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Sample records for advanced levels specific

  1. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  2. Increased serum levels of the specific advanced glycation end product methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone are associated with retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fosmark, Dag Sigurd; Torjesen, Peter A; Kilhovd, Bente K; Berg, Tore J; Sandvik, Leiv; Hanssen, Kristian F; Agardh, Carl-David; Agardh, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are thought to play a major pathogenic role in diabetic retinopathy. The most important AGE is unknown, but as increased serum methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone has been demonstrated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate possible associations between serum levels of hydroimidazolone and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We recruited 227 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and retinopathy ranging from none to proliferative. Level of retinopathy was determined from 7 standard field stereo photographs per eye according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study. The patients were 66 +/- 11 years old, with a known diabetes duration of 14 +/- 9 years. Serum levels of hydroimidazolone were determined with a competitive immunoassay. Serum levels of hydroimidazolone were increased in nonproliferative (median, 4.50 U/mL; interquartile range, 3.69-5.77 U/mL) and proliferative retinopathy (median, 4.88 U/mL; interquartile range, 3.70-6.52 U/mL) compared with patients without retinopathy (median, 4.02 U/mL; interquartile range, 3.47-4.88 U/mL) (P = .008 and .002, respectively). There was no association between hydroimidazolone and hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.04, P = .57). In addition, patients with proliferative retinopathy and a relatively short known duration of diabetes, that is, less than the median of 14 years, had increased serum levels of hydroimidazolone (median, 6.91 U/mL; interquartile range, 4.70-8.91 U/mL) compared with those with nonproliferative retinopathy (median, 4.34; interquartile range, 3.86-5.53U/mL, P = .015). Serum levels of hydroimidazolone are increased in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy. This association is independent of hitherto known associated factors, such as hemoglobin A1c.

  3. Designing and Implementing a New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Angela; Reiss, Michael J.; Rowell, Cathy; Scott, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a new advanced level biology course, piloted from September 2002 in England with around 1200 students. This paper discusses the reasons for developing a new advanced biology course at this time, the philosophy of the project and how the materials are being written and the specification devised. The aim of the…

  4. French on the Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlik, Teresa Wilkinson

    1969-01-01

    Presented in this article is an outline of some of the special interest course work included in the curriculum guidelines being developed in the Atlanta Public Schools System for advanced secondary school French classes. Titles of the audiolingually-oriented courses described are--(1) "Teenagers and Teenage Life in France Today," (2)…

  5. SNAB: A New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Of all the sciences, biology has probably made the most rapid progress in recent years and the need for this to be reflected in a new Advanced Level biology course has long been recognised in the UK. After wide-ranging consultation and successful piloting in over 50 schools and colleges in England and Wales, the new Salters-Nuffield Advanced…

  6. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  7. NEW APPROACHES: Reading in Advanced level physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, Dorothy

    1997-11-01

    Teachers often report that their A-level pupils are unwilling to read physics-related material. What is it about physics texts that deters pupils from reading them? Are they just too difficult for 16 - 18 year olds, or is it that pupils lack specific reading skills? This article describes some of the results from my research into pupils' reading of physics-related texts and tries to clarify the situation.

  8. [Advances in lineage-specific genes].

    PubMed

    Huanping, Zhang; Tongming, Yin

    2015-06-01

    Lineage-specific genes (LSGs) are defined as genes found in one particular taxonomic group but have no significant sequence similarity with genes from other lineages, which compose about 10%?20% of the total genes in the genome of a focal organism. LSGs were first uncovered in the yeast genome in 1996. The development of the whole genome sequencing leads to the emergence of studies on LSGs as a hot topic in comparative genomics. LSGs have been extensively studied on microbial species, lower marine organisms, plant (such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus), insects, primate, etc; the biological functions of LSGs are important to clarify the evolution and adaptability of a species. In this review, we summarize the progress of LSGs studies, including LSGs identification, gene characterization, origin and evolution of LSGs, biological function, and expression analysis of LSGs. In addition, we discuss the existing problems and future directions for studies in this area. Our purpose is to provide some unique insights into the researches of LSGs.

  9. Recent advances in covalent, site-specific protein immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Meldal, Morten; Schoffelen, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    The properties of biosensors, biomedical implants, and other materials based on immobilized proteins greatly depend on the method employed to couple the protein molecules to their solid support. Covalent, site-specific immobilization strategies are robust and can provide the level of control that is desired in this kind of application. Recent advances include the use of enzymes, such as sortase A, to couple proteins in a site-specific manner to materials such as microbeads, glass, and hydrogels. Also, self-labeling tags such as the SNAP-tag can be employed. Last but not least, chemical approaches based on bioorthogonal reactions, like the azide–alkyne cycloaddition, have proven to be powerful tools. The lack of comparative studies and quantitative analysis of these immobilization methods hampers the selection process of the optimal strategy for a given application. However, besides immobilization efficiency, the freedom in selecting the site of conjugation and the size of the conjugation tag and the researcher’s expertise regarding molecular biology and/or chemical techniques will be determining factors in this regard. PMID:27785356

  10. Rule Reformulation at the Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Sharon L.

    1993-01-01

    An inductive and interactive classroom technique to help advanced French language students reformulate simplified schemata into more useful insights into French grammar is described. It is proposed that, by developing the ability to revise continually structural hypotheses, students can expand syntactic repertories and improve long-term language…

  11. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  12. Realistic Specific Power Expectations for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2006-01-01

    Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being considered for a wide range of future NASA space science and exploration missions. Generally, RPS offer the advantages of high reliability, long life, and predictable power production regardless of operating environment. Previous RPS, in the form of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), have been used successfully on many NASA missions including Apollo, Viking, Voyager, and Galileo. NASA is currently evaluating design options for the next generation of RPS. Of particular interest is the use of advanced, higher efficiency power conversion to replace the previous thermoelectric devices. Higher efficiency reduces the quantity of radioisotope fuel and potentially improves the RPS specific power (watts per kilogram). Power conversion options include Segmented Thermoelectric (STE), Stirling, Brayton, and Thermophotovoltaic (TPV). This paper offers an analysis of the advanced 100 watt-class RPS options and provides credible projections for specific power. Based on the analysis presented, RPS specific power values greater than 10 W/kg appear unlikely.

  13. Comparing Content in Selected GCE A Levels and Advanced GNVQs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In an action research project, four British further education colleges compared mandatory units of three Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs)--business, art and design, and health and social care--with related General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A-level) syllabuses. Activities included a detailed comparison…

  14. Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors: Design, Specifications and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Insertion of new types of commercial, high volumetric efficiency wet tantalum capacitors in space systems requires reassessment of the existing quality assurance approaches that have been developed for capacitors manufactured to MIL-PRF-39006 requirements. The specifics of wet electrolytic capacitors is that leakage currents flowing through electrolyte can cause gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure and rupture of the case. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. This presentation gives a review of specifics of the design, performance, and potential reliability risks associated with advanced wet tantalum capacitors. Problems related to setting adequate requirements for DPA, leakage currents, hermeticity, stability at low and high temperatures, ripple currents for parts operating in vacuum, and random vibration testing are discussed. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  15. Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors: Design, Specifications and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Insertion of new types of commercial, high volumetric efficiency wet tantalum capacitors in space systems requires reassessment of the existing quality assurance approaches that have been developed for capacitors manufactured to MIL-PRF-39006 requirements. The specifics of wet electrolytic capacitors is that leakage currents flowing through electrolyte can cause gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure and rupture of the case. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. This presentation gives a review of specifics of the design, performance, and potential reliability risks associated with advanced wet tantalum capacitors. Problems related to setting adequate requirements for DPA, leakage currents, hermeticity, stability at low and high temperatures, ripple currents for parts operating in vacuum, and random vibration testing are discussed. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  16. Advanced Tribological Coatings for High Specific Strength Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-29

    Hard Anodised 4 HSSA12 (SHT) Plasma Nitrided 1 HSSA13 (H&G) Plasma Nitrided 2 HSSA14 (SHT) High Temperature Nitrocarburized 1 HSSA15 (H&G) Nitrox 1...HSSA26 ( High Temperature Plasma Nitriding) has recently arrived, and is currently undergoing metallographic examination. The remaining samples are still...Report No 3789/607 Advanced Tribological Coatings For High Specific Strength Alloys, R&D 5876-MS-01 Contract DAJ A45-87-C-0044 5th Interim Report

  17. Who Studies Religion at Advanced Level: Why and to What Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Astley, Jeff; Parker, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was established to profile students currently studying religion at Advanced level (A level) in terms of their demography, motivation, experience and attitudes. Eight specific areas were identified for examination: their personal motivation to study religion at A level, the personal challenges posed by the subject, their personal…

  18. Reassessing the Economic Value of Advanced Level Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Michael; Noyes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the economic return to Advanced level (A-level) mathematics was examined. The analysis was based upon a series of log-linear models of earnings in the 1958 National Child Development Survey (NCDS) and the National Survey of 1980 Graduates and Diplomates. The core finding was that A-level mathematics had a unique earnings premium…

  19. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffing, Anne; Jensen, Travis J.; Strickland, Lucas Marshall; Meserole, Stephen; Tallant, David

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  20. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  1. Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Perry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

  2. ESL for Hotel/Hospitality Industry. Level: Advanced Beginner/Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Suffolk County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Northport, NY.

    This document contains 16 lesson plans for an advanced beginning and intermediate course in work-related English for non-English- or limited-English-speaking entry-level employees in the hotel and hospitality industry. Course objectives are as follows: helping participants understand and use job-specific vocabulary; receive and understand…

  3. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  4. Quantitative levels of immunoglobulin E in advanced tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Casterline, C L; Evans, R; Ward, G W

    1976-07-01

    Quantitative levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) were determined in samples of sera obtained from 29 patients with proven moderate to far-advanced tuberculosis. The sensitive radioimmunoassay test for IgE was used. Statistical analysis of the results revealed no difference in IgE values as compared to a control group of normal sera. In contrast to other chronic pulmonary infections, such as bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, the IgE level in pulmonary tuberculous infection is of no diagnostic significance. Simultaneous determination of levels of immunoglobulins G, A, M, and D (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD) in these same sera by radial immunodiffusion showed elevated IgG and lowered IgM levels in the tuberculous patients, confirming previous studies. The significance of these alterations in immunoglobulin levels is unclear and may represent a secondary phenomenon rather than a primary host response.

  5. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Fox, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  6. Advanced Free Flight Planner and Dispatcher's Workstation: Preliminary Design Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J.; Wright, C.; Couluris, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has implemented the Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATT) program to investigate future improvements to the national and international air traffic management systems. This research, as part of the AATT program, developed preliminary design requirements for an advanced Airline Operations Control (AOC) dispatcher's workstation, with emphasis on flight planning. This design will support the implementation of an experimental workstation in NASA laboratories that would emulate AOC dispatch operations. The work developed an airline flight plan data base and specified requirements for: a computer tool for generation and evaluation of free flight, user preferred trajectories (UPT); the kernel of an advanced flight planning system to be incorporated into the UPT-generation tool; and an AOC workstation to house the UPT-generation tool and to provide a real-time testing environment. A prototype for the advanced flight plan optimization kernel was developed and demonstrated. The flight planner uses dynamic programming to search a four-dimensional wind and temperature grid to identify the optimal route, altitude and speed for successive segments of a flight. An iterative process is employed in which a series of trajectories are successively refined until the LTPT is identified. The flight planner is designed to function in the current operational environment as well as in free flight. The free flight environment would enable greater flexibility in UPT selection based on alleviation of current procedural constraints. The prototype also takes advantage of advanced computer processing capabilities to implement more powerful optimization routines than would be possible with older computer systems.

  7. Advanced micromechanisms in a multi-level polysilicon technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Miller, S.L.; Barron, C.C.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    Quad-level polysilicon surface micromachining technology, comprising three mechanical levels plus an electrical interconnect layer, is giving rise to a new generation of micro-electromechanical devices and assemblies. Enhanced components can not be produced through greater flexibility in fabrication and design. New levels of design complexity that include multi-level gears, single-attempt locks, and optical elements have recently been realized. Extensive utilization of the fourth layer of polysilicon differentiates these latter generation devices from their predecessors. This level of poly enables the fabrication of pin joints, linkage arms, hinges on moveable plates, and multi-level gear assemblies. The mechanical design aspects of these latest micromachines will be discussed with particular emphasis on a number of design aspects of these latest micromachines will be discussed with particular emphasis on a number of design modifications that improve the power, reliability, and smoothness of operation of the microengine. The microengine is the primary actuation mechanism that is being used to drive mirrors out of plane and rotate 1600-{mu}m diameter gears. Also discussed is the authors most advanced micromechanical system to date, a complex proof-of-concept batch-fabricated assembly that, upon transmitting the proper electrical code to a mechanical lock, permits the operation of a micro-optical shutter.

  8. Specification of advanced safety modeling requirements (Rev. 0).

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T. H.; Tautges, T. J.

    2008-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has lead to renewed interest in liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors for the purpose of closing the nuclear fuel cycle and making more efficient use of future repository capacity. However, the U.S. has not designed or constructed a fast reactor in nearly 30 years. Accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will play a crucial role by providing confidence that component and system designs will satisfy established design limits and safety margins under a wide variety of operational, design basis, and beyond design basis transient conditions. Current modeling capabilities for fast reactor safety analyses have resulted from several hundred person-years of code development effort supported by experimental validation. The broad spectrum of mechanistic and phenomenological models that have been developed represent an enormous amount of institutional knowledge that needs to be maintained. Complicating this, the existing code architectures for safety modeling evolved from programming practices of the 1970s. This has lead to monolithic applications with interdependent data models which require significant knowledge of the complexities of the entire code in order for each component to be maintained. In order to develop an advanced fast reactor safety modeling capability, the limitations of the existing code architecture must be overcome while preserving the capabilities that already exist. To accomplish this, a set of advanced safety modeling requirements is defined, based on modern programming practices, that focuses on modular development within a flexible coupling framework. An approach for integrating the existing capabilities of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 fast reactor safety analysis code into the SHARP framework is provided in order to preserve existing capabilities while providing a smooth transition to advanced modeling capabilities. In doing this, the advanced fast reactor safety models will

  9. Advancing the Science of Community-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Beehler, Sarah; Deutsch, Charles; Green, Lawrence W.; Hawe, Penelope; McLeroy, Kenneth; Miller, Robin Lin; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Schensul, Jean J.; Schulz, Amy J.; Trimble, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Community interventions are complex social processes that need to move beyond single interventions and outcomes at individual levels of short-term change. A scientific paradigm is emerging that supports collaborative, multilevel, culturally situated community interventions aimed at creating sustainable community-level impact. This paradigm is rooted in a deep history of ecological and collaborative thinking across public health, psychology, anthropology, and other fields of social science. The new paradigm makes a number of primary assertions that affect conceptualization of health issues, intervention design, and intervention evaluation. To elaborate the paradigm and advance the science of community intervention, we offer suggestions for promoting a scientific agenda, developing collaborations among professionals and communities, and examining the culture of science. PMID:21680923

  10. Advances of Community-Level Plant DNA Barcoding in China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Nancai; Chen, Bufeng; Kress, W. J.

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a commonly used bio-technology in multiple disciplines including biology, environmental science, forensics and inspection, etc. Forest dynamic plots provide a unique opportunity to carry out large-scale, comparative, and multidisciplinary research for plant DNA barcoding. The paper concisely reviewed four previous progresses in China; specifically, species discrimination, community phylogenetic reconstruction, phylogenetic community structure exploration, and biodiversity index evaluation. Further, we demonstrated three major challenges; specifically, building the impetus to generate DNA barcodes using multiple plant DNA markers for all woody species at forest community levels, analyzing massive DNA barcoding sequence data, and promoting theoretical innovation. Lastly, we raised five possible directions; specifically, proposing a “purpose-driven barcode” fit for multi-level applications, developing new integrative sequencing strategies, pushing DNA barcoding beyond terrestrial ecosystem, constructing national-level DNA barcode sequence libraries for special plant groups, and establishing intelligent identification systems or online server platforms. These efforts will be potentially valuable to explore large-scale biodiversity patterns, the origin and evolution of life, and will also facilitate preservation and utilization of biodiversity resources. PMID:28270824

  11. Advances of Community-Level Plant DNA Barcoding in China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Nancai; Chen, Bufeng; Kress, W J

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a commonly used bio-technology in multiple disciplines including biology, environmental science, forensics and inspection, etc. Forest dynamic plots provide a unique opportunity to carry out large-scale, comparative, and multidisciplinary research for plant DNA barcoding. The paper concisely reviewed four previous progresses in China; specifically, species discrimination, community phylogenetic reconstruction, phylogenetic community structure exploration, and biodiversity index evaluation. Further, we demonstrated three major challenges; specifically, building the impetus to generate DNA barcodes using multiple plant DNA markers for all woody species at forest community levels, analyzing massive DNA barcoding sequence data, and promoting theoretical innovation. Lastly, we raised five possible directions; specifically, proposing a "purpose-driven barcode" fit for multi-level applications, developing new integrative sequencing strategies, pushing DNA barcoding beyond terrestrial ecosystem, constructing national-level DNA barcode sequence libraries for special plant groups, and establishing intelligent identification systems or online server platforms. These efforts will be potentially valuable to explore large-scale biodiversity patterns, the origin and evolution of life, and will also facilitate preservation and utilization of biodiversity resources.

  12. Sex-Specific Parental Effects on Offspring Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Predazzi, Irene M; Sobota, Rafal S; Sanna, Serena; Bush, William S; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Lilley, Jessica S; Linton, MacRae F; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco; Fazio, Sergio; Williams, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma lipid levels are highly heritable traits, but known genetic loci can only explain a small portion of their heritability. Methods and Results In this study, we analyzed the role of parental levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs) in explaining the values of the corresponding traits in adult offspring. We also evaluated the contribution of nongenetic factors that influence lipid traits (age, body mass index, smoking, medications, and menopause) alone and in combination with variability at the genetic loci known to associate with TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG levels. We performed comparisons among different sex-specific regression models in 416 families from the Framingham Heart Study and 304 from the SardiNIA cohort. Models including parental lipid levels explain significantly more of the trait variation than models without these measures, explaining up to ≈39% of the total trait variation. Of this variation, the parent-of-origin effect explains as much as ≈15% and it does so in a sex-specific way. This observation is not owing to shared environment, given that spouse-pair correlations were negligible (<1.5% explained variation in all cases) and is distinct from previous genetic and acquired factors that are known to influence serum lipid levels. Conclusions These findings support the concept that unknown genetic and epigenetic contributors are responsible for most of the heritable component of the plasma lipid phenotype, and that, at present, the clinical utility of knowing age-matched parental lipid levels in assessing risk of dyslipidemia supersedes individual locus effects. Our results support the clinical utility of knowing parental lipid levels in assessing future risk of dyslipidemia. PMID:26126546

  13. Level and appraisal of fatigue are not specific in burnout.

    PubMed

    Van Dam, Arno; Keijsers, Ger; Verbraak, Marc; Eling, Paul; Becker, Eni

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a main feature of the burnout syndrome but also very common in other psychiatric disorders such as major depression and anxiety disorders. This raises the question of whether the level and appraisal of fatigue is experienced differently by individuals suffering from burnout than by those exhibiting anxiety disorders and major depression. If fatigue is experienced differently in burnout compared with other disorders, this may clarify why fatigue is the main feature of the burnout syndrome. This knowledge may lead to the application of specific therapeutic interventions aimed at the experience of fatigue in burnout. In the present study, we investigated whether fatigue is experienced differently in burnout patients than in patients suffering from anxiety disorders or major depression. We presented 73 burnout patients, 67 depressed patients, 57 patients with an anxiety disorder and 127 healthy participants with a rating scale containing statements about the fatigue-performance relationship, and we assessed the level of fatigue, depression and anxiety. The level of fatigue reported by burnout patients was high but did not differ from that of the other patient groups. The appraisal of fatigue also did not differ among the patient groups. The burnout patients did not appraise their fatigue as a result of unrewarding activities nor did they catastrophize fatigue in an exceptional way. Thus, the level of fatigue and the appraisal of fatigue may be less relevant to the understanding of the specific pathological processes associated with burnout than is often presumed.

  14. Specification, Design, and Analysis of Advanced HUMS Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    During the two-year project period, we have worked on several aspects of domain-specific architectures for HUMS. In particular, we looked at using scenario-based approach for the design and designed a language for describing such architectures. The language is now being used in all aspects of our HUMS design. In particular, we have made contributions in the following areas. 1) We have employed scenarios in the development of HUMS in three main areas. They are: (a) To improve reusability by using scenarios as a library indexing tool and as a domain analysis tool; (b) To improve maintainability by recording design rationales from two perspectives - problem domain and solution domain; (c) To evaluate the software architecture. 2) We have defined a new architectural language called HADL or HUMS Architectural Definition Language. It is a customized version of xArch/xADL. It is based on XML and, hence, is easily portable from domain to domain, application to application, and machine to machine. Specifications written in HADL can be easily read and parsed using the currently available XML parsers. Thus, there is no need to develop a plethora of software to support HADL. 3) We have developed an automated design process that involves two main techniques: (a) Selection of solutions from a large space of designs; (b) Synthesis of designs. However, the automation process is not an absolute Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach though it uses a knowledge-based system that epitomizes a specific HUMS domain. The process uses a database of solutions as an aid to solve the problems rather than creating a new design in the literal sense. Since searching is adopted as the main technique, the challenges involved are: (a) To minimize the effort in searching the database where a very large number of possibilities exist; (b) To develop representations that could conveniently allow us to depict design knowledge evolved over many years; (c) To capture the required information that aid the

  15. Advanced level set segmentation of the right atrium in MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siqi; Kohlberger, Timo; Kirchberg, Klaus J.

    2011-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a common heart arrhythmia, and can be effectively treated with ablation. Ablation planning requires 3D models of the patient's left atrium (LA) and/or right atrium (RA), therefore an automatic segmentation procedure to retrieve these models is desirable. In this study, we investigate the use of advanced level set segmentation approaches to automatically segment RA in magnetic resonance angiographic (MRA) volume images. Low contrast to noise ratio makes the boundary between the RA and the nearby structures nearly indistinguishable. Therefore, pure data driven segmentation approaches such as watershed and ChanVese methods are bound to fail. Incorporating training shapes through PCA modeling to constrain the segmentation is one popular solution, and is also used in our segmentation framework. The shape parameters from PCA are optimized with a global histogram based energy model. However, since the shape parameters span a much smaller space, it can not capture fine details of the shape. Therefore, we employ a second refinement step after the shape based segmentation stage, which follows closely the recent work of localized appearance model based techniques. The local appearance model is established through a robust point tracking mechanism and is learned through landmarks embedded on the surface of training shapes. The key contribution of our work is the combination of a statistical shape prior and a localized appearance prior for level set segmentation of the right atrium from MRA. We test this two step segmentation framework on porcine RA to verify the algorithm.

  16. Urinary prostate specific antigen levels after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Takayama, T K; Vessella, R L; Brawer, M K; True, L D; Noteboom, J; Lange, P H

    1994-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that urinary prostate specific antigen (PSA) is discordant with serum PSA in many patients after radical prostatectomy. This observation led to the speculation that elevated urinary PSA in the face of undetectable serum PSA may indicate early disease recurrence. We measured urinary PSA levels in 30 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 7 patients who had undergone cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer. PSA levels of randomly collected urine samples ranged from 0.00 to 22.9 ng./ml. and 0.01 to 8.37 ng./ml., respectively. There was no correlation among urinary and serum PSA levels, pathological stage or type of operation. In 14 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy and who had measurable levels of urinary PSA voided specimens were divided into initial stream and end stream voided samples. The PSA levels in the end stream voided samples were significantly less than the initial stream sample in 12 of the 14 patients. In men who had undergone radical prostatectomy urethral swab samples were analyzed for PSA. Of 26 patients 24 had detectable levels of urethral swab PSA (range 0.01 to 39.04 ng./ml., median 0.93 ng./ml.). Urethral swab PSA levels did not correlate with serum PSA values or pathological stage of disease. Of 7 patients who had defunctionalized urethras after radical cystoprostatectomy 5 had significantly elevated PSA in the urethral wash or swab samples (range 4.3 to 24.5 ng./ml.). Immunohistochemical analysis of urethrectomy specimens demonstrated positive staining for PSA in 3 of 4 specimens. We conclude that the major source of urinary PSA following total prostatectomy is the urethra itself rather than residual prostate tissue. Measuring serial urinary PSA appears to have limited value in monitoring patients after radical prostatectomy. Whether this urethral PSA can ever contaminate the serum levels of PSA after radical prostatectomy is currently under investigation.

  17. Prototype Operational Advances for Atmospheric Radiation Dose Rate Specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Bouwer, D.; Bailey, J. J.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H. B.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R. W.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Crowley, G.; Reynolds, A.; Azeem, I.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Wiley, S.; Bacon, S.; Teets, E.; Sim, A.; Dominik, L.

    2014-12-01

    effective dose rate measurements and a thermal neutron monitor to characterize Single Event Effects (SEEs) in avionics. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX advances that will ultimately provide operational users with real-time dose and dose rate data for human tissue and avionics exposure risk mitigation.

  18. Basic-level visual similarity and category specificity.

    PubMed

    Gale, Tim M; Laws, Keith R; Frank, Ray J; Leeson, Verity C

    2003-11-01

    The role of visual crowding in category deficits has been widely discussed (e.g.,;; ). Most studies have measured overlap at the superordinate level (compare different examples of 'animal') rather than at the basic level (compare different examples of 'dog'). In this study, we therefore derived two measures of basic-level overlap for a range of categories. The first was a computational measure generated by a self-organising neural network trained to process pictures of living and non-living things; the second was a rating of perceived visual similarity generated by human subjects to the item names. The computational measure indicated that the pattern of crowded/uncrowded does not honour a living/non-living distinction. Nevertheless, different superordinates showed varied degrees of basic-level overlap, suggesting that specific token choice affects some superordinates more than others e.g., individual fruit and vegetable tokens show greater variability than any other items, while tools and vehicles produce more reliable or overlapping basic-level visual representations. Finally, subject ratings correlated significantly with the computational measures indicating that the neural model represents structural properties of the objects that are psychologically meaningful.

  19. ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC T LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION DECREASES OVER TIME IN ADVANCED CHRONIC HEPATITIS C

    PubMed Central

    Morishima, Chihiro; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Rothman, Alan L.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Lindsay, Karen L.; Lee, William M.; Koziel, Margaret James; Fontana, Robert J.; Kim, Hae-Young; Wright, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate T cell immunity in advanced liver disease, antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses were prospectively studied in the context of the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) trial. Peripheral blood responses to HCV, tetanus and Candida protein antigens were measured at baseline, Month 12 (M12), M24, M36 and M48 in 186 patients randomized to either low-dose PEG-IFN only or observation. Liver histology was evaluated at baseline, M24 and M48. Patients with cirrhosis (Ishak 5–6) were less likely to have positive lymphoproliferative responses to HCV at baseline than patients with fibrosis (15% vs 29%, p=0.03) and had lower levels of HCV c100 responses at baseline, M24 and M48 (p=0.11, p=0.05, p=0.02, respectively). For 97 patients with complete longitudinal data, the frequency of positive lymphoproliferative responses to HCV, tetanus and Candida antigens declined over time (p<0.003) and the slope of this decline was greater in the PEG-IFN treatment group than the observation group (p < 0.02). Lower levels of tetanus lymphoproliferative responses were associated with fibrosis progression and clinical outcomes (p=0.009). Poorer CD4+ T cell proliferative function is associated with more advanced liver disease in chronic hepatitis C, and may be further affected by long-term PEG-IFN treatment. PMID:22571902

  20. Levels of processing and language modality specificity in working memory.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Mary; Karlsson, Thomas; Gunnarsson, Johan; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-03-01

    Neural networks underpinning working memory demonstrate sign language specific components possibly related to differences in temporary storage mechanisms. A processing approach to memory systems suggests that the organisation of memory storage is related to type of memory processing as well. In the present study, we investigated for the first time semantic, phonological and orthographic processing in working memory for sign- and speech-based language. During fMRI we administered a picture-based 2-back working memory task with Semantic, Phonological, Orthographic and Baseline conditions to 11 deaf signers and 20 hearing non-signers. Behavioural data showed poorer and slower performance for both groups in Phonological and Orthographic conditions than in the Semantic condition, in line with depth-of-processing theory. An exclusive masking procedure revealed distinct sign-specific neural networks supporting working memory components at all three levels of processing. The overall pattern of sign-specific activations may reflect a relative intermodality difference in the relationship between phonology and semantics influencing working memory storage and processing.

  1. Using Speaking Test Data to Define the Advanced Proficiency Level for L2 Arabic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Summer

    2015-01-01

    Reaching the Advanced level of proficiency in speaking is a common goal of second language learners, but data on advanced learners of less commonly taught languages such as Arabic are scarce. This mixed-methods study reports words-per-minute and type-token ratios for three ACTFL levels--10 Intermediate Mid, 10 Advanced Mid, and 8…

  2. Recent advances in the development of specific antidotes for target-specific oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yoonsun; Yam, Felix K

    2015-02-01

    Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, has been the only orally available anticoagulant for > 60 years. During the past decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved several target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) for the prophylaxis and treatment of arterial and venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. These new agents have several advantages over warfarin including more predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, fewer food and drug interactions, and lack of need for routine coagulation monitoring. However, unlike warfarin, currently no antidotes are available to reverse the anticoagulant effect of TSOACs. Specific antidotes for TSOACs may not be needed in most situations due to their short half-life, yet the absence of antidotes for these agents is a concern, especially in emergent situations such as life-threatening major bleeding or nonelective major surgery. Several specific antidotes for TSOACs including idarucizumab, andexanet alfa, and aripazine have been developed and have shown promise in early clinical trials evaluating their efficacy and safety. In this narrative review, the progress made in developing specific antidotes for TSOACs is summarized based on the latest available preclinical and clinical data.

  3. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 1 models

    SciTech Connect

    Sattison, M.B.; Thatcher, T.A.; Knudsen, J.K.; Schroeder, J.A.; Siu, N.O.

    1996-03-01

    INEL has been involved in the development of plant-specific Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) models for the past two years. These models were developed for use with the SAPHIRE suite of PRA computer codes. They contained event tree/linked fault tree Level 1 risk models for the following initiating events: general transient, loss-of-offsite-power, steam generator tube rupture, small loss-of-coolant-accident, and anticipated transient without scram. Early in 1995 the ASP models were revised based on review comments from the NRC and an independent peer review. These models were released as Revision 1. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has sponsored several projects at the INEL this fiscal year to further enhance the capabilities of the ASP models. Revision 2 models incorporates more detailed plant information into the models concerning plant response to station blackout conditions, information on battery life, and other unique features gleaned from an Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation quick review of the Individual Plant Examination submittals. These models are currently being delivered to the NRC as they are completed. A related project is a feasibility study and model development of low power/shutdown (LP/SD) and external event extensions to the ASP models. This project will establish criteria for selection of LP/SD and external initiator operational events for analysis within the ASP program. Prototype models for each pertinent initiating event (loss of shutdown cooling, loss of inventory control, fire, flood, seismic, etc.) will be developed. A third project concerns development of enhancements to SAPHIRE. In relation to the ASP program, a new SAPHIRE module, GEM, was developed as a specific user interface for performing ASP evaluations. This module greatly simplifies the analysis process for determining the conditional core damage probability for a given combination of initiating events and equipment failures or degradations.

  4. Specific serum protein levels in women using intrauterine contraceptive device.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, D; Kríz, J; Cídl, K

    1980-01-01

    The report is concerned with the levels of 17 specific serum proteins in 46 women using plastic nonmedicated intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) Dana-Super. Blood samplings were carried out three times: just before the IUCD introduction, 30 and 54 weeks after the insertion of IUCD. The following proteins except haptoglobin were quantitatively determined by radial immunodiffusion: prealbumin, albumin, orosomucoid, alpha 1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin, alpha 2HS-glycoprotein, alpha 2-macroglobulin, hemopexin, C3-component, transferrin, beta 2-glycoprotein I, C-reactive protein and immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD. Moderately increased values were found for alpha 2HS-glycoprotein and beta 2-glycoprotein I in sera taken 30 weeks after the insertion of IUCD. AT the same time the augmentation of alpha 1-antitrypsin was established. This might be evoked by the raised protease activity in biological fluids of genital region. The raise in consequence of IUCD application of transferrin and the decrease of haptoglobin at the first postinsertion examination and the decrease of hemopexin and albumin at the second may be associated with higher menstrual bleeding followed by iron deficiency. All other proteins as well as the acute phase proteins showed only minor if any differences as compared with the corresponding start values. Similarly, there is no evidence of a systemic immunoglobulin response to IUCD use.

  5. Advanced Placement Course Enrollment and School-Level Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; McGaha-Garnett, Valerie; Burley, Hansel

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined access to Advanced Placement (AP) courses as a function of these school characteristics (e.g., percentage of ethnic minority and lower socioeconomic status) and then examined AP course enrollment as a function of both access to AP courses and these school characteristics. Using structural equation modeling techniques,…

  6. Assessing Accomplished Teaching: Advanced-Level Certification Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stuart W., Ed.; Koenig, Judith Anderson, Ed.; Hakel, Milton D., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is to establish "high and rigorous standards for what teachers should know and be able to do, to certify teachers who meet those standards, and to advance other education reforms for the purpose of improving student learning in American schools." In response to…

  7. Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This paper explains how advanced inverter functions (sometimes called 'smart inverters') contribute to the integration of high levels of solar PV generation onto the electrical grid and covers the contributions of advanced functions to maintaining grid stability. Policy and regulatory considerations associated with the deployment of advanced inverter functions are also introduced.

  8. Some Specific CASL Requirements for Advanced Multiphase Flow Simulation of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Berry

    2010-11-01

    Because of the diversity of physical phenomena occuring in boiling, flashing, and bubble collapse, and of the length and time scales of LWR systems, it is imperative that the models have the following features: • Both vapor and liquid phases (and noncondensible phases, if present) must be treated as compressible. • Models must be mathematically and numerically well-posed. • The models methodology must be multi-scale. A fundamental derivation of the multiphase governing equation system, that should be used as a basis for advanced multiphase modeling in LWR coolant systems, is given in the Appendix using the ensemble averaging method. The remainder of this work focuses specifically on the compressible, well-posed, and multi-scale requirements of advanced simulation methods for these LWR coolant systems, because without these are the most fundamental aspects, without which widespread advancement cannot be claimed. Because of the expense of developing multiple special-purpose codes and the inherent inability to couple information from the multiple, separate length- and time-scales, efforts within CASL should be focused toward development of a multi-scale approaches to solve those multiphase flow problems relevant to LWR design and safety analysis. Efforts should be aimed at developing well-designed unified physical/mathematical and high-resolution numerical models for compressible, all-speed multiphase flows spanning: (1) Well-posed general mixture level (true multiphase) models for fast transient situations and safety analysis, (2) DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation)-like models to resolve interface level phenmena like flashing and boiling flows, and critical heat flux determination (necessarily including conjugate heat transfer), and (3) Multi-scale methods to resolve both (1) and (2) automatically, depending upon specified mesh resolution, and to couple different flow models (single-phase, multiphase with several velocities and pressures, multiphase with single

  9. Specification for procurement of water-level sensing instrumentation, specification number HIF-I-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    This specification is to communicate to instrument manufacturers the U.S. Geological Survey 's requirements. It covers systems for sensing the elevation of the water surface on open channels, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, storm-sewer pipes, and observation wells at Survey data-collection sites. The signal output (mechanical or electrical) must meet the signal input requirements of analog to digital and digital input recorders in use by the Survey. A classification of stage-sensing systems by common characteristics is used to aid Survey people making system selections. These characteristics are (1) system type (contact or noncontact), (2) sensor type and sensing distance, (3) accuracy, (4) range, (5) power requirements, (6) system size and weight, and (7) data output signal. Acceptable system requirements cover system configurations, signal outputs, materials, operation manuals, detailed environmental conditions, calibration procedures, system accuracy, power requirements, installation limitations, maintainability, safety, and workmanship. An outline of the qualification test procedures and failure criteria are also given. The Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility at NSTL Station, Mississippi will test available systems to determine if they meet the specification in this report for inclusion in the Survey 's 'Qualified Products List'. This list will be used for future procurement of water-level sensing systems by the Survey. (USGS)

  10. Retail Merchandising. An Advanced Level Option for Marketing and Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Ross; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to prepare secondary school students for entry-level and career-level positions in the largest area of employment in distribution and marketing--retail merchandising. Developed for use in the twelfth grade competency cluster phase of New York State secondary marketing and distributive education program, this…

  11. Learning and remembering strategies of novice and advanced jazz dancers for skill level appropriate dance routines.

    PubMed

    Poon, P P; Rodgers, W M

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the influence of the challenge level of to-be-learned stimulus on learning strategies in novice and advanced dancers. In Study 1, skill-level appropriate dance routines were developed for novice and advanced jazz dancers. In Study 2, 8 novice and 9 advanced female jazz dancers attempted to learn and remember the two routines in mixed model factorial design, with one between-participants factor: skill level (novice or advanced) and two within-participants factors: routine (easy or difficult) and performance (immediate or delayed). Participants were interviewed regarding the strategies used to learn and remember the routines. Results indicated that advanced performers used atypical learning strategies for insufficiently challenging stimuli, which may reflect characteristics of the stimuli rather than the performer. The qualitative data indicate a clear preference of novice and advanced performers for spatial compatibility of stimuli and response.

  12. Advancement of Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Emiley, Mark S.; Agte, Jeremy S.; Sandusky, Robert R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) is a method for optimization of an engineering system, e.g., an aerospace vehicle. BLISS consists of optimizations at the subsystem (module) and system levels to divide the overall large optimization task into sets of smaller ones that can be executed concurrently. In the initial version of BLISS that was introduced and documented in previous publications, analysis in the modules was kept at the early conceptual design level. This paper reports on the next step in the BLISS development in which the fidelity of the aerodynamic drag and structural stress and displacement analyses were upgraded while the method's satisfactory convergence rate was retained.

  13. Advanced-Level Biology--Is There a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Explores whether there are problems with A-level biology that are broadly shared by teachers. Addresses five major areas of concerns: (1) teaching and learning, (2) practical work, (3) subject content, (4) assessment, and (5) initial teacher training. (DDR)

  14. GNVQ science at advanced level: motivation and self-esteem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, J.

    1995-07-01

    An interview study carried out in the pilot year of the new GNVQ in science at A-level has shown that the use of grading criteria, which require independent learning, as a method of assessment is better for students' motivation and self-esteem.

  15. Reduced levels of specific autobiographical memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Riutort, Marielle; Cuervo, Christine; Danion, Jean-Marie; Peretti, Charles Siegfried; Salamé, Pierre

    2003-01-25

    Autobiographical memory is intrinsically related to the self and personal identity. This study investigated whether both personal episodic memory and semantic memory are impaired in schizophrenia, a disease characterized by an abnormal personal identity. Personal episodic memory and personal semantic memory were investigated in 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 normal subjects using an autobiographical fluency task and an autobiographical memory inquiry. Autobiographical memory scores and the proportion of specific memories were lower in patients with schizophrenia than in normal subjects. The deficit of personal episodic and semantic memory, as assessed by the autobiographical memory inquiry and the autobiographical fluency task, respectively, was most apparent after the onset of clinical symptoms. Schizophrenia is associated with an impairment of both personal episodic and semantic memory and with a reduction of specific autobiographical memories. Those impairments are consistent with the existence of an abnormal personal identity in patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Blood BDNF Level Is Gender Specific in Severe Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kreinin, Anatoly; Lisson, Serah; Nesher, Elimelech; Schneider, Jenny; Bergman, Josef; Farhat, Kamal; Farah, Joseph; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Yadid, Gal; Raskin, Leon; Koman, Igor; Pinhasov, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Though the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a marker for major depressive disorder (MDD) and antidepressant efficacy has been widely studied, the role of BDNF in distinct groups of patients remains unclear. We evaluated the diagnostic value of BDNF as a marker of disease severity measured by HAM-D scores and antidepressants efficacy among MDD patients. Fifty-one patients who met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and were prescribed antidepressants and 38 controls participated in this study. BDNF in serum was measured at baseline, 1st, 2nd and 8th treatment weeks. Depression severity was evaluated using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). BDNF polymorphism rs6265 (val66met) was genotyped. We found a positive correlation between blood BDNF levels and severity of depression only among untreated women with severe MDD (HAM-D>24). Serum BDNF levels were lower in untreated MDD patients compared to control group. Antidepressants increased serum BDNF levels and reduced between-group differences after two weeks of treatment. No correlations were observed between BDNF polymorphism, depression severity, duration of illness, age and BDNF serum levels. Further supporting the role of BDNF in the pathology and treatment of MDD, we suggest that it should not be used as a universal biomarker for diagnosis of MDD in the general population. However, it has diagnostic value for the assessment of disease progression and treatment efficacy in individual patients. PMID:26010085

  17. Application of PSA to review and define technical specifications for advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Reinhart, F.M.; Wohl, M.L.

    1995-11-01

    As part of the design certification process, probabilistic safety assessments (PSAS) are performed at the design stage for each advanced nuclear power plant. Among other usages, these PSAs are important inputs in defining the Technical Specifications (TSs) for these plants. Knowledge gained from their use in improving the TSs for operating nuclear power plants is providing methods and insights for using PSAs at this early stage. Evaluating the safety or the risk significance of the TSs to be defined for an advanced plant encompasses diverse aspects: (a) determining the basic limiting condition for operation (LCO); (b) structuring conditions associated with the LCO; (c) defining completion times (equivalent to allowed outage times in the TS for conventional plants); and, (d) prescribing required actions to be taken within the specified completion times. In this paper, we consider the use of PSA in defining the TSs for an advanced nuclear plant, namely General Electric`s Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). Similar approaches are being taken for ABB-CE`s System 80+ and Westinghouse`s AP-600. We discuss the general features of an advanced reactor`s TS, how PSA is being used in reviewing the TSs, and we give an example where the TS submittal was reviewed using a PSA-based analysis to arrive at the requirements for the plant.

  18. Sex-specific development of cortical monoamine levels in mouse.

    PubMed

    Connell, Shelley; Karikari, Collins; Hohmann, Christine F

    2004-07-19

    Several mental health disorders exhibit sex differences in monoamine levels associated with dimorphic cortical ontogeny. Studies in rodents support the notion that monoamines can profoundly modulate morphogenesis. Here, we show significant sex and hemisphere differences in BALB/cByJ mice on postnatal day 3 for dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-TH), supporting the notion that sex differences in early monoaminergic ontogeny may result in dimorphic cortical development. Such sex differences may also influence differential behavioral and/or clinical outcomes.

  19. Tissue-Specific Glycosylation at the Glycopeptide Level.

    PubMed

    Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Kaasik, Krista; Chalkley, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    This manuscript describes the enrichment and mass spectrometric analysis of intact glycopeptides from mouse liver, which yielded site-specific N- and O-glycosylation data for ∼ 130 proteins. Incorporation of different sialic acid variants in both N- and O-linked glycans was observed, and the importance of using both collisional activation and electron transfer dissociation for glycopeptide analysis was illustrated. The N-glycan structures of predicted lysosomal, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), secreted and transmembrane proteins were compared. The data suggest that protein N-glycosylation differs depending on cellular location. The glycosylation patterns of several mouse liver and mouse brain glycopeptides were compared. Tissue-specific differences in glycosylation were observed between sites within the same protein: Some sites displayed a similar spectrum of glycan structures in both tissues, whereas for others no overlap was observed. We present comparative brain/liver glycosylation data on 50 N-glycosylation sites from 34 proteins and 13 O-glycosylation sites from seven proteins.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-09-01

    Breithaupt's new book is big: at 727 pages, it will be a hefty addition to any student's bag. According to the preface, the book is designed to help students achieve the transition from GCSE to A-level and to succeed well at this level. It also aims to cover the requirements of the compulsory parts of all new syllabuses and to cover most of the optional material, too. The book is organized into seven themes along traditional lines: mechanics, materials, fields, waves, electricity, inside the atom, and physics in medicine. Each theme begins with a colourful title page that outlines what the theme is about, lists the applications that students will meet in their reading, identifies prior learning from GCSE and gives a checklist of what students should be able to do once they have finished their reading of the theme. This is all very useful. The text of the book is illustrated with many colourful photographs, pictures and cartoons, but despite this it looks very dense. There are a lot of words on every page in a small font that makes them seem very unfriendly, and although the book claims to be readable I rather doubt that the layout will encourage voluntary reading of the text. Each chapter ends with a useful summary and a selection of short questions that allow students to test their understanding. Each theme has a set of multiple choice and long questions. Some of the questions have an icon referring the student to the accompanying CD (more of this later). There is much up-to-date material in the book. For example, the section on cosmology gives a brief description of the inflationary scenario within the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe, although no mechanism for the inflation is given, which might prove unsatisfying to some students. I do have some reservations about the presentation of some topics within the book: the discussion of relativistic mass, for example, states that `Einstein showed that the mass ... is given by the formula ...' and quotes

  1. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 2 models

    SciTech Connect

    Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.; Rempe, J.L.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Accident Sequence Precursor program pursues the ultimate objective of performing risk significant evaluations on operational events (precursors) occurring in commercial nuclear power plants. To achieve this objective, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is supporting the development of simple probabilistic risk assessment models for all commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) in the U.S. Presently, only simple Level 1 plant models have been developed which estimate core damage frequencies. In order to provide a true risk perspective, the consequences associated with postulated core damage accidents also need to be considered. With the objective of performing risk evaluations in an integrated and consistent manner, a linked event tree approach which propagates the front end results to back end was developed. This approach utilizes simple plant models that analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude and timing of a radioactive release to the environment, and calculate the consequences for a given release. Detailed models and results from previous studies, such as the NUREG-1150 study, are used to quantify these simple models. These simple models are then linked to the existing Level 1 models, and are evaluated using the SAPHIRE code. To demonstrate the approach, prototypic models have been developed for a boiling water reactor, Peach Bottom, and a pressurized water reactor, Zion.

  2. Non-US advanced low-level radwaste treatment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyen, L. C.; Tucker, R. F., Jr.

    1981-09-01

    A review of power plant radwaste treatment practices and research in Canada, Japan, Korea and Europe is given. In addition to a review of the available English language literature, visits were made to power plants and research centers in Europe and Japan and to private and government agencies in Korea. the nuclear research centers and power plants which were visited in Japan made use of volume reduction (VR) techniques and on site storage facilities. VR techniques were in use at the two major nuclear research centers in West Germany, and several power plants have made plans to use VR systems. Research on leaching was also being carried out in Japan because they intend to dispose of low level radioactive waste by deep sea disposal. Information concerning the VR systems in Canada included in this report is based on a trip to the Bruce Nuclear Power Development Station in 1977 and on reports and personal communications with Ontario Hydro engineers. The status of the work on radwaste VR systems and radwaste incinerators in the United States is updated along with other significant events concerning VR systems.

  3. Advances in low-level jet research and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbo; He, Mingyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong

    2014-02-01

    The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fire, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made significant achievements during the past five or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classification, definition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fields. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse definitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fields. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

  4. Assessment Practices of Preparatory Year English Program (PYEP): Investigating Student Advancement through Third and Fourth Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obaid, Rana

    2016-01-01

    This small-scale mixed method research focuses on investigating the way Preparatory Year English Program (PYEP) female students in a Saudi tertiary level institution context are assessed and how they are advanced from level three (Pre-intermediate) and level four (Intermediate). A four-point agreement scale survey was conducted with fifteen…

  5. Recent Advances in Site Specific Conjugations of Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs).

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenlong; Zhang, Jingxin; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengbin; Dhal, Pradeep K; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) take the advantage of antigen specificity of monoclonal antibodies to deliver highly potent cytotoxic drugs selectively to antigen-expressing tumor cells. The recent approval of Adcetris™ and Kadcyla™ as well as emerging data from numerous ongoing clinical trials underscore the role of ADCs as a new therapeutic option for cancer patients. However, conventional conjugation methods generally result in a heterogeneous mixture of ADCs, which can result in significant therapeutic liabilities and can lead to complicated manufacturing processes. The increased understanding from the clinical investigation of current ADCs and site-specific bioconjugation technologies has enabled scientists to accelerate the discovery and development of the next generation ADCs with defined and homogeneous composition. The present manuscript reviews the recent advances and trends in the research and development of novel ADCs obtained by site-specific conjugation method.

  6. Surgical management of maxillomandibular advancement in sleep apnea patients: specific technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Gilon, Y; Raskin, S; Heymans, O; Poirrier, R

    2001-01-01

    Maxillomandibular advancement is an integral part of the surgical treatment of patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea. A number of publications report its efficacy and have attempted to define predictive success criteria. However, few authors have shown an interest in the surgical specificity of this intervention and in the difficulties that can be encountered, which differ from those seen in conventional orthognathic surgery. In this article, a series of patients treated with maxillomandibular osteotomy to correct obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (n = 17) are compared with patients who underwent surgery for the correction of dentofacial disharmonies (n = 33). Observations emphasized the importance of respecting a strict surgical and postsurgical protocol to avoid any technical traps linked to maxillomandibular advancement, both in preoperative simulations and during and after surgery. Results concerning sleep parameters will be the subject of a future publication.

  7. Advanced nanoporous materials for micro-gravimetric sensing to trace-level bio/chemical molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-10-13

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing.

  8. Advanced Nanoporous Materials for Micro-Gravimetric Sensing to Trace-Level Bio/Chemical Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing. PMID:25313499

  9. Evaluation of Salivary Leptin Levels in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Advanced Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Afshin; Bayani, Mojtaba; Torabi, Sepehr; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mohammadnejhad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Leptin is a hormone-like protein produced by the adipose tissue. It plays an important role in protection of host against inflammation and infection. Some studies have reported changes in leptin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva and blood serum of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare the salivary leptin levels in patients with advanced periodontitis and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the salivary samples of healthy individuals and patients with advanced periodontitis with clinical attachment loss >5mm were obtained using a standardized method and the leptin levels were measured in the salivary samples by means of ELISA. The effects of the periodontal status and sex on the salivary leptin levels of both groups were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Results: The means ± standard deviation (SD) of salivary leptin levels in healthy subjects and patients with advanced periodontitis were 34.27±6.88 and 17.87±5.89 pg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of sex on the salivary leptin levels was not significant (P=0.91), while the effect of advanced periodontitis on the salivary leptin levels was significant compared to healthy individuals (P<0.0001). Conclusions: In patients with advanced periodontitis, the salivary leptin levels were significantly lower compared to healthy individuals. Thus, assessment of salivary leptin can be done as a non-invasive and simple method to determine the susceptibility of patients to advanced periodontitis. PMID:27536322

  10. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) specifically recognizes methylglyoxal-derived AGEs.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jing; Ray, Rashmi; Singer, David; Böhme, David; Burz, David S; Rai, Vivek; Hoffmann, Ralf; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2014-05-27

    Diabetes-induced hyperglycemia increases the extracellular concentration of methylglyoxal. Methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolones (MG-H) form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that accumulate in the serum of diabetic patients. The binding of hydroimidozolones to the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) results in long-term complications of diabetes typified by vascular and neuronal injury. Here we show that binding of methylglyoxal-modified albumin to RAGE results in signal transduction. Chemically synthesized peptides containing hydroimidozolones bind specifically to the V domain of RAGE with nanomolar affinity. The solution structure of an MG-H1-V domain complex revealed that the hydroimidazolone moiety forms multiple contacts with a positively charged surface on the V domain. The high affinity and specificity of hydroimidozolones binding to the V domain of RAGE suggest that they are the primary AGE structures that give rise to AGEs-RAGE pathologies.

  11. Advances in Instrumentation for Quantification of Isotopic Nitrous Oxide from ppb levels to 100%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, F.; Gupta, M.; Leen, J.; Provencal, R. A.; Owano, T. G.; Baer, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    The isotopic composition of trace gases provides information of their origin and fate that cannot be determined from their concentration measurements alone. Biological source and loss processes, like bacterial production of nitrous oxide, are typically accompanied by isotopic selectivity associated with the kinetics of bond formation and destruction. Of the three important biologically mediated greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), the understanding of nitrous oxide isotopic budget in air lags behind the other two gases primarily due to the relatively low concentration of N2O in ambient air (~320 ppb). Furthermore, the origin of nitrates in rivers, lakes, ocean and other water supplies may be determined from analyses of isotopic nitrous oxide produced via chemical reduction or biological conversion. These processes can produce nitrous oxide at levels considerably greater than those present in ambient air. To date, analyses of isotopic nitrous oxide requires either pre-concentration of samples containing low concentrations or dilution of samples with high concentrations. We report significant advances of instrumentation for real-time measurements of site-specific isotopic nitrogen (δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ15N, δ18O) and mixing ratio [N2O] of nitrous oxide over a very wide range of mole fractions in air. Specifically, LGR's Isotopic N2O Analyzer can report site-specific isotopic nitrogen and isotopic oxygen continuously in flows ranging from 0.2 to over 20 ppm (parts per million) nitrous oxide in air (with preconcentration or dilution). Furthermore, for samples of limited volume, a batch technique may be used for similar isotopic measurements in discrete samples containing 0.2 ppm to 100% nitrous oxide (e.g., sample volumes from bacterial digestion can be as little as 1-10 mL). This novel technology, which employs cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) and a mid-infrared laser (4.56 microns) and does not require any cryogenic components, has been

  12. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  13. An Examination of the Dynamic Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Performance across Levels of Analysis and Levels of Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Gillian B.; Neal, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This research used resource allocation theory to generate predictions regarding dynamic relationships between self-efficacy and task performance from 2 levels of analysis and specificity. Participants were given multiple trials of practice on an air traffic control task. Measures of task-specific self-efficacy and performance were taken at…

  14. Advancing biopharmaceutical process development by system-level data analysis and integration of omics data.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Jochen; Clemens, Christoph; Kaufmann, Hitto; Schulz, Torsten W

    2012-01-01

    Development of efficient bioprocesses is essential for cost-effective manufacturing of recombinant therapeutic proteins. To achieve further process improvement and process rationalization comprehensive data analysis of both process data and phenotypic cell-level data is essential. Here, we present a framework for advanced bioprocess data analysis consisting of multivariate data analysis (MVDA), metabolic flux analysis (MFA), and pathway analysis for mapping of large-scale gene expression data sets. This data analysis platform was applied in a process development project with an IgG-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line in which the maximal product titer could be increased from about 5 to 8 g/L.Principal component analysis (PCA), k-means clustering, and partial least-squares (PLS) models were applied to analyze the macroscopic bioprocess data. MFA and gene expression analysis revealed intracellular information on the characteristics of high-performance cell cultivations. By MVDA, for example, correlations between several essential amino acids and the product concentration were observed. Also, a grouping into rather cell specific productivity-driven and process control-driven processes could be unraveled. By MFA, phenotypic characteristics in glycolysis, glutaminolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, citrate cycle, coupling of amino acid metabolism to citrate cycle, and in the energy yield could be identified. By gene expression analysis 247 deregulated metabolic genes were identified which are involved, inter alia, in amino acid metabolism, transport, and protein synthesis.

  15. The Relationship between Teaching Styles and Autonomy among Iranian Female EFL Teachers, Teaching at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baradaran, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed at inspecting the existence of a significant relationship between teachers' teaching styles and their Autonomy. For this reason, two questionnaires with regard to the main variables were given to 175 female English language teachers, teaching at advanced levels. Moreover, non-parametric Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis…

  16. Perspectives on Performance Indicators: GCE Advanced Level and Differences Between Institution Types in Cost Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, A.

    1998-01-01

    Applies multilevel models of cost-effectiveness to numerous types of (British) institutions providing courses of instruction in the General Certificate of Education at Advanced Level. Different impressions may be gained about an institution's relative effectiveness when cost considerations are combined with outcome measures. Data evaluation needs…

  17. Saving Lower-Enrollment, Advanced-Level Elective Programs: A Way to Get Blood from Turnips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Leon C.

    An innovative, flexible scheduling technique for advanced levels of a foreign language program is described. The technique, predicated on individualized pacing and continuous progress, is generalizable to all elective programs, and offers a workable solution to satisfy the enrollment "numbers game" and to lend breadth and depth to the curricula of…

  18. Student Presentation as a Means of Learning English for Upper Intermediate to Advanced Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunpyo; Park, Mira

    2008-01-01

    This study observes and examines how upper intermediate to advanced level college students perform and perceive one-topic-for-each student presentation as a means of learning English. It is also to have the prospective medical doctors ready for their future use of English presentation and paper writing since such demand is on the rise in the…

  19. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

  20. An Intermediate-Advanced Level German Refresher Course: Book 4, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Book four, part one, of an intermediate-advanced level German refresher course for college students is presented. The volume consists of 25 lessons of text material and 50 prerecorded tapes. A typical lesson with its two accompanying tapes is made up of interrogation, military terminology drill, and a comprehension test. The materials of the first…

  1. An Intermediate-Advanced Level German Refresher Course: Book 4, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Book four, part two, of an intermediate-advanced level German refresher course for college students is presented. The volume consists of 25 lessons of text material and 50 prerecorded tapes. A typical lesson with its two accompanying tapes is made up of interrogation, military terminology drill, and a comprehension test. The materials of the first…

  2. The Contribution of CALL to Advanced-Level Foreign/Second Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack; Arispe, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the contribution of instructional technology to advanced-level foreign/second language learning (AL2) over the past thirty years. It is shown that the most salient feature of AL2 practice and associated Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) research are their rarity and restricted nature. Based on an analysis of four…

  3. Advancing Ecological Models to Compare Scale in Multi-Level Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David James

    2016-01-01

    Education systems as units of analysis have been metaphorically likened to ecologies to model change. However, ecological models to date have been ineffective in modelling educational change that is multi-scale and occurs across multiple levels of an education system. Thus, this paper advances two innovative, ecological frameworks that improve on…

  4. Undergraduate Performance of Advanced Level and Associate Degree Students: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Rose, Kieran Winnifred

    2013-01-01

    In the English-speaking Caribbean, the Advanced level qualification is the traditional and preferred route to accessing an education at the University of the West Indies (UWI). However, applicants with nontraditional qualifications--such as the associate degree qualification, teacher certificate, diploma, and mature student status (meaning one who…

  5. Selenoprotein gene variants, toenail selenium levels, and risk for advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Geybels, Milan S; van den Brandt, Piet A; Schouten, Leo J; van Schooten, Frederik J; van Breda, Simone G; Rayman, Margaret P; Green, Fiona R; Verhage, Bas A J

    2014-03-01

    Lower selenium levels have been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa), and genetic variation in the selenoprotein genes selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is thought to modify this relationship. We investigated whether the association between toenail selenium levels and advanced PCa risk in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study is modified by common genetic variation in SEPP1 and GPX1. Toenail clippings were used to determine selenium levels and to isolate DNA for genotyping. This case-cohort study, which included 817 case subjects with advanced PCa and 1048 subcohort members, was analyzed with Cox regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Three genetic variants were associated with advanced (stage III/IV or IV) PCa risk: SEPP1 rs7579 (lower risk; P trend = .01), GPX1 rs17650792 (higher risk; P trend = .03), and GPX1 rs1800668 (lower risk; P trend = .005). Toenail selenium levels were inversely associated with advanced PCa risk, independently of common genetic variation in SEPP1 and GPX1.

  6. Cognitive Levels of Questions Used by Iranian EFL Teachers in Advanced Reading Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khorsand, Narjess

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive levels of questions used by Iranian EFL teachers in advanced reading comprehension tests. Twenty teachers participated in this study and generated 215 questions which were then categorized according to Bloom's taxonomy. This taxonomy consists of six major categories which starts from the simplest behavior to the…

  7. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  8. Guide for the Training and Qualification of Welding Personnel. Level II - Advanced Welders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Welding Society, Miami, FL.

    This guide is designed to help education and training facilities develop and administer competency-based training programs to qualify and certify trainees in accordance with the American Welding Society (AWS) requirements for level II (advanced) welders. Presented first are the scope, objectives, and requirements of the AWS…

  9. South Carolina Pharmacy Practitioner Opinion of Entry Level Degree and Interest in an Advanced Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karig, Arnold W.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A survey of South Carolina pharmacists investigated the desired entry level pharmacy degree, years of study required, perceived adequacy of the respondents' current education, current pursuit of credit courses and continuing education programs, and interest in obtaining advanced degrees. Results suggest an off-campus program would be…

  10. Advanced System-Level Reliability Analysis and Prediction with Field Data Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    innovative life prediction methodologies that incorporate emerging probabilistic lifing techniques as well as advanced physics-of- failure...often based on simplifying assumptions and their predictions may suffer from different sources of uncertainty. For instance, one source of...system level, most modeling approaches focus on life prediction for single components and fail to account for the interdependencies that may result

  11. Advanced Level Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Their Engagement in Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…

  12. Low Circulating Levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone in Histologically Advanced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Michael; Angulo, Paul; Chalasani, Naga; Merriman, Ralph; Viker, Kimberly; Charatcharoenwitthaya, Phunchai; Sanderson, Schuyler; Gawrieh, Samer; Krishnan, Anuradha; Lindor, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The biological basis of variability in histological progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA) is the most abundant steroid hormone and has been shown to influence sensitivity to oxidative stress, insulin sensitivity, and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and procollagen messenger RNA. Our aim was to determine whether more histologically advanced NAFLD is associated with low circulating levels of DHEA. Serum samples were obtained prospectively at the time of liver biopsy in 439 patients with NAFLD (78 in an initial and 361 in validation cohorts) and in controls with cholestatic liver disease (n = 44). NAFLD was characterized as mild [simple steatosis or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with fibrosis stage 0–2] or advanced (NASH with fibrosis stage 3–4). Serum levels of sulfated DHEA (DHEA-S) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients with advanced NAFLD had lower plasma levels of DHEA-S than patients with mild NAFLD in both the initial (0.25 ± 0.07 versus 1.1 ± 0.09 µg/mL, P < 0.001) and validation cohorts (0.47 ± 0.06 versus 0.99 ± 0.04 µg/mL, P < 0.001). A “dose effect” of decreasing DHEA-S and incremental fibrosis stage was observed with a mean DHEA-S of 1.03 ± 0.05, 0.96 ± 0.07, 0.83 ± 0.11, 0.66 ± 0.11, and 0.35 ± 0.06 µg/mL for fibrosis stages 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. All patients in both cohorts in the advanced NAFLD group had low DHEA-S levels, with the majority in the hypoadrenal range. The association between DHEA-S and severity of NAFLD persisted after adjusting for age. A relationship between disease/fibrosis severity and DHEA-S levels was not seen in patients with cholestatic liver diseases. Conclusion More advanced NAFLD, as indicated by the presence of NASH with advanced fibrosis stage, is strongly associated with low circulating DHEA-S. These data provide novel evidence for relative DHEA-S deficiency in patients with

  13. Relationship between level of lymph node metastasis and survival in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Zhang, Jianjun; Lin, Heather; Gold, Kathryn A.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Garden, Adam S.; Lee, J. Jack; William, William N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The current head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) staging system may not capture the full prognostic implications of regional lymph node involvement. We sought to investigate the impact of level of lymph node metastasis (LNM) on survival Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry was queried for oral cavity (OC), oropharynx (OP), larynx (LAR), and hypopharynx (HP) HNSCC. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate whether level of LNM is an independent prognostic factor. Site-specific recursive-partitioning analysis (RPA) was performed to classify patients into different risk groups. Results Totally, 14,499 patients including OC (N=2,463), OP (N=8,567), LAR (N=2,332) and HP (N=1,137) were analyzed. Both AJCC N classification and level of LNM showed significant effects on overall survival (OS) in patients with OC, OP or LAR, but not in HP. In patients with N2 disease, AJCC subclassification (N2a, N2b, N2c) was significantly associated with OS of patients with OP and LAR, but not OC or HP, while level of LNM (primary, secondary, and tertiary) was significantly associated with OS in patients with OC, OP and LAR, but not HP. Using RPA, we designed a simple, primary site-specific prognostic tool integrating AJCC T classification, N classification, and level of LNM that can be easily utilized by health care providers in clinic. Conclusions Level of LNM is an independent prognostic factor for patients with locally advanced HNSCC and could add to the prognostic value of AJCC T and N classification in patients with locally advanced HNSCC. PMID:26554754

  14. The relationship of certified flight instructors' emotional intelligence levels on flight student advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokeness, Mark Merrill

    Aviation researchers estimate airline companies will require nearly 500,000 pilots in the next 20 years. The role of a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) is to move student pilots to professional pilots with training typically conducted in one-on-one student and instructor sessions. The knowledge of aviation, professionalism as a teacher, and the CFI’s interpersonal skills can directly affect the successes and advancement of a student pilot. A new and emerging assessment of people skills is known as emotional intelligence (EI). The EI of the CFI can and will affect a flight students’ learning experiences. With knowledge of emotional intelligence and its effect on flight training, student pilot dropouts from aviation may be reduced, thus helping to ensure an adequate supply of pilots. Without pilots, the growth of the commercial aviation industry will be restricted. This mixed method research study established the correlation between a CFI’s measured EI levels and the advancement of flight students. The elements contributing to a CFI’s EI level were not found to be teaching or flight-related experiences, suggesting other life factors are drawn upon by the CFI and are reflected in their emotional intelligence levels presented to flight students. Students respond positively to CFIs with higher levels of emotional intelligence. Awareness of EI skills by both the CFI and flight student contribute to flight student successes and advancement.

  15. Investigating the Group-Level Impact of Advanced Dual-Echo fMRI Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Kettinger, Ádám; Hill, Christopher; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán; Windischberger, Christian; Nagy, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Multi-echo fMRI data acquisition has been widely investigated and suggested to optimize sensitivity for detecting the BOLD signal. Several methods have also been proposed for the combination of data with different echo times. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these advanced echo combination methods provide advantages over the simple averaging of echoes when state-of-the-art group-level random-effect analyses are performed. Both resting-state and task-based dual-echo fMRI data were collected from 27 healthy adult individuals (14 male, mean age = 25.75 years) using standard echo-planar acquisition methods at 3T. Both resting-state and task-based data were subjected to a standard image pre-processing pipeline. Subsequently the two echoes were combined as a weighted average, using four different strategies for calculating the weights: (1) simple arithmetic averaging, (2) BOLD sensitivity weighting, (3) temporal-signal-to-noise ratio weighting and (4) temporal BOLD sensitivity weighting. Our results clearly show that the simple averaging of data with the different echoes is sufficient. Advanced echo combination methods may provide advantages on a single-subject level but when considering random-effects group level statistics they provide no benefit regarding sensitivity (i.e., group-level t-values) compared to the simple echo-averaging approach. One possible reason for the lack of clear advantages may be that apart from increasing the average BOLD sensitivity at the single-subject level, the advanced weighted averaging methods also inflate the inter-subject variance. As the echo combination methods provide very similar results, the recommendation is to choose between them depending on the availability of time for collecting additional resting-state data or whether subject-level or group-level analyses are planned. PMID:28018165

  16. Advanced Systems development: New materials/systems for interior gas distribution. Phase 1. Advanced Systems Specifications. Final report, January 1989-May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.; Scocca, M.; Topping, R.

    1991-05-01

    As part of the Gas Research Institute's overall program to develop safe, low cost, semi rigid gas piping systems, their project is aimed at identifying and evaluating advanced high performance materials and components suitable for interior gas piping by the year 2000 and beyond. The report summarizes the results of Phase I - Advanced Systems Specifications Studies, which developed performance criteria, installed cost goals and a database of promising new metallic and non-metallic piping materials. Several candidate materials and systems are identified as well as the current status of gas monitoring, sensing and control technologies.

  17. Dual specificity phosphatase 5 is a novel prognostic indicator for patients with advanced colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuebing; Liu, Liguo; Li, Hao; Huang, Linsheng; Yin, Mingming; Pan, Cheng; Qin, Huanlong; Jin, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Dual specificity phosphatase 5 (DUSP5) is a negative regulator of Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and has recently been identified as a tumor suppressor in several human malignancies. However, its clinical significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential utility of DUSP5 as a novel biomarker for progression indication and chemotherapy benefit in CRC patients. Through quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction and western blot, we determined that DUSP5 expression is dramatically lower in CRC tissues than that in matched normal tissues. The statistical analysis based on immunohistochemistry revealed that DUSP5 expression is significantly correlated with tumor differentiation, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. For the whole study cohort, patients with high DUSP5 expression had a better CRC-specific and disease-free survival than those with low DUSP5 expression and DUSP5 expression is an independent prognostic factor for patient survival. In subgroup analysis, DUSP5 has no prognostic significance in low-risk stage II patients, but could predict treatment response in high-risk stage II and stage III/IV patients who received standard FOLFOX chemotherapy scheme. Finally, the correlation analysis suggested that DUSP5 expression is associated with Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) phenotype in CRC tissues, suggesting that downregulated DUSP5 may contribute to poor prognosis partly by involving EMT. Taken together, our study proposes that DUSP5 is a promising biomarker for predicting CRC progression and advanced patients with high DUSP5 expression appear to benefit from standard FOLFOX chemotherapy scheme. PMID:27822421

  18. Advanced Quantum Mechanical Calculation of Superheavy Ions: Energy Levels, Radiation and Finite Nuclear Size Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, Alexander V.; Gurnitskaya, E.P.; Loboda, A.V.

    2005-10-26

    Advanced quantum approach to calculation of spectra for superheavy ions with an account of relativistic, correlation, nuclear, radiative effects is developed and based on the gauge invariant quantum electrodynamics (QED) perturbation theory (PT). The Lamb shift polarization part is calculated in the Ueling approximation, self-energy part is defined within a new non-PT procedure of Ivanov-Ivanova. Calculation results for energy levels, hyperfine structure parameters of some heavy elements ions are presented.

  19. Designing Peace and Conflict Exercises: Level of Analysis, Scenario, and Role Specification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Elizabeth; McCown, Margaret; Wilkie, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Attentiveness to and transparency about the methodological implications of the level of analysis selected for peace and conflict exercises constitute essential elements of good game design. The article explores the impact of level of analysis choices in the context of two key portions of exercises, scenario construction and role specification. It…

  20. Impaired clearance of accumulated lysosomal glycogen in advanced Pompe disease despite high-level vector-mediated transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Bird, Andrew; Li, Songtao; Young, Sarah P.; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Infantile-onset glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) causes death early in childhood from cardiorespiratory failure in absence of effective treatment, whereas late-onset Pompe disease causes a progressive skeletal myopathy. The limitations of enzyme replacement therapy could potentially be addressed with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy. Methods AAV vectors containing tissue-specific regulatory cassettes, either liver-specific or muscle-specific, were administered to 12 and 17 month old Pompe disease mice to evaluate the efficacy of gene therapy in advanced Pompe disease. Biochemical correction was evaluated through GAA activity and glycogen content analyses of the heart and skeletal muscle. Western blotting, urinary biomarker, and Rotarod performance were evaluated following vector administration. Results The AAV vector containing the liver-specific regulatory cassette secreted high-level hGAA into the blood and corrected glycogen storage in the heart and diaphragm. The biochemical correction of the heart and diaphragm was associated with efficacy, as reflected by increased Rotarod performance; however, the clearance of glycogen from skeletal muscles was relatively impaired, in comparison with younger Pompe disease mice. An alternative vector containing a muscle-specific regulatory cassette transduced skeletal muscle with high efficiency, but also failed to achieve complete clearance of accumulated glycogen. Decreased transduction of the heart and liver in older mice, especially in females, was implicated as a cause for reduced efficacy in advanced Pompe disease. Conclusion The impaired efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in old Pompe disease mice emphasized the need for early treatment to achieve full efficacy. PMID:19621331

  1. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  2. Research on Selection Methods and Programming for Advanced Black Students at the Secondary Level of Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James R.; And Others

    This research investigated the phenomenon of underrepresentation of blacks in advanced level secondary school courses in Shaker Heights, Ohio. Initial interviews revealed that the problem of racial imbalance in advanced level courses was not one of identifying black gifted youth or of offering attractive programs for them, but of black children…

  3. Non-specific lipid transfer proteins in plants: presenting new advances and an integrated functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Lu, Changming; Zeng, Xinhua; Li, Yunjing; Fu, Donghui; Wu, Gang

    2015-09-01

    Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic proteins present in abundance in higher plants. They are involved in key processes of plant cytology, such as the stablization of membranes, cell wall organization, and signal transduction. nsLTPs are also known to play important roles in resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and in plant growth and development, such as sexual reproduction, seed development and germination. The structures of plant nsLTPs contain an eight-cysteine residue conserved motif, linked by four disulfide bonds, and an internal hydrophobic cavity, which comprises the lipid-binding site. This structure endows stability and increases the ability to bind and/or carry hydrophobic molecules. There is growing interest in nsLTPs, due to their critical roles, resulting in the need for a comprehensive review of their form and function. Relevant topics include: nsLTP structure and biochemical features, their classification, identification, and characterization across species, sub-cellular localization, lipid binding and transfer ability, expression profiling, functionality, and evolution. We present advances, as well as limitations and trends, relating to the different topics of the nsLTP gene family. This review collates a large body of research pertaining to the role of nsLTPs across the plant kingdom, which has been integrated as an in depth functional analysis of this group of proteins as a whole, and their activities across multiple biochemical pathways, based on a large number of reports. This review will enhance our understanding of nsLTP activity in planta, prompting further work and insights into the roles of this multifaceted protein family in plants.

  4. Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Before and After Elimination of Factors That Can Confound the Prostate-Specific Antigen Level

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jessica J.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Loffredo, Marian; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity, like PSA level, can be confounded. In this study, we estimated the impact that confounding factors could have on correctly identifying a patient with a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 50 men with newly diagnosed PC comprised the study cohort. We calculated and compared the false-positive and false-negative PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y rates for all men and those with low-risk disease using two approaches to calculate PSA velocity. First, we used PSA values obtained within 18 months of diagnosis; second, we used values within 18 months of diagnosis, substituting the prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA that was obtained using the same assay and without confounders. Results: Using PSA levels pre-biopsy, 46% of all men had a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y; whereas this value declined to 32% when substituting the last prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA using the same assay and without confounders. The false-positive rate for PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y was 43% as compared with a false-negative rate of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y of 11% (p = 0.0008) in the overall cohort. These respective values in the low-risk subgroup were 60% and 16.7% (p = 0.09). Conclusion: This study provides evidence to explain the discordance in cancer-specific outcomes among groups investigating the prognostic significance of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y, and highlights the importance of patient education on potential confounders of the PSA test before obtaining PSA levels.

  5. Factors affecting allergen-specific IgE serum levels in cats

    PubMed Central

    Belova, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Linek, M.; Beco, L.; Fontaine, J.; Bergvall, K.; Favrot, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pruritic skin diseases are common in cats and demand rigorous diagnostic workup for finding an underlying etiology. Measurement of a serum allergen-specific IgE in a pruritic cat is often used to make or confirm the diagnosis of a skin hypersensitivity disease, although current evidence suggests that elevated allergen-specific IgE do not always correlate with a clinical disease and vice versa. The aim of the study was to to assess the possible influence of age, deworming status, lifestyle, flea treatment, and gender on allergen-specific IgE levels and to evaluate the reliability of IgE testing in predicting the final diagnosis of a pruritic cat. For this purpose sera of 179 cats with pruritus of different causes and 20 healthy cats were evaluated for allergen-specific IgE against environmental, food and flea allergens using the Fc-epsilon receptor based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The results of the study showed positive correlation between age, outdoor life style, absence of deworming, absence of flea control measures and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Gender and living area (urban versus rural) did not seem to affect the formation of allergen-specific IgE. According to these findings, evaluating allergen-specific IgE levels, is not a reliable test to diagnose hypersensitivity to food or environmental allergens in cats. On the contrary, this test can be successfully used for diagnosing feline flea bite hypersensitivity. PMID:22754094

  6. Perioperative changes in serum CA125 levels: a prognostic factor for disease-specific survival in patients with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Van Gorp, Toon

    2017-01-01

    Objective In patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) the volume of residual tumor after debulking is known as prognostic factor for survival. We wanted to examine the relationship between postoperative decline in serum CA125 and residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and evaluate perioperative changes in serum CA125 levels as predictor for disease-specific survival. Methods A retrospective study was conducted of patients with FIGO stage IIb-IV EOC treated with cytoreductive surgery, followed by chemotherapy between 1996 and 2010 in three hospitals in the Southeastern region of the Netherlands. Data were analyzed with the use of multilevel linear regression and Cox-proportional hazard regression models. Results A postoperative decline in serum CA125 level of ≥80% was associated with complete primary cytoreduction (p=0.035). Univariate analyses showed favorable associations with survival for both the degree of decline in serum CA125 and residual tumor after primary cytoreduction. In multivariate analyses the decline in serum CA125 but not the outcome of surgery remained significantly associated with better survival (HR50%–79%=0.52 [95% CI: 0.28–0.96] and HR≥80%=0.26 [95% CI: 0.13–0.54] vs. the serum CA125 decline of <50% [p<0.001]). Conclusion The current study, although hampered by possible biases, suggests that the perioperative decline in serum CA125 is an early biomarker that predicts disease-specific survival in patients who underwent primary cytoreductive surgery for advanced stage EOC. If confirmed prospectively, the perioperative change in serum CA125 could be a better marker for residual tumor volume after primary cytoreductive surgery (and therewith disease-specific survival) than the surgeons’ estimation of residual tumor volume. PMID:27670261

  7. Helicopter far-field acoustic levels as a function of reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Philip

    1990-01-01

    During the design of a helicopter, the weight, engine, rotor speed, and rotor geometry are given significant attention when considering the specific operations for which the helicopter will be used. However, the noise radiated from the helicopter and its relationship to the design variables is currently not well modeled with only a limited set of full-scale field test data to study. In general, limited field data have shown that reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach numbers result in reduced far-field noise levels. The status of a recent helicopter noise research project is reviewed. It is designed to provide flight experimental data which may be used to further understand helicopter main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number effects on far-field acoustic levels. Preliminary results are presented relative to tests conducted with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter operating with both the rotor speed and the flight speed as the control variable. The rotor speed was operated within the range of 107 to 90 percent NR at nominal forward speeds of 35, 100, and 155 knots.

  8. A new hydrostatic leveling system developed for the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Kivioja, L. A.

    1998-09-18

    As a result of the calibration tests performed with the first prototype units using the new measurement principle, we believe that the described leveling method is stable and accurate to the micron level with a sufficiently large range for the expected elevation changes of the support girders used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Although long-term studies with this system have not been conducted, we believe that after installation this system requires little or no servicing for long periods of time. The methods described in this paper cover only the elevation changes of individual vessels. However, changes in the tilt of a girder must also be known. Therefore, a combination of tiltmeters in conjunction with this hydrostatic level system (HLS) would be most suitable for measuring the tilt and elevation changes of the APS girders.

  9. Confidence interval estimation for sensitivity at a fixed level of specificity for combined biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lili

    2013-05-01

    In diagnostic studies, we often need to combine several biomarkers to increase the diagnostic accuracy. For continuous-scaled biomarkers or diagnostic tests, it is often of interest to estimate the confidence interval for sensitivity at a fixed level of specificity. Despite the fact that there exist many literature reports on confidence interval estimation of sensitivity at a fixed level of specificity for a single marker, the inference procedures for sensitivity at a fixed level of specificity for combined markers have rarely been addressed. This article fills this gap by investigating a generalized variable procedure for this purpose. The performance of the proposed generalized approach is numerically studied. For the optimal linear combination proposed by Su and Liu ( 1993 ), simulation study demonstrates that the proposed approach generally can provide confidence intervals with excellent coverage probabilities. The robustness of the proposed approach is investigated for categorical data. In the end, the proposed approach is applied to a real-life data set.

  10. The effect of low level laser on condylar growth during mandibular advancement in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction It has been shown that Low Level Laser (LLL) has a positive effect on bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low level laser on condylar growth during mandibular advancement in rabbits. Materials and methods Continuous forward mandibular advancement was performed in fourteen male Albino rabbits with the mean age of 8 weeks and the mean weight of 1.5 ± 0.5 kg, with acrylic inclined planes. The rabbits were randomly assigned into two groups after 4 weeks. LLL (KLO3: wave length 630 nm) was irradiated at 3 points around the TMJ, through the skin in the first group. The exposure was performed for 3 minutes at each point (a total of 9 minutes) once a day for 3 weeks. The control group was not exposed to any irradiation. The rabbits in both groups were sacrificed after two months and the histological evaluation of TMJ was performed to compare fibrous tissue, cartilage, and new bone formation in condylar region in both groups. Disc displacement was also detected in both groups. Student's t-test, Exact Fisher and Chi square tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results The formation of fibrous tissue was significantly lower, while bone formation was significantly greater in lased group as compared with control group. The thickness of cartilage did not differ significantly between two groups. Conclusion Irradiation of LLL (KLO3) during mandibular advancement in rabbits, increases bone formation in condylar region, while neither increase in the cartilage thickness nor fibrous tissues was observed. PMID:22361310

  11. An end-to-end workflow for engineering of biological networks from high-level specifications.

    PubMed

    Beal, Jacob; Weiss, Ron; Densmore, Douglas; Adler, Aaron; Appleton, Evan; Babb, Jonathan; Bhatia, Swapnil; Davidsohn, Noah; Haddock, Traci; Loyall, Joseph; Schantz, Richard; Vasilev, Viktor; Yaman, Fusun

    2012-08-17

    We present a workflow for the design and production of biological networks from high-level program specifications. The workflow is based on a sequence of intermediate models that incrementally translate high-level specifications into DNA samples that implement them. We identify algorithms for translating between adjacent models and implement them as a set of software tools, organized into a four-stage toolchain: Specification, Compilation, Part Assignment, and Assembly. The specification stage begins with a Boolean logic computation specified in the Proto programming language. The compilation stage uses a library of network motifs and cellular platforms, also specified in Proto, to transform the program into an optimized Abstract Genetic Regulatory Network (AGRN) that implements the programmed behavior. The part assignment stage assigns DNA parts to the AGRN, drawing the parts from a database for the target cellular platform, to create a DNA sequence implementing the AGRN. Finally, the assembly stage computes an optimized assembly plan to create the DNA sequence from available part samples, yielding a protocol for producing a sample of engineered plasmids with robotics assistance. Our workflow is the first to automate the production of biological networks from a high-level program specification. Furthermore, the workflow's modular design allows the same program to be realized on different cellular platforms simply by swapping workflow configurations. We validated our workflow by specifying a small-molecule sensor-reporter program and verifying the resulting plasmids in both HEK 293 mammalian cells and in E. coli bacterial cells.

  12. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  13. Response to Specific Training for Students with Different Levels of Mathematical Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Re, Anna Maria; Pedron, Martina; Tressoldi, Patrizio Emanuele; Lucangeli, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of specific, individualized training for students with different levels of mathematical difficulties. Fifty-four students, with either severe or mild math difficulties, were assigned to individualized training or to a control condition. Ten students with severe math difficulties…

  14. Total and specific IgG4 antibody levels in atopic eczema.

    PubMed Central

    Merrett, J; Barnetson, R S; Burr, M L; Merrett, T G

    1984-01-01

    Total IgG4 and IgG4 antibody levels specific for 10 allergens (three inhaled and seven ingested) were measured by radioimmunoassay of sera taken from three groups of adult patients: (1) 32 cases of atopic eczema, (2) 28 cases of respiratory allergy and (3) 156 normal volunteers. In all three groups IgG4 antibody activity was mainly directed against common foods, and generally the group with atopic eczema had higher total and specific IgG4 levels than the cases of respiratory allergy, who in turn had higher titres than the normal group. There was within each group a tendency for men to have more total IgG4 than women and the difference was statistically significant among the normals. There was evidence of an IgG4 restricted response in atopic eczema because despite the group's elevated total IgG4 its total IgG4 remained within normal limits. Furthermore specific IgG4 was correlated with the corresponding specific IgE level in five of the 10 allergens examined. These results are generally consistent with the view that IgG4 levels are raised in cases of atopic eczema due to prolonged exposure to an allergen which initiated an IgE response. PMID:6744664

  15. Investigations into the Appropriate Use of Various Item Types for Testing Specific Levels of Reading Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Sandra

    A study investigated the appropriate use of item types for testing reading at various levels of proficiency. It was specifically concerned with item types found in the standardized group-administered Defense Language Proficiency Tests. The item formats investigated were signs in the target language, identification of underlined information,…

  16. Rapid perceptual adaptation to high gravitoinertial force levels Evidence for context-specific adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1982-01-01

    Subjects exposed to periodic variations in gravitoinertial force (2-G peak) in parabolic flight maneuvers quickly come to perceive the peak force level as having decreased in intensity. By the end of a 40-parabola flight, the decrease in apparent force is approximately 40%. On successive flight days, the apparent intensity of the force loads seems to decrease as well, indicating a cumulative adaptive effect. None of the subjects reported feeling abnormally 'light' for more than a minute or two after return to 1-G background force levels. The pattern of findings suggests a context-specific adaptation to high-force levels.

  17. Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM) cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml). Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007), and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003). A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P < 0.02). We detected specific IgE in 34 newborns (40 positive tests). A long-standing contact with a cat during pregnancy decreased the specific IgE level for wheat/grass (OR = 3.2; P < 0.07) and for children's food (OR = 5.0; P < 0.04), and the contact with a dog decreased the specific-IgE for wheat/grass (OR = 0.3; P < 0.05). Exposure to tobacco smoke correlated with the positive specific IgE toward house dust mite (OR = 4.7; P = 0.005). PMID:20156762

  18. Regulatory logic driving stable levels of defective proventriculus expression during terminal photoreceptor specification in flies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jenny; Anderson, Caitlin; Viets, Kayla; Tran, Sang; Goldberg, Gregory; Small, Stephen; Johnston, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    How differential levels of gene expression are controlled in post-mitotic neurons is poorly understood. In the Drosophila retina, expression of the transcription factor Defective Proventriculus (Dve) at distinct cell type-specific levels is required for terminal differentiation of color- and motion-detecting photoreceptors. Here, we find that the activities of two cis-regulatory enhancers are coordinated to drive dve expression in the fly eye. Three transcription factors act on these enhancers to determine cell-type specificity. Negative autoregulation by Dve maintains expression from each enhancer at distinct homeostatic levels. One enhancer acts as an inducible backup ('dark' shadow enhancer) that is normally repressed but becomes active in the absence of the other enhancer. Thus, two enhancers integrate combinatorial transcription factor input, feedback and redundancy to generate cell type-specific levels of dve expression and stable photoreceptor fate. This regulatory logic may represent a general paradigm for how precise levels of gene expression are established and maintained in post-mitotic neurons.

  19. Increased level of Hsp90-beta in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid correlates with lymphatic invasion and advanced stage of lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Biaoxue; Cai, Xiguang; Liu, Hua; Fu, Tian; Gao, Wenlong; Zhao, Chongchong; Lin, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this work is to explore the correlation between Hsp90-beta level in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung cancer. Methods: Hsp90-beta level was measured by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sensitivity and specificity of Hsp90-beta were calculated by receiver operator characteristic curve. Results: BALF in patients with lung cancer showed a higher expression of Hsp90-beta than those with benign lung disease (P<0.05). Elevated Hsp90-beta was closely related to lymphatic invasion and advanced stage of patients with lung cancer (P<0.05). The sensitivity of BALF Hsp90-beta for discerning lung cancer from patients with benign disease was 82.56% and specificity was 97.56%. Conclusion: Increased BALF Hsp90-beta correlates with lymphatic invasion and advanced stage of patients with lung cancer, suggesting it could be a diagnostic indicator for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27829999

  20. Temporal Processing Capacity in High-Level Visual Cortex Is Domain Specific

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Kevin S.; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing hierarchical models propose that temporal processing capacity—the amount of information that a brain region processes in a unit time—decreases at higher stages in the ventral stream regardless of domain. However, it is unknown if temporal processing capacities are domain general or domain specific in human high-level visual cortex. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we measured temporal capacities of functional regions in high-level visual cortex. Contrary to hierarchical models, our data reveal domain-specific processing capacities as follows: (1) regions processing information from different domains have differential temporal capacities within each stage of the visual hierarchy and (2) domain-specific regions display the same temporal capacity regardless of their position in the processing hierarchy. In general, character-selective regions have the lowest capacity, face- and place-selective regions have an intermediate capacity, and body-selective regions have the highest capacity. Notably, domain-specific temporal processing capacities are not apparent in V1 and have perceptual implications. Behavioral testing revealed that the encoding capacity of body images is higher than that of characters, faces, and places, and there is a correspondence between peak encoding rates and cortical capacities for characters and bodies. The present evidence supports a model in which the natural statistics of temporal information in the visual world may affect domain-specific temporal processing and encoding capacities. These findings suggest that the functional organization of high-level visual cortex may be constrained by temporal characteristics of stimuli in the natural world, and this temporal capacity is a characteristic of domain-specific networks in high-level visual cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual stimuli bombard us at different rates every day. For example, words and scenes are typically stationary and vary at slow rates. In contrast, bodies are dynamic

  1. Temporal Processing Capacity in High-Level Visual Cortex Is Domain Specific.

    PubMed

    Stigliani, Anthony; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-09-09

    Prevailing hierarchical models propose that temporal processing capacity--the amount of information that a brain region processes in a unit time--decreases at higher stages in the ventral stream regardless of domain. However, it is unknown if temporal processing capacities are domain general or domain specific in human high-level visual cortex. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we measured temporal capacities of functional regions in high-level visual cortex. Contrary to hierarchical models, our data reveal domain-specific processing capacities as follows: (1) regions processing information from different domains have differential temporal capacities within each stage of the visual hierarchy and (2) domain-specific regions display the same temporal capacity regardless of their position in the processing hierarchy. In general, character-selective regions have the lowest capacity, face- and place-selective regions have an intermediate capacity, and body-selective regions have the highest capacity. Notably, domain-specific temporal processing capacities are not apparent in V1 and have perceptual implications. Behavioral testing revealed that the encoding capacity of body images is higher than that of characters, faces, and places, and there is a correspondence between peak encoding rates and cortical capacities for characters and bodies. The present evidence supports a model in which the natural statistics of temporal information in the visual world may affect domain-specific temporal processing and encoding capacities. These findings suggest that the functional organization of high-level visual cortex may be constrained by temporal characteristics of stimuli in the natural world, and this temporal capacity is a characteristic of domain-specific networks in high-level visual cortex. Significance statement: Visual stimuli bombard us at different rates every day. For example, words and scenes are typically stationary and vary at slow rates. In contrast, bodies are dynamic

  2. Pakistan-Specific Cases for the Advanced Management Course in Public Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N., Ed.

    A compilation of management case studies concerning public administration in Pakistan and accompanying teaching notes, this document is intended to foster discussion in classes such as the advanced management course in public administration at the National Institute of Public Administration in Lahore, Pakistan. Included are case studies entitled…

  3. The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification--Level 2, Version 9. Volume 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document defines the Level-2 GLAS standard data products. This document addresses the data flow, interfaces, record and data formats associated with the GLAS Level 2 standard data products. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC) distribute these products. Each data product has a unique Product Identification code assigned by the Senior Project Scientist. The Level 2 Standard Data Products specifically include those derived geophysical data values (i.e., ice sheet elevation, cloud height, vegetation height, etc.). Additionally, the appropriate correction elements used to transform the Level 1A and Level 1B Data Products into Level 2 Data Products are included. The data are packaged with time tags, precision orbit location coordinates, and data quality and usage flags.

  4. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-02-08

    This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the in-tank sampling system which will support the BNFL contract in the final disposal of Hanford's High Level Wastes (HLW) and Low Activity Wastes (LAW). The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from double-shell feed tanks. Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This sampling system will provide large volume? representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume Impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification is not a general specification for tank sampling, but is based on a ''record of decision'', AGA (HNF-SD-TWR-AGA-001 ), the System Specification for the Double Shell Tank System (HNF-SD-WM-TRD-O07), and the BNFL privatization contract.

  5. Effect of natural gas exsolution on specific storage in a confined aquifer undergoing water level decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.; Fountain, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The specific storage of a porous medium, a function of the compressibility of the aquifer material and the fluid within it, is essentially constant under normal hydrologic conditions. Gases dissolved in ground water can increase the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer, however, during water level declines. This causes a reduction in pore pressure that lowers the gas solubility and results in exsolution. The exsolved gas then displaces water from storage, and the specific storage increases because gas compressibility is typically much greater than that of water or aquifer material. This work describes the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer exsolving dissolved gas as a function of hydraulic head and the dimensionless Henry's law constant for the gas. This relation is applied in a transient simulation of ground water discharge from a confined aquifer system to a collapsed salt mine in the Genesee Valley in western New York. Results indicate that exsolution of gas significantly increased the effective specific storage in the aquifer system, thereby decreasing the water level drawdown.

  6. Effect of natural gas exsolution on specific storage in a confined aquifer undergoing water level decline.

    PubMed

    Yager, R M; Fountain, J C

    2001-01-01

    The specific storage of a porous medium, a function of the compressibility of the aquifer material and the fluid within it, is essentially constant under normal hydrologic conditions. Gases dissolved in ground water can increase the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer, however, during water level declines. This causes a reduction in pore pressure that lowers the gas solubility and results in exsolution. The exsolved gas then displaces water from storage, and the specific storage increases because gas compressibility is typically much greater than that of water or aquifer material. This work describes the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer exsolving dissolved gas as a function of hydraulic head and the dimensionless Henry's law constant for the gas. This relation is applied in a transient simulation of ground water discharge from a confined aquifer system to a collapsed salt mine in the Genesee Valley in western New York. Results indicate that exsolution of gas significantly increased the effective specific storage in the aquifer system, thereby decreasing the water level drawdown.

  7. Relationship of Species-Specific Filament Levels to Filamentous Bulking in Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jiangying; Lou, Inchio; de los Reyes, Francis L.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the relationship between activated-sludge bulking and levels of specific filamentous bacteria, we developed a statistics-based quantification method for estimating the biomass levels of specific filaments using 16S rRNA-targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. The results of quantitative FISH for the filament Sphaerotilus natans were similar to the results of quantitative membrane hybridization in a sample from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Laboratory-scale reactors were operated under different flow conditions to develop bulking and nonbulking sludge and were bioaugmented with S. natans cells to stimulate bulking. Instead of S. natans, the filament Eikelboom type 1851 became dominant in the reactors. Levels of type 1851 filaments extending out of the flocs correlated strongly with the sludge volume index, and extended filament lengths of approximately 6 × 108 μm ml−1 resulted in bulking in laboratory-scale and full-scale activated-sludge samples. Quantitative FISH showed that high levels of filaments occurred inside the flocs in nonbulking sludge, supporting the “substrate diffusion limitation” hypothesis for bulking. The approach will allow the monitoring of incremental improvements in bulking control methods and the delineation of the operational conditions that lead to bulking due to specific filaments. PMID:15066840

  8. Tissue Specific Expression Levels of Apoptosis Involved Genes Have Correlations with Codon and Amino Acid Usage

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Iman; Salavaty, Abbas; Nasiri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Different mechanisms, including transcriptional and post transcriptional processes, regulate tissue specific expression of genes. In this study, we report differences in gene/protein compositional features between apoptosis involved genes selectively expressed in human tissues. We found some correlations between codon/amino acid usage and tissue specific expression level of genes. The findings can be significant for understanding the translational selection on these features. The selection may play an important role in the differentiation of human tissues and can be considered for future studies in diagnosis of some diseases such as cancer. PMID:28154517

  9. Specification and verification of gate-level VHDL models of synchronous and asynchronous circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russinoff, David M.

    1995-01-01

    We present a mathematical definition of hardware description language (HDL) that admits a semantics-preserving translation to a subset of VHDL. Our HDL includes the basic VHDL propagation delay mechanisms and gate-level circuit descriptions. We also develop formal procedures for deriving and verifying concise behavioral specifications of combinational and sequential devices. The HDL and the specification procedures have been formally encoded in the computational logic of Boyer and Moore, which provides a LISP implementation as well as a facility for mechanical proof-checking. As an application, we design, specify, and verify a circuit that achieves asynchronous communication by means of the biphase mark protocol.

  10. The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification-Level 1, Version 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document defines the Level-1 GLAS standard data products. This document addresses the data flow, interfaces, record and data formats associated with the GLAS Level 1 standard data products. GLAS Level 1 standard data products are composed of Level 1A and Level 1B data products. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC) distribute these products. Each data product has a unique Product Identification code assigned by the Senior Project Scientist. GLAS Level 1A and Level 1B Data Products are composed from those Level 0 data that have been reformatted or transformed to corrected and calibrated data in physical units at the full instrument rate and resolution.

  11. A Suggested Syllabus for the Advanced Level English Course at Gendarmerie Schools Command in Accordance with NATO STANAG 6001 Level 3 Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare a suggested syllabus in accordance with NATO Stanag 6001 Level 3 perspective for the Advanced Level English Course at Gendarmerie Schools Command which is subordinate to Gendarmerie General Command. It is believed that this study will contribute to other studies in the context of NATO Stanag 6001 language…

  12. Clinical Outcomes of Specific Immunotherapy in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang; Xiao-Zhong, Guo; Qi, Xing-Shun

    2017-01-01

    Specific immunotherapies, including vaccines with autologous tumor cells and tumor antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies, are important treatments for PC patients. To evaluate the clinical outcomes of PC-specific immunotherapy, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relevant published clinical trials. The effects of specific immunotherapy were compared with those of nonspecific immunotherapy and the meta-analysis was executed with results regarding the overall survival (OS), immune responses data, and serum cancer markers data. The pooled analysis was performed by using the random-effects model. We found that significantly improved OS was noted for PC patients utilizing specific immunotherapy and an improved immune response was also observed. In conclusion, specific immunotherapy was superior in prolonging the survival time and enhancing immunological responses in PC patients.

  13. Clinical Outcomes of Specific Immunotherapy in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xing-Shun

    2017-01-01

    Specific immunotherapies, including vaccines with autologous tumor cells and tumor antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies, are important treatments for PC patients. To evaluate the clinical outcomes of PC-specific immunotherapy, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relevant published clinical trials. The effects of specific immunotherapy were compared with those of nonspecific immunotherapy and the meta-analysis was executed with results regarding the overall survival (OS), immune responses data, and serum cancer markers data. The pooled analysis was performed by using the random-effects model. We found that significantly improved OS was noted for PC patients utilizing specific immunotherapy and an improved immune response was also observed. In conclusion, specific immunotherapy was superior in prolonging the survival time and enhancing immunological responses in PC patients. PMID:28265583

  14. The sensitivity and specificity of postbreeding plasma progesterone levels as a pregnancy test for dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, M E; Leslie, K E; Martin, S W

    1985-01-01

    Plasma progesterone levels on day 4 and day 8 postbreeding were measured for one hundred and eighty-four dairy cows. These two parameters (PPD4, PPD8), their absolute difference (PPDIFF) and their ratio (PPRATIO) were assessed for their ability to identify cows not conceiving, using the principles of sensitivity and specificity. PPD4 was significantly higher (p less than 0.10) and PPD8, PPDIFF and PPRATIO were significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in cows remaining open than in pregnant cows. Evaluating each parameter separately, PPDIFF greater than 3.00 units had the highest specificity, 85.7%, but a low sensitivity (27.0%). Combining two parameters using series interpretation to increase specificity resulted in the best combination of specificity (87%) and sensitivity (27%). Maximum specificity was 97% for PPD4 less than or equal to 1.00 units and PPD8 greater than 4.00 units, and also for PPD4 less than or equal to 1.00 units and PPDIFF greater than 3.00 units, but sensitivity was very low (7% and 10% respectively). Predictive values of the test results with the best specificity were evaluated; given the population pregnancy rate of 54%, none exceeded 50%, indicating that the plasma progesterone parameters were not very useful for identifying open dairy cows. PMID:4041979

  15. Genetic regulation of immunoglobulin and specific antibody levels in twins reared apart.

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, P F; Rivera, V J; Eckert, E D; Bouchard, T J; Heston, L L

    1985-01-01

    We studied the effect of the same genetic but different environmental factors on total immunoglobulin and specific antibody levels in twins reared apart. Sera were analyzed from 26 monozygotic (MZ) and 10 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, who were separated on average 2 mo after birth and reared apart. Total IgM, IgG, and IgA were measured by single radial diffusion. Specific antibodies of each isotype to tetanus toxoid, and to polyvalent and type 14 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides were measured by a solid-phase antigen-enzyme-labeled anti-Ig immunoassay. One-way analysis of variance showed intrapair total Ig and antibody levels to be more highly correlated in MZ compared with DZ twins. Our results indicate that genetic factors are more important than environment in regulating these humoral immune responses. PMID:4038983

  16. Water level, specific conductance, and water temperature data, San Francisco Bay, California, for Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Time series of water-level, specific-conductance, and watertemperature data were collected at seven sites in San Francisco Bay during water year 2000 (October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000). Water-level data were recorded only at Point San Pablo. Specific-conductance and water-temperature data were recorded at 15-minute intervals at the following locations (Figure 1): • Carquinez Strait at Carquinez Bridge • Napa River at Mare Island Causeway near Vallejo • San Pablo Bay at Petaluma River Channel Marker 9 • San Pablo Strait at Point San Pablo • Central San Francisco Bay at Presidio Military Reservation • Central San Francisco Bay at Pier 24 • South San Francisco Bay at San Mateo Bridge near Foster City.

  17. The level of cholinergic nucleus basalis activation controls the specificity of auditory associative memory.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Norman M; Miasnikov, Alexandre A; Chen, Jemmy C

    2006-11-01

    Learning involves not only the establishment of memory per se, but also the specific details of its contents. In classical conditioning, the former concerns whether an association was learned while the latter discloses what was learned. The neural bases of associativity have been studied extensively while neural mechanisms of memory specificity have been neglected. Stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis (NBs) paired with a preceding tone induces CS-specific associative memory. As different levels of acetylcholine may be released naturally during different learning situations, we asked whether the level of activation of the cholinergic neuromodulatory system can control the degree of detail that is encoded and retrieved. Adult male rats were tested pre- and post-training for behavioral responses (interruption of ongoing respiration) to tones of various frequencies (1-15 kHz, 70 dB, 2 s). Training consisted of 200 trials/day of tone (8.0 kHz, 70 dB, 2 s) either paired or unpaired with NBs (CS-NBs = 1.8 s) at moderate (65.7+/-9.0 microA, one day) or weak (46.7+/-12.1 microA, three training days) levels of stimulation, under conditions of controlled behavioral state (pre-trial stable respiration rate). Post-training (24 h) responses to tones revealed that moderate activation induced both associative and CS-specific behavioral memory, whereas weak activation produced associative memory lacking frequency specificity. The degree of memory specificity 24 h after training was positively correlated with the magnitude of CS-elicited increase in gamma activity within the EEG during training, but only in the moderate NBs group. Thus, a low level of acetylcholine released by the nucleus basalis during learning is sufficient to induce associativity whereas a higher level of release enables the storage of greater experiential detail. gamma waves, which are thought to reflect the coordinated activity of cortical cells, appear to index the encoding of CS detail. The findings

  18. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated.

  19. Measurement of serum antibodies against NY-ESO-1 by ELISA: A guide for the treatment of specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yu; Huang, Qian-Rong; Zheng, Guang-Shun; Jiao, Shun-Chang

    2014-10-01

    NY-ESO-1 has been identified as one of the most immunogenic antigens; thus, is a highly attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. The present study analyzed the expression of serum antibodies (Abs) against NY-ESO-1 in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), with the aim of guiding the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific-immunotherapy for these patients. Furthermore, the present study was the first to evaluate the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and investigate the possible influencing factors. A total of 239 serum samples from 155 pathologically confirmed patients with advanced CRC (stages III and IV) were collected. The presence of spontaneous Abs against NY-ESO-1 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated that 24.5% (38/155) of the investigated patients were positive for NY-ESO-1-specific Abs. No statistically significant correlations were identified between the expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and clinicopathological parameters, including age and gender, location, grading, local infiltration, lymph node status, metastatic status and K-ras mutation status (P>0.05). In 59 patients, the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs was analyzed, of which 14 patients were initially positive and 45 patients were initially negative. Notably, 16/59 (27.1%) patients changed their expression status during the study period, and the initially positive patients were more likely to change compared with the initially negative patients (85.7 vs. 8.8%; P<0.001). Therefore, monitoring serum Abs against NY-ESO-1 by ELISA is an easy and feasible method. The high expression rate of NY-ESO-1-specific Abs in CRC patients indicates that measuring the levels of serum Abs against NY-ESO-1 may guide the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced CRC.

  20. Work/Life Satisfaction Policy in ADVANCE Universities: Assessing Levels of Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Leslie E.; Dilks, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Work/life satisfaction policies are seen as key to recruiting, retaining, and advancing high quality faculty. This article explores the work/life policies prevalent at NSF ADVANCE institutions (PAID, Catalyst, and IT). We systematically review ADVANCE university websites (N = 124) and rank 9 categories of work/life policy including dual career…

  1. Polarity-specific high-level information propagation in neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Nan; Chang, Po-Yen; Hsiao, Pao-Yueh; Lo, Chung-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the connectome of a nervous system provides valuable information about the functions of its subsystems. Although much has been learned about the architectures of neural networks in various organisms by applying analytical tools developed for general networks, two distinct and functionally important properties of neural networks are often overlooked. First, neural networks are endowed with polarity at the circuit level: Information enters a neural network at input neurons, propagates through interneurons, and leaves via output neurons. Second, many functions of nervous systems are implemented by signal propagation through high-level pathways involving multiple and often recurrent connections rather than by the shortest paths between nodes. In the present study, we analyzed two neural networks: the somatic nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and the partial central complex network of Drosophila, in light of these properties. Specifically, we quantified high-level propagation in the vertical and horizontal directions: the former characterizes how signals propagate from specific input nodes to specific output nodes and the latter characterizes how a signal from a specific input node is shared by all output nodes. We found that the two neural networks are characterized by very efficient vertical and horizontal propagation. In comparison, classic small-world networks show a trade-off between vertical and horizontal propagation; increasing the rewiring probability improves the efficiency of horizontal propagation but worsens the efficiency of vertical propagation. Our result provides insights into how the complex functions of natural neural networks may arise from a design that allows them to efficiently transform and combine input signals.

  2. Design and Specification of Optical Bandpass Filters for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Tsevetanov, Zlatan; Woodruff, Bob; Mooney, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced optical bandpass filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have been developed on a filter-by-filter basis through detailed studies which take into account the instrument's science goals, available optical filter fabrication technology, and developments in ACS's charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector technology. These filters include a subset of filters for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are optimized for astronomical photometry using today's charge-coupled-devices (CCD's). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements for these filters include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, a high degree of parfocality, and immunity to environmental degradation. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The highly successful paradigm in which final specifications for flight filters were derived through interaction amongst the ACS Science Team, the instrument designer, the lead optical engineer, and the filter designer and vendor is described. Examples of iterative design trade studies carried out in the context of science needs and budgetary and schedule constraints are presented. An overview of the final design specifications for the ACS bandpass and ramp filters is also presented.

  3. A cancer vaccine induces expansion of NY-ESO-1-specific regulatory T cells in patients with advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Lisa M; MacRaild, Sarah E; Zanker, Damien; Davis, Ian D; Cebon, Jonathan; Chen, Weisan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines are designed to expand tumor antigen-specific T cells with effector function. However, they may also inadvertently expand regulatory T cells (Treg), which could seriously hamper clinical efficacy. To address this possibility, we developed a novel assay to detect antigen-specific Treg based on down-regulation of surface CD3 following TCR engagement, and used this approach to screen for Treg specific to the NY-ESO-1 tumor antigen in melanoma patients treated with the NY-ESO-1/ISCOMATRIX™ cancer vaccine. All patients tested had Treg (CD25(bright) FoxP3(+) CD127(neg)) specific for at least one NY-ESO-1 epitope in the blood. Strikingly, comparison with pre-treatment samples revealed that many of these responses were induced or boosted by vaccination. The most frequently detected response was toward the HLA-DP4-restricted NY-ESO-1(157-170) epitope, which is also recognized by effector T cells. Notably, functional Treg specific for an HLA-DR-restricted epitope within the NY-ESO-1(115-132) peptide were also identified at high frequency in tumor tissue, suggesting that NY-ESO-1-specific Treg may suppress local anti-tumor immune responses. Together, our data provide compelling evidence for the ability of a cancer vaccine to expand tumor antigen-specific Treg in the setting of advanced cancer, a finding which should be given serious consideration in the design of future cancer vaccine clinical trials.

  4. General Anthropometric and Specific Physical Fitness Profile of High-Level Junior Water Polo Players

    PubMed Central

    Kondrič, Miran; Uljević, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Kontić, Dean; Sekulić, Damir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world’s best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position. PMID:23487152

  5. General anthropometric and specific physical fitness profile of high-level junior water polo players.

    PubMed

    Kondrič, Miran; Uljević, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Kontić, Dean; Sekulić, Damir

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world's best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position.

  6. Dissecting miRNA gene repression on single cell level with an advanced fluorescent reporter system

    PubMed Central

    Lemus-Diaz, Nicolas; Böker, Kai O.; Rodriguez-Polo, Ignacio; Mitter, Michael; Preis, Jasmin; Arlt, Maximilian; Gruber, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Despite major advances on miRNA profiling and target predictions, functional readouts for endogenous miRNAs are limited and frequently lead to contradicting conclusions. Numerous approaches including functional high-throughput and miRISC complex evaluations suggest that the functional miRNAome differs from the predictions based on quantitative sRNA profiling. To resolve the apparent contradiction of expression versus function, we generated and applied a fluorescence reporter gene assay enabling single cell analysis. This approach integrates and adapts a mathematical model for miRNA-driven gene repression. This model predicts three distinct miRNA-groups with unique repression activities (low, mid and high) governed not just by expression levels but also by miRNA/target-binding capability. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of the system by applying controlled concentrations of synthetic siRNAs and in parallel, altering target-binding capability on corresponding reporter-constructs. Furthermore, we compared miRNA-profiles with the modeled predictions of 29 individual candidates. We demonstrate that expression levels only partially reflect the miRNA function, fitting to the model-projected groups of different activities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that subcellular localization of miRNAs impacts functionality. Our results imply that miRNA profiling alone cannot define their repression activity. The gene regulatory function is a dynamic and complex process beyond a minimalistic conception of “highly expressed equals high repression”. PMID:28338079

  7. System-Level Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jack; Wiser, Jack; Brown, Greg; Florin, Dominic; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2014-01-01

    To support future NASA deep space missions, a radioisotope power system utilizing Stirling power conversion technology was under development. This development effort was performed under the joint sponsorship of the Department of Energy and NASA, until its termination at the end of 2013 due to budget constraints. The higher conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle compared with that of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in previous missions (Viking, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Laboratory) offers the advantage of a four-fold reduction in Pu-238 fuel, thereby extending its limited domestic supply. As part of closeout activities, system-level testing of flight-like Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with a flight-like ASC Controller Unit (ACU) was performed in February 2014. This hardware is the most representative of the flight design tested to date. The test fully demonstrates the following ACU and system functionality: system startup; ASC control and operation at nominal and worst-case operating conditions; power rectification; DC output power management throughout nominal and out-of-range host voltage levels; ACU fault management, and system command / telemetry via MIL-STD 1553 bus. This testing shows the viability of such a system for future deep space missions and bolsters confidence in the maturity of the flight design.

  8. Intruder scenarios for site-specific low-level radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has revised its low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management requirements and guidelines for waste generated at its facilities supporting defense missions. Specifically, draft DOE Order 5820.2A, Chapter 3 describes the purpose, policy, and requirements necessary for the management of defense LLW. The draft DOE policy calls for LLW operations to be managed to protect the health and safety of the public, preserve the environment, and ensure that no remedial action will be necessary after termination of operations. The basic approach used by DOE is to establish overall performance objectives, in terms of groundwater protection and public radiation dose limits, and to require site-specific performance assessments to determine compliance. As a result of these performance assessments, each site will develop waste acceptance criteria that define the allowable quantities and concentrations of specific radioisotopes. Additional limitations on waste disposal design, waste form, and waste treatment will also be developed on a site-specific basis. As a key step in the site-specific performance assessments, an evaluation must be conducted of potential radiation doses to intruders who may inadvertently move onto a closed DOE LLW disposal site after loss of institutional controls. This report (1) describes the types of intruder scenarios that should be considered when performing this step of the site-specific performance assessment, (2) provides the results of generic calculations performed using unit concentrations of various radionuclides as a comparison of the magnitude of importance of the various intruder scenarios, and (3) shows the relationship between the generic doses and waste classification limits for defense wastes.

  9. A Specific Association between Facial Disgust Recognition and Estradiol Levels in Naturally Cycling Women

    PubMed Central

    Kamboj, Sunjeev K.; Krol, Kathleen M.; Curran, H. Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Subtle changes in social cognition are associated with naturalistic fluctuations in estrogens and progesterone over the course of the menstrual cycle. Using a dynamic emotion recognition task we aimed to provide a comprehensive description of the association between ovarian hormone levels and emotion recognition performance using a variety of performance metrics. Naturally cycling, psychiatrically healthy women attended a single experimental session during a follicular (days 7–13; n = 16), early luteal (days 15–19; n = 14) or late luteal phase (days 22–27; n = 14) of their menstrual cycle. Correct responses and reaction times to dynamic facial expressions were recorded and a two-high threshold analysis was used to assess discrimination and response bias. Salivary progesterone and estradiol were assayed and subjective measures of premenstrual symptoms, anxiety and positive and negative affect assessed. There was no interaction between cycle phase (follicular, early luteal, late luteal) and facial expression (sad, happy, fearful, angry, neutral and disgusted) on any of the recognition performance metrics. However, across the sample as a whole, progesterone levels were positively correlated with reaction times to a variety of facial expressions (anger, happiness, sadness and neutral expressions). In contrast, estradiol levels were specifically correlated with disgust processing on three performance indices (correct responses, response bias and discrimination). Premenstrual symptoms, anxiety and positive and negative affect were not associated with emotion recognition indices or hormone levels. The study highlights the role of naturalistic variations in ovarian hormone levels in modulating emotion recognition. In particular, progesterone seems to have a general slowing effect on facial expression processing. Our findings also provide the first behavioural evidence of a specific role for estrogens in the processing of disgust in humans. PMID:25874795

  10. Molecular Basis of Signaling Specificity of Insulin and IGF Receptors: Neglected Corners and Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptors utilize common phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways to mediate a broad spectrum of “metabolic” and “mitogenic” responses. Specificity of insulin and IGF action in vivo must in part reflect expression of receptors and responsive pathways in different tissues but it is widely assumed that it is also determined by the ligand binding and signaling mechanisms of the receptors. This review focuses on receptor-proximal events in insulin/IGF signaling and examines their contribution to specificity of downstream responses. Insulin and IGF receptors may differ subtly in the efficiency with which they recruit their major substrates (IRS-1 and IRS-2 and Shc) and this could influence effectiveness of signaling to “metabolic” and “mitogenic” responses. Other substrates (Grb2-associated binder, downstream of kinases, SH2Bs, Crk), scaffolds (RACK1, β-arrestins, cytohesins), and pathways (non-receptor tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositide kinases, reactive oxygen species) have been less widely studied. Some of these components appear to be specifically involved in “metabolic” or “mitogenic” signaling but it has not been shown that this reflects receptor-preferential interaction. Very few receptor-specific interactions have been characterized, and their roles in signaling are unclear. Signaling specificity might also be imparted by differences in intracellular trafficking or feedback regulation of receptors, but few studies have directly addressed this possibility. Although published data are not wholly conclusive, no evidence has yet emerged for signaling mechanisms that are specifically engaged by insulin receptors but not IGF receptors or vice versa, and there is only limited evidence for differential activation of signaling mechanisms that are common to both receptors. Cellular context, rather than intrinsic receptor activity, therefore appears

  11. Age-specific reference values for serum FSH and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period.

    PubMed

    Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Plebani, Maddalena; Milani, Silvano; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale; La Marca, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    High serum day 3 FSH levels are associated with poor ovarian reserve and reduced fertility, but the interpretation of FSH values according to age is still not univocal. The purpose of this study was to determine age-dependent reference values in women with regular menstrual cycles and FSH as a guide for specialists. The study was performed at the Department of Mother-Infant of a University-based tertiary care centre. One-hundred ninety-two healthy normal menstruating women were recruited for the study. All patients attended the department on menstrual cycle day 3 for a blood sample for FSH and estradiol determination. A linear relationship between FSH or estradiol serum levels and age was observed. The FSH level increased by 0.11 IU for every year of age (1 IU for every 9 years of age). The values of FSH and estradiol corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th centiles for any specific age have been calculated. Serum FSH levels need to be interpreted according to age-dependent reference values. Serum FSH levels on 95th centile for any age may represent a warning sign for reduced ovarian reserve.

  12. Recent advances in orally administered cell-specific nanotherapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Si, Xiao-Ying; Merlin, Didier; Xiao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease in gastrointestinal tract. Conventional medications lack the efficacy to offer complete remission in IBD therapy, and usually associate with serious side effects. Recent studies indicated that nanoparticle-based nanotherapeutics may offer precise and safe alternative to conventional medications via enhanced targeting, sustained drug release, and decreased adverse effects. Here, we reviewed orally cell-specific nanotherapeutics developed in recent years. In addition, the various obstacles for oral drug delivery are also reviewed in this manuscript. Orally administrated cell-specific nanotherapeutics is expected to become a novel therapeutic approach for IBD treatment. PMID:27678353

  13. Near real-time monitoring and mapping of specific conductivity levels across Lake Texoma, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, S.F.; Mabe, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A submersible sonde equipped with a specific conductivity probe, linked with a global positioning satellite receiver was developed, deployed on a small boat, and used to map spatial and temporal variations in specific conductivity in a large reservoir. 7,695 sample points were recorded during 8 sampling trips. Specific conductivity ranged from 442 uS/cm to 3,378 uS/cm over the nine-month study. The data showed five statistically different zones in the reservoir: 2 different riverine zones, 2 different riverine transition zones, and a lacustrine zone (the main lake zone). These data were imported to a geographic information system where they were spatially interpolated to generate 8 maps showing specific conductivity levels across the entire surface of the lake. The highly dynamic nature of water quality, due to the widely differing nature of the rivers that flow into the reservoir and the effect of large inflows of fresh water during winter storms is easily captured and visualized using this approach. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006.

  14. A two-level structure for advanced space power system automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.; Chankong, Vira

    1990-05-01

    The tasks to be carried out during the three-year project period are: (1) performing extensive simulation using existing mathematical models to build a specific knowledge base of the operating characteristics of space power systems; (2) carrying out the necessary basic research on hierarchical control structures, real-time quantitative algorithms, and decision-theoretic procedures; (3) developing a two-level automation scheme for fault detection and diagnosis, maintenance and restoration scheduling, and load management; and (4) testing and demonstration. The outlines of the proposed system structure that served as a master plan for this project, work accomplished, concluding remarks, and ideas for future work are also addressed.

  15. A two-level structure for advanced space power system automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.; Chankong, Vira

    1990-01-01

    The tasks to be carried out during the three-year project period are: (1) performing extensive simulation using existing mathematical models to build a specific knowledge base of the operating characteristics of space power systems; (2) carrying out the necessary basic research on hierarchical control structures, real-time quantitative algorithms, and decision-theoretic procedures; (3) developing a two-level automation scheme for fault detection and diagnosis, maintenance and restoration scheduling, and load management; and (4) testing and demonstration. The outlines of the proposed system structure that served as a master plan for this project, work accomplished, concluding remarks, and ideas for future work are also addressed.

  16. Increased levels of advanced glycation endproducts in the lenses and blood vessels of cigarette smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, I. D.; Stitt, A. W.; Moore, J. E.; Ritchie, A. J.; Archer, D. B.; Bucala, R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) arise from the spontaneous reaction of reducing sugars with the amino groups of macromolecules. AGEs accumulate in tissue as a consequence of diabetes and aging and have been causally implicated in the pathogenesis of several of the end-organ complications of diabetes and aging, including cataract, atherosclerosis, and renal insufficiency. It has been recently proposed that components in mainstream cigarette smoke can react with plasma and extracellular matrix proteins to form covalent adducts with many of the properties of AGEs. We wished to ascertain whether AGEs or immunochemically related molecules are present at higher levels in the tissues of smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lens and coronary artery specimens from nondiabetic smokers and nondiabetic nonsmokers were examined by immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy, and ELISA employing several distinct anti-AGE antibodies. In addition, lenticular extracts were tested for AGE-associated fluorescence by fluorescence spectroscopy. RESULTS: Immunoreactive AGEs were present at significantly higher levels in the lenses and lenticular extracts of nondiabetic smokers (p < 0.003). Anti-AGE immunogold staining was diffusely distributed throughout lens fiber cells. AGE-associated fluorescence was significantly increased in the lenticular extracts of nondiabetic smokers (p = 0.005). AGE-immunoreactivity was significantly elevated in coronary arteries from nondiabetic smokers compared with nondiabetic nonsmokers (p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: AGEs or immunochemically related molecules are present at higher levels in the tissues of smokers than in nonsmokers, irrespective of diabetes. In view of previous reports implicating AGEs in a causal association with numerous pathologies, these findings have significant ramifications for understanding the etiopathology of diseases associated with smoking, the single greatest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the

  17. Advanced concepts. [specific impulse, mass drivers, electromagnetic launchers, and the rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    The relative strengths of those interactions which enable propulsive forces are listed as well as the specific impulse of various propellants. Graphics show the linear synchronous motor of the mass driver, the principle of the direct current electromagnetic launcher, and the characteristics of the rail gun.

  18. Providing a navigable route for acute medicine nurses to advance their practice: a framework of ascending levels of practice.

    PubMed

    Lees-Deutsch, Liz; Christian, Jan; Setchfield, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article conveys concerns raised by delegates at the International SAM Conference (Manchester, 2015) regarding how to advance nursing practice in acute medicine. It endeavors to capture the essence of 'how to advance practice' and 'how to integrate advanced practice' within the workforce structures of an acute medicine unit (AMU). It addresses the production of tacit knowledge and the recognition and integration of this to developing the nursing workforce. The current context of NHS efficiencies and recruitment issues emphasize the value of retaining tacit knowledge. Uniquely, this article offers an early conceptual framework through which levels of advancement and potential transition points to advance nursing practice in acute medicine are articulated. Determining how to advance requires identification of prior accomplishments such as, tacit knowledge, experiential learning, CPD, specialist courses and management experience. This requires nurses to make judicious decisions to advance their practice and the distinction between 'amassing experience' and 'career progression'. It aims to stimulate thinking around the practicalities of advancement, the value of tacit knowledge and potential realization through the framework trajectory.

  19. In situ detection of specific gene expression during and immediately after transcription at electron microscopic level.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Sohei; Kitazawa, Riko

    2006-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) is a widely applied technique used for visualizing specific nucleic acid sequences at chromosomal, cytologic, and histologic levels. It sometimes fails, however, to demonstrate precise cell identity, early stages of gene expression and variants of alternative splicing because of its limited resolution. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed an improved ISH technique at the electron microscopic (EM) level by conducting en bloc hybridization before embedding (pre-embedding) and immuno-EM detection after ultra-thin sectioning (post-embedding). We applied this technique to demonstrate both the dynamic expression of interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA immediately after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, and the static expression of osteonectin mRNA in a differentiating osteoblastic cell linage. Tissue samples were diced into 1mm cubes, fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, and then successively hybridized en bloc with the digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled single-stranded probe measuring 200-300 bp with the aid of microwave treatment. After washing, for EM observation, the cubes were embedded in epon for ultra-thin sectioning, and a gold-colloid-labeled anti-DIG antibody was used for post-embedding immuno-EM; some of the cubes was directly incubated with anti-DIG antibody and developed en bloc for stereoscopic and light microscopic observation. IL-6 mRNA during and immediately after transcription was demonstrated in the nuclei of the alveolar macrophages and in neutrophils of mouse lung tissue as early as 15 min after LPS treatment, which was of better sensitivity than that by Northern blot or nuclear run-on techniques. Moreover, in mouse calvaria tissue, osteonectin mRNA both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm was observed in a differentiating osteoblastic cell linage in a differentiation-specific manner. This technique is useful in identifying specific cell types during and immediately after transcribing specific mRNA based on ultrastructural morphology.

  20. Generating Safety-Critical PLC Code From a High-Level Application Software Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of automatic-application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. These benefits include raised abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at Kennedy Space Center recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing the new ground checkout and launch processing system, called the Launch Control System (LCS). Engineers developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. All the computer hardware in the LCS is planned to be commercial off the shelf (COTS), including industrial controllers or PLCs that are connected to the sensors and end items out in the field. Most of the software in LCS is also planned to be COTS, with only small adapter software modules that must be developed in order to interface between the various COTS software products. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language designed to perform tasks and to solve problems in a particular domain, such as ground processing of launch vehicles. The LCS engineers created a DSL for developing test sequences of ground checkout and launch operations of future launch vehicle and spacecraft elements, and they are developing a tabular specification format that uses the DSL keywords and functions familiar to the ground and flight system users. The tabular specification format, or tabular spec, allows most ground and flight system users to document how the application software is intended to function and requires little or no software programming knowledge or experience. A small sample from a prototype tabular spec application is

  1. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) Product Specification Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassy, Joe; Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas; Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project.

  2. Filament formation by metabolic enzymes is a specific adaptation to an advanced state of cellular starvation

    PubMed Central

    Petrovska, Ivana; Nüske, Elisabeth; Munder, Matthias C; Kulasegaran, Gayathrie; Malinovska, Liliana; Kroschwald, Sonja; Richter, Doris; Fahmy, Karim; Gibson, Kimberley; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Alberti, Simon

    2014-01-01

    One of the key questions in biology is how the metabolism of a cell responds to changes in the environment. In budding yeast, starvation causes a drop in intracellular pH, but the functional role of this pH change is not well understood. Here, we show that the enzyme glutamine synthetase (Gln1) forms filaments at low pH and that filament formation leads to enzymatic inactivation. Filament formation by Gln1 is a highly cooperative process, strongly dependent on macromolecular crowding, and involves back-to-back stacking of cylindrical homo-decamers into filaments that associate laterally to form higher order fibrils. Other metabolic enzymes also assemble into filaments at low pH. Hence, we propose that filament formation is a general mechanism to inactivate and store key metabolic enzymes during a state of advanced cellular starvation. These findings have broad implications for understanding the interplay between nutritional stress, the metabolism and the physical organization of a cell. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02409.001 PMID:24771766

  3. Very compact FTTH Diplexer design using advanced wafer level fabrication methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Christophe; Grosse, Philippe; Gilet, Philippe; Olivier, Nicolas; Chelnokov, Alexei; Fulbert, Laurent; Bernabé, Stéphane; Rossat, Cyrille; Hamelin, Régis; Hamberg, Ivar; Lundqvist, Lennart; Chitica, Nicolae; Hammar, Matthias; Berggren, Jesper; Junique, Stéphane; Wang, Qin; Almqvist, Susanne; Sillans, Christian

    2008-04-01

    FTTH networks require implementing a diplexer at each user termination. According to most of the standards, this diplexer detects a download signal beam at 1.49μm and emits an upload signal beam at 1.31μm on the same single mode fibre. Both signals exhibit datarate speed below 2.5Gbps. Today, most of the diplexers are obtained by actively aligning a set of individual optoelectronic components and micro-optics. However, new manufacturing solutions satisfying very low cost and mass production capability requirements of this market would help to speed the massive spreading of this technology. In this paper, we present an original packaging design to manufacture Diplexer Optical Sub-Assembly for FTTH application. A dual photodiode is stacked over a VCSEL and detects both the download signal beam at 1.49μm passing through the laser and one part of the upload signal beam at 1.31μm for monitoring. To satisfy this approach, an innovative VCSEL has been designed to have a very high transmission at 1.49μm. All these components are mounted on a very small circuit board on glass including also integrated circuits such as transimpedance amplifier. So, the device combines advanced optoelectronic components and highly integrated Multi-Chip-Module on glass approach using collective wafer-level assembling technologies. For the single mode fibre optical coupling, active and passive alignment solutions are considered.

  4. Burns ITU admissions: length of stay in specific levels of care for adult and paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Maan, Zeshaan N; Frew, Quentin; Din, Asmat H; Unluer, Zeynep; Smailes, Sarah; Philp, Bruce; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of total length of stay (LOS) for burns patients based on the total burn surface area (TBSA) is well accepted. Total LOS is a poor measure of resource consumption. Our aim was to determine the LOS in specific levels of care to better inform resource allocation. We performed a retrospective review of LOS in intensive treatment unit (ITU), burns high dependency unit (HDU) and burns low dependency unit (LDU) for all patients requiring ITU admission in a regional burns service from 2003 to 2011. During this period, our unit has admitted 1312 paediatric and 1445 adult patients to our Burns ITU. In both groups, ITU comprised 20% of the total LOS (mean 0.23±0.02 [adult] and 0.22±0.02 [paediatric] days per %burn). In adults, 33% of LOS was in HDU (0.52±0.06 days per %burn) and 48% (0.68±0.06 days per %burn) in LDU, while in children, 15% of LOS was in HDU (0.19±0.03 days per %burn) and 65% in LDU (0.70±0.06 days per %burn). When considering Burns ITU admissions, resource allocation ought to be planned according to expected LOS in specific levels of care rather than total LOS. The largest proportion of stay is in low dependency, likely due to social issues.

  5. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-05-26

    This revision 1 Level 2 Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for a sampling system and for an at-tank analysis system that will support the BNFL, Inc. privatization contract in the final disposal of Hanford's high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW). The sampling system will quickly provide large volume, representative waste samples for validating the chemical, radiological, and physical properties of the tank waste without the exposure and time concerns of the baseline grab sampling method. The on-line sensors of the at-tank analysis system will provide data from which the mixing or settling status of the waste can be assessed. This revision 1 document includes functions, requirement, and specifications for the at-tank analysis system, the results of the preliminary outline design, and the FY 1998 validation testing. The sample container filling system will comply with RCRA criteria for samples with volatile organic constituents, include empty container and swipe input ports, use Hanford's Steel Pig radioactive sample package, comply with Hanford's flammable gas criteria, and have the means to recover from broken sample containers.

  6. Use of Mitochondria-Specific Dye MKT-077 as a Radiosensitizer to Preoperatively Treat Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0264 TITLE: Use of Mitochondria-Specific Dye MKT ...From - To) 18 Mar 2006 – 17 Mar 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Use of Mitochondria-Specific Dye MKT -077 as a Radiosensitizer to...is to determine if the rhodacyanine analog dye, MKT -077, can be used to inhibit breast cancer cell oxygen metabolism and raise tumor oxygen levels

  7. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/.

  8. Which Advanced Mathematics Courses Influence ACT Score? A State Level Analysis of the Iowa Class of 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between specific advanced mathematics courses and college readiness (as determined by ACT score). The ACT organization has found a consistent relationship between taking a minimum core number of mathematics courses and higher ACT scores (mathematics and composite) (ACT, Inc., 2012c). However, the extent to…

  9. Advances in forensic toxicology for establishing causality between Great Lakes epizootics and specific persistent toxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, M.

    1997-09-01

    Populations of fish, wildlife, and humans in the Great Lakes basin have been injured during this century by exposures to organochlorine pollutants such as PCBs and dioxin. The evidence presented by scientists working on these outbreaks of chemically induced disease has been received with skepticism among officials, who have expressed a desire for a proven cause and effect before further costly regulatory and remedial action is taken. Scientists have adapted epidemiological criteria to infer causal relationships between the injury and exposures to specific chemicals. These forensic statements are different from traditional toxicological statements about potential effects. There is a priority need to institutionalize this methodology within governments to complement established risk assessment techniques.

  10. An Advanced User Interface Approach for Complex Parameter Study Process Specification in the Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarrow, Maurice; McCann, Karen M.; Biswas, Rupak; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Yan, Jerry C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The creation of parameter study suites has recently become a more challenging problem as the parameter studies have now become multi-tiered and the computational environment has become a supercomputer grid. The parameter spaces are vast, the individual problem sizes are getting larger, and researchers are now seeking to combine several successive stages of parameterization and computation. Simultaneously, grid-based computing offers great resource opportunity but at the expense of great difficulty of use. We present an approach to this problem which stresses intuitive visual design tools for parameter study creation and complex process specification, and also offers programming-free access to grid-based supercomputer resources and process automation.

  11. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase tissue-specific activities: evidence for baseline levels in mammalian tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Uziel, M.; Griffin, G.D.; Walsh, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The tissue-specific activities of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase benzo(a)pyrene (AHH(BaP)) in human, mouse, rat, and hamster tissues have been reviewed. Three categories of AHH activities are defined: baseline values from tissues that have been protected from adventitious exposures to AHH inducers; background levels from tissues where there have been no overt measures to protect against exposure; and induced levels resulting from overt exposure to chemical inducers. Evidence that the baseline category exists is derived from the observations that an upper limit of AHH tissue-specific activity of about 1.5 nmol/h x g tissue occurs in human placenta, human foreskin, lymphocyte, and epitheliod and fibroblastoid cell lines; mouse lung and liver; rat fetal liver, and noninducible rat cell lines from lung, liver, embryo kidney, and adrenals; and hamster kidney. The collected values for nonexposed tissues range from 0.02 nmol/h x g to values less than 1.5 nmol/h x g. The most consistent observation of this type was from human placental material from nonsmoking mothers. Animals raised under standard laboratory conditions without special dietary precautions show background AHH activities that range from 2 nmol/h x g to 200 nmol/h x g in portal of entry tissues such as liver, lung, and intestines. Almost all tissue samples showed induced AHH levels of up to 500 nmol/h x g when those tissues were overtly exposed to substances containing chemical inducers of AHH. Measurements of placental AHH from smoking mothers showed that more than 95% of those samples had AHH values exceeding 2.5 nmol/h x g.

  12. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators.

    PubMed

    Peimer, Alex W; Krzywicka, Adrianna E; Cohen, Dora B; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L; Stevenson, Natalie A; Matthews, Jeffrey W

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  13. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peimer, Alex W.; Krzywicka, Adrianna E.; Cohen, Dora B.; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L.; Stevenson, Natalie A.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  14. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya; M.J. McKelvy; G.H. Wolf; R.W. Carpenter; D.A. Gormley; J.R. Diefenbacher; R. Marzke

    2006-03-01

    significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO2 mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH)2. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO2 mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach has provided a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. We used ab initio techniques to significantly advance our understanding of atomic-level processes at the solid/solution interface by

  15. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2003-12-19

    /NETL managed National Mineral Sequestration Working Group we have already significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH){sub 2}. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach will provide a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. Ab initio techniques will also

  16. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2002-12-19

    /NETL managed National Mineral Sequestration Working Group we have already significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH){sub 2}. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach will provide a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. Ab initio techniques will also

  17. Multi-item direct behavior ratings: Dependability of two levels of assessment specificity.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Robert J; Briesch, Amy M

    2015-09-01

    Direct Behavior Rating-Multi-Item Scales (DBR-MIS) have been developed as formative measures of behavioral assessment for use in school-based problem-solving models. Initial research has examined the dependability of composite scores generated by summing all items comprising the scales. However, it has been argued that DBR-MIS may offer assessment of 2 levels of behavioral specificity (i.e., item-level, global composite-level). Further, it has been argued that scales can be individualized for each student to improve efficiency without sacrificing technical characteristics. The current study examines the dependability of 5 items comprising a DBR-MIS designed to measure classroom disruptive behavior. A series of generalizability theory and decision studies were conducted to examine the dependability of each item (calls out, noisy, clowns around, talks to classmates and out of seat), as well as a 3-item composite that was individualized for each student. Seven graduate students rated the behavior of 9 middle-school students on each item over 3 occasions. Ratings were based on 10-min video clips of students during mathematics instruction. Separate generalizability and decision studies were conducted for each item and for a 3-item composite that was individualized for each student based on the highest rated items on the first rating occasion. Findings indicate favorable dependability estimates for 3 of the 5 items and exceptional dependability estimates for the individualized composite.

  18. Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise: Advancing coastal management through integrated research and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Rising sea level represents a significant threat to coastal communities and ecosystems through land loss, altered habitats, and increased vulnerability to coastal storms and inundation. This threat is exemplified in the northern Gulf of Mexico where low topography, expansive marshes, and a prevalence of tropical storms have already resulted in extensive coastal impacts. The development of robust predictive capabilities that incorporate complex biological processes with physical dynamics are critical for informed planning and restoration efforts for coastal ecosystems. Looking to build upon existing predictive modeling capabilities and allow for use of multiple model (i.e., ensemble) approaches, NOAA initiated the Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise program in 2010 to advance physical/biological integrative modeling capabilities in the region with a goal to provide user friendly predictive tools for coastal ecosystem management. Focused on the northern Gulf of Mexico, this multi-disciplinary project led by the University of Central Florida will use in situ field studies to parameterize physical and biological models. These field studies will also result in a predictive capability for overland sediment delivery and transport that will further enhance marsh, oyster, and submerged aquatic vegetation models. Results from this integrated modeling effort are envisioned to inform management strategies for reducing risk, restoration and breakwater guidelines, and resource sustainability for project planning, among other uses. In addition to the science components, this project incorporates significant engagement of the management community through a management applications principle investigator and an advisory management committee. Routine engagement between the science team and the management committee, including annual workshops, are focused on ensuring the development of applicable, relevant, and useable products and tools at the conclusion of this project. Particular

  19. High proline levels in the brains of mice as related to specific learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C F; Baldwin, R A; Davis, J L; Flood, J F

    1985-06-01

    Hyperprolinemic PRO/Re mice have been studied as potential models for hyperprolinemia in man. In addition to high proline levels, some heretofore unreported amino acid abnormalities in the brains of PRO/Re mice are described. The T-maze and shuttlebox learning abilities of PRO/Re mice were compared with those of CD-1 mice having normal proline levels. PRO/Re mice had a significant deficit for T-maze learning, but a significantly greater aptitude for shuttlebox learning when compared to CD-1 mice. By studying the F3 progency of the PRO/Re X CD-1 cross, these strain-specific differences in learning ability for different tasks were shown to be unrelated to the differences in brain proline levels. F3 mice could be subdivided into two distinct groups: those with high proline (HP+) and low proline (HP-) titers. Other amino acids in brain tissues were essentially identical in both groups. A comparison of learning abilities of these HP+ mice with their HP- littermates showed no meaningful differences. However, the slightly slower rate at which HP+ mice acquired shuttlebox learning was sufficiently consistent over the 8 day training period so that it became significant. These results do not support the hypothesis that high levels of proline in brain tissues and blood are necessarily accompanied by impaired learning and memory, but are in agreement with those studies of hyperprolinemia in man that suggest no consistent learning deficits in hyperprolinemic subjects. The results seem to validate the suitability of the PRO/Re mouse as a model for hyperprolinemia in man. The data suggest also that the altered amino acid pattern in brains of PRO/Re mice has multiple etiologies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Gold Nanoparticle Based Activatable Probe for Sensing Ultra-Low Levels of Prostate Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dingbin; Huang, Xinglu; Wang, Zhantong; Jin, Albert; Sun, Xiaolian; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Fu; Ma, Ying; Niu, Gang; HightWalker, Angela R.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    It is still in high demand to develop extremely sensitive and accurate clinical tools for biomarkers of interest for early diagnosis and monitoring of diseases. In this report, we present a highly sensitive and compatible gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based fluorescence activatable probe for sensing ultra-low levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patient serum samples. The limit of detection of the newly-developed probe for PSA was pushed down to 0.032 pg/mL, which is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of the conventional fluorescence probe. The ultrahigh sensitivity of this probe was attributed to the high loading efficiency of the dyes on AuNP surfaces and high fluorescence quenching unquenching abilities of the dye-AuNP pairs. The efficiency and robustness of this probe was investigated in patient serum samples, demonstrating the great potential of this probe in real-world applications. PMID:23683064

  1. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Behr, Michael K; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2011-09-27

    Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain regions. For the critical case of language, conflicting answers arise from the neuropsychological literature, which features striking dissociations between deficits in linguistic and nonlinguistic abilities, vs. the neuroimaging literature, which has argued for overlap between activations for linguistic and nonlinguistic processes, including arithmetic, domain general abilities like cognitive control, and music. Here, we use functional MRI to define classic language regions functionally in each subject individually and then examine the response of these regions to the nonlinguistic functions most commonly argued to engage these regions: arithmetic, working memory, cognitive control, and music. We find little or no response in language regions to these nonlinguistic functions. These data support a clear distinction between language and other cognitive processes, resolving the prior conflict between the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literatures.

  2. A County-level Crop Specific Drought Severity-Coverage Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leelaruban, N.; Akyuz, A.; Padmanabhan, G.; Shaik, S.

    2012-12-01

    spatial and temporal variation. However, the final model depends upon the presence or absence of spatial and temporal variation in both the exogenous and endogenous variables. Based on the statistical relationship between drought intensity categories and yield values a unique county wide Crop Specific Drought Severity-Coverage Index (Isc,ag) for each crop was developed. This study demonstrated that southwestern parts of the state is the most drought-prone area of the state and require Best Management Practices (BMPs) to address future drought impacts. Moreover, statistical model results show that Isc values have significant impact on yield for all crop types. Crop Specific Drought Severity-Coverage Index (Isc,ag) will be useful to implement best agriculture practice based on drought scenarios. The developed Isc and Isc,ag are suitable for county level drought management and decision making processes, implementing drought mitigation plans such as allocation of resources, and recommending Best Management Practices (BMPs) for agricultural activities. In addition, dissemination of the results of the analyses of these indices will facilitate easily understandable communication of the drought status to the public.

  3. An oral exam model for teaching advanced "Batchelor-level" fluid mechanics in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    A teaching model is developed to meet the challenge of teaching fluid mechanics at what might be considered a high level, at least by the current norms in the US. The initial goal was to avoid loss of concepts amidst the challenge of particular mathematical manipulations on particular assignments. However, it evolved toward fostering facile working knowledge of challenging material, such as in the books by Batchelor (e.g. streaming flow), Whitham (e.g. ship waves), and van Dyke (e.g. second-order boundary layer). To this end, the course model forgoes traditional assigned problems to focus on completion, augmentation, and in-depth understanding of the lecture material. The lectures are relatively traditional in structure, albeit with somewhat more interactive examples. The main unusual feature-again, by modern US standards-was assessment via multiple half-hour oral exams. This model has now been successful over 8 semesters for 3 different graduate courses in 2 departments. For all, students were assume to have already completed a full course at a "Navier-Stokes level". The presentation will include specifics of the course and exam structure, impressions of positive outcomes from the instructor, and a summary of the overwhelmingly positive student feedback.

  4. Advanced-Level Testing of Foreign Language Proficiency: An Interim Report of the Post A-Level Spanish Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ife, Anne E.; Standish, Peter

    This is a preliminary report concerning the development of tests which measure the linguistic ability in Spanish of English students at the beginning of their post A-level courses. The Palspan (Post A-level Spanish project) pilot test battery is comprised of five sub-tests of between 45 and 90 minutes in length which test for speaking, listening,…

  5. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  6. Integration of patient specific modeling and advanced image processing techniques for image-guided neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archip, Neculai; Fedorov, Andriy; Lloyd, Bryn; Chrisochoides, Nikos; Golby, Alexandra; Black, Peter M.; Warfield, Simon K.

    2006-03-01

    A major challenge in neurosurgery oncology is to achieve maximal tumor removal while avoiding postoperative neurological deficits. Therefore, estimation of the brain deformation during the image guided tumor resection process is necessary. While anatomic MRI is highly sensitive for intracranial pathology, its specificity is limited. Different pathologies may have a very similar appearance on anatomic MRI. Moreover, since fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging are not currently available during the surgery, non-rigid registration of preoperative MR with intra-operative MR is necessary. This article presents a translational research effort that aims to integrate a number of state-of-the-art technologies for MRI-guided neurosurgery at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH). Our ultimate goal is to routinely provide the neurosurgeons with accurate information about brain deformation during the surgery. The current system is tested during the weekly neurosurgeries in the open magnet at the BWH. The preoperative data is processed, prior to the surgery, while both rigid and non-rigid registration algorithms are run in the vicinity of the operating room. The system is tested on 9 image datasets from 3 neurosurgery cases. A method based on edge detection is used to quantitatively validate the results. 95% Hausdorff distance between points of the edges is used to estimate the accuracy of the registration. Overall, the minimum error is 1.4 mm, the mean error 2.23 mm, and the maximum error 3.1 mm. The mean ratio between brain deformation estimation and rigid alignment is 2.07. It demonstrates that our results can be 2.07 times more precise then the current technology. The major contribution of the presented work is the rigid and non-rigid alignment of the pre-operative fMRI with intra-operative 0.5T MRI achieved during the neurosurgery.

  7. Using Instructional Technology to Integrate CEFR "Can Do" Performance Objectives into an Advanced-Level Language Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack; Athanasiou, Androulla; Neophytou-Yiokari, Maro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show how instructional technology can be exploited to effectively integrate Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) "Can Do" performance objectives (Council of Europe, 2001) into the syllabus and assessment of an advanced (B2) level course. The particular course that will be used for purposes…

  8. All Above-Board: A Comparativist Looks at the Advanced Level French Syllabuses of the Nine GCE Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Advanced level French syllabuses of the nine GCE Boards in the United Kingdom are examined. The Southern Universities Joint Board has recently introduced the most radical innovations. As an alternative to its traditional examination it offers Syllabus "B" which dispenses with prescribed tests, but where each student must produce for the…

  9. Teaching Groups as Foci for Evaluating Performance in Cost-Effectiveness of GCE Advanced Level Provision: Some Practical Methodological Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Antony

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes subject teaching-group effectiveness in English and Welsh General Certification of Education (GCE) Advanced Level prior to a linking to resources; suggests cross-classified multilevel models with weighted random effects for disentangling student, group, and teacher effects; finds that teacher effects are considerable, but cannot find…

  10. Finding a Balance: Fifteen Institutional Case Studies on the Relationship between Part-Time Work and Advanced Level Study. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann, Ed.; Spours, Ken, Ed.

    This document presents and discusses case studies that examined the relationship between part-time employment and advanced level study at 15 schools in Essex, England. "Foreword" (David Jones) provides a brief overview of the project. "Finding a Balance--Fifteen Institutional Case Studies on the Relationship between Part-time Work…

  11. Strategic Alliance to Advanced Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Jule Dee

    2004-01-01

    This document (book) reports on the Strategic Alliance to Advance Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level, funded by National Science Foundation. It was a collaborative partnership involving the Rockford Public Schools, Rock Valley College, and Northern Illinois…

  12. The Extraction and Partial Purification of Bacterial DNA as a Practical Exercise for GCE Advanced Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, A. C.; Hayes, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a relatively simple method of extraction and purification of bacterial DNA. This technique permits advanced secondary-level science students to obtain adequate amounts of DNA from very small pellets of bacteria and to observe some of its polymer properties. (ML)

  13. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  14. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…

  15. Leveling the Playing Field: China’s Development of Advanced Energy Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-02

    China’s aggressive development of advanced energy weapons and long-range delivery systems — combined with an analysis of their strategic...3 Game Changers : A Review... Changers ................................................................................................ 13 China’s Intentions

  16. Body mass index in relation to serum prostate-specific antigen levels and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Sjölander, Arvid; Tillander, Annika; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-07-01

    High Body mass index (BMI) has been directly associated with risk of aggressive or fatal prostate cancer. One possible explanation may be an effect of BMI on serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). To study the association between BMI and serum PSA as well as prostate cancer risk, a large cohort of men without prostate cancer at baseline was followed prospectively for prostate cancer diagnoses until 2015. Serum PSA and BMI were assessed among 15,827 men at baseline in 2010-2012. During follow-up, 735 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer with 282 (38.4%) classified as high-grade cancers. Multivariable linear regression models and natural cubic linear regression splines were fitted for analyses of BMI and log-PSA. For risk analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and natural cubic Cox regression splines producing standardized cancer-free probabilities were fitted. Results showed that baseline Serum PSA decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: -2.1 to -1.1) with every one unit increase in BMI. Statistically significant decreases of 3.7, 11.7 and 32.3% were seen for increasing BMI-categories of 25 < 30, 30 < 35 and ≥35 kg/m(2), respectively, compared to the reference (18.5 < 25 kg/m(2)). No statistically significant associations were seen between BMI and prostate cancer risk although results were indicative of a positive association to incidence rates of high-grade disease and an inverse association to incidence of low-grade disease. However, findings regarding risk are limited by the short follow-up time. In conclusion, BMI was inversely associated to PSA-levels. BMI should be taken into consideration when referring men to a prostate biopsy based on serum PSA-levels.

  17. The genetics of pubertal timing in the general population: recent advances and evidence for sex-specificity

    PubMed Central

    Cousminer, Diana L.; Widén, Elisabeth; Palmert, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To overview advances in the genetics of puberty based on studies in the general population, describe evidence for sex-specific genetic effects on pubertal timing, and briefly review possible mechanisms mediating sexually dimorphic genetic effects. Recent findings Pubertal timing is highly polygenic, and many loci are conserved among ethnicities. A number of identified loci underlie both pubertal timing and related traits such as height and body mass index (BMI). It is increasingly apparent that understanding the factors modulating the onset of puberty is important because the timing of this developmental stage is associated with a wider range of adult health outcomes than previously appreciated. While most of the genetic effects underlying the timing of puberty are common between boys and girls, some effects show sex-specificity and many are epigenetically modulated. Several potential mechanisms, including hormone-independent ones, may be responsible for observed sex differences. Summary Studies of pubertal timing in the general population have provided new knowledge about the genetic architecture of this complex trait. Increasing attention paid to sex-specific effects may provide key insights into the sexual dimorphism in pubertal timing and even into the associations between puberty and adult health risks by identifying common underlying biological pathways. PMID:26574646

  18. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  19. Torin1-mediated TOR kinase inhibition reduces Wee1 levels and advances mitotic commitment in fission yeast and HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Atkin, Jane; Halova, Lenka; Ferguson, Jennifer; Hitchin, James R; Lichawska-Cieslar, Agata; Jordan, Allan M; Pines, Jonathon; Wellbrock, Claudia; Petersen, Janni

    2014-03-15

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase regulates cell growth and division. Rapamycin only inhibits a subset of TOR activities. Here we show that in contrast to the mild impact of rapamycin on cell division, blocking the catalytic site of TOR with the Torin1 inhibitor completely arrests growth without cell death in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A mutation of the Tor2 glycine residue (G2040D) that lies adjacent to the key Torin-interacting tryptophan provides Torin1 resistance, confirming the specificity of Torin1 for TOR. Using this mutation, we show that Torin1 advanced mitotic onset before inducing growth arrest. In contrast to TOR inhibition with rapamycin, regulation by either Wee1 or Cdc25 was sufficient for this Torin1-induced advanced mitosis. Torin1 promoted a Polo and Cdr2 kinase-controlled drop in Wee1 levels. Experiments in human cell lines recapitulated these yeast observations: mammalian TOR (mTOR) was inhibited by Torin1, Wee1 levels declined and mitotic commitment was advanced in HeLa cells. Thus, the regulation of the mitotic inhibitor Wee1 by TOR signalling is a conserved mechanism that helps to couple cell cycle and growth controls.

  20. Sport-Specific Conditioning Variables Predict Offensive and Defensive Performance in High-Level Youth Water Polo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Damir; Kontic, Dean; Esco, Michael R; Zenic, Natasa; Milanovic, Zoran; Zvan, Milan

    2016-05-01

    Specific-conditioning capacities (SCC) are known to be generally important in water polo (WP), yet the independent associations to offensive and defensive performance is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether offense and defense abilities in WP were independently associated with SCC and anthropometrics. The participants were 82 high-level male youth WP players (all 17-19 years of age; body height, 186.3 ± 6.07 cm; body mass, 84.8 ± 9.6 kg). The independent variables were body height and body mass, and 5 sport-specific fitness tests: sprint swimming over 15 meters; 4 × 50-meter anaerobic-endurance test; vertical in-water-jump; maximum intensity isometric force in upright swimming using an eggbeater kick; and test of throwing velocity. The 6 dependent variables comprised parameters of defensive and offensive performance, such as polyvalence, i.e., ability to play on different positions in defensive tasks (PD) and offensive tasks (PO), efficacy in primary playing position in defensive (ED) and offensive (EO) tasks, and agility in defensive (AD) and offensive (AO) tasks. Analyses showed appropriate reliability for independent (intraclass coefficient of 0.82-0.91) and dependent variables (Cronbach alpha of 0.81-0.95). Multiple regressions were significant for ED (R = 0.25; p < 0.01), EO (R = 0.21; p < 0.01), AD (R = 0.40; p < 0.01), and AO (R = 0.35; p < 0.01). Anaerobic-swimming performance was positively related to AD (β = -0.26; p ≤ 0.05), whereas advanced sprint swimming was related to better AO (β = -0.38; p ≤ 0.05). In-water-jumping performance held the significant positive relationship to EO (β = 0.31; p ≤ 0.05), ED (β = 0.33; p ≤ 0.05), and AD (β = 0.37; p ≤ 0.05). Strength and conditioning professionals working in WP should be aware of established importance of SCC in performing unique duties in WP. The SCC should be specifically developed to meet the needs of offensive and defensive performance in young WP athletes.

  1. Specific Types of Family Support and Adolescent Non-school Physical Activity Levels

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Joanna L.; Wenthe, Phyllis J.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Levy, Steven M.; Janz, Kathleen F.

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 291 adolescents (mean age 13 yr), seven psychosocial factors, including family support, were examined in relation to accelerometry-derived physical activity (PA) measured after school and during the weekend. Gender-specific stepwise linear regression analyses determined which combinations of factors explained the variance in non-school moderate to vigorous PA and non-school total PA after adjusting for % BF, age, and maturity (p ≤ 0.05). Being praised by a family member and % BF explained 13% of the variance in female non-school MVPA, while being praised and maturity explained 13% of the variance in non-school total PA. Having a family member watch him participate, % BF, and age explained 11.5% of the variance in male non-school MVPA, while having a family member participate with him explained 6.4% of the variance in non-school total PA. Despite adolescents’ growing independence, family support continues to influence PA levels. PMID:22971551

  2. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 48 regulates Mdm2 protein levels independent of its deubiquitinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Cetkovská, Kateřina; Šustová, Hana; Uldrijan, Stjepan

    2017-01-01

    The overexpression of Mdm2 has been linked to the loss of p53 tumour suppressor activity in several human cancers. Here, we present results suggesting that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 48 (USP48), a deubiquitinase that has been linked in previous reports to the NF-κB signaling pathway, is a novel Mdm2 binding partner that promotes Mdm2 stability and enhances Mdm2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation. In contrast to other deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) that have been previously implicated in the regulation of Mdm2 protein stability, USP48 did not induce Mdm2 stabilization by significantly reducing Mdm2 ubiquitination levels. Moreover, two previously characterized USP48 mutants lacking deubiquitinase activity were also capable of efficiently stabilizing Mdm2, indicating that USP48 utilizes a non-canonical, deubiquitination-independent mechanism to promote Mdm2 oncoprotein stability. This study represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first report suggesting DUB-mediated target protein stabilization that is independent of its deubiquitinase activity. In addition, our results suggest that USP48 might represent a new mechanism of crosstalk between the NF-κB and p53 stress response pathways. PMID:28233861

  3. An Exploration of Learners' Conceptions of Language, Culture, and Learning in Advanced-Level Spanish Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewelow, Isabelle; Mitchell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study, which examines learners' rating of culture in relation to other concepts in advanced Spanish courses and their justification of the ratings attributed. Open-ended responses, elicited from a questionnaire completed by 179 respondents, were analysed line by line using an interpretive approach. Data…

  4. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins…

  5. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss "small-group apprenticeships (SGAs)" as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments…

  6. Travel and Tourism Module. An Advanced-Level Option For Distribution and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Intended as an advanced option for distributive education students in the twelfth grade, this travel and tourism module is designed to cover a minimum of ten weeks or a maximum of twenty weeks. Introductory material includes information on employment demands, administrative considerations, course format, teaching suggestions, expected outcomes,…

  7. Beginning an Advanced Placement German Literature (Level 3) Course. Edition Y.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Donna H.; And Others

    This is a supplement to the Advanced Placement (AP) German literature course description. Its aim is both to assist teachers in planning an AP German literature course and to provide experienced AP teachers with information about other successful programs. To this end, six teachers from different high schools in the U.S. provide descriptions of…

  8. Advanced Placement Strategy: A Framework for Identifying School-Level Barriers to AP Success. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batiwalla, Mary

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, Tennessee counted nearly 7,000 students in the senior cohort whose academic skills when they entered high school suggested they were on track to earn college credits through Advanced Placement (AP) exams. Yet just over half of these students actually graduated with an AP credit, and less than a third of the economically disadvantaged…

  9. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  10. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Discusses small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method for introducing cell culture techniques to high school participants. Teaches cell culture practices and introduces advance imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Clarifies and illuminates the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships. (Author/KHR)

  11. Plasma Levels of Pentosidine, Carboxymethyl-Lysine, Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products, and Metabolic Syndrome: The Metformin Effect

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Mohamed; Knani, Ines; Bouzidi, Hsan; Berriche, Olfa; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is considered one of the most important public health problems. Several and controversial studies showed that the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor in the development of metabolic syndrome and therapeutic pathways is still unsolved. We have investigated whether plasma pentosidine, carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) levels were increased in patients with MetS and the effect of metformin in plasma levels of pentosidine, CML, and sRAGE. 80 control subjects and 86 patients were included in this study. Pentosidine, CML, and sRAGE were measured in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Plasma pentosidine, CML, and sRAGE levels were significantly increased in patients compared to control subjects (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.014, resp.). Plasma levels of pentosidine were significantly decreased in patients who received metformin compared to untreated patients (P = 0.01). However, there was no significant difference between patients treated with metformin and untreated patients in plasma CML levels. Plasma levels of sRAGE were significantly increased in patients who received metformin and ACE inhibitors (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, resp.). However, in a multiple stepwise regression analysis, pentosidine, sRAGE, and drugs treatments were not independently associated. Patients with metabolic syndrome showed increased levels of AGEs such as pentosidine and CML. Metformin treatment showed a decreased level of pentosidine but not of CML. Therapeutic pathways of AGEs development should be taken into account and further experimental and in vitro studies merit for advanced research. PMID:27829696

  12. Cloning-free genome engineering in Sinorhizobium meliloti advances applications of Cre/loxP site-specific recombination.

    PubMed

    Döhlemann, Johannes; Brennecke, Meike; Becker, Anke

    2016-09-10

    The soil-dwelling α-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti serves as model for studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, a highly important process in sustainable agriculture. Here, we report advancements of the genetic toolbox accelerating genome editing in S. meliloti. The hsdMSR operon encodes a type-I restriction-modification (R-M) system. Transformation of S. meliloti is counteracted by the restriction endonuclease HsdR degrading DNA which lacks the appropriate methylation pattern. We provide a stable S. meliloti hsdR deletion mutant showing enhanced transformation with Escherichia coli-derived plasmid DNA and demonstrate that using an E. coli plasmid donor, expressing S. meliloti methyl transferase genes, is an alternative strategy of increasing the transformation efficiency of S. meliloti. Furthermore, we devise a novel cloning-free genome editing (CFGE) method for S. meliloti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Xanthomonas campestris, and demonstrate the applicability of this method for intricate applications of the Cre/lox recombination system in S. meliloti. An enhanced Cre/lox system, allowing for serial deletions of large genomic regions, was established. An assay of lox spacer mutants identified a set of lox sites mediating specific recombination. The availability of several non-promiscuous Cre recognition sites enables simultaneous specific Cre/lox recombination events. CFGE combined with Cre/lox recombination is put forward as powerful approach for targeted genome editing, involving serial steps of manipulation to expedite the genetic accessibility of S. meliloti as chassis.

  13. Final Report Full-Scale Test of DWPF Advanced Liquid-Level and Density Measurement Bubblers

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.; Weeks, G.E.

    1999-07-01

    As requested by the Technical Task Request (1), a full-scale test was carried out on several different liquid-level measurement bubblers as recommended from previous testing (2). This final report incorporates photographic evidence (Appendix B) of the bubblers at different stages of testing, along with the preliminary results (Appendix C) which were previously reported (3), and instrument calibration data (Appendix D); while this report contains more detailed information than previously reported (3) the conclusions remain the same. The test was performed under highly prototypic conditions from November 26, 1996 to January 23, 1997 using the full-scale SRAT/SME tank test facilities located in the 672-T building at TNX. Two different types of advanced bubblers were subjected to approximately 58 days of slurry operation; 14 days of which the slurry was brought to boiling temperatures.The test showed that the large diameter tube bubbler (2.64 inches inside diameter) operated successfully throughout the2-month test by not plugging with the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 deg Cand several days of boiling temperatures. However, a weekly blow-down with air or water is recommended to minimize the slurry which builds up.The small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) operated successfully on a daily basis in the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 degrees C and several days of boiling temperatures. However, a daily blow-down with air, or air and water, is necessary to maintain accurate readings.For the small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) there were varying levels of success with the lower water-flow tubes and these tubes would have to be cleaned by blowing with air, or air and water, several times a day to maintain them plug free. This

  14. Exploratory Analysis of the Effects of Anxiety on Specific Quantifiable Variables of African-American High School Students Enrolled in Advanced Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Carmela N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attrition rate of the African American high school student enrolled in advanced academics by looking at the effects of specific quantifiable variables on state-trait anxiety scores. More specifically, this study was concerned with the influence of demographic and school related factors on the…

  15. Evaluation of plasma microRNA levels to predict insensitivity of patients with advanced lung adenocarcinomas to pemetrexed and platinum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinghua; Qi, Yuhua; Wu, Jianzhong; Shi, Meiqi; Feng, Jifeng; Chen, Longbang

    2016-12-01

    Pemetrexed combined with platinum is a first-line therapy used to treat patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that exhibit negative or unknown epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational status or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements. Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is the primary type of NSCLC. In order to prevent overtreatment, it is necessary to identify patients with LAC who may not benefit from certain chemotherapies. Patients recruited in the present study (n=129) were diagnosed with advanced LAC and received first-line pemetrexed and platinum-based chemotherapy. A microRNA (miR) microarray was used to screen the plasma miR expression profiles in a screening set of eight patients prior to and following treatment. Specifically, plasma miR-25, miR-21, miR-27b, miR-326, miR-483-5p and miR-920 were selected for reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis in a training set (n=44) prior to treatment. The screening and training set patients were all non-smokers with no prior history of serious or chronic disease. The ∆∆Cq values of these miRs were compared between the group that showed benefit from pemetrexed and platinum treatment and the group that did not. Consequently, the ∆∆Cq values of miR-25, miR-21, miR-27b and miR-326 were further determined in a validation set (n=77). The results of the present study demonstrate that plasma expression levels of miR-25, miR-21, miR-27b and miR-326, in the training and validation sets prior to treatment, were significantly different between the benefit and non-benefit groups (P≤0.001). The expression of miR-25, miR-21, miR-27b and miR-326 was upregulated in the non-benefit group and this elevation was positively correlated with decreased progression-free survival (PFS; P≤0.001). In addition, the predictive power of each miR was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic curves, in which miR-25 exhibited the highest degree of accuracy (area under

  16. Intake of specific nutrients and foods and hearing level measured 13 years later.

    PubMed

    Péneau, Sandrine; Jeandel, Claude; Déjardin, Philippe; Andreeva, Valentina A; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2013-06-01

    Only a few studies have investigated the impact of nutrients and food groups on hearing level (HL) with a population-based approach. We examined the 13-year association between intake of specific nutrients and food groups and HL in a sample of French adults. A total of 1823 subjects, aged 45-60 years at baseline, participating in the Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals 2 cohort were selected. Nutrient and food intake was estimated at baseline among participants who had completed at least six 24 h dietary records. HL was assessed 13 years after baseline and was defined as the pure-tone air conduction of the worse ear at the following thresholds: 0·5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz. The relationship between quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient and food intake and HL was assessed by multivariate linear regression analyses, in men and women separately. Intakes of retinol (P-trend ¼ 0·058) and vitamin B12 (P-trend=0·068) tended to be associated with better HL in women. Intakes of meat as a whole (P-trend=0·030), red meat (P-trend=0·014) and organ meat (P-trend=0·017) were associated with better HL in women. Higher intake of seafood as a whole (P-trend=0·07) and of shellfish (P-trend=0·097) tended to be associated with better HL in men. Consumption of meat is therefore associated with a better HL in women. Further research is required to better elucidate the mechanisms behind the associations between diet and hearing.

  17. Innovative Training Experience for Advancing Entry Level, Mid-Skilled and Professional Level URM Participation in the Geosciences Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoro, M. H.; Johnson, A.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of URMs in the U.S. Geosciences workforce remains proportionally low compared to their representation in the general population (Bureau of Labor Sta.s.cs, 2014). Employment in this and related industries is projected to grow 32% by 2030 for minority workers (Gillula and Fullenbaum, 2014), corresponding to an additional 48,000 jobs expected to be filled by minorities (National Research Council, 2014). However, there is a shortage of employees with proper training in the hard sciences (Holeywell, 2014; Ganzglass, 2011), as well as craft skills (Hoover and Duncan, 2013), both important for middle skill employment. Industry recognizes the need for developing and retaining a diverse workforce, therefore we hightlight a program to serve as a potential vanguard initative for developing an innovative training experience for URM and underserved middle skilled workers with essential knowledge, experience and skills necessary to meet the demands of the Geosciences industry's growing need for a safe, productive and diverse workforce. Objectives are for participants to achieve the following: understanding of geosciences workforce trends and associated available opportunities; mastery of key environmental, health and safety topics; improvements in decision making skills and preparedness for responding to potential environmental, health and safety related situations; and engagement in one-on-one coaching sessions focused on resume writing, job interviewing and key "soft skills" (including conflict resolution, problem solving and critical observation, representing 3 major skills that entry- level workers typically lack.

  18. Evaluation of optimal masking levels in place-specific low-frequency chirp-evoked auditory brainstem responses.

    PubMed

    Baljić, Izet; Eßer, Dirk; Foerst, Astrid; Walger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is the experimental determination of the optimal required masking level for a given stimulus level when using a band limited "low-frequency chirp" in order to improve frequency and place specificity of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). A low-frequency chirp (100-850 Hz) at stimulation levels between 40 and 80 dB normalized hearing level was presented to 12 normal hearing subjects. During presentation of each stimulus, the level of a high-pass noise with a low cutoff frequency of 1100 Hz was varied between 0 and 25 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by using 5 dB steps (at 0 dB SNR the same level of both the chirp and the masker in dB sound pressure level was presented). Measurements without masking were used as a reference. In all masking conditions, the latency of wave V was significantly increased compared to unmasked ABRs. The amplitude of wave V decreased when reaching the effective and therefore optimal masking level. Accordingly, in order to ensure place specificity of the ABR, ipsilateral masking is essential. At lower stimulus levels the SNR can be substantially increased (i.e., the masker level decreased) without loss of place specificity.

  19. Content-Specific and General Reading Disabilities of Secondary-Level Students: Identification and Educational Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Christine A.; Deno, Stanley L.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between performance of 121 tenth-grade students in reading aloud from English and science texts resulted in a group of 33 students with general deficits and 6 students with content-specific deficits. Students in the content-specific group benefited more from study of the text than did students in the general deficit…

  20. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

    PubMed

    Sano, Akiko; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-An; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J; Wang, Zhongde; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc) cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC) comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH) and kappa-chain (hIGK) germline loci (named as κHAC) are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO). However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM) and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ) in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) complex, we partially replaced (bovinized) the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM) that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO), the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype) in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG) can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  1. Inhibition of human muscle-specific enolase by methylglyoxal and irreversible formation of advanced glycation end products.

    PubMed

    Pietkiewicz, Jadwiga; Gamian, Andrzej; Staniszewska, Magdalena; Danielewicz, Regina

    2009-04-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) was studied as an inhibitor and effective glycating factor of human muscle-specific enolase. The inhibition was carried out by the use of a preincubation procedure in the absence of substrate. Experiments were performed in anionic and cationic buffers and showed that inhibition of enolase by methylglyoxal and formation of enolase-derived glycation products arose more effectively in slight alkaline conditions and in the presence of inorganic phosphate. Incubation of 15 micromolar solutions of the enzyme with 2 mM, 3.1 mM and 4.34 mM MG in 100 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for 3 h caused the loss a 32%, 55% and 82% of initial specific activity, respectively. The effect of MG on catalytic properties of enolase was investigated. The enzyme changed the K(M) value for glycolytic substrate 2-phospho-D-glycerate (2-PGA) from 0.2 mM for native enzyme to 0.66 mM in the presence of MG. The affinity of enolase for gluconeogenic substrate phosphoenolpyruvate altered after preincubation with MG in the same manner, but less intensively. MG has no effect on V(max) and optimal pH values. Incubation of enolase with MG for 0-48 h generated high molecular weight protein derivatives. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were resistant to proteolytic degradation by trypsin. Magnesium ions enhanced the enzyme inactivation by MG and facilitated AGEs formation. However, the protection for this inhibition in the presence of 2-PGA as glycolytic substrate was observed and AGEs were less effectively formed under these conditions.

  2. The impact of salsalate treatment on serum levels of advanced glycation end products in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Joshua I; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Fonseca, Vivian; Shoelson, Steven E; Goldfine, Allison B; Strauch, Christopher; Monnier, Vincent M

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Salsalate is a nonacetylated salicylate that lowers glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we examined whether salsalate also lowered serum-protein-bound levels of early and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that have been implicated in diabetic vascular complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were from the Targeting Inflammation Using Salsalate for Type 2 Diabetes (TINSAL-T2D) study, which examined the impact of salsalate treatment on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and a wide variety of other parameters. One hundred eighteen participants received salsalate, 3.5 g/day for 48 weeks, and 109 received placebo. Early glycation product levels (HbA1c and fructoselysine [measured as furosine]) and AGE levels (glyoxal and methylglyoxal hydroimidazolones [G-(1)H, MG-(1)H], carboxymethyllysine [CML], carboxyethyllysine [CEL], pentosidine) were measured in patient serum samples. RESULTS Forty-eight weeks of salsalate treatment lowered levels of HbA1c and serum furosine (P < 0.001) and CML compared with placebo. The AGEs CEL and G-(1)H and MG-(1)H levels were unchanged, whereas pentosidine levels increased more than twofold (P < 0.001). Among salsalate users, increases in adiponectin levels were associated with lower HbA1c levels during follow-up (P < 0.001). Changes in renal and inflammation factor levels were not associated with changes in levels of early or late glycation factors. Pentosidine level changes were unrelated to changes in levels of renal function, inflammation, or cytokines. CONCLUSIONS Salsalate therapy was associated with a reduction in early but not late glycation end products. There was a paradoxical increase in serum pentosidine levels suggestive of an increase in oxidative stress or decreased clearance of pentosidine precursor.

  3. Recent advances in the detection of specific natural organic compounds as carriers for radionuclides in soil and water environments, with examples of radioiodine and plutonium.

    PubMed

    Santschi, P H; Xu, C; Zhang, S; Schwehr, K A; Lin, P; Yeager, C M; Kaplan, D I

    2017-03-09

    Among the key environmental factors influencing the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment is natural organic matter (NOM). While this has been known for decades, there still remains great uncertainty in predicting NOM-radionuclide interactions because of lack of understanding of radionuclide interactions with the specific organic moieties within NOM. Furthermore, radionuclide-NOM studies conducted using modelled organic compounds or elevated radionuclide concentrations provide compromised information related to true environmental conditions. Thus, sensitive techniques are required not only for the detection of radionuclides, and their different species, at ambient and/or far-field concentrations, but also for potential trace organic compounds that are chemically binding these radionuclides. GC-MS and AMS techniques developed in our lab are reviewed here that aim to assess how two radionuclides, iodine and plutonium, form strong bonds with NOM by entirely different mechanisms; iodine tends to bind to aromatic functionalities, whereas plutonium binds to N-containing hydroxamate siderophores at ambient concentrations. While low-level measurements are a prerequisite for assessing iodine and plutonium migration at nuclear waste sites and as environmental tracers, it is necessary to determine their in-situ speciation, which ultimately controls their mobility and transport in natural environments. More importantly, advanced molecular-level instrumentation (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI-FTICRMS) were applied to resolve either directly or indirectly the molecular environments in which the radionuclides are associated with the NOM.

  4. Recent trends in long-term survival of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia: disclosing the impact of advances in therapy on the population level.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Gondos, Adam; Pulte, Dianne

    2008-10-01

    Within the past decades, major advances in therapy for chronic myelocytic leukemia, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, interferon therapy, and, more recently, also therapy with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, have entered clinical practice. The impact of these advances on long-term survival on the population level should be disclosed as timely as possible. We estimated trends in age specific 5- and 10-year relative survival of chronic myelocytic leukemia patients in the United States from 1990-1992 to 2002-2004. Our analysis is based on records from 8,329 patients aged 15 years or older with a first diagnosis of chronic myelocytic leukemia included in the 1973-2004 data base of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Period analysis was used to disclose recent developments with minimum delay. Overall, 5-year relative survival increased from 27 to 49%, and 10-year relative survival increased from 9.5 to 34% between 1990-92 and 2002-04. The increase was most dramatic for younger patients, with 10-year relative survival increasing from 16 to 72% in age group 15-44 years, from 12 to 54% in age group 45-54 years, and from 8 to 34% in age group 55-64 years (p<0.0001 in all cases). Improvements were more modest and not statistically significant, and survival remained at much lower levels among age groups 65-74 and 75+ years. Our analysis discloses a dramatic recent increase in long-term survival of younger patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia which most likely reflects rapid dissemination of advances in therapy on the population level.

  5. Claims, Evidence and Achievement Level Descriptors as a Foundation for Item Design and Test Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Amy; Huff, Kristen; Luecht, Ric

    2009-01-01

    [Slides] presented at the Annual Meeting of National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in San Diego, CA in April 2009. This presentation describes how the vehicles for gathering student evidence--task models and test specifications--are developed.

  6. Defining cell-type specificity at the transcriptional level in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Wenjun; Greene, Casey S.; Eichinger, Felix; Nair, Viji; Hodgin, Jeffrey B.; Bitzer, Markus; Lee, Young-suk; Zhu, Qian; Kehata, Masami; Li, Min; Jiang, Song; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Cohen, Clemens D.; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Kretzler, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Cell-lineage–specific transcripts are essential for differentiated tissue function, implicated in hereditary organ failure, and mediate acquired chronic diseases. However, experimental identification of cell-lineage–specific genes in a genome-scale manner is infeasible for most solid human tissues. We developed the first genome-scale method to identify genes with cell-lineage–specific expression, even in lineages not separable by experimental microdissection. Our machine-learning–based approach leverages high-throughput data from tissue homogenates in a novel iterative statistical framework. We applied this method to chronic kidney disease and identified transcripts specific to podocytes, key cells in the glomerular filter responsible for hereditary and most acquired glomerular kidney disease. In a systematic evaluation of our predictions by immunohistochemistry, our in silico approach was significantly more accurate (65% accuracy in human) than predictions based on direct measurement of in vivo fluorescence-tagged murine podocytes (23%). Our method identified genes implicated as causal in hereditary glomerular disease and involved in molecular pathways of acquired and chronic renal diseases. Furthermore, based on expression analysis of human kidney disease biopsies, we demonstrated that expression of the podocyte genes identified by our approach is significantly related to the degree of renal impairment in patients. Our approach is broadly applicable to define lineage specificity in both cell physiology and human disease contexts. We provide a user-friendly website that enables researchers to apply this method to any cell-lineage or tissue of interest. Identified cell-lineage–specific transcripts are expected to play essential tissue-specific roles in organogenesis and disease and can provide starting points for the development of organ-specific diagnostics and therapies. PMID:23950145

  7. Advancing Cybersecurity Capability Measurement Using the CERT(registered trademark)-RMM Maturity Indicator Level Scale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Institute at permission@sei.cmu.edu. * These restrictions do not apply to U.S. government entities. CERT® and CMMI ® are registered marks of Carnegie...Attributes 4 1.3.4 Appraisal and Scoring Methods 5 1.3.5 Improvement Roadmaps 5 2 Introducing the Maturity Indicator Level (MIL) Concept 6 2.1...CERT®-RMM v1.2) utilizes the maturity architecture (levels and descriptions) as provided in the Capability Maturity Model Integration ( CMMI

  8. Fine Tuning: An Auditory-Visual Training Program. Book Two: Intermediate-Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsch, Ray

    This book offers a number of exercises to develop students' listening skills. The exercises consist of number or letter grid worksheets which are completed by following a sequence of specific directions requiring careful listening and auditory-visual coordination. A graphic design or message emerges when the worksheets are completed. Preliminary…

  9. On the levels of enzymatic substrate specificity: Implications for the early evolution of metabolic pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, A.; Diaz-Villagomez, E.; Mills, T.; Oro, J.

    1995-01-01

    The most frequently invoked explanation for the origin of metabolic pathways is the retrograde evolution hypothesis. In contrast, according to the so-called 'patchwork' theory, metabolism evolved by the recruitment of relatively inefficient small enzymes of broad specificity that could react with a wide range of chemically related substrates. In this paper it is argued that both sequence comparisons and experimental results on enzyme substrate specificity support the patchwork assembly theory. The available evidence supports previous suggestions that gene duplication events followed by a gradual neoDarwinian accumulation of mutations and other minute genetic changes lead to the narrowing and modification of enzyme function in at least some primordial metabolic pathways.

  10. Association between the Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor Gene and Cardiovascular Death in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Biros, Erik; Moran, Corey S.; Norman, Paul E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Yeap, Bu B.; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Flicker, Leon; White, Richard; Jones, Rhondda; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor (AGER) signaling has been implicated in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a common genetic variation in the AGER gene is associated with cardiovascular (CV) death. We included 1304 older men who were genotyped for rs1035798:C>T, which is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapped to the third intron of AGER. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to estimate the association of rs1035798:C>T with CV death. In addition we analyzed total RNA extracted from carotid atherosclerosis biopsies of 18 patients that did or did not have recent symptoms of cerebral embolization by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The minor T-allele of rs1035798:C>T was found to be associated with CV death under dominant (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01–2.02, P = 0.04) and recessive (HR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.11–3.81, P = 0.02) models of inheritance even after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between rs1035798:C>T and non-CV death. qRT-PCR results suggested that median relative expression of AGER isoform 1 and isoform 6 transcripts were approximately 6- (P = 0.01) and 2-fold (P = 0.02) greater, respectively, within carotid biopsies of symptomatic compared to asymptomatic patients. These data suggest that the minor (T) allele of rs1035798:C>T represents an independent susceptibility factor for CV death. The expression of AGER isoforms is different in atheroma from patients with recent symptoms. Further studies are needed to investigate if rs1035798:C>T influences the alternative splicing of AGER. PMID:26226616

  11. Korean Secondary School Students' Occupational Preferences across School Types: Specificity Versus Broad Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung-Nyun

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the specificity of 3,136 Korean students' occupational preferences during secondary school and examines whether the types of high school are related to the crystallization in occupational preferences by applying binary growth models. Based on Super's developmental stage, this study shows that students largely formulate solid…

  12. Advanced treatment processes for low and intermediate level radwastes in India

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, S.K.; Singh, I.J.; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1993-12-31

    Development of improved treatment processes for low and intermediate level radwastes is being pursued in India in view of the increasing environmental and regulatory concerns. Copper hexacyanoferrate loaded, macroporous anion exchange resin was developed as an effective sorbent for the removal of radiocesium from low level aqueous effluents and spent fuel storage pool water. The reverse osmosis process using cellulose acetate membranes was tested in pilot scale as an alternative treatment process for low level aqueous wastes. A treatment scheme for alkaline intermediate level aqueous wastes based on the selective uptake of radiocesium by a resorcinol-formaldehyde polycondensate resin was developed in the laboratory and found satisfactory in trials with the alkaline waste of a reprocessing plant. Synthetic zeolites are being tested for fixation of activity released in solution in wet oxidative destruction of spent ion exchange resin, arising from reactors and other nuclear facilities. All these processes are being critically evaluated for possible application in the treatment of low and intermediate level radwastes in India.

  13. MGMT expression levels predict disease stabilisation, progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced melanomas treated with DTIC.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christian; Geisler, Jürgen; Lillehaug, Johan R; Lønning, Per Eystein

    2010-07-01

    Metastatic melanoma responds poorly to systemic treatment. We report the results of a prospective single institution study evaluating O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status as a potential predictive and/or prognostic marker among patients treated with dacarbazine (DTIC) 800-1000 mg/m(2) monotherapy administered as a 3-weekly schedule for advanced malignant melanomas. The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Committee. Surgical biopsies from metastatic or loco-regional deposits obtained prior to DTIC treatment were snap-frozen immediately upon removal and stored in liquid nitrogen up to processing. Median time from enrolment to end of follow-up was 67 months. MGMT expression levels evaluated by qRT-PCR correlated significantly to DTIC benefit (CR/PR/SD; p=0.005), time to progression (TTP) (p=0.005) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.003). MGMT expression also correlated to Breslow thickness in the primary tumour (p=0.014). While MGMT promoter hypermethylation correlated to MGMT expression, MGMT promoter hypermethylation did not correlate to treatment benefit, TTP or OS, suggesting that other factors may be critical in determining MGMT expression levels in melanomas. In a Cox proportional regression analysis, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, p<0.001), MGMT expression (p=0.022) and p16(INK4a) expression (p=0.037) independently predicted OS, while TTP correlated to DTIC benefit after 6 weeks only (p=0.001). Our data reveal MGMT expression levels to be associated with disease stabilisation and prognosis in patients receiving DTIC monotherapy for advanced melanoma. The role of MGMT expression as a predictor to DTIC sensitivity versus a general prognostic factor in advanced melanomas warrants further evaluation.

  14. Biotechnology apprenticeship for secondary-level students: teaching advanced cell culture techniques for research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer R; Kotur, Mark S; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors.

  15. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors. PMID:12587031

  16. Homemade Equipment for the Teaching of Electrochemistry at Advanced Level. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, K. M.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a detailed description for the construction of equipment needed to investigate acid/base equilibria through the measurement of pH and potentiometric titrations. Suggested experiments and calibration techniques are explained. This information helps to solve the problems of inadequate, expensive equipment required for A-level chemistry…

  17. Advancements toward a systems level understanding of the human oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Oral microbes represent one of the most well studied microbial communities owing to the fact that they are a fundamental part of human development influencing health and disease, an easily accessible human microbiome, a highly structured and remarkably resilient biofilm as well as a model of bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. In the last 80 years since oral plaque was first characterized for its functionally stable physiological properties such as the highly repeatable rapid pH decrease upon carbohydrate addition and subsequent recovery phase, the fundamental approaches to study the oral microbiome have cycled back and forth between community level investigations and characterizing individual model isolates. Since that time, many individual species have been well characterized and the development of the early plaque community, which involves many cell–cell binding interactions, has been carefully described. With high throughput sequencing enabling the enormous diversity of the oral cavity to be realized, a number of new challenges to progress were revealed. The large number of uncultivated oral species, the high interpersonal variability of taxonomic carriage and the possibility of multiple pathways to dysbiosis pose as major hurdles to obtain a systems level understanding from the community to the gene level. It is now possible however to start connecting the insights gained from single species with community wide approaches. This review will discuss some of the recent insights into the oral microbiome at a fundamental level, existing knowledge gaps, as well as challenges that have surfaced and the approaches to address them. PMID:25120956

  18. Contact, Attitude and Motivation in the Learning of Catalan at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Colleen; Serrano, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical complexity of current understandings of second language (L2) identity has brought the study of language learning motivations from basic concepts of intrinsic, integrative and instrumental motives to a more dynamic construct that interacts with background factors, learning contexts and proficiency levels. This cross-sectional study…

  19. Intraocular and systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced cases of retinopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Clapp, Carmen; Rivera, Jose Carlos; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To measure vitreous, aqueous, subretinal fluid and plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in late stages of retinopathy of prematurity. Methods: Interventional study. We enrolled patients with clinical diagnoses of bilateral stage V retinopathy of prematurity, confirmed by b-scan ultrasound and programmed for vitrectomy. During surgery we took samples from blood, aqueous, vitreous, and subretinal fluids. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in each sample was measured by ELISA reaction. A control sample of aqueous, vitreous and blood was taken from patients with congenital cataract programmed for phacoemulsification. For statistical analysis, a Mann–Whitney and a Wilcoxon W test was done with a significant P value of 0.05. Results: We took samples of 16 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the study group were: aqueous, 76.81 ± 61.89 pg/mL; vitreous, 118.53 ± 65.87 pg/mL; subretinal fluid, 1636.58 ± 356.47 pg/mL; and plasma, 74.64 ± 43.94 pg/mL. There was a statistical difference between the study and the control group (P < 0.001) in the aqueous and vitreous samples. Conclusion: Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity has elevated intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, which remains high despite severe retinal lesion. There was no statistical difference in plasma levels of the molecule between the control and study group. PMID:20856587

  20. Mercury pollution in fish from South China Sea: levels, species-specific accumulation, and possible sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinling; Xu, Xiangrong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Hong, Yiguo; Feng, Xinbin

    2014-05-01

    Both total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish collected from South China Sea (SCS) were studied to understand Hg pollution in Chinese tropical marine ecosystems. The average THg concentrations in fish species ranged from 39.6 μg/kg for rabbitfish (Siganus fuscessens) to 417 μg/kg for thornfish (Terapon jarbua), while those of MeHg varied from 13 μg/kg (rabbitfish) to 176 μg/kg (thornfish). The median values of MeHg/THg ratios in different fish species ranged from 36 to 85%. Significant inter-species differences of THg and MeHg in fish were observed due to feeding habits and fish sizes. Overall, carnivorous fish had higher levels of THg, MeHg and MeHg/THg ratios than omnivorous and herbivorous fish. High Hg levels in fish of the SCS were probably related to Hg input from atmospheric deposition and anthropogenic activities.

  1. [Effects of mexidol and sulodexide on the level of specific markers of endothelial dysfunction in animals with experimental diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Voronkov, A V; Slietsans, A A; Snigur, G L

    2012-01-01

    Streptozotocin-induced diabetes leads to the development of endothelial dysfunction, as evidenced by decreased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increased expression of endothelin-1 as specific markers of endothelial disorders. All test substances showed endotelioprotective activity by increasing the concentration of eNOS and reducing the level of endothelin-1. With respect to the degree of impact on the eNOS and endothelin-1 levels, the compounds studied can be rated as follows: sulodexide > meksidol.

  2. Atomic level understanding of site-specific interactions in Polyaniline/TiO2 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabungbam, Satyananda; Loh, G. C.; Sahariah, Munima B.; Pal, Arup R.; Pandey, Ravindra

    2016-02-01

    Spin-polarized density functional theory calculations have been performed to understand the interactions in polyaniline (PAni) and TiO2 composite at the atomic level. Binding energy calculation shows that composite structure is energetically more stable when Ti atom of TiO2 sits on top of PAni. It is also found that there is a dependency of the CBM on the site of TiO2 interaction in this composite system. The results suggest that optimization of the synthesis parameters at atomic level can be an effective way to improve the performance of a photovoltaic device based on PAni-TiO2 composite.

  3. 12 CFR 263.85 - Establishment of increased capital level for specific institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temporary or final cease-and-desist order issued pursuant to section 8(b) or (c) of the FDIA (12 U.S.C. 1818(b) or (c)); (3) A condition for approval of an application or issuance of a notice of intent not to... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of increased capital level...

  4. 12 CFR 263.85 - Establishment of increased capital level for specific institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temporary or final cease-and-desist order issued pursuant to section 8(b) or (c) of the FDIA (12 U.S.C. 1818(b) or (c)); (3) A condition for approval of an application or issuance of a notice of intent not to... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of increased capital level...

  5. 12 CFR 263.85 - Establishment of increased capital level for specific institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) A temporary or final cease-and-desist order issued pursuant to section 8(b) or (c) of the FDIA (12 U.S.C. 1818(b) or (c)); (3) A condition for approval of an application or issuance of a notice of... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of increased capital level...

  6. SPECIFIC SITES OF BONE EXPANSION DEPEND ON THE LEVEL OF VOLLEYBALL PRACTICE IN PREPUBESCENT BOYS

    PubMed Central

    Zouch, M.; Zribi, A.; Bouajina, E.; Zaouali, M.; Tabka, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 18 months of high and low levels of volleyball practice on bone acquisition. 130 prepubescent boys (mean age 11.4 ± 0.7) were divided into a high-level training group (HLG), low-level training group (LLG), and controls. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area at the whole body, lumbar spine L2-L4, femoral neck of the dominant leg, and right and left radius were measured using dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry. Enhanced BMC resulted from high-training volleyball activity in all measured sites except the third left and right distal radius, which is not modified by low-level training in prepubescent players but it was accompanied by a bone area expansion in radius and weight-bearing sites for the HLG, and in legs, whole right and left radius for the LLG. Significant improvement of skeletal tissues is associated with the intensity and duration of volleyball training. PMID:24744493

  7. Employability Competencies for Entry Level Occupations in Electronics. Part Two: Job Specific Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Claire

    This syllabus, which is the second of a two-volume set describing the basic competencies needed by entry-level workers in the field of electronics, deals with the competencies needed in five different electrical occupations. Competencies are organized according to the following occupational areas: electronic assembly, telephone repair and…

  8. Identifying long-term memory B-cells in vaccinated children despite waning antibody levels specific for Bordetella pertussis proteins.

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Lotte H; Oztürk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G H; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-02-04

    Whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. Since the 1950s in developed countries pertussis vaccinations are included in the national immunization program. However, antibody levels rapidly wane after both whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccination. Therefore protection against pertussis may depend largely on long-term B- and T-cell immunities. We investigated long-term pertussis-specific memory B-cell responses in children who were primed at infant age with the Dutch wP-vaccine (ISRCTN65428640). Purified B-cells were characterized by FACS-analysis and after polyclonal stimulation memory B-cells were detected by ELISPOT-assays specific for pertussis toxin, filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and tetanus. In addition, plasma IgG levels directed to the same antigens were measured by a fluorescent bead-based multiplex immunoassay. Two and 3 years after wP priming as well as 2 and 5 years after the aP booster at the age of 4, low plasma IgG levels to the pertussis proteins were found. At the same time, however pertussis protein-specific memory B-cells could be detected and their number increased with age. The number of tetanus-specific memory B-cells was similar in all age groups, whereas IgG-tetanus levels were high 2 years after tetanus booster compared to pre- and 5 years post-booster levels. This study shows the presence of long-term pertussis protein-specific memory B-cells in children despite waning antibody levels after vaccination, which suggests that memory B-cells in addition to antibodies may contribute to protection against pertussis.

  9. Chemical interactions between amino acid and RNA: multiplicity of the levels of specificity explains origin of the genetic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligmann, Hervé; Amzallag, Nissim

    2002-11-01

    The emergence of the genetic code remains an enigma. Proposed mechanisms are based on random, historical, thermodynamic and natural selection. However, they introduce chance as a key factor for overcoming the difficulties encountered by the model. We propose here a model in which three successive levels of chemical specificity generated the nucleotide assignments of amino acids in the genetic code. The first level results from hydrophobic and stereospecific interactions between amino acids and short oligonucleotides (termed oligons). The second and third levels of specificity are determined by conditions of energy transfer from loaded oligons (amino acid-oligomer covalently linked) to formation of phosphodiester bond (second level of specificity) and peptidic bond (third level of specificity), while these reactions are catalyzed by RNA templates. This model is sustained by the relationships observed between dipole moments of the nucleotides (forming the anticodon) and reactivity of the amino acyl linkage of the loaded oligon. Moreover, analysis of modern tRNAs reveals that they were probably generated by loose duplication of the nucleotide sequence forming the oligons, after emergence of the 'genetic code.' Indeed, the similarity of nucleotide composition with that of the anticodon decreases with the tRNA domain's distance from the anticodon, but the acceptor stem is relatively more similar to the anticodon than other stems closer to it. This would be because energy transfer constraints that existed between anticodon and amino acid in prebiotic loaded oligonucleotides still affect the structures of modern tRNA acceptor stems. In the model presented, the genetic code is inherent to the most archaic 'molecular physiology' in protolife, even before emergence of a functional 'protein world.' Simple physical processes, in which a level of specificity is integrated in an emerging meta-structure expressing new properties, generate a parsimonious and realistic explanation

  10. Role of PACAP in Female Fertility and Reproduction at Gonadal Level – Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Reglodi, Dora; Tamas, Andrea; Koppan, Miklos; Szogyi, Donat; Welke, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, first isolated from hypothalamic extracts, but later shown in peripheral organs, such as endocrine glands, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, and reproductive organs. PACAP plays a role in fertility and reproduction. Numerous studies report on the gonadal regulatory effects of PACAP at hypothalamo-hypophyseal levels. However, the local effects of PACAP at gonadal levels are also important. The present review summarizes the effects of PACAP in the ovary. PACAP and its receptors are present in the ovary, and PACAP plays a role in germ cell migration, meiotic division, follicular development, and atresia. The autocrine-paracrine hormonal effects seem to play a regulatory role in ovulation, luteinization, and follicular atrophy. Altogether, PACAP belongs to the ovarian regulatory peptides. PMID:23248616

  11. Plasma Proteins Modified by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Reveal Site-specific Susceptibilities to Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Greifenhagen, Uta; Frolov, Andrej; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-04-29

    Protein glycation refers to the reversible reaction between aldoses (or ketoses) and amino groups yielding relatively stable Amadori (or Heyns) products. Consecutive oxidative cleavage reactions of these products or the reaction of amino groups with other reactive substances (e.g. α-dicarbonyls) yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can alter the structures and functions of proteins. AGEs have been identified in all organisms, and their contents appear to rise with some diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Here, we report a pilot study using highly sensitive and specific proteomics approach to identify and quantify AGE modification sites in plasma proteins by reversed phase HPLC mass spectrometry in tryptic plasma digests. In total, 19 AGE modification sites corresponding to 11 proteins were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under poor glycemic control. The modification degrees of 15 modification sites did not differ among cohorts of normoglycemic lean or obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients under good and poor glycemic control. The contents of two amide-AGEs in human serum albumin and apolipoprotein A-II were significantly higher in patients with poor glycemic control, although the plasma levels of both proteins were similar among all plasma samples. These two modification sites might be useful to predict long term, AGE-related complications in diabetic patients, such as impaired vision, increased arterial stiffness, or decreased kidney function.

  12. Recent advances in the compilation of holocene relative Sea-level database in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Vacchi, M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Nikitina, D.

    2015-12-01

    Reconstruction of relative sea level (RSL) has implications for investigation of crustal movements, calibration of earth rheology models and the reconstruction of ice sheets. In recent years, efforts were made to create RSL databases following a standardized methodology. These regional databases provided a framework for developing our understanding of the primary mechanisms of RSL change since the Last Glacial Maximum and a long-term baseline against which to gauge changes in sea-level during the 20th century and forecasts for the 21st. Here we present two quality-controlled Holocene RSL database compiled for North America. Along the Pacific coast of North America (British Columbia, Canada to California, USA), our re-evaluation of sea-level indicators from geological and archaeological investigations yield 841 RSL data-points mainly from salt and freshwater wetlands or adjacent estuarine sediment as well as from isolation basin. Along the Atlantic coast of North America (Hudson Bay, Canada to South Carolina, USA), we are currently compiling a database including more than 2000 RSL data-points from isolation basin, salt and freshwater wetlands, beach ridges and intratidal deposits. We outline the difficulties and solutions we made to compile databases in such different depostional environment. We address complex tectonics and the framework to compare such large variability of RSL data-point. We discuss the implications of our results for the glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) models in the two studied regions.

  13. Prompting Secondary Students' Use of Criteria, Feedback Specificity and Feedback Levels during an Investigative Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Mark J. S.; Hattie, John

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of prompting on secondary students' written peer feedback in chemistry investigation reports. In particular, we examined students' feedback features in relation to the use of criteria, feedback specificity, and feedback levels. A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test design was adopted. Reviewers in…

  14. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from intact classes. A researcher-constructed Biology Cognitive Skills Test was used to collect the quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and students' personal documents. The data showed that the participants utilized concept mapping in various ways and they described positive experiences while being engaged in its use. The main challenge cited by teachers was the limited time available for more consistent use. The results showed that the use of concept mapping in advanced level biology can lead to learning gains that exceed those achieved in classes where mainly traditional methods are used. The students in the concept mapping experimental groups performed significantly better than their peers in the control group on both the lower-order (F(1) = 21.508; p < .001) and higher-order (F(1) = 42.842, p < .001) cognitive items of the biology test. A mean effect size of .56 was calculated representing the contribution of treatment to the students' performance on the test items.

  15. Probe-Level Analysis of Expression Microarrays Characterizes Isoform-Specific Degradation during Mouse Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Jesse; Hutchison, Keith W.; Wigglesworth, Karen; Eppig, John J.; Graber, Joel H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene expression microarrays have provided many insights into changes in gene expression patterns between different tissue types, developmental stages, and disease states. Analyses of these data focused primarily measuring the relative abundance of transcripts of a gene, while treating most or all transcript isoforms as equivalent. Differences in the selection between transcript isoforms can, however, represent critical changes to either the protein product or the posttranscriptional regulation of the transcript. Novel analyses on existing microarray data provide fresh insights and new interpretations into transcriptome-wide changes in expression. Methodology A probe-level analysis of existing gene expression arrays revealed differences in mRNA processing, primarily affecting the 3′-untranslated region. Working with the example of microarrays drawn from a transcriptionally silent period of mouse oocyte development, probe-level analysis (implemented here as rmodel) identified genes whose transcript isoforms have differing stabilities. Comparison of micorarrays measuring cDNA generated from oligo-dT and random primers revealed further differences in the polyadenylation status of some transcripts. Additional analysis provided evidence for sequence-targeted cleavage, including putative targeting sequences, as one mechanism of degradation for several hundred transcripts in the maturing oocyte. Conclusions The capability of probe-level analysis to elicit novel findings from existing expression microarray data was demonstrated. The characterization of differences in stability between transcript isoforms in maturing mouse oocytes provided some mechanistic details of degradation. Similar analysis of existing archives of expression microarray data will likely provide similar discoveries. PMID:19834616

  16. Site-specific changes in zinc levels in the epididymis of rats exposed to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma-Takeda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Yukawa, M.

    2007-07-01

    The epididymis is an accessory sex organ that plays an important role in sperm maturation and storage. Trace elements, such as copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), have a pivotal role in spermatogenesis. We studied the effects of radiation on trace element levels in the epididymis in male Wistar rats using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We determined trace element concentration in segment-dissected specimens and used micro-PIXE analysis to determine Zn in epididymal sections in situ. Zn concentrations in the caput and cauda epididymis of control rats were 37.7 ± 6.5 μg/g wet weight and 18.7 ± 4.1 μg/g wet weight, respectively. At 6 h after irradiation at a single dose of 5Gy, the Zn level decreased by 33% in the caput epididymis, whereas the level did not change in the cauda segment. Similar results were obtained for Se, but not both Cu and Mn. PIXE spot analysis revealed that Zn in the lumen of the epididymal tubules decreased after irradiation.

  17. Activity Level-Dependent Synapse-Specific AMPA Receptor Trafficking Regulates Transmission Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, J. Julius

    2009-01-01

    Central glutamatergic synapses may express AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors (AMPA-Rs) with distinct gating properties and exhibit different transmission dynamics, which are important for computing various synaptic inputs received at different populations of synapses. However, how glutamatergic synapses acquire AMPA-Rs with distinct kinetics to influence synaptic integration remains poorly understood. Here I report synapse-specific trafficking of distinct AMPA-Rs in rat cortical layer 4 stellate and layer 5 pyramidal neurons. The analysis indicates that in single layer 4 stellate neurons thalamocortical synapses generate faster synaptic responses than intracortical synapses. Moreover, GluR1-containing AMPA-Rs traffic selectively into intracortical synapses, and this process requires sensory experience-dependent activity and slows down transmission kinetics. GluR4-containing AMPA-Rs traffic more heavily into thalamocortical synapses than intracortical synapses, and this process requires spontaneous synaptic activity and speeds up transmission kinetics. GluR2-containing AMPA-Rs traffic equally into both thalamocortical and intracortical synapses, and this process requires no synaptic activity and resets transmission kinetics. Notably, synaptic trafficking of distinct AMPA-Rs differentially regulates synaptic integration. Thus, synapse-specific AMPA-R trafficking coarsely sets and synaptic activity finely tunes transmission kinetics and integration properties at different synapses in central neurons. PMID:19439609

  18. Levels of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Various Inflammatory Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kamo, Tetsuro; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tokuda, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Yagi, Kazuma; Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis. Among them, sRAGE was detectable in BALF of 73 patients (94%). In patients with ARDS and vasculitis, the sRAGE levels were significantly higher than in the control subjects and those with interstitial pneumonia. The sRAGE levels were positively correlated with total cell counts in BALF and serum levels of surfactant protein-D, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein. There was an inverse correlation between PaO2/FIO2 ratio and sRAGE levels. These results indicate that sRAGE in BALF might be considered as a biomarker of lung inflammatory disorders, especially ARDS and vasculitis. PMID:27147899

  19. Ground-water levels, flow, and specific conductance in unconsolidated aquifers near Lake Erie, Cleveland to Conneaut, Ohio, September 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coen, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    This report described ground-water levels, flow, and specific conductance in aquifer along the southern shore of Lake Erie from Cleveland to Conneaut, Ohio. The data were collected in September 1984 as part of the U.S Geological Survey's Northeast Glacial Buried Valley Regional Aquifer-System Analysis. The study area is about 60 miles long, extends inland from the lake about 10 miles, and encompasses parts of Cuyahoga, Lake, and Ashtabula Counties. Water levels were measured in 202 existing wells, all of which were completed in the glacial deposits or at the contact with the underlying shale. Specific conductance was measured in 59 of the wells. Results o the survey are presented in table and map form. Unconsolidated material throughout the area consists primarily of till, whereas the bedrock consists of Devonian shale. The till is composed chiefly o silt and clay with some sand and gravel, and is less than 50 feet thick in most areas. Some valleys are filled with as much as 200 feet of glacial till and outwash deposits that are mainly sand and gravel. Ground-water levels in much of the area within 20 feet of the land surface. Contours of ground-water levels resemble a subdued version of those of the land surface, which indicates that ground water generally flows from high areas to low areas following the land-surface gradient. Locally, ground water discharges into streams. Regionally, flow is towards the north-northeast, to Lake Erie. Specific conductance ranged from 160 to 2,900 ?S/cm (microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius) with a median of 540 ?S/cm. Ground water with a specific conductance greater than 650 ?S/cm is localized, with no specific spatial pattern; possible sources of elevated specific conductance are road-deicing salt, leachate from landfills, natural brings associated with oil and gas drilling, and the leakage of saline water from bedrock.

  20. Spaceflight has compartment- and gene-specific effects on mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins in rat femur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, G. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Turner, R. T.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the possibility that the abnormal bone matrix produced during spaceflight may be associated with reduced expression of bone matrix protein genes. To test this possibility, we investigated the effects of a 14-day spaceflight (SLS-2 experiment) on steady-state mRNA levels for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), osteocalcin, osteonectin, and prepro-alpha(1) subunit of type I collagen in the major bone compartments of rat femur. There were pronounced site-specific differences in the steady-state levels of expression of the mRNAs for the three bone matrix proteins and GAPDH in normal weight-bearing rats, and these relationships were altered after spaceflight. Specifically, spaceflight resulted in decreases in mRNA levels for GAPDH (decreased in proximal metaphysis), osteocalcin (decreased in proximal metaphysis), osteonectin (decreased in proximal and distal metaphysis), and collagen (decreased in proximal and distal metaphysis) compared with ground controls. There were no changes in mRNA levels for matrix proteins or GAPDH in the shaft and distal epiphysis. These results demonstrate that spaceflight leads to site- and gene-specific decreases in mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that spaceflight-induced decreases in bone formation are caused by concomitant decreases in expression of genes for bone matrix proteins.

  1. Microbial exposure and mold-specific serum IgG levels among children with respiratory symptoms in 2 school buildings.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Anne; Husman, Tuula; Laitinen, Sirpa; Meklin, Teija; Taskinen, Taina; Korppi, Matti; Nevalainen, Aino

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the authors determined the association between serum mold-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in primary school children (N = 181) with asthma, wheezing, or cough symptoms and exposure to indoor mold in 2 schools, with and without mold damage. Microbial exposure was determined with environmental sampling. Serum IgG antibody concentrations against 24 microbial strains were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children's microbe-specific IgG levels were often higher in the reference school. There was an association between elevated serum IgG antibody levels to Penicillium notatum and moisture damage in the school. In addition, moisture damage both in school and at home was associated with Penicillium notatum and Eurotium amstelodami IgG levels. These observations comported with microbial findings in the index school. No other positive associations between IgG antibodies and microbial findings for the school buildings were observed. IgG levels in sera of school children did not provide a specific means for assessing the microbial exposure associated with moisture and microbial problems in the school buildings. Thus, IgG analysis cannot be readily suggested as a routine method for the evaluation of these exposures.

  2. Methods for Determining the Level of Autonomy to Design into a Human Spaceflight Vehicle: A Function Specific Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proud, Ryan W.; Hart, Jeremy J.; Mrozinski, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    The next-generation human spaceflight vehicle is in a unique position to realize the benefits of more than thirty years of technological advancements since the Space Shuttle was designed. Computer enhancements, the emergence of highly reliable decision-making algorithms, and an emphasis on efficiency make an increased use of autonomous systems highly likely. NASA is in a position to take advantage of these advances and apply them to the human spaceflight environment. One of the key paradigm shifts will be the shift, where appropriate, of monitoring, option development, decision-making, and execution responsibility from humans to an Autonomous Flight Management (AFM) system. As an effort to reduce risk for development of an AFM system, NASA engineers are developing a prototype to prove the utility of previously untested autonomy concepts. This prototype, called SMART (Spacecraft Mission Assessment and Replanning Tool), is a functionally decomposed flight management system with an appropriate level of autonomy for each of its functions. As the development of SMART began, the most important and most often asked question was, How autonomous should an AFM system be? A thorough study of the literature through 2002 surrounding autonomous systems has not yielded a standard method for designing a level of autonomy into either a crewed vehicle or an uncrewed vehicle. The current focus in the literature on defining autonomy is centered on developing IQ tests for built systems. The literature that was analyzed assumes that the goal of all systems is to strive for complete autonomy from human intervention, rather than identifying how autonomous each function within the system should have been. In contrast, the SMART team developed a method for determining the appropriate level of autonomy to be designed into each function within a system. This paper summarizes the development of the Level of Autonomy Assessment Tool and its application to the SMART project.

  3. Age-specific profiles of tissue-level composition and mechanical properties in murine cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that bone composition and tissue-level mechanical properties are significant determinants of skeletal integrity. In the current study, Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation testing were co-localized to analyze tissue-level compositional and mechanical properties in skeletally mature young (4 or 5 months) and old (19 months) murine femora at similar spatial scales. Standard multivariate linear regression analysis revealed age-dependent patterns in the relationships between mechanical and compositional properties at the tissue scale. However, changes in bone material properties with age are often complex and nonlinear, and can be missed with linear regression and correlation-based methods. A retrospective data mining approach was implemented using non-linear multidimensional visualization and classification to identify spectroscopic and nanoindentation metrics that best discriminated bone specimens of different age-classes. The ability to classify the specimens into the correct age group increased by using combinations of Raman and nanoindentation variables (86–96% accuracy) as compared to using individual measures (59–79% accuracy). Metrics that best classified 4 or 5 month and 19 month specimens (2-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus and plasticity index. Metrics that best distinguished between 4, 5 and 19 month specimens (3-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus, hardness, cross-linking, carbonate to phosphate ratio, creep displacement and creep viscosity. These findings attest to the complexity of mechanisms underlying bone tissue properties and draw attention to the importance of considering non-linear interactions between tissue-level composition and mechanics that may work together to influence material properties with age. The results demonstrate that a few non-linearly combined compositional and mechanical metrics provide better discriminatory information than a single

  4. Site-specific DNA repair at the nucleosome level in a yeast minichromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Smerdon, M.J.; Thoma, F. )

    1990-05-18

    The rate of excision repair of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers (PDs) was measured at specific sites in each strand of a yeast minichromosome containing an active gene (URA3), a replication origin (ARS1), and positioned nucleosomes. All six PD sites analyzed in the transcribed URA3 strand were repaired more rapidly (greater than 5-fold on average) than any of the nine PD sites analyzed in the nontranscribed strand. Efficient repair also occurred in both strands of a disrupted TRP1 gene (ten PD sites), containing four unstable nucleosomes, and in a nucleosome gap at the 5' end of URA3 (two PD sites). Conversely, slow repair occurred in both strands immediately downstream of the URA3 gene (12 of 14 PD sites). This region contains the ARS1 consensus sequence, a nucleosome gap, and two stable nucleosomes. Thus, modulation of DNA repair occurs in a simple yeast minichromosome and correlates with gene expression, nucleosome stability, and (possibly) control of replication.

  5. Ferulenol specifically inhibits succinate ubiquinone reductase at the level of the ubiquinone cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Lahouel, Mesbah; Zini, Roland; Zellagui, Ammar; Rhouati, Salah; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Morin, Didier; E-mail: didier.morin@creteil.inserm.fr

    2007-03-30

    The natural compound ferulenol, a sesquiterpene prenylated coumarin derivative, was purified from Ferula vesceritensis and its mitochondrial effects were studied. Ferulenol caused inhibition of oxidative phoshorylation. At low concentrations, ferulenol inhibited ATP synthesis by inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocase without limitation of mitochondrial respiration. At higher concentrations, ferulenol inhibited oxygen consumption. Ferulenol caused specific inhibition of succinate ubiquinone reductase without altering succinate dehydrogenase activity of the complex II. This inhibition results from a limitation of electron transfers initiated by the reduction of ubiquinone to ubiquinol in the ubiquinone cycle. This original mechanism of action makes ferulenol a useful tool to study the physiological role and the mechanism of electron transfer in the complex II. In addition, these data provide an additional mechanism by which ferulenol may alter cell function and demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction is an important determinant in Ferula plant toxicity.

  6. Upregulation of specific mRNA levels in rat brain after cell phone exposure.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Agresti, Michael; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Yan, Yuhui; Matloub, Hani S

    2008-01-01

    Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to regular cell phones for 6 h per day for 126 days (18 weeks). RT-PCR was used to investigate the changes in levels of mRNA synthesis of several injury-associated proteins. Calcium ATPase, Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule, Neural Growth Factor, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor were evaluated. The results showed statistically significant mRNA up-regulation of these proteins in the brains of rats exposed to cell phone radiation. These results indicate that relative chronic exposure to cell phone microwave radiation may result in cumulative injuries that could eventually lead to clinically significant neurological damage.

  7. Impact of induced levels of specific free radicals and malondialdehyde on chicken semen quality and fertility.

    PubMed

    Rui, Bruno R; Shibuya, Fábio Y; Kawaoku, Allison J T; Losano, João D A; Angrimani, Daniel S R; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Nichi, Marcilio; Pereira, Ricardo J G

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decades, scientists endeavored to comprehend oxidative stress in poultry spermatozoa and its relationship with fertilizing ability, lipid peroxidation (LPO), free-radical scavenging systems, and antioxidant therapy. Although considerable progress has been made, further improvement is needed in understanding how specific reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA, a toxic byproduct of LPO) disrupt organelles in avian spermatozoon. Hence, this study examined functional changes in chicken spermatozoa after incubation with different ROS, and their implications for the fertility. First, semen samples from 14 roosters were individually diluted and aliquoted into five equal parts: control, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radicals, and MDA. After incubation with these molecules, aliquots were analyzed for motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, and LPO and DNA damage. Hydrogen peroxide was more detrimental for sperm motility than hydroxyl radicals, whereas the superoxide anion and MDA exhibited no differences compared with controls. In turn, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, LPO and DNA integrity rates were only affected by hydroxyl radicals. Thereafter, semen aliquots were incubated under the same conditions and used for artificial insemination. In accordance to our in vitro observations, H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals sharply reduced egg fertility, whereas superoxide anion and MDA only induced slight declines. Thus, chicken sperm function was severely impaired by H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals, but their mechanisms of action seemingly comprise different pathways. Further analysis regarding susceptibility of spermatozoon organelles to specific radicals in other poultry will help us to understand the development of interspecific differences in scavenging systems and to outline more oriented antioxidant approaches.

  8. The relationship of the urinary ascorbate metabolites to specific levels of ascorbate supplementation in the monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Tillotson, J.A.; McGown, E.L.

    1981-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate urinary ascorbic acid (AA) and its metabolites derived from (1-14C) AA administered to trained monkeys fed different levels of ascorbate for extended periods of time. A chromatographic procedure was developed which rapidly separates the urinary compounds into four major fractions with minimal degradation. The distribution of 14C in the four peaks was dependent upon the ascorbate nutritional status of the monkey and remained constant for at least 30 days postlabel. The two major fractions were identified as oxalate and unmetabolized ascorbate. The ascorbate metabolites in the two minor fractions have not been identified. In monkeys maintained on low ascorbate intakes, unmetabolized ascorbate accounted for 10 to 20% and oxalate 25 to 48% of the urinary 14C. The average percentages of 14C in the urine of monkeys fed high levels of ascorbate were 75% for ascorbate and 7% for oxalate. The urine also contained an ascorbate metabolite which degraded during storage and/or chromatography, yielding 14CO2. Ascorbate sulfate was not detected as a urinary metabolite.

  9. Genus Level Identification of Mycobacteria from Clinical Specimens by Using an Easy-To-Handle Mycobacterium-Specific PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Fritz; Haber, Heinrich; Rieger, Armin; Mutschlechner, Robert; Hasenberger, Petra; Tevere, Vincent J.; Young, Karen K. Y.

    1998-01-01

    An easy-to-handle Mycobacterium-specific PCR assay for detection of the presence of a wide range of mycobacterial species in clinical samples was evaluated. The performance of the genus probe was compared with the performance of probes specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium and with that of standard culture. In addition, the utility of an internal control in monitoring amplification inhibitors was studied. Of 545 respiratory and 325 nonrespiratory specimens (a total of 870 specimens), 58 (6.7%) showed the presence of amplification inhibitors, as determined by a negative result for the internal control. Of these 58 specimens, 31 (53%) were stool specimens; other material, even citrate blood after lysis of erythrocytes, did not pose a problem with regard to inhibition of PCR amplification. Eighty-one of the remaining 812 specimens had a positive Mycobacterium culture result. Of these culture-positive specimens, 58 (71.6%) showed a positive result with the Mycobacterium genus-specific probe. Seventy-two samples had a positive result with the Mycobacterium-specific probe but a negative culture result. Of these 72 samples, 26 samples were regarded as true positive, either because the M. tuberculosis- or M. avium-specific probe was also positive at the same time or because other specimens from the same patient taken at the same time were culture positive. The sensitivity of the Mycobacterium-specific probe was 78.5% and the specificity was 93.5%. This study showed that pretesting of clinical specimens for mycobacteria to the genus level with a Mycobacterium-specific probe offers the routine clinical laboratory the possibility of detecting tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria with one test. Furthermore, specimens testing positive with the genus-specific probe can be immediately identified with species-specific probes. PMID:9508282

  10. Early dutasteride monotherapy in men with detectable serum prostate-specific antigen levels following radical prostatectomy: A prospective trial

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yu Seob; Lee, Jea Whan; Kim, Myung Ki; Jeong, Young Beom

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of early administration of dutasteride in patients with detectable serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels after radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials and Methods A prospective open-label study, with a cumulative analysis of asymptomatic increase in PSA following RP, was conducted from January 2005 to December 2013. An early increase in PSA level was defined as detectable serum PSA level> 0.04 ng/mL. Patients with PSA level>0.04 ng/mL were treated with dutasteride 0.5 mg daily. Serum PSA level and biochemical recurrence (BCR) were monitored. We divided the patients into 2 groups based on the serum PSA response after dutasteride treatment. Results Eighty patients were included in the study. At the median follow-up of 51.8 months, 56 patients (70.0%) showed a decrease of greater than 10% in serum PSA level, and 24 showed increased PSA levels. Twelve of the 56 patients with PSA response showed subsequently increased PSA. Intergroup differences in preoperative PSA levels, PSA nadir levels, and Gleason score of 6 or less were significant (p=0.028, p=0.030, and p=0.035, respectively). A multivariate analysis revealed that Gleason score of 6 or less (p=0.018) and PSA nadir levels (p=0.011) were predictive factors for PSA response after early dutasteride treatment in men with increased PSA levels following RP. Conclusions Early monotherapy of dutasteride showed a decline in serum PSA levels in men with lower nadir PSA levels, and a Gleason score 6, when the serum PSA was detected after RP. PMID:28261678

  11. Serum neuron-specific enolase levels are upregulated in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and are predictive of prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Geng, Qi-rong; Chen, Xiao-qin; Lu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    We explored the relationship between neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels and the clinical features of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Seventy ALL patients and forty-two healthy controls were enrolled in this study, and their serum NSE levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence assay. The serum NSE concentration was higher in ALL patients than in healthy controls. In ALL patients, the mean serum NSE level declined after complete remission (CR) but increased with relapse. In addition, the mean serum NSE level was lower in the CR group than in the non-CR group. High NSE levels were associated with poorer progression-free and overall survival than low NSE levels. Serum NSE levels closely correlated with several clinical features, including the immunophenotype, risk stratification and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that high NSE expression was an independent prognostic factor in adult ALL patients. NSE mRNA levels were also higher in ALL cell lines and bone marrow mononuclear cells from ALL patients than in control cells. These results suggested that NSE could be a clinical prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in ALL. PMID:27409171

  12. Sebum and Hydration Levels in Specific Regions of Human Face Significantly Predict the Nature and Diversity of Facial Skin Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Mitra, Rupak; Maitra, Arindam; Gupta, Satyaranjan; Kumaran, Srikala; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumder, Partha P.

    2016-01-01

    The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n = 30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66.3%), Firmicutes (17.7%), Proteobacteria (13.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.4%). About 1000 genera were identified; predominantly Propionibacterium (58.6%), Staphylococcus (8.6%), Streptococcus (4.0%), Corynebacterium (3.6%) and Paracoccus (3.3%). A subset (n = 24) of individuals were sampled two months later. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that cheek sebum level was the most significant predictor of microbiome composition and diversity followed by forehead hydration level; forehead sebum and cheek hydration levels were not. With increase in cheek sebum, the prevalence of Actinobacteria (p = 0.001)/Propionibacterium (p = 0.002) increased, whereas microbiome diversity decreased (Shannon Index, p = 0.032); this was opposite for other phyla/genera. These trends were reversed for forehead hydration levels. Therefore, the nature and diversity of facial skin microbiome is jointly determined by site-specific lipid and water levels in the stratum corneum. PMID:27786295

  13. Investigations into the specific effects of rosemary oil at the receptor level.

    PubMed

    Sagorchev, P; Lukanov, J; Beer, A M

    2010-07-01

    Rosemary oil is used frequently in phytotherapy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the extent to which rosemary oil shows other effects on the smooth muscles than the familiar spasmolytic effects. The effects of rosemary oil on the spontaneous contractile activity were investigated in in vitro experiments with circular smooth-muscle strips of the guinea pig stomach. Rosemary oil was found to have agonistic effects on the alpha(1) and alpha(2) adrenergic receptors. These effects can be registered at concentrations up to 25 microl/l of rosemary oil. At higher concentrations the spasmolytic effect described in other reports could be detected. At concentrations above 100 microl/l rosemary oil, the effect of 10(-5)M ACH is completely suppressed. The results permit the assumption that, besides the spasmolytic effects investigated to date, owing to its specific effects on the alpha(2) adrenergic receptors of the nerve cells, rosemary oil brings about an additional improvement of local blood circulation and alleviates pain.

  14. Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Florian; Asner, Gregory P; Joseph, Shijo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation and monitoring of tropical forests requires accurate information on their extent and change dynamics. Cloud cover, sensor errors and technical barriers associated with satellite remote sensing data continue to prevent many national and sub-national REDD+ initiatives from developing their reference deforestation and forest degradation emission levels. Here we present a framework for large-scale historical forest cover change analysis using free multispectral satellite imagery in an extremely cloudy tropical forest region. The CLASlite approach provided highly automated mapping of tropical forest cover, deforestation and degradation from Landsat satellite imagery. Critically, the fractional cover of forest photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrates calculated by CLASlite provided scene-invariant quantities for forest cover, allowing for systematic mosaicking of incomplete satellite data coverage. A synthesized satellite-based data set of forest cover was thereby created, reducing image incompleteness caused by clouds, shadows or sensor errors. This approach can readily be implemented by single operators with highly constrained budgets. We test this framework on tropical forests of the Colombian Pacific Coast (Chocó) - one of the cloudiest regions on Earth, with successful comparison to the Colombian government's deforestation map and a global deforestation map.

  15. Development and Deployment of Advanced Corrosion Monitoring Systems for High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, M. T.; Edgemon, G. L.; Mickalonis, J. I.; Mizia, R. E.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest--in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and AEA Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

  16. Development and deployment of advanced corrosion monitoring systems for high-level waste tanks.

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, M. T.; Edgemon, G. L.; Mickalonis, J. I.; Mizia, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest - in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and M A Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

  17. Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Gregory P; Joseph, Shijo

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and monitoring of tropical forests requires accurate information on their extent and change dynamics. Cloud cover, sensor errors and technical barriers associated with satellite remote sensing data continue to prevent many national and sub-national REDD+ initiatives from developing their reference deforestation and forest degradation emission levels. Here we present a framework for large-scale historical forest cover change analysis using free multispectral satellite imagery in an extremely cloudy tropical forest region. The CLASlite approach provided highly automated mapping of tropical forest cover, deforestation and degradation from Landsat satellite imagery. Critically, the fractional cover of forest photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrates calculated by CLASlite provided scene-invariant quantities for forest cover, allowing for systematic mosaicking of incomplete satellite data coverage. A synthesized satellite-based data set of forest cover was thereby created, reducing image incompleteness caused by clouds, shadows or sensor errors. This approach can readily be implemented by single operators with highly constrained budgets. We test this framework on tropical forests of the Colombian Pacific Coast (Chocó) – one of the cloudiest regions on Earth, with successful comparison to the Colombian government’s deforestation map and a global deforestation map. PMID:25678933

  18. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  19. Muscles Susceptibility to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injuries Depends on Fiber Type Specific Antioxidant Level.

    PubMed

    Charles, Anne-Laure; Guilbert, Anne-Sophie; Guillot, Max; Talha, Samy; Lejay, Anne; Meyer, Alain; Kindo, Michel; Wolff, Valérie; Bouitbir, Jamal; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Muscle injury resulting from ischemia-reperfusion largely aggravates patient prognosis but whether and how muscle phenotype modulates ischemia-reperfusion-induced mitochondrial dysfunction remains to be investigated. We challenged the hypothesis that glycolytic muscles are more prone to ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury than oxidative skeletal muscles. We therefore determined simultaneously the effect of 3 h of ischemia induced by aortic clamping followed by 2 h of reperfusion (IR, n = 11) on both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, as compared to control animals (C, n = 11). Further, we investigated whether tempol, an antioxidant mimicking superoxide dismutase, might compensate a reduced defense system, likely characterizing glycolytic muscles (IR-Tempol, n = 7). In the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, as compared to control, ischemia-reperfusion significantly decreased mitochondrial respiration (-30.28 ± 6.16%, p = 0.003), increased reactive oxygen species production (+79.15 ± 28.72%, p = 0.04), and decreased reduced glutathione (-28.19 ± 6.80%, p = 0.011). Less deleterious effects were observed in the oxidative soleus muscle (-6.44 ± 6.30%, +4.32 ± 16.84%, and -8.07 ± 10.84%, respectively), characterized by enhanced antioxidant defenses (0.63 ± 0.05 in gastrocnemius vs. 1.24 ± 0.08 μmol L(-1) g(-1) in soleus). Further, when previously treated with tempol, glycolytic muscle was largely protected against the deleterious effects of ischemia-reperfusion. Thus, oxidative skeletal muscles are more protected than glycolytic ones against ischemia-reperfusion, thanks to their antioxidant pool. Such pivotal data support that susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury differs between organs, depending on their metabolic phenotypes. This suggests a need to adapt therapeutic strategies to the specific antioxidant power of the target organ to be protected.

  20. Muscles Susceptibility to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injuries Depends on Fiber Type Specific Antioxidant Level

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Anne-Laure; Guilbert, Anne-Sophie; Guillot, Max; Talha, Samy; Lejay, Anne; Meyer, Alain; Kindo, Michel; Wolff, Valérie; Bouitbir, Jamal; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Muscle injury resulting from ischemia-reperfusion largely aggravates patient prognosis but whether and how muscle phenotype modulates ischemia-reperfusion-induced mitochondrial dysfunction remains to be investigated. We challenged the hypothesis that glycolytic muscles are more prone to ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury than oxidative skeletal muscles. We therefore determined simultaneously the effect of 3 h of ischemia induced by aortic clamping followed by 2 h of reperfusion (IR, n = 11) on both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, as compared to control animals (C, n = 11). Further, we investigated whether tempol, an antioxidant mimicking superoxide dismutase, might compensate a reduced defense system, likely characterizing glycolytic muscles (IR-Tempol, n = 7). In the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, as compared to control, ischemia-reperfusion significantly decreased mitochondrial respiration (−30.28 ± 6.16%, p = 0.003), increased reactive oxygen species production (+79.15 ± 28.72%, p = 0.04), and decreased reduced glutathione (−28.19 ± 6.80%, p = 0.011). Less deleterious effects were observed in the oxidative soleus muscle (−6.44 ± 6.30%, +4.32 ± 16.84%, and −8.07 ± 10.84%, respectively), characterized by enhanced antioxidant defenses (0.63 ± 0.05 in gastrocnemius vs. 1.24 ± 0.08 μmol L−1 g−1 in soleus). Further, when previously treated with tempol, glycolytic muscle was largely protected against the deleterious effects of ischemia-reperfusion. Thus, oxidative skeletal muscles are more protected than glycolytic ones against ischemia-reperfusion, thanks to their antioxidant pool. Such pivotal data support that susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury differs between organs, depending on their metabolic phenotypes. This suggests a need to adapt therapeutic strategies to the specific antioxidant power of the target organ to be protected. PMID:28220081

  1. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Hammond, Geoff; Rodger, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW). We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j) and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻) mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets) they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  2. Advanced Treatment Monitoring for Olympic-Level Athletes Using Unsupervised Modeling Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Siedlik, Jacob A.; Bergeron, Charles; Cooper, Michael; Emmons, Russell; Moreau, William; Nabhan, Dustin; Gallagher, Philip; Vardiman, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Context Analysis of injury and illness data collected at large international competitions provides the US Olympic Committee and the national governing bodies for each sport with information to best prepare for future competitions. Research in which authors have evaluated medical contacts to provide the expected level of medical care and sports medicine services at international competitions is limited. Objective To analyze the medical-contact data for athletes, staff, and coaches who participated in the 2011 Pan American Games in Guadalajara, Mexico, using unsupervised modeling techniques to identify underlying treatment patterns. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Pan American Games. Patients or Other Participants A total of 618 US athletes (337 males, 281 females) participated in the 2011 Pan American Games. Main Outcome Measure(s) Medical data were recorded from the injury-evaluation and injury-treatment forms used by clinicians assigned to the central US Olympic Committee Sport Medicine Clinic and satellite locations during the operational 17-day period of the 2011 Pan American Games. We used principal components analysis and agglomerative clustering algorithms to identify and define grouped modalities. Lift statistics were calculated for within-cluster subgroups. Results Principal component analyses identified 3 components, accounting for 72.3% of the variability in datasets. Plots of the principal components showed that individual contacts focused on 4 treatment clusters: massage, paired manipulation and mobilization, soft tissue therapy, and general medical. Conclusions Unsupervised modeling techniques were useful for visualizing complex treatment data and provided insights for improved treatment modeling in athletes. Given its ability to detect clinically relevant treatment pairings in large datasets, unsupervised modeling should be considered a feasible option for future analyses of medical-contact data from international competitions. PMID

  3. The Relationship Between Metformin and Serum Prostate‐Specific Antigen Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jayalath, Viranda H.; Ireland, Christopher; Fleshner, Neil E.; Hamilton, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metformin is the first‐line oral antihyperglycemic of choice for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence supports a role for metformin in prostate cancer chemoprotection. However, whether metformin indeed influences prostate biology is unknown. We aimed to study the association between metformin and serum prostate‐specific antigen (PSA) levels—the primary prostate cancer biomarker. METHODS We conducted a cross‐sectional study of 326 prostate cancer‐free men with type 2 diabetes were recruited between 2004 and 2013 at St. Michael's Hospital. Men were excluded if they had a PSA ≥10‐ng/ml, or used >2,550‐mg/d metformin or supplemental androgens. Multivariate linear regressions quantified the association between metformin dose and log‐PSA. Secondary analyses quantified the association between other antihyperglycemics (sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones) and PSA; sensitivity analyses tested covariate interactions. RESULTS Median PSA was 0.9‐ng/ml (IQR: 0.5–1.6‐ng/ml). Metformin dose associated positively with BMI, HbA1c, diabetes duration, and number of statin, acetylsalicylic acid, diuretic users, and number of antihyperglycemics used, and negatively with LDL‐C. In multivariate models, PSA changed by −8% (95%CI: −13 to −2%, P = 0.011) per 500‐mg/d increase in metformin. Men with diabetes for ≥6 years (n = 163) saw a greater difference in PSA per 500‐mg/d metformin (−12% [95% CI: −19 to −4%, P = 0.002], P‐interaction = 0.018). Serum PSA did not relate with sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, or total number of antihyperglycemic agents used. Our findings are limited by the cross‐sectional design of this study. CONCLUSIONS Metformin dose‐dependently inversely associated with serum PSA, independent of other antihyperglycemic medications. Whether metformin confers a dose‐dependent benefit on prostate tumorigenesis and progression warrants investigation. Prostate 76:1445–1453, 2016.

  4. Neuron-specific stimulus masking reveals interference in spike timing at the cortical level.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Maddox, Ross K; Perrone, Ben P; Sen, Kamal; Billimoria, Cyrus P

    2012-02-01

    The auditory system is capable of robust recognition of sounds in the presence of competing maskers (e.g., other voices or background music). This capability arises despite the fact that masking stimuli can disrupt neural responses at the cortical level. Since the origins of such interference effects remain unknown, in this study, we work to identify and quantify neural interference effects that originate due to masking occurring within and outside receptive fields of neurons. We record from single and multi-unit auditory sites from field L, the auditory cortex homologue in zebra finches. We use a novel method called spike timing-based stimulus filtering that uses the measured response of each neuron to create an individualized stimulus set. In contrast to previous adaptive experimental approaches, which have typically focused on the average firing rate, this method uses the complete pattern of neural responses, including spike timing information, in the calculation of the receptive field. When we generate and present novel stimuli for each neuron that mask the regions within the receptive field, we find that the time-varying information in the neural responses is disrupted, degrading neural discrimination performance and decreasing spike timing reliability and sparseness. We also find that, while removing stimulus energy from frequency regions outside the receptive field does not significantly affect neural responses for many sites, adding a masker in these frequency regions can nonetheless have a significant impact on neural responses and discriminability without a significant change in the average firing rate. These findings suggest that maskers can interfere with neural responses by disrupting stimulus timing information with power either within or outside the receptive fields of neurons.

  5. A constitutive damage specific DNA-binding protein is synthesized at higher levels in UV-irradiated primate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, S.; Levine, A.S.; Ozato, K.; Protic, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Using a DNA band shift assay, we have identified a DNA-binding protein complex in primate cells which is present constitutively and has a high affinity for UV-irradiated, double-stranded DNA. Cells pretreated with UV light, mitomycin C, or aphidicolin have higher levels of this damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex, suggesting that the signal for induction can either be damage to the DNA or interference with cellular DNA replication. Physiochemical modifications of the DNA and competition analysis with defined substrates suggest that the most probable target site for the damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex is a 6-4'-(pyrimidine-2'-one)-pyrimidine dimer: specific binding could not be detected with probes which contain -TT- cyclobutane dimers, and damage-specific DNA binding did not decrease after photoreactivation of UV-irradiated DNA. This damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex is the first such inducible protein complex identified in primate cells. Cells from patients with the sun-sensitive cancer-prone disease, xeroderma pigmentosum (group E), are lacking both the constitutive and the induced damage-specific DNA-binding activities. These findings suggest a possible role for this DNA-binding protein complex in lesion recognition and DNA repair of UV-light-induced photoproducts.

  6. Is functional hypertrophy and specific force coupled with the addition of myonuclei at the single muscle fiber level?

    PubMed

    Qaisar, Rizwan; Renaud, Guillaume; Morine, Kevin; Barton, Elisabeth R; Sweeney, H Lee; Larsson, Lars

    2012-03-01

    Muscle force is typically proportional to muscle size, resulting in constant force normalized to muscle fiber cross-sectional area (specific force). Mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) exhibit a proportional gain in muscle force and size, but not the myostatin-deficient mice. In an attempt to explore the role of the cytoplasmic volume supported by individual myonuclei [myonuclear domain (MND) size] on functional capacity of skeletal muscle, we have investigated specific force in relation to MND and the content of the molecular motor protein, myosin, at the single muscle fiber level from myostatin-knockout (Mstn(-/-)) and IGF-1-overexpressing (mIgf1(+/+)) mice. We hypothesize that the addition of extra myonuclei is a prerequisite for maintenance of specific force during muscle hypertrophy. A novel algorithm was used to measure individual MNDs in 3 dimensions along the length of single muscle fibers from the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus and the slow-twitch soleus muscle. A significant effect of the size of individual MNDs in hypertrophic muscle fibers on both specific force and myosin content was observed. This effect was muscle cell type specific and suggested there is a critical volume individual myonuclei can support efficiently. The large MNDs found in fast muscles of Mstn(-/-) mice were correlated with the decrement in specific force and myosin content in Mstn(-/-) muscles. Thus, myostatin inhibition may not be able to maintain the appropriate MND for optimal function.

  7. S`COOL: Leveraging Information Technology Advances to Present K-12 Students with Specifically Relevant Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Rogerson, T. M.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.

    2007-12-01

    The Students` Cloud Observations On-Line (S`COOL) Project began in 1997 as a way to connect K-12 classrooms directly with ongoing NASA Earth Science research. Through the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, students as young as kindergarten have been involved for more than 10 years in providing ground truth observations of cloud cover and type. NASA scientists use these observations as part of the validation effort for understanding cloud effects on the Earth's energy budget. In addition, since the beginning, the project has also focused on students doing their own data analysis. However, not very many S`COOL participants actually performed much data analysis in the first years of the project. Over the last year and a half, the S`COOL team has worked to provide additional scaffolding for student data analysis, by leveraging emerging information technology developments to select and present specifically relevant satellite data to the students. In addition to the simple, standard visualization of the ground and satellite cloud information, we have provided a direct link to the specific 5-minute MODIS image, through the MODIS Rapid Response website. Over the summer, we added tutorials explaining how students can also bring in the atmospheric profiles from CALIPSO and/or CloudSat, when there is a near overhead pass of these satellites. In addition to the direct links to satellite imagery and data, we have also implemented a web-based classification and comment system. S`COOL participants can provide additional comments on the ground to satellite correspondence, after the satellite data are processed by FLASHFlux about a week after the student ground observation. Comments are emailed to the S`COOL team and enable additional interaction with the participants. Finally, new data analysis tools focusing on commonly-used spreadsheet software were developed over the summer by a team of college student interns. The addition of all these new resources

  8. In vitro-activated tumor-specific T lymphocytes prolong the survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kuai, Jun; Yang, Fang; Li, Guang-Jun; Fang, Xiang-Jie; Gao, Bao-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional tumor managements have limited survival benefits and cause severely impaired immune function in patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC) whereas immunotherapies could restore antitumor immunity. This prospective cohort study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of in vitro-activated tumor-specific T lymphocytes combined with chemotherapy on the survival of patients with advanced GC. Patients and methods Two hundred and seventy-four postoperative patients were enrolled in this study to receive either activated T lymphocytes immunotherapy combining chemotherapy (71 patients) or only receive postoperative chemotherapy (203 patients). Overall survival was analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier with log-rank test and Cox’s regression methods. Results The immunotherapy prolonged 9.8-month median survival for advanced gastric cancer (29.70 vs 19.70 months, P=0.036). Furthermore, immunotherapy significantly benefited the survival of patients who underwent radical, palliative resection, and stage III malignancy. No serious adverse effect was observed in the immunotherapy group. Conclusion In vitro-activated tumor-specific T lymphocytes prolonged survival in patients with advanced GC. PMID:27382313

  9. Fitness Level is Associated with Sex-Specific Regional Fat Differences in Normal Weight Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Tyler A.; Dengel, Donald R.; Ryder, Justin R.; Kelly, Aaron S.; Chow, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize regional body composition and insulin sensitivity differences between young adults who were normal weight with either high or low fitness determined by VO2 peak. We hypothesized that higher fitness levels would be associated with reduced visceral fat (VAT) and improved insulin sensitivity. Design A cross-sectional comparison of normal weight males and females with high or low fitness matched on age and sex. Methods A total of 38 (20M/18F) individuals were recruited for this study. Thirty-two young adults (18M/14F) were matched on age (mean 22.5 ± 3 yrs.) and BMI (22.4 ± 2.4 kg/m2) and sex and classified by high or low fitness based on VO2 peak difference (≥ 8ml/kg/min). Total and regional body composition, including VAT, was measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. An analysis of variance compared regional body composition and insulin sensitivity between high and low fitness young adults with a normal BMI. Results Higher fitness was associated with significantly lower percent body fat, lower android fat mass and higher insulin sensitivity in males (−7.2%, P<0.001; −0.5kg, P=0.048; 5.6mg/kg (FFM)/min, p=0.002). In females, higher fitness was associated with significantly lower percent body fat, lower leg fat but no difference in insulin sensitivity (−6.7%, P=0.001; −2.7kg, P<0.001; 2.5 mg/kg(FFM)/min, P=0.40). No differences in VAT were observed between high and low fitness groups. Interestingly in females, there was no difference in total lean mass, trunk lean mass or leg lean mass (P=0.59, P=0.17, P=0.99). Conclusion Higher fitness does not influence VAT in normal weight individuals. Sex influenced regional fat and insulin sensitivity differences between high fitness and low fitness groups. PMID:27054196

  10. Influence of dioxin exposure upon levels of prostate-specific antigen and steroid hormones in Vietnamese men.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian Liang; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Okamoto, Rie; Manh, Ho Dung; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nakano, Takeshi; Koh, Eitetsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Nhu, Dang Duc; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on the relationship between Agent Orange and prostate cancer have focused on US veterans of the Vietnam War. There have been few studies focusing on the relationship between levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and dioxins or steroid hormones in Vietnamese men. In 2009-2011, we collected blood samples from 97 men who had resided in a "dioxin hotspot" and 85 men from a non-sprayed region in Vietnam. Then levels of PSA, dioxins, and steroid hormones were analyzed. Levels of most dioxins, furans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls were higher in the hotspot than those in the non-sprayed region. Levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estradiol differed significantly between the hotspot and the non-sprayed region, but there were no correlations between levels of PSA and steroid hormones and dioxins in either of the two regions. Our findings suggest that PSA levels in Vietnamese men are not associated with levels of dioxin or steroid hormones in these two regions.

  11. Serotonin levels in the dorsal raphe nuclei of both chipmunks and mice are enhanced by long photoperiod, but brain dopamine level response to photoperiod is species-specific.

    PubMed

    Goda, Ryosei; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Kawai, Misato; Shibata, Satomi; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2015-04-23

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subtype of major depressive or bipolar disorders associated with the shortened photoperiod in winter. This depressive disorder is integrally tied to the seasonal regulation of the brain's serotonergic system. Recently, we found that C57BL/6J mice subjected to a forced-swim test exhibited immobility, a photoperiod-dependent depression-associated behavior, and suppression of brain serotonin levels. However, mice are nocturnal animals, and it is unclear whether the brain serotonergic system responds similarly to photoperiod in nocturnal and diurnal species. This study compared the responses of brain serotonergic and dopaminergic systems to photoperiod in diurnal chipmunks and nocturnal C57BL/6J mice. In both species, serotonin levels in the dorsal raphe nuclei were higher under long-day conditions than short-day conditions, suggesting a similarity in the photoperiod responses of the serotonergic systems. However, photoperiod affected dopamine levels in various brain regions differently in the two species. Some chipmunk brain regions exhibited stronger photoperiod-induced changes in dopamine levels than those of C57BL/6J mice, and the direction of the changes in the hypothalamus was opposite. In conclusion, photoperiod may regulate the brain serotonergic system through similar mechanisms, regardless of whether the animals are diurnal or nocturnal, but photoperiod-dependent regulation of brain dopamine is species-specific.

  12. Specific responses in rat small intestinal epithelial mRNA expression and protein levels during chemotherapeutic damage and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Melissa; Renes, Ingrid B; Van Nispen, Danielle J P M; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Jorritsma, Marieke; Büller, Hans A; Einerhand, Alexandra W C; Dekker, Jan

    2002-11-01

    The rapidly dividing small intestinal epithelium is very sensitive to the cytostatic drug methotrexate. We investigated the regulation of epithelial gene expression in rat jejunum during methotrexate-induced damage and regeneration. Ten differentiation markers were localized on tissue sections and quantified at mRNA and protein levels relative to control levels. We analyzed correlations in temporal expression patterns between markers. mRNA expression of enterocyte and goblet cell markers decreased significantly during damage for a specific period. Of these, sucrase-isomaltase (-62%) and CPS (-82%) were correlated. Correlations were also found between lactase (-76%) and SGLT1 (-77%) and between I-FABP (-52%) and L-FABP (-45%). Decreases in GLUT5 (-53%), MUC2 (-43%), and TFF3 (-54%) mRNAs occurred independently of any of the other markers. In contrast, lysozyme mRNA present in Paneth cells increased (+76%). At the protein level, qualitative and quantitative changes were in agreement with mRNA expression, except for Muc2 (+115%) and TFF3 (+81%), which increased significantly during damage, following independent patterns. During regeneration, expression of each marker returned to control levels. The enhanced expression of cytoprotective molecules (Muc2, TFF3, lysozyme) during damage represents maintenance of goblet cell and Paneth cell functions, most likely to protect the epithelium. Decreased expression of enterocyte-specific markers represents decreased enterocyte function, of which fatty acid transporters were least affected.

  13. IDP-ASE: haplotyping and quantifying allele-specific expression at the gene and gene isoform level by hybrid sequencing.

    PubMed

    Deonovic, Benjamin; Wang, Yunhao; Weirather, Jason; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Au, Kin Fai

    2016-11-28

    Allele-specific expression (ASE) is a fundamental problem in studying gene regulation and diploid transcriptome profiles, with two key challenges: (i) haplotyping and (ii) estimation of ASE at the gene isoform level. Existing ASE analysis methods are limited by a dependence on haplotyping from laborious experiments or extra genome/family trio data. In addition, there is a lack of methods for gene isoform level ASE analysis. We developed a tool, IDP-ASE, for full ASE analysis. By innovative integration of Third Generation Sequencing (TGS) long reads with Second Generation Sequencing (SGS) short reads, the accuracy of haplotyping and ASE quantification at the gene and gene isoform level was greatly improved as demonstrated by the gold standard data GM12878 data and semi-simulation data. In addition to methodology development, applications of IDP-ASE to human embryonic stem cells and breast cancer cells indicate that the imbalance of ASE and non-uniformity of gene isoform ASE is widespread, including tumorigenesis relevant genes and pluripotency markers. These results show that gene isoform expression and allele-specific expression cooperate to provide high diversity and complexity of gene regulation and expression, highlighting the importance of studying ASE at the gene isoform level. Our study provides a robust bioinformatics solution to understand ASE using RNA sequencing data only.

  14. High Level Requirements for the Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Johnson; Hyung Lee; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), has been tasked with the important mission of ensuring that nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy source in the U.S. The motivations behind this mission include cost-effectively meeting the expected increases in the power needs of the country, reducing carbon emissions and reducing dependence on foreign energy sources. In the near term, to ensure that nuclear power remains a key element of U.S. energy strategy and portfolio, the DOE-NE will be working with the nuclear industry to support safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants. In the long term, to meet the increasing energy needs of the U.S., the DOE-NE will be investing in research and development (R&D) and working in concert with the nuclear industry to build and deploy new, safer and more efficient nuclear power plants. The safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants and designing, licensing and deploying new reactor designs, however, will require focused R&D programs as well as the extensive use and leveraging of advanced modeling and simulation (M&S). M&S will play a key role in ensuring safe and efficient operations of existing and new nuclear reactors. The DOE-NE has been actively developing and promoting the use of advanced M&S in reactor design and analysis through its R&D programs, e.g., the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) and Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) programs. Also, nuclear reactor vendors are already using CFD and CSM, for design, analysis, and licensing. However, these M&S tools cannot be used with confidence for nuclear reactor applications unless accompanied and supported by verification and validation (V&V) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) processes and procedures which provide quantitative measures of uncertainty for specific applications. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation

  15. Muscle disuse alters skeletal muscle contractile function at the molecular and cellular levels in older adult humans in a sex-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Damien M; Miller, Mark S; Sweeny, Andrew P; Tourville, Timothy W; Slauterbeck, James R; Savage, Patrick D; Maugan, David W; Ades, Philip A; Beynnon, Bruce D; Toth, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity that accompanies ageing and disease may hasten disability by reducing skeletal muscle contractility. To characterize skeletal muscle functional adaptations to muscle disuse, we compared contractile performance at the molecular, cellular and whole-muscle levels in healthy active older men and women (n = 15) and inactive older men and women with advanced-stage, symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) (n = 16). OA patients showed reduced (P < 0.01) knee extensor function. At the cellular level, single muscle fibre force production was reduced in OA patients in myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and IIA fibres (both P < 0.05) and differences in IIA fibres persisted after adjustments for fibre cross-sectional area (P < 0.05). Although no group differences in contractile velocity or power output were found for any fibre type, sex was found to modify the effect of OA, with a reduction in MHC IIA power output and a trend towards reduced shortening velocity in women, but increases in both variables in men (P < 0.05 and P = 0.07, respectively). At the molecular level, these adaptations in MHC IIA fibre function were explained by sex-specific differences (P ≤ 0.05) in myosin–actin cross-bridge kinetics. Additionally, cross-bridge kinetics were slowed in MHC I fibres in OA patients (P < 0.01), attributable entirely to reductions in women with knee OA (P < 0.05), a phenotype that could be reproduced in vitro by chemical modification of protein thiol residues. Our results identify molecular and cellular functional adaptations in skeletal muscle that may contribute to reduced physical function with knee OA-associated muscle disuse, with sex-specific differences that may explain a greater disposition towards disability in women. PMID:25038243

  16. A clone screening method using mRNA levels to determine specific productivity and product quality for monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christina J; Seth, Gargi; Tsukuda, Joni; Hamilton, Robert W

    2009-03-01

    To meet increasing demands for efficient and streamlined production processes of therapeutic antibodies, improved methods of screening clones are required. In this article, we examined the potential of using antibody transcript levels as criteria for clone screening. We evaluated the QuantiGene Plex, a commercially available, high-throughput assay for simultaneously measuring multiple transcripts from cell lysate. Using the development of stable Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as examples, we investigated the relationship between transcript and antibody levels through several rounds of screening. First, we observed that measured heavy chain transcript levels are generally correlated with specific productivity, enabling the identification of high-producing clones from mRNA. Second, we observed that low ratios (< 1.5) of light to heavy chain transcript levels may be indicative of high antibody aggregation levels, allowing for the rapid identification and elimination of clones of questionable product quality. Therefore, an efficient process of identifying high-producing clones of desirable product quality is possible by using QuantiGene Plex assay to measure antibody transcript levels.

  17. Groundwater level and specific conductance monitoring at Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, Onslow County, North Carolina, 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, monitored water-resources conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers in Onslow County, North Carolina, from November 2007 through September 2008. To comply with North Carolina Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area regulations, large-volume water suppliers in Onslow County must reduce their dependency on the Black Creek aquifer as a water-supply source and have, instead, proposed using the Castle Hayne aquifer as an alternative water-supply source. The Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, uses water obtained from the unregulated surficial and Castle Hayne aquifers for drinking-water supply. Water-level data were collected and field measurements of physical properties were made at 19 wells at 8 locations spanning the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune. These wells were instrumented with near real-time monitoring equipment to collect hourly measurements of water level. Additionally, specific conductance and water temperature were measured hourly in 16 of the 19 wells. Graphs are presented relating altitude of groundwater level to water temperature and specific conductance measurements collected during the study, and the relative vertical gradients between aquifers are discussed. The period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater levels at two well clusters were compared to median monthly mean groundwater levels at these same well clusters for 2008 to determine groundwater-resources conditions. In 2008, water levels were below normal in the 3 wells at one of the well clusters and were normal in 4 wells at the other cluster.

  18. The predictability of serum anti-Müllerian level in IVF/ICSI outcomes for patients of advanced reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of in-vitro fertilization outcomes has been much debated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the practicability of combining serum AMH level with biological age as a simple screening method for counseling IVF candidates of advanced reproductive age with potential poor outcomes prior to treatment initiation. Methods A total of 1,538 reference patients and 116 infertile patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years enrolled in IVF/ICSI cycles were recruited in this retrospective analysis. A reference chart of the age-related distribution of serum AMH level for Asian population was first created. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years were then divided into three groups according to the low, middle and high tertiles the serum AMH tertiles derived from the reference population of matching age. The cycle outcomes were analyzed and compared among each individual group. Results For reference subjects aged greater than or equal to 40 years, the serum AMH of the low, middle and high tertiles were equal or lesser than 0.48, 0.49-1.22 and equal or greater than 1.23 ng/mL respectively. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with AMH levels in the low tertile had the highest cycle cancellation rate (47.6%) with zero clinical pregnancy. The nadir AMH level that has achieved live birth was 0.56 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the 36.4th percentile of AMH level from the age-matched reference group. The optimum cut-off levels of AMH for the prediction of nonpregnancy and cycle cancellation were 1.05 and 0.68 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions Two criteria: (1) age greater than or equal to 40 years and (2) serum AMH level in the lowest tertile (equal or lesser than 33.3rd percentile) of the matching age group, may be used as markers of futility for counseling IVF/ICSI candidates. PMID:21843363

  19. Liver-specific Deficiency of Serine Palmitoyltransferase Subunit 2 Decreases Plasma Sphingomyelin and Increases Apolipoprotein E Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Yan; Chakraborty, Mahua; Fan, Yifan; Bui, Hai H.; Peake, David A.; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Xiao, Xiao; Cao, Guoqing; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) is one of the major lipid components of plasma lipoproteins. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) is the key enzyme in SM biosynthesis. Mice totally lacking in SPT are embryonic lethal. The liver is the major site for plasma lipoprotein biosynthesis, secretion, and degradation, and in this study we utilized a liver-specific knock-out approach for evaluating liver SPT activity and also its role in plasma SM and lipoprotein metabolism. We found that a deficiency of liver-specific Sptlc2 (a subunit of SPT) decreased liver SPT protein mass and activity by 95 and 92%, respectively, but had no effect on other tissues. Liver Sptlc2 deficiency decreased plasma SM levels (in both high density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein fractions) by 36 and 35% (p < 0.01), respectively, and increased phosphatidylcholine levels by 19% (p < 0.05), thus increasing the phosphatidylcholine/SM ratio by 77% (p < 0.001), compared with controls. This deficiency also decreased SM levels in the liver by 38% (p < 0.01) and in the hepatocyte plasma membranes (based on a lysenin-mediated cell lysis assay). Liver-specific Sptlc2 deficiency significantly increased hepatocyte apoE secretion and thus increased plasma apoE levels 3.5-fold (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, plasma from Sptlc2 knock-out mice had a significantly stronger potential for promoting cholesterol efflux from macrophages than from wild-type mice (p < 0.01) because of a greater amount of apoE in the circulation. As a result of these findings, we believe that the ability to control liver SPT activity could result in regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and might have an impact on the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:19648608

  20. Anti-GnRH antibodies can induce castrate levels of testosterone in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Simms, M S; Scholfield, D P; Jacobs, E; Michaeli, D; Broome, P; Humphreys, J E; Bishop, M C

    2000-01-01

    D17DT consists of the GnRH decapeptide linked to diphtheria toxoid. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the tolerance of D17DT and the production of anti-GnRH antibodies from two doses, 30 and 100 μg, in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. Twelve patients with histologically proven prostate cancer in whom hormonal therapy was indicated were recruited. Patients received either 30 or 100 μg given intramuscularly on three separate occasions over six weeks. Patients were followed up and blood was taken for estimation of serum testosterone, PSA and anti-GnRH antibody titre. Overall the drug was well tolerated. In 5 patients a significant reduction in serum testosterone and PSA was seen. Castrate levels of testosterone were achieved in 4 and maintained for up to 9 months. Patients with the highest antibody titre had the best response in terms of testosterone suppression. This study shows that it is possible to immunize a patient with prostate cancer against GnRH to induce castrate levels of testosterone. This state appears to be reversible. This novel form of immunotherapy may have advantages over conventional forms of hormonal therapy and further studies are warranted in order to try and increase the proportion of responders. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10945488

  1. Specific absorption spectra of hemoglobin at different PO2 levels: potential noninvasive method to detect PO2 in tissues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peipei; Zhu, Zhirong; Zeng, Changchun; Nie, Guang

    2012-12-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb), as one of main components of blood, has a unique quaternary structure. Its release of oxygen is controlled by oxygen partial pressure (PO2). We investigate the specific spectroscopic changes in Hb under different PO2 levels to optimize clinical methods of measuring tissue PO2. The transmissivity of Hb under different PO2 levels is measured with a UV/Vis fiber optic spectrometer. Its plotted absorption spectral curve shows two high absorption peaks at 540 and 576 nm and an absorption valley at 560 nm when PO2 is higher than 100 mm Hg. The two high absorption peaks decrease gradually with a decrease in PO2, whereas the absorption valley at 560 nm increases. When PO2 decreases to approximately 0 mm Hg, the two high absorption peaks disappear completely, while the absorption valley has a hypochromic shift (8 to 10 nm) and forms a specific high absorption peak at approximately 550 nm. The same phenomena can be observed in visible reflectance spectra of finger-tip microcirculation. Specific changes in extinction coefficient and absorption spectra of Hb occur along with variations in PO2, which could be used to explain pathological changes caused by tissue hypoxia and for early detection of oxygen deficiency diseases in clinical monitoring.

  2. Specific absorption spectra of hemoglobin at different PO2 levels: potential noninvasive method to detect PO2 in tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peipei; Zhu, Zhirong; Zeng, Changchun; Nie, Guang

    2012-12-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb), as one of main components of blood, has a unique quaternary structure. Its release of oxygen is controlled by oxygen partial pressure (PO2). We investigate the specific spectroscopic changes in Hb under different PO2 levels to optimize clinical methods of measuring tissue PO2. The transmissivity of Hb under different PO2 levels is measured with a UV/Vis fiber optic spectrometer. Its plotted absorption spectral curve shows two high absorption peaks at 540 and 576 nm and an absorption valley at 560 nm when PO2 is higher than 100 mm Hg. The two high absorption peaks decrease gradually with a decrease in PO2, whereas the absorption valley at 560 nm increases. When PO2 decreases to approximately 0 mm Hg, the two high absorption peaks disappear completely, while the absorption valley has a hypochromic shift (8 to 10 nm) and forms a specific high absorption peak at approximately 550 nm. The same phenomena can be observed in visible reflectance spectra of finger-tip microcirculation. Specific changes in extinction coefficient and absorption spectra of Hb occur along with variations in PO2, which could be used to explain pathological changes caused by tissue hypoxia and for early detection of oxygen deficiency diseases in clinical monitoring.

  3. An Investigation of the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Career Development and Advancement of Mid-Level Women in Student Affairs Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corral, Christine R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the performance appraisal experience of 14 mid-level women in student affairs administration at four-year colleges and universities in Northern Illinois using a qualitative research approach involving personal interviews. Previous research on career development and advancement of mid-level women in student…

  4. Optimal functional levels of activation-induced deaminase specifically require the Hsp40 DnaJa1

    PubMed Central

    Orthwein, Alexandre; Zahn, Astrid; Methot, Stephen P; Godin, David; Conticello, Silvestro G; Terada, Kazutoyo; Di Noia, Javier M

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates deoxycytidine at the immunoglobulin genes, thereby initiating antibody affinity maturation and isotype class switching during immune responses. In contrast, off-target DNA damage caused by AID is oncogenic. Central to balancing immunity and cancer is AID regulation, including the mechanisms determining AID protein levels. We describe a specific functional interaction between AID and the Hsp40 DnaJa1, which provides insight into the function of both proteins. Although both major cytoplasmic type I Hsp40s, DnaJa1 and DnaJa2, are induced upon B-cell activation and interact with AID in vitro, only DnaJa1 overexpression increases AID levels and biological activity in cell lines. Conversely, DnaJa1, but not DnaJa2, depletion reduces AID levels, stability and isotype switching. In vivo, DnaJa1-deficient mice display compromised response to immunization, AID protein and isotype switching levels being reduced by half. Moreover, DnaJa1 farnesylation is required to maintain, and farnesyltransferase inhibition reduces, AID protein levels in B cells. Thus, DnaJa1 is a limiting factor that plays a non-redundant role in the functional stabilization of AID. PMID:22085931

  5. Feline leukemia virus T entry is dependent on both expression levels and specific interactions between cofactor and receptor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Heather H; Anderson, Maria M; Overbaugh, Julie

    2007-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) subgroup T uses both a multiple membrane-spanning receptor, FePit1, and a soluble cofactor, FeLIX, to enter feline cells. FeLIX is expressed from endogenous FeLV-related sequence and resembles the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral envelope protein. It remains unclear whether FeLV-T receptor activity requires specific residues within FePit1 and FeLIX and/or a threshold level of receptor/cofactor expression. To address this, we examined FeLV-T infection of cells expressing variable levels of FePit1 and other gammaretroviral receptors in the presence of variable amounts of soluble cofactor, either RBD or the envelope surface subunit (SU). Cofactor-receptor pairs fall into three groups with regard to mediating FeLV-T infection: those that are efficient at all concentrations tested, such as FePit1 and FeLIX; those requiring high expression of both cofactor and receptor; and those that are non-functional as receptors even at high expression. This suggests that both expression levels and specific interactions with receptor and cofactor are critical for mediating entry of FeLV-T.

  6. Molecular-Level Thermodynamic Switch Controls Chemical Equilibrium in Sequence-Specific Hydrophobic Interaction of 35 Dipeptide Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Paul W.

    2003-01-01

    Applying the Planck-Benzinger methodology, the sequence-specific hydrophobic interactions of 35 dipeptide pairs were examined over a temperature range of 273–333 K, based on data reported by Nemethy and Scheraga in 1962. The hydrophobic interaction in these sequence-specific dipeptide pairs is highly similar in its thermodynamic behavior to that of other biological systems. The results imply that the negative Gibbs free energy change minimum at a well-defined stable temperature, 〈Ts〉, where the bound unavailable energy, TΔSo = 0, has its origin in the sequence-specific hydrophobic interactions, are highly dependent on details of molecular structure. Each case confirms the existence of a thermodynamic molecular switch wherein a change of sign in ΔCpo(T)reaction (change in specific heat capacity of reaction at constant pressure) leads to true negative minimum in the Gibbs free energy change of reaction, ΔGo(T)reaction, and hence a maximum in the related equilibrium constant, Keq. Indeed, all interacting biological systems examined to date by Chun using the Planck-Benzinger methodology have shown such a thermodynamic switch at the molecular level, suggesting its existence may be universal. PMID:12547816

  7. Iron Levels in Hepatocytes and Portal Tract Cells Predict Progression and Outcome of Patients with Advanced Chronic Hepatitis C1

    PubMed Central

    Lambrecht, Richard W.; Sterling, Richard K.; Naishadham, Deepa; Stoddard, Anne M.; Rogers, Thomas; Morishima, Chihiro; Morgan, Timothy R.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Iron might influence severity and progression of non-hemochromatotic liver diseases. We assessed the relationships between iron, variants in HFE, and progression and outcomes using data from the HALT-C Trial. We determined whether therapy with pegylated interferon (PegIFN) affects iron variables. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to groups given long-term therapy with PegIFN (n=400) or no therapy (n=413) for 3.5 y and followed for up to 8.7 y (median 6.0 y). Associations between patient characteristics and iron variables, at baseline and over time, were made using Kaplan-Meier analyses, Cox regression models, and repeated measures analysis of covariance. Iron was detected by Prussian blue staining. Results Patients with poor outcomes (increase in Child-Turcotte-Pugh score to ≥ 7, development of ascites, encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, death) had significantly higher baseline scores for stainable iron in hepatocytes and cells in portal tracts than those without outcomes. Staining for iron in portal triads correlated with lobular and total Ishak inflammatory and fibrosis scores (P<0.0001). High baseline levels of iron in triads increased the risk for poor outcome (hazard ratio=1.35, P=0.02). Iron staining decreased in hepatocytes but increased in portal stromal cells over time (P<0.0001). Serum levels of iron and total iron binding capacity decreased significantly over time (P <0.0001), as did serum ferritin (P=0.0003). Long-term therapy with PegIFN did not affect levels of iron staining. Common variants in HFE did not correlate with outcomes, including development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusions Degree of stainable iron in hepatocytes and portal tract cells predicts progression and clinical and histological outcomes of patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C. Long-term therapy with low-dose PegIFN did not improve outcomes or iron variables. PMID:21335007

  8. Use of Mitochondria-Specific Dye MKT-077 as a Radiosensitizer to Preoperatively Treat Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0264 TITLE: Use of Mitochondria-Specific Dye MKT ...18 MAR 2005 - 17 MAR 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Use of Mitochondria-Specific Dye MKT -077 as a Radiosensitizer to Preoperatively 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The major goal of this project is to determine if the rhodacyanine analog dye, MKT -077, can be used to

  9. Nonspecific Presentation of a Multiloculated Prostatic Abscess After Transurethral Prostatic Biopsy for Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen Level

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nilay M.; Lin, Joseph; Schaeffer, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Prostate postbiopsy infectious complications typically present in the form of prostatitis and uncommonly urosepsis. Prostatic abscesses are generally found after multiple bouts of prostatitis and are associated with a clinically septic picture requiring intensive care unit admission and resuscitation. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with prostatic abscess in the setting of nonspecific urinary symptoms after transrectal ultrasonography–guided prostate biopsy. At 4-month follow-up, he is currently free of disease with undetectable prostate-specific antigen level and negative imaging. PMID:26958487

  10. Identification of condition-specific regulatory modules through multi-level motif and mRNA expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Wang, Yue; Hoffman, Eric P.; Riggins, Rebecca B.; Clarke, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Many computational methods for identification of transcription regulatory modules often result in many false positives in practice due to noise sources of binding information and gene expression profiling data. In this paper, we propose a multi-level strategy for condition-specific gene regulatory module identification by integrating motif binding information and gene expression data through support vector regression and significant analysis. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method on a yeast cell cycle data set. The study on a breast cancer microarray data set shows that it can successfully identify the significant and reliable regulatory modules associated with breast cancer. PMID:20054984

  11. Gene-specific DNA methylation association with serum levels of C-reactive protein in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan V; Lazarus, Alicia; Smith, Jennifer A; Chuang, Yu-Hsuan; Zhao, Wei; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2013-01-01

    A more thorough understanding of the differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles in populations may hold promise for identifying molecular mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to human diseases. Inflammation is a key molecular mechanism underlying several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, and it affects DNAm profile on both global and locus-specific levels. To understand the impact of inflammation on the DNAm of the human genome, we investigated DNAm profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from 966 African American participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. By testing the association of DNAm sites on CpG islands of over 14,000 genes with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker of cardiovascular disease, we identified 257 DNAm sites in 240 genes significantly associated with serum levels of CRP adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and smoking status, and corrected for multiple testing. Of the significantly associated DNAm sites, 80.5% were hypomethylated with higher CRP levels. The most significant Gene Ontology terms enriched in the genes associated with the CRP levels were immune system process, immune response, defense response, response to stimulus, and response to stress, which are all linked to the functions of leukocytes. While the CRP-associated DNAm may be cell-type specific, understanding the DNAm association with CRP in peripheral blood leukocytes of multi-ethnic populations can assist in unveiling the molecular mechanism of how the process of inflammation affects the risks of developing common disease through epigenetic modifications.

  12. DEVELOPING SITE-SPECIFIC DERIVED CONCENTRATION GUIDELINE LEVELS FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA AT THE CONNECTICUT YANKEE HADDAM NECK PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.W.; Smith, L.C.; Carr, R.K.; Carson, A.; Darois, E.

    2003-02-27

    As part of the license termination process, site-specific Derived Concentration Guideline Levels for the Haddam Neck Plant site are developed for soil, groundwater, concrete left standing, and concrete demolished that satisfy the radiological criteria for unrestricted use as defined in 10 CFR 20.1402. Background information on the license termination process and characteristics of the Haddam Neck Plant site are presented. The dose models and associated resident farmer and building occupancy scenarios, applicable pathways, and critical groups developed to establish the Derived Concentration Guideline Levels are described. A parameter assignment process is introduced wherein general population values are used to establish behavioral and metabolic parameters representative of an average member of the critical group, while the uncertainty associated with important physical parameters is considered. A key element of the parameter assignment process is the use of sensitivity analysis to identify the dose sensitive physical parameters and to ensure that such parameters are assigned conservative values. Structuring the parameter assignment process, completing the formal sensitivity analyses, and assigning conservative values to the sensitive physical parameters in a consistent way establishes a calculation framework that lead to Derived Concentration Guideline Levels with a uniform level of conservatism across all media and all radionuclides.

  13. Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines NNN and NNK levels in cigarette brands between 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, I; Kondylis, A; Jaccard, G; Renaud, J-M; Hofer, R; Ruffieux, L; Gadani, F

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of the levels of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke is investigated based on smoke and tobacco chemistry data of cigarette brands sold by Philip Morris International (PMI) between 2000 and 2014. A total of 315 cigarette samples representing a wide range of product and design characteristics manufactured by PMI between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed and compared to a previously published dataset of PMI brands manufactured in 2000. The data indicate that there is a substantial reduction of NNN and NNK levels in tobacco fillers and MS cigarette smoke per mg of tar and per mg of nicotine using Health Canada Intense (HCI) machine-smoking regime. This observed reduction in NNN and NNK levels in MS cigarette smoke is also supported by the downward trend observed on NNN and NNK levels in USA flue-cured Virginia and Burley tobacco lots from 2000 to 2014 crops, reflecting effectiveness of measures taken on curing and agricultural practices designed to minimize TSNA formation in tobacco.

  14. Levels of synthesis of primate-specific nuclear proteins differ between growth-arrested and proliferating cells

    SciTech Connect

    Celis, J.E.; Madsen, P.; Nielsen, S.; Ratz, G.P.; Lauridsen, J.B.; Celis, A.

    1987-02-01

    A monoclonal antibody that reacts specifically with the proliferation-sensitive nuclear proteins, isoelectric focusing (IEF) 8Z31 (molecular weight (MW), 76,000 charge variants, HeLa protein catalogue number) has been characterized. As determined by indirect immunofluorescence, the antibody stains the nucleolus and nucleoplasm of interphase-cultured cells of primate origin, but does not react with cells of other species. Proteins having similar MWs and isoelectric points as the human or monkey (primates) proteins were not observed in cultured cells of the following species: aves, bat, dog, dolphin, goat, hamster, mink, mouse, pisces, potoroo, rabbit and rat. Quantitative two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoretic analysis of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labelled proteins synthesized by normal (quiescent, proliferating) and SV40-transformed human MRC-5 fibroblasts revealed significant differences in the levels of synthesis of both IEF 8Z30 and 8Z31. In quiescent cells the main labelled product corresponded to IEF 8Z31 (ratio IEF 8Z31/8Z30, 2.3), while in the transformed cells the major product was IEF 8Z30 (ratio, 0.62). Normal proliferating fibroblasts exhibited similar levels of both proteins (ratio, 1.21). Combined levels of synthesis of both proteins were 1.50 and 1.20 times as high in the transformed cells as in the quiescent and proliferating cells, respectively. Modulation of the levels of synthesis of these proteins may play a role in cell proliferation.

  15. Developmental effects on ureide levels are mediated by tissue-specific regulation of allantoinase in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Leal, Juan Luis; Gálvez-Valdivieso, Gregorio; Fernández, Javier; Pineda, Manuel; Alamillo, Josefa M

    2012-06-01

    The ureides allantoin and allantoate are key molecules in the transport and storage of nitrogen in ureide legumes. In shoots and leaves from Phaseolus vulgaris plants using symbiotically fixed nitrogen as the sole nitrogen source, ureide levels were roughly equivalent to those of nitrate-supported plants during the whole vegetative stage, but they exhibited a sudden increase at the onset of flowering. This rise in the level of ureides, mainly in the form of allantoate, was accompanied by increases in allantoinase gene expression and enzyme activity, consistent with developmental regulation of ureide levels mainly through the tissue-specific induction of allantoate synthesis catalysed by allantoinase. Moreover, surprisingly high levels of ureides were also found in non-nodulated plants fertilized with nitrate, at both early and late developmental stages. The results suggest that remobilized N from lower leaves is probably involved in the sharp rise in ureides in shoots and leaves during early pod filling in N(2)-fixing plants and in the significant amounts of ureides observed in non-nodulated plants.

  16. An advanced understanding of the specific effects of xylan and surface lignin contents on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Xiaohui; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2013-01-17

    A deep understanding of biomass recalcitrance has been hampered by the intricate and heterogeneous nature of pretreated biomass substrates obtained from random deconstruction methods. In this study, we established a unique methodology based on chemical pulping principles to create "reference substrates" with intact cellulose fibers and controlled morphological and chemical properties that enable us to investigate the individual effect of xylan, bulk, and surface lignin content on enzymatic hydrolysis. We also developed and demonstrated an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique for quantifying surface lignin content on biomass substrates. The results from this study show that, apart from its hindrance effect, xylan can facilitate cellulose fibril swelling and thus create more accessible surface area, which improves enzyme and substrate interactions. Surface lignin has a significant impact on enzyme adsorption kinetics and hydrolysis rate. Advanced understanding of xylan, bulk, and surface lignin effects provides critical information for an effective biomass conversion process.

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of interventions to promote advance directives among older adults: a systematic review and multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Gina; Dubois, Marie-France; Wagneur, Bernard

    2008-10-01

    Many studies have investigated the effectiveness of interventions in promoting advance directives (ADs) but there is uncertainty as to what works best, and in whom. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence in this regard, using both classical meta-analysis approaches and multi-level analyses. Eleven databases were searched for relevant reports published through March 2007. All prospective studies were eligible, whether involving a single group or several and, in the latter case, regardless of the allocation mechanism. Outcomes included formal and informal ADs assessed by chart review or self-report. Heterogeneous sets of outcomes were pooled under a random-effects model. The search yielded 55 studies, half of which targeted outpatients. Most groups of subjects were educated in a single session led by one healthcare professional. Outcomes were measured within six months of the intervention in 73% of cases. The largest set of single-arm studies yielded an overall AD completion rate of 45.6%. Across randomized trials, the largest pooled odds ratio was 4.0, decreasing to 2.6 when all comparative studies were included. Multi-variable analyses identified the provision of oral information over multiple sessions as the most successful intervention. This was true regardless of the target population. These findings support the effectiveness of educational interventions in increasing the formulation of ADs and provide practical advice on how best to achieve this goal.

  18. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo JV; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as “incurable” diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy. PMID:24179708

  19. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo Jv; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-08-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as "incurable" diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy.

  20. Pushing CT and MR Imaging to the Molecular Level for Studying the “Omics”: Current Challenges and Advancements

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Shih, Yi-Yu

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, medical imaging has made the transition from anatomical imaging to functional and even molecular imaging. Such transition provides a great opportunity to begin the integration of imaging data and various levels of biological data. In particular, the integration of imaging data and multiomics data such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and pharmacogenomics may open new avenues for predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. However, to promote imaging-omics integration, the practical challenge of imaging techniques should be addressed. In this paper, we describe key challenges in two imaging techniques: computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and then review existing technological advancements. Despite the fact that CT and MRI have different principles of image formation, both imaging techniques can provide high-resolution anatomical images while playing a more and more important role in providing molecular information. Such imaging techniques that enable single modality to image both the detailed anatomy and function of tissues and organs of the body will be beneficial in the imaging-omics field. PMID:24738056

  1. Generic versus specific competencies of entry-level public health graduates: employers' perceptions in Poland, the UK, and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Biesma, Regien G; Pavlova, Milena; Vaatstra, Rina; van Merode, Godefridus G; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Smith, Tony; Groot, Wim

    2008-08-01

    Constant changes in society and the public health domain force public health professionals into new roles and the development of new competencies. Public health professionals will need to be trained to respond to this challenge. The aim of this comparative study among Poland, the UK and the Netherlands is to identify competence needs for Master of Public Health graduates entering the labour market from a European perspective. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to employers in the three countries, rating the importance of competency in public health on a master's level. In all three countries, interpersonal competencies, like team working and communication skills, are rated as highly important. However, employers in the UK and Poland generally rate public health specific competencies as much more important than their Dutch colleagues. It is concluded that while public health specific knowledge is providing a useful starting point for entry-level public health professionals, employers increasingly recognise the value of generic competencies such as communication and team working skills. The results suggest a stronger emphasis on teaching methods that encourage active learning and the integration of skills, which is crucial for enhancing graduates' employability, and foster an open attitude to multidisciplinary working, which is essential in modern health care.

  2. Mirror Visual Feedback Training Improves Intermanual Transfer in a Sport-Specific Task: A Comparison between Different Skill Levels

    PubMed Central

    Pixa, Nils Henrik; Doppelmayr, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF) could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback. After four training days using only the right hand, performance of both hands improved from pre- to posttest measurements. Only the left hand (untrained) performance of the experienced participants receiving MVF was more pronounced than for the control group. This indicates that intermanual motor transfer can be improved by MVF in a sport-specific task. However, this effect cannot be generalized to motor learning per se since it is modulated by individuals' skill level, a factor that might be considered in mirror therapy research. PMID:27642526

  3. Species-specific control of external superoxide levels by the coral holobiont during a natural bleaching event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Julia M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Apprill, Amy; Brighi, Caterina; Zhang, Tong; Weber, Laura; McNally, Sean; Xun, Liping

    2016-12-01

    The reactive oxygen species superoxide (O2.-) is both beneficial and detrimental to life. Within corals, superoxide may contribute to pathogen resistance but also bleaching, the loss of essential algal symbionts. Yet, the role of superoxide in coral health and physiology is not completely understood owing to a lack of direct in situ observations. By conducting field measurements of superoxide produced by corals during a bleaching event, we show substantial species-specific variation in external superoxide levels, which reflect the balance of production and degradation processes. Extracellular superoxide concentrations are independent of light, algal symbiont abundance and bleaching status, but depend on coral species and bacterial community composition. Furthermore, coral-derived superoxide concentrations ranged from levels below bulk seawater up to ~120 nM, some of the highest superoxide concentrations observed in marine systems. Overall, these results unveil the ability of corals and/or their microbiomes to regulate superoxide in their immediate surroundings, which suggests species-specific roles of superoxide in coral health and physiology.

  4. Species-specific control of external superoxide levels by the coral holobiont during a natural bleaching event

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Julia M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Apprill, Amy; Brighi, Caterina; Zhang, Tong; Weber, Laura; McNally, Sean; Xun, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species superoxide (O2·−) is both beneficial and detrimental to life. Within corals, superoxide may contribute to pathogen resistance but also bleaching, the loss of essential algal symbionts. Yet, the role of superoxide in coral health and physiology is not completely understood owing to a lack of direct in situ observations. By conducting field measurements of superoxide produced by corals during a bleaching event, we show substantial species-specific variation in external superoxide levels, which reflect the balance of production and degradation processes. Extracellular superoxide concentrations are independent of light, algal symbiont abundance and bleaching status, but depend on coral species and bacterial community composition. Furthermore, coral-derived superoxide concentrations ranged from levels below bulk seawater up to ∼120 nM, some of the highest superoxide concentrations observed in marine systems. Overall, these results unveil the ability of corals and/or their microbiomes to regulate superoxide in their immediate surroundings, which suggests species-specific roles of superoxide in coral health and physiology. PMID:27924868

  5. LIPC variants in the promoter and intron 1 modify HDL-C levels in a sex-specific fashion.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Mary F; Myers, Richard H; Pankow, James S; Province, Michael A; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2009-05-01

    We previously reported linkage for plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on 15q21 in Caucasian families from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study (NHLBI FHS). Hepatic lipase gene (LIPC), which has a major role in lipoprotein metabolism, resides within the linkage region and constitutes an obvious candidate gene. While hepatic lipase is a known player in HDL metabolism, the relationship between common LIPC variants and HDL-C levels remains unclear. In the current study, we employed population-based and family-based tests of association with both quantitative HDL-C levels and a dichotomous dyslipidemia trait (affected men: HDL<40 mg/dL and women: HDL<50 mg/dL, denoted as low HDL). We genotyped 19 tag-SNPs spanning 139.9 kb around the LIPC in the 591 families (2238 subjects). Strong association in a proxy-promoter 5' SNP (rs261342) and HDL-C levels was detected in women, but not in men. The less common allele was associated with an increase of approximately 14% in HDL-C levels, and a decrease of approximately 30% in risk of low HDL. In addition, strong association in women of an intron 1 SNP (rs12593008) and low HDL and moderate association in men (rs8028759) with both HDL-C levels and low HDL phenotype were found and may represent either functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), or more likely, SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with functional variants. Because of the association of lipid abnormalities with diabetes, and other lifestyle parameters, we also performed association analyses using different covariate adjustments as well as strategically selected sub-samples. The sex-specific association of rs261342, rs12593008 or rs8028759 remained substantially the same through these analyses. Finally, we found that a common haplotype was overtransmitted to offspring with low HDL-C. The sex-specific associations found in our study could be due to the interactions with the endogenous hormonal environment, lifestyle

  6. MHD advanced power train. Phase 1, Final report: Volume 3, Power train system description and specification for 200MWe Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.R.

    1985-08-01

    This System Design Description and Specification provides the basis for the design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Train (PT) for a nominal 200 MWe early commercial tiHD/Steam Power Plant. This document has been developed under Task 2, Conceptual Design, of Contract DE-AC22-83PC60575 and is to be used by the project as the controlling and coordinating documentation during future design efforts. Modification and revision of this specification will occur as the design matures, and tiie-Westinghouse MHD Project Manager will be the focal point for maintaining this document and issuing periodic revisions. This document is intended to delineate the power train and-power train components requirements and assumptions that properly reflect the MHD/Steam Power Plant in the PT design. The parameters discussed in this document have been established through system calculations as well as through constraints set by technology and by limitations on materials, cost, physical processes associated with MHD, and the expected operating data for the plant. The specifications listed in this document have precedence over all referenced documents. Where this specification appears to conflict with the requirements of a reference document, such conflicts should be brought to the attention of the Westinghouse MHD Project Manager for resolution.

  7. Dynamic changes in the higher-level chromatin organization of specific sequences revealed by in situ hybridization to nuclear halos

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A novel approach to study the higher level packaging of specific DNA sequences has been developed by coupling high-resolution fluorescence hybridization with biochemical fractionation to remove histones and distend DNA loops to form morphologically reproducible nuclear "halos." Results demonstrate consistent differences in the organization of specific sequences, and further suggest a relationship to functional activity. Pulse-incorporated bromodeoxyuridine representing nascent replicating DNA localized with the base of the chromatin loops in discrete clustered patterns characteristic of intact cells, whereas at increasing chase times, the replicated DNA was consistently found further out on the extended region of the halo. Fluorescence hybridization to unique loci for four transcriptionally inactive sequences produced long strings of signal extending out onto the DNA halo or "loop," whereas four transcriptionally active sequences remained tightly condensed as single spots within the residual nucleus. In contrast, in non-extracted cells, all sequences studied typically remained condensed as single spots of fluorescence signal. Interestingly, two transcriptionally active, tandemly repeated gene clusters exhibited strikingly different packaging by this assay. Analysis of specific genes in single cells during the cell cycle revealed changes in packaging between S-phase and non S-phase cells, and further suggested a dramatic difference in the structural associations in mitotic and interphase chromatin. These results are consistent with and suggestive of a loop domain organization of chromatin packaging involving both stable and transient structural associations, and provide precedent for an approach whereby different biochemical fractionation methods may be used to unravel various aspects of the complex higher-level organization of the genome. PMID:8034736

  8. Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Marsha Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…

  9. Addressing Adherence Using Genotype-Specific PBPK Modeling—Impact of Drug Holidays on Tamoxifen and Endoxifen Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dickschen, Kristin J. R.; Willmann, Stefan; Hempel, Georg; Block, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Tamoxifen is one of the most common treatment opportunities for hormonal positive breast cancer. Despite its good tolerability, patients demonstrate decreasing adherence over years impacting on therapeutic success. PBPK modeling was applied to demonstrate the impact of drug holidays on plasma levels of tamoxifen and its active metabolite endoxifen for different CYP2D6 genotypes. Materials and Methods: A virtual study with 24,000 patients was conducted in order to investigate the development of tamoxifen steady-state kinetics in patient groups of different CYP2D6 genotypes. The impact of drug holidays on steady-state kinetics was investigated assuming changing drug holiday scenarios. Results: Drug holidays in CYP2D6 extensive and intermediate metabolizers (EMs, IMs) exceeding 1 month lead to a decrease of endoxifen steady-state trough levels below the 5th percentile of the control group. Assuming drug holidays of 1, 2, or 3 months and administering a fixed-dose combination of 20 mg tamoxifen and 3 mg endoxifen EMs demonstrated re-established endoxifen steady-state trough levels after 5, 8, and 9 days. IMs receiving the same fixed-dose combination demonstrated re-established endoxifen steady-state trough levels after 7, 10, and 11 days. Discussion: The PBPK model impressively demonstrates the impact of drug holidays in different CYP2D6 genotypes on PK. Population simulation results indicate that drug holidays of more than 2 weeks cause a tremendous decrease of plasma levels despite the long half-life of tamoxifen. To improve therapeutic success, PBPK modeling allows identifying genotype-specific differences in PK following drug holidays and adequate treatment with loading doses. PMID:28382001

  10. Modulation of cellular S1P levels with a novel, potent and specific inhibitor of sphingosine kinase-1.

    PubMed

    Schnute, Mark E; McReynolds, Matthew D; Kasten, Tom; Yates, Matthew; Jerome, Gina; Rains, John W; Hall, Troii; Chrencik, Jill; Kraus, Michelle; Cronin, Ciaran N; Saabye, Matthew; Highkin, Maureen K; Broadus, Richard; Ogawa, Shinji; Cukyne, Kristin; Zawadzke, Laura E; Peterkin, Vincent; Iyanar, Kaliapan; Scholten, Jeffrey A; Wendling, Jay; Fujiwara, Hideji; Nemirovskiy, Olga; Wittwer, Arthur J; Nagiec, Marek M

    2012-05-15

    SphK (sphingosine kinase) is the major source of the bioactive lipid and GPCR (G-protein-coupled receptor) agonist S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate). S1P promotes cell growth, survival and migration, and is a key regulator of lymphocyte trafficking. Inhibition of S1P signalling has been proposed as a strategy for treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer. In the present paper we describe the discovery and characterization of PF-543, a novel cell-permeant inhibitor of SphK1. PF-543 inhibits SphK1 with a K(i) of 3.6 nM, is sphingosine-competitive and is more than 100-fold selective for SphK1 over the SphK2 isoform. In 1483 head and neck carcinoma cells, which are characterized by high levels of SphK1 expression and an unusually high rate of S1P production, PF-543 decreased the level of endogenous S1P 10-fold with a proportional increase in the level of sphingosine. In contrast with past reports that show that the growth of many cancer cell lines is SphK1-dependent, specific inhibition of SphK1 had no effect on the proliferation and survival of 1483 cells, despite a dramatic change in the cellular S1P/sphingosine ratio. PF-543 was effective as a potent inhibitor of S1P formation in whole blood, indicating that the SphK1 isoform of sphingosine kinase is the major source of S1P in human blood. PF-543 is the most potent inhibitor of SphK1 described to date and it will be useful for dissecting specific roles of SphK1-driven S1P signalling.

  11. Advanced MicroObserver UGS integration with and cueing of the BattleHawk squad level loitering munition and UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Bob; Finklea, John; Kershaw, James; Loughman, Cathy; Shaffner, Patti; Frost, Dean; Deller, Sean

    2014-06-01

    Textron's Advanced MicroObserver(R) is a next generation remote unattended ground sensor system (UGS) for border security, infrastructure protection, and small combat unit security. The original MicroObserver(R) is a sophisticated seismic sensor system with multi-node fusion that supports target tracking. This system has been deployed in combat theaters. The system's seismic sensor nodes are uniquely able to be completely buried (including antennas) for optimal covertness. The advanced version adds a wireless day/night Electro-Optic Infrared (EOIR) system, cued by seismic tracking, with sophisticated target discrimination and automatic frame capture features. Also new is a field deployable Gateway configurable with a variety of radio systems and flexible networking, an important upgrade that enabled the research described herein. BattleHawkTM is a small tube launched Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) with a warhead. Using transmitted video from its EOIR subsystem an operator can search for and acquire a target day or night, select a target for attack, and execute terminal dive to destroy the target. It is designed as a lightweight squad level asset carried by an individual infantryman. Although BattleHawk has the best loiter time in its class, it's still relatively short compared to large UAVs. Also it's a one-shot asset in its munition configuration. Therefore Textron Defense Systems conducted research, funded internally, to determine if there was military utility in having the highly persistent MicroObserver(R) system cue BattleHawk's launch and vector it to beyond visual range targets for engagement. This paper describes that research; the system configuration implemented, and the results of field testing that was performed on a government range early in 2013. On the integrated system that was implemented, MicroObserver(R) seismic detections activated that system's camera which then automatically captured images of the target. The geo-referenced and time-tagged Micro

  12. Outcome After Conformal Salvage Radiotherapy in Patients With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, Hans; Riegel, Martina G.; Thamm, Reinhard; Astner, Sabrina T.; Lewerenz, Carolin; Zimmermann, Frank; Molls, Michael; Nieder, Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: This study attempts to improve our understanding of the role of salvage radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse after radical prostatectomy with regard to biochemical control, rate of distant metastasis, and survival. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of 96 men treated with conformal prostate bed SRT (median, 64.8 Gy) at a single institution (median follow-up, 70 months). The majority had intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. Fifty-four percent underwent a resection with positive margins (R1 resection). The median time interval between surgery and SRT was 22 months. Results: After SRT, 66% of patients reached a PSA nadir of less than 0.2 ng/mL. However, the 5-year biochemical no evidence of disease rate was 35%. Seminal vesicle involvement was predictive for a significantly lower biochemical no evidence of disease rate. All patients with a preoperative PSA level greater than 50 ng/mL relapsed biochemically within 2 years. The 5-year distant metastasis rate was 18%, the 5-year prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 90%, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 88%. Significantly more distant metastases developed in patients with a PSA nadir greater than 0.05 ng/mL after SRT, and they had significantly inferior prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates. Resection status (R1 vs. R0) was not predictive for any of the endpoints. Conclusions: Men with postoperative PSA relapse can undergo salvage treatment by prostate bed radiotherapy, but durable PSA control is maintained only in about one-third of the patients. Despite a high biochemical failure rate after SRT, prostate cancer-specific survival does not decrease rapidly.

  13. Functional and Antigen-Specific Serum Antibody Levels as Correlates of Protection against Shigellosis in a Controlled Human Challenge Study

    PubMed Central

    Shimanovich, Avital A.; Buskirk, Amanda D.; Heine, Shannon J.; Blackwelder, William C.; Wahid, Rezwanul; Kotloff, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shigella is an important cause of diarrheal disease in young children living in developing countries. No approved vaccines are available, and the development of vaccine candidates has been hindered by the lack of firm immunological correlates of protection, among other reasons. To address this gap in knowledge, we established quantitative assays to measure Shigella-specific serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and opsonophagocytic killing antibody (OPKA) activities and investigated their potential association with protection against disease in humans. SBA, OPKA, and Ipa-, VirG (IscA)-, and Shigella flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide-specific serum IgG titers were determined in adult volunteers who received Shigella vaccine candidate EcSf2a-2 and in unvaccinated controls, all of whom were challenged with virulent Shigella flexneri 2a. Prechallenge antibody titers were compared with disease severity after challenge. SBA and OPKA, as well as IpaB- and VirG-specific IgG, significantly correlated with reduced illness. SBA and OPKA assays were also used to evaluate the immunogenicity of leading live attenuated vaccine candidates Shigella CVD 1204 and CVD 1208S in humans. A single oral immunization with CVD 1204 or CVD 1208S resulted in SBA seroconversion rates of 71% and 47% and OPKA seroconversion rates of 57% and 35%, respectively. Higher functional antibody responses were induced by CVD 1204, which is consistent with its lower attenuation. This is the first demonstration of SBA, OPKA, and IpaB- and VirG-specific IgG levels as potential serological correlates of protection against shigellosis in humans. These results warrant further studies to establish their capacity to predict protective immunity and vaccine efficacy. PMID:27927680

  14. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  15. A Specific miRNA Signature Correlates With Complete Pathological Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Della Vittoria Scarpati, Giuseppina; Falcetta, Francesca; Carlomagno, Chiara; Ubezio, Paolo; Marchini, Sergio; De Stefano, Alfonso; Singh, Vijay Kumar; D'Incalci, Maurizio; De Placido, Sabino; Pepe, Stefano

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that can be down- or upregulated in colorectal cancer and have been associated to prognosis and response to treatment. We studied miRNA expression in tumor biopsies of patients with rectal cancer to identify a specific 'signature' correlating with pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 38 T3-4/N+ rectal cancer patients received capecitabine-oxaliplatin and radiotherapy followed by surgery. Pathologic response was scored according to the Mandard TRG scale. MiRNA expression was analyzed by microarray and confirmed by real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) on frozen biopsies obtained before treatment. The correlation between miRNA expression and TRG, coded as TRG1 (pCR) vs. TRG >1 (no pCR), was assessed by methods specifically designed for this study. Results: Microarray analysis selected 14 miRNAs as being differentially expressed in TRG1 patients, and 13 were confirmed by qRT-PCR: 11 miRNAs (miR-1183, miR-483-5p, miR-622, miR-125a-3p, miR-1224-5p, miR-188-5p, miR-1471, miR-671-5p, miR-1909 Asterisk-Operator , miR-630, miR-765) were significantly upregulated in TRG1 patients, 2 (miR-1274b, miR-720) were downexpressed. MiR-622 and miR-630 had a 100% sensitivity and specificity in selecting TRG1 cases. Conclusions: A set of 13 miRNAs is strongly associated with pCR and may represent a specific predictor of response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer patients.

  16. Levels of specific polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in fatty foods from five Canadian cities between 1986 and 1988.

    PubMed

    Mes, J; Newsome, W H; Conacher, H B

    1991-01-01

    A total of 155 fatty food composites from five major Canadian cities were analysed for 36 selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Total PCB congener levels of more than 1 ng/g (wet weight) were found in fresh water fish, canned fish, butter, marine fish and cheese, with fresh water fish (18.7 ng/g) containing 5 to 10 times more total PCBs than the other four food commodities. Milk (2%), cooking oils/salads and canned meat soup contained less than 0.1 ng/g (wet weight). The observed total PCB residue levels in fatty foods were well within the Canadian guidelines for fish, dairy products, poultry, eggs and beef. The most predominant congeners found in fish, butter, cheese, meat and poultry were the 2,2',4,4',5-, 2,3',4,4', 5-pentachloro-, 2,2',3,4,4',5'-, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachloro- and 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyls. The predominant congener pattern was not always evident in other dairy products (e.g. ice cream) and processed foods (e.g. canned meat soup). An attempt was made to relate the intake of PCB congeners from fatty foods with congener levels found in adipose tissue of Canadians. The estimated daily intake of some specific PCB congeners from fatty foods, in most cases accounted for more than half the total deposit of these congeners in adipose tissue of Canadians.

  17. Endochondral ossification pathway genes and postmenopausal osteoporosis: Association and specific allele related serum bone sialoprotein levels in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Tianxiao; Zhang, Bo; Li, Lu; Chen, Gang; Fu, Dongke; Wang, KunZheng

    2015-11-16

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and disrupted bone architecture, predisposing the patient to increased fracture risk. Evidence from early genetic epidemiological studies has indicated a major role for genetics in the development of osteoporosis and the variation in BMD. In this study, we focused on two key genes in the endochondral ossification pathway, IBSP and PTHLH. Over 9,000 postmenopausal Han Chinese women were recruited, and 54 SNPs were genotyped. Two significant SNPs within IBSP, rs1054627 and rs17013181, were associated with BMD and postmenopausal osteoporosis by the two-stage strategy, and rs17013181 was also significantly associated with serum IBSP levels. Moreover, one haplotype (rs12425376-rs10843047-rs42294) covering the 5' end of PTHLH was associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our results provide evidence for the association of these two key endochondral ossification pathway genes with BMD and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women. Combined with previous findings, we provide evidence that a particular SNP in IBSP has an allele-specific effect on mRNA levels, which would, in turn, reflect serum IBSP levels.

  18. Precision Medicine Approach to Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Advances in Targeted Drug Therapy Based on Specific Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Hilda; Fallah, Parviz; Naderi Sohi, Alireza; Tavakoli, Rezvan; Naderi, Mahmood; Soleimani, Masoud; Larijani, Bagher; Haghpanah, Vahid

    2017-03-01

    Personalized medicine is a set of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches in which medical interventions are carried out based on individual patient characteristics. As life expectancy increases in developed and developing countries, the incidence of diseases such as cancer goes up among people in the community. Cancer is a disease that the response to treatment varies from one person to another and also it is costly for individuals, families, and society. Among thyroid cancers, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive, lethal and unresponsive form of the disease. Unfortunately, current drugs are not targetable, and therefore they have restricted role in ATC treatment. Consequently, mortality of this cancer, despite advances in the field of diagnosis and treatment, is one of the most important challenges in medicine. Cellular, molecular and genetic evidences play an important role in finding more effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Review of these evidences confirms the application of personalized medicine in cancer treatment including ATC. A growing body of evidence has elucidated that cellular and molecular mechanisms of cancer would pave the way for defining new biomarkers for targeted therapy, taking into account individual differences. It should be noted that this approach requires further progress in the fields of basic sciences, pharmacogenetics and drug design. An overview of the most important aspects in individualized anaplastic thyroid cancer treatment will be discussed in this review.

  19. Plasma Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and d-Dopachrome Tautomerase Show a Highly Specific Profile in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Thierry; Schlapbach, Luregn J.; Schneider, Anina; Weier, Manuela; Wellmann, Sven; Marquis, Patrick; Vermijlen, David; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Calandra, Thierry; Giannoni, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic, constitutively expressed, pro-inflammatory cytokine and an important regulator of immune responses. d-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), a newly described member of the MIF protein superfamily, shares sequence homology and biological activities with MIF. We recently reported that high expression levels of MIF sustain innate immune responses in newborns. Here, we elected to further characterize age-dependent MIF expression and to define whether DDT shares a similar expression profile with MIF. Therefore, we delineated the circulating concentrations of MIF and DDT throughout life using a large cohort of 307 subjects including fetuses, newborns, infants, children, and adults. Compared to levels measured in healthy adults (median: 5.7 ng/ml for MIF and 16.8 ng/ml for DDT), MIF and DDT plasma concentrations were higher in fetuses (median: 48.9 and 29.6 ng/ml), increased further at birth (median: 82.6 and 52.0 ng/ml), reached strikingly elevated levels on postnatal day 4 (median: 109.5 and 121.6 ng/ml), and decreased to adult levels during the first months of life. A strong correlation was observed between MIF and DDT concentrations in all age groups (R = 0.91, P < 0.0001). MIF and DDT levels correlated with concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor, a protein upregulated under low oxygen tension and implicated in vascular and lung development (R = 0.70, P < 0.0001 for MIF and R = 0.65, P < 0.0001 for DDT). In very preterm infants, lower levels of MIF and DDT on postnatal day 6 were associated with an increased risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia and late-onset neonatal sepsis. Thus, MIF and DDT plasma levels show a highly specific developmental profile in early life, supporting an important role for these cytokines during the neonatal period. PMID:28179905

  20. Thermal dosimetry analysis combined with patient-specific thermal modeling of clinical interstitial ultrasound hyperthermia integrated within HDR brachytherapy for treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Wootton, Jeff; Prakash, Punit; Scott, Serena; Hsu, I. C.; Diederich, Chris J.

    2017-03-01

    This study presents thermal dosimetry analysis from clinical treatments where ultrasound hyperthermia (HT) was administered following high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment for locally advanced prostate cancer as part of a clinical pilot study. HT was administered using ultrasound applicators from within multiple 13-g brachytherapy catheters implanted along the posterior periphery of the prostate. The heating applicators were linear arrays of sectored tubular transducers (˜7 MHz), with independently powered array elements enabling energy deposition with 3D spatial control. Typical heat treatments employed time-averaged peak acoustic intensities of 1 - 3 W/cm2 and lasted for 60 - 70 minutes. Throughout the treatments, temperatures at multiple points were monitored using multi-junction thermocouples, placed within available brachytherapy catheters throughout mid-gland prostate and identified as the hyperthermia target volume (HTV). Clinical constraints allowed placement of 8 - 12 thermocouple sensors in the HTV and patient-specific 3D thermal modeling based on finite element methods (FEM) was used to supplement limited thermometry. Patient anatomy, heating device positions, orientations, and thermometry junction locations were obtained from patient CT scans and HDR and hyperthermia planning software. The numerical models utilized the applied power levels recorded during the treatments. Tissue properties such as perfusion and acoustic absorption were varied within physiological ranges such that squared-errors between measured and simulated temperatures were minimized. This data-fitting was utilized for 6 HT treatments to estimate volumetric temperature distributions achieved in the HTV and surrounding anatomy devoid of thermocouples. For these treatments, the measured and simulated T50 values in the hyperthermia target volume (HTV) were between 40.1 - 43.9 °C and 40.3 - 44.9 °C, respectively. Maximum temperatures between 46.8 - 49.8 °C were measured during

  1. An advanced approach for the generation of complex cellular material representative volume elements using distance fields and level sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonon, B.; François, B.; Massart, T. J.

    2015-08-01

    A general and widely tunable method for the generation of representative volume elements for cellular materials based on distance and level set functions is presented. The approach is based on random tessellations constructed from random inclusion packings. A general methodology to obtain arbitrary-shaped tessellations to produce disordered foams is presented and illustrated. These tessellations can degenerate either in classical Voronoï tessellations potentially additively weighted depending on properties of the initial inclusion packing used, or in Laguerre tessellations through a simple modification of the formulation. A versatile approach to control the particular morphology of the obtained foam is introduced. Specific local features such as concave triangular Plateau borders and non-constant thickness heterogeneous coatings can be built from the tessellation in a straightforward way and are tuned by a small set of parameters with a clear morphological interpretation.

  2. Endocavity Ultrasound Hyperthermia for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Patient-specific Modeling, Experimental Verification, and Combination with HDR Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, Jeffery; Diederich, Chris; Chen Xin; Prakash, Punit; Juang, Titania

    2010-03-09

    The feasibility of targeted hyperthermia delivery by an intrauterine ultrasound applicator to patient-specific treatment volumes in conjunction with HDR brachytherapy was investigated using theory and experiment. 30 HDR brachytherapy treatment plans were inspected to define hyperthermia treatment volumes (HTVs) based on tumor and radiation target volumes. Several typical cases were imported into a patient-specific treatment planning platform that optimized acoustic output power from an endocavity multisectored tubular array to conform temperature and thermal dose to HTVs. Perfusion was within a clinical range of 0.5-3 kg m{sup -3} s{sup -1}. Applicators were constructed with 1-3 elements at 6.5-8 MHz with 90 deg. -360 deg. sectoring and 25-35 mm heating length housed in a water-cooled PET catheter. Acoustic output was compared to heating in ex vivo tissue assessed with implanted thermometry. Radiation attenuation through the device was measured in an ionization chamber. The HTV extends 2-4 cm in diameter and 2-4 cm in length. The bladder and rectum can be within 10-12 mm. HTV targets can be covered with temperature clouds >41 deg. and thermal dose t{sup 43}>5 min with 45 deg. C maximum temperature and rectal temperature <41.5 deg. C. Sectored applicators preferentially direct energy laterally into the parametrium to limit heating of rectum and bladder. Interstitial brachytherapy catheters within the HTV could be used for thermal feedback during HT treatment. Temperature distributions in phantom show preferential heating within sectors and align well with acoustic output. Heating control along the device length and in angle is evident. A 4-6% reduction in radiation transmission through the transducers was observed, which could likely be compensated for in planning. Patient-specific modeling and experimental heating demonstrated 3-D conformal heating capabilities of endocavity ultrasound applicators.

  3. Age-specific mortality among advanced-age Chinese citizens and its difference between the two genders.

    PubMed

    Gan, J; Zheng, Z; Li, G

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the patterns of age-specific mortality among the elderly in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census. The age groups ending in zero were validated with the Weber Index and found to be of good quality among those aged under 97 years. Differences were found between censuses and genders. The data for the aged were adjusted with 2-year moving averages in order to smooth the data. The end age of interval mortality is used. Tables provide single years of age between 60 years and 104 years by sex for the actual number and the adjusted number of each census year: 1953, 1964, 1982, and 1990. The pattern of change in age specific mortality rates (ASMRs) was similar in all census years. Mortality rates were highest among infants aged under 1 year, declined with increased age, and were lowest among 10 year olds. Mortality rose gradually after 10 years and sharply after 40-50 years. ASMRs were "U" shaped. Age-specific interval mortality rates among the elderly show that mortality increased drastically as it approached 90 years of age and then grew more slowly or declined. The Gompers rule about exponential increases among the extremely old (over 90 years) does not apply. Male mortality was higher than female mortality until the very old ages, which showed lower male mortality. The ratio declined with rising age until the two genders were equal. Mortality rose to a point and then declined to a lesser extent. The peak was 93 years in 1953, with a sex ratio (SR) of 32.48; 90 years in 1964, with an SR of 35.22; 93 years in 1982, with an SR of 35.96; and 95 years in 1990, with an SR of 32.94.

  4. Beneficial effects of cinnamon proanthocyanidins on the formation of specific advanced glycation endproducts and methylglyoxal-induced impairment on glucose consumption.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaofang; Ma, Jinyu; Chao, Jianfei; Sun, Zheng; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Tse, Iris; Li, Edmund T S; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu

    2010-06-09

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds formed from nonenzymatic reactions. The accumulation of AGEs in vivo has been implicated as a major pathogenic process in diabetic complications and other health disorders, such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and normal aging. In this study, we investigate the inhibitory effects of cinnamon bark proanthocyanidins, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 on the formation of specific AGE representatives including pentosidine, N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and methylglyoxal (MGO) derived AGEs. These compounds displayed obvious inhibitory effects on these specific AGEs, which are largely attributed to both their antioxidant activities and carbonyl scavenging capacities. Meanwhile, in terms of their potent MGO scavenging capacities, effects of these proanthocyanidins on insulin signaling pathways interfered by MGO were evaluated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. According to the results, proanthocyanidins exerted protective effects on glucose consumption impaired by MGO in 3T3-L1 fat cells.

  5. Host Range Restriction of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses Occurs at Several Levels of the Viral Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Junglen, Sandra; Korries, Marvin; Grasse, Wolfgang; Wieseler, Janett; Kopp, Anne; Hermanns, Kyra; León-Juárez, Moises; Drosten, Christian; Kümmerer, Beate Mareike

    2017-01-01

    The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome functions could generate knowledge critical to predicting arbovirus emergence. Here we isolated a novel flavivirus, termed Niénokoué virus (NIEV), from mosquitoes sampled in Côte d'Ivoire. NIEV groups with insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) in phylogeny and grows in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. We generated an infectious NIEV cDNA clone and a NIEV reporter replicon to study growth restrictions of NIEV in comparison to yellow fever virus (YFV), for which the same tools are available. Efficient RNA replication of the NIEV reporter replicon was observed in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. Initial translation of the input replicon RNA in vertebrate cells was functional, but RNA replication did not occur. Chimeric YFV carrying the envelope proteins of NIEV was recovered via electroporation in C6/36 insect cells but did not infect vertebrate cells, indicating a block at the level of entry. Since the YF/NIEV chimera readily produced infectious particles in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells despite efficient RNA replication, restriction is also determined at the level of assembly/release. Taking the results together, the ability of ISF to infect vertebrates is blocked at several levels, including attachment/entry and RNA replication as well as assembly/release. IMPORTANCE Most viruses of the genus Flavivirus, e.g., YFV and dengue virus, are mosquito borne and transmitted to vertebrates during blood feeding of mosquitoes. Within the last decade, an increasing number

  6. Host Range Restriction of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses Occurs at Several Levels of the Viral Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Junglen, Sandra; Korries, Marvin; Grasse, Wolfgang; Wieseler, Janett; Kopp, Anne; Hermanns, Kyra; León-Juárez, Moises; Drosten, Christian

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome functions could generate knowledge critical to predicting arbovirus emergence. Here we isolated a novel flavivirus, termed Niénokoué virus (NIEV), from mosquitoes sampled in Côte d’Ivoire. NIEV groups with insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) in phylogeny and grows in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. We generated an infectious NIEV cDNA clone and a NIEV reporter replicon to study growth restrictions of NIEV in comparison to yellow fever virus (YFV), for which the same tools are available. Efficient RNA replication of the NIEV reporter replicon was observed in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. Initial translation of the input replicon RNA in vertebrate cells was functional, but RNA replication did not occur. Chimeric YFV carrying the envelope proteins of NIEV was recovered via electroporation in C6/36 insect cells but did not infect vertebrate cells, indicating a block at the level of entry. Since the YF/NIEV chimera readily produced infectious particles in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells despite efficient RNA replication, restriction is also determined at the level of assembly/release. Taking the results together, the ability of ISF to infect vertebrates is blocked at several levels, including attachment/entry and RNA replication as well as assembly/release. IMPORTANCE Most viruses of the genus Flavivirus, e.g., YFV and dengue virus, are mosquito borne and transmitted to vertebrates during blood feeding of mosquitoes. Within the last decade, an

  7. A better confidence interval for the sensitivity at a fixed level of specificity for diagnostic tests with continuous endpoints.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guogen

    2017-02-01

    For a diagnostic test with continuous measurement, it is often important to construct confidence intervals for the sensitivity at a fixed level of specificity. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals were shown to have good performance as compared to others, and the one by Zhou and Qin (2005) was recommended as the best existing confidence interval, named the BTII interval. We propose two new confidence intervals based on the profile variance method and conduct extensive simulation studies to compare the proposed intervals and the BTII intervals under a wide range of conditions. An example from a medical study on severe head trauma is used to illustrate application of the new intervals. The new proposed intervals generally have better performance than the BTII interval.

  8. Predicting homophobic behavior among heterosexual youth: domain general and sexual orientation-specific factors at the individual and contextual level.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Scheer, Jillian R

    2013-03-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual orientation identity importance, number of sexual minority friends, parents' sexual minority attitudes, media messages). We documented support for a model in which these sets of factors converged to predict homophobic behavior, mediated through bullying and prejudice, among 581 students in grades 9-12 (55 % female). The structural equation model indicated that, with the exception of media messages, these additional factors predicted levels of prejudice and bullying, which in turn predicted the likelihood of students to engage in homophobic behavior. These findings highlight the importance of addressing multiple interrelated factors in efforts to reduce bullying, prejudice, and discrimination among youth.

  9. A screening level fate model of organic contaminants from advanced water treatment in a potable water supply reservoir.

    PubMed

    Hawker, Darryl W; Cumming, Janet L; Neale, Peta A; Bartkow, Michael E; Escher, Beate I

    2011-01-01

    Augmentation of potable water sources by planned indirect potable reuse of wastewater is being widely considered to address growing water shortages. Environmental buffers such as lakes and dams may act as one of a series of barriers to potable water contamination stemming from micropollutants in wastewater. In South-East Queensland, Australia, current government policy is to begin indirect potable reuse of water from reverse osmosis equipped advanced water treatment plants (AWTPs) when the combined capacity of its major storages is at 40% capacity. A total of 15 organic contaminants including NDMA and bisphenol A have been publically reported as detected in recycled water from one of South-East Queensland's AWTPs, while another 98 chemicals were analysed for, but found to be below their detection limit. To assess the natural attenuation in Lake Wivenhoe, a Level III fugacity based evaluative fate model was constructed using the maximum concentrations of these contaminants detected as input data. A parallel aquivalence based model was constructed for those contaminants, such as dichloroacetic acid, dalapon and triclopyr, which are ionised in the environment of Lake Wivenhoe. A total of 247 organic chemicals of interest, including disinfection by-products, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, xenoestrogens and industrial chemicals, were evaluated with the model to assess their potential for natural attenuation. Out of the 15 detected chemicals, trihalomethanes are expected to volatilise with concentrations in the outflow from the dam approximately 400 times lower than influent from the AWTPs. Transformation processes in water are likely to be more significant for NDMA and pharmaceuticals such as salicylic acid and paracetamol as well as for caffeine and the herbicides dalapon and triclopyr. For hydrophobic contaminants such as cholesterol and phenolic xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol and bisphenol A, equilibrium between water

  10. Electrokinetic treatment of polluted soil at pilot level coupled to an advanced oxidation process of its wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, B.; Ramos, L.; Garibay, A.; Pérez-Corona, M.; Cuevas, M. C.; Cárdenas, J.; Teutli, M.; Bustos, E.

    2016-02-01

    Soil contaminated with hydrocarbons is a current problem of great importance. These contaminants may be toxic, can retain water and block gas exchange with the atmosphere, which produces a poor-quality soil unsuitable for ecological health. Electroremediation is among the treatments for the removal of such contaminants. In this research, a pilot-level electroremediation test was applied using a circular arrangement of electrodes with a Ti cathode at the middle of the cell surrounded by six IrO2-Ta2O5 | Ti anodes. The presence of an NaOH electrolyte helps to develop the electromigration and electro-osmosis of gasoline molecules (at 1126 mg kg-1) surrounded by Na+ ions. The hydrocarbons are directed towards the cathode and subsequently removed in an aqueous Na+ - hydrocarbon solution, and the -OH migrates to the anode. During electrokinetic treatment, the physicochemical characteristics of the soil close to either the cathode or anode and at the half-cell were evaluated during the three weeks of treatment. During that time, more than 80% of hydrocarbons were removed. Hydrocarbons removed by the electrokinetic treatment of gasoline-polluted soil were collected in a central wastewater compartment and subsequently treated with a Fenton-type advanced oxidation process. This achieved more than 70% mineralization of the hydrocarbons to CO2 and H2O within 1.5 h; its low toxicity status was verified using the Deltatox® kit test. With this approach, the residual water complied with the permissible limits of COD, pH, and electrical conductivity for being discharged into water bodies, according to Mexican norm NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996.

  11. Opium consumption is negatively associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, and percentage of free PSA levels.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Alireza; Shekarchi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to opium continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. The study addressing the association between opium consumption and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is lacking. We determined the effects of opium consumption on serum PSA levels in opium-addict men. Our study subjects comprised 438 opium-addict men with a mean age of 52.2 ± 6.4 years (group 1). We compared these men with 446 men who did not indicate current or past opium use (group 2). Serum total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), % fPSA, and sex hormones were compared between the 2 groups. The mean serum tPSA level was significantly lower in group 1 (1.05 ng/mL) than in controls (1.45 ng/mL) (P = 0.001). Opium consumption was also associated with lower fPSA (P = 0.001) and % fPSA (P = 0.001). Serum free testosterone level in opium-addict patients (132.5 ± 42 pg/mL) was significantly lower than that in controls (156.2 ± 43 pg/mL) (P = 0.03). However, no significant correlation existed between tPSA and free testosterone levels (r = 0.28, 95% CI, -0.036 to 0.51, P = 0.34). Among the patients with cancer in group 1, 35% were found to have high-grade tumor (Gleason score ≥ 7) compared with 26.7% in group 2 (P = 0.02). Total PSA and fPSA were strongly correlated with duration of opium use (r = -0.06, 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.08, P = 0.0001; and r = -0.05, 95% CI, -0.03 to -0.07, P = 0.0001, respectively). Opium consumption is independently and negatively associated with serum tPSA, fPSA, and % fPSA levels.

  12. Site-Specific Recombination-Based Genetic System for Reporting Transient or Low-Level Gene Expression†

    PubMed Central

    Casavant, N. Carol; Beattie, Gwyn A.; Phillips, Gregory J.; Halverson, Larry J.

    2002-01-01

    We report here the construction, characterization, and application of a plasmid-based genetic system that reports the expression of a target promoter by effecting an irreversible, heritable change in a bacterial cell. This system confers strong repression of the reporter gene gfp in the absence of target promoter expression and utilizes the site-specific recombination machinery of bacteriophage P22 to trigger high-level reporter gene expression in the original cell and its progeny after target gene induction. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this genetic system by tailoring it to indicate the availability of arabinose to the biological control agent Enterobacter cloacae JL1157 in culture and in the barley rhizosphere. The presence of bioavailable arabinose triggered the production of P22 excisionase and integrase from the reporter plasmid pAraLHB in JL1157, and this led to excision of the cI repressor gene, which is flanked by att sites, and the subsequent irreversible expression of gfp in the original cell and in its progeny. In culture, nearly 100% of an E. cloacae JL1157(pAraLHB) population expressed gfp after exposure to 6.5 to 65 μM arabinose for 3 h. We used this biosensor to demonstrate that arabinose was released from the seeds of several legumes and grass species during germination and from roots of barley seedlings grown hydroponically or in soil. When introduced into microcosms containing barley, the biosensor permitted the localization of arabinose along the roots. Arabinose was present near the root-seed junction and on the seminal roots but was not detected at the root tips. This recombination-based reporter system should be useful for monitoring bacterial exposure to transient or low levels of specific molecules directly in the environment. PMID:12089047

  13. Specific changes in total and mitochondrial proteomes are associated with higher levels of heterosis in maize hybrids.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Diwakar; Mooney, Brian P; Newton, Kathleen J

    2012-10-01

    The phenomenon of hybrid vigor (heterosis) has long been harnessed by plant breeders to improve world food production. However, the changes that are essential for heterotic responses and the mechanisms responsible for heterosis remain undefined. Large increases in biomass and yield in high-heterosis hybrids suggest that alterations in bioenergetic processes may contribute to heterosis. Progeny from crosses between various inbred lines vary in the extent of vigor observed. Field-grown maize F₁ hybrids that consistently exhibited either low or high heterosis across a variety of environments were examined for changes in proteins that may be correlated with increased plant vigor and yield. Unpollinated ears at the time of flowering (ear shoots) were selected for the studies because they are metabolically active, rich in mitochondria, and the sizes of the ears are diagnostic of yield heterosis. Total protein and mitochondrial proteomes were compared among low- and higher-heterosis hybrids. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis was used to identify allelic and/or isoform differences linked to heterosis. Identification of differentially regulated spots by mass spectrometry revealed proteins involved in stress responses as well as primary carbon and protein metabolism. Many of these proteins were identified in multiple spots, but analysis of their abundances by label-free mass spectrometry suggested that most of the expression differences were due to isoform variation rather than overall protein amount. Thus, our proteomics studies suggest that expression of specific alleles and/or post-translational modification of specific proteins correlate with higher levels of heterosis.

  14. mRNA and Protein levels of rat pancreas specific protein disulphide isomerase are downregulated during Hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajani; Bhar, Kaushik; Sen, Nandini; Bhowmick, Debajit; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Panda, Koustubh; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes (Type I and Type II) which affects nearly every organ in the body is a multi-factorial non-communicable disorder. Hyperglycemia is the most characteristic feature of this disease. Loss of beta cells is common in both types of diabetes whose detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. As this disease is complex, identification of specific biomarkers for its early detection, management and devising new therapies is challenging. Based on the fact that functionally defective proteins provide the biochemical basis for many diseases, in this study, we tried to identify differentially expressed proteins during hyperglycemia. For that, hyperglycemia was induced in overnight fasted rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The pancreas was isolated from control and treated rats for subsequent analyses. The 2D-gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-MS-MS analyses revealed several up- and down-regulated proteins in hyperglycemic rat pancreas including the downregulation of a pancreas specific isoform of protein disulphide isomerase a2 (Pdia2).This observation was validated by western blot. Quantitative PCR experiments showed that the level of Pdia2 mRNA is also proportionally reduced in hyperglycemic pancreas.

  15. Ethylene Glycol Intercalated Cobalt/Nickel Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheet Assemblies with Ultrahigh Specific Capacitance: Structural Design and Green Synthesis for Advanced Electrochemical Storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Zhang, Xiong; Xu, Zhongtang; Sun, Xianzhong; Ma, Yanwei

    2015-09-09

    Because of the rapid depletion of fossil fuels and severe environmental pollution, more advanced energy-storage systems need to possess dramatically improved performance and be produced on a large scale with high efficiency while maintaining low-enough costs to ensure the higher and wider requirements. A facile, energy-saving process was successfully adopted for the synthesis of ethylene glycol intercalated cobalt/nickel layered double hydroxide (EG-Co/Ni LDH) nanosheet assembly variants with higher interlayer distance and tunable transitional-metal composition. At an optimized starting Co/Ni ratio of 1, the nanosheet assemblies display a three-dimensional, spongelike network, affording a high specific surface area with advantageous mesopore structure in 2-5 nm containing large numbers of about 1.2 nm micropores for promoting electrochemical reaction. An unprecedented electrochemical performance was achieved, with a specific capacitance of 4160 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1) and of 1313 F g(-1) even at 50 A g(-1), as well as excellent cycling ability. The design and optimization of EG-Co/Ni LDH nanosheets in compositions, structures, and performances, in conjunction with the easy and relatively "green" synthetic process, will play a pivotal role in meeting the needs of large-scale manufacture and widespread application for advanced electrochemical storage.

  16. Serum Level of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Is Associated with A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 10 in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alan C. H.; Lam, Joanne K. Y.; Shiu, Sammy W. M.; Wong, Ying; Betteridge, D. John; Tan, Kathryn C. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and soluble forms of the receptor (sRAGE) can counteract the detrimental action of the full-length receptor by acting as decoy. Soluble RAGE is produced by alternative splicing [endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE)] and/or by proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound receptor. We have investigated the role of A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) in the ectodomain shedding of RAGE. Methods Constitutive and insulin-induced shedding of RAGE in THP-1 macrophages by ADAM10 was evaluated using an ADAM10-specific metalloproteinase inhibitor. Serum ADAM10 level was measured in type 1 diabetes and control subjects, and the association with serum soluble RAGE was determined. Serum total sRAGE and esRAGE were assayed by ELISA and the difference between total sRAGE and esRAGE gave an estimated measure of soluble RAGE formed by cleavage (cRAGE). Results RAGE shedding (constitutive and insulin-induced) was significantly reduced after inhibition of ADAM10 in macrophages, and insulin stimulated ADAM10 expression and activity. Diabetic subjects have higher serum total sRAGE and esRAGE (p<0.01) than controls, and serum ADAM10 was also increased (p<0.01). Serum ADAM10 correlated with serum cRAGE in type 1 diabetes (r = 0.40, p<0.01) and in controls (r = 0.31. p<0.01) but no correlations were seen with esRAGE. The association remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, smoking status and HbA1c. Conclusion Our data suggested that ADAM10 contributed to the shedding of RAGE. Serum ADAM10 level was increased in type 1 diabetes and was a significant determinant of circulating cRAGE. PMID:26325204

  17. Operational specification and forecasting advances for Dst, LEO thermospheric densities, and aviation radiation dose and dose rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W.; Knipp, D. J.; Burke, W. J.; Bouwer, D.; Bailey, J. J.; Hagan, M. P.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Garrett, H. B.; Bowman, B. R.; Gannon, J. L.; Atwell, W.; Blake, J. B.; Crain, W.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R. W.; Fulgham, J.; Bell, D.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Fuschino, R.; Flynn, C.; Cecil, K.; Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Crowley, G.; Reynolds, A.; Azeem, S. I.; Wiley, S.; Holland, M.; Malone, K.

    2013-12-01

    . Many of the data products from MAPS, LAPS, and ARMAS are available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, iPad, iPod, and Android professional users and public space weather education. We describe recent forecasting advances for moving the space weather information from these automated systems into operational, derivative products for communications, aviation, and satellite operations uses.

  18. Operational specification and forecasting advances for Dst, LEO thermospheric densities, and aviation radiation dose and dose rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    smart phone apps. ARMAS provides the “weather” of the radiation environment to improve air-crew and passenger safety. Many of the data products from MAPS, LAPS, and ARMAS are available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, iPad, iPod, and Android professional users and public space weather education. We describe recent forecasting advances for moving the space weather information from these automated systems into operational, derivative products for communications, aviation, and satellite operations uses.

  19. Engaging, Retaining, and Advancing African Americans in Executive-Level Positions: A Descriptive and Trend Analysis of Academic Administrators in Higher and Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.

    2004-01-01

    In spite of repeated considerations and positive action to engage, retain and advance African Americans in executive positions, there are only a few African Americans in executive level administration posts in colleges and universities. An analysis of the status of African Americans in higher and post secondary education shows that legislation…

  20. Incorporating a Comprehensive Drama Unit including a Theatre of the Absurd Component within the Advanced Placement English Program for Senior Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konaxis, Antoinette

    This practicum was designed to increase the experiences in the genre of world drama, to further develop student understanding of its evolution and impact on subsequently created drama, and to proffer a diverse collection of drama for senior level students pursuing the Advanced Placement (AP) English literature program. A comprehensive curriculum,…

  1. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) METOP Stress Analysis Report (Qual Level Random Vibration) A1 Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehitretter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis of the primary structure of the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) Advanced Microwave Sounding Units-A, A1 Module performed using the Meteorological Operational (METOP) Qualification Level 9.66 grms Random Vibration PSD Spectrum is presented. The random vibration structural margins of safety and natural frequency predictions are summarized.

  2. Modes of Governmentality in an Online Space: A Case Study of Blog Activities in an Advanced Level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko M.; Sato, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the validity of the incorporation of online communication in language education classes as a practice free of power politics. By examining blog activities in an advanced-level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom at a university in the USA, we show that the blog's postings and readers' comments evoke certain modes of…

  3. Specific Pathogen Free Macaque Colonies: A Review of Principles and Recent Advances for Viral Testing and Colony Management

    PubMed Central

    Yee, JoAnn L.; Vandeford, Thomas H.; Didier, Elizabeth S.; Gray, Stanton; Lewis, Anne; Roberts, Jeffrey; Taylor, Kerry; Bohm, Rudolf P.

    2016-01-01

    Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) macaques provide valuable animal models for biomedical research. In 1989 the National Center for Research Resources (now Office of Research Infrastructure Programs ORIP) of the National Institutes of Health initiated experimental research contracts to establish and maintain SPF colonies. The derivation and maintenance of SPF macaque colonies is a complex undertaking requiring knowledge of the biology of the agents for exclusion and normal physiology and behavior of macaques, application of the latest diagnostic technology, facilities management, and animal husbandry. This review provides information on the biology of the four viral agents targeted for exclusion in ORIP SPF macaque colonies, describes current state-of-the-art viral diagnostic algorithms, presents data from proficiency testing of diagnostic assays between laboratories at institutions participating in the ORIP SPF program, and outlines management strategies for maintaining the integrity of SPF colonies using results of diagnostic testing as a guide to decision making. PMID:26932456

  4. Unique Inflammatory Mediators and Specific IgE Levels Distinguish Local from Systemic Reactions after Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Lori; Smith, Kenneth; Muns, Emily E.; Velte, Cathy A.; Spooner, Christina E.; Munroe, Melissa E.; Farris, A. Darise; Nelson, Michael R.; Engler, Renata J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) has an adverse event (AE) profile similar to those of other adult vaccines, 30 to 70% of queried AVA vaccinees report AEs. AEs appear to be correlated with certain demographic factors, but the underlying immunologic pathways are poorly understood. We evaluated a cohort of 2,421 AVA vaccinees and found 153 (6.3%) reported an AE. Females were more likely to experience AEs (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 4.2 to 8.7]; P < 0.0001). Individuals 18 to 29 years of age were less likely to report an AE than individuals aged 30 years or older (OR = 0.31 [95% CI = 0.22 to 0.43]; P < 0.0001). No significant effects were observed for African, European, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian ancestry after correcting for age and sex. Additionally, 103 AEs were large local reactions (LLRs), whereas 53 AEs were systemic reactions (SRs). In a subset of our cohort vaccinated 2 to 12 months prior to plasma sample collection (n = 75), individuals with LLRs (n = 33) had higher protective-antigen (PA)-specific IgE levels than matched, unaffected vaccinated individuals (n = 50; P < 0.01). Anti-PA IgE was not associated with total plasma IgE, hepatitis B-specific IgE, or anti-PA IgG in individuals who reported an AE or in matched, unaffected AVA-vaccinated individuals. IP-10 was also elevated in sera of individuals who developed LLRs (P < 0.05). Individuals reporting SRs had higher levels of systemic inflammation as measured from C-reactive protein (P < 0.01). Thus, LLRs and SRs are mediated by distinct pathways. LLRs are associated with a vaccine-specific IgE response and IP-10, whereas SRs demonstrate increased systemic inflammation without a skewed cytokine profile. PMID:27280620

  5. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

  6. Genome-wide association study of prostate-specific antigen levels identifies novel loci independent of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Passarelli, Michael N.; Graff, Rebecca E.; Emami, Nima C.; Sakoda, Lori C.; Jorgenson, Eric; Habel, Laurel A.; Shan, Jun; Ranatunga, Dilrini K.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Chao, Chun R.; Ghai, Nirupa R.; Aaronson, David; Presti, Joseph; Nordström, Tobias; Wang, Zhaoming; Berndt, Sonja I.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Mosley, Jonathan D.; Klein, Robert J.; Middha, Mridu; Lilja, Hans; Melander, Olle; Kvale, Mark N.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Witte, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels have been used for detection and surveillance of prostate cancer (PCa). However, factors other than PCa—such as genetics—can impact PSA. Here we present findings from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PSA in 28,503 Kaiser Permanente whites and 17,428 men from replication cohorts. We detect 40 genome-wide significant (P<5 × 10−8) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): 19 novel, 15 previously identified for PSA (14 of which were also PCa-associated), and 6 previously identified for PCa only. Further analysis incorporating PCa cases suggests that at least half of the 40 SNPs are PSA-associated independent of PCa. The 40 SNPs explain 9.5% of PSA variation in non-Hispanic whites, and the remaining GWAS SNPs explain an additional 31.7%; this percentage is higher in younger men, supporting the genetic basis of PSA levels. These findings provide important information about genetic markers for PSA that may improve PCa screening, thereby reducing over-diagnosis and over-treatment. PMID:28139693

  7. Specific absorption rate levels measured in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog hand-held mobile phones

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, V.; Joyner, K.H.

    1995-05-01

    Electric fields (E-fields) induced within a phantom head from exposure to three different advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) hand-held telephones were measured using an implantable E-Field probe. Measurements were taken in the eye nearest the phone and along a lateral scan through the brain from its center to the side nearest the phone. During measurement, the phones were positioned alongside the phantom head as in typical use and were configured to transmit at maximum power (600 mW nominal). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated from the in situ E-field measurements, which varied significantly between phone models and antenna configuration. The SARs induced in the eye ranged from 0.007 to 0.21 W/kg. Metal-framed spectacles enhanced SAR levels in the eye by 9--29%. In the brain, maximum levels were recorded at the measurement point closest to the phone and ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 W/kg. These SARs are below peak spatial limits recommended in the US and Australian national standards and the IRPA guidelines for safe exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, a detailed thermal analysis of the eye indicated only a 0.022 C maximum steady-state temperature rise in the eye from a uniform SAR loading of 0.21 W/kg. A more approximate thermal analysis in the brain also indicated only a small maximum temperature rise of 0.034 C for a local SAR loading of 0.83 W/kg.

  8. Levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream smoke from different tobacco varieties.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan S; Zhang, Liqin; Jain, Ram B; Jain, Ntasha; Wang, Richard Y; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2008-12-01

    It has been estimated that one in every five cancer deaths worldwide are related to tobacco use. According to the IARC, 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 8 tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), as well as at least 45 other compounds or substances found in tobacco smoke, are potential human carcinogens. The levels of these carcinogens in contents of tobacco and smoke emissions vary between different tobacco products. We evaluated mainstream smoke emissions from cigarettes made with different types of tobacco to examine the relation between their deliveries of TSNAs and PAHs and any possible influence from tobacco nitrate content. To investigate the contribution of tobacco content to mainstream cigarette smoke deliveries without confounders such as filter design, filter ventilation, and paper porosity, we used custom-made, research-grade, unfiltered cigarettes that contained bright, burley, oriental, reconstituted, or mixtures of these tobaccos. Our findings confirm results from other researchers that tobacco type can influence the mainstream smoke delivery of nicotine, TSNAs, and PAHs. However, we found that the effect varies among individual compounds. In addition, we observed a statistically significant relationship between nitrate content and mainstream smoke 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); nitrate level also influenced the mainstream smoke deliveries of the summed total of the 10 PAHs identified by IARC as potential human carcinogens. The influence of nitrate on mainstream smoke NNK and PAH levels were of different magnitude and direction. Our results tend to indicate an inverse relation exists between NNK and PAH deliveries when considering different tobacco blends.

  9. An inorganic carbon transport system responsible for acclimation specific to air levels of CO2 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingjun; Spalding, Martin H

    2006-06-27

    Many photosynthetic microorganisms acclimate to CO(2) limited environments by induction and operation of CO(2)-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). Despite their central role in CCM function, inorganic carbon (Ci) transport systems never have been identified in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a mutant, pmp1, was described in 1983 with deficiencies in Ci transport, and a Pmp1 protein-associated Ci uptake system has been proposed to be responsible for Ci uptake in low CO(2) (air level)-acclimated cells. However, even though pmp1 represents the only clear genetic link to Ci transport in microalgae and is one of only a very few mutants directly affecting the CCM itself, the identity of Pmp1 has remained unknown. Physiological analyses indicate that C. reinhardtii possesses multiple Ci transport systems responsible for acclimation to different levels of limiting CO(2) and that the Pmp1-associated transport system is required specifically for low (air level) CO(2) acclimation. In the current study, we identified and characterized a pmp1 allelic mutant, air dier 1 (ad1) that, like pmp1, cannot grow in low CO(2) (350 ppm) but can grow either in high CO(2) (5% CO(2)) or in very low CO(2) (<200 ppm). Molecular analyses revealed that the Ad1/Pmp1 protein is encoded by LciB, a gene previously identified as a CO(2)-responsive gene. LciB and three related genes in C. reinhardtii compose a unique gene family that encode four closely related, apparently soluble plastid proteins with no clearly identifiable conserved motifs.

  10. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-01-01

    Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports. Key points The doping knowledge among Kosovar team-sport athletes is very low and systematic anti-doping education is urgently needed. The highest risk of doping behaviour in males is found for those athletes who had been

  11. The Impact of Intraclass Correlation on the Effectiveness of Level-Specific Fit Indices in Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling: A Monte Carlo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Jr-Hung; Kwok, Oi-Man; Acosta, Sandra; Willson, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Several researchers have recommended that level-specific fit indices should be applied to detect the lack of model fit at any level in multilevel structural equation models. Although we concur with their view, we note that these studies did not sufficiently consider the impact of intraclass correlation (ICC) on the performance of level-specific…

  12. Pharmacological Levels of Withaferin A (Withania somnifera) Trigger Clinically Relevant Anticancer Effects Specific to Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Op de Beeck, Ken; Ratman, Dariusz; Wouters, An; Beck, Ilse M.; Declerck, Ken; Heyninck, Karen; Fransen, Erik; Bracke, Marc; De Bosscher, Karolien; Lardon, Filip; Van Camp, Guy; Berghe, Wim Vanden

    2014-01-01

    Withaferin A (WA) isolated from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) has recently become an attractive phytochemical under investigation in various preclinical studies for treatment of different cancer types. In the present study, a comparative pathway-based transcriptome analysis was applied in epithelial-like MCF-7 and triple negative mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exposed to different concentrations of WA which can be detected systemically in in vivo experiments. Whereas WA treatment demonstrated attenuation of multiple cancer hallmarks, the withanolide analogue Withanone (WN) did not exert any of the described effects at comparable concentrations. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that WA targets specific cancer processes related to cell death, cell cycle and proliferation, which could be functionally validated by flow cytometry and real-time cell proliferation assays. WA also strongly decreased MDA-MB-231 invasion as determined by single-cell collagen invasion assay. This was further supported by decreased gene expression of extracellular matrix-degrading proteases (uPA, PLAT, ADAM8), cell adhesion molecules (integrins, laminins), pro-inflammatory mediators of the metastasis-promoting tumor microenvironment (TNFSF12, IL6, ANGPTL2, CSF1R) and concomitant increased expression of the validated breast cancer metastasis suppressor gene (BRMS1). In line with the transcriptional changes, nanomolar concentrations of WA significantly decreased protein levels and corresponding activity of uPA in MDA-MB-231 cell supernatant, further supporting its anti-metastatic properties. Finally, hierarchical clustering analysis of 84 chromatin writer-reader-eraser enzymes revealed that WA treatment of invasive mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 cells reprogrammed their transcription levels more similarly towards the pattern observed in non-invasive MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, taking into account that sub-cytotoxic concentrations of WA target multiple metastatic effectors in therapy

  13. Advanced quadrupole ion trap instrumentation for low level vehicle emissions measurements. CRADA final report for number ORNL93-0238

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Goeringer, D.E.; Dearth, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amenable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of sensitivity, specificity, speed, and flexibility with respect to the technical requirements of the top 15 analyzer.

  14. Levels and congener specific profiles of PBDEs in human breast milk from China: implication on exposure sources and pathways.

    PubMed

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Tsydenova, Oyuna V; Isobe, Tomohiko; Yu, Hongxia; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-11-01

    Fourteen PBDE congeners from mono- to deca-BDE were determined in breast milk of primiparous mothers from two locations in East China, i.e. Nanjing (n=9), an urban area, and Zhoushan (n=10), a semi rural coastal area. PBDEs were detected in all the human breast milk samples of the present study, indicating that general population in these two locations are widely exposed to these pollutants. Relatively higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in the milk of mothers from Nanjing than Zhoushan, suggesting the existence of significant sources of PBDEs in urban areas. PBDE levels in the present study were similar to those in European countries, but one or two orders of magnitude lower than in North America. Except for BDE-3, all congeners from di- to deca-BDE were detected in the samples of the present study. BDE-209, a congener considered to have less bioavailability, was detected in about 50% of the samples at concentrations higher than that of other congeners. Other higher brominated congeners, such as BDE-153, -197 and -207, were also prominent in the present study, which is different from the pattern generally observed in previous studies on human milk as well as biota samples. These results may indicate that the inhabitants of Nanjing and Zhoushan are exposed to location specific sources of PBDEs.

  15. Viral fusion efficacy of specific H3N2 influenza virus reassortant combinations at single-particle level

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hung-Lun; Millet, Jean K.; Costello, Deirdre A.; Whittaker, Gary R.; Daniel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Virus pseudotyping is a useful and safe technique for studying entry of emerging strains of influenza virus. However, few studies have compared different reassortant combinations in pseudoparticle systems, or compared entry kinetics of native viruses and their pseudotyped analogs. Here, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudovirions displaying distinct influenza virus envelope proteins were tested for fusion activity. We produced VSV pseudotypes containing the prototypical X-31 (H3) HA, either alone or with strain-matched or mismatched N2 NAs. We performed single-particle fusion assays using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to compare hemifusion kinetics among these pairings. Results illustrate that matching pseudoparticles behaved very similarly to native virus. Pseudoparticles harboring mismatched HA-NA pairings fuse at significantly slower rates than native virus, and NA-lacking pseudoparticles exhibiting the slowest fusion rates. Relative viral membrane HA density of matching pseudoparticles was higher than in mismatching or NA-lacking pseudoparticles. An equivalent trend of HA expression level on cell membranes of HA/NA co-transfected cells was observed and intracellular trafficking of HA was affected by NA co-expression. Overall, we show that specific influenza HA-NA combinations can profoundly affect the critical role played by HA during entry, which may factor into viral fitness and the emergence of new pandemic influenza viruses. PMID:27752100

  16. Viral fusion efficacy of specific H3N2 influenza virus reassortant combinations at single-particle level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Lun; Millet, Jean K.; Costello, Deirdre A.; Whittaker, Gary R.; Daniel, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Virus pseudotyping is a useful and safe technique for studying entry of emerging strains of influenza virus. However, few studies have compared different reassortant combinations in pseudoparticle systems, or compared entry kinetics of native viruses and their pseudotyped analogs. Here, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudovirions displaying distinct influenza virus envelope proteins were tested for fusion activity. We produced VSV pseudotypes containing the prototypical X-31 (H3) HA, either alone or with strain-matched or mismatched N2 NAs. We performed single-particle fusion assays using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to compare hemifusion kinetics among these pairings. Results illustrate that matching pseudoparticles behaved very similarly to native virus. Pseudoparticles harboring mismatched HA-NA pairings fuse at significantly slower rates than native virus, and NA-lacking pseudoparticles exhibiting the slowest fusion rates. Relative viral membrane HA density of matching pseudoparticles was higher than in mismatching or NA-lacking pseudoparticles. An equivalent trend of HA expression level on cell membranes of HA/NA co-transfected cells was observed and intracellular trafficking of HA was affected by NA co-expression. Overall, we show that specific influenza HA-NA combinations can profoundly affect the critical role played by HA during entry, which may factor into viral fitness and the emergence of new pandemic influenza viruses.

  17. Elapid snake venom analyses show the specificity of the peptide composition at the level of genera Naja and Notechis.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Aisha; Trusch, Maria; Georgieva, Dessislava; Hildebrand, Diana; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Behnken, Henning; Harder, Sönke; Arni, Raghuvir; Spencer, Patrick; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian

    2014-02-28

    Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms-that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja), and the Peninsula tiger snake, N. scutatus, from Kangaroo Island (genus Notechis). A combination of chromatographic methods was used to isolate the peptides, which were characterized by combining complimentary mass spectrometric techniques. Comparative analysis of the peptide compositions of two venoms showed specificity at the genus level. Three-finger (3-F) cytotoxins, bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) and a bradykinin inhibitor were isolated from the Naja venom. 3-F neurotoxins, Kunitz/basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-type inhibitors and a natriuretic peptide were identified in the N. venom. The inhibiting activity of the peptides was confirmed in vitro with a selected array of proteases. Cytotoxin 1 (P01467) from the Naja venom might be involved in the disturbance of cellular processes by inhibiting the cell 20S-proteasome. A high degree of similarity between BPPs from elapid and viperid snake venoms was observed, suggesting that these molecules play a key role in snake venoms and also indicating that these peptides were recruited into the snake venom prior to the evolutionary divergence of the snakes.

  18. Therapeutic benefit of bortezomib on acute GVHD is tissue specific and is associated with IL-6 levels

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Chien-Chun Steven; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Sun, Kai; Chen, Mingyi; Hagino, Takeshi; Tellez, Joseph; Mall, Christine; Blazar, Bruce R.; Monjazeb, Arta; Abedi, Mehrdad; Murphy, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor capable of direct anti-tumor effects, has been shown to prevent acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) when administered in a short course immediately after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in mice. However, when given continuously, CD4+ T cell mediated gastrointestinal tract damages increase GVHD mortality. To investigate the protective effects of bortezomib on other organs, we have used a CD8 dependent aGVHD model of C3H.SW donor T cells engrafted into irradiated C57BL/6 recipients (minor MHC mismatch), which lack significant gut GVHD. Our data in this model show that bortezomib can be given continuously to prevent and treat aGVHD mediated by CD8+ T cells, but this effect is organ-specific such that only skin, but not liver, protection was observed. Despite the lack of hepatic protection, bortezomib still significantly improved survival primarily due to its skin protection. Reduced skin GVHD by bortezomib was correlated with reduced serum and skin IL-6 levels. Administration of a blocking IL-6 antibody in this model also resulted in similar cutaneous GVHD protection. These results indicate that bortezomib or blockade of IL-6 may prevent CD8+ T cell mediated cutaneous aGVHD. PMID:25064746

  19. Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Elizabeth A; Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

    2017-02-01

    Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text). A five-block regression model sequentially predicted literacy achievement from cognitive-linguistic translation (Block 1); working memory components for word-form coding (Block 2), phonological and orthographic loops (Block 3), and supervisory focused or switching attention (Block 4); and SLD groups (Block 5). Results showed that cognitive-linguistic translation explained an average of 27% and 15% of the variance in reading and writing achievement, respectively, but working memory components explained an additional 39% and 27% of variance. Orthographic word-form coding uniquely predicted nearly every measure, whereas attention switching uniquely predicted only reading. Finally, differences in reading and writing persisted between dyslexia and dysgraphia, with dysgraphia higher, even after controlling for Block 1 to 4 predictors. Differences in literacy achievement between students with dyslexia and oral and written language learning disabilities were largely explained by the Block 1 predictors. Applications to identifying and teaching students with these SLDs are discussed.

  20. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  1. Area-level socioeconomic context, total mortality and cause-specific mortality in Spain: Heterogeneous findings depending on the level of geographic aggregation.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Reques, Laura; Cea, Lucía; Miqueleiz, Estrella; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between area-level socioeconomic context and mortality in Spain, using two different geographic aggregations. Nation-wide prospective study covering all persons living in Spain in 2001. Mortality was analysed in Spanish citizens by province of residence and in citizens of Madrid by neighbourhood of residence. Provinces and neighbourhoods were grouped into quartiles according to two socioeconomic indicators: percentage of the population with university education and unemployment rate. The measure of association was the rate ratio for total mortality and cause-specific mortality, by each socioeconomic indicator in two age groups, 25-64 years (adult population) and 65 years and over (elderly population). After adjustment for all individual socioeconomic variables, the rate ratio for total mortality among residents in the provinces with the worst versus best socioeconomic context was 0.92 (95% CI 0.88-0.97) when the indicator was percentage of university population and 0.89 (0.85-0.93) when it was unemployment rate in the adult population, and 1.05 (1.00-1.11) and 1.08 (1.03-1.13), respectively, in the elderly population. No significant differences in mortality were observed between adults residing in neighbourhoods with the worst versus best socioeconomic context, but in the elderly population the mortality rate ratios for the two socioeconomic indicators were 1.04 (1.01-1.07) and 1.06 (1.03-1.09), respectively. Residents in provinces with the worst socioeconomic context had the lowest mortality from cancer and external causes and the highest mortality from cardiovascular diseases, while residents in neighbourhoods with the worst socioeconomic context had the highest mortality from respiratory and digestive diseases. Further research should find out the reasons for the lower total mortality in adult population residing in the Spanish provinces with the most adverse socioeconomic context and the reasons for

  2. Correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor efficacy and circulating tumor cell levels in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenjie; Li, Wenhui; Jiang, Bo; Chang, Li; Jin, Congguo; Tu, Changlin; Li, Yunfen

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) and circulating tumor cell (CTC) levels in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in reducing CTC counts in patients with advanced NSCLC was studied. Patients and methods A total of 66 patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled and divided into two groups (those with high CTC counts and those with low CTC counts) based on the patients’ median CTC counts. All the patients were treated with an EGFR-TKI, and the treatment efficacy and prognoses were compared. Results The treatment efficacies were 53.3% (16/30) and 27.8% (10/36) for the low CTC group and high CTC group, respectively, and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The median overall survival was 22.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.9–26.8 months) for the low CTC group and 18.3 months (95% CI: 2.9–8.2 months) for the high CTC group. The median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% CI: 8.1–15 months) and 5.6 months (95% CI: 2.9–8.2 months) for the low and high CTC groups, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The CTC count can be used as an index for predicting the EGFR-TKI effect on patients with advanced NSCLC. Efficacy and prognosis of EGFR-TKI treatment and CTC count were considered important, and the CTC count could be used to predict the efficacy of EGFR-TKI treatment and prognosis of advanced NSCLC. The change in CTC expression levels can be used as an index for evaluating the prognosis of patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:28003764

  3. Advanced Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Mike; Nelms, Rick

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that explores the depth and breadth of scientific facts, principles, and procedures which are required in the Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ) science through comparison with GCE Advanced level. The final report takes account of the updated 1996 version of GNVQ science. (DDR)

  4. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  5. Component-Level Prognostics Health Management Framework for Passive Components - Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M2AT-15PN2301043

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Pitman, Stan G.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Dib, Gerges; Pardini, Allan F.

    2015-06-19

    This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical advanced reactor passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. Achieving this objective will necessitate addressing several of the research gaps and technical needs described in previous technical reports in this series.

  6. Analysing Adjectives in Scientific Discourse: An Exploratory Study with Educational Applications for Spanish Speakers at Advanced University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Viviana

    2002-01-01

    Explores frequency and use of adjectives in five advanced scientific texts on biochemistry and analyzes the semantic implications of the observed occurrence. The aim is to provide a better understanding of the role of adjectives in research articles and to suggest how to guide Spanish-speaking students to effectively comprehend, read, write, and…

  7. Utilizing Computer and Multimedia Technology in Generating Choreography for the Advanced Dance Student at the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Irma Amado

    This study describes a pilot program utilizing various multimedia computer programs on a MacQuadra 840 AV. The target group consisted of six advanced dance students who participated in the pilot program within the dance curriculum by creating a database of dance movement using video and still photography. The students combined desktop publishing,…

  8. Effects of Levels of Automation for Advanced Small Modular Reactors: Impacts on Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc

    2014-07-01

    The Human-Automation Collaboration (HAC) research effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The DOE AdvSMR program focuses on plant design and management, reduction of capital costs as well as plant operations and maintenance costs (O&M), and factory production costs benefits.

  9. Anti-Malassezia-Specific IgE Antibodies Production in Japanese Patients with Head and Neck Atopic Dermatitis: Relationship between the Level of Specific IgE Antibody and the Colonization Frequency of Cutaneous Malassezia Species and Clinical Severity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Enshi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Tajima, Mami; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Kato, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Sugita, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis of the head and neck (HNAD) is recognized as a separate condition. Malassezia, the predominant skin microbiota fungus, is considered to exacerbate atopic dermatitis (AD), especially HNAD. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between the levels of specific IgE antibodies, colonization frequency of eight predominant Malassezia species, and clinical severity in 61 patients with HNAD (26 mild, 24 moderate, and 11 severe cases). As clinical severity increased, the levels of specific IgE antibodies against eight Malassezia species also increased. Species diversity of the Malassezia microbiota in scale samples from patients was analyzed by nested PCR using species-specific primers. The clinical severity of HNAD was correlated with the total level of specific IgE antibodies against Malassezia species and the number of Malassezia species detected. PMID:22253636

  10. Endosperm-specific expression of tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and tyrosine decarboxylase from a single self-processing polypeptide produces high levels of tyramine derivatives in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Kang, Kiyoon; Kim, Young Soon; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2009-06-01

    The plant-specific tyramine derivatives, feruloyltyramine (FT) and 4-coumaroyltyramine (CT), represent bioactive compounds found at low levels in many plant species. We generated transgenic rice seeds that produce high levels of CT (14 microg g(-1) seeds) and FT (2.7 microg g(-1) seeds) through the dual expression of tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and tyrosine decarboxylase, using the self-processing foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A sequence and the endosperm-specific prolamin promoter.

  11. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) Product Specification Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will enhance the accuracy and the resolution of space-based measurements of terrestrial soil moisture and freeze-thaw state. SMAP data products will have a noteworthy impact on multiple relevant and current Earth Science endeavors. These include: Understanding of the processes that link the terrestrial water, the energy and the carbon cycles, Estimations of global water and energy fluxes over the land surfaces, Quantification of the net carbon flux in boreal landscapes Forecast skill of both weather and climate, Predictions and monitoring of natural disasters including floods, landslides and droughts, and Predictions of agricultural productivity. To provide these data, the SMAP mission will deploy a satellite observatory in a near polar, sun synchronous orbit. The observatory will house an L-band radiometer that operates at 1.40 GHz and an L-band radar that operates at 1.26 GHz. The instruments will share a rotating reflector antenna with a 6 meter aperture that scans over a 1000 km swath.

  12. Comprehensively Evaluating cis-Regulatory Variation in the Human Prostate Transcriptome by Using Gene-Level Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicholas B.; McDonnell, Shannon; French, Amy J.; Fogarty, Zach; Cheville, John; Middha, Sumit; Riska, Shaun; Baheti, Saurabh; Nair, Asha A.; Wang, Liang; Schaid, Daniel J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of cis-acting regulatory variation in primary tissues has the potential to elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits and further our understanding of transcriptomic diversity across cell types. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) association analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data can improve upon the detection of cis-acting regulatory variation by leveraging allele-specific expression (ASE) patterns in association analysis. Here, we present a comprehensive evaluation of cis-acting eQTLs by analyzing RNA-seq gene-expression data and genome-wide high-density genotypes from 471 samples of normal primary prostate tissue. Using statistical models that integrate ASE information, we identified extensive cis-eQTLs across the prostate transcriptome and found that approximately 70% of expressed genes corresponded to a significant eQTL at a gene-level false-discovery rate of 0.05. Overall, cis-eQTLs were heavily concentrated near the transcription start and stop sites of affected genes, and effects were negatively correlated with distance. We identified multiple instances of cis-acting co-regulation by using phased genotype data and discovered 233 SNPs as the most strongly associated eQTLs for more than one gene. We also noted significant enrichment (25/50, p = 2E−5) of previously reported prostate cancer risk SNPs in prostate eQTLs. Our results illustrate the benefit of assessing ASE data in cis-eQTL analyses by showing better reproducibility of prior eQTL findings than of eQTL mapping based on total expression alone. Altogether, our analysis provides extensive functional context of thousands of SNPs in prostate tissue, and these results will be of critical value in guiding studies examining disease of the human prostate. PMID:25983244

  13. Comprehensively evaluating cis-regulatory variation in the human prostate transcriptome by using gene-level allele-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicholas B; McDonnell, Shannon; French, Amy J; Fogarty, Zach; Cheville, John; Middha, Sumit; Riska, Shaun; Baheti, Saurabh; Nair, Asha A; Wang, Liang; Schaid, Daniel J; Thibodeau, Stephen N

    2015-06-04

    The identification of cis-acting regulatory variation in primary tissues has the potential to elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits and further our understanding of transcriptomic diversity across cell types. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) association analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data can improve upon the detection of cis-acting regulatory variation by leveraging allele-specific expression (ASE) patterns in association analysis. Here, we present a comprehensive evaluation of cis-acting eQTLs by analyzing RNA-seq gene-expression data and genome-wide high-density genotypes from 471 samples of normal primary prostate tissue. Using statistical models that integrate ASE information, we identified extensive cis-eQTLs across the prostate transcriptome and found that approximately 70% of expressed genes corresponded to a significant eQTL at a gene-level false-discovery rate of 0.05. Overall, cis-eQTLs were heavily concentrated near the transcription start and stop sites of affected genes, and effects were negatively correlated with distance. We identified multiple instances of cis-acting co-regulation by using phased genotype data and discovered 233 SNPs as the most strongly associated eQTLs for more than one gene. We also noted significant enrichment (25/50, p = 2E-5) of previously reported prostate cancer risk SNPs in prostate eQTLs. Our results illustrate the benefit of assessing ASE data in cis-eQTL analyses by showing better reproducibility of prior eQTL findings than of eQTL mapping based on total expression alone. Altogether, our analysis provides extensive functional context of thousands of SNPs in prostate tissue, and these results will be of critical value in guiding studies examining disease of the human prostate.

  14. Dynamic compartment specific changes in glutathione and ascorbate levels in Arabidopsis plants exposed to different light intensities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excess light conditions induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly in the chloroplasts but also cause an accumulation and production of ROS in peroxisomes, cytosol and vacuoles. Antioxidants such as ascorbate and glutathione occur in all cell compartments where they detoxify ROS. In this study compartment specific changes in antioxidant levels and related enzymes were monitored among Arabidopsis wildtype plants and ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants (vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively) exposed to different light intensities (50, 150 which was considered as control condition, 300, 700 and 1,500 μmol m-2 s-1) for 4 h and 14 d. Results The results revealed that wildtype plants reacted to short term exposure to excess light conditions with the accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and the cytosol and an increased activity of catalase in the leaves. Long term exposure led to an accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione mainly in chloroplasts. In wildtype plants an accumulation of ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could be observed in vacuoles when exposed to high light conditions. The pad2-1 mutant reacted to long term excess light exposure with an accumulation of ascorbate in peroxisomes whereas the vtc2-1 mutant reacted with an accumulation of glutathione in the chloroplasts (relative to the wildtype) and nuclei during long term high light conditions indicating an important role of these antioxidants in these cell compartments for the protection of the mutants against high light stress. Conclusion The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and the cytosol is an important reaction of plants to short term high light stress. The accumulation of ascorbate and H2O2 along the tonoplast and in vacuoles during these conditions indicates an important route for H2O2 detoxification under these conditions. PMID

  15. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-1β can predict the efficacy of gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitsunaga, S; Ikeda, M; Shimizu, S; Ohno, I; Furuse, J; Inagaki, M; Higashi, S; Kato, H; Terao, K; Ochiai, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: With this study, we sought to characterise the impact of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the outcomes of gemcitabine monotherapy (GEM) in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods: Treatment-naive patients with advanced PC and no obvious infections were eligible for enrolment. All of the patients were scheduled to undergo systemic chemotherapy. Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured using an electro-chemiluminescence assay method before chemotherapy. High cytokine levels were defined as values greater than the median. Clinical data were collected prospectively. Results: Sixty patients who received GEM were included in the analysis. High IL-6 and IL-1β levels were poor prognostic factors for overall survival in a multivariate analysis (P=0.011 and P=0.048, respectively). Patients with both a high IL-6 level and a high IL-1β level exhibited shortened overall and progression-free survival, a reduction in the tumour control rate, and a high dose intensity of GEM compared with patients with low levels of both IL-6 and IL-1β. Conclusion: The serum levels of IL-6 and IL-1β predict the efficacy of GEM in patients with advanced PC. PMID:23591198

  16. Reduced Necrosis and Content of Apoptotic M1 Macrophages in Advanced Atherosclerotic Plaques of Mice With Macrophage-Specific Loss of Trpc3

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Sumeet; Dube, Prabhatchandra R.; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Vazquez, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    In previous work we reported that ApoeKO mice transplanted with bone marrow cells deficient in the Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 3 (TRPC3) channel have reduced necrosis and number of apoptotic macrophages in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Also, in vitro studies with polarized macrophages derived from mice with macrophage-specific loss of TRPC3 showed that M1, but not M2 macrophages, deficient in Trpc3 are less susceptible to ER stress-induced apoptosis than Trpc3 expressing cells. The questions remained (a) whether the plaque phenotype in transplanted mice resulted from a genuine effect of Trpc3 on macrophages, and (b) whether the reduced necrosis and macrophage apoptosis in plaques of these mice was a manifestation of the selective effect of TRPC3 on apoptosis of M1 macrophages previously observed in vitro. Here, we addressed these questions using Ldlr knockout (Ldlr−/−) mice with macrophage-specific loss of Trpc3 (MacTrpc3−/−/Ldlr−/− → Ldlr−/−). Compared to controls, we observed decreased plaque necrosis and number of apoptotic macrophages in MacTrpc3−/−/Ldlr−/− → Ldlr−/− mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a reduction in apoptotic M1, but not apoptotic M2 macrophages. These findings confirm an effect of TRPC3 on plaque necrosis and support the notion that this is likely a reflection of the reduced susceptibility of Trpc3-deficient M1 macrophages to apoptosis. PMID:28186192

  17. Advanced 3D mesh manipulation in stereolithographic files and post-print processing for the manufacturing of patient-specific vascular flow phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Ryan P.; Chand, Arpita; Vidiyala, Sowmya; Arechavala, Stacie M.; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2016-03-01

    Complex vascular anatomies can cause the failure of image-guided endovascular procedures. 3D printed patient-specific vascular phantoms provide clinicians and medical device companies the ability to preemptively plan surgical treatments, test the likelihood of device success, and determine potential operative setbacks. This research aims to present advanced mesh manipulation techniques of stereolithographic (STL) files segmented from medical imaging and post-print surface optimization to match physiological vascular flow resistance. For phantom design, we developed three mesh manipulation techniques. The first method allows outlet 3D mesh manipulations to merge superfluous vessels into a single junction, decreasing the number of flow outlets and making it feasible to include smaller vessels. Next we introduced Boolean operations to eliminate the need to manually merge mesh layers and eliminate errors of mesh self-intersections that previously occurred. Finally we optimize support addition to preserve the patient anatomical geometry. For post-print surface optimization, we investigated various solutions and methods to remove support material and smooth the inner vessel surface. Solutions of chloroform, alcohol and sodium hydroxide were used to process various phantoms and hydraulic resistance was measured and compared with values reported in literature. The newly mesh manipulation methods decrease the phantom design time by 30 - 80% and allow for rapid development of accurate vascular models. We have created 3D printed vascular models with vessel diameters less than 0.5 mm. The methods presented in this work could lead to shorter design time for patient specific phantoms and better physiological simulations.

  18. A comparison of ARMS and mutation specific IHC for common activating EGFR mutations analysis in small biopsy and cytology specimens of advanced non small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Guoqing; Hao, Yueyue; Xu, Yinhong; Zhang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    We have compared mutation analysis by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant-specific antibodies for their ability to detect two common activating EGFR mutations in a cohort of 115 advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including cytology material, core biopsy, and bronchoscopic biopsies. Assessment of EGFR mutation status was performed by using antibodies and ARMS assay specific to the two major forms of mutant EGFR, exon 19 deletion E746-A750 (c.2235_2249del15 or c.2236_2250del15, p. Glu746_Ala750 del) and exon 21 L858R point mutation (c.2573T>G, p.Leu858Arg). In this study the optimal buffer for antigen retrieval was sodium citrate (pH 6.0). Q score was used to evaluate the specific mutant EGFR proteins expression. Validation using clinical material showed deletions in exon 19 were detected in 19.1% and L858R mutation in 20% of all cases by ARMS assay. A cutoff value of score 1 was used as positive by IHC. No wild type cases were immuno-reactive. The antibodies performed well in cytology, core biopsies and bronchoscopic biopsies. There were only one false positive case using L858R IHC (sensitivity 100%, specificity 98.5%, positive predictive value 96%, negative predictive value 100%). All 23 E746-A750 exon 19 deletions identified by mutation analysis were positive by IHC. The sensitivity of exon 19 IHC for E746-A750 was 100%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 100%. The result of the IHC stains was finely correlated with mutations status determined by ARMS assay. Although inferior to molecular genetic analysis of the EGFR gene, IHC is highly specific and sensitive for the targeted EGFR mutations. The antibodies are likely to be of clinical value in cases especially where limited tumor material is available, or in situations where molecular genetic analysis is not readily available.

  19. Low Levels of IgM Antibodies against an Advanced Glycation Endproduct-Modified Apolipoprotein B100 Peptide Predict Cardiovascular Events in Nondiabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Engelbertsen, Daniel; Vallejo, Jenifer; Quách, Tâm Dan; Fredrikson, Gunilla Nordin; Alm, Ragnar; Hedblad, Bo; Björkbacka, Harry; Rothstein, Thomas L; Nilsson, Jan; Bengtsson, Eva

    2015-10-01

    Increased glucose levels are associated with the generation of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) modifications. Interaction between AGE-modified plaque components and immune cells is believed to have an important role in the development of vascular complications in diabetes. Methylglyoxal (MGO) is one type of reactive aldehyde that gives rise to AGE modification. The present study analyzed whether autoantibodies against MGO-modified epitopes of the low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B (apoB) 100 predict cardiovascular events. A library consisting of 302 peptides comprising the complete apoB100 molecule was screened to identify peptides targeted by MGO-specific autoantibodies. Peptide (p) 220 (apoB amino acids 3286-3305) was identified as a major target. Baseline IgM and IgG against MGO-peptide 220 (p220) were measured in 700 individuals from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort. A total of 139 cardiovascular events were registered during the 15-y follow-up period. Controlling for major cardiovascular risk factors demonstrated that subjects in the lowest tertile of MGO-p220 IgM had an increased risk for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.07 [1.22-3.50]; p(trend) = 0.004). Interestingly, the association between MGO-p220 IgM and cardiovascular events remained and even tended to become stronger when subjects with prevalent diabetes were excluded from the analysis (2.51 [1.37-4.61]; p(trend) = 0.002). MGO-p220 IgM was inversely associated with blood glucose, but not with oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Finally, we demonstrate that anti-MGO-p220 IgM is produced by B1 cells. These data show that subjects with low levels of IgM recognizing MGO-modified p220 in apoB have an increased risk to develop cardiovascular events and that this association is present in nondiabetic subjects.

  20. Circulating levels of maternal plasma cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs are associated with placental weight.

    PubMed

    Miura, K; Morisaki, S; Abe, S; Higashijima, A; Hasegawa, Y; Miura, S; Tateishi, S; Mishima, H; Yoshiura, K; Masuzaki, H

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma concentration of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs and clinical variables (placental weight, maternal body mass index, and neonatal birth weight). Circulating levels of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs (miR-515-3p, miR-517a, miR-517c and miR-518b) in maternal plasma were measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in sixty-two pregnant women. The levels of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs were significantly associated with placental weight, but not associated with body mass index or birth weight. Therefore, the measurement of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific miRNAs levels in maternal plasma may reflect the pregnancy status related to placenta volume.

  1. The effect of finasteride on the prostate gland in men with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen levels.

    PubMed Central

    Cote, R. J.; Skinner, E. C.; Salem, C. E.; Mertes, S. J.; Stanczyk, F. Z.; Henderson, B. E.; Pike, M. C.; Ross, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a disease associated with androgens. It has been hypothesized that reducing the conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate by the use of the drug finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, will reduce the incidence of prostate cancer. We investigated the chemopreventive potential of finasteride by evaluating its effect on the prostate gland of men with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Fifty-two men with elevated PSA and prostate sextant biopsies negative for cancer were randomized to receive finasteride 5 mg day(-1) (27 patients) or no medication (25 patients) for 12 months and were rebiopsied at 12 months. The biopsies were evaluated for the presence of cancer, the proportion of glandular and hyperplastic tissue, and the presence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Epithelial proliferation was assessed in the prestudy and 12-month biopsies by immunohistochemistry using antibody to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Serum blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of study. In the control group, serum levels of PSA and T were unchanged throughout the 12 months. In the finasteride group, PSA decreased 48% (P < 0.001), DHT decreased 67% (P < 0.001) and T increased 21% (P < 0.001). Histological evaluation of prestudy and 12-month biopsy specimens revealed that the finasteride group had a 30% reduction in the percentage of hyperplastic epithelial tissue (P = 0.002), although this decrease was not statistically significantly different between the finasteride and control groups (P = 0.11). In patients with PIN on prestudy biopsy, no change occurred in the PIN lesions with finasteride treatment. Finasteride also had no effect on the proliferation index of prostatic epithelial cells. Of the 27 patients treated with finasteride, eight (30%) had adenocarcinoma of the prostate detected on the 12-month biopsy, compared with one (4%) of the control patients

  2. Advanced methods for modeling water-levels and estimating drawdowns with SeriesSEE, an Excel add-in

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith; Garcia, C. Amanda; Fenelon, Joe; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2012-12-21

    Water-level modeling is used for multiple-well aquifer tests to reliably differentiate pumping responses from natural water-level changes in wells, or “environmental fluctuations.” Synthetic water levels are created during water-level modeling and represent the summation of multiple component fluctuations, including those caused by environmental forcing and pumping. Pumping signals are modeled by transforming step-wise pumping records into water-level changes by using superimposed Theis functions. Water-levels can be modeled robustly with this Theis-transform approach because environmental fluctuations and pumping signals are simulated simultaneously. Water-level modeling with Theis transforms has been implemented in the program SeriesSEE, which is a Microsoft® Excel add-in. Moving average, Theis, pneumatic-lag, and gamma functions transform time series of measured values into water-level model components in SeriesSEE. Earth tides and step transforms are additional computed water-level model components. Water-level models are calibrated by minimizing a sum-of-squares objective function where singular value decomposition and Tikhonov regularization stabilize results. Drawdown estimates from a water-level model are the summation of all Theis transforms minus residual differences between synthetic and measured water levels. The accuracy of drawdown estimates is limited primarily by noise in the data sets, not the Theis-transform approach. Drawdowns much smaller than environmental fluctuations have been detected across major fault structures, at distances of more than 1 mile from the pumping well, and with limited pre-pumping and recovery data at sites across the United States. In addition to water-level modeling, utilities exist in SeriesSEE for viewing, cleaning, manipulating, and analyzing time-series data.

  3. Rare genetic variants in the CFI gene are associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration and commonly result in reduced serum factor I levels.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, David; Yu, Yi; Schramm, Elizabeth C; Triebwasser, Michael; Wagner, Erin K; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Daly, Mark J; Atkinson, John P; Seddon, Johanna M

    2015-07-01

    To assess a potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sequenced the complement factor I gene (CFI) in 2266 individuals with AMD and 1400 without, identifying 231 individuals with rare genetic variants. We evaluated the functional impact by measuring circulating serum factor I (FI) protein levels in individuals with and without rare CFI variants. The burden of very rare (frequency <1/1000) variants in CFI was strongly associated with disease (P = 1.1 × 10(-8)). In addition, we examined eight coding variants with counts ≥5 and saw evidence for association with AMD in three variants. Individuals with advanced AMD carrying a rare CFI variant had lower mean FI compared with non-AMD subjects carrying a variant (P < 0.001). Further new evidence that FI levels drive AMD risk comes from analyses showing individuals with a CFI rare variant and low FI were more likely to have advanced AMD (P = 5.6 × 10(-5)). Controlling for covariates, low FI increased the risk of advanced AMD among those with a variant compared with individuals without advanced AMD with a rare CFI variant (OR 13.6, P = 1.6 × 10(-4)), and also compared with control individuals without a rare CFI variant (OR 19.0, P = 1.1 × 10(-5)). Thus, low FI levels are strongly associated with rare CFI variants and AMD. Enhancing FI activity may be therapeutic and measuring FI provides a screening tool for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from complement inhibitory therapy.

  4. The Use of Textbooks for Advanced-Level GCE Courses in Physics, Chemistry and Biology by Sixth-Form Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of sixth-form students to determine the level of A-level textbook use in physics, chemistry, and biology in English schools found that texts are used primarily after the lesson, at the student's discretion, and with great variations between students. Biology texts were used most, and physics texts used least. (MBR)

  5. New insights into genotype-phenotype correlation in individuals with different level of general non-specific reactivity of an organism.

    PubMed

    Mulik, Alexander; Novochadov, Valery; Bondarev, Alexander; Lipnitskaya, Sofya; Ulesikova, Irina; Shatyr, Yulia

    2016-12-18

    The objective of the study was to investigate the genetic basis of general non-specific reactivity of an organism. Systematic search in PubMedCentral, PDB, KEGG and SNP databases identified a set of genes and their polymorphisms that can determine pain sensitivity and therefore the level of general non-specific reactivity of the human organism. Six SNPs were selected for genotyping kit design; 230 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. It was revealed that very high pain threshold was associated with allele A in rs1851048 and allele C in rs6777055. High level of general non-specific reactivity of an organism was associated with allele G in rs2562456 (OR=1.804, CI=1.139-2.857, p=0.011) and allele C in rs6923492 (OR=1.582, CI=1.071-2.335, p=0.021). Low level of general non-specific reactivity of an organism was associated with allele T in rs6923492 (OR=0.351, CI=0.154-0.799, p=0.010). A set of genes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the pain sensitivity and indirectly with the level of general non-specific reactivity of human organism were determined. The identified correlations reveal some molecular mechanisms of general non-specific reactivity of an organism variability and can guide further research in this area.

  6. Positive association of circulating levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in a general population.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Adachi, Hisashi; Takeuchi, Masayoshi

    2010-02-01

    We have recently found that serum levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a glycoprotein with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, are elevated in proportion to the accumulation of the number of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Since formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) progress under the metabolic syndrome and that PEDF could inhibit the AGE-elicited tissue damage, it is conceivable that PEDF levels may be increased as a counter-system against AGEs in patients with the metabolic syndrome. However, correlation between circulating levels of AGEs and PEDF in humans remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum AGE and PEDF levels in a general population and examined the effects of AGEs on PEDF gene expression in vitro. One hundred ninety-six Japanese subjects in a general population underwent a complete history and physical examination, determination of blood chemistries, including serum levels of AGEs and PEDF. In multiple regression analyses, creatinine, body mass index, triglycerides, AGEs and insulin were independently correlated with serum PEDF levels. AGEs dose-dependently increased PEDF gene expression in cultured adipocytes and liver cells. Our present study demonstrated first that circulating AGEs were one of the independent correlates of serum levels of PEDF. Adipose tissue and liver may be target organs for the AGE-induced PEDF overexpression in humans. Serum PEDF levels may be elevated in response to circulating AGEs as a counter-system against the AGE-elicited tissue damage.

  7. Multi-element compound specific stable isotope analysis of volatile organic compounds at trace levels in groundwater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Martín, Sara; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Richnow, Hans. H.; Gehre, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater pollution remains one of the major environmental and health concerns. A thorough understanding of sources, sinks and transformation processes of groundwater contaminants is needed to improve risk management evaluation, and to design efficient remediation and water treatment strategies. Isotopic tools provide unique information for an in-depth understanding of the fate of organic chemicals in the environment. During the last decades compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of complex mixtures, using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS), has gained popularity for the characterization and risk assessment of hazardous waste sites and for isotope forensics of organic contaminants. Multi-element isotope fingerprinting of organic substances provides a more robust framework for interpretation than the isotope analysis of only one element. One major challenge for application of CSIA is the analysis of trace levels of organic compounds in environmental matrices. It is necessary to inject 1 nmol carbon or 8 nmol hydrogen on column, to obtain an accurate and precise measurement of the isotope ratios, which is between two and three orders of magnitude larger than the amount of compound needed for conventional analysis of compound concentrations. Therefore, efficient extraction and pre-concentration techniques have to be integrated with GC-IRMS. Further research is urgently needed in this field, to evaluate the potential of novel and environmental-friendly sample pre-treatment techniques for CSIA to lower the detection limits and extending environmental applications. In this study, the novel coupling of a headspace autosampler (HS) with a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV), allowing large volume injection of headspace samples, is proposed to improve the sensitivity of CSIA. This automatic, fast and solvent free strategy provides a significant increase on the sensitivity of GC-based methods maintaining the simple headspace instrumentation

  8. Level-2 Milestone 5588: Deliver Strategic Plan and Initial Scalability Assessment by Advanced Architecture and Portability Specialists Team

    SciTech Connect

    Draeger, Erik W.

    2016-09-30

    This report documents the fact that the work in creating a strategic plan and beginning customer engagements has been completed. The description of milestone is: The newly formed advanced architecture and portability specialists (AAPS) team will develop a strategic plan to meet the goals of 1) sharing knowledge and experience with code teams to ensure that ASC codes run well on new architectures, and 2) supplying skilled computational scientists to put the strategy into practice. The plan will be delivered to ASC management in the first quarter. By the fourth quarter, the team will identify their first customers within PEM and IC, perform an initial assessment and scalability and performance bottleneck for next-generation architectures, and embed AAPS team members with customer code teams to assist with initial portability development within standalone kernels or proxy applications.

  9. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural detection of advanced glycation end products in atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta with a novel specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Kume, S.; Takeya, M.; Mori, T.; Araki, N.; Suzuki, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Kodama, T.; Miyauchi, Y.; Takahashi, K.

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the deposition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in aortic atherosclerosis, aortic walls were obtained from 25 autopsy cases and examined immunohistochemically and immunoelectron microscopically with a monoclonal antibody specific for AGEs, 6D12. Among the autopsy cases, atherosclerotic lesions were found in the aortas of 22 cases and were composed of diffuse intimal thickening, fatty streaks, atherosclerotic plaques, and/or complicated lesions. In these cases, intracellular AGE accumulation was demonstrated in the intimal lesions of aortic atherosclerosis in 12 cases. Compared with the diffuse intimal thickening, intracellular AGE accumulation was marked in the fatty streaks and atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical double staining with 6D12 and monoclonal antibodies for macrophages or muscle actin or a polyclonal antibody for scavenger receptors demonstrated that the AGE accumulation in macrophages or their related foam cells was marked in the diffuse intimal thickening and fatty streak lesions and that almost all macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells possessed scavenger receptors. Immunoelectron microscopic observation revealed the localization of 6D12-positive reaction in lysosomal lipid vacuoles or electron-dense granules of the foam cells. These results indicate that AGE accumulation occurs in macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and their related foam cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:7545874

  10. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  11. Measles Virus-Specific Antibody Levels in Individuals in Argentina Who Received a One-Dose Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Argüelles, Marcelo H.; Orellana, Mariana L.; Castello, Alejandro A.; Villegas, Guillermo A.; Masini, Matilde; Belizan, Alejandra L.; González Ayala, Silvia; Vera, Osmar D.; Glikmann, Graciela

    2006-01-01

    In spite of active measles virus (MV) vaccination strategies, reemergence continues to occur, impairing global eradication programs. The immune status against measles was evaluated in 350 vaccinated healthy Argentine children and teenagers who received a single dose of the MV Schwarz strain Lirugen vaccine (Aventis Pasteur). Sera were assessed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Enzygnost; Behring), an in-house EIA, and neutralization EIA. Results obtained with these methods showed a marked decline in IgG level with increasing age. At 1 to 4 years of age, 84% of children had IgG antibodies above 200 mIU/ml, conventionally accepted as protective levels, whereas only 32% of older children and teenagers had antibody levels exceeding 200 mIU/ml. Moreover, the MV IgG content in the teenage group was significantly lower than the IgG antibody level of the group of younger children (P < 0.0001). In contrast, screening for IgG antibody levels to inactivated tetanus vaccine showed that, on average, 80% of this population was fully protected and that this high level of protection remained through the teenage years. This study suggests that within this population a considerable proportion of individuals had low measles antibody levels that may be insufficient to protect against reinfections or clinical disease. PMID:16891485

  12. Impacts of Climate-Change-Driven Sea Level Rise on Intertidal Rocky Reef Habitats Will Be Variable and Site Specific

    PubMed Central

    Thorner, Jaqueline; Kumar, Lalit; Smith, Stephen D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Intertidal rocky reefs are complex and rich ecosystems that are vulnerable to even the smallest fluctuations in sea level. We modelled habitat loss associated with sea level rise for intertidal rocky reefs using GIS, high-resolution digital imagery, and LIDAR technology at fine-scale resolution (0.1 m per pixel). We used projected sea levels of +0.3 m, +0.5 m and +1.0 m above current Mean Low Tide Level (0.4 m). Habitat loss and changes were analysed for each scenario for five headlands in the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. The results indicate that changes to habitat extent will be variable across different shores and will not necessarily result in net loss of area for some habitats. In addition, habitat modification will not follow a regular pattern over the projected sea levels. Two of the headlands included in the study currently have the maximum level of protection within the SIMP. However, these headlands are likely to lose much of the habitat known to support biodiverse assemblages and may not continue to be suitable sanctuaries into the future. The fine-scale approach taken in this study thus provides a protocol not only for modelling habitat modification but also for future proofing conservation measures under a scenario of changing sea levels. PMID:24465915

  13. Measles virus-specific antibody levels in individuals in Argentina who received a one-dose vaccine.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Marcelo H; Orellana, Mariana L; Castello, Alejandro A; Villegas, Guillermo A; Masini, Matilde; Belizan, Alejandra L; González Ayala, Silvia; Vera, Osmar D; Glikmann, Graciela

    2006-08-01

    In spite of active measles virus (MV) vaccination strategies, reemergence continues to occur, impairing global eradication programs. The immune status against measles was evaluated in 350 vaccinated healthy Argentine children and teenagers who received a single dose of the MV Schwarz strain Lirugen vaccine (Aventis Pasteur). Sera were assessed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Enzygnost; Behring), an in-house EIA, and neutralization EIA. Results obtained with these methods showed a marked decline in IgG level with increasing age. At 1 to 4 years of age, 84% of children had IgG antibodies above 200 mIU/ml, conventionally accepted as protective levels, whereas only 32% of older children and teenagers had antibody levels exceeding 200 mIU/ml. Moreover, the MV IgG content in the teenage group was significantly lower than the IgG antibody level of the group of younger children (P < 0.0001). In contrast, screening for IgG antibody levels to inactivated tetanus vaccine showed that, on average, 80% of this population was fully protected and that this high level of protection remained through the teenage years. This study suggests that within this population a considerable proportion of individuals had low measles antibody levels that may be insufficient to protect against reinfections or clinical disease.

  14. Impacts of climate-change-driven sea level rise on intertidal rocky reef habitats will be variable and site specific.

    PubMed

    Thorner, Jaqueline; Kumar, Lalit; Smith, Stephen D A

    2014-01-01

    Intertidal rocky reefs are complex and rich ecosystems that are vulnerable to even the smallest fluctuations in sea level. We modelled habitat loss associated with sea level rise for intertidal rocky reefs using GIS, high-resolution digital imagery, and LIDAR technology at fine-scale resolution (0.1 m per pixel). We used projected sea levels of +0.3 m, +0.5 m and +1.0 m above current Mean Low Tide Level (0.4 m). Habitat loss and changes were analysed for each scenario for five headlands in the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. The results indicate that changes to habitat extent will be variable across different shores and will not necessarily result in net loss of area for some habitats. In addition, habitat modification will not follow a regular pattern over the projected sea levels. Two of the headlands included in the study currently have the maximum level of protection within the SIMP. However, these headlands are likely to lose much of the habitat known to support biodiverse assemblages and may not continue to be suitable sanctuaries into the future. The fine-scale approach taken in this study thus provides a protocol not only for modelling habitat modification but also for future proofing conservation measures under a scenario of changing sea levels.

  15. Vitamin D Levels Decline with Rising Number of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Healthy Adults: Association with Adipokines, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Advanced Glycation Markers

    PubMed Central

    Krivošíková, Zora; Gajdoš, Martin; Šebeková, Katarína

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypovitaminosis D associates with obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipoproteinemia. We asked whether the presence of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors, and which particular combination, exerts additive negative effects on 25(OH)D3 levels; and whether 25(OH)D3 levels associate with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Subjects and Methods In non-diabetic medication-free adults central obesity (waist-to-height ratio > 0.5); elevated blood pressure (systolic BP≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥85 mm Hg); increased atherogenic risk (log(TAG/HDL) ≥ 0.11); and insulin resistance (QUICKI < 0.322) were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. 25(OH)D3 status was classified as deficiency (25(OH)D3 ≤20 ng/ml); insufficiency (levels between 20-to-30 ng/ml), or as satisfactory (>30 ng/ml). Plasma adipokines, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, advanced glycation end-products, and their soluble receptor were determined. Results 162 subjects were cardiometabolic risk factors-free, 162 presented increased (i.e. 1 or 2), and 87 high number (i.e. 3 or 4) of cardiometabolic risk factors. Mean 25(OH)D3 decreased with rising number of manifested risk factors (36 ± 14 ng/ml, 33 ± 14 ng/ml, and 31 ± 15 ng/ml, respectively; pANOVA: 0.010), while prevalence of hypovitaminosis D did not differ significantly. Elevated blood pressure and insulin resistance appeared as significant determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Subjects presenting these risk factors concurrently displayed the lowest 25(OH)D3 levels (29 ± 15 ng/ml). Plasma adipokines, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, advanced glycation end-products, and their soluble receptor generally differed significantly between the groups, but only advanced oxidation protein products and advanced glycation end-products associated fluorescence of plasma showed significant independent association with 25(OH)D3 levels. Conclusion In apparently healthy adults increasing number of

  16. An Online Task-Based Language Learning Environment: Is It Better for Advanced- or Intermediate-Level Second Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslanyilmaz, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship of language proficiency to language production and negotiation of meaning that non-native speakers (NNSs) produced in an online task-based language learning (TBLL) environment. Fourteen NNS-NNS dyads collaboratively completed four communicative tasks, using an online TBLL environment specifically designed…

  17. Gender and Spatial Ability and the Use of Specific Labels and Diagrammatic Arrows in a Micro-Level Chemistry Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvo, David A.; Suits, Jerry P.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of using both specific labels and diagrammatic arrows in the animation of salt dissolution. Four different versions of the animation served as treatments that were developed based upon principles of educational technology and cognitive psychology. The researchers studied the effects of spatial ability (high or…

  18. Predicting Homophobic Behavior among Heterosexual Youth: Domain General and Sexual Orientation-Specific Factors at the Individual and Contextual Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Scheer, Jillian R.

    2013-01-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual…

  19. Executive Functions and Prader-Willi Syndrome: Global Deficit Linked with Intellectual Level and Syndrome-Specific Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalère, Johann; Postal, Virginie; Jauregui, Joseba; Copet, Pierre; Laurier, Virginie; Thuilleaux, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to support the growing evidence suggesting that Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) might present with an impairment of executive functions (EFs) and to investigate whether this impairment is specific to patients with PWS or due to their intellectual disability (ID). Six tasks were administered to assess EFs (inhibition,…

  20. Use of Tactual Materials on the Achievement of Content Specific Vocabulary and Terminology Acquisition within an Intermediate Level Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n = 85)…

  1. Monitoring water storage changes using absolute gravity measurements, neutron probes and piezometer data in West Africa: advances in specific yield and recharge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Séguis, L.; Descloîtres, M.; Hinderer, J.; Wubda, M.; Luck, B.; Le Moigne, N.

    2012-04-01

    Advances in water storage monitoring are crucial to characterize the spatial variability of hydrological processes. Classical water storage investigation methods often involve point measurements (piezometers, neutron probes, humidity sensors…), which may be irrelevant in heterogeneous mediums. Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of gravimeters for hydrological studies. Water mass redistribution leads to variations in the Earth's gravity field which can be measured by gravimetry. In the framework of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project, 3 years of repeated absolute gravity measurements using FG5#206 from Micro-g Solutions Inc. have been undertaken at Nalohou, a Sudanian site in northern Benin. Hydrological monitoring is carried out within the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch (an observatory of RBV, the French critical zone exploration network). Seasonal gravity variations in link with the hydrological cycle can reach 11 µgal at this site, equivalent to a 26cm thick infinite layer of water. The vadose zone and a shallow unconfined aquifer in weathered metamorphic rocks are responsible for most of the water storage variations. For the first time in the climatic context of the West African monsoon, gravity data are compared to the time evolution of the water storages deduced from neutron probes and water-table variations. The approach is two-fold: first, total storage variations are estimated from neutron probe-derived moisture through the whole vertical profile (surface to groundwater) monitored at the gravimetric site and uniformly extended according to the topography. Results show a very good fit with gravity data, enlightening the fact that absolute gravimeters are sensitive to total water storage variations from the soil surface to the aquifer. The second approach introduces a spatial variability: it was undertaken to check a structural model for specific yield of the aquifer, based on magnetic

  2. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  3. Asynchronous presentation of global and local information reveals effects of attention on brain electrical activity specific to each level

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Fuster, Jorge; Santos-Rodríguez, Yusniel; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of selective attention within hierarchically organized Navon figures has been extensively studied with event related potentials (ERPs), by contrasting responses obtained when attending the global and the local echelons. The findings are inherently ambiguous because both levels are always presented together. Thus, only a mixture of the brain responses to two levels can be observed. Here, we use a method that allows unveiling of global and local letters at distinct times, enabling estimation of separate ERPs related to each level. Two interspersed oddball streams were presented, each using letters from one level and comprised of frequent distracters and rare targets. Previous work and our Experiment 1 show that it is difficult to divide attention between two such streams of stimuli. ERP recording in Experiment 2 evinced an early selection negativity (SN, with latencies to the 50% area of about 266 ms for global distracters and 276 ms for local distracters) that was larger for attended relative to unattended distracters. The SN was larger over right posterior occipito-temporal derivations for global stimuli and over left posterior occipito-temporal derivations for local stimuli (although the latter was less strongly lateralized). A discrimination negativity (DN, accompanied by a P3b) was larger for attended targets relative to attended distracters, with latencies to the 50% area of about 316 ms for global stimuli and 301 ms for local stimuli, which presented a similar distribution for both levels over left temporo-parietal electrodes. The two negativities apparently index successive stages in the processing of a selected level within a compound figure. By resolving the ambiguity of traditional designs, our method allowed us to observe the effects of attention for each hierarchical level on its own. PMID:25628590

  4. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  5. Serum Vitamin D Levels Are Not Predictive of the Progression of Chronic Liver Disease in Hepatitis C Patients with Advanced Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Kathleen E.; Zheng, Hui; Mendez-Navarro, Jorge; Delgado-Borrego, Aymin; Dienstag, Jules L.; Chung, Raymond T.

    2012-01-01

    In animal models and human cross-sectional studies, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with liver disease progression. Vitamin D supplementation has been suggested as a treatment to prevent disease progression. We sought to evaluate the role of vitamin D levels in predicting chronic liver disease development. We conducted a nested case-control study of vitamin D levels in subjects with (cases) and without (controls) liver histologic progression or clinical decompensation over the course of the HALT-C Trial. Vitamin D levels were measured at 4 points over 45 months. 129 cases and 129 aged-matched controls were included. No difference in baseline vitamin D levels were found between cases and controls. (44.8 ng/mL vs. 44.0 ng/mL, P = 0.74). Vitamin D levels declined in cases and controls over time (P = 0.0005), however, there was no difference in the level of decline (P = 0.37). Among study subjects with diabetes mellitius, baseline vitamin D levels were higher in cases, 49.9 ng/mL, than controls, 36.3 ng/mL. (P = 0.03) In addition, baseline vitamin D levels were higher in black case subjects, 32.7 ng/mL, than in black control subjects, 25.2 ng/mL (P = 0.08) No difference in vitamin D levels was found between patients with and without progression of hepatitis C-associated liver disease over 4 years. Our data do not suggest any role for vitamin D supplementation in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C and raise the possibility that higher vitamin D levels may be associated with disease progression. PMID:22359532

  6. Toward Mastering the Discourses of Reasoning: Use of Grammatical Metaphor at Advanced Levels of Foreign Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    Situated within the framework of the systemic-functional linguistics (Halliday, 1994) and language-based theory of learning (Halliday, 1993), this article examines a shift toward a more objectified and "scientific" representation of reality in texts written by foreign language (FL) learners at various levels of acquisition. It argues that…

  7. Water Relations and the Vacuolated Plant Cell: A Brief Study of the Topic at Advanced Level in School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayford, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses concepts needed to understand plant water relations and results of a study designed to examine the understanding of these concepts by students preparing for A-level examinations. Focuses on students who have learned the topic using the old terminology compared with students adopting the new suggested terms. (Author/JN)

  8. Teaching Thermodynamics and Kinetics to Advanced General Chemistry Students and to Upper-Level Undergraduate Students Using PV Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyengar, Srinivasan S.; deSouza, Romualdo T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe how complex concepts in macroscopic chemistry, namely, thermodynamics and kinetics, can be taught at considerable depth both at the first-year undergraduate as well as upper levels. We begin with a careful treatment of PV diagrams, and by pictorially integrating the appropriate area in a PV diagram, we introduce work. This starting…

  9. Species-specific patterns in fecal glucocorticoid and androgen levels in zoo-living orangutans (Pongo spp.).

    PubMed

    Weingrill, Tony; Willems, Erik P; Zimmermann, Nina; Steinmetz, Hanspeter; Heistermann, Michael

    2011-07-01

    In contrast to most primate species, including the other great apes, orangutans maintain a fission-fusion social system in the wild without being part of a stable community. In zoos, however, they are kept in permanent groups, usually consisting of one adult male and several females. In zoo orangutans, we predict higher levels of glucocorticoids and androgens in the Bornean species compared to its congener from Sumatra, due to the much more solitary lifestyle of Bornean orangutans and the apparent higher frequency of male aggression directed towards females in this species in the wild. To compare hormone levels of the two orangutan species, we validated a fecal glucocorticoid and a fecal androgen assay. Subsequently, fecal samples from a total of 73 female and 38 male orangutans housed in 29 European zoos were analyzed to investigate the effect of species, social group size, age and (for female glucocorticoid levels) reproductive state and the presence of adult males on fecal hormone metabolite concentrations. The results of linear mixed effect models indicate that both male and female Bornean orangutans show a steeper increase in glucocorticoid levels with increasing group size than Sumatran orangutans. We therefore conclude that Sumatran zoo orangutans are better able to adjust to social housing conditions than their Bornean congeners. In addition, our analyses reveal higher glucocorticoid levels in lactating females of both species compared to non-lactating and juvenile females. Concerning androgen levels in males, our analyses revealed significantly higher concentrations in Bornean than Sumatran orangutans. These differences in both glucocorticoid and androgen output between the two species of orangutan are presumably linked to ecological and behavioral differences and could possibly be attributed to phenotypic plasticity. However, given that we found interspecific differences in hormone excretion in captivity, where both species live under very similar

  10. Fluorine-18-N-methylspiroperidol: radiolytic decomposition as a consequence of high specific activity and high dose levels

    SciTech Connect

    MacGregor, R.R.; Schlyer, D.J.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.; Shiue, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    High specific activity (/sup 18/F)N-methylspiroperidol(8-(4-(4-(18F)fluorophenyl)-4-oxobutyl)-3-me thyl l-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro(4.5)decan-4-one, 5-10 mCi/ml, 4-8 Ci/mumol at EOB) in saline solution undergoes significant radiolytic decomposition resulting in a decrease in radiochemical purity of 10-25% during the first hour. The rate of decomposition is affected by the specific activity, total dose to and chemical composition of the solution. That radiolysis is responsible for the observed decomposition was verified by the observation that unlabeled N-methylspiroperidol is decomposed in the presence of (18F)fluoride.

  11. A genome-wide association study in the genetic analysis of idiopathic thrombophilia project suggests sex-specific regulation of mitochondrial DNA levels.

    PubMed

    López, Sonia; Buil, Alfonso; Souto, Juan Carlos; Casademont, Jordi; Martinez-Perez, Angel; Almasy, Laura; Soria, José Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Identifying genes that regulate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels is of interest due to an increasing number of diseases in humans that are associated with altered mtDNA levels. We searched for nuclear polymorphisms that influence mtDNA levels using a family-based genome-wide association (GWAS) method. Also, our aim was to determine if sex influences the genetic control of mtDNA levels. Two intron-polymorphisms, in the genes PARK2 and MRPL37, showed a tendency toward an association with mtDNA levels only in females and only in males, respectively. Both genes have a role in mitochondrial biogenesis and are potential candidates for the sex-specific control of mtDNA levels.

  12. Two Years of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Treatment Decreased Parathyroid Gland Volume and Serum Parathyroid Hormone Level in Hemodialysis Patients With Advanced Secondary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Tokumoto, Masanori; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Toyonaga, Jiro; Suehiro, Takaichi; Eriguchi, Rieko; Fujimi, Satoru; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    The long-term effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment on parathyroid gland (PTG) volume has been scarcely investigated in patients with moderate to advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The present study was a prospective observational study to determine the effect of cinacalcet treatment on PTG volume and serum biochemical parameters in 60 patients with renal SHPT, already treated with intravenous vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA). Measurement of biochemical parameters and PTG volumes were performed periodically, which were analyzed by stratification into tertiles across the baseline parathyroid hormone (PTH) level or PTG volume. We also determined the factors that can estimate the changes in PTG volume and the achievement of the target PTH range by multivariable analyses. Two years of cinacalcet treatment significantly decreased the serum levels of PTH, calcium, and phosphate, followed by the improvement of achieving the target ranges for these parameters recommended by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. Cinacalcet decreased the maximal and total PTG volume by about 30%, and also decreased the serum PTH level independent of the baseline serum PTH level and PTG volume. Ten out of 60 patients showed 30% increase in maximal PTG after 2 years. Multivariable analysis showed that patients with nodular PTG at baseline and patients with higher serum calcium and PTH levels at 1 year were likely to exceed the target range of PTH at two years. In conclusion, cinacalcet treatment with intravenous VDRA therapy decreased both PTG volume and serum intact PTH level, irrespective of the pretreatment PTG status and past treatment history.

  13. Biomarkers of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection: specific neutrophil and cytokine levels provide increased accuracy in predicting disease severity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul M; Schneeberger, Dana L; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Despite fundamental advances in the research on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) since its initial identification almost 60 years ago, recurring failures in developing vaccines and pharmacologic strategies effective in controlling the infection have allowed RSV to become a leading cause of global infant morbidity and mortality. Indeed, the burden of this infection on families and health care organizations worldwide continues to escalate and its financial costs are growing. Furthermore, strong epidemiologic evidence indicates that early-life lower respiratory tract infections caused by RSV lead to the development of recurrent wheezing and childhood asthma. While some progress has been made in the identification of reliable biomarkers for RSV bronchiolitis, a "one size fits all" biomarker capable of accurately and consistently predicting disease severity and post-acute outcomes has yet to be discovered. Therefore, it is of great importance on a global scale to identify useful biomarkers for this infection that will allow pediatricians to cost-effectively predict the clinical course of the disease, as well as monitor the efficacy of new therapeutic strategies.

  14. Gender- and Sport-Specific Associations Between Religiousness and Doping Behavior in High-Level Team Sports.

    PubMed

    Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Cubela, Mladen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-05-11

    Religiousness is known to be specifically associated with substance abuse, but there is an evident lack of studies investigating the association between religiousness and doping behavior as a specific type of substance abuse in athletes. This study aimed to provide evidence for possible gender- and sport-specific associations between religiousness and doping behavior among team-sport athletes of both genders. The participants were 886 athletes (21.9 ± 3.8 years of age; 352 females) involved in four sports: volleyball (n = 154; 78 females), handball (n = 206; 68 females), soccer (n = 316; 110 females) and basketball (n = 230; 96 females) from Croatia and Slovenia (all traditionally Roman Catholics). The data were collected using a previously validated structured questionnaire that examined sociodemographic, sport- and doping-related factors. In addition, religiousness was captured by the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith questionnaire (SCSRF). Gender-stratified simple logistic regressions were applied to determine associations between covariates and doping behavior (criterion). There was no significant difference in potential doping behavior between males and females (OR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.76-1.46), while females reported higher religiousness (SCSRF: 23.11 ± 3.23 and 25.46 ± 7.2 for males and females, respectively; t test = 1.82, p < 0.05). Younger female athletes and those with higher SCSRF score are found to be less prone to doping behavior. When models were adjusted for personal opinion about doping presence in sport and age, the SCSRF remained a significant predictor of potential doping behavior (OR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91-0.99). For males, the belief that doping was present in sport was strongly associated with a higher likelihood of doping. Our results suggest that highly religious females involved in three of the studies sports (i.e., volleyball, handball and basketball) show a weaker tendency toward doping. Meanwhile, there is no

  15. The Financial Aspects of First-Level Education in Iran. Financing Educational Systems: Specific Case Studies-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallak, J.; And Others

    This study is devoted to a comparative analysis of the financing and unit costs of three types of first-level schools in Iran, i.e., ordinary public schools, Education Corps schools, and private schools. The study was undertaken to ascertain the comparative position of the relatively new schools of the Education Corps, from the standpoint of their…

  16. The Relationship between Listening Comprehension of Text and Sentences in Preschoolers: Specific or Mediated by Lower and Higher Level Components?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Two studies explored the relation between listening comprehension of text and listening comprehension of sentences in preschoolers aged 4 to 5 years, 11 months. The first study analyzed this relationship taking into account the role of lower level components, namely, word knowledge and verbal working memory, as possible mediators. These components…

  17. The Decision-Adoption of Software Currency and Specificity Levels: A Quantitative Study of Information Technology (IT) Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somsen, W. Randy

    2009-01-01

    IT educators and learners are continually challenged to adapt to software changes and remain current in software applications. This study researched if it is necessary for IT educators to prepare IT students in the most current software releases--i.e., at the highest software currency preparation level and in the same software application that the…

  18. The validity and incremental validity of knowledge tests, low-fidelity simulations, and high-fidelity simulations for predicting job performance in advanced-level high-stakes selection.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Filip; Patterson, Fiona

    2011-09-01

    In high-stakes selection among candidates with considerable domain-specific knowledge and experience, investigations of whether high-fidelity simulations (assessment centers; ACs) have incremental validity over low-fidelity simulations (situational judgment tests; SJTs) are lacking. Therefore, this article integrates research on the validity of knowledge tests, low-fidelity simulations, and high-fidelity simulations in advanced-level high-stakes settings. A model and hypotheses of how these 3 predictors work in combination to predict job performance were developed. In a sample of 196 applicants, all 3 predictors were significantly related to job performance. Both the SJT and the AC had incremental validity over the knowledge test. Moreover, the AC had incremental validity over the SJT. Model tests showed that the SJT fully mediated the effects of declarative knowledge on job performance, whereas the AC partially mediated the effects of the SJT.

  19. Gender specific effect of LIPC C-514T polymorphism on obesity and relationship with plasma lipid levels in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Dandan; Ling, Jie; Lu, Wenhui; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic lipase (LIPC) is a key rate-limiting enzyme in lipoprotein catabolism pathways involved in the development of obesity. The C-514T polymorphism in the promoter region is associated with decreased LIPC activity. We performed a case-controlled study (850 obese children and 2119 controls) and evaluated the association between LIPC C-514T polymorphism, obesity and plasma lipid profile in Chinese children and adolescents. Additionally, we conducted a meta-analysis of all results from published studies as well as our own data. A significant association between the polymorphism and obesity is observed in boys (P = 0.042), but not in girls. And we observed a significant relationship of the polymorphism with total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) independent of obesity in boys. The T allele carriers have higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in obese boys, and triglyceride (TG), TC and LDL-C in non-obese girls (all P < 0.05). In the meta-analysis, under dominant model the T allele increased body mass index (BMI) level in boys, while it decreased BMI in girls, and increased the levels of TC both in the overall and subgroups, TG and HDL-C in the overall and boys, and LDL-C in the overall (all P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the T allele might carry an increased risk of obesity in Chinese boys. The meta-analysis suggests that T allele acts as a risk allele for higher BMI levels in male childhood, while it is a protective allele in female childhood. And the polymorphism is associated with the levels of plasma lipids, which may be modulated by obesity and gender.

  20. Advanced chronic kidney disease populations have elevated trimethylamine N-oxide levels associated with increased cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Kim, Richard B; Morse, Bridget L; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Tang, Mila; Muirhead, Norman; Barrett, Brendan; Holmes, Daniel T; Madore, Francois; Clase, Catherine M; Rigatto, Claudio; Levin, Adeera

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is more common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and traditional risk factors do not adequately predict those at risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Recent evidence suggests elevated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), created by gut microflora from dietary L-carnitine and choline, is associated with CV events. We investigated the relationship of TMAO levels in patients with stages 3b and 4 CKD to ischemic CV events using the CanPREDDICT cohort, a Canada-wide observational study with prospective 3-year follow-up of adjudicated CV events. Baseline samples were obtained for 2529 CKD patients. TMAO, choline, and L-carnitine levels were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. Baseline median TMAO level was high for the whole cohort (20.41 μM; interquartile range [IQR]: 12.82-32.70 μM). TMAO was independently associated with CV events (hazard ratio 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.42 / 1 SD lnTMAO) after adjusting for all potential CV risk factors. Those in the highest TMAO quartile had significantly higher risk of CV events (adjusted hazard ratio 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.43; P = 0.0351) in the analysis of recurring ischemic events. Among those with stage 3b CKD (hazard ratio 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.87 / 1 SD lnTMAO), independent of kidney function, TMAO levels identified those at highest risk for events. Our results suggest that TMAO may represent a new potentially modifiable CV risk factor for CKD patients. Further studies are needed to determine sources of variability and if lowering of TMAO reduces CV risk in CKD.

  1. An Analysis of HIV and AIDS Spatial Awareness and Vulnerability Level with Specific Reference to Staff at One Polytechnic in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatsi, Caroline; Chikuvadze, Pinias; Mugijima, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    With the gravity of the HIV and AIDS situation in most African nations and its implications for the education sector, a study was undertaken to analyze the spatial awareness and vulnerability level to pandemic in tertiary institutions with specific reference to academic and support staff at one polytechnic in Zimbabwe. A sample comprised of…

  2. EOSCUBE: A Constraint Database System for High-Level Specification and Efficient Generation of EOSDIS Products. Phase 1; Proof-of-Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodsky, Alexander; Segal, Victor E.

    1999-01-01

    The EOSCUBE constraint database system is designed to be a software productivity tool for high-level specification and efficient generation of EOSDIS and other scientific products. These products are typically derived from large volumes of multidimensional data which are collected via a range of scientific instruments.

  3. Brain metastasis development and poor survival associated with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Central nervous system is a common site of metastasis in NSCLC and confers worse prognosis and quality of life. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical-pathological factors (CPF), serum CEA levels, and EGFR and HER2 tissue-expression in brain metastasis (BM) and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced NSCLC. Methods In a prospective manner, we studied 293 patients with NSCLC in IIIB-IV clinical stage. They received standard chemotherapy. CEA was measured prior to treatment; EGFR and HER2 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. BM development was confirmed by MRI in symptomatic patients. Results BM developed in 27, and 32% of patients at 1 and 2 years of diagnosis with adenocarcinoma (RR 5.2; 95% CI, 1.002–29; p = 0.05) and CEA ≥ 40 ng/mL (RR 11.4; 95% CI, 1.7–74; p < 0.01) as independent associated factors. EGFR and HER2 were not statistically significant. Masculine gender (RR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.002–1.9; p = 0.048), poor performance status (RR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5–2.3; p = 0.002), advanced clinical stage (RR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02–2; p = 0.04), CEA ≥ 40 ng/mL (RR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.09–2.2; p = 0.014) and EGFR expression (RR 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4–1.9; p = 0.012) were independent associated factors to worse OS. Conclusion High CEA serum level is a risk factor for BM development and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC. Surface expression of CEA in tumor cells could be the physiopathological mechanism for invasion to CNS. PMID:19386089

  4. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-12-01

    Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports.

  5. Disposable magnetic DNA sensors for the determination at the attomolar level of a specific enterobacteriaceae family gene.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Oscar A; Campuzano, Susana; Pedrero, María; Pividori, M Isabel; García, Pedro; Pingarrón, José M

    2008-11-01

    Disposable magnetic DNA sensors using an enzyme-amplified strategy for the specific detection of a gene related to the Enterobacteriaceae bacterial family, based on the coupling of streptavidin-peroxidase to biotinylated lacZ gene target sequences, has been developed. A biotinylated 25-mer capture probe was attached to streptavidin-modified magnetic beads and hybridization with the biotinylated target was allowed to proceed. Then, a streptavidin-peroxidase polymer was attached to the biotinylated target, and the resulting modified magnetic beads were captured by a magnetic field on the surface of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) modified gold screen-printed electrodes (Au/SPEs). The amperometric response obtained at -0.15 V after the addition of hydrogen peroxide was used to detect the hybridization process. In order to improve the sensitivity of the determination and reduce the assay time, different variables of the assay protocol were optimized. A low detection limit (5.7 fmol) with good stability (RSD = 7.1%, n = 10) was obtained. The DNA nonspecific adsorption at the magnetic beads was negligible, the obtained results thus demonstrating the possibility to detect the hybridization event with great specificity and sensitivity. The developed method was used for the analysis of Escherichia coli DNA fragments (326 bases) in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons extracted from a cell culture. As low as 2.5 aM asymmetric PCR product could be detected with the developed methodology.

  6. Foundational Report Series: Advanced Distribution Management Systems for Grid Modernization, High-Level Use Cases for DMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianhui; Lu, Xiaonan; Martino, Sal; Reilly, James T.

    2016-02-01

    Many distribution management systems (DMS) projects have achieved limited success because the electric utility did not sufficiently plan for actual use of the DMS functions in the control room environment. As a result, end users were not clear on how to use the new application software in actual production environments with existing, well-established business processes. An important first step in the DMS implementation process is development and refinement of the “to be” business processes. Development of use cases for the required DMS application functions is a key activity that leads to the formulation of the “to be” requirements. It is also an important activity that is needed to develop specifications that are used to procure a new DMS.

  7. Plasma Carotenoids and Tocopherols in Relation to Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Levels Among Men with Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Antwi, Samuel; Steck, Susan E.; Zhang, Hongmei; Stumm, Lareissa; Zhang, Jiajia; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hebert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although men presenting with clinically localized prostate cancer (PrCA) often are treated with radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy with curative intent, about 25–40% develop biochemically recurrent PrCA within 5 years of treatment, which has no known cure. Studies suggest that carotenoid and tocopherol intake may be associated with PrCA risk and progression. We examined plasma carotenoid and tocopherol levels in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among men with PSA-defined biochemical recurrence of PrCA. Methods Data analyzed were from a 6-month diet, physical activity and stress-reduction intervention trial conducted in South Carolina among biochemically recurrent PrCA patients (n=39). Plasma carotenoids and tocopherol levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Linear regression was used to estimate least-square means comparing PSA levels of men with high versus low carotenoid/tocopherol levels, adjusting for covariates. Results After adjusting for baseline PSA level, plasma cis-lutein/zeaxanthin level at 3 months was related inversely to PSA level at 3 months (P=0.0008), while α-tocopherol (P=0.01), β-cryptoxanthin (P=0.01), and all-trans-lycopene (P=0.004) levels at 3 months were related inversely to PSA levels at 6-months. Percent increase in α-tocopherol and trans-β-carotene levels from baseline to month 3 were associated with lower PSA levels at 3 and 6 months. Percent increase in β−cryptoxanthin, cislutein/zeaxanthin and all-trans-lycopene were associated with lower PSA levels at 6 months only. Conclusions Certain plasma carotenoids and tocopherols were related inversely to PSA levels at various timepoints, suggesting that greater intake of foods containing these micronutrients might be beneficial to men with PSA-defined PrCA recurrence. PMID:26165176

  8. Sleep-Dependent Synaptic Down-Selection (II): Single-Neuron Level Benefits for Matching, Selectivity, and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Atif; Nere, Andrew; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    In a companion paper (1), we used computer simulations to show that a strategy of activity-dependent, on-line net synaptic potentiation during wake, followed by off-line synaptic depression during sleep, can provide a parsimonious account for several memory benefits of sleep at the systems level, including the consolidation of procedural and declarative memories, gist extraction, and integration of new with old memories. In this paper, we consider the theoretical benefits of this two-step process at the single-neuron level and employ the theoretical notion of Matching between brain and environment to measure how this process increases the ability of the neuron to capture regularities in the environment and model them internally. We show that down-selection during sleep is beneficial for increasing or restoring Matching after learning, after integrating new with old memories, and after forgetting irrelevant material. By contrast, alternative schemes, such as additional potentiation in wake, potentiation in sleep, or synaptic renormalization in wake, decrease Matching. We also argue that, by selecting appropriate loops through the brain that tie feedforward synapses with feedback ones in the same dendritic domain, different subsets of neurons can learn to specialize for different contingencies and form sequences of nested perception-action loops. By potentiating such loops when interacting with the environment in wake, and depressing them when disconnected from the environment in sleep, neurons can learn to match the long-term statistical structure of the environment while avoiding spurious modes of functioning and catastrophic interference. Finally, such a two-step process has the additional benefit of desaturating the neuron's ability to learn and of maintaining cellular homeostasis. Thus, sleep-dependent synaptic renormalization offers a parsimonious account for both cellular and systems level effects of sleep on learning and memory.

  9. Instrumentation report 1: specification, design, calibration, and installation of instrumentation for an experimental, high-level, nuclear waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brough, W.G.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted 420 m underground at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the US Department of Energy. The test facility houses 11 spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor and numerous other thermal sources used to simulate the near-field effects of a large repository. We developed a large-scale instrumentation plan to ensure that a sufficient quality and quantity of data were acquired during the three- to five-year test. These data help satisfy scientific, operational, and radiation safety objectives. Over 800 data channels are being scanned to measure temperature, electrical power, radiation, air flow, dew point, stress, displacement, and equipment operation status (on/off). This document details the criteria, design, specifications, installation, calibration, and current performance of the entire instrumentation package.

  10. Community-Level and Species-Specific Associations between Phytoplankton and Particle-Associated Vibrio Species in Delaware's Inland Bays

    PubMed Central

    Salvitti, Lauren R.; Whereat, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio species are an abundant and diverse group of bacteria that form associations with phytoplankton. Correlations between Vibrio and phytoplankton abundance have been noted, suggesting that growth is enhanced during algal blooms or that association with phytoplankton provides a refuge from predation. Here, we investigated relationships between particle-associated Vibrio spp. and phytoplankton in Delaware's inland bays (DIB). The relative abundances of particle-associated Vibrio spp. and algal classes that form blooms in DIB (dinoflagellates, diatoms, and raphidophytes) were determined using quantitative PCR. The results demonstrated a significant correlation between particle-associated Vibrio abundance and phytoplankton, with higher correlations to diatoms and raphidophytes than to dinoflagellates. Species-specific associations were examined during a mixed bloom of Heterosigma akashiwo and Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae) and indicated a significant positive correlation for particle-associated Vibrio abundance with H. akashiwo but a negative correlation with F. japonica. Changes in Vibrio assemblages during the bloom were evaluated using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), which revealed significant differences between each size fraction but no significant change in Vibrio assemblages over the course of the bloom. Microzooplankton grazing experiments showed that losses of particle-associated Vibrio spp. may be offset by increased growth in the Vibrio population. Moreover, analysis of Vibrio assemblages by ARISA also indicated an increase in the relative abundance for specific members of the Vibrio community despite higher grazing pressure on the particle-associated population as a whole. The results of this investigation demonstrate links between phytoplankton and Vibrio that may lead to predictions of potential health risks and inform future management practices in this region. PMID:26070682

  11. Community-Level and Species-Specific Associations between Phytoplankton and Particle-Associated Vibrio Species in Delaware's Inland Bays.

    PubMed

    Main, Christopher R; Salvitti, Lauren R; Whereat, Edward B; Coyne, Kathryn J

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio species are an abundant and diverse group of bacteria that form associations with phytoplankton. Correlations between Vibrio and phytoplankton abundance have been noted, suggesting that growth is enhanced during algal blooms or that association with phytoplankton provides a refuge from predation. Here, we investigated relationships between particle-associated Vibrio spp. and phytoplankton in Delaware's inland bays (DIB). The relative abundances of particle-associated Vibrio spp. and algal classes that form blooms in DIB (dinoflagellates, diatoms, and raphidophytes) were determined using quantitative PCR. The results demonstrated a significant correlation between particle-associated Vibrio abundance and phytoplankton, with higher correlations to diatoms and raphidophytes than to dinoflagellates. Species-specific associations were examined during a mixed bloom of Heterosigma akashiwo and Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae) and indicated a significant positive correlation for particle-associated Vibrio abundance with H. akashiwo but a negative correlation with F. japonica. Changes in Vibrio assemblages during the bloom were evaluated using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), which revealed significant differences between each size fraction but no significant change in Vibrio assemblages over the course of the bloom. Microzooplankton grazing experiments showed that losses of particle-associated Vibrio spp. may be offset by increased growth in the Vibrio population. Moreover, analysis of Vibrio assemblages by ARISA also indicated an increase in the relative abundance for specific members of the Vibrio community despite higher grazing pressure on the particle-associated population as a whole. The results of this investigation demonstrate links between phytoplankton and Vibrio that may lead to predictions of potential health risks and inform future management practices in this region.

  12. Hepatitis B specific T cell immunity induced by primary vaccination persists independently of the protective serum antibody level.

    PubMed

    Carollo, Maria; Palazzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Manuela; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Chionne, Paola; Fedele, Giorgio; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Carsetti, Rita; Romanò, Luisa; Ausiello, Clara Maria

    2013-01-07

    In 2005, in accordance with recommendations made by the European Medicines Agency, the Italian Drug Agency ordered withdrawal of the hexavalent Hexavac(®) vaccine (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) from the market. Concerns had been raised about the low immunogenicity of the hepatitis B virus component of the vaccine, assessed by measurement of serum antibody levels, and its potential consequences on long-term protection against hepatitis B infection. We evaluated memory T cell response to establish whether there are differences in the protective mechanisms among children who had received either Hexavac(®) or Infanrix-hexa(®) (GlaxoSmithKline) as their primary vaccination. Immunological memory was determined by measuring the ability of T cells to proliferate and secrete IFNγ by ELISA and intracellular cytokines (IFNγ and IL-2) when cultured with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The different memory subsets of T cells were also measured. The results indicate that, although they generate different serum antibody levels, both vaccines are efficient in generating T recall responses in vitro five years after the primary vaccination. The less immunogenic Hexavac(®) vaccine induces a strong T antigen response, as indicated by increased blast proliferation and the enhanced presence of memory subsets after HBsAg recall stimulation. These findings suggest that cellular immune response should be considered alongside serological markers as a surrogate of protection.

  13. The effects of Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE)-374T/A and Gly82Ser variants and soluble-RAGE levels to obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Kucukhuseyin, O; Ozgen, T; Karagedik, E H; Cesur, Y; Yilmaz Aydogan, H; Yaylim, I; Ergen, H A

    2016-04-30

    In recent years, studies related to advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their interaction with their receptors (RAGE) have advanced our knowledge of the roles of these molecules in different diseases. However, studies concerning AGE-RAGE interaction in obesity are limited and the results are conflicting. RAGE gene is located on 6p21.3, has several polymorphic sites including -374T/A, a functional polymorphism in the promoter region, and Gly82Ser, present within the ligand-binding domain. In the present study, the determination of possible risks in the development of obesity according to RAGE polymorhisms and plasma levels of RAGE (sRAGE) was aimed. 87 obese and 78 healthy children were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated with salting-out procedure. RAGE polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR based techniques. In contrast to Gly82Ser, -374T/A allelic and genotypic frequencies were not different between study groups. Ser(SerSer+GlySer genotype) allele frequency was higher in obese cases than controls (74.20%→25.80%,OR:2.573,95%CI:1.789-3.699;p<0.01). In obese cases, blood glycose (92.50±2.80→87.00±1.16; p=0.025) and HDL-C (46.14±2.75→39.84±1.82;p=0.057) levels were higher than TT genotype carriers. As for Gly82Ser polymorphism, HDL-C (p=0.004) and FT4 (p=0.020) levels were different in obese cases, the order was SerSer>GlySer>GlyGly for HDL-C, and opposite for FT4. Besides, Ser carriers had lower insulin (p=0.038) and homa-IR (p=0.081) levels than GG genotype. sRAGE levels were different between obese and control seperately or in combination with RAGE polymorphisms (p<0.05), the order of sRAGE was TT>TA>AA for -374T/A and SerSer>GlyGly>GlySer for Gly82Ser. According to our results SerSer genotype could have significant effects on sRAGE levels, and increased sRAGE levels and Gly82Ser polymorphism either combinatorially or seperately increased the propensity towards obesity.

  14. Convergence Revolution Comes to Wearables: Multiple Advances are Taking Biosensor Networks to the Next Level in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    In the field of wearable biomedical sensors, the convergence revolution is more than a fanciful, utopian view of the way innovation should be done. Medical-grade wearable sensors rely on it. Their development requires technical know-how, computing expertise, clinical input, and collaboration-a true meeting of the minds to permit the conversion of wearables from neat gadgets into practical and proficient tools that will propel health care to new heights. Beyond the increasing miniaturization of hardware and the shift to wireless communication technology, flexible electronics and more powerful computing capabilities, including application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), have enabled new work on body sensor networks (BSNs) that monitor, analyze, and make sense of body signals for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of health disorders. Developments in processing, such as sensor-connected nodes combined with evolving algorithms and decreasing power requirements, have also contributed. In addition, new approaches to subjective measures (pain and emotion) have opened possibilities.

  15. Muscle co-activity tuning in Parkinsonian hand movement: disease-specific changes at behavioral and cerebral level

    PubMed Central

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Toxopeus, C. M.; de Jong, B. M.; Yavuz, P.; Valsan, G.; Conway, B. A.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated simple directional hand movements based on different degrees of muscle co-activity, at behavioral and cerebral level in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We compared “singular” movements, dominated by the activity of one agonist muscle, to “composite” movements, requiring conjoint activity of multiple muscles, in a center-out (right hand) step-tracking task. Behavioral parameters were obtained by EMG and kinematic recordings. fMRI was used to investigate differences in underlying brain activations between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy (age-matched) subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, composite movements recruited the striatum and cortical areas comprising bilaterally the supplementary motor area and premotor cortex, contralateral medial prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, primary visual cortex, and ipsilateral superior parietal cortex. Contrarily, the ipsilateral cerebellum was more involved in singular movements. This striking dichotomy between striatal and cortical recruitment vs. cerebellar involvement was considered to reflect the complementary roles of these areas in motor control, in which the basal ganglia are involved in movement selection and the cerebellum in movement optimization. Compared to healthy subjects, PD patients showed decreased activation of the striatum and cortical areas in composite movement, while performing worse at behavioral level. This implies that PD patients are especially impaired on tasks requiring highly tuned muscle co-activity. Singular movement, on the other hand, was characterized by a combination of increased activation of the ipsilateral parietal cortex and left cerebellum. As singular movement performance was only slightly compromised, we interpret this as a reflection of increased visuospatial processing, possibly as a compensational mechanism. PMID:26300761

  16. Nuclear DNA level and life cycle of kelps: Evidence for sex-specific polyteny in Macrocystis (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Müller, Dieter G; Maier, Ingo; Marie, Dominique; Westermeier, Renato

    2016-04-01

    Giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C. Agardh, is the subject of intense breeding studies for marine biomass production and conservation of natural resources. In this context, six gametophyte pairs and a sporophyte offspring of Macrocystis from South America were analyzed by flow cytometry. Minimum relative DNA content per cell (1C) was found in five males. Unexpectedly, nuclei of all female gametophytes contained approximately double the DNA content (2C) of males; the male gametophyte from one locality also contained 2C, likely a spontaneous natural diploid variant. The results illustrate a sex-specific difference in nuclear DNA content among Macrocystis gametophytes, with the chromosomes of the females in a polytenic condition. This correlates with significantly larger cell sizes in female gametophytes compared to males and resource allocation in oogamous reproduction. The results provide key information for the interpretation of DNA measurements in kelp life cycle stages and prompt further research on the regulation of the cell cycle, metabolic activity, sex determination, and sporophyte development.

  17. Isomer specific determination of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in small cetaceans from the South China Sea--Levels and temporal variation.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takahashi, Shin; Lam, Paul K S; Jefferson, Thomas A; Zhou, Kaiya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-08-01

    A diastereoisomer (alpha, beta, and gamma) specific analytical method for measuring hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The method developed was applied to analyze blubber of small cetaceans to divulge the distribution and temporal variation of HBCDs in the Asian marine environment. HBCDs were detected in all the blubber samples of finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) collected from the South China Sea during 1990-2001. Concentrations of HBCDs were higher in humpback dolphins (31-380 ng/g lipid) than in finless porpoises (4.7-55 ng/g lipid), which can be attributed to habitat differences. Average concentrations of alpha-HBCD in finless porpoises increased from 9.5 ng/g lipid in 1990 to 35 ng/g lipid in 2000/01. alpha-HBCD was predominant among the three isomers with some exceptions in finless porpoises collected in 1990. This is the first report on HBCDs contamination in marine mammals from Southeast Asia.

  18. Hairpin oligonucleotides anchored terbium ion: a fluorescent probe to specifically detect lead(II) at sub-nM levels.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yueteng; Liu, Ru; Wang, Yaling; Zhao, Yuliang; Cai, Zhifang; Gao, Xueyun

    2013-04-21

    A terbium based fluorescent probe was synthesized by coordinating terbium ions with a designed oligonucleotides (5'-ATATGGGGGATAT-3', termed GH5). GH5 improved the fluorescence of terbium ions by four orders of magnitude. The fluorescence enhancement of terbium ions by different oligonucleotides sequences indicated that the polyguanine loop of the hairpin GH5 is key to enhance terbium ion emission. The quantum yield of Tb-GH5 probe was 10.5% and the probe was photo-stable. The result of conductivity titration indicated that the stoichiometry of the probe is 3.5 Tb: 1 GH5, which is confirmed by fluorescence titration. This probe had high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of lead ions. The fluorescence intensity of this probe was linear with respect to lead concentration over a range 0.3-2.1 nM (R(2) = 0.99). The limit of detection for lead ions was 0.1 nM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.

  19. Diverse Non-genetic, Allele-Specific Expression Effects Shape Genetic Architecture at the Cellular Level in the Mammalian Brain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Chao; Ferris, Elliott; Cheng, Tong; Hörndli, Cornelia Stacher; Gleason, Kelly; Tamminga, Carol; Wagner, Janice D; Boucher, Kenneth M; Christian, Jan L; Gregg, Christopher

    2017-03-08

    Interactions between genetic and epigenetic effects shape brain function, behavior, and the risk for mental illness. Random X inactivation and genomic imprinting are epigenetic allelic effects that are well known to influence genetic architecture and disease risk. Less is known about the nature, prevalence, and conservation of other potential epigenetic allelic effects in vivo in the mouse and primate brain. Here we devise genomics, in situ hybridization, and mouse genetics strategies to uncover diverse allelic effects in the brain that are not caused by imprinting or genetic variation. We found allelic effects that are developmental stage and cell type specific, that are prevalent in the neonatal brain, and that cause mosaics of monoallelic brain cells that differentially express wild-type and mutant alleles for heterozygous mutations. Finally, we show that diverse non-genetic allelic effects that impact mental illness risk genes exist in the macaque and human brain. Our findings have potential implications for mammalian brain genetics. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  20. An evolutionarily conserved Myostatin proximal promoter/enhancer confers basal levels of transcription and spatial specificity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Grade, Carla Vermeulen Carvalho; Salerno, Mônica Senna; Schubert, Frank R; Dietrich, Susanne; Alvares, Lúcia Elvira

    2009-10-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, and Mstn mutations are responsible for the double muscling phenotype observed in many animal species. Moreover, Mstn is a positive regulator of adult muscle stem cell (satellite cell) quiescence, and hence, Mstn is being targeted in therapeutic approaches to muscle diseases. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying Mstn regulation, we searched for the gene's proximal enhancer and promoter elements, using an evolutionary approach. We identified a 260-bp-long, evolutionary conserved region upstream of tetrapod Mstn and teleost mstn b genes. This region contains binding sites for TATA binding protein, Meis1, NF-Y, and for CREB family members, suggesting the involvement of cAMP in Myostatin regulation. The conserved fragment was able to drive reporter gene expression in C2C12 cells in vitro and in chicken somites in vivo; both normally express Mstn. In contrast, the reporter construct remained silent in the avian neural tube that normally does not express Mstn. This suggests that the identified element serves as a minimal promoter, harboring some spatial specificity. Finally, using bioinformatic approaches, we identified additional genes in the human genome associated with sequences similar to the Mstn proximal promoter/enhancer. Among them are genes important for myogenesis. This suggests that Mstn and these genes may form a synexpression group, regulated by a common signaling pathway.

  1. An Increase of Plasma Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Levels Is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Elena; Bajo, Maria-Auxiliadora; Carrero, Juan J.; Lindholm, Bengt; Grande, Cristina; Sánchez-Villanueva, Rafael; Del Peso, Gloria; Díaz-Almirón, Mariana; Iglesias, Pedro; Díez, Juan J.; Selgas, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are considered as markers and even mediators of the proinflammatory effect of oxidative stress in uremia. We hypothesized that an increase of oxidative stress associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), estimated by the variation of plasma AOPPs over time, might be associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk and overall prognosis. In 48 PD patients, blood samples were collected on two occasions: the first one in the first six months after starting PD therapy and the second one, one year after. The plasma AOPPs level variation over the first year on PD was significantly associated with CV antecedents and also with CV prognosis. In those patients in whom the AOPPs levels increased more than 50% above the baseline value, a significant association with past and future CV disease was confirmed. These patients had 4.7 times greater risk of suffering later CV disease than those with a smaller increase, even after adjusting for previous CV history. Our data suggest that the increase of AOPPs plasma level over the first year on PD is conditioned by CV antecedents but also independently predicts CV prognosis. AOPPs plasma levels seem to represent the CV status of PD patients with sufficient sensitivity to identify those with a clearly sustained higher CV risk. PMID:26581178

  2. High level of PD-1 expression on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells during acute HCV infection, irrespective of clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Kasprowicz, Victoria; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Kuntzen, Thomas; Nolan, Brian E; Longworth, Steven; Berical, Andrew; Blum, Jenna; McMahon, Cory; Reyor, Laura L; Elias, Nahel; Kwok, William W; McGovern, Barbara G; Freeman, Gordon; Chung, Raymond T; Klenerman, Paul; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia; Walker, Bruce D; Allen, Todd M; Kim, Arthur Y; Lauer, Georg M

    2008-03-01

    We monitored expression of PD-1 (a mediator of T-cell exhaustion and viral persistence) on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells from blood and liver during acute and chronic infections and after the resolved infection stage. PD-1 expression on HCV-specific T cells was high early in acute infection irrespective of clinical outcome, and most cells continued to express PD-1 in resolved and chronic stages of infection; intrahepatic expression levels were especially high. Our results suggest that an analysis of PD-1 expression alone is not sufficient to predict infection outcome or to determine T-cell functionality in HCV infection.

  3. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk.

    PubMed

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Iwata, Hisato; Adibroto, Tussy A; Hartono, Phillipus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada.

  4. Scaling up health knowledge at European level requires sharing integrated data: an approach for collection of database specification.

    PubMed

    Menditto, Enrica; Bolufer De Gea, Angela; Cahir, Caitriona; Marengoni, Alessandra; Riegler, Salvatore; Fico, Giuseppe; Costa, Elisio; Monaco, Alessandro; Pecorelli, Sergio; Pani, Luca; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Computerized health care databases have been widely described as an excellent opportunity for research. The availability of "big data" has brought about a wave of innovation in projects when conducting health services research. Most of the available secondary data sources are restricted to the geographical scope of a given country and present heterogeneous structure and content. Under the umbrella of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, collaborative work conducted by the partners of the group on "adherence to prescription and medical plans" identified the use of observational and large-population databases to monitor medication-taking behavior in the elderly. This article describes the methodology used to gather the information from available databases among the Adherence Action Group partners with the aim of improving data sharing on a European level. A total of six databases belonging to three different European countries (Spain, Republic of Ireland, and Italy) were included in the analysis. Preliminary results suggest that there are some similarities. However, these results should be applied in different contexts and European countries, supporting the idea that large European studies should be designed in order to get the most of already available databases.

  5. Cortical depth-specific microvascular dilation underlies laminar differences in blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI signal

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Peifang; Teng, Ivan C.; May, Larry D.; Kurz, Ronald; Lu, Kun; Scadeng, Miriam; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; De Crespigny, Alex J.; D’Arceuil, Helen E.; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Marota, John J. A.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Liu, Thomas T.; Boas, David A.; Buxton, Richard B.; Dale, Anders M.; Devor, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Changes in neuronal activity are accompanied by the release of vasoactive mediators that cause microscopic dilation and constriction of the cerebral microvasculature and are manifested in macroscopic blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) signals. We used two-photon microscopy to measure the diameters of single arterioles and capillaries at different depths within the rat primary somatosensory cortex. These measurements were compared with cortical depth-resolved fMRI signal changes. Our microscopic results demonstrate a spatial gradient of dilation onset and peak times consistent with “upstream” propagation of vasodilation toward the cortical surface along the diving arterioles and “downstream” propagation into local capillary beds. The observed BOLD response exhibited the fastest onset in deep layers, and the “initial dip” was most pronounced in layer I. The present results indicate that both the onset of the BOLD response and the initial dip depend on cortical depth and can be explained, at least in part, by the spatial gradient of delays in microvascular dilation, the fastest response being in the deep layers and the most delayed response in the capillary bed of layer I. PMID:20696904

  6. Increasing the endogenous NO level causes catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis signaling specifically in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    NO metabolism and direct catalase inhibitors. The latter aspect is explicitely studied for the interaction between catalase inhibiting acetylsalicylic acid and an NO donor. It is also shown that hybrid molecules like NO-aspirin utilize this synergistic potential. Our data open novel approaches for rational tumor therapy based on specific ROS signaling and its control in tumor cells.

  7. Increasing the endogenous NO level causes catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis signaling specifically in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    NO metabolism and direct catalase inhibitors. The latter aspect is explicitely studied for the interaction between catalase inhibiting acetylsalicylic acid and an NO donor. It is also shown that hybrid molecules like NO-aspirin utilize this synergistic potential. Our data open novel approaches for rational tumor therapy based on specific ROS signaling and its control in tumor cells. PMID:26342455

  8. Effects of carbamazepine on serum parathormone, 25- hydroxyvitamin D, bone specific alkaline phosphatase, C-telopeptide, and osteocalcin levels in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Kir, Hale Maral; Garip, Sebnem; Sahin, Deniz; Öztaş, Berrin

    2012-11-01

    It is still not completely clear whether carbamazepine causes alterations in vitamin D status and in bone metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of carbamazepine on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and on biomarkers of bone formation and resorption in healthy rats. Levels of calcium, 25- hydroxyvitamin D, parathormone, C-telopeptide, bone specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were measured in 3 groups of rats consisting of controls (n=10), isotonic saline solution group (n=10) and carbamazepine group (n=10). Mean calcium levels were found to be significantly lower in healthy controls in comparison to isotonic saline solution and carbamazepine groups (10.0±0.24, 10.81±0.16, 10.93±0.22 mg/dL, respectively, p<0.05). Mean levels of 25- hydroxyvitamin D, were found to be significantly higher in control group compared to isotonic saline solution group (25- hydroxyvitamin D; 25.91±1.12, 19.99±0.99 ng/mL, respectively, p<0.01). Mean levels of parathormone and osteocalcin were found to be significantly higher in control group compared to isotonic saline solution group and carbamazepine group. Parathormone levels were measured as 3.46±0.83, 1.08±0.08, 0.94±0.02 pg/mL, respectively (p<0.01). Osteocalcine levels were measured as 1.66±0.001, 1.32±0.002, 1.32±0.001 ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). A significant difference in terms of mean serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and C-telopeptide levels among groups was not observed. The main outcome of this prospective study in healthy rats showed no change in biochemical parameters of bone turnover during treatment with carbamazepine.

  9. Elevated Dopamine Levels During Gestation Produce Region-specific Decreases in Neurogenesis and Subtle Deficits in Neuronal Numbers

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Deirdre; Lueras, Paula; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2007-01-01

    Dopamine levels in the fetal brain were increased by administering the dopamine precursor 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) to pregnant mice in drinking water. The L-DOPA exposure decreased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling in the lateral ganglionic eminence and frontal cortical neuroepithelium but not medial or caudal ganglionic eminences. The regional differences appear to reflect heterogeneity in precursor cells’ responses to dopamine receptor activation. Relative numbers of E15 generated neurons were decreased at postnatal day 21 (P21) in the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex but not globus pallidus in the L-DOPA group. TUNEL labeling did not show significant differences on P0, P7 or P14 in the caudate-putamen or frontal cortex, suggesting that cell death was not altered. Although virtually all cells in the P21 brains that were labeled with the E15 BrdU injection were NeuN-positive, stereological analyses showed no significant changes in total numbers of NeuN-positive or NeuN-negative cells in the P21 caudate-putamen or frontal cortex. Thus persisting deficits in neuronal numbers were evident in the L-DOPA group only by birth-dating analyses and not upon gross histological examination of brain sections or analysis of total numbers of neurons or glia. One explanation for this apparent discrepancy is that L-DOPA exposure decreased cell proliferation at E15 but not at E13. By E15, expansion of the neuroepithelial precursor pool is complete and any decrease in cell proliferation likely produces only marginal decreases in the total numbers of cells generated. Our L-DOPA exposure model may be pertinent to investigations of neurological dysfunction produced by developmental dopamine imbalance. PMID:17950709

  10. Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk

    2014-09-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

  11. Stimulus-response bindings code both abstract and specific representations of stimuli: evidence from a classification priming design that reverses multiple levels of response representation.

    PubMed

    Horner, A J; Henson, R N

    2011-11-01

    Repetition priming can be caused by the rapid retrieval of previously encoded stimulus-response (S-R) bindings. S-R bindings have recently been shown to simultaneously code multiple levels of response representation, from specific Motor-actions to more abstract Decisions ("yes"/"no") and Classifications (e.g., "man-made"/"natural"). Using an experimental design that reverses responses at all of these levels, we assessed whether S-R bindings also code multiple levels of stimulus representation. Across two experiments, we found effects of response reversal on priming when switching between object pictures and object names, consistent with S-R bindings that code stimuli at an abstract level. Nonetheless, the size of this reversal effect was smaller for such across-format (e.g., word-picture) repetition than for within-format (e.g., picture-picture) repetition, suggesting additional coding of format-specific stimulus representations. We conclude that S-R bindings simultaneously represent both stimuli and responses at multiple levels of abstraction.

  12. Blood Lead Levels and Cause-Specific Mortality of Inorganic Lead-Exposed Workers in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Chang, Se-Jin; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Jong-Ku; Koh, Sang-Baek; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the association of blood lead level (BLL) with mortality in inorganic lead-exposed workers of South Korea. A cohort was compiled comprising 81,067 inorganic lead exposed workers working between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004. This cohort was merged with the Korean National Statistical Office to follow-up for mortality between 2000 and 2008. After adjusting for age and other carcinogenic metal exposure, all-cause mortality (Relative risk [RR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–1.79), digestive disease (RR 3.23, 95% CI 1.33–7.86), and intentional self-harm (RR 2.92, 95% CI 1.07–7.81) were statistically significantly higher in males with BLL >20 μg/dl than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl. The RR of males with BLL of 10–20 μg/dl was statistically higher than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl in infection (RR 3.73. 95% CI, 1.06–13.06). The RRs of females with 10–20 μg/dl BLL was statistically significantly greater than those with BLL <10μg/dl in all-cause mortality (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.16–3.20) and colon and rectal cancer (RR 13.42, 95% CI 1.21–149.4). The RRs of females with BLL 10–20 μg/dl (RR 10.45, 95% CI 1.74–62.93) and BLL ≥20 μg/dl (RR 12.68, 95% CI 1.69–147.86) was statistically significantly increased in bronchus and lung cancer. The increased suicide of males with ≥20 μg/dl BLLs, which might be caused by major depression, might be associated with higher lead exposure. Also, increased bronchus and lung cancer mortality in female workers with higher BLL might be related to lead exposure considering low smoking rate in females. The kinds of BLL-associated mortality differed by gender. PMID:26469177

  13. Correlation between the levels of non-specific physical symptoms and pressure pain thresholds measured by algometry in patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, D; Macedo, L; Goffredo Filho, G; Goes, C; Tesch, R

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies showed that patients with chronic TMD pain also feature increased sensitivity in other craniofacial regions, and even in remote peripheral areas, suggesting that nociceptive processing is centrally facilitated in this patient population. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of a negative correlation between the levels of non-specific physical symptoms and pressure pain thresholds measured by algometry at sites distant from the chief complaint of oro-facial pain in patients with TMD. A total of 20 female patients were evaluated comprising 11 patients diagnosed with myofascial pain (Group I of RDC/TMD) and 9 patients with arthralgia (Group III of RDC/TMD), with both reporting chronic TMD pain for at least 3 months. Patients were tested by the pressure algometry technique, and, in the same visit, clinical diagnosis and levels of non-specific physical symptoms, including pain-related issues or not, were obtained. The raw scores were then standardised into a T-score. The possible correlation between the dependent variable levels of non-specific physical symptoms and pressure pain thresholds measured by algometry at sites distant from the chief complaint of oro-facial pain was assessed with Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results were considered statistically significant, which stood a lower than 5% probability of occurring by chance (P < 0·05). A statistically significant (P = 0·02) negative correlation (-0·51) was found to exist between the levels of non-specific physical symptoms, only if including issues involving pain-related symptoms, and experimental pressure pain thresholds in patients with painful TMD.

  14. The Relationship Between Population-Level Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Television and Brand-Specific Consumption Among Underage Youth in the US

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S.; Maple, Emily; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Padon, Alisa A.; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We investigated the population-level relationship between exposure to brand-specific advertising and brand-specific alcohol use among US youth. Methods: We conducted an internet survey of a national sample of 1031 youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all of the alcohol brands respondents consumed in the past 30 days, as well as which of 20 popular television shows they had viewed during that time period. Using a negative binomial regression model, we examined the relationship between aggregated brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on the 20 television shows [ad stock, measured in gross rating points (GRPs)] and youth brand-consumption prevalence, while controlling for the average price and overall market share of each brand. Results: Brands with advertising exposure on the 20 television shows had a consumption prevalence about four times higher than brands not advertising on those shows. Brand-level advertising elasticity of demand varied by exposure level, with higher elasticity in the lower exposure range. The estimated advertising elasticity of 0.63 in the lower exposure range indicates that for each 1% increase in advertising exposure, a brand's youth consumption prevalence increases by 0.63%. Conclusions: At the population level, underage youths' exposure to brand-specific advertising was a significant predictor of the consumption prevalence of that brand, independent of each brand's price and overall market share. The non-linearity of the observed relationship suggests that youth advertising exposure may need to be lowered substantially in order to decrease consumption of the most heavily advertised brands. PMID:25754127

  15. Absence of Association between Cord Specific Antibody Levels and Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Disease in Early Infants: A Case Control Study from Coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nyiro, Joyce Uchi; Sande, Charles Jumba; Mutunga, Martin; Kiyuka, Patience Kerubo; Munywoki, Patrick Kioo; Scott, John Anthony G.; Nokes, David James

    2016-01-01

    Background The target group for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease prevention is infants under 6 months of age. Vaccine boosting of antibody titres in pregnant mothers could protect these young infants from severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated disease. Quantifying protective levels of RSV-specific maternal antibody at birth would inform vaccine development. Methods A case control study nested in a birth cohort (2002–07) was conducted in Kilifi, Kenya; where 30 hospitalised cases of RSV-associated severe disease were matched to 60 controls. Participants had a cord blood and 2 subsequent 3-monthly blood samples assayed for RSV-specific neutralising antibody by the plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT). Two sample paired t test and conditional logistic regression were used in analyses of log2PRNT titres. Results The mean RSV log2PRNT titre at birth for cases and controls were not significantly different (P = 0.4) and remained so on age-stratification. Cord blood PRNT titres showed considerable overlap between cases and controls. The odds of RSV disease decreased with increase in log2PRNT cord blood titre. There was a 30% reduction in RSV disease per unit increase in log2PRNT titre (<3months age group) but not significant (P = 0.3). Conclusions From this study, there is no strong evidence of protection by maternal RSV specific antibodies from severe RSV disease. Cord antibody levels show wide variation with considerable overlap between cases and controls. It is likely that, there are additional factors to specific PRNT antibody levels which determine susceptibility to severe RSV disease. In addition, higher levels of neutralizing antibody beyond the normal range may be required for protection; which it is hoped can be achieved by a maternal RSV vaccine. PMID:27851799

  16. Specific glucosinolate analysis reveals variable levels of epimeric glucobarbarins, dietary precursors of 5-phenyloxazolidine-2-thiones, in watercress types with contrasting chromosome numbers.

    PubMed

    Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik; Cipollini, Don; Ørgaard, Marian; Linde-Laursen, Ib; Chew, Frances S

    2014-10-01

    Watercress obtained in food stores in the United States contained significant levels of epiglucobarbarin [(R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethylglucosinolate] and low levels of the 2S-epimer glucobarbarin identified by an HPLC+NMR+MS/MS approach. Typical combined levels were 4-7 μmol/g dry wt. The hydrolysis product, 5-phenyloxazolidine-2-thione (barbarin), was detected at similar levels as the precursor glucosinolates after autolysis of fresh watercress in water. Fragmentation patterns in MS(2) of reference desulfoglucosinolates were side chain specific and suitable for routine identification. Watercress was of two main glucosinolate chemotypes: Material from U.S. food stores had a complex profile including glucobarbarins, gluconasturtiin, indole glucosinolates and high levels (6-28 μmol/g dry wt.) of long-chain methylsulfinylalkyl and methylthioalkyl glucosinolates. Material from European food stores had a simple profile dominated by gluconasturtiin, with low levels of epiglucobarbarin and moderate levels of indole glucosinolates. Some wild U.S. material was similar to the U.S. food store type. Both types were found to be Nasturtium officinale by floral parts morphology. Cytological analysis of one U.S. food store accession indicated that it represented a chromosome-doubled variant within N. officinale. The nutritional consequences and invasive potential of the U.S. food store chemotype are discussed.

  17. Comparative effects of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone on plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Oz Gul, Ozen; Tuncel, Ercan; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Ulukaya, Engin; Gul, Cuma Bulent; Kiyici, Sinem; Oral, Arzu Yilmaztepe; Guclu, Metin; Ersoy, Canan; Imamoglu, Sazi

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) have been associated with the occurrence of vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Preliminary evidence has suggested that thiazolidinediones have the ability to modulate circulating levels of this molecule in the hyperglycemic milieu. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the differential effect of 2 different thiazolidinediones-pioglitazone and rosiglitazone-on plasma levels of sRAGE in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Sixty type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects were randomly assigned to receive pioglitazone (30 mg/d, n = 19), rosiglitazone (4 mg/d, n = 20), or placebo (medical nutrition therapy, n = 21) for 12 weeks. Changes in plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and sRAGE were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, the pioglitazone (P < .001) group had a significant increase from baseline in sRAGE values that was not seen in the medical nutrition therapy and rosiglitazone groups. We conclude that, in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, pioglitazone-but not rosiglitazone-significantly raised sRAGE, which may contribute to its antiatherogenic effects.

  18. Evaluation of Radiation Doses Due to Consumption of Contaminated Food Items and Calculation of Food Class-Specific Derived Intervention Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Heinzelman, K M; Mansfield, W G

    2010-04-27

    This document evaluates the expected radiation dose due to the consumption of several specific food classes (dairy, meat, produce, etc.) contaminated with specific radionuclides, and relates concentration levels in food to the detection abilities of typical aboratory analysis/measurement methods. The attached charts present the limiting organ dose as a function of the radionuclide concentration in a particular food class, and allow the user to compare these concentrations and doses to typical analytical detection apabilities. The expected radiation dose depends on several factors: the age of the individual; the radionuclide present in the food; the concentration of the radionuclide in the food; and the amount of food consumed. Food consumption rates for individuals of various ges were taken from the 1998 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) document, Accidental Radioactive Contamination of HUman Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies. In that document, the FDA defines the erived Intervention Level (DIL), which is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in food that if consumed could result in an individual receiving a radiation dose exceeding the Protection Action Guide (PAG) thresholds for intervention. This document also resents odified, food class specific DIL, which is calculated using a somewhat modified version of the FDA's procedure. This document begins with an overview of the FDA's DIL calculation, followed by a description of the food class specific DIL calculations, and finally charts of the radiation dose per radioactivity concentration for several food class/radionuclide combinations.

  19. Sex-specific association of the peptidase D gene rs731839 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Quan-Zhen; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Jian; Guo, Tao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Jia-Qi; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the association of peptidase D (PEPD) gene rs731839 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles in the Chinese population. The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of the PEPD rs731839 SNP was performed in 751 subjects of Mulao and 762 subjects of Han using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The A allele carriers had higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI levels and lower triglyceride (TG) levels in Mulao; and higher HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han than the A allele non-carriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the A allele carriers had higher HDL-C, ApoAI levels and lower TG levels in Mulao males but not in females; higher total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han males; and higher TG, HDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han females than the A allele non-carriers. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in Mulao and Han populations, or in males and females in both ethnic groups. The association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels was different between the Mulao and Han populations, and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be an ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in our study populations. PMID:25120796

  20. Antigen-specific Treg regulate Th17-mediated lung neutrophilic inflammation, B cell recruitment and polymeric IgA and IgM levels in the airways

    PubMed Central

    Jaffar, Zeina; Ferrini, Maria E.; Girtsman, Teri A.; Roberts, Kevan

    2010-01-01

    Summary Th17 cells play key roles in mediating autoimmunity, inflammation and mucosal host defense against pathogens. To determine whether naturally occurring Treg (nTreg) limit Th17-mediated pulmonary inflammation, OVA-specific CD4+ Th17 cells and expanded CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ nTreg were cotransferred into BALB/c mice that were then exposed to OVA aerosols. Th17 cells, when transferred alone, accumulated in the lungs and posterior mediastinal LN and evoked a pronounced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and neutrophilic inflammation, characterized by B cell recruitment and elevated IgA and IgM levels. Cotransfer of antigen-specific nTreg markedly reduced the Th17-induced pulmonary inflammation and associated neutrophilia, B cell influx and polymeric Ig levels in the airways, but did not inhibit AHR. Moreover, the regulation appeared restricted to the site of mucosal inflammation, since transfer of nTreg did not affect the Th17 response developing in the lung draining LN, as evidenced by unaltered levels of IL-17 production and low numbers of Foxp3+ Treg. Our findings suggest a crucial role for Th17 cells in mediating airway B cell influx and IgA response and demonstrate that antigen-specific nTreg suppress Th17-mediated lung inflammation. These results provide new insights into how Th17 responses are limited and may facilitate development of novel approaches for controlling Th17-induced inflammation. PMID:19830731

  1. Increased glyoxalase I levels inhibit accumulation of oxidative stress and an advanced glycation end product in mouse mesangial cells cultured in high glucose.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Mo; Kim, Young Sook; Jung, Dong Ho; Lee, Jun; Kim, Jin Sook

    2012-01-15

    Chronic high glucose levels lead to the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) as well as AGE precursors, such as methylglyoxal (MG) and glyoxal, via non-enzymatic glycation reactions in patients with diabetic mellitus. Glyoxalase 1 (GLO-1) detoxifies reactive dicarbonyls that form AGEs. To investigate the interaction between AGEs and GLO-1 in mesangial cells (MCs) under diabetic conditions, AGE levels and markers of oxidative stress were measured in GLO-1-overexpressing MCs (GLO-1-MCs) cultured in high glucose. Furthermore, we also examined levels of high glucose-induced apoptosis in GLO-1-MCs. In glomerular MCs, high glucose levels increased the formation of both MG and argpyrimidine (an MG-derived adduct) as well as GLO-1 expression. GLO-1-MCs had lower intracellular levels of MG accumulation, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (an oxidative DNA damage marker), 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal (a lipid peroxidation product), and nitrosylated protein (a marker of oxidative-nitrosative stress) compared to control cells. Expression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes I, II, and III was also decreased in GLO-1-MCs. Furthermore, fewer GLO-1-MCs showed evidence of apoptosis as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick labeling assay, and activation of both poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 cleavage and caspase-3 was lower in GLO-1-MCs than in control cells cultured in high glucose. These results suggest that GLO-1 plays a role in high glucose-mediated signaling by reducing MG accumulation and oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus.

  2. Frameshift mutations in the v-src gene of avian sarcoma virus act in cis to specifically reduce v-src mRNA levels.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, S B; Stoltzfus, C M

    1994-01-01

    A portion of the avian sarcoma virus (ASV) primary RNA transcripts is alternatively spliced in chicken embryo fibroblast cells to two different messages, the src and env mRNAs. Frameshift mutations of the viral genome causing premature translation termination within the src gene result in a decreased steady-state level of the src mRNA. In marked contrast, frameshift mutations at various positions of the env gene do not decrease the level of the env mRNA. We show that the src gene product is not required in trans for splicing and accumulation of src mRNA. Conversely, the truncated Src proteins do not act negatively in trans to decrease specifically the levels of src mRNA. Taken together, these results indicate that the frameshift mutations act in cis to reduce src mRNA levels. A double mutant with a lesion in the src initiator AUG and a frameshift within the src gene demonstrated wild-type RNA levels, indicating that the src mRNA must be recognized as a translatable mRNA for the effect on src mRNA levels to occur. Our results indicate that the reduced levels do not result from decreased cytoplasmic stability of the mature src mRNA. We also show that the src gene frameshift mutations affect src mRNA levels when expressed from intronless src cDNA clones. We conclude that the reduction of src mRNA levels triggered by the presence of frameshift mutations within the src gene occurs while it is associated with the nucleus. Our data also strongly suggest that this occurs at a step of RNA processing or transport independent of RNA splicing. Images PMID:8114716

  3. Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis in French Polynesia: age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, circulating antigen, and specific IgG and IgG4 responses according to transmission level.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Plichart, C; Luquiaud, P; Moulia-Pelat, J P; N'Guyen, L; Cartel, J L

    1995-01-01

    The age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, Og4C3 antigenemia, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 were assessed in 3 villages of low, medium and high transmission level for Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis. The prevalence rates for each of the 4 markers were clearly age dependent and their patterns strongly associated with the transmission level. The antigenemia prevalence rate was consistently higher than the microfilaremia prevalence rate, in all age groups. The prevalences of anti-B. malayi IgG and IgG4 responses were very similar and much higher than those of microfilaremia or antigenemia. Antibody responses reached the plateau at an earlier age and at a higher prevalence with increased intensity of transmission. For all the markers, the prevalence rates were significantly higher in males than in females.

  4. Pravastatin inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced proximal tubular cell apoptosis and injury by reducing receptor for AGEs (RAGE) level.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Ohta, Keisuke; Tanoue, Ryuichiro; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Ueda, Seiji; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Okuda, Seiya

    2012-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) axis play a role in diabetic nephropathy. Statins have been shown to ameliorate renal function and reduce proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the effects of statin on AGEs-induced tubular cell damage remain unknown. We examined here whether and how pravastatin could block the AGEs-RAGE-elicited tubular cell injury in vitro. Gene expression level was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured with dihydroethidium staining. Apoptosis was analyzed in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) expression was evaluated by immunostaining. Pravastatin dose-dependently inhibited the AGEs-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA level, ROS generation and apoptosis in human renal proximal tubular cells. Further, AGEs decreased mRNA level of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-2, an enzyme that mainly degrades asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and subsequently increased ADMA generation in tubular cells, both of which were also prevented by pravastatin. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) treatment blocked all of the effects of pravastatin on tubular cells. We found that rosuvastatin also significantly blocked the AGEs-induced increase in RAGE mRNA level and ROS generation, both of which were prevented by GGPP. Our present study suggests that pravastatin could inhibit the AGEs-induced apoptosis and ADMA generation in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression probably via inhibition of GGPP synthesis. Pravastatin may exert beneficial effects on tubular damage in diabetic nephropathy by blocking the AGEs-RAGE axis.

  5. Relevance of Bacteroidales and F-specific RNA bacteriophages for efficient fecal contamination tracking at the level of a catchment in France.

    PubMed

    Mauffret, Aourell; Caprais, Marie-Paule; Gourmelon, Michèle

    2012-08-01

    The relevance of three host-associated Bacteroidales markers (HF183, Rum2Bac, and Pig2Bac) and four F-specific RNA bacteriophage genogroups (FRNAPH I to IV) as microbial source tracking markers was assessed at the level of a catchment (Daoulas, France). They were monitored together with fecal indicators (Escherichia coli and enterococci) and chemophysical parameters (rainfall, temperature, salinity, pH, and turbidity) by monthly sampling over 2 years (n = 240 water samples) and one specific sampling following an accidental pig manure spillage (n = 5 samples). During the 2-year regular monitoring, levels of E. coli, enterococci, total F-specific RNA bacteriophages, and the general Bacteroidales marker AllBac were strongly correlated with one another and with Rum2Bac (r = 0.37 to 0.50, P < 0.0001). Their correlations with HF183 and FRNAPH I and II were lower (r = 0.21 to 0.29, P < 0.001 to P < 0.0001), and HF183 and enterococci were associated rather than correlated (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.01). Rum2Bac and HF183 enabled 73% of water samples that had ≥ 2.7 log(10) most probably number (MPN) of E. coli/100 ml to be classified. FRNAPH I and II enabled 33% of samples at this contamination level to be classified. FRNAPH I and II complemented the water sample classification obtained with the two Bacteroidales markers by an additional 8%. Pig2Bac and FRNAPH III and IV were observed in a small number of samples (n = 0 to 4 of 245). The present study validates Rum2Bac and HF183 as relevant tools to trace fecal contamination originating from ruminant or human waste, respectively, at the level of a whole catchment.

  6. ER stress is associated with reduced ABCA-1 protein levels in macrophages treated with advanced glycated albumin - reversal by a chemical chaperone.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Gabriela; Okuda, Ligia S; Pinto, Raphael S; Iborra, Rodgiro T; Nakandakare, Edna R; Santos, Celio X; Laurindo, Francisco R; Passarelli, Marisa

    2012-07-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 mediates the export of excess cholesterol from macrophages, contributing to the prevention of atherosclerosis. Advanced glycated albumin (AGE-alb) is prevalent in diabetes mellitus and is associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Independently of changes in ABCA-1 mRNA levels, AGE-alb induces oxidative stress and reduces ABCA-1 protein levels, which leads to macrophage lipid accumulation. These metabolic conditions are known to elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We sought to determine if AGE-alb induces ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) in macrophages and how disturbances to the ER could affect ABCA-1 content and cholesterol efflux in macrophages. AGE-alb induced a time-dependent increase in ER stress and UPR markers. ABCA-1 content and cellular cholesterol efflux were reduced by 33% and 47%, respectively, in macrophages treated with AGE-alb, and both were restored by treatment with 4-phenyl butyric acid (a chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress), but not MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor). Tunicamycin, a classical ER stress inductor, also impaired ABCA-1 expression and cholesterol efflux (showing a decrease of 61% and 82%, respectively), confirming the deleterious effect of ER stress in macrophage cholesterol accumulation. Glycoxidation induces macrophage ER stress, which relates to the reduction in ABCA-1 and in reverse cholesterol transport, endorsing the adverse effect of macrophage ER stress in atherosclerosis. Thus, chemical chaperones that alleviate ER stress may represent a useful tool for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis in diabetes.

  7. Site-specific excision repair of 1-nitrosopyrene-induced DNA adducts at the nucleotide level in the HPRT gene of human fibroblasts: effect of adduct conformation on the pattern of site-specific repair.

    PubMed Central

    Wei, D; Maher, V M; McCormick, J J

    1996-01-01

    Studies showing that different types of DNA adducts are repaired in human cells at different rates suggest that DNA adduct conformation is the major determinant of the rate of nucleotide excision repair. However, recent studies of repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE)-induced adducts at the nucleotide level in DNA of normal human fibroblasts indicate that the rate of repair of the same adduct at different nucleotide positions can vary up to 10-fold, suggesting an important role for local DNA conformation. To see if site-specific DNA repair is a common phenomenon for bulky DNA adducts, we determined the rate of repair of 1-nitrosopyrene (1-NOP)-induced adducts in exon 3 of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene at the nucleotide level using ligation-mediated PCR. To distinguish between the contributions of adduct conformation and local DNA conformation to the rate of repair, we compared the results obtained with 1-NOP with those we obtained previously using BPDE. The principal DNA adduct formed by either agent involves guanine. We found that rates of repair of 1-NOP-induced adducts also varied significantly at the nucleotide level, but the pattern of site-specific repair differed from that of BPDE-induced adducts at the same guanine positions in the same region of DNA. The average rate of excision repair of 1-NOP adducts in exon 3 was two to three times faster than that of BPDE adducts, but at particular nucleotides the rate was slower or faster than that of BPDE adducts or, in some cases, equal to that of BPDE adducts. These results indicate that the contribution of the local DNA conformation to the rate of repair at a particular nucleotide position depends upon the specific DNA adduct involved. However, the data also indicate that the conformation of the DNA adduct is not the only factor contributing to the rate of repair at different nucleotide positions. Instead, the rate of repair at a particular nucleotide

  8. Relations among water levels, specific conductance, and depths of bedrock fractures in four road-salt-contaminated wells in Maine, 2007–9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles W.; Stasulis, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    Data on groundwater-level, specific conductance (a surrogate for chloride), and temperature were collected continuously from 2007 through 2009 at four bedrock wells known to be affected by road salts in an effort to determine the effects of road salting and fractures in bedrock that intersect the well at a depth below the casing on the presence of chloride in groundwater. Dissolved-oxygen data collected periodically also were used to make inferences about the interaction of fractures and groundwater flow. Borehole geophysical tools were used to determine the depths of fractures in each well that were actively contributing flow to the well, under both static and pumped conditions; sample- and measurement-depths were selected to correspond to the depths of these active fractures. Samples of water from the wells, collected at depths corresponding to active bedrock fractures, were analyzed for chloride concentration and specific conductance; from these analyses, a linear relation between chloride concentration and specific conductance was established, and continuous and periodic measurements of specific conductance were assumed to represent chloride concentration of the well water at the depth of measurement. To varying degrees, specific conductance increased in at least two of the wells during winter and spring thaws; the shallowest well, which also was closest to the road receiving salt treatment during the winter, exhibited the largest changes in specific conductance during thaws. Recharge events during summer months, long after application of road salt had ceased