the performance of few prototype detectors will be presented. Preliminary results of a simulated tracker layout equipped with stacked modules are discussed in terms of pT resolution and triggering capabilities. Finally, a discussion on the L1 architecture will be given.

  20. An advanced approach for the generation of complex cellular material representative volume elements using distance fields and level sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonon, B.; François, B.; Massart, T. J.

    2015-08-01

    A general and widely tunable method for the generation of representative volume elements for cellular materials based on distance and level set functions is presented. The approach is based on random tessellations constructed from random inclusion packings. A general methodology to obtain arbitrary-shaped tessellations to produce disordered foams is presented and illustrated. These tessellations can degenerate either in classical Voronoï tessellations potentially additively weighted depending on properties of the initial inclusion packing used, or in Laguerre tessellations through a simple modification of the formulation. A versatile approach to control the particular morphology of the obtained foam is introduced. Specific local features such as concave triangular Plateau borders and non-constant thickness heterogeneous coatings can be built from the tessellation in a straightforward way and are tuned by a small set of parameters with a clear morphological interpretation.

  1. An Exploratory Analysis of University Safety Through an Examination Of Students' Self-Perceptions of Campus and Community Violence Levels and Student Learning Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore areas of research in regards to how students learn about violent crime on university campuses and what level of awareness they hold regarding their personal safety. A combination of databases was used to measure reported rates of violent crime on campus and in the community and these were compared with…

  2. Examination of Laundering Effects on the Bite Protection and Permethrin Content of Production Level Factory-Treated Marine Corps Combat Utility Uniforms (MCCUUs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Marine Corps has been working towards production level factory-treatment of their Marine Corps Combat Utility Uniforms (MCCUUs). The EPA label requirements mandate that uniforms cannot be treated with permethrin at amount that adds on more than 0.52% that of the total garment by we...

  3. A Causal-Comparative Model for the Examination of the Relationship of Middle School Level Instructional Scheduling and Social Studies Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    Social studies at the middle-level represented a marginalized discipline in South Carolina. Although it was integrated into the state's accountability testing agenda and weighted equally with English, math, and science content in state school and district report card rating calculations, differences exist in the amount of time allocated for social…

  4. The Role of Developmental Levels in Examining the Effect of Subject Types on the Production of Auxiliary "Is" in Young English-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Prior work (Guo, Owen, & Tomblin, 2010) has shown that at the group level, auxiliary "is" production by young English-speaking children was symmetrical across lexical noun and pronominal subjects. Individual data did not uniformly reflect these patterns. On the basis of the framework of the gradual morphosyntactic learning (GML)…

  5. Online University Students' Satisfaction and Persistence: Examining Perceived Level of Presence, Usefulness and Ease of Use as Predictors in a Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Learners' satisfaction and persistence are considered critical success factors in online universities where all of the teaching and learning activities are carried out online. This study aims to investigate the structural relationships among perceived level of presence, perceived usefulness and ease of use of the online learning tools, learner…

  6. Farm-to-School Programmes in the USA: An Examination of State-Level Enacted, Pending and Vetoed or Dead Bills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Olivia M.; Ghelardini, Lauren; Keene, Kristin L.; Stewart, Kendra B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of state-level legislation regulating farm-to-school programmes throughout the United States of America (USA). The research is timely given national goals put forth by the Let's Move Campaign and the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act to reduce childhood obesity prevalence and…

  7. Organization of higher-level chromatin structures (chromomere, chromonema and chromatin block) examined using visible light-induced chromatin photo-stabilization.

    PubMed

    Sheval, E V; Prusov, A N; Kireev, I I; Fais, D; Polyakov, V Yu

    2002-01-01

    The method of chromatin photo-stabilization by the action of visible light in the presence of ethidium bromide was used for investigation of higher-level chromatin structures in isolated nuclei. As a model we used rat hepatocyte nuclei isolated in buffers which stabilized or destabilized nuclear matrix. Several higher-level chromatin structures were visualized: 100nm globules-chromomeres, chains of chromomeres-chromonemata, aggregates of chromomeres-blocks of condensed chromatin. All these structures were completely destroyed by 2M NaCl extraction independent of the matrix state, and DNA was extruded from the residual nuclei (nuclear matrices) into a halo. These results show that nuclear matrix proteins do not play the main role in the maintenance of higher-level chromatin structures. Preliminary irradiation led to the reduction of the halo width in the dose-dependent manner. In regions of condensed chromatin of irradiated nucleoids there were discrete complexes consisting of DNA fibers radiating from an electron-dense core and resembling the decondensed chromomeres or the rosette-like structures. As shown by the analysis of proteins bound to irradiated nuclei upon high-salt extraction, irradiation presumably stabilized the non-histone proteins. These results suggest that in interphase nuclei loop domains are folded into discrete higher-level chromatin complexes (chromomeres). These complexes are possibly maintained by putative non-histone proteins, which are extracted with high-salt buffers from non-irradiated nuclei. PMID:12127937

  8. Examining Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem Levels of Turkish Students in Gaining Identity against Role during Conflict Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isiklar, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    In this research, university students' psychological well being and self-esteem levels are investigated in terms of a number of variables. The sample in this study is composed of 382 university students. To gather the data for this study, the Subjective Information Form, Psychological Well-Being Scale and Self-Esteem Scale are used. T tests and…

  9. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A1 METSAT Instrument (S/N 105) Qualification, Level Vibration Tests of December 1998 (S/O 605445, OC-419)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, AMSU-AL METSAT Instrument (S/N 105) Qualification Level Vibration Tests of December 1998 (S/0 605445, OC-419), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  10. An Increase of Plasma Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Levels Is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Elena; Bajo, Maria-Auxiliadora; Carrero, Juan J.; Lindholm, Bengt; Grande, Cristina; Sánchez-Villanueva, Rafael; Del Peso, Gloria; Díaz-Almirón, Mariana; Iglesias, Pedro; Díez, Juan J.; Selgas, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are considered as markers and even mediators of the proinflammatory effect of oxidative stress in uremia. We hypothesized that an increase of oxidative stress associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), estimated by the variation of plasma AOPPs over time, might be associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk and overall prognosis. In 48 PD patients, blood samples were collected on two occasions: the first one in the first six months after starting PD therapy and the second one, one year after. The plasma AOPPs level variation over the first year on PD was significantly associated with CV antecedents and also with CV prognosis. In those patients in whom the AOPPs levels increased more than 50% above the baseline value, a significant association with past and future CV disease was confirmed. These patients had 4.7 times greater risk of suffering later CV disease than those with a smaller increase, even after adjusting for previous CV history. Our data suggest that the increase of AOPPs plasma level over the first year on PD is conditioned by CV antecedents but also independently predicts CV prognosis. AOPPs plasma levels seem to represent the CV status of PD patients with sufficient sensitivity to identify those with a clearly sustained higher CV risk. PMID:26581178

  11. Advanced quadrupole ion trap instrumentation for low level vehicle emissions measurements. CRADA final report for number ORNL93-0238

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Goeringer, D.E.; Dearth, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amenable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of sensitivity, specificity, speed, and flexibility with respect to the technical requirements of the top 15 analyzer.

  12. Examining the quasibiennial oscillation of total ozone and ozone concentrations at separate stratospheric levels according to data of TOMS satellite instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, O. E.; Makeev, A. P.

    2014-11-01

    The pattern of the quasibiennial oscillation of total ozone over northern territories of Russia (1996-2013) and ozone concentrations at separate stratospheric levels over Arctic sites (2005-2013) are analyzed according to data of TOMS satellite instrumentation. It is shown that the entire period of 1996-2013 can be divided into three intervals: before 2002- 2004, interval between 2002-2004 and 2008-2010, and period after 2008-2010. The quasibiennial oscillation is quite clearly manifested in the first and third periods and is distorted in the second period. The time series of the mixing ratio, composed for separate altitudinal levels, exhibit quasibiennial oscillation, which takes shape at heights of ~30 km and weakens in overlying regions.

  13. Association of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate with Hemoglobin Level in Korean Adults: The 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Youb; Oh, Se Won; Hong, Jae Won; Yi, Seong Yoon; Noh, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Ran; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about anemia in patients with early renal dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the association of hemoglobin level and anemia prevalence with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline using a nation-wide representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods In total, 17,373 participants (7,296 men; weighted n = 18,330,187; mean age, 44.2±0.3 years; 9,886 women, weighted n = 18,317,454; mean age, 46.9±0.3 years) were included. eGFR was divided into 5 groups: Group 1, ≥105; Group 2, 90–104; 75–89; Group 4, 60–74; and Group 5, <60 mL/min/1.73m2. Results The weighted anemia prevalence rates were 2.6% in men and 12.8% in women. In men, the weighted hemoglobin level increased with a decrease in eGFR; this value peaked at an eGFR of 60–89 mL/min/1.73m2 and decreased thereafter at an eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73m2 (15.19±0.03, 15.35±0.03, 15.53±0.03, 15.52±0.06, and 14.90±0.12 g/dL from Groups 1 to 5) after adjustment for age, college graduation, cancer history, current smoking, waist circumference, serum cholesterol level, serum triglyceride level, and diastolic blood pressure. In women, the weighted hemoglobin level increased with a decrease in eGFR; this value peaked with an eGFR of 75–89 mL/min/1.73m2 and decreased thereafter (12.90±0.03, 13.08±0.02, 13.20±0.04, 13.14±0.05, and 12.47±0.11 g/dL from Groups 1 to 5) after adjustment for menstruation, pregnancy, estrogen replacement, and the above-mentioned variables. In both sexes, the weighted prevalence of anemia with an eGFR of 60–104 mL/min/1.73m2 was significantly lower than that with an eGFR of ≥105 mL/min/1.73m2 (men, 3.2±0.4%, 1.9±0.3%, 1.8±0.3%, 2.0±0.9%, and 18.1±3.1%; women, 14.0±0.8%, 11.2±0.7%, 10.5±1.0%, 13.2±1.6%, and 32.3±3.2% from Groups 1 to 5). Conclusions We noted a compensatory increase in the hemoglobin level with a minor decline in kidney function (in the range of eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2) prior to a marked decrease in

  14. The Pain Course: a randomised controlled trial examining an internet-delivered pain management program when provided with different levels of clinician support

    PubMed Central

    Dear, Blake F.; Gandy, Milena; Karin, Eyal; Staples, Lauren G.; Johnston, Luke; Fogliati, Vincent J.; Wootton, Bethany M.; Terides, Matthew D.; Kayrouz, Rony; Perry, Kathryn Nicholson; Sharpe, Louise; Nicholas, Michael K.; Titov, Nickolai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated an internet-delivered pain management program, the Pain Course, when provided with different levels of clinician support. Participants (n = 490) were randomised to 1 of 4 groups: (1) Regular Contact (n = 143), (2) Optional Contact (n = 141), (3) No Contact (n = 131), and (4) a treatment-as-usual Waitlist Control Group (n = 75). The treatment program was based on the principles of cognitive behaviour therapy and comprised 5 internet-delivered lessons provided over 8 weeks. The 3 Treatment Groups reported significant improvements (between-group Cohen's d; avg. reduction) in disability (ds ≥ 0.50; avg. reduction ≥ 18%), anxiety (ds ≥ 0.44; avg. reduction ≥ 32%), depression (ds ≥ 0.73; avg. reduction ≥ 36%), and average pain (ds ≥ 0.30; avg. reduction ≥ 12%) immediately posttreatment, which were sustained at or further improved to 3-month follow-up. High treatment completion rates and levels of satisfaction were reported, and no marked or consistent differences were observed between the Treatment Groups. The mean clinician time per participant was 67.69 minutes (SD = 33.50), 12.85 minutes (SD = 24.61), and 5.44 minutes (SD = 12.38) for those receiving regular contact, the option of contact, and no clinical contact, respectively. These results highlight the very significant public health potential of carefully designed and administered internet-delivered pain management programs and indicate that these programs can be successfully administered with several levels of clinical support. PMID:26039902

  15. Low levels of Caspase-3 predict favourable response to 5FU-based chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer: Caspase-3 inhibition as a therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, L; Meyer, M; Fay, J; Curry, S; Bacon, O; Duessmann, H; John, K; Boland, K C; McNamara, D A; Kay, E W; Bantel, H; Schulze-Bergkamen, H; Prehn, J H M

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the Western world. 5-Fluorouracil (5FU)-based chemotherapy (CT) remains the mainstay treatment of CRC in the advanced setting, and activates executioner caspases in target cells. Executioner caspases are key proteins involved in cell disassembly during apoptosis. Activation of executioner caspases also has a role in tissue regeneration and repopulation by stimulating signal transduction and cell proliferation in neighbouring, non-apoptotic cells as reported recently. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) consisting of tumour tissue from 93 stage II and III colon cancer patients were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Surprisingly, patients with low levels of active Caspase-3 had an increased disease-free survival time. This was particularly pronounced in patients who received 5FU-based adjuvant CT. In line with this observation, lower serum levels of active Caspase-3 were found in patients with metastasised CRC who revealed stable disease or tumour regression compared with those with disease progression. The role of Caspase-3 in treatment responses was explored further in primary human tumour explant cultures from fresh patient tumour tissue. Exposure of explant cultures to 5FU-based CT increased the percentage of cells positive for active Caspase-3 and Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase dUTP Nick end Labelling (TUNEL), but also the expression of regeneration and proliferation markers β-Catenin and Ki-67, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Of note, selective inhibition of Caspase-3 with Ac-DNLD-CHO, a selective, reversible inhibitor of Caspase-3, significantly reduced the expression of proliferation markers as well as COX-2. Inhibition of COX-2 with aspirin or celecoxib did not affect Caspase-3 levels but also reduced Ki-67 and β-Catenin levels, suggesting that Caspase-3 acted via COX-2 to stimulate cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. This indicates that low levels of active Caspase-3 may represent a

  16. Low levels of Caspase-3 predict favourable response to 5FU-based chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer: Caspase-3 inhibition as a therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, L; Meyer, M; Fay, J; Curry, S; Bacon, O; Duessmann, H; John, K; Boland, K C; McNamara, D A; Kay, E W; Bantel, H; Schulze-Bergkamen, H; Prehn, J H M

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the Western world. 5-Fluorouracil (5FU)-based chemotherapy (CT) remains the mainstay treatment of CRC in the advanced setting, and activates executioner caspases in target cells. Executioner caspases are key proteins involved in cell disassembly during apoptosis. Activation of executioner caspases also has a role in tissue regeneration and repopulation by stimulating signal transduction and cell proliferation in neighbouring, non-apoptotic cells as reported recently. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) consisting of tumour tissue from 93 stage II and III colon cancer patients were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Surprisingly, patients with low levels of active Caspase-3 had an increased disease-free survival time. This was particularly pronounced in patients who received 5FU-based adjuvant CT. In line with this observation, lower serum levels of active Caspase-3 were found in patients with metastasised CRC who revealed stable disease or tumour regression compared with those with disease progression. The role of Caspase-3 in treatment responses was explored further in primary human tumour explant cultures from fresh patient tumour tissue. Exposure of explant cultures to 5FU-based CT increased the percentage of cells positive for active Caspase-3 and Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase dUTP Nick end Labelling (TUNEL), but also the expression of regeneration and proliferation markers β-Catenin and Ki-67, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Of note, selective inhibition of Caspase-3 with Ac-DNLD-CHO, a selective, reversible inhibitor of Caspase-3, significantly reduced the expression of proliferation markers as well as COX-2. Inhibition of COX-2 with aspirin or celecoxib did not affect Caspase-3 levels but also reduced Ki-67 and β-Catenin levels, suggesting that Caspase-3 acted via COX-2 to stimulate cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. This indicates that low levels of active Caspase-3 may represent a

  17. Examination Syllabus Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallatratt, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted based on an analysis of computer study courses leading to CSE and 0-level examinations. Several findings are discussed and questions about future developments are raised. Syllabus content (including history, hardware, basic computer science, programming, applications, and implications), format, and examinations are among the…

  18. A state-level examination of the association between home and community-based services and rates of nursing home residency with special attention to nutrition programs.

    PubMed

    Buys, David R; Borch, Casey; Kilgore, Meredith; Zizza, Claire A; Locher, Julie L

    2012-01-01

    Federal food and nutrition programs implemented by the Administration on Aging and funded by the Older Americans Act (OAA) seek to enable older adults to remain in their homes and communities through a comprehensive, coordinated, and cost-effective array of services. We hypothesized that expenditures devoted to nutrition programs for home and community-based nutrition services were inversely related to changes in state-level rates of institutionalization for older adults from one year to the next, such that states that spend more money per capita on community-based nutrition programs would have smaller increases or greater decreases in rates of institutionalization, controlling for expenditures on other home and community-based services. We found, however, that there was not an effect of OAA Nutrition Services on the change in rates of nursing home residency. We noted, though, that states that direct a greater proportion of their long-term care expenditures to home and community-based services appear to have more reduction in their rates of nursing home residency. Further longitudinal work at the state and individual levels is warranted. PMID:23157217

  19. A Resource for Eliciting Student Alternative Conceptions: Examining the Adaptability of a Concept Inventory for Natural Selection at the Secondary School Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.

    2016-07-01

    The Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection (CINS) is an example of a research-based instrument that assesses conceptual understanding in an area that contains well-documented alternative conceptions. Much of the CINS's use and original validation has been relegated to undergraduate settings, but the information learned from student responses on the CINS can also potentially be a useful resource for teachers at the secondary level. Because of its structure, the CINS can have a role in eliciting alternative conceptions and induce deeper conceptual understanding by having student ideas leveraged during instruction. In a first step toward this goal, the present study further investigated the CINS's internal properties by having it administered to a group (n = 339) of students among four different biology teachers at a predominantly Latino, economically disadvantaged high school. In addition, incidences of the concept inventory's use among the teachers' practices were collected for support of its adaptability at the secondary level. Despite the teachers' initial enthusiasm for the CINS's use as an assessment tool in the present study, results from a principal components analysis demonstrate inconsistencies between the original and present validations. Results also reveal how the teachers think CINS items may be revised for future use among secondary student populations.

  20. Recent Advances in Analytical Methods on Lipoprotein Subclasses: Calculation of Particle Numbers from Lipid Levels by Gel Permeation HPLC Using "Spherical Particle Model".

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Yamashita, Shizuya

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we developed an analytical method for determining the lipid levels and particle numbers in lipoprotein subclasses covering a wide size range from chylomicrons to small high density lipoproteins, by using gel permeation high-performance liquid chromatography (GP-HPLC). The challenges in analytical methods on lipoprotein subclasses have been addressed from 1980 by Hara and Okazaki using commercial TSK gel permeation columns. Later, the improvements in the hardware, separation and detection of lipoproteins, and the data processing software, using a Gaussian distribution approximation to calculate lipid levels of lipoprotein subclasses, have been extensively utilized in these analytical methods for over thirty years. In this review, we describe on the recent advances in analytical methods on lipoprotein subclasses based on various techniques, and the calculation of particle numbers from lipid levels by GPHPLC using the "spherical particle model". Free/ester ratio of cholesterol in particular lipoprotein subclass was accurately estimated from triglyceride, total cholesterol (free and esterified) and the size of the particle based on this model originally proposed by Shen and Kezdy. PMID:27041512

  1. An examination of spatial variability in the timing and magnitude of Holocene relative sea-level changes in the New Zealand archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Alastair J. H.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Sloss, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) changes have been reconstructed for four regions within the New Zealand archipelago: the northern North Island (including Northland, Auckland, and the Coromandel Peninsula); the southwest coast of the North Island; the Canterbury coast (South Island); and the Otago coast (South Island). In the North Island the RSL highstand commenced c. 8100-7240 cal yr BP when present mean sea-level (PMSL) was first attained. This is c. 600-1400 years earlier than has been previously indicated for the New Zealand region as a whole, and is consistent with recent Holocene RSL reconstructions from Australia. In North Island locations the early-Holocene sea-level highstand was quite pronounced, with RSL up to 2.75 m higher than present. In the South Island the onset of highstand conditions was later, with the first attainment of PMSL being between 7000-6400 cal yr BP. In the mid-Holocene the northern North Island experienced the largest sea-level highstand, with RSL up to 3.00 m higher than present. This is demonstrably higher than the highstand recorded for the southwest North Island and Otago regions. A number of different drivers operating at a range of scales may be responsible for the spatial and temporal variation in the timing and magnitude of RSL changes within the New Zealand archipelago. One possible mechanism is the north-south gradient in RSL that would arise in the intermediate field around Antarctica in response to the reduced gravitational attraction of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) as it lost mass during the Holocene. This gradient would be enhanced by the predicted deformation of the lithosphere in the intermediate field of the Southern Ocean around Antarctica due to hydro-isostatic loading and mass loss of the AIS. However, no such long-wavelength signals in sea-surface height or solid Earth deformation are evident in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model predictions for the New Zealand region, while research from Australia has

  2. Experiment K-6-16. Morphological examination of rat testes. The effect of Cosmos 1887 flight on spermatogonial population and testosterone level in rat testes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Vasques, M.; Sapp, W.; Williams, C.; Popova, I. A.; Serova, L. V.

    1990-01-01

    Testes from rats flown on Cosmos 1887 for twelve and a half days were compared to basal control, synchronous control and vivarium maintained rats. When the mean weights of flight testes, normalized for weight/100 gms, were compared to the vivarium controls they were 6.7 percent lighter. Although the flight testes were lighter than the synchronous, the difference is not significant. Counts of spermatogonial cells from 5 animals in each group revealed a 4 percent decrease in flight compared to vivarium controls. In both cases the t-Test significance was less than 0.02. The serum testosterone levels of all animals (flight, synchronous and vivarium) were significantly below the basal controls.

  3. Examination of Physical Processes Influencing Coastal Circulation over the Inner Scotian Shelf using a Five-Level Nested-Grid Ocean Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, J.

    2008-12-01

    A multiply nested-grid ocean circulation modeling system was developed for coastal waters of the Inner Scotian Shelf (ISS) by coupling a limited-area coastal circulation model to an operational shelf circulation model known as Dalcoast. The nested-grid system has five relocatable, dynamically-downscaling five sub- components. The outermost sub-component of the system has a coarse horizontal resolution of (1/12)o for simulating storm surges and two-dimensional barotropic shelf waves over the eastern Canadian shelf (ECS) from Labrador Shelf to the Gulf of Maine, and the innermost sub-component has a fine horizontal resolution of about ~180 m for simulating three-dimensional circulation and hydrographic distributions over Lunenburg Bay of Nova Scotia in the default setup. The nested-grid system is driven by meteorological and astronomical forcing. The meteorological forcing includes sea level air pressures, wind stress and surface heat/freshwater fluxes converted from the 3 hourly weather forecasts produced by the Meteorological Service of Canada. The astronomical forcing is the tidal sea levels and depth-mean currents produced by WebTide based on pre-calculated harmonic constants of five major tidal constitutes over the ECS. In this study, the nested-grid system is used to investigate main physical processes affecting the three-dimensional (3D) circulation and hydrographic distributions over the ISS in June and July 2006. Model results demonstrate that the coastal circulation and hydrographic distributions over the study region are affected significantly by tides, local wind forcing, remotely generated coastal waves during the study period.

  4. Good-to-Great Superintendents: An Examination of Jim Collins' Good-to-Great Level Five Leadership Attributes as Demonstrated by the Leadership Behaviors of Superintendents of High-Performing California Public Single-School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Collins' good-to-great Level Five leadership attributes, as demonstrated by the leadership behaviors of superintendents of high-performing California public single-school districts. Methodology: The researcher used a case study design to conduct this study. Personal interviews were conducted in…

  5. Prognosis Can Be Predicted More Accurately Using Pre- and Postchemoradiotherapy Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels Compared to Only Prechemoradiotherapy Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Who Received Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sung, SooYoon; Son, Seok Hyun; Kay, Chul Seung; Lee, Yoon Suk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of a change in the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level during neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. A total of 110 patients with clinical T3/T4 or node-positive disease underwent nCRT and curative total mesorectal resection from February 2006 to December 2013. Serum CEA level was measured before nCRT, after nCRT, and then again after surgery. A cut-off value for CEA level to predict prognosis was determined using the maximally selected log-rank test. According to the test, patients were classified into 3 groups, based on their CEA levels (Group A: pre-CRT CEA ≤3.2; Group B: pre-CRT CEA level >3.2 and post-CRT CEA ≤2.8; and Group C: pre-CRT CEA >3.2 and post-CRT CEA >2.8). The median follow-up time was 31.1 months. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates of Group A and Group B were similar, while Group C showed a significantly lower 3-year DFS rate (82.5% vs. 89.5% vs. 55.1%, respectively, P = 0.001). Other clinicopathological factors that showed statistical significance on univariate analysis were pre-CRT CEA, post-CRT CEA, tumor distance from the anal verge, surgery type, downstage, pathologic N stage, margin status and perineural invasion. The CEA group (P = 0.001) and tumor distance from the anal verge (P = 0.044) were significant prognostic factors for DFS on multivariate analysis. Post-CRT CEA level may be a useful prognostic factor in patients whose prognosis cannot be predicted exactly by pre-CRT CEA levels alone in the neoadjuvant treatment era. Combined pre-CRT CEA and post-CRT CEA levels enable us to predict prognosis more accurately and determine treatment and follow-up policies. Further large-scale studies are necessary to validate the prognostic value of CEA levels. PMID:26962798

  6. Examination of the Behavior of Bismuth in Shallow-Level Hydrothermal Ore Systems: Constraints Based on Hydrothermal Experiments at 800°C and 100 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmot, M. S.; Candela, P. A.; Piccoli, P. M.; Simon, A. C.; McDonough, W. F.

    2006-05-01

    The partitioning of ore metals between melt and crystals affects the concentrations of these metals in an evolving ore fluid, and therefore the efficiency of their removal from the magma by hydrothermal processes. Some porphyry-type W-Mo deposits contain recoverable amounts of Bi, whereas others contain only trace amounts. In order to determine the magmatic controls on the ratio of Bi to other commodities in these and other deposits, we examined the partitioning behavior of bismuth between melt, minerals and aqueous phases. Hydrothermal experiments were performed by using externally heated cold seal vessels and employing a double capsule technique. Experiments contained 40 mg of Bishop Tuff glass (SiO2 = 74% ) and 40 mg of either magnetite or pyrrhotite. Bi was added as elemental Bi (< 1 mg). Two different aqueous solutions were used. Initially, the added aqueous phase comprised the solutes HCl, KCl and NaCl in a molar1:1:1 ratio, with a bulk salinity of 10 wt % NaCl eq. The aqueous phase for later experiments contained only the solutes KCl and NaCl in a 1:1 molar ratio. Pre-fractured quartz was added to the experiments to trap fluid inclusions at run PTX conditions. Experiments were performed in Au or Pt capsules held inside Rene 41 cold-seal vessels at 800°C and 100 MPa for durations of up to 36 hours. Analytical data have been collected from the run product solids by using an electron probe microanalyzer (major and trace elements) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (trace elements). Bi in Mt is found in concentrations up to 100 ppm, with higher concentrations in runs where Po decomposed to form magnetite. The Bi concentration in the glass ranges up to 100 ppm. In the Po-bearing runs, data were only collected from Po grains in the experiments containing the HCl-free aqueous solution (the Po grains in the other experiments were too small to analyze). Pyrrhotite contained 10-20 ppm Bi, whereas the glass contained 5-10 ppm. Preliminary

  7. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19–39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  8. Use of ICT and its Relationship with Performance in Examinations: A Comparison of the ImpaCT2 Project's Research Findings Using Pupil-Level, School-Level and Multilevel Modelling Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Colin; Lunzer, Eric A.; Tymms, Peter; Fitz-Gibbon, Carol Taylor; Restorick, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a previously unpublished comparative analysis of data from the ImpaCT2 study investigating the relationship between students' performance in England on national tests and their reported use of information technology (particularly networked technology) for school work, at three age levels (11, 14 and 16), in English, Maths and…

  9. Evidence that Serum Levels of the Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products are Inversely Associated with Pancreatic Cancer Risk: a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Li; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Albanes, Demetrius; Taylor, Philip R.; Graubard, Barry I.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and to a less extent, meat cooked at high temperatures are associated with pancreatic cancer. Cigarette smoke and foods cooked at higher temperatures are major environmental sources of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). AGEs accumulate during hyperglycemia and elicit oxidative stress and inflammation through interaction with the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) acts as an anti-inflammatory factor to neutralize AGEs and block the effects mediated by RAGE. In this study, we investigated the associations of prediagnostic measures of Nε-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML)-AGE and sRAGE with pancreatic cancer in a case-cohort study within a cohort of 29,133 Finnish male smokers. Serum samples and exposure information were collected at baseline (1985-1988). We measured CML-AGE, sRAGE, glucose and insulin concentrations in fasting serum from 255 incident pancreatic cancer cases that arose through April 2005 and from 485 randomly sampled subcohort participants. Weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, years of smoking and body mass index. CML-AGE and sRAGE were mutually adjusted. CML-AGE levels were not associated with pancreatic cancer (fifth compared with first quintile, RR (95% CI): 0.68 (0.38-1.22), Ptrend = 0.27). In contrast, sRAGE levels were inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (fifth compared with first quintile, RR (95% CI): 0.46 (0.23-0.73), Ptrend = 0.002). Further adjustment for glucose or insulin levels did not change the observed associations. Our findings suggest that sRAGE is inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk among Finnish male smokers. PMID:21540233

  10. Increased Levels of Plasma Epstein Barr Virus DNA Identify a Poor-Risk Subset of Patients With Advanced Stage Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Haverkos, Bradley M.; Gru, Alejandro A.; Geyer, Susan M.; Bingman, Anissa K.; Hemminger, Jessica A.; Mishra, Anjali; Wong, Henry K.; Pancholi, Preeti; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Porcu, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Discovering prognostic factors that simultaneously describe tumor characteristics and improve risk stratification is a priority in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). More than a third of advanced stage CTCL patients in this cohort had detectable cell free plasma Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-DNA (pEBVd) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An increased level of pEBVd was highly concordant with EBV (ie, Epstein–Barr virus RNAs) in tumor tissue and was associated with inferior survival. Introduction Outcomes in advanced stage (AS) cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are poor but with great variability. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a subset of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Frequency of plasma EBV-DNA (pEBVd) detection, concordance with EBV RNA (EBER) in tumor tissue, codetection of plasma cytomegalovirus DNA (pCMVd), and prognostic effect in AS CTCL are unknown. Patients and Methods Patients (n = 46; 2006–2013) with AS CTCL (≥IIB) were retrospectively studied. pEBVd and pCMVd were longitudinally measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. EBER in situ hybridization (ISH) was performed on tumor samples. Survival from time of diagnosis (ToD) and time of progression to AS was assessed. Results Plasma EBV-DNA and pCMVd were detected in 37% (17 of 46) and 17% (8 of 46) of AS CTCL patients, respectively. pCMVd detection was significantly more frequent in pEBVd-positive (pEBVd+) than pEBVd− patients (35% vs. 7%; P = .038). Tumor tissue for EBER-ISH was available in 14 of 17 pEBVd+ and 22 of 29 pEBVd− patients; 12 of 14 (85.7%) pEBVd+ patients were EBER+ versus 0 of 22 pEBVd− patients. Frequency of large cell transformation (LCT) tended to be greater in pEBVd+ patients, but was not significant (10 of 14 pEBVd+ vs. 10 of 23 pEBVd−; P = .17). No notable differences in rates of increased levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were observed (17 of 17 pEBVd+ vs. 27 of 29 pEBVd−). pEBVd detection was associated with

  11. Genetic analysis of interacting trophic levels in a stressed pinyon-juniper community: A model for examining community responses to a rapid and recent environmental changes. Final report, May 1, 1994--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, P.; Whithmam, T.; Cobb, N.; Gehring, C.

    1998-05-01

    The goals of this project were to examine the genetic component of a pinyon-juniper woodland that had recently experienced a dramatic environmental change. The environmental change was increased temperature and decreased water associated with the volcanic cinder field at Sunset Crater National Monument. In all of these experiments we have used adjacent soil sites as controls for the effects of the stressed locations. We have examined mycorrhizal colonization and diversity in order to understand this important component in community {open_quotes}adaptation{close_quotes} to climate change. We have examined genetic diversity in the pinyon pine populations to determine what level of genetic differentiation has occurred between stressed and nonstressed locations. In addition, we have recently expanded our environmental parameters to include elevated CO{sub 2} on mycorrhizal performance and diversity.

  12. Examining Mars at Many Levels (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This artist's concept represents the 'Follow the Water' theme of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. The orbiter's science instruments monitor the present water cycle in the Mars atmosphere and the associated deposition and sublimation of water ice on the surface, while probing the subsurface to see how deep the water-ice reservoir detected by Mars Odyssey extends. At the same time, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will search for surface features and minerals (such as carbonates and sulfates) that record the extended presence of liquid water on the surface earlier in the planet's history. The instruments involved are the Shallow Subsurface Radar, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, the Mars Color Imager, the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, the Context Camera and the Mars Climate Sounder.

    To the far left, the radar antenna beams down and 'sees' into the first few hundred feet (up to 1 kilometer) of Mars' crust. Just to the right of that, the next beam highlights the data received from the imaging spectrometer, which identifies minerals on the surface. The next beam represents the high-resolution camera, which can 'zoom in' on local targets, providing the highest-resolution orbital images yet of features such as craters and gullies and rocks.

    The beam that shines almost horizontally is that of the Mars Climate Sounder. This instrument is critical to analyzing the current climate of Mars since it observes the temperature, humidity, and dust content of the martian atmosphere, and their seasonal and year-to-year variations. Meanwhile, the Mars Color Imager observes ice clouds, dust clouds and hazes, and the ozone distribution, producing daily global maps in multiple colors to monitor daily weather and seasonal changes.

    The electromagnetic spectrum is represented on the top right and individual instruments are placed where their capability lies.

  13. Examining Individual and Collective Level Mathematical Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Chris; Wawro, Megan; Zandieh, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in mathematics education research is to coordinate different analyses to develop a more comprehensive account of teaching and learning. We contribute to these efforts by expanding the constructs in Cobb and Yackel's (Educational Psychologist 31:175-190, 1996) interpretive framework that allow for coordinating social and individual…

  14. Examining Media Literacy Levels of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Taskin; Temur, Turan

    2012-01-01

    As in many other countries, following the 2007-2008 education year when media literacy courses began to be included in the curricula, media literacy has become one of the discussion topics among educators and decision makers in Turkey. Discussion topics related to media literacy have included who is going to give the media literacy courses, what…

  15. Soluble Levels of Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) and Progression of Atherosclerosis in Individuals Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: ACTG NWCS 332.

    PubMed

    Danoff, Ann; Kendall, Michelle A; Currier, Judith S; Kelesidis, Theodoros; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Aberg, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Identification of biomarkers and/or mediators of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with HIV infection would be of diagnostic and therapeutic value. As soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGE) and endogenous secretory (esRAGE) have been implicated in vascular complications in other settings, we investigated whether either soluble form of RAGE was associated with changes in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in HIV-infected patients and HIV-uninfected controls. We found no differences in sRAGE, esRAGE, or CIMT among groups at study entry, or in yearly rates of change in sRAGE, esRAGE, or CIMT by HIV-serostatus (all p > 0.10). However, yearly rates of change in sRAGE (p = 0.07) and esRAGE (p < 0.001) were higher in those taking protease inhibitors, and lower baseline esRAGE levels (p = 0.06) were associated with increased odds of CIMT progression in HIV-infected individuals. Although esRAGE was not altered by HIV-serostatus (p = 0.17), its inverse relationship with CIMT progression in HIV-infected patients suggests a possible role as a mediator of CVD in HIV-infected persons. PMID:27216802

  16. Daily Pomegranate Intake Has No Impact on PSA Levels in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer - Results of a Phase IIb Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stenner-Liewen, Frank; Liewen, Heike; Cathomas, Richard; Renner, Christoph; Petrausch, Ulf; Sulser, Tullio; Spanaus, Katharina; Seifert, Hans Helge; Strebel, Räto Thomas; Knuth, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Müntener, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate has been shown to prolong PSA doubling time in early prostate cancer, but no data from a placebo controlled trial has been published yet. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the impact of pomegranate juice in patients with prostate cancer. We conducted a phase IIb, double blinded, randomized placebo controlled trial in patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. Only patients with a PSA value ≥ 5ng/ml were included. The subjects consumed 500 ml of pomegranate juice or 500 ml of placebo beverage every day for a 4 week period. Thereafter, all patients received 250 ml of the pomegranate juice daily for another 4 weeks. PSA values were taken at baseline, day 14, 28 and on day 56. The primary endpoint was the detection of a significant difference in PSA serum levels between the groups after one month of treatment. Pain scores and adherence to intervention were recorded using patient diaries. 102 patients were enrolled. The majority of patients had castration resistant prostate cancer (68%). 98 received either pomegranate juice or placebo between October 2008 and May 2011. Adherence to protocol was good, with 94 patients (96%) completing the first period and 87 patients (89%) completing both periods. No grade 3 or higher toxicities occurred within the study. No differences were detected between the two groups with regard to PSA kinetics and pain scores. Consumption of pomegranate juice as an adjunct intervention in men with advanced prostate cancer does not result in significant PSA declines compared to placebo. PMID:24069070

  17. Expression levels of ROS1/ALK/c-MET and therapeutic efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Nai-Jung; Hsu, Chiun; Chen, Jen-Shi; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Shen, Ying-Ying; Chao, Yee; Chen, Ming-Huang; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Shan, Yan-Shen; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Chen, Li-Tzong

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of ROS1, ALK or c-MET (RAM) is implicated in carcinogenesis and cancer drug resistance. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of RAM expression on outcomes for advanced biliary tract cancer patients, who were treated with gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX), with or without cetuximab, in a randomized phase II trial. RAM expression levels on archived tissue sections were scored using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Of 110 tumors with IHC staining for all three markers, 18 were RAMhigh (IHC intensity 3+ for any markers). Ninety-two tumors were RAMlow (IHC intensity <3+ for all markers). All RAMhigh tumors were intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCC). Of the patients with IHCC (n = 80), median overall survival (OS) of RAMhigh group was inferior to that of the RAMlow group (5.7 vs. 11.7 months, p = 0.021). In multivariate analysis RAMhigh remained an independently adverse prognostic factor, with a hazard ratio of 2.01 (p = 0.039). In the RAMlow group, GEMOX treatment with cetuximab significantly improved the disease control rate (68% vs. 41%, p = 0.044), median progression-free survival (7.3 vs. 4.9 months, p = 0.026), and marginally prolonged median OS (14.1 vs 9.6 months, p = 0.056), compared to GEMOX treatment alone. Future trials of anti-EGFR inhibitors for IHCC may consider RAM expression as a patient stratification factor. PMID:27136744

  18. Prognostic Impact of mRNA Expression Levels of HER1–4 (ERBB1–4) in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kripp, Melanie; Merx, Kirsten; Wirtz, Ralph Markus; Gaiser, Timo; Eidt, Sebastian; Schwaab, Juliana; Post, Stefan; Wenz, Frederik; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background. No predictive or prognostic biomarker is available for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) undergoing perioperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Members of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases EGFR (HER1, ERBB1), HER2 (ERBB2), HER3 (ERBB3), and HER4 (ERBB4) are therapeutic targets in several cancers. The analysis was performed to assess expression levels and study the potential prognostic impact for disease-free and overall survival in patients with LARC. Patients and Methods. ERBB1–4 mRNA expression and tumor proliferation using Ki-67 (MKI67) mRNA were evaluated using RT-quantitative PCR in paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 86 patients (median age: 63) treated with capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil-based CRT within a phase 3 clinical trial. Results. A positive correlation of HER4 and HER2, HER3 and HER2, and HER4 and HER3 with each other was observed. Patients with high mRNA expression of ERBB1 (EGFR, HER1) had significantly increased risk for recurrence and death. Patients with high mRNA expression of MKI67 had reduced risk for relapse. Conclusion. This analysis suggests a prognostic impact of both ERBB1 and MKi67 mRNA expression in LARC patients treated with capecitabine or fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy. PMID:27610130

  19. Conducting Reflective, Hands-On Research with Advanced Characterization Instruments: A High-Level Undergraduate Practical Exploring Solid-State Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, S. J.; Mapp, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    An undergraduate practical exercise has been designed to provide hands-on, instrument-based experience of advanced characterization techniques. A research experience approach is taken, centered around the concept of solid-state polymorphism, which requires a detailed knowledge of molecular and crystal structure to be gained by advanced analytical…

  20. Expression levels of ROS1/ALK/c-MET and therapeutic efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Nai-Jung; Hsu, Chiun; Chen, Jen-Shi; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Shen, Ying-Ying; Chao, Yee; Chen, Ming-Huang; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Shan, Yan-Shen; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Chen, Li-Tzong

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of ROS1, ALK or c-MET (RAM) is implicated in carcinogenesis and cancer drug resistance. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of RAM expression on outcomes for advanced biliary tract cancer patients, who were treated with gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX), with or without cetuximab, in a randomized phase II trial. RAM expression levels on archived tissue sections were scored using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Of 110 tumors with IHC staining for all three markers, 18 were RAM(high) (IHC intensity 3+ for any markers). Ninety-two tumors were RAM(low) (IHC intensity <3+ for all markers). All RAM(high) tumors were intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCC). Of the patients with IHCC (n = 80), median overall survival (OS) of RAM(high) group was inferior to that of the RAM(low) group (5.7 vs. 11.7 months, p = 0.021). In multivariate analysis RAM(high) remained an independently adverse prognostic factor, with a hazard ratio of 2.01 (p = 0.039). In the RAM(low) group, GEMOX treatment with cetuximab significantly improved the disease control rate (68% vs. 41%, p = 0.044), median progression-free survival (7.3 vs. 4.9 months, p = 0.026), and marginally prolonged median OS (14.1 vs 9.6 months, p = 0.056), compared to GEMOX treatment alone. Future trials of anti-EGFR inhibitors for IHCC may consider RAM expression as a patient stratification factor. PMID:27136744